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Sample records for obese adolescent girls

  1. Gonadal dysfunction in morbidly obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Chin, Vivian; Censani, Marisa; Lerner, Shulamit; Conroy, Rushika; Oberfield, Sharon; McMahon, Donald; Zitsman, Jeffrey; Fennoy, Ilene

    2014-04-01

    To describe gonadal dysfunction and evaluate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MeS) among girls in a morbidly obese adolescent population. In a cross-sectional study of 174 girls, height, weight, waist circumference, Tanner stage, reproductive hormones, carbohydrate and lipid markers, drug use, and menstrual history were obtained at baseline. Exclusion criteria were menarcheal age <2 years, hormonal contraceptive or metformin use, Tanner stage <4, and incomplete data on PCOS or MeS classification. University medical center outpatient clinic. Ninety-eight girls ages 13-19.6 years, Tanner 5, average body mass index of 46.6 kg/m(2), menarche at 11.4 years, and average menarcheal age of 5 years. None. Polycystic ovary syndrome and MeS. Ninety-eight girls were divided into four groups: PCOS by National Institutes of Health criteria (PCOSN, n = 24), irregular menses only (n = 25), elevated T (≥55 ng/dL) only (n = 6), and obese controls (n = 43). Metabolic syndrome by modified Cook criteria affected 32 girls or 33% overall: 6 of 24 PCOSN, 7 of 25 irregular menses only, 4 of 6 elevated T only, and 15 of 43 obese controls. Polycystic ovary syndrome by National Institutes of Health criteria and its individual components were not associated with MeS after adjusting for body mass index. Unlike obese adults, PCOSN and its individual components were not associated with MeS in the untreated morbidly obese adolescent population. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  3. Obesity among Black Adolescent Girls: Genetic, Psychosocial, and Cultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Sylvan I.; LaPoint, Velma

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the causes, consequences, and prevention of obesity among a subgroup of the American population, Black adolescent girls. Using an ecological perspective on obesity among Black adolescent girls, including feminist-womanist perspectives and historical and medical sociological perspectives, the authors discuss genetic,…

  4. Obesity-related differences in neuromuscular fatigue in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vicencio, Sebastian; Martin, Vincent; Kluka, Virginie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Jegu, Anne-Gaëlle; Fourot, Anne-Véronique; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Ratel, Sébastien

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on neuromuscular fatigue in adolescent girls. Twelve lean (13.6 ± 0.8 years) and 12 obese (13.9 ± 0.9 years) girls repeated 5-s maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors until the generated torque reached 55 % of its initial value. Magnetic stimulations were delivered to the femoral nerve every five MVCs to follow the course of voluntary activation (VA) and potentiated twitch torque (Qtwpot). Torque reached 55 % of its initial value after 52.6 ± 20.4 and 74.9 ± 22.8 repetitions in obese and lean girls, respectively (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the decline of VA was smaller in obese girls (p < 0.001). In contrast, Qtwpot decreased to a greater extent in obese girls (p < 0.05). Obese girls fatigue faster than their lean counterparts. The peripheral factors mainly account for fatigue in obese girls, whereas central factors are mainly involved in lean girls.

  5. Does early school entry prevent obesity among adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Qi

    2011-06-01

    To examine the relationship between early school entry and body weight status among adolescent girls. Using nationally representative data from the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we exploited state-specific first-grade entrance policy as a quasi-experimental research design to examine the effect of early school entry on the body weight status of adolescent girls. Fixed-effects models were used to compare the body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score, and likelihood of overweight and obesity between teenage girls born before school cut-off dates and those born after, while controlling for age, race/ethnicity, maternal education status, and maternal body weight status. Late starters had higher BMIs and a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and the results were found to be consistent across age groups. Among girls whose birthdays were within 1 month of the cut-off dates, the coefficient of late starting was significantly positive (β = .311; p = .02), indicating that it might be correlated with weight gain in adolescence. Early admission to a school environment might have a long-term protective effect in terms of adolescent girls' propensity to obesity. Future studies are needed to examine the effect of early school entry on the eating behavior and physical activities of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Gynecologic and Obstetric Consequences of Obesity in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Elizondo-Montemayor, Leticia; Hernández-Escobar, Claudia; Lara-Torre, Eduardo; Nieblas, Bianca; Gómez-Carmona, Merith

    2017-04-01

    In the past few decades, there has been an overwhelming increase in childhood and adolescent obesity worldwide. Besides the well recognized cardiometabolic complications and other physical conditions associated with obesity, during adolescence, it causes psychological and social distress in a period of life that is already sensitive for a girl. This in turn increases their risk of low self-esteem and depression. Furthermore, obesity diminishes health-related quality of life and years of life. Overweight and obese teenagers are more likely to have gynecologic and obstetric complications, during adolescence and also later in life. Consequences of obese and overweight childhood and adolescence include sexual maturation and reproductive dysfunction, alterations in menstruation, dysmenorrhea, risky sexual behavior, and inefficient use of contraception, polycystic ovary syndrome, bone density abnormalities, macromastia, and an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer. Obese adolescents are at greater risk of pregnancy and perinatal complications, such as preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, primary cesarean delivery, and induction of labor, to mention a few. Evidence shows that infants born to obese teenagers are also more likely to have complications including preterm or post-term delivery, small-for-gestational age newborns, macrosomia, meconium aspiration, respiratory distress, and even stillbirth, among others. This comprehensive review focuses on the gynecological and obstetric consequences of obesity in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prospective associations between physical activity and obesity among adolescent girls: racial differences and implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    White, James; Jago, Russell

    2012-06-01

    To test for differences in prospective associations between physical activity and obesity among black and white adolescent girls. Prospective cohort study using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. SETTING Multicenter study at the University of California (Berkeley), Children's Medical Center at the University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, Ohio), and Westat, Inc, and Group Health Association (Rockville, Maryland). A total of 1148 adolescent girls (538 black and 610 white) who provided valid data on levels of physical activity and obesity at ages 12 and 14 years. Physical activity, assessed as accelerometer counts per day. Three measurements of obesity were obtained using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of obesity (at or above the age-specific 95th percentile of body mass index), the International Obesity Task Force reference body mass index cut points for obesity in children, and the sums of skinfold thickness (with the cohort ≥90th percentile as indicative of obesity). We found a strong negative dose-response association between quartiles of accelerometer counts per day at age 12 years and obesity at age 14 years (using all 3 measurements of obesity) in white but not black girls (P < .001 for body mass index interaction and P = .06 for sums of skinfold thickness interaction). The odds ratios for obesity (using the cohort ≥90th percentile for sums of skinfold thickness) in adjusted models between the top and the bottom quartiles of accelerometer counts per day were 0.15 (95% CI, 0.04-0.63; P = .03 for trend) in white girls and 0.85 (95% CI, 0.32-2.26; P = .93 for trend) in black girls. Higher levels of physical activity are prospectively associated with lower levels of obesity in white adolescent girls but not in black adolescent girls. Obesity prevention interventions may need to be adapted to account for the finding that black girls are less sensitive to the effects of physical activity.

  8. Association between food intake frequency and obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Zagzoog, Nisreen

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to discover the association between the intake of certain foods and the occurrence of obesity among adolescent girls in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multistage sampling method was conducted among girls aged 12-19 years in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The total sample was 512. Obesity was calculated based on the International Obesity Task Force standards. Findings revealed that obese girls were less likely to eat fruit, vegetables, meat, chicken and dairy products than non-obese girls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, the risk of being obese was greater for those who consumed chocolates and sweets (odds ratio=1.57) and fast foods (odds ratio=1.35) more than three times a week. Thus, programs to promote a healthy lifestyle for schoolchildren should include appropriate intervention on changing dietary habits.

  9. Obesity Risk in Urban Adolescent Girls: Nutritional Intentions and Health Behavior Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Susan W.; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an expanding epidemic and minority adolescent girls are at high risk. One way to tailor interventions for obesity prevention is to target intention to engage in particular behaviors. Data collected from adolescent girls’ intentions and behaviors regarding nutrition, physical activity, and sleep patterns were used to examine nutritional intentions in relation to healthy behaviors. Adolescent girls reported behaviors that increased their risks for obesity. Nutritional intentions were significantly associated with physical activity and sleep. These results suggest that healthy behaviors tend to occur in clusters, possibly extending the theory of planned behavior beyond individual behaviors to groups of related behaviors. Nurses can intervene with high-risk adolescent girls by promoting healthy diets, recommended levels of physical activity, and adequate sleep. PMID:22187861

  10. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  11. Psychological and Behavioral Risk Factors for Obesity Onset in Adolescent Girls: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Shaw, Heather; Rohde, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Because little is known about risk factors for obesity, the authors tested whether certain psychological and behavioral variables predicted future onset of obesity. The authors used data from a prospective study of 496 adolescent girls who completed a baseline assessment at age 11-15 years and 4 annual follow-ups. Self-reported dietary restraint,…

  12. Social Anxiety, Depression and Self-Esteem in Obese Adolescent Girls with Acanthosis Nigricans

    PubMed Central

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Methods: Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. Results: The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Conclusion: Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN. PMID:25800478

  13. Social anxiety, depression and self-esteem in obese adolescent girls with acanthosis nigricans.

    PubMed

    Pirgon, Özgür; Sandal, Gonca; Gökçen, Cem; Bilgin, Hüseyin; Dündar, Bumin

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of acanthosis nigricans (AN) on depression symptoms, related quality of life and self-esteem scores in obese adolescent girls. Fifty-nine obese adolescent girls (mean age: 13.19±1.3 years, age range: 12-17 years, mean body mass index: 29.89±3.30) were enrolled in this study. The obese adolescent girls were divided into two groups based on presence or absence of AN. Non-obese healthy adolescents constituted the control group (30 girls, mean age: 13.5±1.4 years). All subjects were evaluated using the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAI-C), and the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Higher scores indicated more severe depression and anxiety, as well as low self-esteem status. The AN and non-AN obese groups showed significantly higher CDI, STAI-C and SES scores than the control group, and the two obese groups demonstrated no significant differences for these scores. The AN obese group with higher total testosterone levels (>50 ng/dL) had higher scores for SES (2.55±1.8 vs. 1.42±1.2; p=0.03) than the AN obese group with low total testosterone levels. SES scores significantly correlated with total testosterone levels (r=0.362; p=0.03) and fasting insulin (r=0.462; p=0.03) in the AN obese group. Higher SES scores (low self-esteem status) were determined in obese adolescents with acanthosis and were related to hyperandrogenism. This study also showed that a high testosterone level may be one of the important indicators of low self-esteem status in obese girls with AN.

  14. Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Megan R; Bennett, Gary G; Brandon, Debra H

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, Black adolescents have the highest prevalence of pediatric obesity and overweight among girls. While Black girls are disproportionately affected, the reasons for this health disparity remain unclear. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. The authors searched four databases for relevant English-language publications using all publication years through 2015. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for this review. Using a configuration approach to synthesis, three categories were identified, paralleling the bioecological theory of human development: (1) individual, (2) interpersonal, and (3) community and societal factors. A description of each factor's association with obesity among Black adolescent girls is presented. From this review, the authors identified a diverse and vast set of individual, interpersonal, and community and societal factors explored for their relationship with obesity and overweight. Given the insufficient repetition and limited significant findings among most factors, the authors believe that multiple gaps in knowledge exist across all categories regarding the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. To improve the quality of research in this area, suggested research directions and methodological recommendations are provided.

  15. The relative importance of predictors of body mass index change, overweight and obesity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Laraia, Barbara A; Segal, Mark; Braithwaite, Dejana; Epel, Elissa

    2011-06-01

    To determine the relative importance of familial, dietary, behavioral, psychological and social risk factors for predicting body mass index (BMI) change, and onset of overweight and obesity among adolescent girls. Data from the NHLBI Growth and Health Study (n = 2 150), a longitudinal cohort of girls, were used to identify the most important predictors of change in BMI percentile between the ages of 9 and 19 years, and second, risk for becoming overweight and obese. Forty-one baseline predictors were assessed using a tree-based regression method (Random forest) to rank the relative importance of risk factors. The five factors that best predicted change in BMI percentile (p < 0.05) were related to family socio-economic position (income and parent education) and drive to restrict eating and weight (body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and unhappiness with physical appearance). The factors that were statistically significant (p < 0.05) predictors of both onset of overweight and obesity were income, ineffectiveness and race. Family socio-economic position and emotion regulation appeared as the top predictors of both BMI change and onset of overweight and obesity. Our results build upon prior findings that policies to prevent the onset of obesity during adolescence be targeted towards girls from lower socio-economic position households. Our findings also suggest several novel psychological factors including ineffectiveness as predictors of obesity during adolescence. These predictive findings offer a direction for future inquiry into adolescent obesity etiology using causal methods.

  16. Obesity among Iranian adolescent girls: location of residence and parental obesity.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Mohsen; Nikooyeh, Bahareh

    2010-02-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity by location of residence among randomly-selected 2,577 urban school girls aged 12-17 years in Rasht, Iran. Data on age, frequency of skipping breakfast per week, physical activity, hours of television viewing, self-perception about body condition, and home address were collected. Birthweight of the girls, educational levels of parents, weights and heights of parents, and employment status of mothers were asked to the parents using a self-administrated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity in this population was 18.6% and 5.9% respectively. Overweight or obesity was more common among girls from low-income areas compared to high-income areas (21.6% vs 17.1%, p<0.001). Maternal education was positively related to overweight/obesity of the girls. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that risk of overweight/obesity was higher in girls whose either parent was overweight or obese. Furthermore, living in low-income areas and skipping breakfast were independently related to overweight/obesity. These data suggest that overweight and obesity are a public-health concern among school girls, especially in low-income areas in Rasht. Knowing risk factors in population subgroups is important for planners in the country because it helps target interventions.

  17. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  18. A qualitative exploration of the work of embodiment in adolescent girls with obesity.

    PubMed

    Liné, C; Moro, M R; Lefèvre, H; Thievenaz, J; Lachal, J

    2016-10-01

    Social representations generally associate obesity, especially in adolescent girls, with sedentariness, lack of self-control and laziness. These girls thus have substantial problems of self-esteem. Dietary, lifestyle and behavioural approaches alone cannot address this issue, for they do not apprehend all of the complexity of obesity. This qualitative study is based on a dual observation: that the work performed by adolescents is unrecognized and that the body is not considered as a subject of analysis. It raises the question of the corporality of these teens through an original perspective: that of the perspective of their organization of actions on, to and by the body, in specific situations. The objective is to have access to the corporal experience of young girls with obesity, so that we can understand and support them better. The data come from semi-directive interviews with 10 adolescent girls with obesity. The content was analysed in terms of concepts of professional didactics (a branch of educational psychology) and enaction. Five situations were identified from these interviews: the first, shopping with friends, concerns actions by the subjects towards their bodies; the other four are enacted actions: conduct towards a normal-weight person, conduct in public transportation, performing physical activity, and eating. The results show the work of these young women with obesity, the means they mobilize to live in their bodies and their considerable efforts of embodiment. Recognition of this work should help to enhance their self-esteem. Treatment and support may take this dimension of work into account and help them to become aware of the efforts they make every day.

  19. Relationship between Cardiovascular Risk Score and Traditional and Nontraditional Cardiometabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Soldatovic, Ivan; Bjelakovic, Bojko

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Since the cardiovascular (CV) risk score in the young population, children and adolescents, is underestimated, especially in developing countries such as Montenegro, where a strong interaction exists between the genetically conditioned CV risk and environmental factors, the purpose of this study was to estimate CV risk in apparently healthy adolescent girls. Moreover, we aimed to test some new, emerging CV risk factors and their interaction with the traditional ones, such as obesity. Precisely, we aimed to assess the impact of low bilirubin levels, as a routine biochemical parameter, as an additional risk factor for atherosclerotic disease in the adult phase. Methods Forty-five obese adolescent girls (mean age 17.8±1.22 years) and forty-five age- and sex-matched normal weight controls, all nonsmokers, were included. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured. Cardiovascular Risk Score (CVRS) was calculated by adding the points for each risk factor (e.g. sex, HDL-c, non-HDL-c, blood pressure and fasting glycemia). Results A significant positive relationship between CVRS and ALT, hsCRP and TG/HDL-c, but an opposite relationship between CVRS and total bilirubin were found (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher waist circumference (WC) and LDL-c, but lower HDL-c were independent predictors of lower bilirubin values (adjusted R2=0.603, P<0.001). Conclusions Obese adolescent girls are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease late in life. In addition to the traditional risk factors, total bilirubin may have the potential to discriminate between low and higher risk for cardiovascular disturbances in healthy adolescent girls. PMID:28356879

  20. A randomized controlled trial of dance exergaming for exercise training in overweight and obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Staiano, A E; Marker, A M; Beyl, R A; Hsia, D S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Newton, R L

    2017-04-01

    Structured exergaming with prescribed moderate intensity physical activity has reduced adiposity among adolescents. The extent to which adolescents reduce adiposity when allowed to self-select intensity level is not known. The objective of the study was to examine the influence of exergaming on adolescent girls' body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. This randomized controlled trial assigned 41 overweight and obese girls aged 14 to 18 years to group-based dance exergaming (36 h over 3 months) or to a self-directed care control condition. Body size and composition were measured by anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [%fat and bone mineral density {BMD}] and magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiovascular risk factors included blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin. Attrition was 5%. Using analysis of covariance controlling for baseline value, age and race, there were no significant condition differences. Per protocol (attended >75%), the intervention group significantly decreased abdominal subcutaneous adiposity and increased trunk and spine BMD (ps < 0.05). Per protocol (>2600 steps/session), the intervention group significantly decreased leg %fat and decreased abdominal subcutaneous and total adiposity (ps < 0.05). Exergaming reduced body fat and increased BMD among those adolescent girls who adhered. Further research is required before exergaming is recommended in clinical settings. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  1. [Effect of Smartphone Apps Applying BodyThink Program on Obesity in Adolescent Girls].

    PubMed

    Jun, Min Kyung; Ha, Ju Young

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of smartphone apps applying BodyThink program on BMI, percentage of body fat, skeletal muscle rate, body image, and self-esteem of adolescent girls. Sixty-eight high school girls with a BMI of over 25kg/m² were recruited to participate in this study. Girls from four schools were divided into two groups: the experimental group, which used the smartphone apps applying BodyThink program, and the control group, which used smartphone apps and small group counseling. The experimental group received the BodyThink program 6 times, scheduled once a week, with each session lasting 40~50 minutes. Test measures were completed before and after the 6 week intervention period for all participants. Collected data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk test, descriptive statistics, χ² test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney U test with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program. The girls in the experimental group significantly improved their results in BMI(Z=-1.67, p=.042), percentage of body fat (Z=-3.01, p=.001), skeletal muscle rate (t=-3.50, p<.001), and self-esteem (t=2.66, p=.005) after the program, compared to the girls in the control group. Mobile applications applying psychological and emotional intervention programs have the potential to be effective alternative methods to improve the body composition and self-esteem of obese adolescent girls.

  2. Preventing Obesity Among Adolescent Girls: One-Year Outcomes of the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Dewar, Deborah; Collins, Clare E; Batterham, Marijka; Callister, Robin; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2012-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a 12-month multicomponent school-based obesity prevention program, Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls among adolescent girls. DESIGN Group randomized controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING Twelve secondary schools in low-income communities in the Hunter and Central Coast regions of New South Wales, Australia. PARTICIPANTS Three hundred fifty-seven adolescent girls aged 12 to 14 years. INTERVENTION A multicomponent school-based intervention program tailored for adolescent girls. The intervention was based on social cognitive theory and included teacher professional development, enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity sessions, handbooks and pedometers for self-monitoring, parent newsletters, and text messaging for social support. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), BMI z score, body fat percentage, physical activity, screen time, dietary intake, and self-esteem. RESULTS After 12 months, changes in BMI (adjusted mean difference, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.33), BMI z score (mean, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.04), and body fat percentage (mean, -1.09; 95% CI, -2.88 to 0.70) were in favor of the intervention, but they were not statistically different from those in the control group. Changes in screen time were statistically significant (mean, -30.67 min/d; 95% CI, -62.43 to -1.06), but there were no group by time effects for physical activity, dietary behavior, or self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS A school-based intervention tailored for adolescent girls from schools located in low-income communities did not significantly reduce BMI gain. However, changes in body composition were of a magnitude similar to previous studies and may be associated with clinically important health outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION anzctr.org.au Identifier: 12610000330044.

  3. The energy cost of cycling and aerobic performance of obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, C L; Agosti, F; Busti, C; Galli, R; Sartorio, A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess the energy cost of cycling and aerobic capacity in juvenile obesity, responses to cycle ergometer exercise were studied in 10 pubertal obese (OB) [body mass index (BMI) SD score (SDS): 3.40+/-0.58 SD] adolescent girls (age: 16.0+/-1.2 yr) and in 10 normal-weight (NW, BMI SDS: -0.30+/-0.54) girls of the same age (15.1+/-1.9). To this aim, gas exchange, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure (EE) were studied during graded cycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 W. The energy cost of cycling was higher in OB, being oxygen uptake (VO2) higher (about 20%) in OB than in NW girls at all workloads (p<0.01-0.001). Estimated maximal VO2 and VO2 at anaerobic threshold were significantly (p<0.05) higher in OB girls [although lower per unit body mass (p<0.01) and similar for unit fat-free mass], and explained the higher oxygen pulse and lower HR for any EE observed during submaximal exercise in OB. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (p<0.01), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency. It is concluded that, despite a higher cost of cycling, OB girls can rely on a larger aerobic capacity which makes them able to sustain this kind of exercise within a wide range of work loads, with relevant implications when planning protocols of physical activity in the context of interventions for the reduction of juvenile obesity.

  4. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study.

    PubMed

    Kesten, Joanna May; Cameron, Noel; Griffiths, Paula Louise

    2013-12-20

    Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7-11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community's key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community's efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community's 'resources' and the 'community knowledge of the issue'; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community's knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls' health behaviours is a priority at the local community level. Inconsistent

  5. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m−2 and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m−2) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  6. Assessing community readiness for overweight and obesity prevention in pre-adolescent girls: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity is a global public health concern. For girls in particular, being overweight or obese during pre-adolescence (aged 7–11 years) has intergenerational implications for both the mother and her future offspring. In the United Kingdom (UK) there is increasing interest in community targeted interventions but less is known about how to tailor these approaches to the needs of the community. This study applied the Community Readiness Model (CRM), for the first time in the UK, to demonstrate its applicability in designing tailored interventions. Methods Community readiness assessment was conducted using semi-structured key informant interviews. The community’s key informants were identified through focus groups with pre-adolescent girls. The interviews addressed the community’s efforts; community knowledge of the efforts; leadership; community climate; community knowledge of the issue and resources available to support the issue. Interviews were conducted until the point of theoretical saturation and questions were asked separately regarding physical activity (PA) and healthy eating and drinking (HED) behaviours. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and were firstly analysed thematically and then scored using the assessment guidelines produced by the CRM authors. Results Readiness in this community was higher for PA than for HED behaviours. The lowest scores related to the community’s ’resources’ and the ’community knowledge of the issue’; affirming these two issues as the most appropriate initial targets for intervention. In terms of resources, there is also a need for resources to support the development of HED efforts beyond the school. Investment in greater physical education training for primary school teachers was also identified as an intervention priority. To address the community’s knowledge of the issue, raising the awareness of the prevalence of pre-adolescent girls’ health behaviours is a

  7. Sleep and cardiometabolic function in obese adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nandalike, Kiran; Agarwal, Chhavi; Strauss, Temima; Coupey, Susan M; Isasi, Carmen R; Sin, Sanghun; Arens, Raanan

    2012-12-01

    To compare the polysomnography findings and cardiometabolic function among adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and matched female and male controls. Retrospective chart review of electronic medical records of 28 girls with PCOS (age: 16.8±1.9 years, body mass index (BMI) Z-score 2.4±0.4), 28 control females (age: 17.1±1.8, BMI Z-score 2.4±0.3) and 28 control males (age: 16.6±1.6, BMI Z-score 2.5±0.5) in a tertiary care centre. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) was higher in girls with PCOS compared to control females (16/28 (57%) vs. 4/28(14.3%), p<0.01); however, it was comparable to that of the control males (16/28(57%) vs. 21/28(75%), p=0.4). Girls with PCOS had a significantly higher prevalence of insulin resistance compared to control females and control males (20/28 (71.4%) vs. 9/22 (41.0%) (p=0.04) vs. 8/23 (34.8%) (p=0.01). Among girls with PCOS, those with OSA had significantly higher proportions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (9/16 (56.3%) vs. 1/12 (8.3%) p=0.03), higher insulin resistance (14/16 (87.5%) vs. 6/12 (50%), p=0.04), elevated daytime systolic blood pressure (128.4±12.8 vs. 115.6±11.4, p<0.01), lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (38.6±8.7 vs. 49±10.9, p=0.01) and elevated triglycerides (TG) (149.7±87.7 vs. 93.3±25.8, p=0.03) compared to those without OSA. We report a higher prevalence of OSA and metabolic dysfunction in a selected group of obese girls with PCOS referred with sleep-related complaints compared to BMI-matched control girls without PCOS. We also report higher prevalence of cardiometabolic dysfunction in girls with PCOS and OSA compared to girls with PCOS without OSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China.

    PubMed

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B; Ma, Xu

    2016-12-01

    To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention.

  9. Body Image of Obese Adolescent Girls in a High School and Clinical Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storz, Nancy S.

    1982-01-01

    Compared body image of obese high school girls and those attending a weight-loss clinic. Results showed girls in the clinic program perceived themselves as heavier than their counterparts. Both groups used uncomplimentary adjectives to describe their appearance. No significant difference was found in articulation of body concept. (Author/JAC)

  10. Distinguishing characteristics of metabolically healthy versus metabolically unhealthy obese adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Young; Tfayli, Hala; Michaliszyn, Sara F; Lee, Sojung; Arslanian, Silva

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the key physical, metabolic, hormonal and cardiovascular characteristics of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) versus unhealthy obese (MUHO) girls with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cross-sectional study. Research center. Seventy obese girls with PCOS were divided into 19 MHO and 51 MUHO based on cutoff points for in vivo insulin sensitivity (within and < 2 SDs of the mean of the insulin sensitivity of the normal-weight girls, respectively). None. Body composition, abdominal fat, in vivo insulin sensitivity and secretion (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamps respectively), hormonal profile, and cardiovascular disease risk markers. MUHO-PCOS girls had higher waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue, leptin, and free testosterone, lower SHBG and E2, higher non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and atherogenic lipoprotein particle concentrations, smaller HDL particle size, and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein compared with MHO-PCOS girls. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were lower with higher first- and second-phase insulin secretion, but β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity was lower in MUHO versus MHO. Pair matching of MHO and MUHO regarding age and body mass index revealed similar findings. MUHO-PCOS girls had larger visceral adiposity, lower insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, worse hormonal profile, and severely atherogenic lipoprotein concentrations compared with MHO-PCOS girls. MHO-PCOS girls have favorable physical, metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) characteristics and lower risk biomarkers for type 2 diabetes compared with their MUHO-PCOS peers. A greater understanding of the contrast in this risk phenotype in obese girls with PCOS may have important implications for therapeutic interventions, their outcomes, and their durability. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775

  12. Overweight and obese adolescent girls: the importance of promoting sensible eating and activity behaviors from the start of the adolescent period.

    PubMed

    Todd, Alwyn S; Street, Steven J; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    2015-02-17

    The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years.

  13. Overweight and Obese Adolescent Girls: The Importance of Promoting Sensible Eating and Activity Behaviors from the Start of the Adolescent Period

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Alwyn S.; Street, Steven J.; Ziviani, Jenny; Byrne, Nuala M.; Hills, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The adolescent period is associated with changes in eating and activity behaviors in girls. Less reliance on parental provision and choice of food, coupled with a decrease in participation in physical activity and sport, can create an energy imbalance, predisposing to weight gain. Physiological alterations to body composition, reduction in insulin sensitivity, and psychological adjustments may further amplify the risk of becoming overweight and maintaining an unhealthy level of body fat into childbearing years. During pregnancy excess body fat is a risk factor for poor pregnancy outcomes and may predispose an infant to a lifelong heightened risk of being overweight and developing chronic disease. Interventions aimed at preventing the accumulation of body fat in adolescent girls and young women may have far reaching impact and be critically important in reducing intergenerational weight gain. Lifestyle interventions in adolescence have the potential to modify adult obesity risk by switching at-risk individuals from a high to lower obesity risk trajectory. This paper discusses multiple approaches to assist at-risk individuals reduce obesity risk. A key focus is placed on engagement in food preparation and choice, and opportunities for physical activity and sport. Support, education, and opportunity at home and at school, are often associated with the success of lifestyle interventions, and may enable adolescents to make positive choices, and engage in health promoting behaviors during adolescence and childbearing years. PMID:25690003

  14. Birth Size and Later Central Obesity Among Adolescent Girls of Asian, White, and Mixed Ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Grove, John; Lim, Unhee; Le Marchand, Loic

    2013-01-01

    Birth size has important implications for health and disease in adulthood. This study examined the association of birth size with central body fat distribution in late adolescence. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of adolescent girls (N = 143, 13–18y) of Asian, White and Mixed Asian-white ethnicity collected in 2005–2007 in Hawai‘i, USA. Central body fat distribution was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and birth size from birth certificates and parent recall. Food diaries (3-day) were used to determine energy intake and metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure. The proportion of Asian ancestry was determined by questions and anthropometry was performed. T-tests compared groups, and multiple regression examined predictors of central body fat distribution, adjusting for potential confounders. Asian girls had a lower mean weight and gestational age at birth than White girls, and a lower mean dietary fat intake in adolescence. Girls of Asian and Mixed Asian-white ancestry had a more body fat distribution than White girls. Lower birth weight was associated with greater central body fat distribution (0.1 or 10% higher central body fat distribution for every 10 grams lower birth weight), after adjusting for age, ancestry, physical activity, energy intake, and bi-iliac breadth, and gestational age. Further adjusting for birth length attenuated the birth weight effect, and shorter birth length was the significant predictor of central body fat distribution. (0.1 or 10% higher central body fat distribution for every 0.01mm shorter length). If confirmed, these findings would suggest that linear growth may be more relevant to metabolic programming than growth in mass. PMID:23467588

  15. Birth size and later central obesity among adolescent girls of Asian, White, and Mixed ethnicities.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Rachel; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Grove, John; Lim, Unhee; Le Marchand, Loic

    2013-02-01

    Birth size has important implications for health and disease in adulthood. This study examined the association of birth size with central body fat distribution in late adolescence. Data were from a cross-sectional survey of adolescent girls (N = 143, 13-18y) of Asian, White and Mixed Asian-white ethnicity collected in 2005-2007 in Hawai'i, USA. Central body fat distribution was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and birth size from birth certificates and parent recall. Food diaries (3-day) were used to determine energy intake and metabolic equivalents of energy expenditure. The proportion of Asian ancestry was determined by questions and anthropometry was performed. T-tests compared groups, and multiple regression examined predictors of central body fat distribution, adjusting for potential confounders. Asian girls had a lower mean weight and gestational age at birth than White girls, and a lower mean dietary fat intake in adolescence. Girls of Asian and Mixed Asian-white ancestry had a more body fat distribution than White girls. Lower birth weight was associated with greater central body fat distribution (0.1 or 10% higher central body fat distribution for every 10 grams lower birth weight), after adjusting for age, ancestry, physical activity, energy intake, and bi-iliac breadth, and gestational age. Further adjusting for birth length attenuated the birth weight effect, and shorter birth length was the significant predictor of central body fat distribution. (0.1 or 10% higher central body fat distribution for every 0.01mm shorter length). If confirmed, these findings would suggest that linear growth may be more relevant to metabolic programming than growth in mass.

  16. Breakfast skipping as a risk correlate of overweight and obesity in school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-McCormick, Jonas J; Thomas, Jennifer J; Bainivualiku, Asenaca; Khan, A Nisha; Becker, Anne E

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased globally, and population data suggest that it is also increasing among ethnic Fijian youth. Among numerous behavioural changes contributing to overweight in youth residing in nations undergoing rapid economic and social change, meal skipping has not been examined as a potential risk factor. The study objectives were to assess the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and breakfast skipping and examine their cross-sectional association in a community sample of school-going ethnic Fijian adolescent girls (n=523). We measured height and weight, and assessed dietary patterns, eating pathology, dimensions of acculturation, and other socio-demographic and cultural data by self-report. We observed a high prevalence of both overweight (41%, including 15% who were obese) and breakfast skipping (68%). In addition, in multivariable analyses unadjusted for eating pathology, we found that more frequent breakfast skipping was associated with greater odds of overweight (odds ratio (OR)=1.15, confidence interval (CI)=1.06, 1.26, p<0.01) and obesity (OR=1.18, CI=1.05, 1.33, p<0.01). Regression models adjusting for eating pathology attenuated this relation so that it was non-significant, but demonstrated that greater eating pathology was associated with greater odds of both overweight and obesity. Future research is necessary to clarify the relation among breakfast skipping, eating pathology, and overweight in ethnic Fijian girls, and to identify whether breakfast skipping may be a modifiable risk factor for overweight in this population. PMID:20805082

  17. Effects of Combined Vigorous Interval Training Program and Diet on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Physical Self-Perceptions Among Obese Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    Rey, Olivier; Vallier, Jean-Marc; Nicol, Caroline; Mercier, Charles-Symphorien; Maïano, Christophe

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the effects of a five-week intervention combining vigorous interval training (VIT) with diet among twenty-four obese adolescents. Fourteen girls and ten boys (aged 14-15) schooled in a pediatric rehabilitation center participated. The VIT intensity was targeted and remained above 80% of maximal heart rate (HR) and over six kilocalories per minute. Pre- and postintervention measures were body composition (BMI, weight, body fat percentage), physical self-perceptions (PSP), physical fitness (6-min walking distance and work) and its associated physiological responses (HRpeak and blood lactate concentration). A series of two-way analyses of variance or covariance controlling for weight loss were used to examine the changes. Significant improvements were found in body composition, physical fitness and PSP (endurance, activity level, sport competence, global physical self-concept and appearance). In addition, boys presented higher levels of perceived strength and global physical self-concept than girls. Finally, there was a significant increase in perceived endurance, sport competence, and global physical self-concept in girls only. This five-week VIT program combined with diet represents an effective means for improving body composition, physical fitness, and PSP in obese adolescents, the effects on PSP being larger among girls.

  18. The Impact of a Low Glycemic Index Diet on Inflammatory Markers and Serum Adiponectin Concentration in Adolescent Overweight and Obese Girls: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, M H; Kelishadi, R; Hashemipour, M; Esmaillzadeh, A; Surkan, P J; Keshavarz, A; Azadbakht, L

    2016-04-01

    Although the effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on insulin resistance are well documented in adults, the complex interaction among glucose intolerance, inflammatory markers, and adipokine concentration has not been well studied, especially among adolescents. We investigated the effect of a low glycemic index (LGI) diet on insulin concentration, fasting blood sugar (FBS), inflammatory markers, and serum adiponectin concentration among healthy obese/overweight adolescent females. In this parallel randomized clinical trial, 2 different diets, an LGI diet and a healthy nutritional recommendation diet (HNRD) with similar macronutrient composition were prescribed to 50 obese and overweight adolescent girls with the same pubertal status. Biochemical markers FBS, serum insulin concentration, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and adiponectin were measured before and after a 10 week intervention. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, data from 50 subjects were analyzed. According to a dietary assessment, GI in the LGI group was 43.22±0.54. While the mean for FBS, serum insulin concentration, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adiponectin concentration did not differ significantly within each group, the average hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased significantly in the LGI diet group after the 10 week intervention (p=0.009 and p=0.001; respectively). Comparing percent changes, we found a marginally significant decrease in hs-CRP in the LGI group compared with the HNRD group after adjusting for confounders. Compliance with an LGI diet may have favorable effect on inflammation among overweight and obese adolescent girls.

  19. Adolescent Girls Face the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie

    1994-01-01

    This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…

  20. Growth and development of overweight and obese girls.

    PubMed

    Wronka, Iwona

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of development of obesity during childhood and adolescence is unclear, hindering preventive strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in growth and tempo of maturation between overweight or obese and normal weight girls. The data were obtained from 1008 schoolgirls aged 16-18 years for whom earlier data on weight and height were available. The height and body mass were measured and the BMI was calculated. Height and weight in early life were assessed by medical records review. Underweight, overweight and obesity were assessed using the international BMI cut points, defined by Cole et al. Girls in higher BMI categories at 7 years had significantly higher values of BMI at 9, 14 and 16-18 years of age, however only 10% of them were also overweight or obese at youth. Overweight and obese girls tend to lose body weight after the puberty period, whereas normal weight children tend to gain body weight. Overweight and obese children were significantly taller than their peers at 7, 9 and 14 years. Those differences vanished after the puberty period. The rate of height gain between ages 7 and 16-18 years was lower in girls with higher BMI values at childhood. Girls, those who were overweight or obese at young age experience menarche at a younger age than normal weight girls. The obtained data show that overweight and obesity in childhood is associated with rapid tempo of growth and maturity.

  1. A huge ovarian mucinous cystadenoma associated with contralateral teratoma and polycystic ovary syndrome in an obese adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Thaweekul, Patcharapa; Thaweekul, Yuthadej; Mairiang, Karicha

    2016-12-01

    A 13-year-old, obese girl presented with acute abdominal pain with abdominal distension for a year. The physical examination revealed marked abdominal distension with a large well-circumscribed mass sized 13×20 cm. Her body mass index (BMI) was 37.8 kg/m2. An abdominal CT scan revealed a huge multiloculated cystic mass and a left adnexal mass. She had an abnormal fasting plasma glucose and low HDL-C. Laparotomy, right salpingooophorectomy, left cystectomy, lymph node biopsies and partial omentectomy were performed. The left ovary demonstrated multiple cystic follicles over the cortex. The histologic diagnosis was a mucinous cystadenoma of the right ovary and a matured cystic teratoma of the left ovary. Both obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are associated with a greater risk of ovarian tumours, where PCOS could be either the cause or as a consequence of an ovarian tumour. We report an obese, perimenarchal girl with bilateral ovarian tumours coexistent with a polycystic ovary and the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Platelet and leptin in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Denis; Santos, Ronaldo V T dos; Prado, Wagner L; de Piano, Aline; Lofrano, Mara C; Martins, Aniela C; Carnier, June; Caranti, Danielle A; Sanches, Priscila de L; Tock, Lian; Mello, Marco T de; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the influence of obesity status on immune cell count and concentration of the hormones cortisol and leptin, in order to establish a relationship among the variables analyzed. We recruited 27 obese [body mass index (BMI) > or = 95th percentile] and 21 non-obese (BMI < or = 75th percentile) adolescent boys and girls, aged 15-19 years at the post-pubertal stage. BMI was calculated as body weight divided by height squared, and body composition was estimated by plethysmography in the Bod Pod system. Blood samples were collected to analyze leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets, cortisol, and leptin. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed, followed by the independent Student t test in case of normal distribution. Significance values were set at p < 0.05 and expressed as means +/- standard deviation. The statistical package SPSS for Windows version 12.0 was used. There was no difference between obese and non-obese adolescents in terms of leukocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and cortisol serum concentrations. The group of obese adolescents presented higher platelet and leptin concentrations (p < 0.01). The prevalence of hyperleptinemia was 25.92% in the obese adolescents (15.38% in boys and 35.7% in girls). Obese adolescents have higher platelet and leptin concentrations in comparison with non-obese adolescents. It was also found that obese girls presented a higher prevalence of hyperleptinemia than obese boys.

  3. Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls: Transfer effects on physical activity, screen time, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Beyl, Robbie A; Hsia, Daniel S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Newton, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Given the low levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescent girls in the US, there is a need to identify tools to motivate increased PA. Although there is limited evidence that adolescents transfer PA from one context to another context, exergames (i.e., video games that require gross motor activity) may act as a gateway to promote overall PA outside of game play. The purpose of this study was to examine potential transfer effects (i.e., influences on external behaviors and psychological constructs) of a 12-week exergaming intervention on adolescent girls' PA, screen-time, and self-efficacy towards PA, as well as the intrinsic motivation of exergaming. Participants were 37 girls aged 14-18 years (65% African American, 35% White) who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) and were recruited from the community via school, physicians, news media, and social media sites. Adolescents were randomly assigned to a 12-week group exergaming intervention (thirty-six 60 min sessions of group-based dance exergaming in a research laboratory using Kinect for Xbox 360) or to a no-treatment control group. Outcome variables included objectively measured PA (total) and self-reported leisure-time PA (discretionary time only) 1-week before vs. 1-week after the intervention; selected type and intensity of PA when placed in a gym setting for 30 min ("cardio free choice"); screen-time; self-efficacy towards PA; and intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Attendance to the exergaming sessions was high (80%). Compared to the control group, the intervention group self-reported an increase in PA (p = 0.035) and fewer hours watching TV/videos (p = 0.01) after the intervention, but there were no significant differences in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous PA measured by accelerometry. The intervention group significantly improved self-efficacy towards PA (p = 0.028). The intervention group highly rated intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Twelve weeks of

  4. Comparison of Overweight and Obese Military-Dependent and Civilian Adolescent Girls with Loss-of-Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Schvey, Natasha A.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Bryant, Edny J.; Ress, Rachel; Spieker, Elena A.; Conforte, Allison; Bakalar, Jennifer L.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Barmine, Marissa; Klein, David; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited data suggest that the children of U.S. service members may be at increased risk for disordered-eating. To date, no study has directly compared adolescent military-dependents to their civilian peers along measures of eating pathology and associated correlates. We, therefore, compared overweight and obese adolescent female military-dependents to their civilian counterparts along measures of eating-related pathology and psychosocial functioning. Method Adolescent females with a BMI between the 85th and 97th percentiles and who reported loss-of-control eating completed interview and questionnaire assessments of eating-related and general psychopathology. Results 23 military-dependents and 105 civilians participated. Controlling for age, race, and BMI-z, military-dependents reported significantly more binge episodes per month (p<.01), as well as greater eating-concern, shape-concern, and weight-concern (p’s<.01) than civilians. Military-dependents also reported more severe depression (p<.05). Discussion Adolescent female military-dependents may be particularly vulnerable to disordered-eating compared to civilian peers. This potential vulnerability should be considered when assessing military-dependents. PMID:25955761

  5. Comparison of overweight and obese military-dependent and civilian adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating.

    PubMed

    Schvey, Natasha A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Bryant, Edny J; Ress, Rachel; Spieker, Elena A; Conforte, Allison; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Pickworth, Courtney K; Barmine, Marissa; Klein, David; Brady, Sheila M; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Limited data suggest that the children of U.S. service members may be at increased risk for disordered-eating. To date, no study has directly compared adolescent military-dependents to their civilian peers along measures of eating pathology and associated correlates. We, therefore, compared overweight and obese adolescent female military-dependents to their civilian counterparts along measures of eating-related pathology and psychosocial functioning. Adolescent females with a BMI between the 85th and 97th percentiles and who reported loss-of-control eating completed interview and questionnaire assessments of eating-related and general psychopathology. Twenty-three military-dependents and 105 civilians participated. Controlling for age, race, and BMI-z, military-dependents reported significantly more binge episodes per month (p < 0.01), as well as greater eating-concern, shape-concern, and weight-concern (p's < 0.01) than civilians. Military-dependents also reported more severe depression (p < 0.05). Adolescent female military-dependents may be particularly vulnerable to disordered-eating compared with civilian peers. This potential vulnerability should be considered when assessing military-dependents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences.

  7. The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Alwattar, A Y; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC). Thirty-five girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; body mass index: 28.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n = 20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n = 15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC). In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P < 0.05), whereas NP breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P < 0.05). In H-BC, the HP breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P < 0.05). No differences in insulin were detected. When comparing the HP-NP differential glycemic responses between groups, H-BS experienced greater afternoon and total glucose AUCs following HP vs NP breakfasts (both, P<0.05). No differences in insulin responses were observed between groups. Novel differences in the glucose response to HP vs NP breakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

  8. Twelve weeks of dance exergaming in overweight and obese adolescent girls: Transfer effects on physical activity, screen time, and self-efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Beyl, Robbie A.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Newton, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the low levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescent girls in the US, there is a need to identify tools to motivate increased PA. Although there is limited evidence that adolescents transfer PA from one context to another context, exergames (i.e., video games that require gross motor activity) may act as a gateway to promote overall PA outside of game play. The purpose of this study was to examine potential transfer effects (i.e., influences on external behaviors and psychological constructs) of a 12-week exergaming intervention on adolescent girls’ PA, screen-time, and self-efficacy towards PA, as well as the intrinsic motivation of exergaming. Methods Participants were 37 girls aged 14–18 years (65% African American, 35% White) who were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) and were recruited from the community via school, physicians, news media, and social media sites. Adolescents were randomly assigned to a 12-week group exergaming intervention (thirty-six 60 min sessions of group-based dance exergaming in a research laboratory using Kinect for Xbox 360) or to a no-treatment control group. Outcome variables included objectively measured PA (total) and self-reported leisure-time PA (discretionary time only) 1-week before vs. 1-week after the intervention; selected type and intensity of PA when placed in a gym setting for 30 min (“cardio free choice”); screen-time; self-efficacy towards PA; and intrinsic motivation towards exergaming. Results Attendance to the exergaming sessions was high (80%). Compared to the control group, the intervention group self-reported an increase in PA (p = 0.035) and fewer hours watching TV/videos (p = 0.01) after the intervention, but there were no significant differences in sedentary, light, moderate, or vigorous PA measured by accelerometry. The intervention group significantly improved self-efficacy towards PA (p = 0.028). The intervention group highly rated intrinsic motivation

  9. Adolescent Girls and Abortion.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Adolescent girls' weight-related family environments, Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary

    2011-05-01

    Significant sociodemographic disparities exist in the prevalence of obesity among adolescent girls, and in girls' participation in physical activity, sedentary activity, and healthful dietary intake. However, little is known of how factors in the family environment associated with weight and behavior vary by sociodemographic groups. We examined differences and similarities in the weight-related family environments of adolescent girls by race/ethnicity, parental educational attainment, and US nativity. Data are from the baseline assessment of 253 parent/daughter dyads. Parents completed survey items on the family environment; parents and girls reported their sociodemographic characteristics. Hierarchical regression models were used to test relationships between the family environment and sociodemographic characteristics. Parents of Asian girls reported qualities supportive of physical activity and healthy eating. Higher parental education was associated with more parental modeling of and support for physical activity and greater frequency of family meals. Parents of foreign-born girls reported having fewer televisions in the home, more frequent family meals, and fewer fast-food family meals. Understanding sociodemographic differences in the family environments of adolescent girls can inform the development of obesity prevention programs and reduce disparities in adolescents' weight status, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and healthful dietary intake.

