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Sample records for obese pakistani women

  1. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  2. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  3. Body size perceptions among Pakistani women in Norway participating in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Aysha; Bjørge, Benedikte; Hjellset, Victoria T; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Wandel, Margareta

    2010-06-01

    South Asians are prone to diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular diseases, which can be prevented by a diet leading to weight reduction. Body size perceptions may influence compliance to dietary advice. The objective was to study body size perceptions among Pakistani immigrant women in Norway, enrolled in a controlled trial to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance by focussing on diet and physical activity. Participants (n=198) were 25-62 years of age, 79.8% had BMI > 25 and mean BMI was 29.6. Data were collected by questionnaire interviews with Punjabi/Urdu speaking interviewers, and body weight and height were measured. This article is based on baseline data. Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale was used. The scale consists of nine figures, representing women with different body shapes, from very thin (1-2) to very obese (6-9). The women were asked which body size they thought would connote health and wealth. A significantly smaller body size was related to health (mean 2.9) than to wealth (mean 3.3), p<0.01, and both were smaller than their self-rated own body size (mean 5.7), p<0.01. The women perceived that Pakistanis in Norway prefer women to have a smaller body size (mean 3.4) than people in Pakistan (mean 4.5), but larger than Norwegians (mean 2.5). A discrepancy score was calculated between self-rated own body size and perceived body size preference among Pakistanis in Norway. BMI was positively associated, and level of education negatively associated, with the discrepancy score. The women related body size numbers to BMI similarly to what has been described for US women. In conclusion, body size preferences among Pakistani women in this study were within the range of normal weight. However, there was a large discrepancy between own self-rated body size and the perceived ideal for Pakistanis in Norway. PMID:20379892

  4. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Azarbad, Leila; Gonder-Frederick, Linda

    2010-06-01

    Obesity carries a unique disease burden on women and is influenced by a variety of biological, hormonal, environmental, and cultural factors. Reproductive transitions, such as pregnancy and menopause, increase the risk for obesity. Psychologically, obese women experience greater weight-related stigma and discrimination and are at increased risk for depression than obese men. Women are also particularly susceptible to psychological stress, sleep debt, and lack of physical activity, all of which are risk factors for the development of excess weight. Obesity risk is increased among women with psychiatric disorders and those who use certain psychotropic medications. Obesity treatment should take into consideration degree of obesity, health risks, past weight loss attempts, and individual differences in motivation and readiness for treatment.

  5. An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2013-08-01

    Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns. PMID:23930875

  6. An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2013-08-01

    Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns.

  7. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to shape…

  8. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  9. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

  10. Urban and rural comparison of vitamin D status in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates.

    PubMed

    Anwar, S; Iqbal, M P; Azam, I; Habib, A; Bhutta, S; Soofi, S B; Bhutta, Z A

    2016-01-01

    We undertook a cross-sectional study in rural Jehlum and urban Karachi to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Pakistani pregnant women and neonates and to assess any association of serum 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration with vitamin D binding protein (Gc) genotypes. Altogether, 390 women and 266 neonates were recruited from urban and rural sites, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by an immunoassay, while Gc genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism or PCR-RFLP. One-way analysis of variance or ANOVA and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. In urban Karachi, 99.5% of women and 97.3% of neonates were vitamin D deficient (< 50 nmol/L), while 89% of women and 82% of neonates were deficient in rural Jehlum. Gc genotypes were not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations in both women and their neonates. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in Pakistani women and their neonates, and Gc genotypes are not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentrations.

  11. Intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of intimate partner violence against women and its related immigration stressors in Pakistani immigrant families in Germany. Drawing on 32 in-depth interviews with Pakistani women in three cities in Germany, we found that psychological violence was the commonly reported violence among the study participants. The data showed that the process of immigration exacerbated tensions between spouses because of various immigration stressors such as threats to cultural identity, children’s socialization, and social isolation. In order to cope with the stressful spousal relations, women applied various indigenous strategies, but avoided seeking help from the host country’s formal care-providing institutions. This study also debunks some stereotypes and popular media clichés about the “victimhood of women from conservative developing countries” and provides an understanding of the issue of intimate partner violence within an immigration context. Further research with a larger sample will be helpful to understand immigration-induced stress and intimate partner violence in immigrant families. PMID:23984223

  12. College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

  13. Adolescent women and obesity.

    PubMed

    In-Iw, Supinya; Biro, Frank M

    2011-04-01

    The proportion of child and adolescent obesity in the United States has dramatically increased over the past few decades, challenging public health strategies and medical needs of the individual. The medical consequences of obesity include metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. There is no definite diagnostic criterion of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents; commonly noted features are central adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. To prevent negative health outcomes and early recognition for those at risk for overweight and obesity, healthcare providers should screen BMI in children and adolescents at least annually, as well as provide anticipatory guidance to all families during health maintenance visit. This review will address the epidemiology and consequences of obesity in children and adults, and issues for health care providers and public health officials to consider. These issues include increasing physical activity, decreasing sedentary activities, and promoting healthy eating behaviors.