  11. Socioeconomic differences in obesity among Mexican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Heidi Ullmann, S; Buttenheim, Alison M; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R; Wong, Rebeca

    2011-06-01

    We investigate socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity in Mexico. Three questions are addressed. First, what is the social patterning of obesity among Mexican adolescents? Second, what are the separate and joint associations of maternal and paternal education with adolescent obesity net of household wealth? Third, are there differences in socioeconomic status (SES) gradients among Mexican boys and girls, rural residents and non-rural residents? Using data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 we examined the slope and direction of the association between SES and adolescent obesity. We also estimated models for sub-populations to examine differences in the social gradients in obesity by sex and non-rural residence. We find that household economic status (asset ownership and housing quality) is positively associated with adolescent obesity. High paternal education is related to lower obesity risk, whereas the association between maternal education and obesity is positive, but not always significant. The household wealth components of SES appear to predispose Mexican adolescents to higher obesity risk. The effects of parental education are more complex. These findings have important policy implications in Mexico and the United States.

  12. Socioeconomic differences in obesity among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    ULLMANN, S. HEIDI; BUTTENHEIM, ALISON M.; GOLDMAN, NOREEN; PEBLEY, ANNE R.; WONG, REBECA

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigate socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity in Mexico. Three questions are addressed. First, what is the social patterning of obesity among Mexican adolescents? Second, what are the separate and joint associations of maternal and paternal education with adolescent obesity net of household wealth? Third, are there differences in socioeconomic status (SES) gradients among Mexican boys and girls, rural residents and non-rural residents? Methods Using data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 we examined the slope and direction of the association between SES and adolescent obesity. We also estimated models for sub-populations to examine differences in the social gradients in obesity by sex and non-rural residence. Results We find that household economic status (asset ownership and housing quality) is positively associated with adolescent obesity. High paternal education is related to lower obesity risk, whereas the association between maternal education and obesity is positive, but not always significant. Conclusion The household wealth components of SES appear to predispose Mexican adolescents to higher obesity risk. The effects of parental education are more complex. These findings have important policy implications in Mexico and the United States. PMID:20883181

  13. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  14. Effects of Overweight on Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescent Girls. NBER Working Paper No. 16172

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Averett, Susan; Corman, Hope; Reichman, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    We use data from The National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to estimate effects of adolescent girls' overweight on their propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior. We estimate single equation, two-stage, and sibling fixed-effects models and find that overweight or obese teenage girls are more likely than their recommended-weight…

  15. USAID Adolescent Girl Strategy Implementation Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…

  16. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  17. Growth charts and obesity prevalence among Lebanese private schools adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chakar, Hilda; Salameh, Pascale R

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish weight, height and body mass index curves and to calculate the prevalence of obesity by sex and age groups in Lebanese adolescents of private schools. Body weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were measured among 12299 adolescents aged 10 to 18 years from Lebanese private schools. Adolescents' growth charts were established. Obesity and at risk of obesity individuals were identified according to International Obesity Taskforce thresholds, and our numbers were compared to those of other countries. Curves of weight, height and BMI were drawn. In boys, 10.1% were obese and 28.8% at risk of obesity. In girls, 4.2% were obese and 19.0% were at risk of obesity. Lebanese private schools adolescents, particularly boys, present high prevalences of obesity and risk of obesity. Pediatricians should identify early adolescents at greater risk, in order to achieve a more favorable prognosis.

  18. Adolescent girls' parasocial interactions with media figures.

    PubMed

    Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.

  19. [Mental and somatic elements of sense of identity obese girls and boys].

    PubMed

    Radoszewska, Joanna; Wiśniewski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The sense of identity during the sexual maturation is different for obese persons and for those having a normal body mass. The sense of identity involves mental and somatic contents, it is a self-knowledge, manner of self-experience. The aim of this article is a trial of an answer what is a sense of identity experienced by obese girls and boys in adolescence. Girls and boys realize fundamental, developmental tasks concerning definition of sense of self identity as well as conclusion of separation--individuation process. 21 obese persons (12 girls and 9 boys) and 23 persons of normal body mass (15 girls and 8 boys) have been investigated. The mean age of the investigated obese persons were 14.53, and for a person of normal body mass was 15.31. All persons were investigated by a clinical interview with 8 questions concerning sense of identity. The obtained results were analyzed in relation to sense of identity contents: cognitive, emotional, social, sexual, certificate, behavioral and somatic. There were differences between obese and normal body mass persons in contents of sense of identity. These differences were concern girls and boys. Somatic categories were dominant for obese persons. Emotional and behavioral categories were dominant for normal body mass persons. 1. There were specific difficulties in the definition of sense of identity for obese persons in adolescence. 2. Particular difficulties concerned obese girls, what constituted one of mental cause of eating disorders.

  20. Underestimation of adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies assessing the validity of adolescent self-reported height and weight for estimating obesity prevalence have not accounted for, potential bias due to nonresponse in self-reports. The aim of this study was to assess the implications of selective nonresponse in self-reports of height and weight for estimates of adolescent obesity. The authors analyzed 613 adolescents ages 12-17 years from the 2006-2008 Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, a longitudinal study of Los Angeles County households with an oversample of poor neighborhoods. Obesity prevalence estimates were compared based on (a) self-report, (b) measured height and weight for those who did report, and (c) measured height and weight for those who did report. Among younger teens, measured obesity prevalence was higher for those who did not report height and weight compared with those who did (40% vs. 30%). Consequently, obesity prevalence based on self-reported height and weight underestimated measured prevalence by 12 percentage points (when accounting for nonresponse) versus 9 percentage points (when nonresponse was not accounted for). Results were robust to the choice of difference child growth references. Adolescent obesity surveillance and prevention efforts must take into account selective nonresponse for self-reported height and weight, particularly for younger teens. Results should be replicated in a nationally representative sample.

  1. The development of youth-onset severe obesity in urban US girls.

    PubMed

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Stepp, Stephanie D; Moore, Charity G; Cohen, Elan D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf; Kuller, Lewis H

    2015-12-01

    To understand the incidence and persistence of severe obesity (≥1.2× 95(th) BMI percentile-for-age) in girls across the transition to adolescence, and map developmental trajectories of adolescent severe obesity in a high-risk sample. We examined ten years of prospectively collected data from a population sample of urban girls (n=2,226; 53% African American, aged 7-10 in 2003-2004). We determined severe obesity prevalence and incidence by age. Logistic regression evaluated for secular trend in the association between age and severe obesity prevalence. Unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) compared BMI development through the adolescence transition between girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI. Severe obesity prevalence was 8.3% at age 7-10 and 10.1% at age 16-19 (white: 5.9%; African American: 13.2%; p<0.001). Age-specific prevalence increased more rapidly among the latest-born, versus earliest-born, girls (p=0.034). Incidence was 1.3% to 2.4% annually. When we compared 12-15 year-old girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI, average body weight was already distinct 5 years earlier (16.5 kg versus 25.7 kg; p<0.001) and the BMI difference between groups increased annually. LCGMs between ages 7-10 and 11-14 indicated an increase of 3.32 kg/m(2) in the healthy-BMI group and 8.50 kg/m(2) in the severe obesity group, a 2.6-fold difference. Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely.

  2. The development of youth-onset severe obesity in urban US girls

    PubMed Central

    McTigue, Kathleen M.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Moore, Charity G.; Cohen, Elan D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the incidence and persistence of severe obesity (≥1.2× 95th BMI percentile-for-age) in girls across the transition to adolescence, and map developmental trajectories of adolescent severe obesity in a high-risk sample. Methods We examined ten years of prospectively collected data from a population sample of urban girls (n=2,226; 53% African American, aged 7–10 in 2003–2004). We determined severe obesity prevalence and incidence by age. Logistic regression evaluated for secular trend in the association between age and severe obesity prevalence. Unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) compared BMI development through the adolescence transition between girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI. Results Severe obesity prevalence was 8.3% at age 7–10 and 10.1% at age 16–19 (white: 5.9%; African American: 13.2%; p<0.001). Age-specific prevalence increased more rapidly among the latest-born, versus earliest-born, girls (p=0.034). Incidence was 1.3% to 2.4% annually. When we compared 12–15 year-old girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI, average body weight was already distinct 5 years earlier (16.5 kg versus 25.7 kg; p<0.001) and the BMI difference between groups increased annually. LCGMs between ages 7–10 and 11–14 indicated an increase of 3.32 kg/m2 in the healthy-BMI group and 8.50 kg/m2 in the severe obesity group, a 2.6-fold difference. Conclusions Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely. PMID:26509122

  3. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  4. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  5. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  6. Obesity in children & adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken.

  7. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  8. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  9. Relational spirituality and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Miller, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the possibility that relational spirituality may be inversely associated with the relatively higher rates of adolescent depression found in girls as compared with boys. Subjects were 615 adolescents, representing a diverse range of religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Overall spirituality and depression were measured using The Brief-Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall, both level of depression and level of relational spirituality were higher in girls as compared with boys. Regression analyses conducted independently for boys and girls revealed that daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and religious coping were associated with less-depressive symptomatology exclusively in girls. This pattern in the findings suggests that uniquely in girls, depression may be associated with disruptions in a relational form of spirituality.

  10. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  12. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  13. Testing Social-Cognitive Theory to Explain Physical Activity Change in Adolescent Girls from Low-Income Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewar, Deborah L.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Morgan, Philip J.; Okely, Anthony D.; Costigan, Sarah A.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesized structural paths in Bandura's social-cognitive theory (SCT) model on adolescent girls' physical activity following a 12-month physical activity and dietary intervention to prevent obesity. Method: We conducted a 12-month follow-up study of 235 adolescent girls ("M[subscript…

  14. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  15. Adolescents' perception of causes of obesity: unhealthy lifestyles or heritage?

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A; Araújo, Cora P; Muniz, Ludmila; Tavares, Patrícia; Assunção, Maria C; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate adolescents' perception of the causes of obesity, with emphasis on differences according to nutritional status and socioeconomic position. We conducted qualitative research including 80 adolescents belonging to the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, and their mothers. We classified adolescent boys and girls into four groups (girls-obese, girls-eutrophic, boys-obese, and boys-eutrophic) according to body mass index for age and sex, and systematically selected them according to family income at age 15 years. Research techniques included semistructured interviews and history of life. Topics covered in the interviews included early experiences with weight management, effect of weight on social relationships, family history, eating habits, and values. Low-income obese adolescents and their mothers perceive obesity as a heritage, caused by family genes, side effects of medication use, and stressful life events. However, low-income eutrophic adolescents emphasize the role of unhealthy diets on obesity development. Among the high-income adolescents, those who are obese attribute it to genetic factors and emotional problems, whereas those who are eutrophic mention unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity as the main causes of obesity. Perceptions of the causes of obesity in adolescents from a middle-income setting vary by gender, socioeconomic position, and nutritional status. Whereas some blame genetics as responsible for obesity development, others blame unhealthy diets and lifestyles, and others acknowledge the roles of early life experiences and family traditions in the process of obesity development. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Adolescents' Perception of Causes of Obesity: Unhealthy Lifestyles or Heritage?

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Helen; González, David A.; Araújo, Cora P.; Muniz, Ludmila; Tavares, Patrícia; Assunção, Maria C.; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate adolescents' perception of the causes of obesity, with emphasis on differences according to nutritional status and socioeconomic position. Methods We conducted qualitative research including 80 adolescents belonging to the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study, and their mothers. We classified adolescent boys and girls into four groups (girls–obese, girls–eutrophic, boys–obese, and boys-eutrophic) according to body mass index for age and sex, and systematically selected them according to family income at age 15 years. Research techniques included semistructured interviews and history of life. Topics covered in the interviews included early experiences with weight management, effect of weight on social relationships, family history, eating habits, and values. Results Low-income obese adolescents and their mothers perceive obesity as a heritage, caused by family genes, side effects of medication use, and stressful life events. However, low-income eutrophic adolescents emphasize the role of unhealthy diets on obesity development. Among the high-income adolescents, those who are obese attribute it to genetic factors and emotional problems, whereas those who are eutrophic mention unhealthy diets and lack of physical activity as the main causes of obesity. Conclusions Perceptions of the causes of obesity in adolescents from a middle-income setting vary by gender, socioeconomic position, and nutritional status. Whereas some blame genetics as responsible for obesity development, others blame unhealthy diets and lifestyles, and others acknowledge the roles of early life experiences and family traditions in the process of obesity development. PMID:23283160

  17. Longitudinal analyses of the steroid metabolome in obese PCOS girls with weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Kulle, Alexandra; Rothermel, Juliane; Knop-Schmenn, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Bosse, Christina; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2017-01-01

    Objective The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics. Design This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13–16 years (50% with PCOS) participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status. Methods We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone and estradiol by LC–MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later. Results At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss. Conclusions The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS. PMID:28373267

  18. Longitudinal analyses of the steroid metabolome in obese PCOS girls with weight loss.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Kulle, Alexandra; Rothermel, Juliane; Knop-Schmenn, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Bosse, Christina; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2017-05-01

    The underlying mechanisms of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) are not fully understood yet. The aim of the study was to get functional insights into the regulation of steroid hormones in PCOS by steroid metabolomics. This is a longitudinal study of changes of steroid hormones in 40 obese girls aged 13-16 years (50% with PCOS) participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change of weight status. We measured progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, 17-hydroxyprogenolon, 11-deoxycorticosterone, 21-deoxycorticosterone, deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrostendione-sulfate (DHEA-S), estrone and estradiol by LC-MS/MS steroid profiling at baseline and one year later. At baseline, obese PCOS girls demonstrated significantly higher androstenedione and testosterone concentrations compared to obese girls without PCOS, whereas the other steroid hormones including glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ significantly. Weight loss in obese PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of testosterone, androstenedione, DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations. Weight loss in obese non-PCOS girls was associated with a significant decrease of DHEA-S, cortisol and corticosterone concentrations, whereas no significant changes of testosterone and androstenedione concentrations could be observed. Without weight loss, no significant changes of steroid hormones were measured except an increase of estradiol in obese PCOS girls without weight loss. The key steroid hormones in obese adolescents with PCOS are androstenedione and testosterone, whereas glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens and precursors of androgens did not differ between obese girls with and without PCOS. © 2017 The authors.

  19. Mental disorders in obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vila, Gilbert; Zipper, Ewa; Dabbas, Myriam; Bertrand, Catherine; Robert, Jean Jacques; Ricour, Claude; Mouren-Siméoni, Marie Christine

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the type and frequency of psychiatric disorders in obese children and adolescents; to assess the correlation between psychopathology and severity of obesity; to explore the relationship between psychiatric disorders in obese children and obesity and psychopathology in their parents. One hundred fifty-five children referred and followed for obesity were evaluated (98 girls and 57 boys; age, 5 to 17 years). Psychiatric disorders were assessed through a standardized diagnostic interview schedule (K-SADS R) and self-report questionnaires completed by the child (STAIC Trait-anxiety and CDI for depression) or his (her) parents (CBCL or GHQ). These obese children were compared with insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) outpatient children (N = 171) on questionnaire data. Eighty-eight obese children obtained a DSM-IV diagnosis, most often an anxiety disorder (N = 63). Psychological disorders were particularly pronounced in those obese children whose parents were disturbed. There was no correlation between severity of obesity in the child or his (her) parents and frequency of psychiatric disorders. Compared with diabetic children, they displayed significantly higher internalized and externalized questionnaire scores and poorer social skills. These results highlight the importance of including a child psychiatric component in the treatment of obesity, which must engage the whole family.

  20. Development of obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vilmann, Lea S; Thisted, Ebbe; Baker, Jennifer L; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in adolescents is prevalent worldwide. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with obesity in women, and it has serious metabolic and reproductive health implications. Although PCOS does not become clinically visible until early adolescence, its origins are likely much earlier. Therefore, we reviewed the recent literature regarding the mechanisms linking the development of PCOS and obesity in adolescent girls. We found that excess abdominal adipose tissue (AT) initiates metabolic and endocrine aberrations that are central in the progression of PCOS. As an example, abdominal AT impairs insulin action, which interacts with the progression of hyperandrogenism. In addition, excessive androgen levels lead to impaired glucose uptake, which also contributes to insulin resistance, which again increases the deposition of visceral fat. The body composition is influenced by testosterone, which decreases subcutaneous fat lipolysis and influences adipocyte distribution. These mechanisms may explain why PCOS girls have an increased visceral adipose mass independent of body mass index. Therefore, first-line treatment in adolescent PCOS is often lifestyle intervention to prevent the damaging effects of obesity. Pharmacological treatment of adolescent PCOS is not standardized because the long-term effects in adolescents have not yet been evaluated; therefore, drugs should be prescribed cautiously. Although the complex metabolic interrelationships between obesity and PCOS have yet to be fully understood, the co-occurrence of these conditions in adolescent girls tends to increase the severity of the negative health consequences of each condition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.

  2. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  3. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  4. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  5. Pornography consumption among adolescent girls in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mattebo, Magdalena; Tydén, Tanja; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet; Nilsson, Kent W; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe patterns of pornography consumption, investigate differences between consumers and non-consumers of pornography regarding sexual experiences, health and lifestyle and determine associations between pornography consumption and sexual experiences, health and lifestyle among adolescent girls. The hypotheses were that adolescent girls categorised as pornography consumers would report sexual experiences to a greater extent, and a riskier lifestyle and poorer health, compared with non-consumers. A classroom survey was conducted among 16-year-old girls (N = 393). One-third (30%) consumed pornography. In this group, almost half (43%) had fantasies about trying to copy sexual acts seen in pornography and 39% had tried to copy sexual activities seen in pornography. A higher proportion of pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences compared with peers. A third (30%) reported experience of anal sex compared with 15% among non-consuming peers (p = 0.001). Furthermore, peer-relationship problems (17% vs 9%; p = 0.015), use of alcohol (85% vs 69%; p = 0.001) and daily smoking (27% vs 14%; p = 0.002) were reported to a greater extent than in non-consuming peers. Pornography consumption, use of alcohol and daily smoking were associated with experience of casual sex. Pornography-consuming girls reported sexual experiences and a risky lifestyle to a greater extent compared with non-consuming girls. This indicates that pornography consumption may influence sexualisation and lifestyle. This is important to acknowledge when designing and implementing sexual health programmes for adolescents.

  6. Prevalence of obesity in adolescents and the impact of sexual maturation stage on body mass index in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kanbur, Nuray O; Derman, Orhan; Kinik, Erol

    2002-01-01

    Puberty is a high-risk period for the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity in adolescents admitted to an outpatient adolescent clinic and investigate the relationships between the increase of body mass index and sexual maturation stages in obese adolescents. We recruited 6,462 adolescents, aged 9-16 years, admitted to the outpatient clinic of our Adolescent Unit, between May 1999 and September 2000. BMI was calculated as weight per height with weight in kilograms and height in meters. Adolescents with a BMI > or = 95th percentile for age and sex were defined as obese, with BMI's > or = 90th percentile but < 95th percentile were defined as overweight and considered at risk for obesity. Obese adolescents, with endocrine problems identified to cause obesity, were excluded from this study. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationships between BMI and age. The differences between the sexual maturation stages were evaluated with Mann-whitney U Test. Out of 6,462 cases screened, 151 obese adolescents were found. Prevalence of obesity for the total sample surveyed was estimated at 2.3%. BMI values were significantly correlated with age in both sexes. In girls, only the increase of BMI values from stage I to stage II was found to be statistically significant. In boys, BMI values did not differ significantly between the sexual maturation stages but the number of obese cases were high in stages I and II. The pubertal growth spurt (timing determined by sexual maturation stage) effects the amount of fat accumulation and the distribution of fat in different ways in boys and girls. So, not only the age and sex but also the sexual maturation stage has to be taken into account while evaluating the BMI values for investigating the risk of obesity in puberty.

  7. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  8. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  9. Bothersome Exposure to Online Sexual Content among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ševcíková, Anna; Simon, Laura; Daneback, Kristian; Kvapilík, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests that adolescent girls may react more negatively to online sexual content than boys. This study explored the qualitative experiences of adolescent girls who encountered bothersome or disturbing sexual content online. Fourteen girls (aged 15-17 years) were interviewed online about the context in which they saw bothersome…

  10. Reproductive health awareness among adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Choudhury, Abdul Mannan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the status of rural Bangladeshi adolescent girls' awareness about reproductive health. Analysis of data revealed that a sizable proportion of adolescent girls had incorrect knowledge or misconceptions about the fertile period, reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and HIV/AIDS. Age, education either of adolescents or their mothers, residence, and exposure to mass media were the significant predictors of adolescent girls' knowledge about reproductive health. Strong efforts are needed to improve awareness and to clarify misconceptions about reproductive health. Improved access to mass media and education could improve rural Bangladeshi adolescent girls' awareness about reproductive health.

  11. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: reciprocal risks.

    PubMed

    Marmorstein, N R; Iacono, W G; Legrand, L

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and major depressive disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20) and early adulthood (ages 20-24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=3.76, confidence interval =1.33-10.59) during late adolescence among female individuals. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (OR=5.89, confidence interval=2.31-15.01) during early adulthood among female individuals. For girls, adolescence is a high-risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among female individuals, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity.

  12. Obesity and depression in adolescence and beyond: Reciprocal risks

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; Iacono, William G.; Legrand, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are associated, but evidence about how they relate over time is conflicting. The goal of this study was to examine prospective associations between depression and obesity from early adolescence through early adulthood. Methods Participants were drawn from a statewide, community-based, Minnesota sample. MDD and obesity with onsets by early adolescence (by age 14), late adolescence (between 14 and 20), and early adulthood (ages 20 to 24) were assessed via structured interview (depression) and study-measured height and weight. Results Cross-sectional results indicated that depression and obesity with onsets by early adolescence were concurrently associated, but the same was not true later in development. Prospective results indicated that depression by early adolescence predicted the onset of obesity (odds ratio=3.76, confidence interval= 1.33–10.59) during late adolescence among females. Obesity that developed during late adolescence predicted the onset of depression (odds ratio=5.89, confidence interval= 2.31–15.01) during early adulthood among females. Conclusions For girls, adolescence is a high risk period for the development of this comorbidity, with the nature of the risk varying over the course of adolescence. Early adolescent-onset depression is associated with elevated risk of later onset obesity, and obesity, particularly in late adolescence, is associated with increased odds of later depression. Further investigation into the mechanisms of these effects and the reasons for the observed gender and developmental differences is needed. Prevention programs focused on early-onset cases of depression and adolescent-onset cases of obesity, particularly among females, may help in reducing risk for this form of comorbidity. PMID:24480863

  13. A Comparative Study of Nutritional Status and Foodstuffs in Adolescent Girls in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Talaie-Zanjani, A; Faraji, F; Rafie, M; Mohammadbeigi, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents is increasing world-wide. Obesity in children and adolescents is a major risk factor for diabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, and cancer in adulthood. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the nutritional status and food-stuffs among high-school girls in Arak, Iran, in matter of body mass index (BMI) and associated factors. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 278 adolescents was conducted in six randomly chosen high-schools. Height and weight of students were collected using standard methods and the BMI calculated and BMI percentiles of these girls are compared with the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference data. The 5th, 8th, and 95th percentiles of the CDC were adopted as cut-off points for underweight, overweight and obese girls, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS by analysis of variance and Chi-square tests. Results: On the basis of CDC, the overall prevalence rates of underweight, overweight, and obesity were estimated 10.1% (28/278), 12.9% (36/278), and 1.4% (4/278), respectively. There was no significant difference between nutritional knowledge scores and the rate of physical activities in various groups. The mean age at menarche was significantly higher among the obese girls (P = 0.02). Consumption of ice-cream and chocolate was significantly higher in the obese girls group (P = 0.03). Conclusion: According to the present study, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in high-school girls of Arak is lower than that of many other parts of Iran and some neighboring countries, which are at the high-risk of overweight and obesity. This study warrants the necessity of paying attention to promote healthy life-style and weight control. The earlier age of menarche is alarming. PMID:24669328

  14. Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norine G., Ed.; Roberts, Michael C., Ed.; Worell, Judith, Ed.

    This book provides a new look at adolescent girls. The sections and chapters reveal the strengths and positive assets of adolescent girls, their relationships, and their communities. It takes a new look at the strengths and successes of adolescents within the context of their race, ethnicity, class, self, sexual orientation, relationships and…

  15. Beyond Appearance: A New Look at Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norine G., Ed.; Roberts, Michael C., Ed.; Worell, Judith, Ed.

    This book provides a new look at adolescent girls. The sections and chapters reveal the strengths and positive assets of adolescent girls, their relationships, and their communities. It takes a new look at the strengths and successes of adolescents within the context of their race, ethnicity, class, self, sexual orientation, relationships and…

  16. Adolescent Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Agneta; Brunnberg, Elinor; Eriksson, Charli

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study are to analyse the concept of mental health from the perspective of adolescent girls and boys and to describe what adolescent girls and boys regard as important determinants of mental health. Interviews with 48 children, 13 and 16 years old, in Sweden were held individually or in focus groups. The adolescents perceived…

  17. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in an Adolescent With Obesity.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Kathleen M; Greathouse, David G

    2016-01-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is typically found in adults and may be associated with a variety of metabolic conditions including obesity. Obesity is a growing problem among today's youth, and adult diseases often associated with obesity are now being found in a younger population. This case study describes a young adolescent girl with obesity and CTS. A history and examination were completed before electrophysiologic testing, and the patient had no evidence of any contributory pathology. There was electrophysiologic evidence of bilateral median nerve compromise at the wrist. The patient's diagnosis of CTS may be obesity related. Management of patients with obesity and CTS should also include education about weight management in addition to traditional interventions. This may be even more important for a child or adolescent with obesity and CTS.

  18. The psychosocial burden of childhood overweight and obesity: evidence for persisting difficulties in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Allen, Karina L; Davis, Elizabeth; Blair, Eve; Zubrick, Stephen R; Byrne, Susan M

    2017-07-01

    There is evidence that overweight and obese children tend to remain overweight or obese into adolescence and adulthood. However, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of childhood overweight and obesity. This study aimed to investigate the course of psychosocial difficulties over a 2-year period for children who were overweight or obese at baseline, and a sample of children who were a healthy weight at baseline. Participants were 212 children aged 8 to 13 years at baseline, who were participating in the Childhood Growth and Development (GAD) Study. Questionnaire and interview measures were used to assess children's self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body image, eating disorder symptoms, experiences with bullying, family satisfaction and quality of life. Linear mixed models were used to consider longitudinal changes in psychosocial variables. Overweight and obese children reported greater psychosocial distress than healthy weight children, and these differences were more pronounced for girls than boys. Weight and psychosocial impairment showed stability from baseline to 2-year follow-up. The results of this study suggest that psychosocial difficulties show considerable stability in childhood, for overweight/obese and healthy weight children. What is Known: • Childhood obesity tracks into adolescence and adulthood. • Physical health problems associated with childhood obesity also persist to adulthood. What is New: • Overweight and obese children are at risk of ongoing psychosocial distress from childhood into early adolescence.

  19. Obesity in girls and penetrative sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Modan-Moses, Dalit; Herman-Raz, Meirav; Reichman, Brian

    2009-01-01

    To assess the relationship between childhood obesity and penetrative sexual abuse in girls. All obese girls referred to a hospital based pediatric endocrine unit were interviewed by a social worker or psychologist. Questions aimed to elicit any history of physical, emotional and sexual abuse are included. Overweight was defined as BM >95th percentile for age and gender. Body mass index (BMI) Z score (BMIZ) was calculated as measured BMI minus mean BMI for age and gender divided by standard deviation. Penetrative abuse was defined if a history was elicited of forced intercourse with any form of oral, vaginal or anal penetration. A history of penetrative abuse was elicited in 5 out of 145 (3.5%) obese girls, their mean +/- SD age was 11.9 +/- 3.1 years. Abused girls were significantly more obese than the remainder of the patients (BMIZ 4.76 +/- 1.34 vs. 3.39 +/- 1.28 p = 0.02). Forty-two of all girls had BMI Z scores > or =4, and of these four (9.5%) had been abused. All girls had changes in normal daily behaviour including seductive behaviour, seclusion, self-mutilation and new onset day enuresis. In the evaluation of girls with marked obesity, particularly if associated with behavioural changes and failure to respond to therapy, the possible occurrence of penetrative sexual abuse should be considered.

  20. Obesity and nutrition in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Steinbeck, Kate

    2009-12-01

    Adolescence is a period of life that encompasses rapid physical growth and dramatic psychosocial change. Over the centuries, humans have evolved an energy balance system that is biased toward fat storage. Obesity has become the most prevalent nutritional concern in adolescents, and clearly it has a complex etiology that includes both genetic and lifestyle aspects. The greatest impact of overweight and obesity in adolescents is the appearance of related physical and psychosocial comorbidity and the tracking of these into adulthood. Thus, there is a strong imperative to treat adolescent overweight and obesity before lifestyles become entrenched and significant comorbidity intervenes. Anorexia nervosa, at the opposite end of the weight spectrum, exhibits many older evolutionary traits that attempt to protect against undernutrition. Iron and vitamin D deficiencies are common in adolescents, both of which have important nutritional aspects.

  1. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, "breakfast-skipping," late-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leidy, Heather J; Ortinau, Laura C; Douglas, Steve M; Hoertel, Heather A

    2013-04-01

    Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean ± SEM age: 19 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 28.6 ± 0.7] consumed 350-kcal NP (13 g protein) cereal-based breakfasts, consumed 350-kcal HP egg- and beef-rich (35 g protein) breakfasts, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 d. On day 7, a 10-h testing day was completed that included appetite and satiety questionnaires, blood sampling, predinner food cue-stimulated functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, ad libitum dinner, and evening snacking. The consumption of breakfast reduced daily hunger compared with BS with no differences between meals. Breakfast increased daily fullness compared with BS, with the HP breakfast eliciting greater increases than did the NP breakfast. HP, but not NP, reduced daily ghrelin and increased daily peptide YY concentrations compared with BS. Both meals reduced predinner amygdala, hippocampal, and midfrontal corticolimbic activation compared with BS. HP led to additional reductions in hippocampal and parahippocampal activation compared with NP. HP, but not NP, reduced evening snacking of high-fat foods compared with BS. Breakfast led to beneficial alterations in the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals that control food intake regulation. Only the HP breakfast led to further alterations in these signals and reduced evening snacking compared with BS, although no differences in daily energy intake were observed. These data suggest that the addition of breakfast, particularly one rich in protein, might be a useful strategy to improve satiety, reduce food motivation and reward, and

  2. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls123

    PubMed Central

    Ortinau, Laura C; Douglas, Steve M; Hoertel, Heather A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean ± SEM age: 19 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.6 ± 0.7] consumed 350-kcal NP (13 g protein) cereal-based breakfasts, consumed 350-kcal HP egg- and beef-rich (35 g protein) breakfasts, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 d. On day 7, a 10-h testing day was completed that included appetite and satiety questionnaires, blood sampling, predinner food cue–stimulated functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, ad libitum dinner, and evening snacking. Results: The consumption of breakfast reduced daily hunger compared with BS with no differences between meals. Breakfast increased daily fullness compared with BS, with the HP breakfast eliciting greater increases than did the NP breakfast. HP, but not NP, reduced daily ghrelin and increased daily peptide YY concentrations compared with BS. Both meals reduced predinner amygdala, hippocampal, and midfrontal corticolimbic activation compared with BS. HP led to additional reductions in hippocampal and parahippocampal activation compared with NP. HP, but not NP, reduced evening snacking of high-fat foods compared with BS. Conclusions: Breakfast led to beneficial alterations in the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals that control food intake regulation. Only the HP breakfast led to further alterations in these signals and reduced evening snacking compared with BS, although no differences in daily energy intake were observed. These data suggest that the addition of breakfast, particularly one rich in protein, might be a useful strategy to

  3. Adolescent girls speak about violence in their community.

    PubMed

    Flores, Roseanne L

    2006-11-01

    Adolescent girls growing up in urban environments have been placed at increased risk for being exposed to violence in their communities. Yet few studies have examined their perceptions of the risk factors, violence, and the pressures they face on a daily basis. The present research describes two adolescent girls' perspectives concerning the challenges, fears, hopes, risks, and pressures they have experienced growing up in their community. The results have implications for violence intervention and prevention programs with adolescent girls living in urban environments.

  4. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  5. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future 'mothers-to-be'. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health.

  6. Anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in Babile District, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teji, Kedir; Dessie, Yadeta; Assebe, Tesfaye; Abdo, Meyrema

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. Methods Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point. Haemoglobin was measured on site by hem cue machine. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried out depending on the nature of variables. Results The result of the study show that 21.6% thin, 4.8% were over weighted and 1.1% was obese, 32% were anaemic and 15% of adolescents were stunted/ short stature than normal. Nutritional status of adolescent were low both in urban and rural adolescents, but severe thinness were higher among of rural (39.3%) compared to urban (37.5%) adolescents. Factors independently associated with stunting were place of residence, father occupation source of drinking water and age of the adolescents. Conclusion Nutritional status of adolescent girls contributes to the nutritional status of the community. There is a need to initiate intervention measures to improve the nutritional status of adolescent girls who are the future ‘mothers-to-be’. Hence, there is a need to create awareness among adolescents and their family about nutrition and health. PMID:27642403

  7. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  8. Lifestyle Practices and Obesity in Malaysian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Pey Sze; Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Aziz, Mohd Ezane; Hills, Andrew P.; Foo, Leng Huat

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the influence of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) on obesity profiles of 454 Malaysian adolescents aged 12 to 19. Methods: Validated PA and SB questionnaires were used and body composition assessed using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Results: Gender-specific multivariate analyses showed boys with high levels of total PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) exhibited significantly lower levels of total body fat, percent body fat and android fat mass compared with low PA and MVPA groups, after adjusting for potential confounders. Girls with high SB levels showed significantly higher BMI, waist circumference and DXA-derived body fat indices than those at lower SB level. Multiple logistic analyses indicated that boys with low levels of total PA and MVPA had significantly greater obesity risk, 3.0 (OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1–8.1; p < 0.05) and 3.8-fold (OR 3.8; 95% CI, 1.4–10.1; p < 0.01), respectively, than more active boys. Only in girls with high SB level was there a significantly increased risk of obesity, 2.9 times higher than girls at low SP levels (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 1.0–7.5; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The present findings indicate that higher PA duration and intensity reduced body fat and obesity risk while high screen-based sedentary behaviors significantly adversely influenced body fat mass, particularly amongst girls when the PA level was low. PMID:24886753

  9. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent obesity predisposes individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality from a range of lifestyle diseases. Although there is some evidence to suggest that rates of pediatric obesity have leveled off in recent years, this has not been the case among youth from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to report the rationale, study design and baseline findings of a school-based obesity prevention program for low-active adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods/Design The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT Girls) intervention will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. NEAT Girls is a 12-month multi-component school-based intervention developed in reference to Social Cognitive Theory and includes enhanced school sport sessions, interactive seminars, nutrition workshops, lunch-time physical activity (PA) sessions, PA and nutrition handbooks, parent newsletters, pedometers for self-monitoring and text messaging for social support. The following variables were assessed at baseline and will be completed again at 12- and 24-months: adiposity, objectively measured PA, muscular fitness, time spent in sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, PA and nutrition social-cognitive mediators, physical self-perception and global self-esteem. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA and nutrition behavior change will be explored. Discussion NEAT Girls is an innovative intervention targeting low-active girls using evidence-based behavior change strategies and nutrition and PA messages and has the potential to prevent unhealthy weight gain and reduce the decline in physical activity and poor dietary habits associated with low socio-economic status. Few studies have reported the long-term effects of school-based obesity prevention programs and the current study has the potential to make an important contribution to the

  10. Musculoskeletal pain in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jannini, Suely Nóbrega; Dória-Filho, Ulysses; Damiani, Durval; Silva, Clovis Artur Almeida

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of pain, musculoskeletal syndromes, orthopedic disorders and using computers and playing videogames among obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that investigated 100 consecutive obese adolescents and 100 healthy-weight controls using a confidential, self-report questionnaire covering demographic data, sports participation, painful musculoskeletal system symptoms and using computers and playing videogames. The questionnaire's test-retest reliability was tested. Physical examination covered six musculoskeletal syndromes and seven orthopedic disorders. The kappa index for test-retest was 0.724. Pain and musculoskeletal syndromes were equally prevalent in both groups (44 vs. 56%, p = 0.09; 12 vs. 16%, p = 0.541; respectively). Notwithstanding, orthopedic disorders (98 vs. 76%, p = 0.0001), tight quadriceps (89 vs. 44%, p = 0.0001) and genu valgum (87 vs. 24%, p = 0.0001) were significantly more prevalent in obese adolescents than in controls. Median time spent using a computer the day before, on Saturdays and on Sundays were all lower among the obese subjects (30 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.0001; 1 vs. 60 minutes, p = 0.001; and 0 vs. 30 minutes, p = 0.02; respectively). Obese adolescents were less likely to play handheld videogames (2 vs. 11%, p = 0.003) and there was no difference in the two groups' use of full-sized videogames (p > 0.05). Comparing obese adolescents with pain to those free from pain revealed that pain was more frequent among females (59 vs. 39%, p = 0.048) and was associated with greater median time spent playing on Sundays [0 (0-720) vs. 0 (0-240) minutes, p = 0.028]. Obesity can cause osteoarticular system damage at the start of adolescence, particularly to the lower limbs. Programs developed specifically for obese female adolescents with musculoskeletal pain are needed.

  11. Smoking among adolescent girls: prevalence and etiology.

    PubMed

    French, S A; Perry, C L

    1996-01-01

    The prevalence of regular cigarette smoking among 12th-grade girls is about 28%, with the highest rates among whites and the lowest in African-Americans and Asians. Adolescent girls who do not go on to college are more likely to smoke cigarettes than those with college plans. Girls initiate smoking for diverse reasons; it may be instrumental in attaining a desired self-image that includes feelings of maturity, independence, sexuality, health, and sociability. In addition, tobacco advertisements have exploited white, middle-class women's concerns with staying slim by emphasizing the weight-controlling benefits of smoking. Parents, peers, and friends are influential in creating norms that support or discourage smoking. Reasons for ethnic differences in smoking prevalence among adolescent females are poorly understood, but may be linked to economic and sociocultural factors. Future prevention and treatment programs targeting young women should address their reasons for smoking and identify healthful alternative behaviors that will serve psychosocial functions previously met by cigarette smoking.

  12. Overweight and obesity status among adolescents from Mexico and Egypt.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Martinez, Eduardo; Allen, Betania; Fernandez-Ortega, Cielo; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Galal, Osman; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Obesity is on the rise among adults, adolescents and children worldwide, including populations living in developing countries. This study aimed to describe body mass index of adolescents from Mexico and Egypt and to evaluate non-nutritional correlates from two cohort studies. Questionnaire data and weight and height measurements were collected in two large baseline studies in adolescents between 11 and 19 years old attending public school during the 1998-1999 school year in Mexico (n = 10,537) and the 1997 school year in Egypt (n = 1,502). The authors compared body mass index and correlates stratified by sex and country through multivariate linear regression. Overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 19.8 and 7.9%, respectively, among the Mexican adolescents and 12.1 and 6.2%, respectively, among the Egyptian adolescents. Based on U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition growth charts, for Mexico 18% of boys and 21% of girls were overweight and 11% of boys and 9% of girls were obese. In the Egyptian sample, 7% of boys and 18% of girls were overweight and 6% of boys and 8% of girls were obese. The most consistent correlates of body mass index in the Mexican population were age, years of education, smoking, vitamin intake and participating in sports, whereas the factors correlated among Egyptian adolescents were age and rural residence. Obesity and overweight are becoming a problem among Mexican and Egyptian youth. Information about the risk factors associated with excessive weight gain during the adolescent period is a first step towards proposing prevention strategies.

  13. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  14. Catamenial psychosis in an adolescent girl

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Myra Deanne; Grizzaffi, Joseph; Crapanzano, Kathleen A; Jones, Glenn N

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an adolescent girl who was 14 years old at initial presentation. A shy, immature and timid individual, she began to have recurring, progressive episodes characterised by insomnia, paranoia, distorted thinking and mood instability with a mix of depressive and manic-like symptoms. An extensive medical work up was unrevealing. Her family noted a pattern that coincided with her menstrual cycle. An endocrine consult was obtained, and the diagnosis of catamenial psychosis was performed. After treatment with leuprolide, resulting in a shutdown of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, the patient’s symptoms were resolved completely. PMID:25422338

  15. Muscle-enhancing Behaviors Among Adolescent Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Media images of men and women have become increasingly muscular, and muscle-enhancing techniques are available to youth. Identifying populations at risk for unhealthy muscle-enhancingbehaviors is of considerable public health importance. The current study uses a large and diverse population-based sample of adolescents to examine the prevalence of muscle-enhancing behaviors and differences across demographic characteristics, weight status, and sports team involvement. METHODS: Survey data from 2793 diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.4) were collected at 20 urban middle and high schools. Use of 5 muscle-enhancing behaviors was assessed (changing eating, exercising, protein powders, steroids and other muscle-enhancing substances), and a summary score reflecting use of 3 or more behaviors was created. Logistic regression was used to test for differences in each behavior across age group, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, BMI category, and sports team participation. RESULTS: Muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample for both boys and girls. For example, 34.7% used protein powders or shakes and 5.9% reported steroid use. Most behaviors were significantly more common among boys. In models mutually adjusted for all covariates, grade level, Asian race, BMI category, and sports team participation were significantly associated with the use of muscle-enhancing behaviors. For example, overweight (odds ratio = 1.45) and obese (odds ratio = 1.90) girls had significantly greater odds of using protein powders or shakes than girls of average BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The use of muscle-enhancing behaviors is substantially higher than has been previously reported and is cause for concern. Pediatricians and other health care providers should ask their adolescent patients about muscle-enhancing behaviors. PMID:23166333

  16. Muscle-enhancing behaviors among adolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    Media images of men and women have become increasingly muscular, and muscle-enhancing techniques are available to youth. Identifying populations at risk for unhealthy muscle-enhancingbehaviors is of considerable public health importance. The current study uses a large and diverse population-based sample of adolescents to examine the prevalence of muscle-enhancing behaviors and differences across demographic characteristics, weight status, and sports team involvement. Survey data from 2793 diverse adolescents (mean age = 14.4) were collected at 20 urban middle and high schools. Use of 5 muscle-enhancing behaviors was assessed (changing eating, exercising, protein powders, steroids and other muscle-enhancing substances), and a summary score reflecting use of 3 or more behaviors was created. Logistic regression was used to test for differences in each behavior across age group, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, BMI category, and sports team participation. Muscle-enhancing behaviors were common in this sample for both boys and girls. For example, 34.7% used protein powders or shakes and 5.9% reported steroid use. Most behaviors were significantly more common among boys. In models mutually adjusted for all covariates, grade level, Asian race, BMI category, and sports team participation were significantly associated with the use of muscle-enhancing behaviors. For example, overweight (odds ratio = 1.45) and obese (odds ratio = 1.90) girls had significantly greater odds of using protein powders or shakes than girls of average BMI. The use of muscle-enhancing behaviors is substantially higher than has been previously reported and is cause for concern. Pediatricians and other health care providers should ask their adolescent patients about muscle-enhancing behaviors.

  17. Interpersonal influences on late adolescent girls' and boys' disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Furman, Wyndol

    2009-04-01

    Perceived socio-cultural pressure to be thin has an important impact on disordered eating during early and middle adolescence, but less is known about late adolescence. Most prospective studies included only girls, and less is known about the influence on boys. This study investigated interpersonal influences on changes in late adolescent boys' and girls' symptoms of disordered eating over one year. Participants were a community sample of late adolescents 16-19 years of age (N=199; 49.75% girls), their mothers, and friends. Structural equation modeling revealed that interpersonal pressure to be thin and criticism about appearance predicted increases in disordered eating over time. Late adolescents', mothers' and friends' reports of pressure were associated with disordered eating at Time 1 and Time 2. Further, adolescents' perceptions and friends' reports of pressure to be thin predicted changes in disordered eating over time. Findings underscore the significance of interpersonal relationships for disordered eating during late adolescence in both girls and boys.

  18. Rape prevention through empowerment of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Sarnquist, Clea; Omondi, Benjamin; Sinclair, Jake; Gitau, Carolinah; Paiva, Lee; Mulinge, Munyae; Cornfield, David N; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Sexual assault is a major cause of injury, unplanned pregnancy, HIV infection, and mental health problems worldwide. In parts of sub-Saharan Africa, sexual assault has reached epidemic proportions. This study evaluated the efficacy of an empowerment and self-defense intervention for adolescent girls to decrease the incidence of sexual assault and harassment in Nairobi's large informal settlements. A prospective cohort of 1978 adolescents from 4 neighborhoods near Nairobi were taught empowerment, deescalation, and self-defense skills in six 2-hour sessions. The standard-of-care (SOC) group (n = 428) received a life skills class. Self-reported, anonymous survey data were collected at baseline and 10.5 months after intervention. Annual sexual assault rates decreased from 17.9/100 person-years at baseline to 11.1 at follow-up (rate ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.86; P < .001); there was no significant change in the SOC group (14.3 to 14.0, rate ratio = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.67-1.57, P = .92). Sexual assault disclosure in the intervention group increased from 56% to 75% (P = .006), compared with a constant incidence of disclosure (53%) in the SOC group. The majority (52.3%) of adolescents in the intervention group reported using skills learned to stop an assault. This intervention decreased sexual assault rates among adolescent girls in Kenya. The intervention was also associated with an increase in the disclosure of assaults, thereby enabling survivors to seek care and support and possibly leading to the identification and prosecution of perpetrators. This model should be adaptable to other settings both in Africa and globally. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Acculturation and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowen, L. Kris; Hayward, Chris; Killen, Joel D.; Robinson, Thomas N.; Taylor, C. Barr

    1999-01-01

    Examined relationship between acculturation and eating-disorder symptoms in normative samples of 920 adolescents girls of high school age. Found that acculturation was positively associated with structured-interview defined partial syndrome eating disorders in Hispanic girls, but not in Asian or European-American girls. There was no relation…

  20. After-School Physical Activity Programs for Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Doris L.; Poczwaradowski, Artur; Eisenman, Pat

    2000-01-01

    Describes adolescent girls' responses to an after-school physical activity program, examining how it functioned as a listening tool within a social marketing approach to promoting physical activity. Focus groups and interviews indicated that girls enjoyed and valued the program. Though the program did not increase girls' physical activity levels,…

  1. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  2. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  3. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  4. First Births among Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    1999-01-01

    Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent…

  5. Perceptions of Slimming and Healthiness among Norwegian Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjelkrem, Kristiane; Lien, Nanna; Wandel, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore what adolescent girls mean when they talk about healthiness and slimming, as well as the distinction between the 2 concepts. Design: Data was collected by the use of 8 focus groups, each with 5-9 adolescent girls. Setting: Four different schools in Oslo and 2 other municipalities in Norway in 2006-2007. Participants:…

  6. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  7. First Births among Adolescent Girls: Risk and Protective Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    1999-01-01

    Survey administered to 958 girls studied effects of sociodemographic risk factors for adolescent nonmarital childbearing. Analysis showed adolescents girls who experienced five or more sociodemographic risk factors were 16 times more likely to experience a nonmarital childbirth during their teenage years. Under similar levels of risk, adolescent…

  8. Promoting Resiliency in Adolescent Girls through Adventure Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Anja; Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Budbill, Nadine W.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether participation in an adventure program increased the resiliency of adolescent girls. Eighty-seven girls who participated in Dirt Divas, a non-profit, adventure program, completed the Resiliency Scale for Children and Adolescents® before and after their experience. Means-comparison tests for within-subjects designs were…

  9. Enhancing the Resilience of Adolescent Girls through the Mentoring Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, SeokHoon

    This paper describes a community service program in Singapore that involves voluntary mentoring, focusing on its impact upon adolescent girls. The paper highlights some of the ways in which community service providers come together to exchange ideas and practices to build up the social and emotional capacities of adolescent girls. After discussing…

  10. Invisible Girls: At Risk Adolescent Girls' Writing within and beyond School. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2012-01-01

    "Invisible Girls" is an examination of twenty-four at-risk adolescent girls' writing practices in a Third Space setting located within a school but outside of the confines of a regular classroom. Through a description of the girls' writing over a three-and-a-half-year period in this setting, Mellinee Lesley details phenomena that both support and…

  11. Invisible Girls: At Risk Adolescent Girls' Writing within and beyond School. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society. Volume 58

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesley, Mellinee

    2012-01-01

    "Invisible Girls" is an examination of twenty-four at-risk adolescent girls' writing practices in a Third Space setting located within a school but outside of the confines of a regular classroom. Through a description of the girls' writing over a three-and-a-half-year period in this setting, Mellinee Lesley details phenomena that both support and…

  12. Obesity as a prospective predictor of depression in adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Boutelle, Kerri N.; Hannan, Peter; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Crow, Scott J.; Stice, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objective Both obesity and depression are prominent during adolescence, and it is possible that obesity is a trigger for adolescent depression. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether overweight or obese status contributes to the development of depression in adolescent females. Design Participants were 496 adolescent girls who completed interview based measures of depression and had their height and weight measured at 4 yearly assessments. Repeated measures logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate whether overweight or obese status were associated with Major depression or an increase in depressive symptoms the following year. Main Outcome Measures Major depression and depressive symptoms were evaluating using a modified version of the K-SADS interview. Overweight and obese status was determined using standardized protocols to measure height and weight. Results Results showed that obese status, not overweight status, was associated with future depressive symptoms, but not Major depression. This study demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for depressive symptoms, but not for clinical depression. Conclusions As depressive symptoms are considered along the spectrum of depression with clinical depression at the high end, these results suggest that weight status could be considered a factor along the pathway of development of depression in some adolescent females. PMID:20496983

  13. The impact of obesity on hyperandrogenemia in Korean girls

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Jae; Yang, Seung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As metabolic complication and polycystic ovarian syndrome due to childhood obesity is rising, the role of hyperandrogenemia (HA) and hyperinsulinism is receiving attention. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of obvious HA according to pubertal status and to find potential etiologic determinants of HA in Korean obese (OB) girls. Methods We analyzed 91 girls aged 6–17 years (prepuberty, n=54; puberty, n=37). Each girl was classified as being either normal weight (NW) or OB. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and blood test was performed early in the morning after at least 8 hours of fasting to measure glucose, insulin, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone. Results The plasma levels of free testosterone (FT) and DHEAS were markedly higher in OB girls compared to NW girls in puberty (FT, P=0.009; DHEAS, P=0.046) but not in prepuberty (FT, P=0.183; DHEAS, P=0.052). Hyperinsulinemia and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were found regardless of pubertal status in OB girls. The significant related factor to HA in puberty was the body mass index Z-score (P=0.003). But HOMA-IR, LH, and progesterone levels were not relevant to HA in pubertal girls. Conclusion OB prepubertal girls did not show HA in the present study but they should be regularly monitored because they already had hyperinsulinemia. OB pubertal girls had significant HA and hyperinsulinemia, and obesity per se was the most important factor for HA. PMID:28164075

  14. A randomized crossover, pilot study examining the effects of a normal protein vs. high protein breakfast on food cravings and reward signals in overweight/obese "breakfast skipping", late-adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hoertel, Heather A; Will, Matthew J; Leidy, Heather J

    2014-08-06

    This pilot study examined whether the addition of a normal protein (NP) vs. high protein (HP) breakfast leads to alterations in food cravings and plasma homovanillic acid (HVA), which is an index of central dopamine production, in overweight/obese 'breakfast skipping' late-adolescent young women. A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls (age 19 ± 1 y; BMI 28.6 ± 0.7 kg/m2) consumed 350 kcal NP (13 g protein) breakfast meals, 350 kcal HP (35 g protein) breakfast meals, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 consecutive days/pattern. On day 7 of each pattern, a 4 h testing day was completed including the consumption of breakfast (or no breakfast) followed by food craving questionnaires and blood sampling for HVA concentrations throughout the morning. Both breakfast meals reduced post-meal cravings for sweet and savory foods and increased HVA concentrations vs. BS (all, p < 0.05). Between breakfast meals, the HP breakfast tended to elicit greater reductions in post-meal savory cravings vs. NP (p = 0.08) and tended to elicit sustained increases in HVA concentrations prior to lunch vs. NP (p = 0.09). Lastly, HVA concentrations were positively correlated with the protein content at breakfast (r: 0.340; p < 0.03). Collectively, these findings suggest that the addition of breakfast reduces post-meal food cravings and increases homovanillic acid concentrations in overweight/obese young people with higher protein versions eliciting greater responses.

  15. New Moves—Preventing Weight-Related Problems in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.; Friend, Sarah E.; Flattum, Colleen F.; Hannan, Peter J.; Story, Mary T.; Bauer, Katherine W.; Feldman, Shira B.; Petrich, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Weight-related problems are prevalent in adolescent girls. Purpose To evaluate New Moves, a school-based program aimed at preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls. Design School-based group-randomized controlled design. Setting/participants 356 girls (mean age=15.8± 1.2 years) from six intervention and six control high schools. Over 75% of the girls were racial/ethnic minorities and 46% were overweight or obese. Data were collected in 2007–2009 and analyzed in 2009–2010. Intervention An all-girls physical education class, supplemented with nutrition and self-empowerment components, individual sessions using motivational interviewing, lunch meetings, and parent outreach. Main outcome measures Percent body fat, BMI, physical activity, sedentary activity, dietary intake, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. Results New Moves did not lead to significant changes in the girls’ percent body fat or BMI but improvements were seen for sedentary activity, eating patterns, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and body/self-image. For example, in comparison to control girls, at 9-month follow-up, intervention girls decreased their sedentary behaviors by approximately one 30-minute block a day (p=.050); girls increased their portion control behaviors (p=.014); the percentage of girls using unhealthy weight control behaviors decreased by 13.7% (p=.021), and improvements were seen in body image (p=.045) and self-worth (p=.031). Additionally, intervention girls reported more support by friends, teachers, and families for healthy eating and physical activity. Conclusions New Moves provides a model for addressing the broad spectrum of weight-related problems among adolescent girls. Further work is needed to enhance the effectiveness of interventions to improve weight status of youth. PMID:20965379

  16. Tetanus antibody levels among adolescent girls in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brabin, L; Fazio-Tirrozzo, G; Shahid, S; Agbaje, O; Maxwell, S; Broadhead, R; Briggs, N; Brabin, B

    2000-01-01

    Neonatal and maternal tetanus infections remain an important cause of death in many countries. Few studies have reported tetanus toxoid antibody levels of adolescent girls. As part of the Expanded Programme on Immunization most girls receive up to 3 injections in early childhood, and many subsequently do not receive booster vaccinations until pregnant. We determined (by ELISA) tetanus antibody seropositivity in adolescent girls from Malawi (in 1996), Nigeria (in 1993) and Pakistan (in 1996), and response to tetanus vaccination in adolescent girls from Pakistan. Geometric mean titres (GMT, IU/mL) were 0.94 in 117 Malawian, 0.32 in 154 Nigerian and 1.08 in 162 Pakistani girls. In Nigeria, 54.7% of adolescents were seronegative, of whom 26.8% had a history of unsafe abortion. In Malawi and Pakistan all girls were seropositive and in Pakistan, following a booster vaccination, titres increased 3-fold, with a lower response in older girls. The results indicated that adequate childhood immunization is likely to provide protective levels through adolescence. Booster vaccination in late childhood/early adolescence should protect the majority of women throughout their reproductive lives. This practice would reduce the risks of girls exposed to infection through unsafe abortions, and may be the best option for countries seeking to improve their vaccination schedule, especially where tetanus vaccine coverage in pregnant women is unacceptably low.

  17. Body Satisfaction, Weight Gain, and Binge Eating Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn; Field, Alison E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine if body satisfaction is associated with body mass index (BMI) change and whether it protects against the development of frequent binge eating among overweight and obese adolescent girls. Methods We used prospective data from 9 waves of an ongoing cohort study of adolescents, the Growing Up Today Study. At enrollment in 1996, participants were 9 to 14 years old. Questionnaires were mailed to participants annually until 2001, then biennially through 2007. Girls who were overweight or obese in 1996 were included in the analysis (n=1 559). Our outcomes were annual change in BMI and incident frequent binge eating, defined as binge eating at least weekly and no use of compensatory behaviors. Results At baseline, 57.2% of the overweight and obese girls were at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies. During 11 years of follow-up, 9.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) [7.8, 10.8]) of the girls started to binge eat frequently. Controlling for BMI and other confounders, overweight and obese girls who reported being at least somewhat satisfied with their bodies made smaller BMI gains (β=−0.10 kg/m2, 95% CI [−0.19, −0.02]) and had 61% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (odds ratio (OR)=0.39, 95% CI [0.24, 0.64]) than their less satisfied peers. Compared to girls who were the least satisfied with their bodies, girls who were the most satisfied had 85% lower odds of starting to binge eat frequently (OR=0.15, 95% CI [0.06, 0.37]). The association between body satisfaction and starting to binge eat frequently was stronger for younger adolescents than older adolescents. Conclusions While body dissatisfaction is common among overweight and obese girls, body satisfaction may protect against excessive weight gain and binge eating. Prevention of body dissatisfaction must begin early and should be considered as a component of both obesity and eating disorder prevention programs. PMID:22565419

  18. Weight status and hypertension among adolescent girls in Argentina and Norway: Data from the ENNyS and HUNT studies

    PubMed Central

    Stray-Pedersen, Marit; Helsing, Ragnhild M; Gibbons, Luz; Cormick, Gabriela; Holmen, Turid L; Vik, Torstein; Belizán, José M

    2009-01-01

    Background To provide data on overweight, obesity and hypertension among adolescent girls in Norway and Argentina. Methods Data was obtained from two population-based, cross-sectional and descriptive studies containing anthropometric and blood pressure measurements of 15 to 18 year old girls. The study included 2,156 adolescent girls from Norway evaluated between 1995 and 1997, and 669 from Argentina evaluated between 2004 and 2005. Results Around 15% of adolescent girls in Norway and 19% in Argentina are overweight or obese. Body mass index (BMI) distribution in these two countries is similar, with a low percentage (< 1%) of girls classified as thin. Norwegian adolescents show a height mean value 8 cm taller than the Argentinean. Obesity is strongly associated with systolic hypertension in both populations, with odds ratios of 11.4 [1.6; 82.0] and 28.3 [11.8; 67.7] in Argentina and Norway, respectively. No direct association between BMI and systolic hypertension was found, and only extreme BMI values (above 80th - 90th percentile) were associated with hypertension. Conclusion This study confirms a current world health problem by showing the high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and its association with hypertension in two different countries (one developed and one in transition). PMID:19878550

  19. Perforated peptic ulcer in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shepard; Edden, Yair; Orkin, Boris; Erlichman, Matityahu

    2012-07-01

    A perforated peptic ulcer in a child is a rare entity. Severe abdominal pain in an ill-appearing child with a rigid abdomen and possibly with signs of shock is the typical presenting feature of this life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease. We present a case of a 14.5-year-old adolescent girl who developed abdominal and shoulder pain that resolved after 1 day. She was then completely well for 2 days until the abdominal and shoulder pain recurred. On examination, she appeared well, but in pain. A chest radiograph revealed a large pneumoperitoneum. She underwent emergent laparoscopic omental patch repair of a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall of her stomach. Result of a urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori was negative. The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in children is discussed, as are childhood perforated peptic ulcer in general, and the unique clinical features present in this case in particular.

  20. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  1. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  2. Gendered dimensions of obesity in childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen N

    2008-01-01

    Background The literature on childhood and adolescent obesity is vast. In addition to producing a general overview, this paper aims to highlight gender differences or similarities, an area which has tended not to be the principal focus of this literature. Methods Databases were searched using the terms 'obesity' and 'child', 'adolescent', 'teenager', 'youth', 'young people', 'sex', 'gender', 'masculine', 'feminine', 'male', 'female', 'boy' and 'girl' (or variations on these terms). In order to limit the potential literature, the main focus is on other reviews, both general and relating to specific aspects of obesity. Results The findings of genetic studies are similar for males and females, and differences in obesity rates as defined by body mass index are generally small and inconsistent. However, differences between males and females due to biology are evident in the patterning of body fat, the fat levels at which health risks become apparent, levels of resting energy expenditure and energy requirements, ability to engage in certain physical activities and the consequences of obesity for the female reproductive system. Differences due to society or culture include food choices and dietary concerns, overall physical activity levels, body satisfaction and the long-term psychosocial consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. Conclusion This review suggests differences between males and females in exposure and vulnerability to obesogenic environments, the consequences of child and adolescent obesity, and responses to interventions for the condition. A clearer focus on gender differences is required among both researchers and policy makers within this field. PMID:18194542

  3. Menstrual Hygiene: How Hygienic is the Adolescent Girl?

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, A; Sarkar, M

    2008-01-01

    Background: Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. Objectives: (i) To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii) to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Results: Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5%) girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5%) girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25%) girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75%) girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25%) girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5%) girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85%) girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today. PMID:19967028

  4. Menstrual Hygiene: How Hygienic is the Adolescent Girl?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, A; Sarkar, M

    2008-04-01

    Menstruation and menstrual practices are still clouded by taboos and socio-cultural restrictions resulting in adolescent girls remaining ignorant of the scientific facts and hygienic health practices, which sometimes result into adverse health outcomes. (i) To elicit the beliefs, conception and source of information regarding menstruation among the study population and (ii) to find out the status of menstrual hygiene among adolescent girls. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted among 160 adolescent girls of a secondary school situated in the field practice area of Rural Health Unit and Training Center, Singur, West Bengal, with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions. Out of 160 respondents, 108 (67.5%) girls were aware about menstruation prior to attainment of menarche. Mother was the first informant regarding menstruation in case of 60 (37.5%) girls. One hundred and thirty-eight (86.25%) girls believed it as a physiological process. Seventy-eight (48.75%) girls knew the use of sanitary pad during menstruation. Regarding practices, only 18 (11.25%) girls used sanitary pads during menstruation. For cleaning purpose, 156 (97.5%) girls used both soap and water. Regarding restrictions practiced, 136 (85%) girls practised different restrictions during menstruation. Menstrual hygiene, a very important risk factor for reproductive tract infections, is a vital aspect of health education for adolescent girls. Educational television programmes, trained school nurses/health personnel, motivated school teachers and knowledgeable parents can play a very important role in transmitting the vital message of correct menstrual hygiene to the adolescent girl of today.

  5. Physical Activity Trajectories and Multi-Level Factors among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Kathleen R.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Wu, Tong Tong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls is well-documented, there are girls whose physical activity does not follow this pattern. This study examined the relationships between physical activity trajectories and personal, psychosocial and environmental factors among adolescent girls. Methods Participants were from the University of Maryland field site of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Of 730 girls measured in 8th grade, 589 were re-measured in 11th grade. Moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelererometers; participants were categorized as active maintainers (n=31), inactive maintainers (n=410), adopters (n=64), or relapsers (n=56). Height and weight were measured, personal and psychosocial information was collected from surveys, and distance from home to school and parks was assessed from Geographical Information Systems. Multivariable logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results Variables at individual, social, and environmental levels predicted active maintainers and inactive maintainers, while only individual-level variables predicted adoption. None predicted relapse. Higher (favorable) scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend and family physical activity support, frequency of physical activity with friends, and shorter distance from home to a park predicted active maintainers. Overweight/obese status, earlier age at menses, and lower scores for physical self-concept, perceived body fat, friend physical activity support, and frequency of physical activity with friends, and further distance from home to school predicted inactive maintainers. High physical self-concept and not being overweight/obese predicted adopters. Conclusion Multi-level factors appear to predict behavior maintenance rather than actual change. Implications and Contribution Although physical activity declines among girls during adolescence, some maintain and others increase their physical activity. Our

  6. Anthropometrically Determined Undernutrition among the Adolescent Girls in Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, B

    2015-01-01

    Background No information exists regarding the health of the adolescent girls residing in Kathmandu valley in urban setup. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of undernutrition among the adolescent girls living in Kathmandu valley. It also aims to know the distribution of weight, height and body mass index of adolescent girls in relation to the different adolescent age groups. Method A cross sectional study was conducted in one government and two private schools in Kathmandu valley from 16th April to 15th September 2010. Anthropometric measurements were recorded using standardized methodology as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Standard operational definitions like percentiles, mean, standard deviation and proportions were used for analysis. Result Four hundred adolescent girls were enrolled randomly, out of which 111 girls (27.8%) were from government school and 289 girls (72.2 %) were from private schools. Maximum were of 16 years of age and the least were of 19 years of age, mean age being 15.4 years of age. Of them, early, mid and late adolescents were 41%, 35% and 24% respectively. Around one third of the study population were stunted (32%), one fourth were underweight (24%) and one tenth of them were thin (9.5%) based on National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS )standard. Both underweight and stunted girls were significantly more during the late adolescence period (P<0.001). However, thinness was not significant in any of the three adolescent age groups. Conclusion A high prevalence of undernutrition in terms of stunting, underweight and thinness exists among the adolescent girls in Kathmandu valley.

  7. Overweight and obese teenagers: why is adolescence a critical period?

    PubMed

    Alberga, A S; Sigal, R J; Goldfield, G; Prud'homme, D; Kenny, G P

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the critical period of adolescence and its potential role in the development and persistence of obesity. The adolescent years are characteristic of changes in body composition (location and quantity of body fat), physical fitness and decreased insulin sensitivity during puberty. This period of growth and maturation is also marked with behavioural changes in diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and psychological health. Physical activity and sport participation decline during adolescence especially in teenage girls, while sedentary behaviour, risk for depression and body esteem issues increase during the teenage years. These physiological and behavioural changes during adolescence warrant the attention of health practitioners to prevent the onset and continuation of obesity throughout the lifespan.

  8. Sexual Violence Against Adolescent Girls: Labeling It to Avoid Normalization.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina; Facchin, Federica; Vercellini, Paolo; Chiappa, Laura; Kustermann, Alessandra

    2017-03-20

    Violence against women is a pervasive complex phenomenon that destroys women's feelings of love, trust, and self-esteem. In this commentary, we specifically focus on sexual violence against adolescent girls, whose impact is particularly harmful since it may lead to impaired mental health, social functioning, and neurodevelopment. Between 12% and 25% of adolescent girls throughout the world experience sexual violence, very often perpetrated by a family member or a friend. Moreover, for an alarming proportion of girls, the first sexual experience is coerced. In this article, we review the multiple negative effects of sexual violence against adolescent girls. We also report data derived from our practice in a public Italian referral Centre for Sexual and Domestic Violence (SVSeD) and address the importance of a multidisciplinary clinical approach with adolescent victims of sexual violence.

  9. Incarcerated Adolescent Girls: Personality, Social Competence, and Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Laak, Jan; de Goede, Martijn; Aleva, Liesbeth; Brugman, Gerard; van Leuven, Miranda; Hussmann, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Study investigated personality traits and social competence as predictors of delinquency in adolescent girls. Agreeableness did not correlate with the overall delinquency score. The more crimes reported, the less conscientious, more neurotic, and more open the girls were. Correlation between delinquency and extroversion was not statistically…

  10. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipher, Mary

    More American adolescent girls today are prey to depression, eating disorders, addictions, and suicide attempts than ever before. This book is an exploration of the underlying causes of this disturbing phenomena, structured around therapy case studies of various teenage girls. The position is taken that despite the women's movement, adolescent…

  11. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  12. Father Absence, Menarche and Interest in Infants among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; Roney, James R.; Debias, Nicole; Durante, Kristina M.; Spaepen, Geertrui M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between menarche and interest in infants among adolescent girls, and the effects of early environment, particularly of father absence from home, on both variables. Eighty-three girls ranging in age from between 11 and 14 years served as study participants. Interest in infants was assessed through their…

  13. Body Image Among Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Diane Carlson

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they…

  14. Social Cognition in Adolescent Girls with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 age-matched typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in…

  15. Reviving Ophelia: Saving the Selves of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pipher, Mary

    More American adolescent girls today are prey to depression, eating disorders, addictions, and suicide attempts than ever before. This book is an exploration of the underlying causes of this disturbing phenomena, structured around therapy case studies of various teenage girls. The position is taken that despite the women's movement, adolescent…

  16. Weight loss in obese girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome is associated with a decrease in Anti-Muellerian Hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas; Kulle, Alexandra; Rothermel, Juliane; Knop, Caroline; Lass, Nina; Bosse, Christina; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2017-08-01

    The Anti-Muellerian Hormone (AMH) has been reported as surrogate marker of antral follicles, which are the origins of hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, AMH may be useful for the diagnosis of PCOS. The objective was to study the longitudinal changes in AMH concentrations in girls with and without PCOS. This is a longitudinal study of obese girls participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. Forty obese girls aged 13-16 years (50% with PCOS) were included in the study. Girls with and without PCOS were matched to age, BMI and change in weight status. AMH, gonadotropins, androstenedione, testosterone, oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined. Obese girls with PCOS demonstrated significantly (P<.001) higher AMH concentrations (5.8±3.1 ng/mL) compared to obese girls without PCOS (2.4±1.4 ng/mL). None of the girls without PCOS had AMH concentrations ≥6 ng/mL and none of the PCOS girls showed AMH concentrations ≤3 ng/mL. Weight loss in girls with PCOS was associated with a significant drop in AMH concentrations (-1.4±1.8 ng/mL, P=.045). AMH was significantly related to testosterone (cross-sectional: b-coefficient 3.7±1.7, P=.001, longitudinal: b-coefficient 0.54±0.47, P=.026) and luteinizing hormone (LH) (cross-sectional: b-coefficient 0.05±0.04, P=.039, longitudinal: b-coefficient 0.005±0.004, P=.039), but not to any other analysed parameter in multiple linear regression analyses adjusted to multiple confounders. AMH was increased in adolescent girls with PCOS and normalized with weight loss. AMH was cross-sectionally and longitudinally related to hyperandrogenism. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Adolescent girls in distress: a high-risk intersection.

    PubMed

    Berger, R; Shechter, Y

    1989-01-01

    Adolescent girls in distress are at high risk due to their location at the intersection of three populations at risk: adolescents, females, and those in social distress. The first part of this article specifies the parameters of the population in terms of behavioral and personality features, based on empirical research in Israel as well as the United States. The second part discusses the main characteristics of each of the three populations, with special emphasis on the components of transition in each. The third part develops an integrative theoretical model that illustrates the uniqueness of this group and its problems, and that may serve as a basis for the development of diagnostic and treatment tools for helping these girls. In this model, the profiles of adolescents in general, adolescent boys, adolescent girls, and adolescent girls in distress are compared. The comparison is made in terms of physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development, interpersonal relationships, and status in the family. Comparison of the profiles reveals that adolescent girls in distress are located at the extreme end of the spectrum of the six developmental areas. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the inconsistency between messages on various levels: explicit versus implicit; intrafamilial versus social; and expectation versus opportunity. It is concluded that the specific needs of this group require the establishment of an appropriate policy as well as a variety of strategies, including nonconventional techniques, for creating a multidimensional intervention program.

  18. Perception of the child's obesity in parents of girls and boys treated for obesity (preliminary study).

    PubMed

    Radoszewska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze how the parents of children treated for obesity perceive the child's obesity and to search psychological determinants of persistence of obesity in children despite of treatment Material and methods: 15 mothers and 15 fathers of children treated for obesity participated in the study. The age of their children ranged from 7 to 9 years. The average age of the studied children was 8.1 years. Clinical interview concerning mental child representation in mother/father was used to collect the data. The parents of children treated for obesity concentrate on description of the child's obesity (eg referring to obesity related behaviors and physical appearance). Majority of statements contained negative content. Mothers of girls as well as of boys with obesity see the problem primarily in the child's behavior related to over-eating. The parents of children treated for obesity express parents' attitude towards the child's obesity (eg parent's emotional attitude towards the child's obesity or source of child's obesity).They worry and fear about social and health consequence of obesity. Some parents attribute the fault for obesity in the child. An increased number of symptoms of anxiety, helplessness in parents may affect the quality of the child's relationship with mother and father. Mothers of girls more frequently indicate the daughters' obesity as an obstacle in their relationship. Obesity is perceived not only as a somatic problem but also as an interpersonal one. Mothers and fathers of girls with obesity describe the child's obesity and express their attitude towards it more often than mothers and fathers of boys with obesity. This may be conditioned by the lower social acceptance of obesity in woman than man. 1. It is paramount in treating children for obesity, to consider the parents' emotional attitude towards the child's problem and their awareness of its presence; 2. Taking note of parents' understanding of the complexity of the

  19. Relationship between percentage of VO2max and type of physical activity in obese and non-obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lazzer, S; Boirie, Y; Bitar, A; Petit, I; Meyer, M; Vermorel, M

    2005-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine oxygen uptake (VO(2)) and percentage of maximum oxygen uptake (%VO2max) in obese and non-obese adolescents during various activities in standardised conditions, and the corresponding %VO2max in free-living conditions. Twenty-seven obese and 50 non-obese adolescents aged 12 to 16 years participated in this study. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), VO2max by treadmill tests, VO2 corresponding to various activities by whole body calorimetry, and time and % VO2max corresponding to various activities in free-living conditions using the heart-rate recording method and a physical activity diary. VO2max (l/min) was 27.4% higher in obese than in non-obese subjects (p<0.001), but not significantly different after adjustment for fat-free mass (FFM). In the whole body calorimeters, with the same activity program, % VO2max corresponding to sleep and sedentary activities were lower in obese than in non-obese girls (-15.1% and -12.3%, p<0.05), but not significantly different between obese and non-obese boys. However, walking at 4-5-6 km/h corresponded to 47-59% and 71% of VO2max, respectively, in obese, and 34-41% and 48% of VO2max in non-obese subjects (p<0.001). In free-living conditions, moderate physical activities and sports corresponded to 52% vs 35%, and 39% vs 51% of VO2max, respectively, in obese and non-obese adolescents. In standardised conditions %VO2max did not correspond to the same type of physical activity in obese compared to non-obese adolescents. Consequently, % VO2max is inadequate for comparing the types of physical activities of obese and non-obese adolescents in free-living conditions.

  20. Obesity and the occurrence of bronchitis in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yungling L; Chen, Yang-Ching; Chen, Yu-An

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that an elevated BMI was associated with higher risks of bronchitis among children. The magnitude of how increase in BMI influencing the risk of incident bronchitis remained unexplored. The objective of this study is to assess the association between BMI and the incidence of bronchitis in the Taiwan Children Health Study. A school-based prospective cohort study. We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study among seventh-grade school children in 14 Taiwanese communities. A total of 3,634 adolescents completed follow-up questionnaire in 2009. Associations between BMI and incident bronchitis were analyzed by multiple Poisson regression models, taking overdispersion into account. Among eligible cohort participants without bronchitis at study entry, the proportion of overweight and obesity were 32.1% and 17.9%. Overweight was 40.7% and obesity was 27.7% among those with incident bronchitis. The BMI percentile categories showed significant increasing trends for bronchitis in total eligible children and in girls (P for trend <0.001). Overweight and obesity were both associated with increased risks of incident bronchitis. This association was significant in girls only while stratified by gender. Our data showed that the BMI percentile and weight status were associated with higher risks of incident bronchitis in adolescents, especially in girls. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes.

    PubMed

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-03-09

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥ 1 fruit serving and ≥ 3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = -0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea.

  2. Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Links to Socioeconomic Status and Fruit and Vegetable Intakes

    PubMed Central

    You, Jihyun; Choo, Jina

    2016-01-01

    Whether adolescent overweight/obesity is linked to socioeconomic status (SES) and fruit and vegetable (F/V) intakes has not been confirmed. We aimed to determine whether there is an association between SES and adolescent overweight/obesity and to test the mediating effect of F/V intakes. This cross-sectional study included the data of 63,111 adolescents extracted from the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 85th percentile, while F/V intakes were categorized as high (recommended levels: ≥1 fruit serving and ≥3 vegetable servings per day) versus low. Among girls, low SES (beta = 0.50, p < 0.001) and F/V intakes (beta = −0.17, p = 0.038) were both significantly associated with overweight/obesity; the former association was significantly mediated by F/V intakes (Sobel test: z = 2.00, p = 0.046). Among boys, neither SES nor F/V intakes was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Adolescent overweight/obesity was significantly linked to low SES and F/V intakes among girls only; low SES indirectly increased the risk of overweight/obesity via low F/V intakes. Therefore, promoting F/V intakes for socially disadvantaged girls should be prioritized as a population-based strategy for preventing adolescent overweight/obesity in South Korea. PMID:27005654

  3. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  4. Never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions of adolescent pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Childs, Gwendolyn D; Knight, Candace; White, Reashanda

    2015-01-01

    Despite the decrease in adolescent pregnancy rates, rates among African American girls remain higher than other racial/ethnic adolescent groups. This descriptive qualitative study explored never-pregnant African American adolescent girls' perceptions about adolescent pregnancy. Sixty-four participants participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Individual interviews examined beliefs about adolescent pregnancy and perceptions of life changes resulting from becoming pregnant during adolescence. Focus groups were held to validate findings from the interviews. Participants agreed that becoming pregnant during adolescence would negatively impact their education, family, and peers. Participants anticipated feelings of shame and embarrassment in the event that they became pregnant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaemia in pregnant adolescent girls with malaria and practicing pica.

    PubMed

    Intiful, Freda Dzifa; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Asare, George Awuku; Asante, Matilda; Adjei, David Nana

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy during the adolescent period is challenging mainly because of the nutritional demands of both the adolescent and pregnancy period. The risk for anaemia increases especially in developing countries such as Ghana where malaria is endemic and the practice of pica is common. In this study, we sought to determine the prevalence of anaemia, pica practice and malaria infection among pregnant adolescent girls and assess the extent to which these factors are associated. Two hundred and sixty five (265) pregnant adolescent girls were recruited from three hospitals in Accra. Haemoglobin levels, malaria infection and the practice of pica were assessed. Pearson's Chi squared tests were used to determine associations and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds of being anaemic. Significance was set at p≤0.05. Anaemia prevalence was 76% with severity ranging from mild (47.8%) to severe (0.8%). About 27.5% were moderately anaemic. Pica was practiced in only 9.1% of the girls. Malaria infection was prevalent in 17.7% of the girls. The logistic regression analysis indicated that pregnant girls with malaria infection were 3.56 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those without malaria. Also, those who practiced pica were 1.23 times more likely to be anaemic when compared to those who did not practice pica. Anaemia is very prevalent in pregnant adolescent girls and is a public health problem. Drastic measures should be taken to reduce the high prevalence.

  6. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  7. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  8. Television Images and Adolescent Girls' Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botta, Renee A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the effects of media images on adolescents, using social-comparison theory and critical-viewing theory. Finds that media do have an impact on body-image disturbance. Suggests that body-image processing is the key to understanding how television images affect adolescent girls' body-image attitudes and behaviors. (SR)

  9. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  10. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies.

  11. Perceptions of Adolescent Pregnancy Among Teenage Girls in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Maly, Christina; McClendon, Katherine A.; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Nakyanjo, Neema; Ddaaki, William George; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred Kakaire; Wawer, Maria J.; Bonnevie, Erika; Wagman, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The leading causes of death and disability among Ugandan female adolescents aged 15 to 19 years are pregnancy complications, unsafe abortions, and childbirth. Despite these statistics, our understanding of how girls perceive adolescent pregnancy is limited. This qualitative study explored the social and contextual factors shaping the perceptions of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth among a sample of 12 currently pregnant and 14 never pregnant girls living in the rural Rakai District of Uganda. Interviews were conducted to elicit perceived risk factors for pregnancy, associated community attitudes, and personal opinions on adolescent pregnancy. Findings indicate that notions of adolescent pregnancy are primarily influenced by perceptions of control over getting pregnant and readiness for childbearing. Premarital pregnancy was perceived as negative whereas postmarital pregnancy was regarded as positive. Greater understanding of the individual and contextual factors influencing perceptions can aid in development of salient, culturally appropriate policies and programs to mitigate unintended adolescent pregnancies. PMID:28835911

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for obesity in Balearic Islands adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Martinez, Elisa; Llull, Rosa; Juarez, Maria Daniela; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of obesity in the Balearic Islands' adolescents. A cross-sectional nutritional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands (2007-2008). A random sample (n 1231) of the adolescent population (12-17 year old) was interviewed. Anthropometric measurements, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls and a general questionnaire incorporating questions related to sociodemographic and lifestyle variables including the physical activity questionnaire were used. The prevalence of overweight was 19.9 % (boys) and 15.5 % (girls), and obesity 12.7 % (boys) and 8.5 % (girls). The main risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of obesity were low parental education level (boys OR: 3.47; 95 % CI: 1.58, 7.62; girls OR: 3.29; 95 % CI: 1.38, 7.89), to skip meals (boys OR: 4.99; 95 % CI: 2.1, 11.54; girls OR: 2.20; 95 % CI: 0.99, 4.89), age (12-13-year-old boys; OR: 2.75; 95 % CI: 1.14, 6.64), attention to mass media (television (TV)+radio; boys OR: 1.50; 95 % CI: 0.81, 2.84; girls OR: 2.06; 95 % CI: 0.91, 4.68), short sleep (boys OR: 3.42; 95 % CI: 0.88, 13.26), low parental socioeconomic status (girls OR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.04, 10.05 ) and smoking (girls OR: 2.51; 95 % CI: 0.88, 7.13). A programme of action including school healthy education and promotion programmes targeted at parents and adolescents are needed. These programmes may be mainly focused to increase educational level, to make the adolescents to be aware of to skip meals and to smoke are not appropriate methods to reduce the risk of obesity, but the usefulness is to do not eat while watching TV, to sleep 8-10 h/d and to be physically active.

  13. An internet obesity prevention program for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Grey, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two school-based internet obesity prevention programs for diverse adolescents on body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, and self-efficacy, and to explore moderators of program efficacy. It was hypothesized that the addition of coping skills training to a health education and behavioral support program would further enhance health outcomes. A randomized clinical trial with cluster randomization by class and repeated measures with follow-up at 3 and 6 months was conducted (n = 384). BMI was assessed by use of standard procedures. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy, and satisfaction were assessed with self-report measures. Data analysis consisted of mixed model analyses with autoregressive covariance structure for repeated data by use of intent-to-treat procedures. The mean age of students was 15.31 years (±0.69), with a mean BMI of 24.69 (±5.58). The majority were girls (62%) and of diverse race/ethnicity (65% non-white). There were no significant differences between groups on any outcomes and no change in BMI over time. There were significant improvements in health behaviors (sedentary behavior, moderate and vigorous physical activity, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar beverages, and junk food intake) and self-efficacy. Gender and lesson completion moderated select health outcomes. There was excellent participation and high satisfaction with the programs. School-based internet obesity prevention programs are appealing to adolescents and improve health behaviors. The differential effect of coping skills training may require longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Tetanus immunization among adolescent girls in rural Haryana.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Arora, A K

    2000-04-01

    This survey was undertaken to estimate tetanus immunization coverage of adolescent girls in a selected rural community of Haryana and to ascertain the knowledge of these girls and their mothers about tetanus. The study period was between April 1996-March 1997. A 30-cluster immunization coverage house to house survey was carried out by a female social worker. The total population covered was 30,448. Twelve roadside villages were selectively chosen. Eleven year and 17 year old girls (210 in each group) were surveyed for coverage evaluation. For K.A.P. survey 114 girls (aged 17 years) and 98 mothers (of 11 year old girls) were interviewed. Chi square, percentage and 95% confidence interval were used for statistical analysis. Coverage for tetanus immunization was 44.3% among 17 year old girls and 26.7% among 11 year old girls. The coverage was better (35%) among school going girls as compared to non-school going girls (13%). Correct immunization schedule of pregnant women was told by 16 (7.5%) respondents. None of them told the correct immunization schedule for children. Death was told as the main danger from tetanus by 172 (81%) respondents. Most (98%) were aware of the role of clean-stump (umbilical cord) at the time of delivery in the etiology of tetanus neonatorum. Tetanus immunization coverage needs to be improved among adolescents. They also need to be educated on various aspects of tetanus.

  15. Transition to Adolescence Program: A Program To Empower Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saitzyk, Arlene R.; Poorman, Michele

    As girls approach early adolescence they begin to experience losses in self-competence and in authenticity in relationships. These girls hide their strengths for the sake of relationships. This study attempts to change this phenomenon through a 13-week small group intervention program, The Transition to Adolescence Program (TAP). TAP encourages…

  16. Reduced Prenatal Weight Gain and/or Augmented Postnatal Weight Gain Precedes Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Reinehr, Thomas; Malpique, Rita; Darendeliler, Feyza; López-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2017-09-01

    Hepato-visceral fat excess is a feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Risk factors for such excess include low prenatal weight gain and high postnatal weight gain. This study examined whether adolescent PCOS was preceded by a relatively low birth weight and/or a relatively high BMI at diagnosis. Study participants included 467 girls with PCOS (298 without obesity and 169 with obesity), diagnosed, respectively, in Spain and Germany; 87 healthy girls were controls. Z scores for weight at birth and BMI at PCOS diagnosis were derived, and their differences were calculated. Spanish girls with PCOS and without obesity and German girls with PCOS and obesity had mean birth weight z scores of -0.7 and 0.0, respectively, and mean BMI z scores of + 0.4 and +2.7, respectively, so that mean z score increments amounted to +1.1 and +2.6 (P < 0.001 vs. controls). PCOS in adolescent girls was preceded by marked z score increments between weight at birth and BMI at PCOS diagnosis, thus corroborating the notion that PCOS development is driven by a mismatch between prenatal weight gain and postnatal weight gain. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. The comparison of chemerin, adiponectin and lipid profile indices in obese and non-obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Kelishadi, Roya; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    The growing prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic disorders in adolescents shows the necessity of urgent focus on the related factors. Adipocytes secretions and their pro- or anti-inflammatory roles play effective roles in adipocytes metabolism. We assessed the relation between adiponectin, chemerin and lipid profile in hit phase of life. This case-control study conducted on 78 adolescent girls, divided based on BMI percentile. Serum chemerin, adiponectin, lipid profile and body fat mass were measured. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test. The interactive relation between these variables was assessed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Data were analyzed using SPSS software and AMOS software. Chemerin were correlated significantly with triglyceride (r=0.584 versus r=0.319), HDL-cholestrol (r=-0.323 versus r=-0.335), LDL-cholestrol (r=0.368 versus r=0.327) and fat mass (r=0.372 versus r=0.357) in obese versus non-obese girls; while the mentioned correlation were non-significant with total cholesterol in obese group (r=0.233 versus r=0.336). Furthermore, there were significant association between adiponectin and triglyceride (r=-0.404 versus r=-0.317), HDL-cholesterol (r=0.332 versus r=0.316) and fat mass (r=-0.529 versus r=-0.346) in obese versus non-obese girls, respectively. There were positive associations between lipid profile components and serum chemerin levels. Adiponectin levels were in positive correlation with HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Chemerin showed positive correlations with potent health threatening components of lipid profile including triglyceride and cholesterol levels in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity-associated distress in Lebanese adolescents: an exploratory look at a large cohort of students.

    PubMed

    Salameh, P; Barbour, B

    2011-12-01

    Childhood obesity has beome an international concern. Our objective was to construct a scale for assessing obesity-related distress among Lebanese boys and girls and to study the relationship between obesity-associated behaviours and distress. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 on a sample of 1933 adolescents aged 12-18 years. Questions were asked about personal and family characteristics, satisfaction with weight, frequency of consumption of selected food groups, eating and dieting habits, physical activity behaviour (current and during childhood), attitudes towards obesity, and obesity-related distress. In the factor analysis, all 8 items of the obesity distress scale loaded onto 1 factor. Boys were significantly less likely than girls to be distressed by their obesity. Obesity-related distress, particularly when related to family and media pressure to lose weight, increased the risk of using weight-loss diets and drugs but was not associated with healthy dietary habits or participation in physical activity.

  19. Sad and lonely: body dissatisfaction among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Forste, Renata; Potter, Marina; Erickson, Lance

    2017-06-21

    Purpose To further understand the association between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness among adolescent girls, we examine how this association, as reported by pre-teen and adolescent girls, is mediated or moderated by the quality of peer and family relationships. Methods Our data are from the Health Behavior of School-Aged Children 2009-2010, a nationally representative survey of school-aged children in the US. We analyze a sample of 5658 girls in Grades 5 through 10. We utilize ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques and adjust for the complex sampling design. We explore how the link between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness is mediated or moderated by family and peer relationships and also include controls for age, race, media exposure, and physical health. Results We find that body dissatisfaction is predictive of sadness/loneliness for girls at all grade levels and that the quality of peer and family relationships mediates 27%-38% of this association, particularly among early adolescent girls. Positive peer relationships also moderate or help mitigate the association between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness among pre-teens. Conclusion Our findings underscore the association between body dissatisfaction and sadness/loneliness among early adolescent girls. In addition, our results highlight the importance of quality peer and family relationships in terms of how girls think about their bodies and respond emotionally to them. To evaluate feelings of sadness and loneliness among early adolescent girls, health care professionals need to consider not only body dissatisfaction but also the context of peer and family relationships.

  20. Committee Opinion No. 714: Obesity in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    2017-09-01

    Rates of obesity among adolescents in the United States have increased at a dramatic rate along with the prevalence of weight-related diseases. Between the 1980s and 2014, the prevalence of obesity among adolescent females in the United States increased from approximately 10% to 21%. Although the steep increase in the prevalence of obesity in children (2-11 years) has slowed, the prevalence of obesity in adolescents (12-19 years) continues to increase. Because the obese female adolescent faces medical, psychologic, and reproductive health challenges, early intervention is imperative in preventing short-term and long-term morbidity. The obstetrician-gynecologist who is knowledgeable about the behavioral and environmental factors that influence obesity may be better able to educate parents, guardians, and adolescents and advocate for programs that increase physical activity and improve nutrition. The obstetrician-gynecologist should be able to identify obese adolescents, particularly those at risk of comorbid conditions. They may have the opportunity to initiate behavioral counseling, participate in multidisciplinary teams that care for overweight and obese adolescents, and advocate for community programs to prevent obesity.

  1. Zinc Absorption from Fortified Milk Powder in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Hambidge, Michael; Baker, Mark; Salgado, Sergio A; Ruiz, Joaquín; García, Hugo S; Calderón de la Barca, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is essential for development, growth, and reproduction. The Mexican government subsidizes micronutrient-fortified milk for risk groups, with positive effect on the targeted groups' plasma Zn level, inferring a good absorption is achieved although it has not being measured. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of micronutrient-fortified milk intake during 27 days on Zn absorption in adolescent girls from northwest Mexico. Therefore, Zn absorption was evaluated in 14 healthy adolescent girls (14.1 years old) with adequate plasma Zn levels, before and after 27 days of fortified Zn milk intake. Fractional Zn absorption (FZA) was calculated from urinary ratios of stable isotopic Zn tracers administered orally and intravenously on days 0 and 27, and total absorbed Zn (TZA) was calculated. At the beginning, Zn intake was 6.8 ± 0.85 mg/d (mean ± SE), and 50 % of the adolescent girls did not achieve their requirement (7.3 mg/d). Additionally, FZA was negatively correlated with Zn intake (r =-0.61, p = 0.02), while TZA (1.06 mg/d) was insufficient to cover the physiologic requirements of adolescent girls (3.02 mg/d). At the end of the intervention, all the girls reached the Zn intake recommendation and TZA, 3.09 mg/d, which was enough to meet the physiological requirement for 57 % of the adolescent girls. Therefore, the low Zn intake and the Zn status of adolescent girls were positively impacted by Zn-fortified milk intake and its good absorption rate.

  2. Suicidal behavior of adolescent girls: profile and meaning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.

  3. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Method This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Results Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator’s residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Conclusions Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women. PMID:24450307

  4. Characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women.

    PubMed

    Blake, Márcia de Toledo; Drezett, Jefferson; Vertamatti, Maria Auxiliadora; Adami, Fernando; Valenti, Vitor E; Paiva, Adriana Costa; Viana, Joseval Martins; Pedroso, Daniela; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-22

    Sexual violence is considered a serious violation of human rights which affects mainly young women and adolescents. There is little information about the conditions under which sexual offences occur. We evaluated characteristics of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. This is a quantitative, retrospective, descriptive study of sexual violence against adolescent girls and adult women. Analyses were carried out on data collected from 1118 women, 546 adolescents (10-19 years) and 572 adults (≥ 20 years), with a complaint of rape treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, between 1994 and 1999. The age limit of the adolescent sample met the World Health Organization's (WHO) criteria. We analyzed the type of sexual contact, degree of intimidation, perpetrator and activity of the victim during the approach. Crimes without penetration were five times more frequent in adolescents and use of threats of death or intimidation was common in both groups. Mental illness was more prevalent in adult victims and the majority of adolescent victims were aged <14 years. Uncle and stepfather perpetrators were more frequent among adolescents and partners or former intimate partners in adult women. In most cases the approach occurred in public places, although sex crimes at the perpetrator's residence were more frequent amongst adolescents. Although children and adolescents require the same intervention measures and legal protection, a considerable proportion of adolescent sex offenders can face conditions similar to those of adult women.

  5. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  6. Explaining overweight and obesity in children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin: the Calcutta childhood obesity study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to find out the prevalence of overweight and obesity and its associated factors among Bengalee children and adolescents in the Kolkata, India. A total of 1061 Bengalee school children and adolescents (610 boys and 451 girls) participated and were divided into three age groups: Group I = 8-11 years; Group II = 12-15 years and Group III = 16-18 years. Overweight and obesity were defined as: Overweight (between ≥85 th and <95 th percentile) and obesity (≥95 th percentile). Multivariate regression analyses (adjusted for age and sex) of body mass index (BMI) revealed that about 18% (R2 = 0.185) of total variance of BMI could be explained by monthly family income, participants think obese, consumption of too much junk foodstuffs, breakfast skip, extra consumption of salt, and computer hours. Sedentary lifestyles, including increasing fast food preferences may be responsible for increasing occurrence of pediatric and adolescent obesity in this population.

  7. Childhood Obesity and Its Impact on the Development of Adolescent PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Amy D.; Solorzano, Christine M. Burt; McCartney, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity exacerbates the reproductive and metabolic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The symptoms of PCOS often begin in adolescence, and the rising prevalence of peripubertal obesity has prompted concern that the prevalence and severity of adolescent PCOS is increasing in parallel. Recent data have disclosed a high prevalence of hyperandrogenemia among peripubertal adolescents with obesity, suggesting that such girls are indeed at risk for developing PCOS. Obesity may impact the risk of PCOS via insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia, which augments ovarian/adrenal androgen production and suppresses sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), thereby increasing androgen bioavailability. Altered luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion plays an important role in the pathophysiology of PCOS, and although obesity is generally associated with relative reductions of LH, higher LH appears to be the best predictor of increased free testosterone among peripubertal girls with obesity. Other potential mechanisms of obesity-associated hyperandrogenemia include enhanced androgen production in an expanded fat mass and potential effects of abnormal adipokine/cytokine levels. Adolescents with PCOS are at risk for comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance, and concomitant obesity compounds these risks. For all of these reasons, weight loss represents an important therapeutic target in obese adolescents with PCOS. PMID:24715515

  8. Brief report: Suicidal ideation in adolescent girls: Impact of race.

    PubMed

    LaVome Robinson, W; Droege, Jocelyn R; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2016-12-01

    In the present study, we examine the unique and interactive effects of race (African American or European American) and depression on suicidal ideation, controlling for poverty, within a representative sample of adolescent girls. A community sample of 2450 girls (43.9% African American) participating in the longitudinal Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) was interviewed annually about depression symptoms and suicidal ideation, from ages 10-15 years. Caregivers reported on the girls' racial/ethnic background and the family's receipt of public assistance. Race and depression scores explained unique variance in suicidal ideation; receipt of public assistance did not. Endorsement and recurrence of suicidal ideation was more likely for African American than European American girls: there was a nearly two-fold increase in the likelihood of reporting frequent thoughts of death or suicide as a function of race. Of the 255 girls reporting recurrent suicidal ideation, 65.9% were African American. An interaction effect between race and depression symptoms was observed, such that African American girls were more likely to report suicidal ideation at lower levels of depression severity. The findings indicate that race is a critical factor for understanding, preventing, and treating suicidal ideation in girls. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sparking connections: An exploration of adolescent girls' relationships with science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Kathryn A.

    Despite progress in narrowing the gender gap, fewer women than men pursue science careers. Adolescence is a critical age when girls' science interest is sparked or smothered. Prior research provides data on who drops out of the "science pipeline" and when, but few studies examine why and how girls disconnect from science. This thesis is an in-depth exploratory study of adolescent girls' relationships with science based on a series of interviews with four middle-class Caucasian girls---two from public schools, two homeschooled. The girls' stones about their experiences with, feelings about, and perspectives on science, the science process, and their science learning environments are examined with a theoretical and analytic approach grounded in relational psychology. The potential link between girls' voices and their involvement in science is investigated. Results indicate that girls' relationships with science are multitiered. Science is engaging and familiar in the sense that girls are curious about the world, enjoy learning about scientific phenomena, and informally use science in their everyday fives. However, the girls in this study differentiated between the science they do and the field of science, which they view as a mostly male endeavor (often despite real life experiences to the contrary) that uses rather rigid methods to investigate questions of limited scope and interest. In essence, how these girls defined science defined their relationship with science: those with narrow conceptions of science felt distant from it. Adolescent girls' decreased involvement in science activities may be a relational act---a move away from a patriarchical process, pedagogy, and institution that does not resonate with their experiences, questions, and learning styles. Girls often feel like outsiders to science; they resist considering science careers when they have concerns that implicitly or explicitly, doing so would involve sacrificing their knowledge, creativity, or

  10. Fighting like a girl fighting like a guy: gender identity, ideology, and girls at early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that both perpetuates and challenges the usual notions of masculinity and femininity and the differential power associated with these discourses. We present a sociocultural approach to identity that we believe not only holds promise for helping us to understand girl-fighting behavior but also highlights the clear interrelationship between social identity and personal identity. We conclude by highlighting several implications of this analysis for those who work with girls (and boys) in educational and clinical settings.

  11. Obesity and physical activity patterns in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Laguna, María; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Gallardo, Cristian; García-Pastor, Teresa; Lara, María-Teresa; Aznar, Susana

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study is to measure objectively and accurately the physical activity (PA) patterns in Spanish children and adolescents according to their obesity status, gender and age groups. A sample of 487 children and 274 adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study participated in the study. The variables measured were anthropometric characteristics (height, weight and body mass index), and PA was measured during 6 consecutive days using the GT1M accelerometer. Three-way analysis of variance (age × gender × obesity status) showed significant differences in the interaction effect in age, gender and obesity status (normal-weight and overweight/obesity) for mean of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (P = 0.02) and vigorous PA (VPA) (P = 0.014) within the sample. Nine-year-old normal-weight children achieved significantly (P < 0.05) more MVPA on weekdays than 9-year-old overweight/obesity children. During weekend days, all sample achieved significant more MVPA (P < 0.01) and significant more VPA (P < 0.05) than during weekdays. Few children (37.5% of 9-year-old normal-weight and 34.0% of 9-year-old overweight/obese) and adolescents (16.4% and 27.3% normal-weight and overweight/obese, respectively) met the current health-related recommendations of 60 min of MVPA daily. It is clear that activity levels are insufficient for all children, in particular overweight/obese children and adolescents, although the precise nature of the relationship appears to differ between boys and girls. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Early sexual maturation, body composition, and obesity in African-American girls.

    PubMed

    Himes, John H; Obarzanek, Eva; Baranowski, Tom; Wilson, Darrell M; Rochon, James; McClanahan, Barbara S

    2004-09-01

    To describe associations between sexual maturation and body composition in a sample of African-American girls who were participants in phase 1 pilot interventions of the Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies. Stature, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Pubic hair and breast development were assessed, and body composition was measured by DXA for 147 African-American girls who were 8 to 10 years of age from three field centers. Participants had BMI > or =25th percentile for age (one site) or BMI > or =50th percentile for age. Girls Health Enrichment Multisite Studies girls had greater BMI, fat mass, and percentage body fat than national norms and relatively earlier initiation of breast development and pubic hair. Increasing stages of breast development, but not stages of pubic hair, were related to increased stature, waist circumference, BMI, lean mass, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Pubescent girls (breast stage > or = 2) were greater than six times as likely to be classified as at risk of overweight (BMI > or = 85th percentile) and greater than eight times as likely to be classified as overweight (BMI > or = 95th percentile) as prepubescent counterparts. Adjusted odds ratios for advanced breast development [breast stage > or = 2 (8 years) or > or = 3 (9 and 10 years)] were 3.6 for risk of overweight and for overweight compared to girls with average or less than average breast development. Sexual maturation is important to consider in understanding the classification of overweight and the development of obesity during adolescence. Breast development and pubic hair development should be considered separately for their associations with growth and body composition.

  13. Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in prepubertal girls with obesity and/or premature pubarche.

    PubMed

    Siklar, Zeynep; Oçal, Gönül; Adiyaman, Pelin; Ergur, Ayça; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2007-04-01

    Functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) is considered to be a form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at adolescence. There are almost no data in the prepubertal period, although one of the earliest manifestations of PCOS is premature pubarche. Prepubertal girls with obesity or insulin resistance are also at risk to develop the full PCOS phenotype after puberty. The aim of this study was to evaluate prepubertal girls with premature pubarche and/or obesity for PCOS or FOH. Twenty-seven prepubertal girls with premature pubarche and/or obesity aged >6 years were evaluated. FOH was defined as abnormal ovarian 17OHP response to challenge with GnRH analog of >2 ng/ml after exclusion of adrenal dysfunction. All patients underwent a pelvic ultrasound examination. Sixteen patients had premature pubarche, seven were obese, and four had both premature pubarche and obesity. Eleven of 27 patients (40.7%) showed high (>2 ng/ml) 17OHP response to GnRH challenge. Three patients (11%) with FOH also showed PCO morphology on pelvic ultrasound examination. In prepubertal girls who carry risk factors, including genetic polymorphisms and/or particular environmental factors, FOH/PCOS could develop at a high rate.

  14. Girl Talk: A Smartphone Application to Teach Sexual Health Education to Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Brayboy, Lynae M; Sepolen, Alexandra; Mezoian, Taylor; Schultz, Lucy; Landgren-Mills, Benedict S; Spencer, Noelle; Wheeler, Carol; Clark, Melissa A

    2017-02-01

    Produce Girl Talk, a free smartphone application containing comprehensive sexual health information, and determine the application's desirability and appeal among teenage girls. Thirty-nine girls ages 12 to 17 years from Rhode Island participated in a 2-phase prospective study. In phase I, 22 girls assessed a sexual health questionnaire in focus groups. In phase II, 17 girls with iPhones used Girl Talk for 2 weeks and answered the revised sexual health questionnaire and interview questions before and after use. Participants' responses to the sexual health questionnaire, interviews, and time viewing the application were used to determine feasibility and desirability of Girl Talk. Girl Talk was used on average for 48 minutes during participants' free time on weekends for 10- to 15-minute intervals. Reported usefulness of Girl Talk as a sexual health application from baseline (6 participants) to follow-up (16 participants) increased significantly (35.3% vs 94.1%; P < .001). Knowledge improved most in topics related to anatomy and physiology (70.5% to 74.7% out of 7 questions), sexuality and relationships (76.5% to 80.0% out of 10 questions), and STI prevention (75.6% to 79.0% out of 7 questions). Most phase II participants (13 out of 17, or 76.5%) were exposed to sexual health education before using Girl Talk, but 16 out of 17 participants (94.1%) stated that the application provided new and/or more detailed information than health classes. Girl Talk can potentially connect teenage girls to more information about sexual health vs traditional methods, and participants recommended the application as a valuable resource to learn about comprehensive sexual health. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Obesity and Sex Steroid Changes Across Puberty: Evidence for Marked Hyperandrogenemia in Pre- and Early Pubertal Obese Girls*

    PubMed Central

    McCartney, Christopher R.; Blank, Susan K.; Prendergast, Kathleen A.; Chhabra, Sandhya; Eagleson, Christine A.; Helm, Kristin D.; Yoo, Richard; Chang, R. Jeffrey; Foster, Carol M.; Caprio, Sonia; Marshall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Context Peripubertal obesity is associated with abnormal sex steroid concentrations, but the timing of onset and degree of these abnormalities remain unclear. Objective To assess the degree of hyperandrogenemia across puberty in obese girls, and to assess overnight sex steroid changes in Tanner 1–3 girls. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting General Clinical Research Centers. Subjects Thirty normal weight (BMI-for-age < 85%) and 74 obese (BMI-for-age ≥ 95%) peripubertal girls. Intervention Blood samples (circa 0500–0700 h) while fasting. Samples from the preceding evening (circa 2300 h) were obtained in 23 Tanner 1–3 girls. Main outcome measures Hormone concentrations stratified by Tanner stage. Results Compared to normal weight girls, mean free testosterone (T) was elevated 2- to 9-fold across puberty in obese girls, while fasting insulin was 3-fold elevated in obese Tanner 1–3 girls (P < 0.05). Mean LH was lower in obese Tanner 1 and 2 girls (P < 0.05), but not in more mature girls. In a subgroup of normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 17), mean progesterone (P) and T increased overnight 2.3- and 2.4-fold, respectively (P ≤ 0.001). In obese Tanner 1–3 girls (n = 6), evening P and T were elevated, and both tended to increase overnight (mean 1.4- and 1.6-fold, respectively [P = 0.06]). Conclusions Peripubertal obesity is associated with hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia throughout puberty, being especially marked shortly before and during early puberty. Progesterone and testosterone concentrations in normal weight Tanner 1–3 girls increase overnight, with similar but less evident changes in obese girls. PMID:17118995

  16. Nutritional status among adolescent girls in children's homes: Anthropometry and dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Berg, Tone; Magala-Nyago, Christine; Iversen, Per Ole

    2017-03-25

    Malnutrition is widespread among disadvantaged people in low-income countries like Uganda. Children and adolescents living in children's homes are considered an especially vulnerable group, and malnutrition among girls is of particular concern since it has intergenerational consequences. Virtually no information exists about the nutritional status of adolescent girls living in children's homes in Uganda. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the nutritional status by evaluating anthropometric indicators, body composition and dietary patterns. Forty-four girls aged 10-19 years living in five children's homes participated in addition to a reference group of 27 adolescent girls from three boarding schools; both in the Ugandan capital Kampala. Height and weight were measured to assess anthropometry. Body composition data was obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Dietary intake was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire, calculation of dietary diversity score, and a 24-h dietary recall. The adolescent girls living in children's homes suffered from stunting (18.6%), overweight or obesity (18.6%), and were at risk of insufficient intakes of multiple micronutrients, especially of vitamins A, B12, C, D, E and calcium. They also had a low intake of essential fatty acids. Dietary diversity was low with a median score of 3 out of 9 food groups. Animal products were rarely consumed. The majority of girls in children's homes consumed a less adequate diet compared to the reference group, thus being at risk of nutrient deficiency-related disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep Duration and Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. METHODS: Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelphia when entering ninth grade (n = 1390) and were followed-up every 6 months through 12th grade. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMIs were calculated (kg/m2). Hours of sleep were self-reported. Quantile regression was used to model the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles as dependent variables; study wave and sleep were the main predictors. RESULTS: BMI increased from age 14 to 18, with the largest increase observed at the 90th BMI percentile. Each additional hour of sleep was associated with decreases in BMI at the 10th (–0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: –0.11, 0.03), 25th (–0.12; 95% CI: –0.20, –0.04), 50th (–0.15; 95% CI: –0.24, –0.06), 75th (–0.25; 95% CI: –0.38, –0.12), and 90th (–0.27; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.09) BMI percentiles. The strength of the association was stronger at the upper tail of the BMI distribution. Increasing sleep from 7.5 to 10.0 hours per day at age 18 predicted a reduction in the proportion of adolescents >25 kg/m2 by 4%. CONCLUSIONS: More sleep was associated with nonuniform changes in BMI distribution from age 14 to 18. Increasing sleep among adolescents, especially those in the upper half of the BMI distribution, may help prevent overweight and obesity. PMID:23569090

  18. Sleep duration and adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelphia when entering ninth grade (n = 1390) and were followed-up every 6 months through 12th grade. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMIs were calculated (kg/m(2)). Hours of sleep were self-reported. Quantile regression was used to model the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles as dependent variables; study wave and sleep were the main predictors. BMI increased from age 14 to 18, with the largest increase observed at the 90th BMI percentile. Each additional hour of sleep was associated with decreases in BMI at the 10th (-0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.11, 0.03), 25th (-0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04), 50th (-0.15; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.06), 75th (-0.25; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.12), and 90th (-0.27; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.09) BMI percentiles. The strength of the association was stronger at the upper tail of the BMI distribution. Increasing sleep from 7.5 to 10.0 hours per day at age 18 predicted a reduction in the proportion of adolescents >25 kg/m(2) by 4%. More sleep was associated with nonuniform changes in BMI distribution from age 14 to 18. Increasing sleep among adolescents, especially those in the upper half of the BMI distribution, may help prevent overweight and obesity.

  19. Building positive life skills the Smart Girls way: evaluation of a school-based sexual responsibility program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Graves, Kelly N; Sentner, Annette; Workman, Jean; Mackey, Wanda

    2011-05-01

    In response to the public health epidemic of teenage pregnancy, the present study investigated a new, gender-specific, school-based approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention for middle school girls called Smart Girls Life Skills Training(©) (Smart Girls). Participants included 854 students (633, experimental group; 221, control group) across three time points to assess change in social sexuality expectations, personal/self sexuality expectations, perceived susceptibility, and parent-adolescent communication. Girls who received the Smart Girls curriculum increased their personal/self sexuality expectations and improved some aspects of their parent-adolescent communication compared to control group participants. The evaluation provides initial evidence that Smart Girls is at least partially effective at changing personal/self sexuality expectations and parent-adolescent communication for middle school girls. Implications, recommendations, and next steps for school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs are offered.

  20. American Indian adolescent girls: vulnerability to sex trafficking, intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Alexandra Sandi

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation, violence, and addiction. Evaluation results indicate frequent exposure to sex traffickers and suggest that harm reduction methods can help girls reduce risk of commercial sexual exploitation.

  1. Correlation of body mass index levels with menarche in adolescent girls in Shaanxi, China: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-06

    Menarche is a milestone for adolescent girls. The timing of menarche is influenced by genetics, social status and nutritional status (e.g., height, weight and body mass index [BMI]) and impacts future health (e.g., obesity and breast cancer). There have been many studies on trends in age at menarche among adolescent girls in China, but few have investigated associations between growth status and the timing of menarche. This study examined the association between age at menarche and growth status among adolescent girls in Western China. The participants in this cross sectional study came from three geographical regions of Shaanxi Province. A total of 533 adolescent girls from urban and rural areas were randomly selected. Trained investigators administered a standard questionnaire to each participant during a face-to-face interview and carried out anthropometric measurements. The average age at menarche was 13.3 years. There were statistically significant differences in BMI z-scores between pre-menarcheal and post-menarcheal girls of the same age and these differences were related to socioeconomic factors. Girls who had reached menarche, in particular those aged 13-14 years, were significantly taller (P < 0.01) and had higher BMI (P < 0.01) than girls in the same age group who had not reached menarche. BMI is associated with the timing of menarche but socioeconomic factors are also important.

  2. Urban American Indian Adolescent Girls: Framing Sexual Risk Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Kristy K.; Momper, Sandra L.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol J.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose American Indian (AI) adolescent girls have higher rates of sexual activity, births and STIs compared to the national average. The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent AI girls' sexual risk behavior (SRB). Design A qualitative study was conducted using grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence SRB. Methods Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15-19 year old girls to explore influences on their sexual behavior. Findings The generated theory, Framing Sexual Risk Behavior, describes both social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual behaviors. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual behavior, including: Microsystem: Being “Normal,” Native, and Having Goals; Mesosystem: Networks of Family and Friends, Environmental Influences, and Sex Education; and Macrosystem: Tribal Traditions/History and Federal Policy. Discussion Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on SRB as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. Implications for Practice This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls. PMID:24803532

  3. Cultural and social practices regarding menstruation among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anant; Srivastava, Kamiya

    2011-01-01

    The study attempts to find out the existing social and cultural practices regarding menstruation, awareness levels, and the behavioral changes that come about in adolescent girls during menstruation, their perception about menarche, how do they treat it, and the various taboos, norms, and cultural practices associated with menarche. The study was conducted on 117 adolescent girls (age 11-20 years) and 41 mothers from various communities and classes in Ranchi comprising residential colonies and urban slums. The findings unfolds many practices: cultural and social restrictions associated with menstruation, myth, and misconception; the adaptability of the adolescent girls toward it; their reaction, reaction of the family; realization of the importance of menstruation; and the changes that have come in their life after menarche and their resistance to such changes. The article also suggests the strategies to improve menstrual health and hygiene among adolescent girls. The study concludes that cultural and social practices regarding menstruation depend on girls' education, attitude, family environment, culture, and belief.

  4. Challenges in the Detection of Working Memory and Attention Decrements Among Overweight Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Lance O.; Manning, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The present study is unique in employing unusually difficult attention and working memory tasks to reveal subtle cognitive decrements among overweight/obese adolescents. It evaluated novel measures of background electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during one of the tasks and tested correlations of these and other measures with psychological and psychiatric predictors of obesity maintenance or progression. Methods Working memory and sustained attention tasks were presented to 158 female adolescents who were rated on dichotomous (body mass index percentile < vs. >=85) and continuous (triceps skinfold thickness) measures of adiposity. Results The results revealed a significant association between excess adiposity and performance errors during the working memory task. During the sustained attention task, overweight/obese adolescents exhibited more EEG frontal beta power as well as greater intraindividual variability in reaction time and beta power across task periods than their normal-weight peers. Secondary analyses showed that frontal beta power during the sustained attention task was positively correlated with anxiety, panic, borderline personality features, drug abuse, and loss of control over food intake. Conclusions The findings suggest that working memory and sustained attention decrements do exist among overweight/obese adolescent girls. The reliable detection of the decrements may depend on the difficulty of the tasks as well as the manner in which performance and brain activity are measured. Future studies should examine the relevance of these decrements to diet education efforts and treatment response. PMID:26812684

  5. Interpersonal problem areas and alexithymia in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants' interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits [as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature] (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (p's ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes. © 2013.

  6. Interpersonal Problem Areas and Alexithymia in Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Sarah Shafer; Elliott, Camden; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Young, Jami F.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Wilfley, Denise E.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the links among interpersonal problem areas, depression, and alexithymia in adolescent girls at high-risk for excessive weight gain and binge eating disorder. Participants were 56 girls (Mage = 14.30, SD = 1.56; 53% non-Hispanic White) with a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) between the 75th and 97th percentiles (MBMI-z = 1.57, SD = 0.32). By design, all participants reported loss of control eating patterns in the past month. Adolescents were individually interviewed prior to participating in a group interpersonal psychotherapy obesity and eating disorder prevention program, termed IPT for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Participants’ interpersonal problem areas were coded by trained raters. Participants also completed questionnaires assessing depression and alexithymia. Primary interpersonal problem areas were categorized as interpersonal deficits (as defined in the eating disorders (ED) literature) (n = 29), role disputes (n = 22), or role transitions (n = 5). Girls with interpersonal deficits-ED had greater depressive symptoms and alexithymia than girls with role disputes (ps ≤ 0.01). However, girls with role transitions did not differ from girls with interpersonal deficits-ED or role disputes. Interpersonal problem area had an indirect association with depression via alexithymia; interpersonal deficits-ED were related to greater alexithymia, which in turn, was related to greater depressive symptoms (p = 0.01). Among girls at-risk for excess weight gain and eating disorders, those with interpersonal deficits-ED appear to have greater distress as compared to girls with role disputes or role transitions. Future research is required to elucidate the impact of interpersonal problem areas on psychotherapy outcomes. PMID:24139852

  7. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Veselska, Zuzana Dankulincova; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-08

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. "Good child" motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA.

  8. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  9. History of Weight Control Attempts Among Adolescent Girls with Loss of Control Eating

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Field, Sara E.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C.; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Objective Loss of control (LOC) eating and a weight control attempt (WCA) history during adolescence are important behavioral risk factors for eating disorders and obesity. The current study investigated the significance of the presence of a WCA history among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Methods Participants were 114 obesity prevention-seeking 12–17-year-old (M=14.5, SD=1.7 years) girls who were between the 75th and 97th body mass index (BMI) percentile (BMI-z: M=1.5, SD=0.3) and reported LOC eating episodes during the previous month (M=4.0, SD=4.9 episodes; Median=2.0). Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess LOC eating, eating pathology, and WCA history, and self-report questionnaires for symptoms of general psychopathology. Eating behavior was observed during a laboratory meal designed to capture a LOC eating episode. Results 67.5% reported a WCA history. As compared to girls without a WCA history (no-WCA), those with a WCA history (WCA) had greater disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms (ps<.04). There were no significant group differences in BMI-z or LOC eating (ps>.10). During the laboratory meal, WCA consumed less energy from snack-type foods than no-WCA (M=245.0, SD=156.1 vs. M=341.6, SD=192.3 kcal; p=.01). Conclusions Reported WCAs are highly prevalent and are associated with greater psychopathology symptoms among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Prospective data are needed to determine whether these overlapping risk behaviors confer differential vulnerability for developing eating disorders and obesity. PMID:23815764

  10. History of weight control attempts among adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Anna; Shomaker, Lauren B; Field, Sara E; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2014-05-01

    Loss of control (LOC) eating and a weight control attempt (WCA) history during adolescence are important behavioral risk factors for eating disorders and obesity. The current study investigated the significance of the presence of a WCA history among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Participants were 114 obesity-prevention-seeking 12-17-year-old (M = 14.5, SD = 1.7 years) girls who were between the 75th and 97th body mass index (BMI) percentile (BMI-z: M = 1.5, SD = 0.3) and reported LOC eating episodes during the previous month (M = 4.0, SD = 4.9 episodes; Median = 2.0). Measures included the Eating Disorder Examination to assess LOC eating, eating pathology, and WCA history, and self-report questionnaires for symptoms of general psychopathology. Eating behavior was observed during a laboratory meal designed to capture a LOC eating episode. 67.5% reported a WCA history. As compared to girls without a WCA history (no-WCA), those with a WCA history (WCA) had greater disordered eating attitudes and depressive symptoms (ps < .04). There were no significant group differences in BMI-z or LOC eating frequency (ps > .10). During the laboratory meal, WCA consumed less energy from snack-type foods than no-WCA (M = 245.0, SD = 156.1 vs. M = 341.6, SD = 192.3 kcal; p = .01). Reported WCAs are highly prevalent and are associated with greater psychopathology symptoms among adolescent girls with LOC eating. Prospective data are needed to determine whether these overlapping risk behaviors confer differential vulnerability for developing eating disorders and obesity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  12. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32–0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23–0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26–1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls. PMID:26761029

  13. Association of Dietary Sugars and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake with Obesity in Korean Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyungho; Chung, Sangwon; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Cho-il; Joung, Hyojee; Paik, Hee-Young; Song, YoonJu

    2016-01-08

    Few studies have examined the association between dietary sugar intake and obesity in Asian children and adolescents. We evaluated the association of dietary sugar intake and its food source with obesity in Korean children and adolescents. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from five studies conducted between 2002 and 2011. The study included 2599 children and adolescents who had completed more than three days of dietary records and had anthropometric data. Total sugar intake was higher in girls than in boys (54.3 g for girls and 46.6 g for boys, p < 0.0001). Sugar intake from milk and fruits was inversely associated with overweight or obesity in girls only (OR for overweight, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.84; p for trend = 0.0246 and OR for obesity, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.23-0.79; p for trend = 0.0113). Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption was not associated with obesity in girls, while boys had lower odds ratios for obesity (OR for obesity, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.26-1.05; p for trend = 0.0310). These results suggest that total sugars and SSB intake in Asian children and adolescents remains relatively low and sugar intake from milk and fruits is associated with a decreased risk of overweight or obesity, especially in girls.

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    increase in body mass index (P < .01). Dyslipidemia (adjusted relative risk = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.26–2.03]; P < .01) and elevated blood pressure (adjusted relative risk = 1.48 [95% CI, 1.16–1.89]; P < .01) were more likely in adolescent boys compared with adolescent girls. White individuals were at greater risk of having elevated triglyceride levels (adjusted relative risk = 1.76 [95% CI, 1.14–2.72]; P = .01) but were less likely to have impaired fasting glucose levels (adjusted relative risk = 0.58 [95% CI, 0.38–0.89]; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Numerous CVD risk factors are apparent in adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. Increasing body mass index and male sex increase the relative risk of specific CVD risk factors. These data suggest that even among severely obese adolescents, recognition and treatment of CVD risk factors is important to help limit further progression of disease. PMID:25730293

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise on hunger feelings and satiety regulating hormones in obese teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Prado, Wagner L; Balagopal, P Babu; Lofrano-Prado, Mara C; Oyama, Lila M; Tenório, Thiago Ricardo; Botero, João Paulo; Hill, James O

    2014-11-01

    Exercise is implicated in modifying subsequent energy intake (EI) through alterations in hunger and/or satiety hormones. Our aim was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on hunger, satiety regulatory peptides, and EI in obese adolescents. Nine obese girls (age: 13-18 years old, BMI: 33.74 ± 4.04 kg/m2) participated in this randomized controlled crossover study. Each participant randomly underwent 2 experimental protocols: control (seated for 150 min) and exercise (exercised for 30 min on a treadmill performed at ventilatory threshold [VT] intensity and then remained seated for 120 min). Leptin, peptide YY(3-36) (PYY(3-36)), and subjective hunger were measured at baseline as well as 30 min and 150 min, followed by 24-hr EI measurement. Exercise session resulted in an acute increase in PYY(3-36) (p < .01) without changes in leptin and/or hunger scores. The control session increased hunger scores (p < .01) and decreased circulating leptin levels (p = .03). There was a strong effect size for carbohydrate intake (d = 2.14) and a modest effect size for protein intake (d = 0.61) after the exercise compared with the control session. Exercise performed at VT intensity in this study appears to provoke a state of transient anorexia in obese girls. These changes may be linked to an increase in circulating PYY3-36 and maintenance of leptin levels.

  16. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  17. Negotiating the Early Developing Body: Pubertal Timing, Body Weight, and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite knowledge that early pubertal timing predicts adolescent girls' substance use, it is still unclear whether this relationship persists beyond early adolescence and whether it is conditional on girls' body weight. This study examined the moderating role of body weight in the association between early pubertal timing and adolescent girls'…

  18. Beyond Self-Rated Health: The Adolescent Girl's Lived Experience of Health in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Margaretha; Sundler, Annelie Johansson; Ekebergh, Margaretha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to describe the phenomenon of health as experienced by adolescent girls in Sweden. Fifteen adolescent girls were interviewed with a focus on what made them feel well in their everyday life. This study reveals that the adolescent girl's health is a complex phenomenon interwoven with their lives. Health…

  19. Prospective Predictors of Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Girls and Boys: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated prospective risk factors for increases in body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls and boys in the Eating Among Teens Project. At the time of first assessment (Time 1), participants were a cohort of early adolescent girls (N = 440) and boys (N = 366) and a cohort of middle adolescent girls (N = 946) and boys (N = 764).…

  20. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2008-01-01

    Background: School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among…

  1. Girls on the Fringe: The Writing Lives of Two Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pytash, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    Writing plays an important role in young adults' lives. It is tied to academic achievement and also provides young adults with a voice in social interactions, a way to express their feelings, and an opportunity to reflect on life events. This study explores the writing practices of 2 adolescent girls: Suzanne and Molly. On multiple occasions they…

  2. Romantic and Sexual Activities, Parent-Adolescent Stress, and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Joanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Starr, Lisa R.; Miller, Melissa Ramsay; Yoneda, Athena; Hershenberg, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Building on evidence that romantic experiences are associated with depressive symptoms in adolescence, we examined their bidirectional association, as well as the role of sexual activity and parent-adolescent stress in their association. Data were collected from 71 early adolescent girls (M age 13.45 years; SD = 0.68) and their primary caregiver…

  3. Days of Their Lives: Reflections on Adolescent Girls and Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, Susan M.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews literature on issues of sexuality for adolescent girls, interweaving quotes from adolescent mothers. Information comes from the author's work educating teenage parents. The article focuses on the relationship of social pressures to sexuality, femininity, the body, silence and rebellion, adolescent motherhood, and sexual abuse. (SM)

  4. Being a girl in a boys' world: investigating the experiences of girls with autism spectrum disorders during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cridland, Elizabeth K; Jones, Sandra C; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to those experienced by boys with ASD during adolescence, such as negative implications of late diagnosis, challenges of transitioning to and coping with high school, 'hands-on' role of parents into adolescence, difficulties adjusting to the increased demands of adolescent hygiene routines, and the importance of learning personal boundaries in interactions with others. Other issues discussed were of particular relevance to adolescent girls with ASD, such as difficulties socialising with neurotypically developing girls, sex-specific puberty issues, and sexual vulnerabilities. This study highlights an important research area and is a preliminary step towards understanding the experiences of adolescent girls with ASD and their families.

  5. Biocultural aspects of gender differences in body composition and obesity during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2008-09-01

    Gender differences in body composition, the prevalence in overweight and obesity as well as in physical activity patterns were tested among 3003 children and adolescents aging between 6 and 18 years (x = 12.1 +/- 3.6) in Vienna and rural parts of Eastern Austria. As to be expected, the absolute and relative amount of body fat was significantly higher among girls of nearly all age groups, while boys exhibited a significantly higher amount of lean or fat free body mass. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was markedly higher among prepubertal girls, however significantly lower among younger and older adolescent girls aging 11 years and older in comparison to their male counterparts. This was however only true of adolescents originating from Austria. Considering adolescents with a background of migration originating from Turkey or the Near East, a significantly higher amount of overweight and/or obesity was found among girls. Therefore, biocultural factors have to be considered to explain gender differences in obesity during childhood and adolescence.

  6. Nutritional status, dietary intake, and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nurul; Roy, Swapan Kumar; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ahmed, A M Shamsir

    2010-02-01

    This study estimated the levels and differentials in nutritional status and dietary intake and relevant knowledge of adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh using data from the Baseline Survey 2004 of the National Nutrition Programme. A stratified two-stage random cluster-sampling was used for selecting 4,993 unmarried adolescent girls aged 13-18 years in 708 rural clusters. Female interviewers visited girls at home to record their education, occupation, dietary knowledge, seven-day food-frequency, intake of iron and folic acid, morbidity, weight, and height. They inquired mothers about age of their daughters and possessions of durable assets to divide households into asset quintiles. Results revealed that 26% of the girls were thin, with body mass index (BMI)-for-age <15th percentile), 0.3% obese (BMI-for-age >95th percentile), and 32% stunted (height-for-age < or = 2SD). Risks of being thin and stunted were higher if girls had general morbidity in the last fortnight and foul-smelling vaginal discharge than their peers. Consumptions of non-staple good-quality food items in the last week were less frequent and correlated well positively with the household asset quintile. Girls of the highest asset quintile ate fish/meat 2.1 (55%) days more and egg/milk two (91%) days more than the girls in the lowest asset quintile. The overall dietary knowledge was low. More than half could not name the main food sources of energy and protein, and 36% were not aware of the importance of taking extra nutrients during adolescence for growth spurt. The use of iron supplement was 21% in nutrition-intervention areas compared to 8% in non-intervention areas. Factors associated with the increased use of iron supplements were related to awareness of the girls about extra nutrients and their access to mass media and education. Community-based adolescent-friendly health and nutrition education and services and economic development may improve the overall health and nutritional knowledge and

  7. Prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure among children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Wang, Shu-Rong; Li, Su-Yun

    2017-09-18

    Childhood obesity has increased markedly during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of severe obesity in children and adolescents are limited. The present study examined the prevalence of severe obesity and its association with elevated blood pressure (BP) among children and adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 44 630 (22 404 boys and 22 226 girls) students aged 7-18 years participated in the study. BMI cut-off points recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define class I-III obesity. Relatively high BP status was defined as systolic BP and/or diastolic BP of at least 95th percentile for age and sex. The prevalence rates of class I, class II, and class III obesity were 6.67, 1.47, and 0.42% for boys and 2.88, 0.64, and 0.18% for girls, respectively; boys had a higher prevalence than girls (P<0.01). Substantial urban-rural disparities exist in childhood obesity; urban boys and girls had a higher prevalence of class I and class II obesity than their rural peers (P<0.05). Severe obesity is associated with elevated BP; the prevalence of relatively high BP increased from 39.93% (boys) and 39.53% (girls) in the class I obese group to 50.54% (boys) and 53.66% (girls) in the class III obese group (P<0.05). Although the current prevalence of severe obesity was at a relatively low level, but we should not relax our vigilance to the obesity epidemic. Our findings also emphasize the importance of the prevention of severe obesity to prevent future-related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  8. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs.

  9. Health profile of urban adolescent girls from India.

    PubMed

    Madaan, Monika; Agrawal, Swati; Puri, Manju; Meena, Jyoti; Kaur, Harvinder; Trivedi, Shubha Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents comprise 22.5% of the population, which forms a significant part of the entire population. It is only recently that we have acknowledged the need for a separate specialty to handle adolescent problems and ailments. The aim of the present study is to study the health profile of the adolescents girls presenting to the tertiary care hospital situated in New Delhi, India. The study was conducted on 316 adolescent girls who presented to the adolescent clinic at Smt Sucheta Kriplani Hospital, New Delhi. Apart from recording the various health problems to which they presented, a detailed HEADSS assessment was done for each case. Majority of the adolescents (60.74%) presented with menstrual problems, 78.48% discussed their problems with their parents, and 91.77% agreed on common things with them. About 69.62% were attending school or college, while 30.37% had either left or never attended school. Majority of the adolescents (77.84%) had only a few friends, 62.96% watched TV in their free time, and only 7.27% performed regular exercise. In addition, 0.94% adolescents in the study group were married. Among the 313 unmarried adolescents, 3.83% were dating and 4.47% were sexually active. There was a low incidence of teenage pregnancy (0.94%) reported in the unmarried study population. History of contraceptive use was present in only 1.26% cases, and only 5.06% of the adolescents had knowledge of HIV. Adolescent health must be viewed with a comprehensive approach comprising of social, mental, physical and emotional aspects. The active involvement of the entire society, including parents and teachers, must also be encouraged towards the healthy development of adolescents.

  10. Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Stattin, Håkan; Kerr, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision. METHODS: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche. RESULTS: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned. CONCLUSIONS: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance. PMID:26391935

  11. American Indian Adolescent Girls: Vulnerability to Sex Trafficking, Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The Minnesota Indian Women's Resource Center offers harm reduction programming to at-risk adolescent American Indian girls, including outreach, case management, advocacy, healthy sexuality education, and support groups. To evaluate program impact, participants are assessed at intake and every 6 months afterward for current vulnerability to…

  12. Associations between the School Environment and Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Joanna; Levin, Kate A.; Inchley, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores school sports facility provision, physical education allocation and opportunities for physical activity and their association with the number of days adolescent girls participate in at least 60 min of moderate-vigorous physical activity per week (MVPAdays). Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires from…

  13. Adolescent Girls' Experiences of Basketball in Australian and Japanese Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard; Yasaki, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Despite recognition of the influence of social and cultural contexts on young people's participation in youth sport, there are a limited number of studies that have identified how culture shapes the nature of participation and how it influences experience. This article reports on a study that inquired into what adolescent girls (13-16 years) enjoy…

  14. Mentoring At-Risk Adolescent Girls: Listening to "Little Sisters"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Nancy L.; Quarles, Alice; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop an understanding of mentoring relationships and the impact these relationships might have on the development of high-risk adolescent girls, this qualitative study explored the relationships between six "Little Sisters" and their "Big Sister" mentors. The purposefully-selected sample includes women and girls…

  15. Agency in Paul and Implications for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck-McClain, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Agency is a particular concern for ministry with adolescent girls because they rarely see themselves as subjects of their own lives. Human agency is often emphasized in churches as a way to explain human sinful action. As a population treated as objects by society, it is important for young women to embrace and exercise their agency in order to be…

  16. Sexual Abuse and Perimenstrual Symptoms in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mateen, Cheryl S.; Hall, Pamela D.; Brookman, Richard R.; Best, Al M.; Singh, Nirbhay N.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between sexual abuse and perimenstrual symptoms in female patients (N=68) from an outpatient adolescent health service. Twenty-two participants reported a history of forced sexual experience. No significant differences were found in retrospective or prospective reports of perimenstrual sympstoms. Girls with a history…

  17. A Test of Objectification Theory in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Tested the components of a model proposed by Objectification Theory in a sample of adolescent girls who did and did not study classical ballet. Participant surveys examined self-objectification, body shame, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating. There was no difference between groups on self-objectification or any of its proposed consequences.…

  18. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  19. A Test of Objectification Theory in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2002-01-01

    Tested the components of a model proposed by Objectification Theory in a sample of adolescent girls who did and did not study classical ballet. Participant surveys examined self-objectification, body shame, appearance anxiety, and disordered eating. There was no difference between groups on self-objectification or any of its proposed consequences.…

  20. Juxtaposing Immigrant and Adolescent Girl Experiences: Literature for All Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mary Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Twenty percent of all youth in America's schools are children of immigrants, making them first- or second-generation immigrant students. Addressing these students' literacy needs with relevant curriculum paves the way for them to experience meaningful learning. Literacy scholarship also points to the specific literacy needs of adolescent girls and…

  1. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  2. Differentiation of "Masculine" and "Feminine" Among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suziedelis, Antanas

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness of distinguishing various aspects of masculinity and feminity in the study of sex roles among adolescents. Subjects, a national sample of boys and girls aged 12-16, were individually administered direct questions, checklists, rating scales, and symbolic and projective items. Results were as follows: (1) finer…

  3. The Struggle for Self: Power and Identity in Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Elizabeth E.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews theories of identity formation ranging from the classic work of E. H. Erikson to postmodern and feminist theories, and incorporates qualitative research examining the identity formation of 14 adolescent girls. The article suggests that schools can serve as sites for deconstructing issues of socioeconomic status identity, body image…

  4. A Study of Dysmenorrhea During Menstruation in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anil K; Agarwal, Anju

    2010-01-01

    Research question: What is the prevalence of dysmenorrhea severity and its associated symptoms among adolescent girls? Objectives: (1) To study the prevalence of dysmenorrhea in high school adolescent girls of Gwalior. (2) To study the evidence of severity of the problem with associated symptoms and general health status. Study design: An explorative survey technique with a correlational approach. Setting and Participants: Nine hundred and seventy adolescent girls of age 15 to 20 years, studying in the higher secondary schools (Pre-University Colleges) of Gwalior. Statistical analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test, and Test-Retest Method. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea in adolescent girls was found to be 79.67%. Most of them, 37.96%, suffered regularly from dysmenorrhea severity. The three most common symptoms present on both days, that is, day before and first day of menstruation were lethargy and tiredness (first), depression (second) and inability to concentrate in work (third), whereas the ranking of these symptoms on the day after the stoppage of menstruation showed depression as the first common symptoms. Negative correlation had found between dysmenorrhea and the General Health Status as measured by the Body surface area. PMID:20606943

  5. A Case Study of Adolescent Girls' Speech Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vangelisti, Anita L.

    A study was conducted to describe the speech patterns of four adolescent girls. All four subjects were in the same eighth grade class and knew each other. Approximately 19 hours of observational data and 9 hours of interview data were collected. The descriptive framework of D. Hymes (1972), which focuses specifically on settings, participants,…

  6. Evaluation of an Empowerment Program for Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig Winston

    2004-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Go Grrrls Program, a preventive intervention specifically designed for early adolescent girls. The 12-session curriculum was designed to address developmental tasks considered critical for healthy psychosocial development, such as achieving competent gender role identification, establishing an acceptable…

  7. Evaluation of an Empowerment Program for Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCroy, Craig Winston

    2004-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Go Grrrls Program, a preventive intervention specifically designed for early adolescent girls. The 12-session curriculum was designed to address developmental tasks considered critical for healthy psychosocial development, such as achieving competent gender role identification, establishing an acceptable…

  8. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  9. Rural Adolescent Girls Negotiating Healthy and Unhealthy Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luft, Toupey; Jenkins, Melissa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2012-01-01

    The focused discussions of adolescent girls were analyzed to explore the processes of managing healthy and unhealthy aspects of dating relationships. Grounded theory methods were used to generate an outline of these processes. The core category elicited from discussions with participants was "wrestling with gender expectations". This category…

  10. Agency in Paul and Implications for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck-McClain, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Agency is a particular concern for ministry with adolescent girls because they rarely see themselves as subjects of their own lives. Human agency is often emphasized in churches as a way to explain human sinful action. As a population treated as objects by society, it is important for young women to embrace and exercise their agency in order to be…

  11. The Correlates of Dance Education among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicario, Terra; Henninger, Erica; Chambliss, Catherine

    This investigation extends previous research on the benefits of dance education, by further exploring the correlates of participation in dance classes for adolescent girls. The survey evaluated self-esteem, body image, dance ability, and perceived quality of peer and parent relationships. Students with greater dance experience were expected to…

  12. Discovering Their Voices: Engaging Adolescent Girls with Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Marsha M.; Keeling, Kara K.

    2007-01-01

    Authors Marsha M. Sprague and Kara K. Keeling propose a language arts curriculum that incorporates literature-based discussions to help adolescent girls deal constructively with difficult issues and develop their own authentic voices. To help put such a curriculum into action, this book offers the following resources: (1) A research base to frame…

  13. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-01-01

    Background Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. Objectives This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. Patients and Methods A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. Results In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with

  14. Dietary Predictors of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bahreini Esfahani, Nimah; Ganjali Dashti, Neda; Ganjali Dashti, Marjan; Noorv, Mohd Ismail; Koon, Poh Bee; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Lubis, Syarif Husin

    2016-09-01

    Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity. This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population. A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students. In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with obesity (P < 0.05). Intake of a Western dietary

  15. Psychological adjustment of adolescent girls with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, H; Geenen, R; Kuis, W; Heijnen, C J; Sinnema, G

    2001-03-01

    To examine psychosocial problems and adaptation of adolescent girls with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Thirty-six adolescent girls with CFS (mean age: 15.2 years; mean syndrome duration: 19.7 months) who fulfilled the criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were examined by interviews regarding premorbid problems and by questionnaires regarding psychosocial functioning and distress, psychological attitudes, and coping resources. Data were compared with normative data. Of the adolescents, 86.1% reported 1 or more premorbid problems (58.3% physical, 38.9% psychological, and 52.8% familial). Normal adjustment was reported for psychosocial self-esteem, social abilities, and attentional abilities. High adjustment to adult social standards of behavior was found, but low perceived competence in specific adolescent domains, such as athletic ability, romance, and participation in recreational activities. The girls reported predominantly internalizing problems. Normal achievement motivation, no debilitating fear of failure, and high internal locus of control were observed. Palliative reaction patterns and optimism were predominantly used as coping strategies. The large number of premorbid problems suggests a possible contributing factor to the onset of the syndrome, although there were no reference data of healthy adolescents. In distinct domains of psychosocial adjustment, the adolescent girls with CFS showed strengths such as adequate self-esteem and scholastic and social abilities, and weaknesses such as low competence in adolescent-specific tasks and internalizing distress, which may partly be explained by syndrome-specific somatic complaints. The use of optimistic and palliative reaction patterns as coping strategies in this patient group indicates that the patients with CFS seem to retain an active and positive outlook on life, which may result in a rather adequate psychological adaptation to the syndrome, but also in maintenance of the syndrome by

  16. Overweight and obesity among maltreated young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, Janet U; Mennen, Ferol E; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K

    2012-04-01

    (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI)≥ 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI ≥ 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of maltreatment is related to high BMI in maltreated young adolescents. We compared a sample of maltreated young adolescents to a comparison sample of adolescents from the same neighborhood. The maltreated sample (n=303) of young adolescents (ages 9-12) came from referrals from the county child welfare department in Los Angeles, CA from new cases of maltreatment opened in specified zip codes. A comparison sample (n=151) was recruited from the same zip codes. The total sample (both maltreated and comparison) was 77% Black or Hispanic and 23% White or biracial with 53% males and 47% females. A stepwise logistic regression was used to examine predictors of high BMI with demographic/psychological covariates and maltreatment group. The maltreated young adolescents were selected and the logistic model included all covariates as well as an interaction between gender and each maltreatment type (neglect, sexual, and physical abuse). Maltreated young adolescents were similar to comparison adolescents in obesity prevalence (27.1% and 34.4%, respectively), although comparison young adolescents were 1.7 times more likely to have overweight/obesity than the maltreated young adolescents (95% CI=1.13-2.76). No demographic variables predicted high BMI. For the comparison young adolescents, depression slightly increased the odds of overweight/obesity (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01-1.15). Being neglected reduced the odds of being in the overweight/obesity and obesity group when combining genders. For females, but not males, sexual and physical abuse slightly reduced the odds of obesity. Both the maltreated and comparison young adolescents had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which puts them at risk

  17. Screening Obese Adolescents for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: The Adolescent Binge Eating Scale.

    PubMed

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Combescure, Christophe; Lanza, Lydia; Carrard, Isabelle; Haller, Dagmar M

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the performance of a simple and developmentally appropriate 10-item questionnaire (Adolescent Binge Eating Scale) for the prediction of binge eating disorder (BED) diagnosis in adolescents seen for obesity. We evaluated the performance of the questionnaire in comparison with a clinical interview, in a population of adolescents being seen for obesity. The ?(2) or Fisher exact tests were used. There were 94 adolescents aged 12-18 years (59.6% girls) who completed the study. The questionnaire demonstrated a good association with the clinical interview and distinguished different levels of risk for having a BED: participants who responded positively to questions 1 or 2 and had more than 6 positive answers to the 8 additional questions had a high risk of subclinical and clinical BED (83.3%); participants with 3 or fewer positive answers had a low risk of clinical BED (4%). The Adolescent Binge Eating Scale questionnaire is a potential screening tool to identify adolescents with obesity at high risk of BED and guide referral to a specialist to clarify the diagnosis and provide adequate care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Body image among adolescent girls and boys: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Carlson Jones, Diane

    2004-09-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescent girls and boys examined the contributions of social (peer appearance context), psychological (internalized appearance ideals and appearance social comparison), and biological (body mass) factors to the development of body dissatisfaction. Students (165 girls and 139 boys) completed questionnaires when they were either in 7th grade or 10th grade and again 1 year later. The results for the boys revealed a singular pathway to body dissatisfaction through internalized commitment to muscularity ideals. The prospective analyses of change in body dissatisfaction among the girls reflected the contributions of appearance conversations with friends, appearance social comparisons, and body mass. There was no evidence of mediation among the boys and limited support for it among the girls. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  19. NetGirls: the Internet, Facebook, and body image concern in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between Internet exposure and body image concern in adolescent girls, with a particular focus on the social networking site of Facebook. A sample of 1,087 girls in the first two years (Years 8 and 9) of high school (aged 13-15 years) completed questionnaire measures of Internet consumption and body image concerns. The overwhelming majority of girls (95.9%) had access to the Internet in their home. Time spent on the Internet was significantly related to internalization of the thin ideal, body surveillance, and drive for thinness. Further, 75% of the girls had a Facebook profile, and spent an average of 1.5 hours there daily. Facebook users scored significantly more highly on all body image concern measures than non-users. It was concluded that the Internet represents a potent socio-cultural medium of relevance to the body image of adolescent girls. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Abdominal obesity and its association with socioeconomic factors among adolescents from different living environments.

    PubMed

    Costa de Oliveira Forkert, E; de Moraes, A C F; Carvalho, H B; Kafatos, A; Manios, Y; Sjöström, M; González-Gross, M; Gottrand, F; Beghin, L; Censi, L; Kersting, M; Moreno, L A

    2017-04-01

    Socioeconomic status has been associated with obesity in children and adolescents. This association may be dependent according with where adolescents lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between different socioeconomic indicators such as parental education and occupation and socioeconomic status with abdominal obesity in adolescents from two observational studies: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence cross-sectional study (HELENA-CSS) and the Brazilian Cardiovascular Adolescent Health (BRACAH) study. European (n = 3192, aged 12.5-17.5 years, with 53.1% girls from HELENA-CSS) and Brazilian (n = 991, aged 14-18 years, with 54.5% girls from BRACAH study) adolescents from two cross-sectional studies were included in this analysis. Complete data on waist circumference (WC), height, socioeconomic status indicators and several confounders were collected. Socioeconomic indicators were measured using a self-reported questionnaire in order to assess the family social status of the adolescents. Multilevel linear regression models were used to examine associations, and results were adjusted for potential confounders. Adjusted results showed inverse associations between mother's and father's education levels (p < 0.001) and father's occupation level (p < 0.001) with waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and WC in HELENA-CSS girls. Similarly in European girls, socioeconomic indicators by socioeconomic status and maternal occupation level were associated with WHtR. In HELENA-CSS boys, the same significant association was found between WHtR and WC with maternal occupation level. Moreover, in European boys WHtR was also associated with parental education. In Brazilian adolescents, both indicators of abdominal obesity did not remain associated with the independents variables, after adjustment for potential confounders. Abdominal obesity was associated with socioeconomic indicators in higher-income countries, but this

  1. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  2. Understanding Sexual Abstinence in Urban Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison-Beedy, Dianne; Carey, Michael P.; Côté-Arsenault, Denise; Seibold-Simpson, Susan; Robinson, Kerry Anne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To gain insight into the context of sexual abstinence and identify potential determinants of abstinence in this population. Design Four focus groups. Participants and Setting Twenty-four, predominantly African American (88%) girls aged 14 to 19 years were recruited from urban health centers and youth development programs in Rochester, New York, between September and December 2006. Data Analysis Content analysis was used to analyze the four verbatim transcripts. Using analytic induction, groups were compared and contrasted at the micro (within-group) and macro (between-group) levels to identify themes. Results Four themes were identified that provided insight into how and why these girls remain abstinent despite being in sexually active social climates. They focused on the following: self-respect (I'm worth it), impact of mothers (Mama says … think before you let it go), influence of boys and other peers (Boys will be boys), and potential negative consequences of sex (Hold on, there's a catch). Conclusions Developing interventions to maintain abstinence, delay onset of sexual activity, and promote protected first and subsequent sexual contact in abstinent girls are key to decreasing future sexual risk. These findings suggest opportunities to develop HIV prevention strategies tailored to the needs of abstinent girls. PMID:18336442

  3. Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  4. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  5. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  6. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  7. Index of orthodontic treatment need in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Giuca, Maria Rita; Pasini, Marco; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients.

  8. Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giuca, Maria Rita; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients. PMID:25945093

  9. Sex hormone binding globulin decrease as a potential pathogenetic factor for hirsutism in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Cross, Graciela; Danilowicz, Karina; Kral, Martha; Caufriez, Anne; Copinschi, Georges; Bruno, Oscar D

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 252 non-obese female subjects aged 13-39 years to evaluate if an exaggerated descent of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels during adolescence can play a role in the development of hirsutism. Body hair was assessed according to Ferriman and Gallwey (FG), with a stringent criterion of normality of < or = 4. In 13-14 years girls, SHBG and free testosterone (FT) levels were similar in "hirsute" girls (FG > 4) and controls (FG < or = 4, regular menstrual cycles, no acne). In 15-18 years girls, SHBG values were lower in "hirsute" girls, FT levels were similar in both groups, FG correlated inversely with SHBG. In 19-39 yr women, FT levels were higher in "hirsute" subjects, SHBG values were similar in both groups, FG correlated positively with FT. Lowest SHBG values were observed at 15-18 years, but the slope of the decrease from 13-14 years values was greater in the "hirsute" group. FT values increased progressively with age, but the increase was greater in the "hirsute" group. Those results suggest an important role of SHBG decrease in adolescence vs. a more accentuated testosterone increase in adults, as factors conditioning the development of hirsutism in these two different periods of life.

  10. 12 month changes in dietary intake of adolescent girls attending schools in low-income communities following the NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Collins, Clare E; Dewar, Deborah L; Schumacher, Tracy L; Finn, Tara; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R

    2014-02-01

    Poor dietary habits and obesity are more prevalent in lower socio-economic status (SES) communities. The NEAT Girls cluster randomized controlled trial was a school-based obesity prevention program targeting adolescent girls in low SES schools in NSW, Australia. The aim was to evaluate the 12-month impact of key nutrition program messages on dietary intake and food behaviors. Diet was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Individual foods were categorized into nutrient-dense or energy-dense, nutrient-poor food groups and the percentage contribution to total energy intake calculated. Participants were aged 13.2±0.5years (n=330). There were no statistically significant group-by-time effects for dietary intake or food related behaviors, with 12-month trends suggesting more intervention group girls had improved water intakes (59% consuming⩽three glasses per day to 54% at 12 months vs. 50% to 61% in controls, p=0.052), with a greater proportion consuming < one sweetened beverage per day (24-41% vs. 34-37% in controls, p=0.057). Further research including more intensive nutrition intervention strategies are required to evaluate whether dietary intake in adolescent girls attending schools in low SES communities can be optimized.

  11. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that the rapid growth in youth obesity seen in the 1980s and 1990s has plateaued. We examine changes in obesity among US adolescents aged 12–17 y by socioeconomic background using data from two nationally representative health surveys, the 1988–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and the 2003–2011 National Survey of Children’s Health. Although the overall obesity prevalence stabilized, this trend masks a growing socioeconomic gradient: The prevalence of obesity among high-socioeconomic status adolescents has decreased in recent years, whereas the prevalence of obesity among their low-socioeconomic status peers has continued to increase. Additional analyses suggest that socioeconomic differences in the levels of physical activity, as well as differences in calorie intake, may have contributed to the growing obesity gradient. PMID:24474757

  12. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Carl B; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D

    2014-01-28

    Recent reports suggest that the rapid growth in youth obesity seen in the 1980s and 1990s has plateaued. We examine changes in obesity among US adolescents aged 12-17 y by socioeconomic background using data from two nationally representative health surveys, the 1988-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and the 2003-2011 National Survey of Children's Health. Although the overall obesity prevalence stabilized, this trend masks a growing socioeconomic gradient: The prevalence of obesity among high-socioeconomic status adolescents has decreased in recent years, whereas the prevalence of obesity among their low-socioeconomic status peers has continued to increase. Additional analyses suggest that socioeconomic differences in the levels of physical activity, as well as differences in calorie intake, may have contributed to the growing obesity gradient.

  13. Stanford GEMS phase 2 obesity prevention trial for low-income African-American girls: design and sample baseline characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Thomas N; Kraemer, Helena C; Matheson, Donna M; Obarzanek, Eva; Wilson, Darrell M; Haskell, William L; Pruitt, Leslie A; Thompson, Nikko S; Haydel, K Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Varady, Ann; McCarthy, Sally; Watanabe, Connie; Killen, Joel D

    2008-01-01

    African-American girls and women are at high risk of obesity and its associated morbidities. Few studies have tested obesity prevention strategies specifically designed for African-American girls. This report describes the design and baseline findings of the Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies) trial to test the effect of a two-year community- and family-based intervention to reduce weight gain in low-income, pre-adolescent African-American girls. Randomized controlled trial with measurements scheduled in girls' homes at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 month post-randomization. Low-income areas of Oakland, CA. Eight, nine and ten year old African-American girls and their parents/caregivers. Girls are randomized to a culturally-tailored after-school dance program and a home/family-based intervention to reduce screen media use versus an information-based community health education Active-Placebo Comparison intervention. Interventions last for 2 years for each participant. Change in body mass index over the two-year study. Recruitment and enrollment successfully produced a predominately low-socioeconomic status sample. Two-hundred sixty one (261) families were randomized. One girl per family is randomly chosen for the analysis sample. Randomization produced comparable experimental groups with only a few statistically significant differences. The sample had a mean body mass index (BMI) at the 74 th percentile on the 2000 CDC BMI reference, and one-third of the analysis sample had a BMI at the 95th percentile or above. Average fasting total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol were above NCEP thresholds for borderline high classifications. Girls averaged low levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, more than 3 h per day of screen media use, and diets high in energy from fat. The Stanford GEMS trial is testing the benefits of culturally-tailored after-school dance and screen-time reduction interventions for obesity prevention in low-income, pre-adolescent

  14. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  15. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  16. Soft tissue facial morphology in obese adolescents: a three-dimensional noninvasive assessment.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Dellavia, Claudia; Tartaglia, Gianluca M; Turci, Michela; Sforza, Chiarella

    2004-02-01

    The number of obese adolescents is increasing in the Western society. For a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying this pathology, the quantitative characteristics of the facial soft tissues should also be investigated. The three-dimensional coordinates of 12 soft tissue facial landmarks were obtained by computerized digitizers in 11 male and 14 female adolescents aged 13-17 years, all with a body mass index larger than 30 kg/m2 (mean 31.67 kg/m2, SD 1.58). From the landmarks, several facial dimensions were calculated. Data were compared with those collected in normal individuals of the same age, ethnicity, and sex by computing z scores. Significant (paired Student's t-test, P < .05) larger dimensions were found for skull base width (girls), mandibular width (both sexes), lower face depth (girls), and mandibular corpus length (girls). In the pooled sample (boys plus girls), the faces of obese adolescents were significantly wider transversally (skull base width, mandibular width), deeper sagittally (mid and lower face depth, mandibular corpus length), and shorter vertically (upper facial height) than those of their normal school companions. "Borderline" obese adolescents possessed some facial characteristics typical of patients with more substantial obesity. The effect of an increased body weight-per-height was therefore present also in subjects not already referred to a medical control.

  17. Mindfulness and Eating Behavior in Adolescent Girls at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Kelly, Nichole R.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Cassidy, Omni; Radin, Rachel M.; Shank, Lisa M.; Vannucci, Anna; Courville, Amber B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.; Shomaker, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of dispositional mindfulness to binge eating and associated eating attitudes and behaviors among adolescent girls at risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods Participants were 114 overweight or obese adolescents enrolled in a study of girls with a family history of T2D and mild depressive symptoms. Adolescent self-reports of mindfulness, eating in the absence of hunger, and depressive symptoms were collected. An interview was administered to determine presence of binge eating episodes and a behavioral task was used to assess the reinforcing value of food relative to other non-snack food rewards. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Results In analyses accounting for race, percent body fat, lean mass, height, age, and depressive symptoms, dispositional mindfulness was associated with a lower odds of binge eating (p = .002). Controlling for the same potential confounds, mindfulness was also inversely associated with eating concern, eating in the absence of hunger in response to fatigue/boredom, and higher food reinforcement relative to physical activity (all p < .05). Conclusions In girls with a family history of T2D, independent of body composition and depressive symptoms, intra-individual differences in mindfulness are related to binge eating and associated attitudes and behaviors that may confer risk for obesity and metabolic problems. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which mindfulness plays a role in the etiology and/or maintenance of disinhibited eating in adolescents at risk for T2D. PMID:26172157

  18. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A

    2014-08-26

    Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and sociodemographic surveillance system, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Semistructured "duo-interviews" were carried out with 11 pairs of adolescent female friends aged 16 to 19 years. Thematic content analysis was used. The majority of participants considered locally grown and traditional foods, especially fruits and vegetables, to be healthy. Their consumption was limited by availability, and these foods were often sourced from family or neighbourhood gardens. Female caregivers and school meal programmes facilitated healthy eating practices. Most participants believed in the importance of breakfast, even though for the majority, limited food within the household was a barrier to eating breakfast before going to school. The majority cited limited accessibility as a major barrier to healthy eating, and noted the increasing intake of "convenient and less healthy foods". Girls were aware of the benefits of physical activity and engaged in various physical activities within the home, community, and schools, including household chores, walking long distances to school, traditional dancing, and extramural activities such as netball and soccer. The findings show widespread knowledge about healthy eating and the benefits of consuming locally grown and traditional food items in a population that is undergoing nutrition transition. Limited access and food availability are strong barriers to healthy eating practices. School meal programmes are an important facilitator of healthy eating, and breakfast

  19. Deconstructing race and gender differences in adolescent obesity: Oaxaca-blinder decomposition.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Robinson, Whitney R; Bleich, Sara N; Wang, Y Claire

    2016-03-01

    To analyze sources of racial and gender disparities in adolescent obesity prevalence in the United States using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Data were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a 2010 nationally representative study of 9th-12th grade students. Obesity status was determined from objective height and weight data; weight-related behaviors and school, home, and environmental data were collected via questionnaire. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was used to independently analyze racial and gender obesity prevalence differences (PD), i.e., comparing Black girls to White girls, and Black girls to Black boys. Overall, measured characteristics accounted for 46.8% of the racial PD but only 11.9% of the gender PD. Racial PD was associated with Black girls having less fruit/vegetable access at home, obtaining lunch at school more often, and playing fewer sports than White girls. Gender PD was associated with differential associations between physical activity (PA) measures-including total activities in the past year and days of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the past week-and obesity. School lunch and home food environmental variables accounted for racial disparities, but not gender disparities, in obesity prevalence. Gender differences in mechanisms between PA and obesity should be explored further. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  20. Distribution of subcutaneous fat and the relationship with blood pressure in obese children and adolescents in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-xiu; Wang, Shu-rong

    2015-03-01

    The association between elevated blood pressure (BP) and childhood obesity has been documented in several studies. However, the association between BP and body fat distribution in obese children remains poorly understood. We examined the distribution of subcutaneous fat and its association with BP in obese children and adolescents. Data for this study were obtained from a large cross-sectional survey of school children. A total of 38,873 students (19,485 boys and 19,388 girls) aged 7-17 years participated in this study. Height, weight, BP, subscapular and triceps skinfold thicknesses (SFT) of all subjects were measured. Obesity was defined by using body mass index (BMI) criteria recommended by the Working Group on Obesity in China. A total of 3,579 obese children and adolescents (2,367 boys and 1,212 girls) were examined. Most of the obese children and adolescents had high subcutaneous fat. However, a small number of the obese individuals had a lower SFT levels. Obese children and adolescents with high SFT and central distribution had higher BP levels than those with low SFT and peripheral distribution. Obese children and adolescents assessed by BMI might not necessarily have a high SFT level. The BP level of obese individuals is associated with the level and distribution pattern of SFT. Additional measurement of SFT is better than BMI alone to help identify high BP risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effects of school-based squat training in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Takaya; Takai, Yohei; Fukunaga, Yuko; Fujita, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    For adolescent girls, less information on the effects of school-based exercise training is available from earlier studies. This study aimed to determine the effects of school-based squat training on body composition and muscular strength in adolescent girls. Fifty-two girls (13.8±0.6 years) were randomly assigned to the training and control groups. The training group conducted an 8-week body mass-based squat exercise training (100 reps/day, 45 sessions) as a part of after-school activity. Body composition (bioelectrical impedance analyzer), muscle thickness at the thigh anterior (ultrasound), and maximal isometric knee extension strength (myometer) were determined before and after the intervention. The magnitude of maturation was assessed using Tanner stage criteria of pubic hair before the intervention. After the intervention, percent body fat decreased in the training group, but increased in the control group. The relative changes in lean body mass, muscle thickness and muscular strength were similar between both groups. In the training group, the relative change in knee extension strength was correlated to the magnitude of maturation before the intervention. For adolescent girls, an 8-week body mass-based squat training is feasible for lowering percent body fat. In addition, the strength improvement for the knee extensors partially depends on the magnitude of maturation at start of the intervention.

  2. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  3. Eating disorders and psychopathological traits in obese preadolescents and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finistrella, Viviana; Manco, Melania; Corciulo, Nicola; Sances, Beatrice; Di Pietro, Mario; Di Gregorio, Raffaella; Di SanteMarsili, Fosca; Fiumani, Perla Maria; Presaghi, Fabio; Ambruzzi, Amalia Maria

    2015-01-01

    to investigate the presence of eating disorders (ED) and psychopathological traits in obese preadolescents and adolescents compared to normal-weight peers. Overweight/obese patients aged 11 to 14 y and normal-weight peers' data collected by means of self-report questionnaires administered to parents and children. Clinical Nutrition Units in the Municipalities of Rome, Naples, Gallipoli and Atri, Italy. 376 preadolescents and adolescents. Patients were 187 (93 boys, BMI=27.9±;4.1; 94 girls, BMI=28.1±4.5); normal-weight controls were 189 subjects (94 boys, BMI=19.4±1.4; 95 girls, BMI=19.5±1.5). eating disorder behaviors, psychopathological traits and symptoms estimated by means of the eating disorders scales (EDI-2) and psychopathological scales (CBCL 4-18). Patients reached higher scores than controls in most of the eating disorders scales and psychopathological scales. Twenty-one (11.2%) patients were considered at risk of developing an eating disorder and 75 (40%) presented social problems. With regard to weight status, age-group and gender, main significant interaction effects were seen in social problems (F= 6.50; p<0.05) and ineffectiveness (F= 4.15; p<0.05). Findings from our study demonstrate that in preadolescence and adolescence, obesity is significantly associated to some traits typical of ED and to psychological problems in general. Although no inference can be made with regard to direction of causality, it is possible to conclude that overweight preadolescents and adolescents can be prone to display problematic traits more commonly associated to eating disorders and to present a high degree of mental distress.

  4. Understanding gender norms, nutrition, and physical activity in adolescent girls: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Rehman, Laurene; Kirk, Sara F L

    2015-01-24

    Public health is currently focused on childhood obesity, and the associated behaviors of physical activity and nutrition. Canadian youth are insufficiently active and do not meet nutritional guidelines. This is of particular concern for adolescent girls, as they are less active than boys, become less active as they age, and engage in unhealthy weight control behaviors. The purpose of this review is to determine what is known from the existing literature about how gender norms are understood in relation to the health-related behaviors of PA and nutrition in young girls. This scoping review follows the framework of Arksey and O'Malley, involving defining a research question, study identification and selection, charting, interpretation, summarizing, and reporting. In total, 28 documents are reviewed, and characteristics are summarized quantitatively and qualitatively. Five major themes are identified: (1) Girls' relationships with PA are complex and require negotiating gender roles, (2) the literature focuses on dieting rather than nutrition, (3) appearance and perceptions influence behaviors, (4) "body" focused discourse is significant to girls' experiences, and (5) social influences, institutions, and environments are influential and may offer opportunity for future research and action. Gaps in the literature are identified and discussed. It is concluded that young girls' activity and nutrition is affected by gender norms and feminine ideals through complex negotiations, perceptions, body-centered discourse, and societal influences.

  5. Efficacy of twice weekly iron supplementation in anemic adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Shobha, S; Sharada, D

    2003-12-01

    Two hundred and forty four girls with different hemoglobin levels were selected, of which forty-one were non-anemic. The rest were graded as mildly, moderately or severely anemic and supplemented with 60 mg of iron daily or twice weekly for twelve weeks. There was no significant difference in the increase in hemoglobin levels between daily and twice weekly-supplemented subjects at the end of the study. Unpleasant side effects of supplementation were experienced by 57.8% of the daily supplemented subjects as against 5.9% of twice weekly-supplemented ones. Twice weekly supplementation could be recommended for overcoming anemia in adolescent girls.

  6. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  7. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J

    2006-11-01

    Body dissatisfaction is commonplace for teenage girls and is associated with dieting and unhealthy weight-control behaviours. The idealisation and pursuit of thinness are seen as the main drivers of body dissatisfaction, with the media prominent in setting thin body ideals. Television and consumer magazine production in the UK are extensive, annually releasing 1x10(6) h programming and >3000 magazine titles. Their engagement by adolescent girls is high, and in surveys girls identify thin and revealing body images as influential to the appeal of thinness and their pursuit of dieting. Experimental studies show a short-term impact of these images on body dissatisfaction, especially in teenagers who are already concerned about body image. Magazine images appear more influential than television viewing. For many adolescents selecting thin-image media is purposive, permitting comparison of themselves with the models or celebrities featured. Indeed, the impact of the media needs to be understood within a social context, as engagement is often a highly-social process. Media influence is uneven because of differences in its content and manner of communication, and individual differences in vulnerability to its content. Greater social responsibility on the part of the media and better media literacy by children would be beneficial. For those working in adolescent nutrition it is a reminder that adolescent food choice and intake are subject to many competing, contradictory and non-health-related determinants.

  8. Weight management behaviors in a sample of Iranian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Garousi, S; Garrusi, B; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Z

    2016-09-01

    Attempts to obtain the ideal body shape portrayed in advertising can result in behaviors that lead to an unhealthy reduction in weight. This study was designed to identify contributing factors that may be effective in changing the behavior of a sample of Iranian adolescents. Three hundred fifty adolescent girls from high schools in Kerman, Iran participated in a cross-sectional study based on a self-administered questionnaire. Multifactorial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the factors influencing each of the contributing factors for body management methods, and a decision tree model was constructed to identify individuals who were more or less likely to change their body shape. Approximately one-third of the adolescent girls had attempted dieting, and 37 % of them had exercised to lose weight. The logistic regression model showed that pressure from their mother and the media; father's education level; and body mass index (BMI) were important factors in dieting. BMI and perceived pressure from the media were risk factors for attempting exercise. BMI and perceived pressure from relatives, particularly mothers, and the media were important factors in attempts by adolescent girls to lose weight.

  9. Trends in the Prevalence of Morbid Obesity among Children and Adolescents in Shandong, China, 1995-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xiu; Chu, Zun-Hua; Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Jin-Shan; Zhou, Jing-Yang

    2017-04-17

    : Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades; however, data on the prevalence of morbid obesity is limited. The present study examined the prevalent trends in morbid obesity among children and adolescents during the past 19 years (1995-2014) in Shandong, China. : Data for this study were obtained from five cross-sectional surveys (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014) of schoolchildren in Shandong Province, China. A total of 41 500 students aged 7-18 years were included in this study. Body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define morbid obesity. : The prevalence of morbid obesity was increasing continuously during the past 19 years (1995-2014), from 0.25% for boys and 0.11% for girls in 1995 to 2.73% for boys and 1.29% for girls in 2014. Boys had higher prevalence of morbid obesity than girls ( p <0.01). Regional socioeconomic status (SES) inequalities in morbid obesity were observed; children and adolescents from high SES district had a rapid increase in the prevalence of morbid obesity than their counterparts from moderate SES and low SES districts in the past 19 years. : Although the current prevalence of morbid obesity was at a relatively low level, a continuous increasing trend was observed between 1995 and 2014. We should not relax our vigilance, and policymakers and experts should pay more attention to the monitoring and prevention of morbid obesity among children and adolescents in the future decades.

  10. Empowering adolescent girls: developing egalitarian gender norms and relations to end violence.

    PubMed

    Amin, Avni; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2014-10-21

    On the occasion of the International Day of the Girl Child (October 11), this commentary highlights the problem of violence against adolescent girls. It describes the nature and magnitude of violence faced by adolescent girls, what we know about factors that drive violence against women and against adolescent girls. It highlights the importance of promoting egalitarian gender norms, particularly during adolescence, and empowering women and girls in efforts to end such violence. Finally, it offers lessons learned from some promising interventions in this area.

  11. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  12. Some Problems of Sexual Growth in Adolescent Underprivileged Unwed Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    James, W. F. Bernell; James, Pauline M.; Walker, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    The adolescent female experiences many problems associated with sexual growth. These are greatly compounded in underprivileged black girls, particularly the unwed. Meharry Medical College has established comprehensive programs for the management of special health problems involving adolescent girls. This study presents an overview and statistical study of the psychological and psychosocial forces that confront these underprivileged girls. PMID:904015

  13. "I Can Actually Be a Super Sleuth": Promising Practices for Engaging Adolescent Girls in Cybersecurity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…

  14. The Psychosexual Impacts on Adolescent Girls Viewing Sexually Explicit Internet Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Piper S.

    2014-01-01

    Literature indicates that 72% of adolescent girls are exposed to sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) before the age of 18, and between 2%-30% of girls report intentionally seeking SEIM. Despite the recognition that adolescent girls are consuming SEIM, and that their use impacts behaviors, beliefs, and attitudes, there has been limited…

  15. Emerging Depression Is Associated with Face Memory Deficits in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Amanda E.; Choate, Victoria R.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Pine, Daniel S.; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between memory for previously encoded emotional faces and depression symptoms assessed over 4 years in adolescent girls. Investigating the interface between memory deficits and depression in adolescent girls may provide clues about depression pathophysiology. Method: Participants were 213 girls recruited from…

  16. "I Can Actually Be a Super Sleuth": Promising Practices for Engaging Adolescent Girls in Cybersecurity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani, Monique M.; Memon, Nasir; Seo, Won; Richer, Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing qualitative data gleaned from focus groups with adolescent girls participating in a cybersecurity summer program (N = 38, mean age = 16.3), this study examines the following research questions: (a) How do adolescent girls perceive the cybersecurity field?; and (b) What are the promising practices that engage girls in cybersecurity…

  17. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  18. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  19. African American Adolescent Girls in Impoverished Communities: Parenting Style and Adolescent Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Laura D.; Chase-Lansdale, P. Lindsay

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship between parenting style and adolescent functioning among African American adolescent girls and their mothers living in impoverished neighborhoods. Found that teens whose mothers were disengaged (low on both parental warmth and supervision/monitoring) had the most negative outcomes related to externalizing and internalizing…

  20. Sleep deprivation predisposes gujarati Indian adolescents to obesity.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, Sk

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population.

  1. Sleep Deprivation Predisposes Gujarati Indian Adolescents to Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal; Singh, SK

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Recent studies on various populations indicate that lack of sleep is one of the potential risk factors predisposing the youth to obesity. Since there is a significant rise in obesity among Indian youth and because research indicating the role of sleep in development of obesity among Indian population is scant, the current study was undertaken to assess the effect of sleep duration on adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A randomized cross-sectional study was done on 489 voluntarily participating Indian adolescents in the age group of 16-19 years. Participants were grouped into two categories 1). Adequate Sleep Duration at Night (more than seven hours, ASDN) and 2) Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night (less than seven hours, IASDN) as reported by the participants. The participants were later assessed for adiposity in terms of BMI, BF %, FM, FMI and waist circumference, meal frequency per day and physical activity status. Results: In both boys as well as girls, the BMI, BF%, FM and FMI were significantly lower in the ASDN group than the IASDN group. However, there was an insignificant difference in the meal frequency and physical activity status between the ASDN and IASDN group. Conclusion: Inadequate sleep duration increases adiposity among Gujarati Indian adolescents but further studies are required to find out the mechanisms through which sleep affects adiposity in this population. PMID:20049294

  2. [Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in adolescent girls].

    PubMed

    Henry-suchet, J

    1987-04-01

    Contraception has been a factor in lowering the age at 1st sexual intercourse, which is now about 15 years in France. At that age, changes of partners are frequent, placing sexually active adolescents at high risk of sexually transmitted diseases. 2 risks predominate, those of condyloma following infection with the papilloma virus which exposes patients to risk of dysplasia and cervical cancer, and that of salpingitis with its risk of sterility. Condyloma has become more frequent in adolescents in France in the past 5 years. A comparative study showed that the average age at diagnosis of intraepithelial epithelioma related to condyloma declined by 5 years between 1960-80. The average age of condyloma diagnosis is about 18 years. Condyloma in adolescents should be treated prudently. If resected too soon after the primary infection before formation of antibodies, there is a risk of propagating the virus. Adolescent condyloma represents the major indication for laser treatment after colposcopy and microhysteroscopy have been used to determine the exact limits of the lesion. Patients should be warned of the possibility of return and the need for regular monitoring. Partners should also be treated. Apart from barrier methods, no contraceptive methods are known to affect development of condyloma. Chronic and acute salpingitis are 2 different entities, but both can cause sterility. Of the 100,000 French women diagnosed with salpingitis each year, 1/2 are under 25 and 1/5 are under 20. Salpingitis multiplies the risk of extrauterine pregnancy by 6 and carries a 15% risk of sterility, which doubles with each new episode. 75% of cases of salpingitis are caused by sexually transmitted diseases, with chlamydia trachomatis responsible for about 1/2. The risk of salpingitis in oral contraceptive (OC) users is .2-.9 in relation to women not using contraception. The seriousness of salpingitis is significantly less for OC than for IUD users. On the other hand , various studies have

  3. Promoting Physical Activity in Middle School Girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Larry S.; Catellier, Diane J.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Murray, David M.; Pratt, Charlotte A.; Young, Deborah R.; Elder, John P.; Lohman, Timothy G.; Stevens, June; Jobe, Jared B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is important for weight control and good health; however, activity levels decline in the adolescent years, particularly in girls. Design Group randomized controlled trial Setting/participants Middle school girls with English-speaking skills and no conditions to prevent participation in physical activity in 36 schools in six geographically diverse areas of the United States. Random, cross-sectional samples were drawn within schools: 6th graders in 2003 (n=1721) and 8th graders in 2005 (n=3504) and 2006 (n=3502). Intervention A 2-year study-directed intervention (fall 2003 to spring 2005) targeted schools, community agencies, and girls to increase opportunities, support, and incentives for increased physical activity. Components included programs linking schools and community agencies, physical education, health education, and social marketing. A third-year intervention used school and community personnel to direct intervention activities. Main outcome measures The primary outcome, daily MET-weighted minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MET-weighted MVPA), was assessed using accelerometry. Percent body fat was assessed using anthropometry. Results After the staff-directed intervention (pre-stated primary outcome), there were no differences (mean= −0.4, 95% CI= CI= −8.2 to 7.4) in adjusted MET-weighted MVPA between 8th-grade girls in schools assigned to intervention or control. Following the Program Champion–directed intervention, girls in intervention schools were more physically active than girls in control schools (mean difference 10.9 MET-weighted minutes of MVPA, 95% CI=0.52–21.2). This difference is about 1.6 minutes of daily MVPA or 80 kcal per week. There were no differences in fitness or percent body fat at either 8th-grade timepoint. Conclusion A school-based, community-linked intervention modestly improved physical activity in girls. PMID:18312804

  4. Subgroups of Adolescent Girls With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Slavin-Stewart, Claire; Boylan, Khrista; Burke, Jeffrey D

    2017-09-19

    The aim of this study was to determine whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be differentiated from other disorders in a clinical sample of adolescent girls. Participants (N = 75) were grouped based on the pattern of BPD symptom endorsement using a latent class analysis. Four latent classes were identified. The most impaired class endorsed seven BPD symptoms and an average of three comorbid disorders. An intermediate class endorsed three BPD symptoms and had the highest prevalence of PTSD (41.7%). A third class reported two BPD symptoms and had a high prevalence of anxiety disorders (62%). The fourth class had no BPD symptoms and, on average, one comorbid disorder. Only a small subset of these teenage girls met criteria for BPD, and they had distinct and severe impairment. The results suggest the modest likelihood of a BPD diagnosis in clinical samples of teenage girls, and to also be vigilant for PTSD.

  5. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.

  6. [Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder].

    PubMed

    Reiter, Melanie; Bock, Astrid; Althoff, Marie-Luise; Taubner, Svenja; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2017-05-01

    Mentalization Based Treatment of an Adolescent Girl with Conduct Disorder This paper will give a short overview on the theoretical concept of mentalization and its specific characteristics in adolescence. A previous study on Mentalization based treatment for adolescents (MBT-A) demonstrated the effectiveness of MBT-A for the treatment of adolescents with symptoms of deliberate self-harm (Rossouw u. Fonagy, 2012). Based on the results of this study Taubner, Gablonski, Sevecke, and Volkert (in preparation) developed a manual for mentalization based treatment for adolescents with conduct disorders (MBT-CD). This manual represents the foundation for a future study on the efficacy of the MBT-A for this specific disorder in young people. The present case report demonstrates the application of specific MBT interventions, as well as the therapeutic course over one year in a 16-year old girl who fulfilled all criteria of a conduct disorder. During the course of treatment, the de-escalating relationship-oriented therapeutic approach can be considered as a great strength of MBT-A, especially for patients with conduct disorders. The clinical picture, as well as the psychological assessment, showed a positive progress over the course of treatment. Despite frequent escalations, forced placements due to acute endangerment of self and others, and a precarious situation with the patient's place of residence towards the end of therapy, MBT-A treatment enabled the patient to continually use the evolved mentalizing capabilities as a resource.

  7. Subclinical bulimia predicts conduct disorder in middle adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viinamäki, Anni; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Ruuska, Jaana; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the comorbidity and longitudinal associations between self-reported conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia in a community-based sample of Finnish adolescents in a 2-year prospective follow-up study. There are 2070 adolescents who participated in the survey as ninth graders (mean age 15.5) and followed-up 2 years later. The Youth Self-Report Externalizing scale was used to measure conduct disorder and DSM-IV-based questionnaire to measure bulimia. Co-occurrence of female conduct disorder and subclinical bulimia was found at ages 15 and 17. Subclinical bulimia among girls at age 15 was a risk factor for conduct disorder at age 17, but conduct disorder at age 15 was not predictive of subclinical bulimia at age 17. The pathway from bulimia to conduct disorder may be suggestive of an association with future borderline personality disorder among girls.

  8. Social cognition in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Turkstra, Lyn S.; Abbeduto, Leonard; Meulenbroek, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize social cognition, executive functions (EFs), and everyday social functioning in adolescent girls with fragile X syndrome, and identify relationships among these variables. Participants were 20 girls with FXS and 20 typically developing peers. Results showed significant between-groups differences in social cognition, accounted for by differences in IQ and language. Within the FXS group, IQ and language were related to social cognition; parent-reported social functioning was related to language and EFs; and self-reported social functioning was generally good and not related to cognitive or social cognition variables. Results suggest that intervention might focus on managing language and cognitive contributions to social functioning, rather than social cognition, and underscore the importance of considering parent and adolescent perspectives. (120 words) PMID:25007297

  9. Adolescent girls' preferences for HPV vaccines: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derek S; Poulos, Christine; Johnson, F Reed; Chamiec-Case, Linda; Messonnier, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    To measure adolescent girls' preferences over features of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in order to provide quantitative estimates of the perceived benefits of vaccination and potential vaccine uptake. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) survey was developed to measure adolescent girls' preferences over features of HPV vaccines. The survey was fielded to a U.S. sample of 307 girls aged 13-17 years who had not yet received an HPV vaccine in June 2008. In a latent class logit model, two distinct groups were identified--one with strong preferences against vaccination which largely did not differentiate between vaccine features, and another that was receptive to vaccination and had well-defined preferences over vaccine features. Based on the mean estimates over the entire sample, we estimate that girls' valuation of bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines ranged between $400 and $460 in 2008, measured as willingness-to-pay (WTP). The additional value of genital warts protection was $145, although cervical cancer efficacy was the most preferred feature. We estimate maximum uptake of 54-65%, close to the 53% reported for one dose in 2011 surveillance data, but higher than the 35% for three doses in surveillance data. We conclude that adolescent girls do form clear opinions and some place significant value on HPV vaccination, making research on their preferences vital to understanding the determinants of HPV vaccine demand. DCE studies may be used to design more effective vaccine-promotion programs and for reassessing public health recommendations and guidelines as new vaccines are made available.

  10. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Bradlee, M. Loring; Singer, Martha R.; Moore, Lynn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals, particularly in the context of a healthy diet, are sparse. This study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/non-starchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Methods Data from 1,461 girls followed for 10 years starting at 9-10 years of age in the NHLBI Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight exam cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides at ages 18-20 years. Results After adjusting for age, race, SES, height, activity level, hours of television/day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modeling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat/wk combined with ≥2 servings of fruit/non-starchy vegetables/day had LDL levels about 6-7 mg/dL lower (p<0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/non-starchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg/dL and 41% less likely (OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.83) to have an elevated LDL:HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. Conclusion These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavorable effects on lipid values. PMID:23663235

  11. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…

  12. Developing a Web-Based Intervention to Prevent Drug Use among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinn, Traci Marie; Hopkins, Jessica Elizabeth; Schinke, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Girls' rates of drug use have met up with and, in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Although girls and boys share risk and protective factors associated with drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Interventions to prevent girls' drug use must be tailored to address the dynamics of female adolescence. Methods: One such…

  13. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition of disparities in adolescent obesity: deconstructing both race and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Robinson, Whitney R.; Bleich, Sara N.; Wang, Y. Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze sources of racial and gender disparities in adolescent obesity prevalence in the United States using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Methods Data were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a 2010 nationally representative study of 9th–12th grade students. Obesity status was determined from objective height and weight data; weight-related behaviors and school, home, and environmental data were collected via questionnaire. Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was used to independently analyze racial and gender obesity prevalence differences (PD) – i.e., comparing Black girls to White girls, and Black girls to Black boys. Results Overall, measured characteristics accounted for 46.8% of the racial PD but only 11.9% of the gender PD. Racial PD was associated with Black girls having less fruit/vegetable access at home, obtaining lunch at school more often, and playing fewer sports than White girls. Gender PD was associated with differential associations between physical activity measures – including total activities in the past year and days of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in the past week – and obesity. Conclusions School lunch and home food environmental variables accounted for racial disparities, but not gender disparities, in obesity prevalence. Gender differences in mechanisms between physical activity and obesity should be explored further. PMID:26841122

  14. Contextualising sexual harassment of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Papreen; van Reeuwijk, Miranda; Reis, Ria

    2013-05-01

    Violence against women is a social mechanism confirming women's subordination in many societies. Sexual violence and harassment have various negative psychological impacts on girls, including a persistent feeling of insecurity and loss of self-esteem. This article aims to contextualize a particular form of sexual harassment, namely "eve teasing", experienced by Bangladeshi adolescent girls (12-18 years) which emerged from a study of adolescent sexual behaviour carried out by young people. The study used qualitative methods and a participatory approach, including focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observation. Despite taboos, unmarried adolescents actively seek information about sex, erotic pleasure and romance. Information was easily available from videos, mobile phone clips and pornographic magazines, but reinforced gender inequality. "Eve teasing" was one outlet for boys' sexual feelings; they gained pleasure from it and could show their masculinity. The girls disliked it and were afraid of being blamed for provoking it. Thus, "eve teasing" is a result of socio-cultural norms relating to sexuality, as well as a lack of access to sexual and reproductive health information and services in Bangladesh. These findings underscore the importance of comprehensive sexuality education that goes beyond a mere health focus and addresses gender norms and helps youth to gain social-sexual interaction skills.

  15. Etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Filgueiras, Juliana Fernandes; Oliveira, Fernanda da Costa; Almeida, Sebastião Sousa; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to construct an etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls. A total of 1,358 adolescent girls from four cities participated. The study used psychometric scales to assess disordered eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, media pressure, self-esteem, mood, depressive symptoms, and perfectionism. Weight, height, and skinfolds were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%F). Structural equation modeling explained 76% of variance in disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 74.50; p = 0.001). The findings indicate that body dissatisfaction mediated the relationship between media pressures, self-esteem, mood, BMI, %F, and disordered eating behaviors (F(9, 1,351) = 59.89; p = 0.001). Although depressive symptoms were not related to body dissatisfaction, the model indicated a direct relationship with disordered eating behaviors (F(2, 1,356) = 23.98; p = 0.001). In conclusion, only perfectionism failed to fit the etiological model of disordered eating behaviors in Brazilian adolescent girls.

  16. Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from Serbia in the period 2001-2004 and 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Rakić, Rada; Pavlica, Tatjana; Jovičić, Dubravka

    In recent years an increasing prevalence in overweight and obesity of children and adolescents has been recorded worldwide. Childhood obesity is a risk factor for adulthood obesity. The aim of the study is to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 7-19 in a 10-year long period in Serbia. Cross sectional investigation was conducted in the periods 2001-2004 and 2011-2014. The first investigation included 8965 individuals, 4344 schoolboys and 4621 schoolgirls aged 7-19, while the second investigation included 2507 schoolboys and 3083 schoolgirls. The body mass index (BMI kg m(-2)) was obtained from the recorded height and weight and the assessment of overweight and obesity was based on IOTF reference values. In the first period investigation overweight prevalence was detected in 18% of subjects (21.1% in boys and 15.1% in girls) and obesity prevalence in 5.5% of subjects (6.7% in boys and 4.4% in girls). In the second investigation the overweight and obesity prevalence was observed in 17.4% and 4.5% of subjects, respectively (20.6% in boys and 14.8% in girls; 5.3% in boys and 3.9% in girls). The results indicate that in the ten-year period there has been no increase in the number of overweight and obese children and adolescents in Serbia.

  17. African American adolescent males living with obesity.

    PubMed

    Ashcraft, Pamela F

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to explore, through the concepts of self-perception and meaning, the lived experience of obesity in African American males between the ages of 13-17 years. Hermeneutic phenomenological design was used to guide the study. Thirteen inner-city African American males were enrolled. All participants had a documented body mass index of >95th percentile and were actively receiving treatment at a medical obesity clinic. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth semi-structured interviews. Self-perception and meaning are interrelated and important factors in understanding obesity uniquely from the adolescents view. If individuals do not understand that they are obese then they are unable to assign meaning to obesity within their life. Four main themes were discovered. The main themes were as follows: (1) It Don't Mean Nuthin'; (2) It's Just Me, Who I Am; (3) Something Bad Might Happen; and (4) I'm Confused and I Feel Bad. Patterns emerged that will allow health care workers to engage adolescents on a personal level, thereby increasing the potential for treatment outcomes consistent with weight management clinic goals. To realize successful outcomes for these adolescents, health care providers must incorporate the adolescents' understanding, knowledge, and values related to obesity in treatment planning. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Depressive Symptoms among Adolescent Girls in Relationships with Older Partners: Causes and Lasting Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Jeni; Kelly, Brian C.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on adolescent girls in relationships with older partners suggests a range of negative outcomes for the adolescent. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and a life course perspective, we explore the connection between involvement in age discordant relationships (girls dating males…

  19. The Moral Reasoning of Adolescent Boys and Girls in the Light of Gilligan's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsoom, Farhat; Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Kayani, Muhammad Munir; Kaini, Aneesa

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to assess the moral reasoning of adolescent boys and girls in the light of Gilligan theory. The main objectives of the study were to investigate the moral reasoning of adolescent boys and girls with reference to responsibility orientation versus justice orientation and to compare the frequency of adolescent boys and girls…

  20. 3. Management and prevention of obesity and its complications in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Batch, Jennifer A; Baur, Louise A

    2005-02-07

    Obesity in children and adolescents has reached alarming levels--20%-25% of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and 4.9% of boys and 5.4% of girls are obese. Rates of obesity have increased significantly in Australia from 1985 to 1995, with the prevalence of overweight doubling and obesity trebling. Body mass index (related to reference standards for age and sex) is recommended as a practical measure of overweight and obesity in children, and is used in monitoring individual progress in clinical practice. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may be associated with a range of medical and psychological complications, and can predispose individuals to serious health problems in adult life, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Obesity interventions for which there is some evidence include family support, a developmentally appropriate approach, long-term behaviour modification, dietary change, and increased physical activity and decreased sedentary behaviour. Prevention of obesity in children and adolescents requires a range of strategies involving changes in both the microenvironment (eg, housing, neighbourhoods, recreational opportunities) and the macroenvironment (eg, food marketing, transport systems, urban planning).

  1. Insulin sensitivity and its relation to hormones in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Aldhoon-Hainerová, Irena; Zamrazilová, Hana; Hill, Martin; Hainer, Vojtěch

    2017-02-01

    A subset of obese individuals lacks cardiometabolic impairment. We aimed to analyze hormonal profiles of insulin-sensitive obese (ISO) and insulin-resistant obese (IRO) adolescents and determine hormonal predictors of homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A threshold of 3.16 of HOMA-IR was used to classify ISO (<3.16) IRO (≥3.16). In 702 individuals aged 13-18years (55.8% girls) anthropometric and laboratory [blood glucose, insulin, thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), steroid hormones, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like-peptide 1glucagon, leptin, resistin, visfatin, leptin, adiponectin and adipsin] assessments were performed. Orthogonal projections to latent structures and Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction were applied for statistical analysis. 52.6% girls and 42.9% boys were insulin sensitive. In the predictive model of HOMA-IR thyroid function tests, adiponectin, ghrelin and leptin concentrations played an important role in both genders. Prolactin, testosterone and glucagon contributed to the model only in boys, while progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels only in girls. After Bonferroni correction levels of leptin, adiponectin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, SHBG and fT4/TSH ratio in both genders, testosterone and glucagon levels in boys and levels of TSH and fT3 in girls were related to insulin sensitivity. Metabolic health defined by HOMA-IR is partly predicted by various hormones. Some of them are gender specific. Free T4/TSH and leptin/adiponectin ratios are related to insulin sensitivity in both genders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-esteem in a clinical sample of morbidly obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, P; Höglund, P; Birgerstam, P; Lissau, I; Pietrobelli, A; Flodmark, C-E

    2009-01-01

    To study self-esteem in clinical sample of obese children and adolescents. Obese children and adolescents aged 8-19 years (n = 107, mean age 13.2 years, mean BMI 32.5 [range 22.3-50.6], mean BMI z-score 3.22 [range 2.19-4.79]; 50 boys and 57 girls) were referred for treatment of primary obesity. Self-esteem was measured with a validated psychological test with five subscales: physical characteristics, talents and skills, psychological well-being, relations with the family and relations with others. A linear mixed effect model used the factors gender and adolescence group, and the continuous covariates: BMI z-scores, and BMI for the parents as fixed effects and subjects as random effects. Age and gender, but neither the child's BMI z-score nor the BMI of the parents were significant covariates. Self-esteem decreased (p < 0.01) with age on the global scale as well as on the subscales, and was below the normal level in higher ages in both genders. Girls had significantly lower self-esteem on the global scale (p = 0.04) and on the two subscales physical characteristics (p < 0.01) and psychological well-being (p < 0.01). Self-esteem is lower in girls and decreases with age. In treatment settings special attention should be paid to adolescent girls.

  3. Community Influence on Adolescent Obesity: Race/Ethnic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. Thulitha; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 20,000 adolescents (Add Health data), this study examined the influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity. Multilevel analyses revealed strong evidence for the unique influences of community poverty and race/ethnicity on adolescent obesity net of family characteristics. The prevalence of obesity is…

  4. Paraoxonase (PON)-1 activity in overweight and obese children and adolescents: association with obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Krzystek-Korpacka, Małgorzata; Patryn, Eliza; Hotowy, Katarzyna; Czapińska, Elżbieta; Majda, Jacek; Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, Irena; Noczyńska, Anna; Gamian, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a HDL-attached extracellular esterase which is believed to contribute to the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties of HDL. A decrease in PON1 is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has recently been found to be associated with juvenile obesity. The issue of a possible association between enzyme activity and/or its phenotype distribution and obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, inflammation, and oxidative stress has not been addressed yet. To evaluate PON1 activity and phenotype distribution with respect to obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, inflammation and oxidative stress in children and adolescents. PON1 arylesterase activity was measured spectrophotometrically in 156 children and adolescents (47 lean, 27 overweight and 82 obese). Enzyme phenotype was determined using dual substrate (phenyl acetate/paraoxon) method. PON1 activity and phenotype distribution were related to the presence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high blood pressure, low HDL level, impaired fasting glucose and/or glucose tolerance as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress indices. PON1 arylesterase activity decreased in general and central obesity, high blood pressure, and hyperinsulinemia conditions and correlated with BMI, CRP, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, free thiols, and HOMA in a gender-dependent manner. PON1 decreases were independently associated with central obesity in girls, explaining 17% in PON1 variability, and with elevated CRP in boys, explaining 12% in its variability. PON1 phenotype was not associated with frequency of metabolic abnormalities. PON1 decreases in central obesity, exacerbating obesity-related inflammation and oxidative stress. The enzyme associations are gender-dependent: obesity and oxidative stress affects PON1 in girls whereas inflammation in boys.

  5. No sweat: African American adolescent girls' opinions of hairstyle choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Woolford, Susan J; Woolford-Hunt, Carole J; Sami, Areej; Blake, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity prevalence is higher among African American adolescent (AAA) girls than among non-black girls. Lower levels of physical activity (PA) likely contribute to this disparity; this may be impacted by hairstyle concerns. In 2011, focus groups were conducted with AAA girls 14-17 years old (n = 36) in Michigan (n = 9), California (n = 11), and Georgia (n = 16). Groups addressed perceptions of hairstyles, exercise, and relationships between the two. Groups were recorded, transcripts reviewed, and themes identified. Adolescents completed a standardized ethnic identity (EI) measure and a survey addressing demographics and PA. Linear regression was used to examine associations between self-reported activity and participants' characteristics. Four themes emerged: 1) between ages 8 and 15, when concerns about hairstyles began, participants changed from "juvenile" (natural) styles to "adult" (straightened) styles; 2) participants avoided getting wet or sweating during exercise because their straightened hair became "nappy;" 3) braids with extensions and natural styles were viewed as better for exercise but not very attractive; 4) participants almost universally selected long, straight hairstyles as most attractive. In Michigan and California, EI was positively associated with levels of PA (p < 0.05) and overall having extensions was also positively associated with levels of PA. A preference for straight hair may contribute to AAA girls avoiding certain activities due to concerns about sweat affecting their hair. Furthermore, EI and hairstyle choice appear to be associated with levels of PA for some participants. Efforts to increase AAA girls' PA may benefit from approaches that address hairstyle choices and EI.

  6. Validating Neck Circumference and Waist Circumference as Anthropometric Measures of Overweight/Obesity in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Lipilekha; Pattnaik, Sumitra; Rao, E Venkata; Sahu, Trilochan

    2017-05-15

    To measure neck circumference and waist circumference, to compare it between normal and overweight/obese adolescents, and to validate these with body mass index. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1800 school-going adolescents. Body mass index, waist circumference and neck circumference were measured. Independent samples t-test and Pearson's correlation were used as tests of significance to analyze quantitative data. Positive correlation of neck circumference and waist circumference with body mass index was observed. The neck circumference and waist circumference in overweight/obese adolescents were significantly higher than adolescents with normal body mass index (P<0.001). Area under curve of waist circumference was more than area under curve of neck circumference. Cut-off values of neck circumference for screening adolescent obesity in boys and girls were 30.75 cm, and 29.75 cm, respectively, and waist circumference cut-off value were 70.75 cm for boys and 69.25 cm for girls at fairly good levels of sensitivity and specificity. Neck circumference and waist circumference may be used in clinical practice and epidemiological studies as an index of overweight/ obesity among school-going adolescents.

  7. Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2016-09-01

    The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central precocious puberty in female adolescents is treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. Studies to date have described the association between early menarche and psychosocial problems such as delinquency and risky sexual behavior, as well as physical health problems such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and breast cancer throughout the lifespan of women. However, the pathophysiological mechanism underlying this association has not been clarified thus far. In this article, we review and discuss the existing literature to describe the current understanding of the effects of early menarche on the physical and psychosocial health of adolescent girls and adult women.

  8. Influence of gender, race, and ethnicity on suspected fatty liver in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B; McGreal, Nancy; Deutsch, Reena; Finegold, Milton J; Lavine, Joel E

    2005-05-01

    Fatty liver is a common cause of liver disease in children. However, the epidemiology of pediatric fatty liver is limited to single-center case series of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Obesity and insulin resistance are major established risk factors for NAFLD. The role of gender, race, and ethnicity on the prevalence of fatty liver in obese children is unknown. We recruited obese 12th-grade participants from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health in California, Louisiana, Minnesota, and Texas. Serum samples were collected at school when the participants were well. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was measured by kinetic enzymatic assay, and ALT >40 U/L was defined as abnormal. Causes of abnormal ALT other than NAFLD were excluded by serum testing. A total of 127 obese students (73 female, 54 male) had a mean BMI of 35.2 kg/m2. Unexplained ALT elevation was present in 23% of participants overall. The mean ALT for participants with normal values was 28 U/L and for participants with an abnormal ALT was 56 U/L. Abnormal ALT was significantly more prevalent in boys (44%) than in girls (7%). The prevalence of abnormal ALT differed significantly by race and ethnicity (Hispanic: 36%; white: 22%; black: 14%). Serum ALT value was significantly predicted by the combination of gender, race/ethnicity, and BMI. After controlling for gender and BMI, Hispanic ethnicity significantly predicted greater ALT than black race. In a national, school-based sample of obese adolescents, boys were 6 times more likely than girls to have an unexplained elevated ALT. Given that participants were well and causes of chronic liver disease were excluded, we speculate that obese adolescent boys have an increased prevalence of fatty liver compared with obese adolescent girls. This population-based study also supports the hypothesis that NAFLD is more common in Hispanic adolescents. These findings have implications for both disease screening and studies of fatty liver

  9. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.01). Within the entire sample, VPA and MVPA were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.19 and r = -0.22) (p < 0.05). In the PWC 170 test and isometric strength tests, girls with obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p < 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that lack of physical activity and low physical fitness are important contributing factors in the development and/or maintenance of obesity in African-American girls.

  10. Associations between Dietary Pattern and Depression in Korean Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Ji-young; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Park, Yongsoon

    2015-12-01

    Dietary patterns are important for the physical and psychological development of adolescent girls. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between dietary patterns and depression in this population. We conducted a case-control study in a tertiary university hospital of 849 girls aged 12 to 18 years. The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2012. Participants were identified as having depression if they had scores greater than 16 on the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were obtained using validated Korean-language questionnaires. The subjects' usual dietary patterns during the past 12 months were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire published by the Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Among the 849 enrolled volunteers, 116 were identified as having depressive symptoms. The mean age of the participants was 15.0 ± 1.5 years. The prevalence of girls diagnosed with depression was 13.6%. Multivariate adjusted regression analysis demonstrated that the risk of depression was significantly positively associated with the consumption of instant and processed foods and negatively associated with the intake of green vegetables and 1 to 3 servings/day of fruits, after adjusting for energy intake and menstrual regularity. Additionally, depression was negatively associated with intake of fiber, β-carotene, vitamin B6, vitamin E, vitamin C, potassium, zinc, folate, iron, and copper after adjusting for confounding variables. Consumption of fast foods including ramen noodles, hamburger, pizza, fried food, and other processed foods was associated with increased risk of depression in adolescent girls. Thus, caution is required regarding dietary choices in this population. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An assessment of obese and non obese girls' metabolic rate during television viewing, reading, and resting.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Theodore V; Klesges, Lisa M; Debon, Margaret; Klesges, Robert C; Shelton, Mary Lee

    2006-05-01

    While childhood obesity has been linked to television (TV) viewing, specific mechanisms are not well understood. Obesity related to TV viewing might plausibly be related to decreased physical activity, increased food intake, reductions in metabolic rate, or combinations of these. The current investigation sought to ascertain the metabolic effects of quiet rest, listening to a story, watching a passive TV program, and watching an active TV show. Counter-balanced conditions were presented to 90 pre-pubertal girls ranging in body mass index from underweight to obese. In addition, effects between resting energy expenditure (REE) and race, body mass index, skinfold measures, physical activity, pubertal stage and average hours spent viewing TV were explored. Results indicated no significant differences in metabolic rate between weight groups nor between activity conditions (story listening and TV viewing) and rest conditions. A significant dose-response relationship was found in which REE decreased as average weekly hours of TV viewing increased, after adjusting for body mass index and puberty stage. Additionally, later stages of pubertal development compared to earlier stages were related to higher levels of REE. Results of this study suggest that metabolic rate alone cannot account for the consistently observed relationship between television viewing and obesity. Future studies should focus on energy intake, physical inactivity, or combinations of these with metabolic rate in seeking specific mechanisms responsible for television viewing related to obesity.

  12. Embodied suffering: experiences of fear in adolescent girls with cancer.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Agneta Anderzén; Kihlgren, Annica; Sørlie, Venke

    2008-06-01

    Previously, fear in adolescents with cancer has been sparsely described from an emic perspective. The aim of this study was to illuminate fear in adolescents with personal experience of cancer. The participants were six adolescent girls between the age of 14 and 16 years who were no longer under active treatment for cancer but still went for regular check-ups. Open interviews were conducted. Data were analysed according to the phenomenological hermeneutic method. In the result one main theme was identified: 'an embodied fear--a threat to the personal self'. This theme was built up by three separate but intertwined themes: ;experiencing fear related to the physical body', 'experiencing existential fear' and 'experiencing fear related to the social self'. In the comprehensive understanding the fear was interpreted from youth cultural aspects as well as a holistic perspective. The importance of professionals taking the whole person and their situation into account when meeting the fear is underlined.

  13. Home/family, peer, school, and neighborhood correlates of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Larson, N I; Wall, M M; Story, M T; Neumark-Sztainer, D R

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to (1) identify the most important home/family, peer, school, and neighborhood environmental characteristics associated with weight status and (2) determine the overall contribution of these contexts to explaining weight status among an ethnically/racially diverse sample of adolescents. Surveys and anthropometric measures were completed in 2009-2010 by 2,793 adolescents (53.2% girls, mean age = 14.4 ± 2.0, 81.1% non-white) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota schools. Data representing characteristics of adolescents' environments were collected from parents/caregivers, friends, school personnel, and Geographic Information System sources. Multiple regression models controlled for adolescent age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic status. The variance in body mass index (BMI) z-scores explained by 51 multicontextual characteristics was 24% for boys and 22% for girls. Across models, several characteristics of home/family (e.g., infrequent family meals) and peer environments (e.g., higher proportion of male friends who were overweight) were consistently associated with higher BMI z-scores among both boys and girls. Among girls, additional peer (e.g., lower physical activity among female friends) and neighborhood (e.g., perceived lack of safety) characteristics were consistently associated with higher BMI z-scores. Results underscore the importance of addressing the home/family and peer environments in future research and intervention efforts designed to reduce adolescent obesity. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  14. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p < .001) showed low body satisfaction (44.8%) and fewer girls (p < .001) had high body satisfaction (17.6%) compared to boys (28.5% and 29.0%, respectively). A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between BMI status and gender on body satisfaction F(2, 3243) = 4.10, p = .017, η2 = .003. In boys, body satisfaction was higher in normal weight and underweight in comparison to overweight individuals (p < .001). Underweight girls presented higher body satisfaction than those who were normal weight and overweight (p < .001). Our findings indicated that, in relation to gender, BMI status can be associated with different body satisfaction in adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  15. The Development of Associations Among BMI, Body Dissatisfaction, and Weight and Shape Concern in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine how the associations among BMI and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. Methods We analyze data from 9–18-year-olds from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. Youth (n= 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Results Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Conclusions Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender-specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. PMID:23084175

  16. Low-grade systemic inflammation and suboptimal bone mineral density throughout adolescence: a prospective study in girls.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Raquel; Ramos, Elisabete; Oliveira, Andreia; Monjardino, Teresa; Barros, Henrique

    2012-11-01

    We aimed at quantifying the associations between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and forearm bone mineral density (BMD) throughout adolescence in overweight and normal-weight girls. Prospective cohort study. 346 girls born in 1990 and attending schools in Porto, Portugal. Adolescents were evaluated at 13 and 17 years of age using a standard protocol. Forearm BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment included weight, height, body fat percentage and waist circumference. Girls were categorized according to age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) percentiles as normal weight in both evaluations or overweight in at least one assessment. Pubertal development was estimated using menarche age. Serum hs-CRP was determined using particle-enhanced immunonephelometry. Hs-CRP was log-transformed, and associations were quantified using linear regression coefficients and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). An inverse association between hs-CRP and BMD was observed from 13 years of age in overweight girls [-11·26 mg/cm(2) (-21·99, -0·52)]. Among normal-weight adolescents, 13-year-old hs-CRP was negatively associated with prospective BMD variation between 13 and 17 years of age [-1·90 mg/cm(2) year (-3·35, -0·45)]. Overweight girls who maintained higher levels of hs-CRP throughout adolescence had lower 17-year-old BMD (adjusted mean 0·441 vs 0·483 g/cm(2) in those who remained with lower levels of hs-CRP). At 17 years of age, significant inverse associations were found between hs-CRP and BMD among normal-weight and overweight girls. Obesity-related early systemic inflammation might be involved in suboptimal bone accrual, particularly in overweight girls. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Myocardial Tissue Remodeling in Adolescent Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ravi V.; Abbasi, Siddique A.; Neilan, Tomas G.; Hulten, Edward; Coelho‐Filho, Otavio; Hoppin, Alison; Levitsky, Lynne; de Ferranti, Sarah; Rhodes, Erinn T.; Traum, Avram; Goodman, Elizabeth; Feng, Henry; Heydari, Bobak; Harris, William S.; Hoefner, Daniel M.; McConnell, Joseph P.; Seethamraju, Ravi; Rickers, Carsten; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Jerosch‐Herold, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Although ventricular remodeling has been reported in obese youth, early tissue‐level markers within the myocardium that precede organ‐level alterations have not been described. Methods and Results We studied 21 obese adolescents (mean age, 17.7±2.6 years; mean body mass index [BMI], 41.9±9.5 kg/m2, including 11 patients with type 2 diabetes [T2D]) and 12 healthy volunteers (age, 15.1±4.5 years; BMI, 20.1±3.5 kg/m2) using biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to phenotype cardiac structure, function, and interstitial matrix remodeling by standard techniques. Although left ventricular ejection fraction and left atrial volumes were similar in healthy volunteers and obese patients (and within normal body size‐adjusted limits), interstitial matrix expansion by CMR extracellular volume fraction (ECV) was significantly different between healthy volunteers (median, 0.264; interquartile range [IQR], 0.253 to 0.271), obese adolescents without T2D (median, 0.328; IQR, 0.278 to 0.345), and obese adolescents with T2D (median, 0.376; IQR, 0.336 to 0.407; P=0.0001). ECV was associated with BMI for the entire population (r=0.58, P<0.001) and with high‐sensitivity C‐reactive protein (r=0.47, P<0.05), serum triglycerides (r=0.51, P<0.05), and hemoglobin A1c (r=0.76, P<0.0001) in the obese stratum. Conclusions Obese adolescents (particularly those with T2D) have subclinical alterations in myocardial tissue architecture associated with inflammation and insulin resistance. These alterations precede significant left ventricular hypertrophy or decreased cardiac function. PMID:23963758

  18. Association of adrenergic receptor gene polymorphisms with adolescent obesity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Chi-Neu; Lee, Yun-Shien; Pei, Jen-Sheng

    2012-02-01

    Polymorphisms of β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and β3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) have been reported to be associated with obesity in adults and adolescents, although study results have been controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of polymorphisms of ADRB2 (Arg16Gly, Gln27Glu) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) with adolescent obesity in Taiwan. A total of 559 adolescent volunteers with equal numbers female and male were enrolled. Participants were divided into two groups: obese (body mass index [BMI]≥ 95th percentile) and normal weight (BMI 15th-85th percentile). Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal mucosa cells and genotyped in TaqMan assays. Genotype results and clinical subject characteristics were analyzed. Among the three ADRB polymorphisms, only Arg16Gly polymorphism was found to be significantly correlated with adolescent obesity, especially in girls. Girls with genotype Gly/Gly had a lower probability of obesity than those with genotypes Arg/Gly or Arg/Arg (P= 0.006; Arg/Gly: odds ratio [OR], 2.57, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.22-5.41; Arg/Arg: OR, 3.03, 95%CI: 1.50-6.12). Girls with genotype Gly/Gly had lower BMI than those with genotype Arg/Arg (P= 0.049). Obese adolescents with genotype Gly/Gly had a lower probability of hypertension than those with genotype Arg/Gly or Arg/Arg (P= 0.005). Arg16Gly polymorphism of ADRB2 was significantly associated with obesity in female adolescents, and those with the Gly/Gly genotype were associated with a lower possibility of obesity and lower BMI. This polymorphism was also associated with a lower probability of hypertension in obese adolescents. The other two polymorphisms of ADRB (Gln27Glu and Trp64Arg) were not associated with adolescent obesity in Taiwan. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Katherine E.; Golden, Neville H.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN. PMID:26740918

  20. Abnormal white matter properties in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Travis, Katherine E; Golden, Neville H; Feldman, Heidi M; Solomon, Murray; Nguyen, Jenny; Mezer, Aviv; Yeatman, Jason D; Dougherty, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that typically emerges during adolescence and occurs most frequently in females. To date, very few studies have investigated the possible impact of AN on white matter tissue properties during adolescence, when white matter is still developing. The present study evaluated white matter tissue properties in adolescent girls with AN using diffusion MRI with tractography and T1 relaxometry to measure R1 (1/T1), an index of myelin content. Fifteen adolescent girls with AN (mean age = 16.6 years ± 1.4) were compared to fifteen age-matched girls with normal weight and eating behaviors (mean age = 17.1 years ± 1.3). We identified and segmented 9 bilateral cerebral tracts (18) and 8 callosal fiber tracts in each participant's brain (26 total). Tract profiles were generated by computing measures for fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 along the trajectory of each tract. Compared to controls, FA in the AN group was significantly decreased in 4 of 26 white matter tracts and significantly increased in 2 of 26 white matter tracts. R1 was significantly decreased in the AN group compared to controls in 11 of 26 white matter tracts. Reduced FA in combination with reduced R1 suggests that the observed white matter differences in AN are likely due to reductions in myelin content. For the majority of tracts, group differences in FA and R1 did not occur within the same tract. The present findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological factors underlying white matter changes associated with AN and invite further investigations examining associations between white matter properties and specific physiological, cognitive, social, or emotional functions affected in AN.

  1. Menstrual disorders in adolescent school girls in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankwo, Theophilus O; Aniebue, Uzochukwu U; Aniebue, Patricia N

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence, pattern of menstrual disorders, treatment practices, and the effect of menstrual disorders on school attendance in adolescent school girls in Enugu, Nigeria. Cross-sectional survey. Randomly selected secondary schools. Postmenarcheal adolescent school girls aged 10-19 years. Pretested, semi-structured questionnaires were used to survey 500 consenting students. The main outcome measures were menstrual disorders. Data was analyzed using SPSS for windows version 15. Data was compared using chi-square test and P ≤ 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. Four hundred ninety-five students responded giving a response rate of 99%. The mean age of the girls was 14.9 ± 1.7 years. Most were Christians (99.2%) and their mean age of menarche was 12.7 ± 1.3 years. The prevalence of menstrual disorders was 69.4% and dysmenorrhea, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and short menstrual cycles were the commonest disorder. Being older, later age of menarche, and being domiciled in the boarding house were significantly associated with menstrual disorders (P < 0.05). Dysmenorrhea was responsible for the greatest number of school abscences. The mean days of school absenteeism was 1.8 ± 1.2. In 80% of cases paracetamol, aspirin, or piroxican were the drugs used for symptom relief. Only 16.3% of respondents ever consulted a doctor for their menstrual disorders. There was a high prevalence of menstrual disorders as well as a high rate of non-expert treatment of the disorders. This underscores the need for awareness creation. Parents and adolescents should consult trained practitioners when significant menstrual disorder occurs in order to rule out or treat associated or underlying medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutritional and behavioral determinants of adolescent obesity: a case-control study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Roopasingam, Tharrmini; Wickramasighe, V P

    2014-12-17

    Global prevalence of adolescent obesity is rising at an alarming rate leading to increase risk of adult obesity. Obesity in adolescence is postulated to have a significant impact on both physical and psychological health of an individual. The study aim was to identify nutritional and behavioral risk factors associated with obesity among adolescent Sri Lankan school girls. In this case-control study, age and ethnicity matched 100 cases (BMI-for-age above +2SD) and 100 controls (BMI-for-age between -2SD to +1 SD) adolescent girls between 14 to 18 years of age were recruited. Predicted risk factors of obesity were assessed through an interviewer administrated questionnaire. A three day diet diary and long version of international physical activity questionnaire were used to assess daily energy intake and energy expenditure from physical activity, respectively. The significant differences in mean values were evaluated using paired t-test. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk factors associated with obesity. Obese girls had significantly higher BMI (31.3, 20.2 kgm-2 p < 0.0001), waist circumference (90.8, 68.2 cm p < 0.0001), energy intake (2235.4, 1921.7 kcal p < 0.0001) and lower energy expenditure from physical activity (894.6, 1844.3 MET (metabolic equivalent)-min/week p < 0.0001). High family income (Odds ratio [OR], 2.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-7.88), first born in family (2.73, 1.25-5.97), skipping breakfast (3.99, 1.81-8.80), consumption of fruits < 4 days per week (2.18, 1.02-4.67), screen viewing > 2 hours/ day (2.96, 1.33-6.61), energy intake (3.97, 3.19-16.36), significantly increased the risk of obesity, whereas increased physical activity (4.34, 1.33-14.14) decreased the risk. Irregular menstruation (4.34, 1.33-14.14) was noted among the obese. Socioeconomic and behavior factors are major determinants of adolescent obesity in Sri Lanka. There is an urgent need to implement awareness

  3. Cycling peak power in obese and lean 6- to 8-year-old girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Aucouturier, Julien; Lazaar, Nordine; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Ratel, Sebastien; Duché, Pascale

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible effect of the difference in percentage body fat (%BF) and fat-free mass (FFM) on cycling peak power (CPP) in 6- to 8-year-old obese and lean untrained girls and boys. Obese (35 girls, 35 boys) and lean (35 girls, 35 boys) children were measured for obesity, %BF, calculated from skinfold measurements. FFM was calculated as body mass (BM) minus body fat. A force-velocity test on a cycle ergometer was used to measure CPP. CPP was related to anthropometric variables using standard and allometric models. CPP in absolute terms was higher in obese children than in lean children irrespective of gender. BM-related CPP was significantly lower in obese children than in lean ones, whereas no effect of obesity appeared on FFM-related CPP. Velocity at CPP (Vopt) was significantly lower and force at CPP (Fopt) was significantly higher in girls than in boys. Muscle power production was unaffected by obesity in children. Low BM-related CPP could explain the difficulty of taking up physical activities that are body-mass related in obese children. Gender difference for Vopt and Fopt shows that girls and boys may have different maturation patterns affecting CPP.

  4. Combatting anemia in adolescent girls: a report from India.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S

    1994-01-01

    In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting

  5. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Abigail A.; Silver, Shari H.; Veague, Heather B.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression describes a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls; and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. We found that relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are relatively less sensitive to relational aggression. PMID:20614370

  7. Overweight and obesity and associated factors among school-aged adolescents in Ghana and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in low income African countries (Ghana, Uganda). The total sample included 5,613 school children aged 13 to 15 years from nationally representative samples from two African countries. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behavior, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 10.4% among girls and 3.2% among boys, and 0.9% and 0.5% obesity only among girls and boys, respectively. Among girls smoking cigarettes and loneliness and among boys smoking cigarettes were found to be associated with overweight or obesity in multivariable analysis. Overweight status was not associated with the intake of fruits, vegetables, and sedentary behavior. Low prevalence rates of overweight or obesity were found in Ghana and Uganda. Smoking cessation and social programs could be integrated into strategies to prevent and treat overweight and obesity in youth.

  8. Dysmenorrhea in a multiethnic population of adolescent Asian girls.

    PubMed

    Wong, Li Ping; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2010-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, its impact, and the treatment-seeking behavior of adolescent Asian girls. A cross-sectional study with 1092 girls from 15 public secondary schools and 3 ethnic groups in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Overall, 74.5% of the girls who had reached menarche had dysmenorrhea; 51.7% of these girls reported that it affected their concentration in class; 50.2% that it restricted their social activities; 21.5% that it caused them to miss school; and 12.0% that it caused poor school performance. Ethnicity and form at school were significantly associated with the poor concentration, absenteeism, and restriction of social and recreational activities attributed to dysmenorrhea. Only 12.0% had consulted a physician, and 53.3% did nothing about their conditions. There were ethnic differences in the prevalence, impact, and management of dysmenorrhea. There is a need for culture-specific education regarding menstruation-related conditions in the school curriculum. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Being a Girl in a Boys' World: Investigating the Experiences of Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to…

  10. Being a Girl in a Boys' World: Investigating the Experiences of Girls with Autism Spectrum Disorders during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cridland, Elizabeth K.; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Magee, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the experiences of adolescent girls with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) during adolescence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three mother-daughter dyads and two additional mothers. A range of issues were highlighted covering physical, emotional, social and sexual domains. Some of these issues were similar to…

  11. Teasing and weight-control behaviors in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Ana Carolina B.; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between weight teasing, body satisfaction and weight control behaviors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study based on adaptation and validity research of a North American questionnaire for adolescent girls about physical activity, nutrition, body image, perceptions, and behaviors. The variables used to conduct the study were weight control behaviors, body satisfaction and presence of teasing by family members. Descriptive analyses were carried out by chi-square test, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: A total of 159 adolescent girls, with 16.2±1.3 years old were enrolled in this study. Of the total, 60.1% reported that family members did not tease them. The teasing was associated with weight dissatisfaction (p<0.001), body shape (p=0.006), belly (p=0.001), waist (p=0.001), face (p=0.009), arms (p=0.014) and shoulders (p=0.001). As a consequence, there was association with unhealthy weight control behaviors (p<0.001), vomiting (p=0,011), diet (p=0.002) and use of laxatives (p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: The teasing about body image by family members was associated with risk for unhealthy weight control behaviors in female adolescents. PMID:24473946

  12. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement.

    PubMed

    Grossman, David C; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Curry, Susan J; Barry, Michael J; Davidson, Karina W; Doubeni, Chyke A; Epling, John W; Kemper, Alex R; Krist, Alex H; Kurth, Ann E; Landefeld, C Seth; Mangione, Carol M; Phipps, Maureen G; Silverstein, Michael; Simon, Melissa A; Tseng, Chien-Wen

    2017-06-20

    Based on year 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts, approximately 17% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 19 years in the United States have obesity, and almost 32% of children and adolescents are overweight or have obesity. Obesity in children and adolescents is associated with morbidity such as mental health and psychological issues, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic problems, and adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes (eg, high blood pressure, abnormal lipid levels, and insulin resistance). Children and adolescents may also experience teasing and bullying behaviors based on their weight. Obesity in childhood and adolescence may continue into adulthood and lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes or other obesity-related morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes. Although the overall rate of child and adolescent obesity has stabilized over the last decade after increasing steadily for 3 decades, obesity rates continue to increase in certain populations, such as African American girls and Hispanic boys. These racial/ethnic differences in obesity prevalence are likely a result of both genetic and nongenetic factors (eg, socioeconomic status, intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food, and having a television in the bedroom). To update the 2010 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for obesity in children 6 years and older. The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for obesity in children and adolescents and the benefits and harms of weight management interventions. Comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions (≥26 contact hours) in children and adolescents 6 years and older who have obesity can result in improvements in weight status for up to 12 months; there is inadequate evidence regarding the effectiveness of less intensive interventions. The harms of behavioral interventions can be bounded as small to none, and the harms of screening are minimal. Therefore, the USPSTF

  13. Longitudinal Associations Between Sedentary Behavior of Adolescent Girls, Their Mothers, and Best Friends.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Riso, Eva-Maria

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the prospective relationship and changes in sedentary behavior between adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends over time. The results are based on 122 girls aged 11-12 years at baseline measurement, their mothers and best friends who completed ecological momentary assessment diary for the assessment of sedentary behavior. All measurements were taken at 3 time points separated by one year. We used structural equation modeling to examine associations among sedentary behavior of adolescent girls, their mothers and best friends. A linear growth model for adolescent girls' and their best friends' sedentary behavior fit the data well, revealing an overall significant increase in sedentary behavior across time. Initial levels of mothers' and best friends' sedentary behavior were positively related with sedentary behavior of adolescent girls. The changes of adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior across 3 years were positively related. Cross-lagged panel analysis demonstrated significant reciprocal effects between adolescent girls' and best friends' sedentary behavior. Mothers' sedentary behavior at baseline predicted daughters' sedentary behavior at 1-year follow-up and vice versa. From early to midadolescence, changes in adolescent girls' sedentary behavior were associated with changes in best friends' sedentary behavior. These findings suggest reciprocal associations between sedentary behavior of adolescent girls and their best friends.

  14. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  15. Eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in Japanese adolescent girls and boys in high schools.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Noma, Shun'ichi; Nin, Kazuko; Teramukai, Satoshi; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-12-15

    To investigate eating disorder behaviors and attitudes in adolescents, we administered the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q) to Japanese adolescent girls and boys. The EDE-Q global scores in Japanese girls and boys, respectively, were significantly lower than those in girls and boys in previous studies. Objective binge eating episodes and extreme dietary restriction were the common behaviors, whereas self-induced vomiting and the misuse of laxatives were uncommon. Differences in the EDE-Q data between Japanese adolescents and adolescents in previous studies from Western countries suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology in adolescents.

  16. Binge Eating and Weight-Related Quality of Life in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M.; Columbo, Kelli M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Cassidy, Omni; Matheson, Brittany E.; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Checchi, Jenna M.; Keil, Margaret; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Limited data exist regarding the association between binge eating and quality of life (QOL) in obese adolescent girls and boys. We, therefore, studied binge eating and QOL in 158 obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) adolescents (14.5 ± 1.4 years, 68.0% female, 59% African-American) prior to weight-loss treatment. Youth completed an interview to assess binge eating and a questionnaire measure of QOL. Controlling for body composition, binge eating youth (n = 35), overall, reported poorer QOL in domains of health, mobility, and self-esteem compared to those without binge eating (ps < 0.05). Also, girls, overall, reported poorer QOL than boys in activities of daily-living, mobility, self-esteem, and social/interpersonal functioning (ps < 0.05). Girls with binge eating reported the greatest impairments in activities of daily living, mobility, self-esteem, social/interpersonal functioning, and work/school QOL (ps < 0.05). Among treatment-seeking obese adolescents, binge eating appears to be a marker of QOL impairment, especially among girls. Prospective and treatment designs are needed to explore the directional relationship between binge eating and QOL and their impact on weight outcomes. PMID:22666544

  17. How can we help adolescent girls avoid HIV infection?

    PubMed

    Helitzer-allen, D; Makhambera, M

    1993-05-01

    90% OF Malawi's 9 million inhabitants live in rural areas. Although tradition dictates that young females abstain from engaging in sexual relations until being initiated by a traditional adviser following the initial onset on menses, many preinitiation and premenstrual girls break tradition and say that they receive school fees and gifts in exchange for sex. While these village girls may know that AIDS can kill, most think that they are not at risk. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior were assessed by live-in researchers in a sample of 258 girls aged 10-18 in 2 villages over the period 1991-92. Focus groups were held, in initiations attended and observed, and interviews conducted with girls, mothers, grandmothers, and village leaders. 300 female adolescents were then surveyed in 10 other villages. 70% of the girls had sex before either initiation or menstruation with the average age at first intercourse of 13.6 years. 80% of the girls had heard of AIDS and 14% thought they had a good or moderate chance of contracting it, yet they expressed a far higher perceived risk of contracting other sexually transmitted diseases. These benefits were obtained from radio, church, and word-of-mouth messages that AIDS is transmitted by easy partners, bar girls, and truck drivers, and from someone who looks very ill from AIDS. 55% said they are often forced to have sex; 66% have accepted money or gifts for sex; and 75% would like help in learning how to convince a boy to use a condom. Grandmothers and other elders tell girls about menstruation, hygiene, and illness, while sex education comes largely from peers. Were there widespread motivation to employ condoms, condoms are accessible only in the district hospital which is a 25-mile round trim for many; all surveyed community members favored eventual community-based condom distribution. Study results suggest that disseminating messages through existing communication channels of grandmothers, other elder women, and peers could help

  18. Predicting Energy Expenditure from Accelerometry Counts in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    SCHMITZ, KATHRYN H.; TREUTH, MARGARITA; HANNAN, PETER; MCMURRAY, ROBERT; RING, KIMBERLY B.; CATELLIER, DIANE; PATE, RUSS

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Methods Seventy-four girls aged 13–14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (Kj·min−1) from accelerometer counts. Results Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight–adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ·min−1) for individual activities ranged from −0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ·min−1) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute − 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) − 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute − 3000)/100]2 + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute − 3000)/100) × (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ·min−1. Conclusions We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity. PMID:15632682

  19. Predicting energy expenditure from accelerometry counts in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Kathryn H; Treuth, Margarita; Hannan, Peter; McMurray, Robert; Ring, Kimberly B; Catellier, Diane; Pate, Russ

    2005-01-01

    Calibration of accelerometer counts against oxygen consumption to predict energy expenditure has not been conducted in middle school girls. We concurrently assessed energy expenditure and accelerometer counts during physical activities on adolescent girls to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure. Seventy-four girls aged 13-14 yr performed 10 activities while wearing an Actigraph accelerometer and a portable metabolic measurement unit (Cosmed K4b2). The activities were resting, watching television, playing a computer game, sweeping, walking 2.5 and 3.5 mph, performing step aerobics, shooting a basketball, climbing stairs, and running 5 mph. Height and weight were also assessed. Mixed-model regression was used to develop an equation to predict energy expenditure (EE) (kJ.min(-1)) from accelerometer counts. Age (mean [SD] = 14 yr [0.34]) and body-weight-adjusted correlations of accelerometer counts with EE (kJ.min(-1)) for individual activities ranged from -0.14 to 0.59. Higher intensity activities with vertical motion were best correlated. A regression model that explained 85% of the variance of EE was developed: [EE (kJ.min(-1)) = 7.6628 + 0.1462 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100] + 0.2371 (body weight in kilograms) - 0.00216 [(Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100](2) + 0.004077 [((Actigraph counts per minute - 3000)/100) x (body weight in kilograms)]. The MCCC = 0.85, with a standard error of estimate = 5.61 kJ.min(-1). We developed a prediction equation for kilojoules per minute of energy expenditure from Actigraph accelerometer counts. This equation may be most useful for predicting energy expenditure in groups of adolescent girls over a period of time that will include activities of broad-ranging intensity, and may be useful to intervention researchers interested in objective measures of physical activity.

  20. The worldwide epidemic of obesity in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Michael; Booth, Michael

    2003-02-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity affecting adolescents worldwide. Both in developing and in developed countries, adolescents are increasingly becoming more obese. The number of adolescents exceeding previously identified cut-points as well as the weight and fatness of the most obese individuals is increasing at a progressive rate. Despite their benign appearance, epidemics of noncommunicable disease (or their risk factors) are no less devastating to the health of populations. The two key responses to any epidemic are to discover the causes of the epidemic disease and to characterize the epidemic. The latter needs to occur in relation to prevalence, distribution across the populations (are some population groups more likely to be affected than others?), and secular trends. This chapter reviews what is currently known about the epidemiology of overweight and obesity among adolescents throughout the world. To clarify terms of epidemiology, this chapter first identifies what are considered the most appropriate measures of adiposity and defines how much fat is too much fat.

  1. Fat distribution, physical activity and cardiovascular risk among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    White, J; Jago, R

    2013-03-01

    It is not clear whether changes in waist circumference (WC), sums of skinfold thickness (SSF), or levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence are associated with cardiovascular risk factors, or if associations are independent or interactive. In a US cohort of adolescent girls (n = 617-904) girls, examined at ages 12 and 14, WC, SSF, PA, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP & DBP) were assessed. Fasting blood samples were used to determine concentrations of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL-C and LDL-C), and apolipoprotein A1 and B (Apo-A1 and Apo-B). After adjustment for change in SSF and PA, increases in WC were associated with change in TG (z = 1.73, 95% CI = 0.77, 2.69), TC (z = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.90), HDL-C (z = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.37, -0.01), LDL-C (z = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.80), Apo-A1 (z = -0.52, 95% CI = -1.02, -0.02), Apo-B (z = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.24, 0.97) and SBP levels (z = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.47). Associations between changes in SSF and PA with cardiovascular risk were eliminated after adjustment for WC, and all interactions between WC, SSF and PA were non-significant at conventional levels. Changes in WC were independently associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors, whereas changes in SSF and PA were not. Clinicians should consider the routine screening of WC to monitor cardiovascular health in adolescent girls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Menstrual characteristics in some adolescent girls in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Gumanga, S K; Kwame-Aryee, R A

    2012-03-01

    Menstruation has a variable pattern within a few years of menarche which may not be well understood by many adolescent girls. Providing accurate information on menstruation is necessary to reduce anxiety, menstrual morbidity and improve reproductive health of these adolescents. To determine the age at menarche, duration of menstruation, length of menstrual cycle, regularity of menstrual cycle, prevalence of dysmenorrhoea and sources of information on menstruation. S(T) Mary's Senior Secondary School, Accra. Cross-sectional descriptive study using self-administered questionnaire. Four hundred and fifty six girls whose ages ranged from 14-19 years with mean and median ages of 16 ± 0.93 years and 16 years respectively were surveyed. Their ages at menarche ranged from 9 years to 16 years and the mean age at menarche was 12.5 ±1.28 years. Their menstrual cycle lengths ranged from 21-35 days with mean menstrual cycle length of 27.9± 0.9 days; the mode and median were both 28 days. The mean duration of menstrual flow was 4.9 days with mode and median of 5 days. Seventy one percent (n=449) had menses lasting 3-5 days while 27.2% had menses lasting over 5 days. Some 24% (n=409) had irregular menses six months after their menarche and 59.6% (n=453) were experiencing menses with clots. The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea was 74.4% (n=453). Some 80.2% (n=378) of the girls got counselling and education on care for their menses from their parents. The age at menarche and other menstrual characteristics observed in this study are similar to adolescent menstrual characteristics described by studies in other populations in the world.

  3. Lean red meat consumption and lipid profiles in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Bradlee, M L; Singer, M R; Moore, L L

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption often fail to distinguish between leaner and fattier or processed cuts of meat. Red meat has also been frequently linked with less healthy diet patterns. Data exploring the health effects of lean red meat in younger individuals are scarce, particularly in the context of a healthy diet. The present study examined the effects of lean red meat in combination with higher intakes of fruit/nonstarchy vegetables on lipid profiles in older adolescent girls. Data from 1461 girls who were followed for 10 years, starting at 9-10 years of age, in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study were used. Diet was assessed using multiple sets of 3-day records collected over eight examination cycles. Outcome measures included fasting levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-HDL-C and triglycerides at age 18-20 years. After adjusting for age, race, socioeconomic status, height, activity level, hours of television per day, and intakes of whole grains and dairy foods using multivariable modelling, girls consuming ≥6 oz lean red meat per week combined with two or more servings of fruit/nonstarchy vegetables per day had LDL-C levels approximately 6-7 mg dL(-1) lower (P < 0.05) than girls with lower intakes of lean red meat and fruit/nonstarchy vegetables. In addition, girls with higher intakes of both were 33% less likely (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-0.94) to have an LDL-C ≥110 mg dL(-1) and 41% less likely (odds ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-0.83) to have an elevated LDL : HDL ratio (≥2.2) at the end of adolescence. These analyses suggest that lean red meat may be included in a healthy adolescent diet without unfavourable effects on lipid values. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. The problem of obesity among adolescents in Hong Kong: a comparison using various diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Gary TC; Ozaki, Risa; Wong, Gary WK; Kong, Alice PS; So, Wing-Yee; Tong, Peter CY; Chan, Michael HM; Ho, Chung-Shun; Lam, Christopher WK; Chan, Juliana CN

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity is now a global epidemic. In this study, we aimed to assess the rates of obesity using several major diagnostic criteria in Chinese school adolescents in Hong Kong. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Using a computer-generated coding system, we randomly selected schools from different geographical regions in Hong Kong to obtain a representative sample. Subjects aged 11–18 years of age were randomly selected from different class of the schools. Their rates of obesity according to four different international and local criteria were compared [International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) 2000 criterion; the Group of China Obesity Task Force (COTF) 2004 criterion; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 Growth Charts and the Hong Kong Growth Survey (HKGS) charts in 1993]. Results Of the 2098 adolescents [982 (46.8%) boys and 1116 (53.2%) girls], the mean age (± SD) was 15.1 ± 1.8 years (range: 11–18 years; median: 15.0 years). The crude rates of obesity were similar based on IOTF, COTF or CDC criteria (boys: 3.9–6.0%, girls: 1.8–3.7%), however, the rate increased to 11–27% if the HKGS charts were used. Obesity rate varied markedly according to age. It decreased from 8–10% among those aged 12–13 years to 2–4% among those aged 17–18 years. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity in Hong Kong adolescents using various diagnostic criteria were similar except for the 1993 HKGS criteria, which gave an exceeding high figure. Using the IOTF, COTF or CDC criteria, the adolescent obesity in Hong Kong varied from 1.8% to 6.0%. PMID:18315886

  5. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mean plasma ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression analysis to determine the predictors of ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  6. Soy Intervention in Adolescent Girls: Design and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Caryn; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Petitpain, Debra; Hebshi, Sandra; Novotny, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of implementing a soy intervention in female adolescents. Twenty girls, ages 8 to 14, were recruited to consume 1 daily serving of soymilk or soy nuts. They also provided 9 weekly urine samples over a 2-month period. Information about the study foods and procedures was collected through post-study questionnaires. Adherence to the intervention was successful using strategies that addressed both girls’ and mothers’ needs. The use of conveniently packaged soy foods, activities to maintain motivation, and frequent contact maintained participation. Future studies should also consider the maturity and sense of responsibility of participants to achieve compliance. PMID:15544729

  7. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  8. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  9. Psychosocial correlates of adolescent obesity, 'slimming down' and 'becoming obese'.

    PubMed

    Sweeting, Helen; Wright, Charlotte; Minnis, Helen

    2005-11-01

    (a) To examine how self-reported well-being, weight-related concerns, self-image, peer relationships and psychiatric disorders are associated with obesity at ages 11 and 15 years. (b) To identify and describe those who "slim down" (become nonobese) or "become obese". A cohort of 2127 school pupils was surveyed at ages 11 and 15 years. At each age, those with body mass index above the 95th percentile for age and gender were categorized as obese. Characteristics associated with obesity, "slimming down" and "becoming obese" were examined using ANOVA and chi-square procedures for univariate, and logistic regression for multivariate analyses. At age 11, 9.6% (males) and 10.5% (females) were obese, compared with 10.5% (males) and 11.6% (females) at age 15. "Slimming down" occurred for 3.5% of the total sample, whereas 4.5% "became obese." Obesity was associated with significant but small differences in low mood (males at 11) and self-esteem (males at 11, females at both ages), and reduced rates of behavior disorders (data on psychiatric disorders available only at age 15). Obesity was associated with weight-related worries, dieting, and poor self-rated appearance, but not most measures of peer relationships, except that obese 11-year-olds experienced greater victimization, partly accounting for their poorer well-being. In comparison with the continuously nonobese, those who "became obese" had lower prior self-esteem and greater victimization, but improvements in well-being and relative reductions in victimization by age 15. "Slimming down" was related to neither prior nor subsequent well-being in comparison with continual obesity, but was associated with better age 15 mood in comparison with continual nonobesity. Although overweight was fairly stable, there were shifts in and out of the obese category during adolescence. Obesity during this life-stage, though strongly related to worries about putting on weight and self-report dieting, was associated with only small

  10. Nocturnal indicators of increased cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Woods, Michael J; Byrne, Michelle L; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2016-04-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and recent literature suggests preclinical signs of cardiovascular risk are also present in depressed adolescents. No study has examined the effect of clinical depression on cardiovascular factors during sleep. This study examined the relationship between clinical depression and nocturnal indicators of cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls from the general community (13-18 years old; 11 clinically depressed, eight healthy control). Continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored via Portapres and electrocardiogram, respectively. Cardiovascular data were averaged over each hour for the first 6 h of sleep, as well as in 2-min epochs of stable sleep that were then averaged within sleep stages. Data were also averaged across 2-min epochs of pre-sleep wakefulness and the first 5 min of continuous non-rapid eye movement sleep to investigate the blood pressure dipping response over the sleep-onset period. Compared with controls, depressed adolescents displayed a similar but significantly elevated blood pressure profile across sleep. Depressed adolescents had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures across the entire night (P < 0.01), as well as during all sleep stages (P < 0.001). Depressed adolescents also had higher blood pressure across the sleep-onset period, but the groups did not differ in the rate of decline across the period. Higher blood pressure during sleep in depressed adolescent females suggests that depression has a significant association with cardiovascular functioning during sleep in adolescent females, which may increase risk for future cardiovascular pathology. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Children, adolescents, obesity, and the media.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2011-07-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide public health problem. Considerable research has shown that the media contribute to the development of child and adolescent obesity, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. Screen time may displace more active pursuits, advertising of junk food and fast food increases children's requests for those particular foods and products, snacking increases while watching TV or movies, and late-night screen time may interfere with getting adequate amounts of sleep, which is a known risk factor for obesity. Sufficient evidence exists to warrant a ban on junk-food or fast-food advertising in children's TV programming. Pediatricians need to ask 2 questions about media use at every well-child or well-adolescent visit: (1) How much screen time is being spent per day? and (2) Is there a TV set or Internet connection in the child's bedroom?

  12. Body fat distribution and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent Iranian girls.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh Zahra; Shahar, Suzana; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Parizadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Shakeri, Mohammad-Taghi

    2012-06-01

    The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls. A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regional fat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total and regional body fat percent (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat mass especially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure. Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon

    2011-01-01

    Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…

  14. Late-Adolescent Delinquency: Risks and Resilience for Girls Differing in Risk at the Start of Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Tia; Morash, Merry; Park, Suyeon

    2011-01-01

    Based on resilience and feminist criminological theories, several individual, family, and community characteristics were hypothesized to predict late-adolescent delinquency for girls varying in early-adolescent risk. Girls aged 12 and 13 were interviewed each year as part of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997. Predictors of…

  15. [Evaluation and treatment of adolescent girls with hirsutism].

    PubMed

    Bumbuliene, Zana; Alisauskas, Jonas

    2009-05-01

    Clinical manifestations of androgen excess which are skin and hair related (hirsutism, acne, alopecia) are common and distressing symptoms for an adolescent girls. During puberty and at the time of the first menstruation cycles, physiological hyperandrogenism can be observed. The causes of hirsutism can be various, including familial, idiopathic, and those, caused by excess androgen secretion by the ovary (PCOS, tumors), or by adrenal glands (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, tumor), or exogenous pharmacologic sources of androgens. The diagnosis and treatment of hirsutism remains quite problematic due to innumerous endocrinologic aspects and unsatisfactory treatment results. Androgen excess during puberty must be appropriately recognized, clinically evaluated and treated. Pharmacologic and cosmetic treatments may have beneficial effect. Oral contraceptives and antiadrogens combinations may be recommended as the treatment of choice in adolescents.

  16. Depressive symptoms among adolescent girls in relationships with older partners: causes and lasting effects?

    PubMed

    Loftus, Jeni; Kelly, Brian C; Mustillo, Sarah A

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on adolescent girls in relationships with older partners suggests a range of negative outcomes for the adolescent. Using three waves of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health and a life course perspective, we explore the connection between involvement in age discordant relationships (girls dating males three or more years older) and the course of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls. Our analyses are conducted on the 1,307 girls with data at all three waves who had been in a relationship in the last 18 months. The sample is 55% White, 22% Black, 7% other race and 16% Latina. When comparing early adolescent girls (13-15) and late adolescent girls (16-18), the younger girls are no more likely to have depressive symptoms before entry into the age discordant relationship, yet have greater depressive symptoms shortly after the relationship onset and 5 years later. Older adolescent girls in age discordant relationships, however, have similar levels of depressive symptoms at any time point relative to their peers. These data suggest that a girl's developmental stage influences whether or not she experiences emotional distress as a result of being in an age discordant relationship.

  17. Adolescent Obesity Risk Knowledge (AORK): Let the Discussion Begin.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Elaine M; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine adolescent level of knowledge concerning obesity risk. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected using a staged process. Data collected with (a) Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10), (b) focus groups, (c) scientific advisory group input, and (d) the Adolescent Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (AORK). The AORK is tailored from the ORK-10 (α = .53) to capture adolescents' knowledge of obesity complications and/or risks (α = .68). The AORK integrates questions for assisting practitioners to initiate discussions about obesity and lifestyle choices with adolescents and their families. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A structural equation model of environmental correlates of adolescent obesity for age and gender groups.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, K C; Kolobe, T H; Sisson, S B; Ghement, I R

    2015-08-01

    The relationships between environmental correlates of adolescent obesity are complex and not yet well defined by current research, especially when considering age and gender. The purpose of this study was to test a model of proximal (home) and distal (neighbourhood) environmental correlates of obesity for adolescent age and gender groups. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, using the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health of 39 542 children ages 11-17 years. The model fit the data well for early adolescents (ages 11-14 years) (root mean square standard error of approximation [RMSEA] 0.040, 90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.039-0.041; comparative fit index [CFI] 0.947; Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] 0.929) and middle adolescents (ages 15-17 years) (RMSEA 0.037, 90% CI: 0.036-0.038; CFI 0.052; TLI 0.937). The model also fit the data well for boy adolescents (RMSEA 0.038, 90% CI: 0.037-0.039; CFI 0.951; TLI 0.935) and girl adolescents (RMSEA 0.038, 90% CI: 0.037-0.040; CFI 0.949; TLI 0.932). All models provide loadings of the environmental correlates of adolescent obesity for specific age and gender groups that can be used for early identification of risks and targeted interventions. © 2014 World Obesity.

  19. Factors associated with obesity in Indonesian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Collins, Allison E; Pakiz, Bilge; Rock, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate adolescent eating, activity, and behavioral patterns, and attitudes and their associations with obesity in selected communities in Indonesia. DESIGN. A cross-sectional questionnaire and physical measurement-based study in three communities of varying modernization levels in Indonesia (Yogyakarta, Kuta, and Jakarta). Subjects. 1758 middle school students (aged 12-15 years) recruited at six different schools: one public and one private school in each of the three target communities. MEASUREMENTS. The questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, estimated household income); fast food eating habits (frequency, types of food/restaurant, general beliefs about fast foods); television, computer, and Play Station usage; physical activity (hrs/wk of participation in physical activity, transportation means for attending school); and eating habits (frequency of consuming selected foods and beverages). Student's height and weights were obtained, body mass index (BMI: weight [kg]/height [m(2)]) was calculated, and obesity was defined as ≥95%, using the BMI-for-age cut-offs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) charts. RESULTS. Chi-square analysis revealed associations between obesity and community setting, family income, use of a computer or Play Station, type of transportation to school, and beliefs about fast foods (P<0.01). According to the logistic regression analysis, adolescents from families with incomes over Rp 2 mil were three times as likely to be obese (95% CI 1.9, 4.9) and boys were 2.6 times more likely to be obese (95% CI 1.5, 4.5). CONCLUSION. Greater likelihood of obesity among Indonesian adolescents who spend greater amounts of time using a computer or Play Station suggests that such sedentary activities may be replacing physical activity, promoting an energy imbalance, and subsequently, an increased risk for obesity.

  20. RISK FACTORS FOR ABDOMINAL OBESITY IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS FROM CRACOW, POLAND (1983-2000).

    PubMed

    Suder, Agnieszka; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine abdominal obesity risk factors in two successive cohorts of children and adolescents aged 4-18 from Cracow, Poland, examined during the years of political transformation. The influence of biological, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors on abdominal obesity was analysed by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression analysis. It was found that for girls obesity in both parents (OR=4.31; 95% CI 1.73-20.70) and high birth weight (OR=1.78; 95% CI 1.12-2.82) were significant risk factors for abdominal obesity in the 1983 cohort. In the 2000 cohort obesity in both parents for boys and girls (boys: OR=5.85; 95% CI 1.36-25.10; girls: OR=4.82; 95% CI 1.17-19.77), low level of parental education in girls (OR=2.06; 95% CI 1.15-3.69), having only one son (OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.36-3.40), parents' smoking habits in girls (OR=2.94; 95% CI 1.46-5.91) and lack of undertaking physical activity in sport clubs in boys (OR=6.11; 95% CI 1.46-25.47) were significant abdominal obesity risk factors. Higher number of hours of leisure time physical activity (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.81-0.97) significantly lowered the risk of abdominal obesity in boys in the 2000 cohort. The greater differentiation of abdominal obesity risk factors in the 2000 cohort in comparison to the 1983 cohort may have resulted from the social and economic changes taking place in Poland at the end of the 20th century.

  1. Mother-Daughter Agreement on Adolescent Adopted Chinese Girls' Academic Performance and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Marn, Travis

    2014-01-01

    This study reported mother-daughter agreement on adolescent adopted Chinese girls' adjustment. Data on the girls' academic performance and internalizing syndromes were collected from the adopted Chinese girls and their adoptive mothers separately. The adoptive mothers also provided data on mother-daughter relationship quality. There were 219 girls…

  2. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  3. Relationships between Social Information Processing and Aggression among Adolescent Girls with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Lee, Steve S.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Mullin, Benjamin C.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between social information processing (SIP) and both relational and overt, physical aggression in a longitudinally-followed sample of 228 adolescent girls (ages 11-18; 140 with ADHD and 88 comparison girls). During childhood, girls participated in naturalistic summer camps where peer rejection, overt…

  4. Measuring Social Provisions for Physical Activity among Adolescent Black and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Dishman, Rod K.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluate the validity of the Social Provisions Scale for physical activity among adolescent Black (n = 896) and White (n = 823) girls. The girls completed the scale and measures of subjective norms and physical activity in the eighth and ninth grades. Within the sample of White girls, the Social Provisions Scale contained 24 items that…

  5. "Looks do matter"--visual attentional biases in adolescent girls with eating disorders viewing body images.

    PubMed

    Horndasch, Stefanie; Kratz, Oliver; Holczinger, Anna; Heinrich, Hartmut; Hönig, Florian; Nöth, Elmar; Moll, Gunther H

    2012-07-30

    Visual attention allocation of adolescent girls with and without an eating disorder while viewing body images of underweight, normal-weight and overweight women was studied using eye tracking. While all girls attended more to specific body parts (e.g. hips, upper legs), eating-disordered girls showed an attentional bias towards unclothed body parts.

  6. "Tech-Savviness" Meets Multiliteracies: Exploring Adolescent Girls' Technology-Mediated Literacy Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly; Mahar, Donna

    2003-01-01

    Explores early adolescent girls' use of digital technologies in their literacy practices. Highlights the technology-mediated literacy practices of two seventh-grade girls. Discusses two major themes which emerged from data analysis: the centrality of multimedia popular culture texts in the girls' technology-mediated designing; and the importance…

  7. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  8. Maternal Control and Adolescent Depression: Ethnic Differences among Clinically Referred Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship between perceived maternal control and depression for 11 urban adolescent girls seeking psychological services at an outpatient clinic. No relation between control and depression was found for Caucasian and Latina girls, but high control was linked to less depression among African American girls. Findings highlight the…

  9. Sizing up Peers: Adolescent Girls' Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Anna S.; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth; Turner, Alyn

    2010-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multi-level modeling, we examine the role of social comparison with schoolmates in adolescent girls' weight control. Specifically, we focus on how girls' own weight control is influenced by the body sizes and weight-control behaviors of their schoolmates. Our findings suggest that…

  10. BMI is not a good indicator for metabolic risk in adolescent girls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BMI (kg/m2) does not provide information about body fat percentile.Adolescents with BMI <85th percentile for age are considered lean and at low risk for metabolic complications. Adolescent girls with low BMI can have high body fat percentile. We hypothesized that these girls are already insulin resi...

  11. Race-Specific Transition Patterns among Alcohol Use Classes in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauber, Sarah E.; Paulson, James F.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine transitions among alcohol use classes in 2225 White and African American adolescent girls, and race differences in predictors of transition into and out of problematic drinking classes. Latent class analysis confirmed four classes for White girls and three for AA…

  12. Impact of Socio-Emotional Adjustment on Academic Achievement of Adolescent Girls in Jammu and Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the impact of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement of adolescent girls of Jammu and Kashmir. The purpose of the investigation was to study the relationship and effect of socio-emotional adjustment on academic achievement among adolescent girls. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the…

  13. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  14. Developmental and Individual Differences in Girls' Sex-Typed Activities in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Shanahan, Lilly; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Girls' time in sex-typed leisure activities was studied across 2 years in middle childhood (n=98, M=8.2 years in Year 1), early adolescence (n=106, M=11.7 years), and middle adolescence (n=86, M=14.9 years). In annual home interviews, White middle-class girls, mothers, and fathers rated their gendered attitudes, interests, and personality…

  15. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  16. Family Financial Hardship and Adolescent Girls' Adjustment: The Role of Maternal Disclosure of Financial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2002-01-01

    A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…

  17. Sizing up Peers: Adolescent Girls' Weight Control and Social Comparison in the School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Anna S.; Pearson, Jennifer; Muller, Chandra; Frank, Kenneth; Turner, Alyn

    2010-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and multi-level modeling, we examine the role of social comparison with schoolmates in adolescent girls' weight control. Specifically, we focus on how girls' own weight control is influenced by the body sizes and weight-control behaviors of their schoolmates. Our findings suggest that…

  18. Effects of Learning about Gender Discrimination on Adolescent Girls' Attitudes toward and Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisgram, Erica S.; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2007-01-01

    Gender discrimination has contributed to the gender imbalance in scientific fields. However, research on the effects of informing adolescent girls about gender discrimination in these fields is rare and controversial. To examine the consequences of learning about gender-based occupational discrimination, adolescent girls (n= 158, ages 11 to 14)…

  19. Family Financial Hardship and Adolescent Girls' Adjustment: The Role of Maternal Disclosure of Financial Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2002-01-01

    A study of 62 adolescent girls and their recently divorced mothers examined the relationship between maternal disclosure of financial concerns and difficulties in adolescent daughters' adjustment. Findings revealed a positive direct relationship between family financial hardship and girls' psychological distress, and that financial hardship was…

  20. Developmental and Individual Differences in Girls' Sex-Typed Activities in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Susan M.; Shanahan, Lilly; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Crouter, Ann C.; Booth, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Girls' time in sex-typed leisure activities was studied across 2 years in middle childhood (n=98, M=8.2 years in Year 1), early adolescence (n=106, M=11.7 years), and middle adolescence (n=86, M=14.9 years). In annual home interviews, White middle-class girls, mothers, and fathers rated their gendered attitudes, interests, and personality…

  1. Race-Specific Transition Patterns among Alcohol Use Classes in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauber, Sarah E.; Paulson, James F.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine transitions among alcohol use classes in 2225 White and African American adolescent girls, and race differences in predictors of transition into and out of problematic drinking classes. Latent class analysis confirmed four classes for White girls and three for AA…

  2. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  3. Suicide as a Resolution of Separation-Individuation Among Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nancy L.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated relationship between suicidal adolescent girls (N=40) and borderline phenomena, and examined separation anxiety in suicidal girls. Results suggest that adolescent suicide is a borderline phenomena that has its roots in the early separation-individuation phase of development, resulting in separation anxiety. (Author/ABB)

  4. Study of Delinquent, Diverted, and High-Risk Adolescent Girls: Implications for Mental Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Sarri, Rosemary; Goodkind, Sara

    2004-01-01

    This study examines risk and protective factors for delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls to inform the development of effective mental health prevention and intervention programs. Delinquent, diverted, and high-risk adolescent girls (N = 159) involved or at risk of involvement with the juvenile justice system, who were receiving…

  5. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  6. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  7. Effect of Major Depression on the Self-Image of Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korhonen, Veijo; Laukkanen, Eila; Peiponen, Sirkka; Lehtonen, Johannes; Viinamaki, Heimo

    2001-01-01

    Studied the specific impact of major depressive disorder (MDD) on the self-image of adolescent boys and girls seeking outpatient treatment. Compared 68 adolescents with MDD and 39 with no psychiatric illness. Self-image among MDD patients was in general poorer than in the comparison group. The effect of MDD was more negative for girls than boys,…

  8. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  9. Brief Report: Relationships between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between changes in physical activity and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. Participants were 277 urban adolescent girls. Physical activity was measured using the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall and depressive symptoms were assessed using questionnaire. Data were collected on three occasions over a 3-year…

  10. Team Sports Achievement and Self-Esteem Development among Urban Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…

  11. The Influence of Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Peers on the Sexual Behaviors of Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used longitudinal data from 76 adolescent girls and their parents to investigate effects of parental warmth and supportiveness on adolescents' depressed affect, attitudes about sexuality, peer influence, and sexual experience. Girls with more emotionally distant parents were more likely to manifest symptoms of depression. Depressed affect was…

  12. [Prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Guangdong province, 2002-2012].

    PubMed

    Ji, G Y; Dun, Z J; Jiang, Q; Wen, J; Wang, P; Huang, R; Chen, Z H; Li, Z H; Ma, W J; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-10

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and trend of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years between 2002 and 2012 in Guangdong province. Methods: A total of 7 075 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected in Guangdong for nutritional survey in 2002 and a total of 2 319 children and adolescents aged 6-17 years were selected in nine counties/districts of Guangdong for nutritional survey during 2009-2012 through multi-stage random cluster sampling. The body height and weight of all the children and adolescents were measured. Results: The result of 2009-2012 survey indicated the average prevalence of overweight and obesity in the children and adolescents surveyed were 7.3% and 4.5%, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were higher in boys (8.9% and 6.5%) than in girls (5.3% and 2.2%), in rural area (9.3% and 5.6%) than in urban area (4.7% and 3.2%). Children and adolescents aged 9-11 years had a higher overweight and obesity rates compared with other age groups. Compared with 2002, except for obesity rate in urban girls, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents obviously increased. The increase rate was higher in rural area than urban area and in boys than in girls. Conclusions: Compared with 2002, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Guangdong obviously increased. The prevalence was much higher in boys, those living in rural area and those aged 9-11 years, thus more attention should be paid to them.

  13. Cardiometabolic and fitness improvements in obese girls who either gained or lost weight during treatment

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Matthew G.; Bean, Melanie K.; Wickham, Edmond P.; Stern, Marilyn; Evans, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the quality of weight change (change in fat mass vs. fat-free mass [FFM]), changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and frequencies of metabolic risk factors in adolescent females with obesity that either lost weight or gained weight following lifestyle treatment. Study design Fifty-eight girls (mean age = 13.0 ± 1.6 yrs; 77% black; mean body mass index (BMI) = 36.5 ± 4.5 kg/m2) completed a 6-month lifestyle intervention combining dietary and behavioral counseling with aerobic and resistance exercise training. We examined baseline to 6-month differences in weight (kg), body composition, CRF, and frequencies of metabolic risk factors between weight loss and weight gain groups. Results In the weight loss group, body weight (-4.50 ± 3.53 kg, p < 0.001), fat mass (-4.50 ± 2.20 kg, p < 0.001), and body fat percentage ([BF%] -2.97% ± 1.45%, p < 0.001) decreased, and FFM was unchanged at 6 months. In the weight gain group, body weight (4.50 ± 2.20 kg, p < 0.001), fat mass (1.52 ± 3.16 kg, p < 0.024), and FFM (2.99 ± 2.45 kg, p < 0.001) increased, and BF% was unchanged. Both groups improved CRF (p < 0.05). Frequencies of metabolic risk factors were reduced across all participants after the 6-month treatment. Conclusion Participation in a weight management program might elicit health improvements in obese adolescent females who increase weight and fat mass, provided that FFM gains are sufficient to negate increases in body fat percentage. PMID:25890676

  14. Friends Like Me: Associations in Overweight/Obese Status among Adolescent Friends by Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Friendship Type.

    PubMed

    Bruening, Meg; MacLehose, Richard; Eisenberg, Marla E; Kim, Sunkyung; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how interpersonal friend relationships are associated with obesity in young people, particularly with regard to how race/ethnicity, type of friendship, and sex affect the association between friends' and adolescents' weight status. This study examined associations in weight status among adolescents and their friends, exploring magnitudes of associations across friendship type, sex, and race/ethnicity. As part of EAT-2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens), friend nominations and anthropometrics were obtained from adolescents (n = 2099: 54% female; 80% nonwhite; mean age: 14.2 ± 1.9 years). Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to test associations between adolescents' overweight/obese status and friends' (i.e., friend group, female friends, male friends, female best friends, and male best friends) overweight/obese status. Interactions by adolescent race/ethnicity were examined. The majority of significant associations were observed among white female adolescents' who had a 22-40% higher prevalence of overweight/obesity if their friends were overweight compared to white females whose friends were not overweight. In contrast, there were few significant differences for other adolescent female and male racial/ethnic groups for girls and boys. Results for friend groups and best friends were generally similar to one another. The association between friend and adolescent overweight/obese status depended on adolescents' sex, race/ethnicity, and friendship type. Given the similarities among friends, obesity interventions targeting youth, especially white females, should consider involving friends.

  15. Exploring Temporal Patterns of Stress in Adolescent Girls with Headache.

    PubMed

    Björling, Elin A; Singh, Narayan

    2017-02-01

    As part of a larger study on perceived stress and headaches in 2009, momentary perceived stress, head pain levels and stress-related symptom data were collected. This paper explores a temporal analysis of the patterns of stress, as well as an analysis of momentary and retrospective stress-related symptoms compared by level of headache activity. Adolescent girls (N = 31) ages 14-18 were randomly cued by electronic diaries 7 times per day over a 21-day period responding to momentary questions about level of head pain, perceived stress and stress-related symptoms. Multivariate general linear modelling was used to determine significant differences among headache groups in relation to temporal patterns of stress. Significant headache group differences were found on retrospective and momentary stress-related symptom measures. A total of 2841 diary responses captured stress levels, head pain and related symptoms. The chronic headache (CH) group reported the highest levels of hourly and daily stress, followed by the moderate headache (MH) and low headache (LH) groups. Patterns of stress for the three headache groups were statistically distinct, illustrating increased stress in girls with more frequent head pain. This evidence suggests that because of increased stress, girls with recurrent head pain are likely a vulnerable population who may benefit from stress-reducing interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Pubertal timing and adolescent sexual behavior in girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah R; Harden, K Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to physical maturation and to individual interpretations of pubertal experiences. Using a sample of female sibling pairs (n = 923 pairs) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the present study investigated associations among menarche and perceived pubertal timing, age of first sexual intercourse (AFI), and adolescent dating and sexual behavior using a behavioral genetic approach. Genetic factors influencing age at menarche and perceived pubertal timing predicted AFI through shared genetic pathways, whereas genetic factors related only to perceived pubertal timing predicted engagement in dating, romantic sex, and nonromantic sex in the previous 18 months. These results suggest that a girl's interpretation of her pubertal timing beyond objective timing is important to consider for the timing and the contexts of romantic and reproductive behavior.

  17. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  18. Body Dissatisfaction Prospectively Predicts Depressive Mood and Low Self-Esteem in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxton, Susan J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2006-01-01

    This research examined whether body dissatisfaction prospectively predicted depressive mood and low self-esteem in adolescent girls and boys 5 years later. Participants were early-adolescent girls (n = 440, Time 1 M age = 12.7 years) and boys (n = 366, Time 1 M age = 12.8 years) and midadolescent girls (n = 946, Time 1 M age = 15.8 years) and boys…

  19. Obesity, Fitness, and Brain Integrity in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Naima; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective We set out to ascertain the relationship between insulin resistance, fitness, and brain structure and function in adolescents. Design and Methods We studied 79 obese and 51 non-obese participants who were recruited from the community, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All participants received medical, endocrine, neuropsychological, and MRI evaluations as well as a 6-minute walk test that was used to estimate fitness (maximal oxygen consumption). Results Obese adolescents had significantly thinner orbitofrontal cortices and performed significantly worse on Visual Working Memory tasks and the Digit Vigilance task. Insulin sensitivity and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were both highly correlated with central obesity and orbitofrontal cortical thickness, although insulin sensitivity was the stronger predictor for orbitofrontal cortical thickness. We also found that VO2 max was the only significant physiological variable related to visual working memory. Conclusions This is the first study to report positive associations between insulin resistance, VO2 max, and frontal lobe brain integrity in adolescents. Given the importance of brain health for learning and school performance, we conclude that schools should also emphasize physical fitness in order to maintain structural and functional brain integrity and facilitate academic achievement. PMID:25843937

  20. The momentary relationship between stress and headaches in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Björling, Elin A

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the relationship between repeated momentary reports of stress and headaches in female adolescents with varying degrees of headache frequency. Headaches are the most common form of pain reported by adolescents affecting more than a third of all adolescents. High levels of stress during adolescence may predispose an adolescent to experience headaches in adulthood. Randomized, momentary data collection of stress and headaches provides the most accurate data regarding the adolescent experience of these variables. The research methodology, ecological momentary assessment, is a valid approach to better understand the relationship between stress and headaches in adolescence. Data were obtained by each participant's use of an electronic diary (ED), which captured repeated momentary reports of perceived stress, head pain, and stress-related symptoms in female adolescents with varying degrees of recurrent headache. Seven times per day for the 21-day study period, teen girls responded to ED questions about their current stress levels, head pain, and stress-related symptoms. Based on participants' momentary reports of headaches, Low Headache, Moderate Headache, and Chronic Headache groups were created. General estimating equation models were used to analyze the relationship between momentary variables as well as the lag effect between stress and head pain. Thirty-one participants, aged 14-18 years, completed 2841 randomized ED reports and reported 674 occurrences of headache. The Chronic Headache and Moderate Headache groups reported significantly increased levels of stress, head pain, and headaches. The relationship between momentary stress and head pain was significantly strong both within and across participants. The strength of this relationship increased with increased headache activity. A significant lag effect was found between stress and headaches; however, the effect of depression as a moderator of the stress and headache

  1. Relationships among obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior in young adolescents with and without lifetime asthma.

    PubMed

    Groth, Susan W; Rhee, Hyekyun; Kitzman, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    To examine the inter-relationships among body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sedentary behavior and gender in urban, low-income, primarily African American young adolescents with or without lifetime asthma. Data were collected in 2002-2004 from 626 12-year old adolescents who were children of women who participated in the New Mother's Study in Memphis, TN (1990-1991). Adolescents with and without asthma were compared on BMI, physical activity and sedentary behavior. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine the association of asthma, gender and BMI with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Complete data were available for 545 adolescents. Eleven percent of adolescents had lifetime asthma. Asthma and gender were associated with high-intensity physical activity (p < 0.001). Adolescents with asthma participated in less physical activity and girls participated less than boys. Gender was associated with sedentary behavior (p < 0.001): boys used personal computer (pc)/video after school more than girls. Girls with asthma had a higher BMI than girls without asthma (p = 0.027). Boys with asthma were less physically active than boys without asthma (p < 0.05). Adolescents with asthma are less physically active than those without asthma and girls are less active than boys. Clinicians who provide care for adolescents with asthma are encouraged to assess physical activity/sedentary behavior and provide guidance that promotes active lifestyles. A longitudinal study is needed to shed light on the unique contribution of asthma separated from the effects of overweight/obesity on physical activity and sedentary behaviors.

  2. Determinants of High Fasting Insulin and Insulin Resistance Among Overweight/Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jerri Chiu Yun; Mohamed, Mohd Nahar Azmi; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Rampal, Sanjay; Zaharan, Nur Lisa; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperinsulinaemia is the earliest subclinical metabolic abnormality, which precedes insulin resistance in obese children. An investigation was conducted on the potential predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance among overweight/obese adolescents in a developing Asian country. A total of 173 overweight/obese (BMI > 85th percentile) multi-ethnic Malaysian adolescents aged 13 were recruited from 23 randomly selected schools in this cross-sectional study. Waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%), physical fitness score (PFS), fasting glucose and fasting insulin were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Adjusted stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to predict fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. Covariates included pubertal stage, socioeconomic status, nutritional and physical activity scores. One-third of our adolescents were insulin resistant, with girls having significantly higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR than boys. Gender, pubertal stage, BMI, WC and BF% had significant, positive moderate correlations with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR while PFS was inversely correlated (p < 0.05). Fasting insulin was primarily predicted by gender-girls (Beta = 0.305, p < 0.0001), higher BMI (Beta = −0.254, p = 0.02) and greater WC (Beta = 0.242, p = 0.03). This study demonstrated that gender, BMI and WC are simple predictors of fasting insulin and insulin resistance in overweight/obese adolescents. PMID:27824069

  3. Oral Health, Obesity Status and Nutritional Habits in Turkish Children and Adolescents: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesim, Servet; Çiçek, Betül; Aral, Cüneyt Asım; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz Mustafa; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies evaluating the relationship between oral health status and obesity have provided conflicting data. Therefore, there is a great need to investigate and clarify the possible connection in a comprehensive sample. Aims: To assess the relationship of obesity and oral health status among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years-old. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Data were obtained from 4,534 children and adolescents (2,018 boys and 2,516 girls). Questionnaires were sent home prior to examination; afterwards, anthropometric and dental data were collected from participants. Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth in the permanent dentition (DMFT), and deciduous dentition (dmft) index were used to measure oral health status. Height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage were analyzed. Results: For DMFT scores, healthy (score=0) girls and boys had significantly higher BMI and WC values than unhealthy (score>1) girls and boys (p<0.05). Healthy girls had higher fat percentage values than unhealthy girls (p<0.05). In terms of CPI scores, healthy boys had lower BMI and WC values than unhealthy boys (p<0.05). According to multiple binary logistic regression results for model 1, BMI predicted DMFT scores in both genders but CPI scores only in boys. No beverage consumption predicted DMFT scores in boys, while milk consumption predicted DMFT scores in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores in boys. For model 2, WC predicted DMFT scores in both genders and CPI scores only in boys. Milk consumption predicted DMFT scores only in girls. No meal skipping predicted CPI scores for both gender (p<0.05). According to DMFT, there were significant differences between the frequencies of the BMI groups (normal weight, overweight and obese) at the age of 7 (girls only), 9, 10, and 16 (boys only) years and overall (only girls) (p<0.05). According to CPI

  4. Quality of life in Brazilian obese adolescents: effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Prado, Wagner Luiz do; de Piano, Aline; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Tock, Lian; Carnier, June; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2009-01-01

    Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 ± 4.18 kg/m2) were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention Program outpatient clinic, and were submitted to a multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy (short-term = 12 weeks and long-term = 24 weeks), composed of medical, dietary, exercise and psychological programs. Validated self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of anxiety Trait/State (STAI); depression (BDI); binge eating (BES), body image dissatisfaction (BSQ) and QOL (SF-36). Data were analyzed by means of scores; comparisons were made by ANOVA for repeated measures, and Tukey's test as post-hoc and Students T test. Results Long-term therapy decreased depression and binge eating symptoms, body image dissatisfaction, and improved QOL in girls, whereas, for boys, 24 weeks, were effective to reduce anxiety trait/state and symptoms of binge eating, and to improve means of dimensions of QOL (p < .05). Conclusion A long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy is effective to control psychological aspects and to improve QOL in obese adolescents. PMID:19575801

  5. Adolescent girls' anxieties -- role of stressful life events.

    PubMed

    Singh, H; Sofat, R; Gill, P J; Soni, R K; Kaur, L

    1990-01-01

    The study aim was to examine stressful events among 300 adolescent girls 11-17 years old enrolled in school in India. 50.33% had illiterate mothers. 22.33% had mothers who had a primary education and 25.34% who had a secondary education. 82.33% (247) were from nuclear families, and 17.67% (53) were from joint families. The largest proportions reported financial problems (38.67%) followed by household moves (30.33%) and a close relative's death (27.33%). Other concerns reported were parental frequent change or loss of job (12.33%), involvement in a court case (4.67%), death of one or both parents (4.33%), and frequent parental arguments (1.33%) and serious family accidents (1.33%). No stressful events were reported by 31.69% (95 girls); 68.34% reported stressful family events. A significant correlation was found between anxiety and life in a nuclear family (p 0.001). Anxiety was also higher, but not statistically significantly so, among families with an illiterate mother and lower socioeconomic status. More anxieties were reported among girls with working mothers (68%) than non-working mothers (32%). A significant correlation was found between the score of life events and the number of girls reporting anxieties. Individual anxieties were reported for inadequate height (15.66%), fear of boys' teasing (12.33%), losing hair (11.60%), menstrual tensions (10.33%), weak eyesight (9.66%), pimples (9.33%), weakness (8.88%), lack of study time (5.67%), excessive weight (3.67%), dark complexion (2.66%), and bad teeth (2.00%); 55.34% reported these anxieties.

  6. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A; AlMajed, Hana Th; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Arab, Mariam A; Hasan, Rasha A

    2015-05-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). In contrast, the consumption of fast foods (both genders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the majority of Kuwaiti adolescents exhibit insufficient sleep duration which was associated with obesity measure, a combination of poor eating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits.

  7. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A.; AlMajed, Hana Th.; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Arab, Mariam A.; Hasan, Rasha A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). In contrast, the consumption of fast foods (both genders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (p<0.05). It can be concluded that the majority of Kuwaiti adolescents exhibit insufficient sleep duration which was associated with obesity measure, a combination of poor eating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits. PMID:26234983

  8. Comparison of the body mass index to other methods of body fat evaluation in ethnic Japanese and Caucasian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Sampei, M A; Novo, N F; Juliano, Y; Sigulem, D M

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the body mass index (BMI) and its relationship with other methods of body fat evaluation in pre- and post-menarcheal, Japanese and Caucasian female adolescents, using two different cut-off points for obesity: 28% and 30%. A cross-sectional study with incomplete sampling, using the subject as the evaluation unit. A total of 436 Japanese and Caucasian female adolescents in two age groups: 10-11 (pre-menarcheal adolescent); and 16-17 (post-menarcheal adolescents). For the BMI the cut-off point for thinness was set at the 5th percentile of the BMI distribution of the NCHS reference population and the cut-off point for overweight and obesity was set at the 85th percentile. Body composition was assessed using foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), near-infrared interactance (NIR) and Slaughter skinfold equations (SKI). The statistical comparison of the methods was performed using the kappa agreement test and the McNemar disagreement test. In the 10- and 11-y-old girls, the BMI was considerably and significantly correlated with the other methods. The major agreements were: in Japanese adolescents BMI x NIR=82.3% (cut-off point of 28%), BMI x BIA=85.7% (cut-off point of 30%); in Caucasian adolescents BMI x NIR=80.7% (cut-off point of 28%), BMI x BIA=87.4% (cut-off point of 30%). The disagreement above the diagonal between BMI x NIR was higher within the two groups for both the cut-off points, revealing that the girls identified as obese by the BMI were considered eutrophic by NIR. In the 16- and 17-y-old adolescents, the BMI demonstrated low or no correlation with the other methods. Furthermore, it presented disagreements below the diagonal, revealing that the BMI identified fewer obese subjects than the other methods. Among the 10- and 11-y-olds, the BMI presented a good correlation with the other methods, independent of ethnicity. The BMI can therefore be used in place of these methods, although it may underestimate

  9. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4 ± 0.6 years and 28.2 ± 3.6 kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p = .003) and grams of junk food (p = .001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents.

  10. Self-determined motivation towards physical activity in adolescents treated for obesity: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Within the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) framework, the first major study aim was to investigate the SDT tenets in an obese adolescent population by examining the factor structure of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2) and by investigating associations between physical activity (PA) and motivation in obese adolescents. The second aim was to study differences in motivation according to adolescents' educational level, since lower educated obese adolescent are a sub-risk group for lower PA levels among the obese adolescents. The third aim was to investigate whether attending a residential obesity treatment program could lead to an increase in autonomous motivation towards PA and to see if the treatment effect on motivation was different in low versus high educated youth. Methods For the first study aim, the sample comprised 177 obese adolescents at the start of a 10-month multidisciplinary residential obesity treatment program (BMI = 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m2, 15.1 ± 1.5 years, 62% girls). A subsample of 65 adolescents (stratified by educational level) were divided into low (n = 34) versus high educated (n = 31) as part of the second and third study aim. Motivation was assessed using the BREQ-2 and PA using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results Exploratory factor analysis showed sufficient validations with the original factor for 17 out of 19 BREQ-2 items. Significant positive correlations were found between PA and the composite score of relative autonomy (r = 0.31, p < 0.001), introjected (r = 0.23, p < 0.01), identified (r = 0.31, p < 0.001) and intrinsic regulation (r = 0.38, p < 0.001). Higher educated adolescents scored higher on the composite score of relative autonomy, introjected, identified and intrinsic regulation at the start of treatment (F = 3.68, p < 0.001). The composite score of relative autonomy, external, identified and intrinsic regulation significantly increased during treatment for all adolescents

  11. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its influencing factors among adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Naghmeh-Zahra; Yusoff, Noor Aini Mohd; Shahar, Suzana; Parizadeh, Syyed Mohahhad Reza; Mobarhen, Majid Ghayour; Shakery, Mohammad Taghi

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, one of the major public-health challenges worldwide, and its influencing factors among 15 to 17 years old adolescent girls in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 622 high school adolescents participated in a cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess socio-demographic characteristics and dietary habits. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were done. Applying BMI Z-score for age and gender (WHO 2007), 14.6 % and 3.4 % of subjects were classified as overweight and obese, respectively. Enlarged WC (> 80 cm) was seen in 9.5% of subjects. The prevalence of combined hypertension was 6.1% which was increased by the severity of obesity. A total of 24.5% of subjects had hypertriglyceridemia and 57% of them had low level of HDL-cholesterol. Hyperglycemia was present in 16.7% of subjects. Based on the NCEP ATP III (2001) criteria, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 6.5% and increased to 45.1% in obese subjects. Increasing BMI or WC, led to significant increment in the number of metabolic syndrome features (p < 0.001). High socioeconomic status of family, medical history of parents and dietary habits especially high consumption of carbohydrates were influencing factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Approximately 6.5% of all and 45% of obese subjects met the criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Dietary habits especially carbohydrate consumption, socioeconomic status of family and medical history of parents can be influential factors in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome.

  12. Ethnic-specific body mass index cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls.

    PubMed

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2010-03-19

    To develop ethnic-specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls from New Zealand's five major ethnic groups. A total of 1676 girls (41% European, 21% Pacific Island, 15% East Asian, 13% Māori, and 11% South Asian) aged 5-16 years participated in this study. BMI was determined from height and weight, and body fat percentage (%BF) was obtained from hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance measurements. Using stepwise multiple regression, a series of ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points were developed that corresponded to the equivalent %BF of European girls at the BMI reference values provided by the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF). The adjusted cut-off points for overweight and obesity ranged from an average of 3.3 and 3.8 kg.m(-2) (respectively) lower than the IOTF standards in South Asian girls to 1.5 and 1.9 kg.m(-2) higher in Pacific Island girls. We conclude that the ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points developed in this study are more appropriate than universal definitions of overweight and obesity for predicting excess adiposity in New Zealand girls.

  13. Targeted prevention of excess weight gain and eating disorders in high-risk adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Elliott, Camden; Brady, Sheila; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Bryant, Edny J; Osborn, Robyn; Berger, Sarah S; Olsen, Cara; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-10-01

    The high prevalence and incidence of obesity and eating disorders in US adolescent girls are serious health problems. Because of the shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders, a targeted prevention of both conditions is a priority. We determined whether an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy prevention program is more efficacious for reducing excess weight gain and worsening disordered eating than health education in adolescent girls at high risk of obesity and eating disorders. A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2008 and January 2013 in a university-based laboratory and a federal research hospital. The study included 113 adolescent (12-17-y-old) girls deemed at high risk of adult obesity and eating disorders because of a body mass index (BMI) between the 75th and 97th percentiles and reports of episodes of a loss of control over their eating. Girls were randomly assigned to participate in an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy or a health-education group program for 12 weekly 90-min group sessions. Follow-up assessments occurred immediately after group programs and at 6 and 12 mo. Participation in both conditions was associated with decreases in expected BMI gain, age-adjusted BMI metrics, the percentage of fat by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the frequency of loss-of-control eating over 12 mo of follow-up (Ps < 0.001) with no group difference. In follow-up analyses, interpersonal psychotherapy was more efficacious than health education at reducing objective binge eating at the 12-mo follow-up (P < 0.05). The intervention with adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating is associated with lower age-adjusted BMI and percentage of adiposity as well as improved mood symptoms over 1 y. Interpersonal psychotherapy further reduced objective binge eating. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms by which physical and psychological improvements were

  14. Targeted prevention of excess weight gain and eating disorders in high-risk adolescent girls: a randomized controlled trial12345

    PubMed Central

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Wilfley, Denise E; Young, Jami F; Sbrocco, Tracy; Stephens, Mark; Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Elliott, Camden; Brady, Sheila; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Bryant, Edny J; Osborn, Robyn; Berger, Sarah S; Olsen, Cara; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James C; Yanovski, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence and incidence of obesity and eating disorders in US adolescent girls are serious health problems. Because of the shared risk factors for obesity and eating disorders, a targeted prevention of both conditions is a priority. Objective: We determined whether an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy prevention program is more efficacious for reducing excess weight gain and worsening disordered eating than health education in adolescent girls at high risk of obesity and eating disorders. Design: A parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted between September 2008 and January 2013 in a university-based laboratory and a federal research hospital. The study included 113 adolescent (12–17-y-old) girls deemed at high risk of adult obesity and eating disorders because of a body mass index (BMI) between the 75th and 97th percentiles and reports of episodes of a loss of control over their eating. Girls were randomly assigned to participate in an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy or a health-education group program for 12 weekly 90-min group sessions. Follow-up assessments occurred immediately after group programs and at 6 and 12 mo. Results: Participation in both conditions was associated with decreases in expected BMI gain, age-adjusted BMI metrics, the percentage of fat by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and the frequency of loss-of-control eating over 12 mo of follow-up (Ps < 0.001) with no group difference. In follow-up analyses, interpersonal psychotherapy was more efficacious than health education at reducing objective binge eating at the 12-mo follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The intervention with adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating is associated with lower age-adjusted BMI and percentage of adiposity as well as improved mood symptoms over 1 y. Interpersonal psychotherapy further reduced objective binge eating. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms

  15. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  16. Knowledge amongst adolescent girls about nutritive value of foods and diet during diseases, pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Bhasin, S; Manocha, S

    1991-10-01

    Knowledge about nutritive value of food, diet during diseases and antenatal and postnatal period was assessed amongst 152 adolescent school girls. A total of 23.69 and 55.93% students had incorrect knowledge that pulses and non-vegetarian foods should be avoided during later half of the pregnancy. A total of 63.82, 66.45 and 71.72% of subjects had incorrect knowledge that almonds have more nutritive value than groundnuts, fruits are rich sources of calories and desi ghee has more nutritive value than vanaspathi, respectively. Majority (90.78%) had correct knowledge that obesity is caused due to excess intake of calories than required by an individual and low iron content and poor availability of iron from food is a major cause of anemia in mothers and children.

  17. Parasympathetic cardiac activity is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Danilo Fernandes; Bianchini, Josiane Aparecida Alves; Antonini, Vanessa Drieli Seron; Hermoso, Danielle Aparecida Munhos; Lopera, Carlos Andres; Pagan, Bruno Guilherme Morais; McNeil, Jessica; Nardo Junior, Nelson

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiac parasympathetic activity and cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin, and hemodynamic profile in overweight and obese adolescent girls and boys (aged 12-16 years). Data were taken from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Treatment Program. Only post-intervention measurements are presented herein. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, blood pressure, and metabolic profile (insulin and glucose profile) of adolescents were assessed. Cardiac parasympathetic activity was determined by resting heart rate variability, which was analyzed using a heart rate monitor. Greater parasympathetic cardiac activity was associated with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in both girls and boys (0.375 ≤ r ≤ 0.900), while the sympathetic-vagal balance was negatively related to maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in girls (r = 0.478). An association between lower parasympathetic activity and insulin resistance was noted in girls (mean of R-R intervals [RRmean] and homeostasis model assessment insulin-resistance index [HOMA-IR]: r = -0.678), while greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) and lower parasympathetic activity were associated in both sexes (RRmean and SBP: r = -0.526; high frequency [HF (nu)] and SBP: r = -0.754). In conclusion, autonomic nervous system activity was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, insulin resistance, and SBP in overweight and obese adolescents. The identification of these potential relationships assists with the establishment of future long-term exercise interventions that evaluate the improvements in parasympathetic nervous system activity, in addition to metabolic profile and cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese adolescents.

  18. Body-image and obesity in adolescence: a comparative study of social-demographic, psychological, and behavioral aspects.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Pedro Miguel Lopes

    2008-11-01

    In current society, body and beauty's cult emerge as one of the main factors of adolescence. That leads adolescents to be dissatisfied with their own appearance, to psychological maladjustment, and nutritional disorders. This quantitative, exploratory, and cross-sectional research evaluates how adolescents perceive their weight and the prevalence of obesity in a sample of adolescents from the district of Viseu (Portugal). It also attempted to compare the relation of body-image and obesity with sociodemographic (school, sex, age, socioeconomic status, family functioning), psychological (self-concept, depression, school success) and behavioral aspects (physical inactivity). After data analyses, it was verified that the prevalence of obesity was 8.8% but 12.7% considered themselves obese. These adolescents had higher physical inactivity, poorer family functioning, a lower self-concept, and a higher depression index. The really obese adolescents were older and had poorer academic results. Obesity was higher in boys, but girls perceived themselves more as being obese. In conclusion, it is essential to evaluate weight perception in addition to body mass index (BMI), because the main problem could be related not only to being obese, but also to the perception of having a higher than ideal weight.

  19. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Association between overweight/obesity and academic performance in South Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Hyuck; So, Wi-Young

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic performance and obesity/overweight among South Korean adolescents. Our data set included 72,399 adolescents in grades 7-12 who had participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) in 2009. We assessed the association between academic performance and body mass index (BMI), using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, parents' education level, economic status, mental stress experienced, sleep duration, frequency of muscle-strengthening exercises, smoking and drinking behaviour, and vigorous and moderate physical activity (PA). For boys, being overweight (compared with being of normal weight) had a significantly greater odds of poor academic performance (OR=1.182, 95% Cl 1.052-1.329, p=0.005). Obese boys had 1.182 (1.048-1.332, p=0.006), 1.461 (1.294-1.648, p<0.001), and 1.443(1.256-1.657, p<0.001) greater odds of having average, poor, and very poor performance, respectively. In the analysis for girls, overweight girls had 1.314 (1.124-1.536, p<0.001) and 1.296 (1.084-1.548, p=0.004) greater odds of having poor and very poor academic performance, respectively. Finally, obese girls had 1.374 (1.098-1.718, p=0.005), 1.672 (1.339-2.089, p<0.001), and 1.887 (1.478-2.409, p<0.001) greater odds of having average, poor, or very poor academic performance, respectively. Thus, overweight/obesity was negatively associated with academic performance in both boys and girls. The results of this study indicate that adolescents would benefit from weight management to prevent obesity and, possibly, improve academic performance.

  1. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children and adolescents in Chennai.

    PubMed

    Jagadesan, Sonya; Harish, Ranjani; Miranda, Priya; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in Chennai, India, using national and international age- and sex- specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points. The Obesity Reduction and Awareness and Screening of Non communicable diseases through Group Education in Children and Adolescents (ORANGE) project is a cross-sectional study carried out on 18,955 children (age 6-11 years) and adolescents (age 12-17 years) across 51 schools (31 private and 20 government) of Chennai. Overweight and obesity was classified by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF 2000) and Khadilkars criteria (2012), and Hypertension by the IDF criteria (in children ≥10 years and adolescents). The prevalence of overweight/obesity was significantly higher in private compared to government schools both by the IOTF criteria [private schools: 21.4%, government schools: 3.6%, (OR: 7.4, 95% CI:6.3-8.6; P<0.001) and by Khadilkar criteria (private school: 26.4%, government schools: 4.6% OR: 6.9, 95% CI:6.2-7.8; P<0.001). Overweight/obesity was higher among girls (IOTF: 18%, Khadilkar: 21.3%) compared to boys (IOTF: 16.2%, Khadilkar: 20.7%) and higher among adolescents (IOTF: 18.1%, Khadilkar: 21.2%) compared to children (IOTF: 15.5%, Khadilkar: 20.7%). Prevalence of hypertension was 20.4% among obese/overweight and 5.2% among non-obese (OR 4.7, 95%CI: 4.2-5.3, P<0.001). The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high among private schools in Chennai, and hypertension is also common.

  2. [Gender differences of psychological, nutritional, and physical fitness variables influencing obesity/overweight in Austrian children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Hofmann, Johannes; Paulmichl, Katharina; Zsoldos, Fanni; Weghuber, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Eating behavior and physical activity behavior are under the control of certain cognitive patterns. 6600 adults and 4400 children/adolescents (8-18 years) were tested with the Obesity Diagnostics and Evaluation System (AD-EVA). Potentially significant gender differences will be detailed for the entire juvenile cohort, the subgroup of obese children/adolescents as compared to the adult cohort in this article.Among all the subscales tested, obese girls primarily showed significantly higher values of (preclinical) eating disorders than boys. These data are relevant for both prevention and health promotion.No significant differences were found in regard to sports motivation. This warrants facilitation of physical activity for both genders. Further, a male predilection for "Snacks" and "High-fat food" that could be found in the total representative study group, could not be verified in the subgroup of obese girls and boys, thus suggesting a similarily unhealthy eating behavior in both genders of juvenility.

  3. Food swamps and food deserts in Baltimore City, MD, USA: associations with dietary behaviours among urban adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Hager, Erin R; Cockerham, Alexandra; O'Reilly, Nicole; Harrington, Donna; Harding, James; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether living in a food swamp (≥4 corner stores within 0·40 km (0·25 miles) of home) or a food desert (generally, no supermarket or access to healthy foods) is associated with consumption of snacks/desserts or fruits/vegetables, and if neighbourhood-level socio-economic status (SES) confounds relationships. Cross-sectional. Assessments included diet (Youth/Adolescent FFQ, skewed dietary variables normalized) and measured height/weight (BMI-for-age percentiles/Z-scores calculated). A geographic information system geocoded home addresses and mapped food deserts/food swamps. Associations examined using multiple linear regression (MLR) models adjusting for age and BMI-for-age Z-score. Baltimore City, MD, USA. Early adolescent girls (6th/7th grade, n 634; mean age 12·1 years; 90·7 % African American; 52·4 % overweight/obese), recruited from twenty-two urban, low-income schools. Girls' consumption of fruit, vegetables and snacks/desserts: 1·2, 1·7 and 3·4 servings/d, respectively. Girls' food environment: 10·4 % food desert only, 19·1 % food swamp only, 16·1 % both food desert/swamp and 54·4 % neither food desert/swamp. Average median neighbourhood-level household income: $US 35 298. In MLR models, girls living in both food deserts/swamps consumed additional servings of snacks/desserts v. girls living in neither (β=0·13, P=0·029; 3·8 v. 3·2 servings/d). Specifically, girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls who did not (β=0·16, P=0·003; 3·7 v. 3·1 servings/d), with no confounding effect of neighbourhood-level SES. No associations were identified with food deserts or consumption of fruits/vegetables. Early adolescent girls living in food swamps consumed more snacks/desserts than girls not living in food swamps. Dietary interventions should consider the built environment/food access when addressing adolescent dietary behaviours.

  4. Body weight misperception in adolescence and incident obesity in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Misperceptions of one's weight are common in adolescence. Adolescents of normal weight who misperceive themselves as being overweight tend to engage in unhealthy dieting practices and behaviors that are conducive to obesity. To examine whether this misperception is associated with a risk of obesity during early adulthood, we analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,523; mean age at baseline = 16 years; 58% female). Adolescents who misperceived themselves as being overweight had greater odds of becoming obese over the 12-year follow-up period than adolescents who perceived their weight accurately (odds ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval = [1.22, 1.64]). Although the increase in the odds associated with misperception of weight was apparent for both sexes, it was significantly stronger among boys (1.89 greater odds) than among girls (1.29 greater odds). The present research indicates that weight-based self-stigmatization, much like weight-based social stigmatization, is a powerful risk factor for incident obesity. This finding underscores the importance of addressing inaccurate body weight perceptions, even among adolescents of normal weight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. The secret struggle of the active girl: a qualitative synthesis of interpersonal factors that influence physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Standiford, Anne

    2013-10-01

    The author conducted a systematic review of 19 international, multidisciplinary, qualitative studies of interpersonal factors that influence physical activity in adolescent girls. Themes were deductively generated based on reported findings, and were organized according to frequency of occurrence. Themes were further organized according to a theoretical model to illustrate how interpersonal, perceptual, and situational influences affect physical activity in adolescent girls. The three most frequently discovered themes follow: (a) ability comparison and competition; (b) family, peer, and teacher influence; and (c) appearance concerns. It is important to consider the influence of gender role conflict on physical activity.

  6. The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Calzo, Jerel P; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Haines, Jess; Blood, Emily A; Field, Alison E; Austin, S Bryn

    2012-11-01

    To examine how the associations among body mass index (BMI) and body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern evolve from late childhood through late adolescence in boys and girls. We analyze data from subjects aged 9-18 years from the Growing Up Today Study, a national prospective cohort of U.S. youth (n = 16,882, yielding 59,750 repeated-measures observations during five waves of data collection). Generalized additive models produced curves of association for body dissatisfaction and weight concern across BMI percentiles. Generalized estimating equations (adjusting for correlated within-subject repeated measures, sibling clusters, pubertal maturation, and region of residence) tested main and interactive effects of BMI, age, and gender. Girls above the 50th BMI percentile reported greater body dissatisfaction than girls below the 50th percentile. By contrast, boys who reported the most body dissatisfaction were either above the 75th BMI percentile (approaching overweight) or below the 10th percentile (approaching underweight). Body dissatisfaction increased with age for both girls and boys, but the gender-specific patterns of BMI effects remained constant. Male and female participants in the overweight/obese BMI range reported the greatest weight concern, but among older adolescents (particularly girls), healthy weight became increasingly associated with greater weight and shape concern. Body dissatisfaction and weight and shape concern intensify across adolescence, but associations between the constructs and BMI remain gender specific. Findings have important implications for eating disorder risk assessment and prevention. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Online Drug Abuse Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls: Posttest and 1-Year Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Schwinn, Traci M; Schinke, Steven P; Hopkins, Jessica; Keller, Bryan; Liu, Xiang

    2017-07-28

    Early adolescent girls' rates of drug use have matched, and in some instances, surpassed boys' rates. Though girls and boys share risk factors for drug use, girls also have gender-specific risks. Tailored interventions to prevent girls' drug use are warranted. This study developed and tested a web-based, drug abuse prevention program for adolescent girls. The nationwide sample of 13- and 14-year-old girls (N = 788) was recruited via Facebook ads. Enrolled girls were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition. All girls completed pretest measures online. Following pretest, intervention girls interacted with the 9-session, gender-specific prevention program online. The program aimed to reduce girls' drug use and associated risk factors by improving their cognitive and behavioral skills around such areas as coping with stress, managing mood, maintaining a healthy body image, and refusing drug use offers. Girls in both conditions again completed measures at posttest and 1-year follow-up. At posttest, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention smoked fewer cigarettes and reported higher self-esteem, goal setting, media literacy, and self-efficacy. At 1-year follow-up, and compared to girls in the control condition, girls who received the intervention reported engaging in less binge drinking and cigarette smoking; girls assigned to the intervention condition also had higher alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana refusal skills, coping skills, and media literacy and lower rates of peer drug use. This study's findings support the use of tailored, online drug abuse prevention programming for early adolescent girls.

  8. Correlates of stress fractures among preadolescent and adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Loud, Keith J; Gordon, Catherine M; Micheli, Lyle J; Field, Alison E

    2005-04-01

    Although stress fractures are a source of significant morbidity in active populations, particularly among young female athletes, the causes of stress fractures have not been explored among females <17 years of age or in the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine correlates of stress fractures in a large, population-based, national, cohort study of preadolescent and adolescent girls. A cross-sectional analysis of data from 5461 girls, 11 to 17 years of age, in the Growing Up Today Study, an ongoing longitudinal study of the children of registered female nurses participating in Nurses' Health Study II, was performed. Mothers self-reported information regarding their children's histories of stress fractures on their 1998 annual questionnaire. Growing Up Today Study participants self-reported their weight and height, menarcheal status, physical activity, dietary intake, and disordered eating habits on annual surveys. In 1998, the mean age of the participants was 13.9 years. Approximately 2.7% of the girls had a history of stress fracture, 3% engaged in disordered eating (using fasting, diet pills, laxatives, or vomiting to control weight), and 16% participated in > or =16 hours per week of moderate to vigorous activity. Age at menarche, z score of BMI in 1998, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, and daily dairy intake were all unrelated to stress fractures after controlling for age. Independent of age and BMI, girls who participated in > or =16 hours per week of activity in 1998 had 1.88 greater odds of a history of stress fracture than did girls who participated in <4 hours per week (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.18-3.30). Girls who participated in > or =16 hours per week of activity were also more likely than their peers to engage in disordered eating (4.6% vs 2.8%); however, disordered eating did not have an independent association with stress fractures (odds ratio [OR]: 1.33; 95% CI: 0.61-2.89). Independent of age and BMI, each hour per week

  9. Examining Means of Reaching Adolescent Girls for Iron Supplementation in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Afework; Tessema, Masresha; H/sellasie, Kiday; Seid, Omer; Kidane, Gebremedhin; Kebede, Aweke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in adolescent girls from the developing world. One of the recommended interventions to improve iron status in adolescent girls is iron supplementation. Yet the provision of iron supplements to adolescent girls proved to be a challenging task for the health systems across the developing world. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine means of reaching adolescent girls for iron supplementation in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology: Analytical cross-sectional study consisting of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to data collection and analysis was used in this study. Stratified multi-stage systematic random sampling technique was adopted and primary quantitative data were collected from 828 (578 school attending and 250 non school attending) adolescent girls recruited from nine districts of Tigray. The primary quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The qualitative data collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and qualitatively analyzed. Results: The mean (SD) age of the girls was 16.7 (1.4) years. Four hundred forty seven (54%), 355 (42.9%) and 26 (3.1%) of the adolescent girls had low, medium and high diet diversity scores, respectively. More than half, 467 (56%), of the adolescent girls believed that adolescent girls were overloaded with household jobs everyday compared to boys from their respective communities. Key informants said that, there is no adolescent nutrition message promoted in the study area. Low community awareness, perceiving iron tablet as a contraceptive, religious and cultural influences, and lack of confidence in supplementation value of iron tablets, are some of the potential barriers mentioned by the key informant and focus group discussion participants. Schools (45%), health centers (27%) and health posts (26%) were the preferred public facilities for provision of iron

  10. 1H‐MRS measured ectopic fat in liver and muscle is associated with the metabolic syndrome in Danish girls but not in boys with overweight and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nissen, A.; Fonvig, C. E.; Chabanova, E.; Bøjsøe, C.; Trier, C.; Pedersen, O.; Hansen, T.; Thomsen, H. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complication to overweight and obesity, which can be observed already in childhood. Ectopic lipid accumulation in muscle and liver has been shown to associate with the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, the interaction between MetS and ectopic fat may offer clinical relevance. Objectives To investigate the prevalence of MetS, or components hereof, and ectopic fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle tissue in children, as well as interactions between these. Methods Two‐hundred‐and‐sixteen children and adolescents (95 boys) with overweight/obesity were investigated, as well as 47 controls (22 boys) with normal weight. The assessments included anthropometry, fasting blood biochemistry and blood pressure measurements. Liver and muscle lipid contents were assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results We observed an odds ratio in girls with overweight/obesity of 12.2 (95% confidence interval: [3.8; 49.0]) for exhibiting MetS when hepatic steatosis was present, whereas no association was observed in boys with overweight/obesity (odds ratio 0.7 [0.2; 2.7]). The odds ratio of exhibiting MetS in the presence of muscular steatosis was 3.5 [1.4; 9.5] in girls with overweight/obesity and 1.0 [0.2; 5.6] in boys with overweight/obesity. Similar results were seen for girls with overweight/obesity exhibiting concurrent hepatic and muscular steatoses. Conclusion Hepatic and muscular steatoses were associated with MetS among girls, but not among boys with overweight/obesity. PMID:28090342

  11. Prevalence of selected risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Kaczmarek, Maria; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of elevated blood pressure values and significant family history with respect to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases in overweight and obese adolescents. Our study encompassed 4904 adolescents from randomly selected schools from the Wielkopolska province of Poland. Measurements of body height and mass were performed in all the school pupils. The adolescents were qualified to be included in the overweight and obese groups based on the BMI value, using the cut-off points according to Cole's method. Blood pressure measurements were conducted according to the methodology and recommendations of the Fourth Report, with the application of the Polish blood pressure standards. Within the group of students with normal body mass, overweight and obesity, the frequency of higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and significant family history were calculated, and the relationship between the variables was calculated by means of chi2 test, assuming p<0.05. In order to calculate the odds ratio and the probability of incidence of higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the variables significant in the logistic regression model were taken into consideration. Overweight and obesity was observed in 845 subjects, which made up 17.2% of the population included in the study. Overweight and obesity were significantly more often observed in boys (485 - 22,2%) than in girls (362 - 17.0%) (p<0.05). In boys, the significant family history increases the odds ratio of prevalence of higher systolic blood pressure 1.90 times, obesity - 8.86 times and significant family history combined with obesity - 16.85 times, in comparison with the boys who have normal body mass and no significant family history. Obesity in girls increases the odds ratio of prevalence of higher systolic blood pressure by 9.24 times. Obesity in boys increases the odds ratio of prevalence of higher diastolic blood pressure by 5.88 and in obese girls the odds

  12. Relationship of lean mass and obesity in Indian urban children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garg, M. K.; Marwaha, Raman K.; Mahalle, Namita; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of obesity and lean mass (LM) has not been examined well in children and adolescents, and it remains controversial. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) categories and regional obesity with total and regional LM in children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 1408 children and adolescents (boys 58.9%; girls 41.1%) divided according to BMI (normal weight 79.5%, overweight 16.0%, and obese 4.5%) were included in this cross-sectional study. Total and regional LM and fat mass were measured by DXA. Leg and arm fat-to-total fat ratio (LATR) indicative of subcutaneous fat and trunk fat-to-total fat ratio (TTR), an indicator of visceral fat, were calculated. Results: Mean age of the study population was 13.2 ± 2.7 years (boys - 13.0 ± 2.7; girls - 13.4 ± 2.8 years). Total LM (TLM) and its regional distribution were higher in overweight and obese groups when compared with those with normal BMI in both genders. TLM was comparable between overweight and obese in both genders. TLM per unit of fat progressively decreased from normal to obese categories. The difference in LM per unit fat between BMI categories persisted after adjustment for age, height, and sexual maturity score. TLM increased across the quartiles of TTR, but decreased with an increment in subcutaneous fat (quartiles of LATR). Conclusions: Obese children and adolescents apparently have higher LM than normal BMI children, but have lower LM per unit of fat. Subcutaneous fat had a negative impact and visceral fat had a positive impact on TLM. PMID:27867879

  13. Income Disparities in Obesity Trends Among California Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hastert, Theresa A.; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed income-specific trends in obesity rates among a diverse population of California adolescents. Methods. We used data from 17 535 adolescents who responded to the California Health Interview Survey between 2001 and 2007 to examine disparities in obesity prevalence by family income and gender. Results. Between 2001 and 2007, obesity prevalence significantly increased among lower-income adolescents but showed no statistically significant differences among higher-income adolescents after adjustment for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Although the overall disparity in obesity by family income doubled in this time period, trends were more consistent among male adolescents than among female adolescents. Conclusions. The magnitude of the income disparity in obesity prevalence among California adolescents more than doubled between 2001–2007. The overall leveling off of adolescent obesity prevalence rates could indicate that efforts to decrease childhood obesity are having an impact; however, our results suggest that efforts to prevent childhood obesity may be failing to help adolescents from lower-income families, particularly male adolescents. PMID:20864702

  14. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Rasing, Sanne P A; Creemers, Daan H M; Janssens, Jan M A M; Scholte, Ron H J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents' depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents' self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents' perceptions of their parents' psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems.

  15. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Jennifer B.; Frisco, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women’s odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women’s risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women’s risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994–1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents’ odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women’s odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women’s odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools. PMID:23702216

  16. Family structure effects on early sexual debut among adolescent girls in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the association between household family structure and early sexual debut among adolescent girls, ages 15-19, in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Early sexual debut is associated with detrimental physical, emotional and social outcomes, including increased risk of HIV. However, research on the family's role on adolescents' sexual risk behaviors in sub-Sahara Africa has been minimal and rarely takes into account the varying family structures within which African adolescents develop. Using six rounds of survey data (2001-2008) from the Rakai Community Cohort Study, unmarried adolescent girls (n=1940) aged 15-17 at their baseline survey, were followed until age 19. Parametric survival models showed that compared to adolescent girls living with both biological parents, girls who headed their own household and girls living with step-fathers, grandparents, siblings, or other relatives had significantly higher hazards of early sexual debut before age 16. Adolescent girls were significantly more likely to debut sexually if neither parent resided in the household, either due to death or other reasons. In addition, absence of the living biological father from the home was associated with higher risk of sexual debut, regardless of the biological mother's presence in the home. Our study's findings suggest that family structure is important to adolescent girls' sexual behavior. There is need for research to understand the underlying processes, interactions and dynamics of both low and high risk family structures in order to devise and strategically target interventions targeted for specific types of family structures. PMID:25317199

  17. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  18. SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ADOLESCENT GIRLS' RESILIENCE TO TEENAGE PREGNANCY IN BEGORO, GHANA.

    PubMed

    Gyan, Sylvia Esther; Ahorlu, Collins; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S; Fayorsey, Clara K

    2017-05-01

    This study focuses on how older adolescent girls access and utilize social capital to develop resilience against teenage pregnancy in Begoro, Ghana. A survey of 419 non-pregnant girls aged 15-19 years, selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique, was conducted in 2012. Qualitative data were gathered through in-depth interviews with ten girls purposively selected from the survey respondents. Parents, relatives, teachers and religious groups were found to be important sources of social capital for the non-pregnant girls in developing resilience against teenage pregnancy. In addition, resilient girls tended to rely on multiple sources of social capital. It is recommended that stakeholders and policymakers in Ghana ensure that these significant sources of social capital in adolescent girls' sexual experience are equipped with the right information to help girls decrease the risk of teenage pregnancy.

  19. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Fitness and Obesity on Risk for Asthma in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kim D; Billimek, John; Bar-Yoseph, Ronen; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Cooper, Dan M; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship of fitness and obesity on asthma risk in adolescent girls and boys. A cross-sectional assessment of participants 12-19 years of age was conducted by the use of data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants completed cardiorespiratory fitness testing, body composition measurements, and respiratory questionnaires. A total of 4828 participants were included. Overweight/obesity was associated with increased odds of history of asthma (aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.16-2.30), current asthma (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.13, 2.64), and wheezing (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.91) in girls. Overweight/obesity also was associated with increased odds of asthma attacks (aOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.56-4.65) and wheezing related to exercise (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.07-2.38) in girls. High fitness was associated with lower odds of asthma-related visits to the emergency department (aOR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.89), wheezing-related medical visits (aOR 0.31, 95% CI 0.13-0.75), wheezing-related missed days (aOR 0.14, 95% CI 0.06-0.33), and wheezing related to exercise (aOR 0.43, 95% CI 0.24-0.76) in boys. Overweight/obesity is associated with increased asthma prevalence and morbidity in girls but not in boys, independent of fitness. High fitness is associated with decreased rates of asthma morbidity in boys but not in girls, independent of weight status. Obesity and fitness may each influence asthma onset and severity in different ways for girls compared with boys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Network Clustering of Sexual Violence Experienced by Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Shakya, Holly B; Fariss, Christopher J; Ojeda, Christopher; Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    We used data on 3,139 female social network friendship dyads from 3 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (wave I: 1994-1995; wave II: 1996; and wave IV: 2007-2008) to assess whether friends' reports of experiencing sexual violence (SV) and friends' substance use risk scores predicted whether adolescents and young adults would experience SV themselves. We also used longitudinal analyses to test the associations of combined wave-I and -II risk factors with wave-IV reports of SV and of combined wave-I and -II SV with network connectivity at wave II. After adjustment for a participant's substance use risk score, each 1-point increase in a friend's substance use risk score increased a respondent's odds of experiencing SV by 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.36). Having a friend who reported SV increased a respondent's odds of reporting SV by 1.95 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 3.07), although not after we included school-level fixed effects. Having a friend who experienced SV in adolescence did however increase the respondent's odds of reporting SV as a young adult by 1.54 (95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.37). Respondents who reported SV by wave II had less network connectedness at wave II. Experiences of SV and substance use within adolescent girls' friendship networks are linked to risk for SV into young adulthood, which suggests that network-focused SV prevention and intervention approaches may be warranted. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Dietary intervention causes redistribution of zinc in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Freire, Simone Cardoso; Fisberg, Mauro; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2013-08-01

    Obese people tend to have low zinc circulation levels; this is not always related to zinc intake but can reflect the distribution of zinc in relation to the proportion of body fat and factors related to the inflammatory processes that cause obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess zinc distribution in 15 obese adolescent girls before and after a nutritional orientation program. Participants ranged from 14 to 18 years old (postpubescent) and had a body fat percent (BF%) of >35 %. Zinc nutritional status and other zinc-dependent parameters, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and insulin levels, were assessed by biochemical analysis of plasma and erythrocytes, salivary sediment, and urine. Samples were collected before and after 4 months of dietary intervention. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to verify BF% both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Food consumption was assessed in ten individual food questionnaires throughout the study; food groups were separated on the questionnaires in the same way as suggested by some authors to develop the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) but with the addition of zinc. After 4 months of nutritional orientation, 78 % of the participants showed a decrease in BF%. Intraerythrocytic zinc increased over the study period, while salivary sediment zinc, SOD, insulin, and Zn urinary24 h/creatinine all decreased (p < 0.05). There was no difference in zinc intake throughout the study but participants did increase their consumption of fruits, dairy, and meats during the study (p < 0.05). There were inverse and statistically significant correlations between the increased levels of intraerythrocytic zinc and decreased levels of SOD. There was also a statistically significant correlation between BF% and Zn urinary 24h/creatinine, and SOD. All these parameters were diminished at the end of the study. The dietary intervention for obese adolescent girls is effective with decrease of BF that led to the

  2. Obesity dynamics and cardiovascular risk factor stability in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Shaw, Melissa; Savoye, Mary; Caprio, Sonia

    2009-09-01

    Cross-sectional studies showed worsening of cardiovascular risk factors with increasing severity of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of obesity dynamics on cardiovascular risk factors and on the stability of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS) in obese youth. A longitudinal assessment of components of the MS using two definitions was performed in 186 obese adolescents (106 females/80 males, age 13.1 +/- 2.5 yr). Components of the MS were assessed at baseline and after 19 +/- 7 months. We stratified the cohort into three categories based on the 25th and 75th percentile of body mass index (BMI) z-score change: category 1 reduced BMI z-score by 0.09 or more, category 2 had a BMI z-score change of between -0.09 and 0.12, and category 3 increased BMI z-score by >0.12. Subjects who reduced their BMI z-score significantly decreased their fasting and 2-h glucose levels and triglyceride levels and increased their high density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison to subjects who increased their BMI z-score. BMI z-score changes negatively correlated with changes in insulin sensitivity (r = -0.36, p < 0.001). Among those with no MS at baseline (n = 119), 10 (8%), most of whom significantly increased their BMI z-score, developed MS. Of 67 who had MS at baseline, 33 (50%), most of whom decreased their BMI z-score, lost the diagnosis. Obesity dynamics, tightly linked to changes in insulin sensitivity, have an impact on each individual component of the MS and on the stability of the diagnosis of MS in obese youth.

  3. Romantic Functioning and Depressive Symptoms among Early Adolescent Girls: The Moderating Role of Parental Emotional Availability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Sara J.; Davila, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    This study tested associations between adolescent romantic functioning and depressive symptoms and predicted that adolescents with emotionally unavailable parents would be most likely to show an association between poor romantic functioning and depressive symptoms. Data collected from 80 early adolescent nonreferred girls (average age of 13.45; SD…

  4. Evaluations of dieting prevention messages by adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Pilawski, Angela; Durkin, Sarah; Holt, Tracey

    2002-11-01

    Dieting prevention interventions have been relatively unsuccessful and may be more effective if they concentrate on messages known to be relatively high on persuasive properties. We aimed to identify anti-dieting messages rated most strongly on persuasive dimensions and participant characteristics that predicted message evaluations in adolescent girls. Grade 7 and 8 girls completed questionnaires assessing risk factors for, and early symptoms of, eating disorders. Two weeks later, participants viewed on video seven messages (each 2-3 minutes long) frequently used to dissuade against dieting in prevention interventions and one control message. After viewing each message, participants rated it on a scale assessing the persuasive dimensions of Relevance, Believability, Emotional Response, and Intention to Diet. A quarter to a third of participants felt less likely to go on a diet after viewing the messages. "Skipping meals makes you feel starved so you overeat and feel bad" and "Don't be fooled by the fad diets promoted in the media" were rated most strongly. Higher dieting, body dissatisfaction, and negative affect were generally associated with lower persuasive ratings, suggesting the importance of intervention prior to the establishment of dieting behaviors after which there is more message resistance. Age was also a predictor of Believability for some messages, supporting the importance of ensuring the age appropriateness of messages.

  5. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  6. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  7. Parenting styles and treatment of adolescents with obesity.

    PubMed

    Regber, Susan; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Mårild, Staffan

    2007-01-01

    Professional caregivers have an important task in building a trusting relationship with parents and adolescents and in supporting parents in their parental roles. Our clinical experience of some 300 adolescents with obesity between 9 and 18 years of age and their parents has convinced us that consideration of parenting styles is fundamental in the treatment of children and adolescents with obesity. Typical case situations supporting the significance of parenting styles and illustrating the relationships between parents and adolescents with obesity can be identified. Group sessions with parents are the preferred mode for discussing typical parenting issues in the management of obese adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to describe different parenting styles, and to present a set of typical case situations and treatment strategies for nurses working with adolescents with obesity.

  8. Adolescent Obesity and Future Substance Use: Incorporating the Psychosocial Context

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Grella, Christine E.; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents’ psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  9. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Jihong; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Junxiu; Bai, Yinglong; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls. Methods Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups. Results Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9–21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8–60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05). Conclusions Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls. PMID:26247479

  10. Association of Obesity with Onset of Puberty and Sex Hormones in Chinese Girls: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Lingling; Liu, Jihong; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Junxiu; Bai, Yinglong; Jia, Lihong; Yao, Xingjia

    2015-01-01

    To examine the influence of childhood obesity on the early onset of puberty and sex hormones in girls. Healthy girls with different percentages of body fat at baseline (40 obese, 40 normal, and 40 lean) were recruited from three elementary schools in Shenyang, China. These girls (mean age 8.5 years) were also matched by height, school grade, Tanner stage, and family economic status at baseline. Anthropometry, puberty characteristics, and sex hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at each follow-up visit. The generalized estimating equation model and analysis of variance for repeated measures using a generalized linear model were used to determine the differences in puberty characteristics and sex hormones among three groups. Over 4 years, mean age of breast II onset was earlier among obese girls (8.8 years) than normal girls (9.2 years) and lean girls (9.3 years). The prevalence (%) of early-maturation in the obese, normal, and lean groups was 25.9%, 11.1%, and 7.4%, respectively. Obesity was associated with an increased risk for breast stage II (year 2: RR, 6.3; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1 and year 3: RR, 6.9; 95% CI, 0.8-60.1). None of the girls experienced menarche in the first year; however, by the fourth year 50.0% of obese girls had menarche onset, which was higher than normal weight (27.5%) and lean girls (8.1%). The mean estradiol level increased with age in the obese, normal, and lean groups. The mean estradiol concentration was higher in obese girls than in normal and lean girls throughout the 4-year period (P<0.05). Childhood obesity contributes to early onset of puberty and elevated levels of estradiol in girls.

  11. Fasting Glucose Changes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Compared To Obese Controls: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Asma; Lteif, Aida N.; Kumar, Seema; Simmons, Patricia S.; Chang, Alice Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare changes in fasting glucose among adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to obese adolescents without PCOS. Methods Retrospective cohort study of 310 adolescents with PCOS and 250 obese adolescents, (ages 13–18 years) seen at Mayo Clinic, Rochester MN, from 1996–2012. Included for analysis were 98 adolescents with PCOS and 150 obese adolescents who had 2 or more fasting glucose measurements separated by at least 6 months. Adolescents with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes were excluded. Multivariate models were used to assess predictors of change in fasting glucose. Results At diagnosis, adolescents with PCOS had lower body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) and older age than obese adolescents (P<.001). Adolescents with PCOS had shorter follow up (years) (P=.02). Baseline fasting glucose (mg/dl) was not different between groups. Mean change in fasting glucose (mg/dl/year) was 2.4± 9.4 mg/dl/year for PCOS and 2.2±6.2 mg/dl/year for obese adolescents (P=.83). Significant predictors for change in fasting glucose were BMI and fasting glucose at diagnosis (P<.01). Within the PCOS cohort, BMI was a significant predictor for development of IFG (P=.003). Prevalence of hypertension (HTN) increased in the PCOS cohort from baseline to follow up (P=.02). PCOS and BMI were significantly associated with development of HTN in the entire cohort. Conclusions Adolescent girls with PCOS do not show a significant change in fasting glucose or an increased risk for the development of IFG compared to obese adolescents. BMI, not PCOS status, was the strongest predictor for changes in fasting glucose and development of IFG over time. PMID:26238569

  12. "Go Girls!": psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with a group-based healthy lifestyle program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Jung, Mary E; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing cognitions and behaviors targeted by the Go Girls! group-based mentorship lifestyle program. Three hundred and ten adolescent girls (nested within 40 Go Girls! groups) completed questionnaires that assessed cognitions (attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy, and intentions) and behaviors (physical activity and dietary) at four time points (two pre-program, one at the end of the program, and one at 7-week follow-up). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine changes in the outcome variables among Go Girls! participants (M age = 11.68 years, SD = 0.80). No significant changes occurred in the outcome variables during the baseline comparison period (Time 1-2). When compared to the average of the baseline assessments, 7 weeks after completing the program, girls reported significant improvements in physical activity (M Baseline PAtotal = 3.82, SD = 3.49; M T4 PAtotal = 4.38, SD = 3.75) and healthy eating (M Baseline = 10.71, SD = 1.13; M T4 = 11.35, SD = 1.05) behavior and related cognitions (d values ≥0.65). Findings provide preliminary support for programs that foster belongingness and target health behaviors through mentorship models.

  13. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  14. Nutrient intake in community-dwelling adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and in healthy adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Madhusmita; Tsai, Patrika; Anderson, Ellen J; Hubbard, Jane L; Gallagher, Katie; Soyka, Leslie A; Miller, Karen K; Herzog, David B; Klibanski, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a common time for the onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition associated with long-term medical and hormonal consequences. Objective The objective was to compare the nutrient intakes of community-dwelling girls with AN with those of healthy adolescents and to describe the associations between specific nutrient intakes and nutritionally dependent hormones. Design Nutrient intakes in 39 community-dwelling girls with AN and 39 healthy adolescents aged 12.1–18.7 y were determined by using 4-d food records. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to assess respiratory quotient and resting energy expenditure. Results In contrast with the control group, the AN group consumed fewer calories from fats (P < 0.0001) and more from carbohydrates (P = 0.0009) and proteins (P < 0.0001). Intake of individual fat components was lower and of dietary fiber higher in the AN group. No significant between-group differences were observed in dietary intakes of calcium, zinc, and iron; however, total intake was greater in the AN group because of greater supplement use (P = 0.006, 0.02, and 0.01, respectively). The AN group had greater intakes of vitamins A, D, and K and of most of the B vitamins, and significantly more girls with AN met the Dietary Reference Intake for calcium (P = 0.01) and vitamin D (P = 0.02) from supplement use. Fat intake predicted ghrelin, insulin, and IGF-I concentrations; carbohydrate intake predicted adiponectin. Resting energy expenditure was lower (P < 0.0001) and leisure activity levels higher in the AN group. Conclusions Despite outpatient follow-up, community-dwelling girls with AN continue to have lower fat and higher fiber intakes than do healthy adolescents, which results in lower calorie intakes. Nutritionally related hormones are associated with specific nutrient intakes. PMID:17023694

  15. Obesity at adolescence and gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Yang, Jae Jeong; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kang, Daehee

    2015-02-01

    During the last few decades, prevalence of obesity has risen rapidly worldwide, markedly in children and adolescents. Epidemiologic studies have associated obesity to several cancer types, yet little is known for the effect of early life exposure to obesity on cancer risk in later life, especially in gastric cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) of adolescence and the risk of gastric cancer. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Korea with 1,492 incident gastric cancer cases and 1,492 controls matched by age and sex. The BMI at age 18 was calculated by using weight and height from questionnaire. The association with the risk of gastric cancer was evaluated using odds ratios by logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding factors. Compared with BMI 21.75 kg/m(2), higher BMI at age 18 was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer showing a nonlinear, threshold effect. Statistically significant odds ratio was observed in men with BMI higher than 25.3 kg/m(2) (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01-1.27) and in women with BMI 25.3 kg/m(2) and above (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.01-1.55). Similar to some other cancer types, overweight or obese in adolescence was found to be associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer. The results imply for stratified approach of tactics in prevention of gastric cancer in different population.

  16. Impact of mother tongue and gender on overweight, obesity and extreme obesity in 24,989 Viennese children/adolescents (2-16 years).

    PubMed

    Segna, Daniel; Widhalm, Harald; Pandey, Maitrayee P; Zehetmayer, Sonja; Dietrich, Sabine; Widhalm, Kurt

    2012-11-01

    The present survey aims at determining the prevalence of extreme obesity (defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 99.5th percentile) for the first time in Austria and at investigating the relationship between weight status and mother tongue in a representative Viennese sample of 24,989 children and adolescents (2-16 years) with a percentage of approximately 46 % of migration background.Directly measured anthropometric data on body weight and height were collected and BMI was calculated. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and extreme obesity was determined for every subgroup according to mother tongue using the German national reference criteria by Kromeyer-Hauschild et al.In this sample, 2.1 % of all children and adolescents had to be classified as being extremely obese. More boys (2.3 %) than girls (1.9 %) suffered from extreme obesity (p = 0.048). Total 1.7 % of children and adolescents with German as their native language, 2.5 % of Turkish native speakers and 2.9 % of children and adolescents with another mother tongue were extremely obese (p ≤ 0.001). The highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was found in Turkish-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001), whereas the lowest one was found in German-native-speaking children and adolescents (p ≤ 0.001).This large study clearly shows that extreme obesity is a common disease and largely neglected. Apparently, another native language than German, as an indicator for a migration background, may be associated with a substantially higher probability for the development of extreme obesity in Vienna, Austria. Thus, effective preventive measures to overcome obesity are urgently needed.

  17. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S J; Poojara, R H

    2000-02-01

    The prevalence of anemia is high in adolescent girls in India, with over 70% anemic. Iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements have been shown to enhance adolescent growth elsewhere in the world. To confirm these results in India, a study was conducted in urban areas of Vadodora, India to investigate the effect of IFA supplements on hemoglobin, hunger and growth in adolescent girls 10-18 y of age. Results show that there was a high demand for IFA supplements and >90% of the girls consumed 85 out of 90 tablets provided. There was an increment of 17.3 g/L hemoglobin in the group of girls receiving IFA supplements, whereas hemoglobin decreased slightly in girls in the control group. Girls and parents reported that girls increased their food intake. A significant weight gain of 0.83 kg was seen in the intervention group, whereas girls in the control group showed little weight gain. The growth increment was greater in the 10- to 14-y-old age group than in the 15- to 18-y-old group, as expected, due to rapid growth during the adolescent spurt. IFA supplementation is recommended for growth promotion among adolescents who are underweight.

  18. How Self-Objectification Impacts Physical Activity Among Adolescent Girls in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Smith-Castro, Vanessa

    2017-02-01

    In Latin America, more than 80% of adolescent girls are physically inactive. Inactivity may be reinforced by female stereotypes and objectification in the Latin American sociocultural context. We examined the influence of objectification on the adoption of an active lifestyle among 192 adolescents (14 and 17 years old) from urban and rural areas in Costa Rica. Analyses of 48 focus-groups sessions were grounded in Objectification Theory. Vigorous exercises were gender-typed as masculine while girls had to maintain an aesthetic appearance at all times. Adolescents described how girls were anxious around the prospect of being shamed and sexually objectified during exercises. This contributed to a decrease in girls' desire to engage in physical activities. Among males, there is also a budding tolerance of female participation in vigorous sports, as long as girls maintained a feminine stereotype outside their participation. Self-objectification influenced Costa Rican adolescent girls' decisions to participate in physical activities. Interventions may include: procuring safe environments for physical activity where girls are protected from fear of ridicule and objectification; sensitizing boys about girl objectification and fostering the adoption of a modern positive masculine and female identities to encourage girls' participation in sports.

  19. Adolescent Overweight, Obesity and Chronic Disease-Related Health Practices: Mediation by Body Image

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Caccavale, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP), including lack of physical activity (PA), infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC), screen-based media use (SBM), and smoking. Methods The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028) in grades 6 to10 (mean age=14.3). Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = .87) asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one’s body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Results Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. Conclusion As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP. PMID:24356530

  20. Adolescent overweight, obesity and chronic disease-related health practices: mediation by body image.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Caccavale, Laura J

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether body image mediates the association between overweight/obesity and chronic disease-related health practices (CDRHP), including lack of physical activity (PA), infrequent breakfast consumption (IBC), screen-based media use (SBM), and smoking. The 2006 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of US students (n = 8,028) in grades 6-10 (mean age = 14.3 years). Outcome variables included self-reported measures of PA, SBM, IBC, and smoking. Body image was assessed with 5 items from the Body Investment Scale (α = 0.87) asking for agreement/disagreement with statements about one's body. Stratifying on gender, an initial regression model estimated the association between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Mediation models that included body image were then compared to the initial model to determine the role of body image in the relationship between overweight/obesity and CDRHP. Among boys, body image mediated the relationships of overweight/obesity with SBM, and of obesity with IBC. Among girls, it mediated the relationships of obesity with PA, IBC, and smoking, and of overweight with SBM. As the prevalence of overweight/obesity among adolescent boys and girls remains high, efforts to improve their body image could result in less frequent engagement in CDRHP. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Preconception nutrition, physical activity, and birth outcomes in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yiqiong; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Harville, Emily Wheeler

    2015-01-01

    Background Recommendations for preconception care usually include optimal nutrition and physical activity, but these have not been tested extensively for their relationship with birth outcomes such as low birthweight and preterm birth. Methods Data from Waves I, II and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) contractual dataset were utilized. In Wave I in-home interview, participants were asked to recall their frequency of having five types of food on the previous day, including milk, fruit, vegetables, grains, and sweets. At Wave II, participants reported the previous day's intake of 55 items, and results were categorized into high-calorie sweet, high-calorie non-sweet, and low-calorie food. At Wave I in-home interview, participants were also asked how many times in a week or during the past week they were involved in types of physical activity. At Wave IV, female participants reported pregnancies and birth outcomes. Multivariable linear regression analysis with survey weighting was used to predict birthweight and gestational age. Results There were no associations between reported food intake and birth outcomes. Girls who engaged in more episodes of active behavior had higher birthweights (p<0.01), but hours of sedentary behavior was not associated with birthweight. Multivariable analysis also indicated a u-shaped association between BMI and birthweight (p for quadratic term=0.01). Conclusion Adolescents who are more physically active prior to pregnancy have more positive birth outcomes as represented by birthweight. PMID:26233291

  2. Adolescent diet and time use clusters and associations with overweight and obesity and socioeconomic position.

    PubMed

    Ferrar, Katia; Golley, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Risk factors for adolescent overweight and obesity include low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, low fruit and vegetable intake, and low socioeconomic position (SEP). To date, the vast majority of research investigating associations between lifestyle behaviors and weight status analyze dietary and time use factors separately. Our research aimed to describe Australian youth time use and diet clusters and explore relationships with weight status and SEP (parental education and income). Cluster analysis of the National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey data from Australians aged 9 to 16 years (random sample n = 1,853) was conducted. Time use data (17 age-adjusted time use variables) and dietary data (7 age-adjusted diet variables) were collected via 24-hour recalls. Two clusters were associated with a reduced frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Active Sitter and girls' Healthy Academic clusters) and one with an increased frequency of overweight and obesity (the boys' Unhealthy cluster). Of these three clusters, two demonstrated associations with parental income and/or parental educa