  14. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women. PMID:26694498

  15. Contraception and sexual health in obese women.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Katharine B; Edelman, Alison B

    2015-05-01

    As the proportion of women with obesity increases worldwide, understanding the influence of body weight on sexual behavior, fertility, and contraceptive effectiveness is critical for health-care professionals and patients. Although many have theorized that obese women are different from normal-weight women regarding sexual health and behavior, current evidence for the most part disproves this. The exception is in adolescents where body image may play a role in riskier behavior, placing them at a greater risk of an unintended pregnancy. Given that most modern contraceptives were not originally evaluated in obese women, understanding how weight affects contraceptive pharmacokinetics and efficacy should be a focus of ongoing research. Evidence is reassuring that most modern contraceptive methods are safe and effective in obese women. This paper reviews what is known about sexual and contraceptive behavior, as well as the effectiveness and pharmacokinetics of modern contraceptives, for overweight and obese women. PMID:25498914

  16. Parenting and Infant Temperament amongst Pakistani Women Living in the UK According to Country of Birth: Results from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prady, Stephanie L.; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Some parenting behaviours and child characteristics can result in future behavioural problems. Relatively little is known about parenting behaviours in Pakistani-origin women, and how the timing of migration to the United Kingdom might affect such behaviours. We analysed differences in parenting behaviours and six-month infant temperament by…

  17. Intention to change dietary habits, and weight loss among Norwegian-Pakistani women participating in a culturally adapted intervention.

    PubMed

    Råberg Kjøllesdal, M K; Hjellset, V T; Bjørge, B; Holmboe-Ottesen, G; Wandel, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim was to explore the relationships between degree of participation in a culturally adapted lifestyle intervention and stages of change for healthy eating and weight loss among Pakistani immigrant women in Norway. The intervention lasted 7 months and included 198 women, randomized into control and intervention groups. The odds of losing weight from baseline to follow-up, and being in action stages of change (compared to pre-action stages) with regard to intake of amount and type of fat, sugar and white flour at follow-up, increased significantly with number of group sessions attended. Those in action stage of reducing intake of fat and increasing intake of vegetables, as well as of reducing weight, were significantly more likely than others to have experienced weight loss at follow-up. Participation in the culturally adapted intervention was related to increase in intentions to change dietary behaviours and to weight loss.

  18. Introduction: obesity and lifestyle issues in women.

    PubMed

    Charo, Lindsey; Lacoursiere, D Yvette

    2014-09-01

    To the dismay of clinicians and public health professionals, obesity rates remain high and fundamentally unchanged among women and girls in the United States. The latest data show that 34.9% of adults and 16.9 % of youths are obese. There are marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in obesity in the United States with no appreciable improvements. Although regional variations exist, physical inactivity rates are as high as 43%. Fruit and vegetable consumption was higher in women compared with men, however, the rates remain quite low (36.1% fruit >2/d, 30.9% vegetables >3/d). Obesity impacts health outcomes across the reproductive lifespan.

  19. Whole blood filterability in elderly obese women.

    PubMed

    Gelmini, G; Butturini, L; Cucinotta, D; Delsignore, R; Coiro, V

    1987-01-01

    In order to establish whether obesity alters whole blood filterability, the corrected whole blood filtration (VRBC) was measured in 54 elderly obese women (mean age +/- SE = 67 +/- 2 years) without (n = 15) or with associated cardiovascular risk factors such as impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (n = 11), non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) (n = 14) or hypertension (n = 14). Twenty-two age matched women with normal body weight participated as controls. VRBC values were similar in normal controls and obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whereas they were significantly lower in obese subjects with hypertension, NIDDM or IGT. When subjects with normal and impaired glucose tolerance were combined, a significant negative correlation was found between glucose incretory areas during OGTT and VRBC values. These data demonstrate that obesity per se does not alter whole blood filterability; furthermore, our results indicate that this modification is a precocious and sensitive index of altered glucose metabolism.

  20. Obesity and gonadal function of women.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Kandarakis, Helen A

    2004-08-01

    Excessive visceral adiposity is associated with metabolic and reproductive abnormalities. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine gland and participates in multiple mechanisms in the reproductive function of women. The nature of the complex interaction of obesity with the female reproductive function remains a challenge. Several links have been implicated in the gonadal dysfunction of obese women, like insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, via which ovarian androgen production is stimulated resulting in hyperandrogenemia, increased peripheral aromatization of androgens to estrogens, altered gonadotrophin secretion, decreased sex hormone binding globulin, decreased GH and IGFBPs, increased leptin levels and altered neuroregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The impact of obesity in these mechanisms and their influence on female reproductive function are discussed in this article.

  1. Socio-Economic Disparities in Use of Family Planning Methods among Pakistani Women: Findings from Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Syeda Kanwal; Zaheer, Sidra; Qureshi, Muhammad Sameer; Aslam, Syeda Nisma; Shafique, Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Background Several developing countries like Pakistan step into Sustainable Development Goals period with crucial maternal and child health needs that need to be addressed for improving health outcomes among people. We aim to explore existent socio-economic disparities in use of family planning methods (FPM) among Pakistani women, and compare any such inequalities between the years 2006 and 2013. Setting Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) 2006–7 (n = 9177) and the most recent 2012–13(n = 13558) data were used to conduct secondary analysis. Participants were ever married women aged between 15 and 49 years. Socio-economic status was assessed by the education level and wealth index. Inequalities were measured through Odds Ratio (OR), Relative Index of inequality (RII), and Slope index of inequality (SII) on non-use of FPM. Results Although the prevalence of FPM use has increased over time (28% in 2006 versus 54% in 2013), the socio-economic inequalities persistently exist. Comparing results of PDHS 2006 with PDHS 2013, education related absolute inequalities among urban dwellers increased from -0.41 (95% CI -0.67, -0.13, p-value < 0.01) to -0.83 (95% CI -1.02, -0.63, p-value < 0.01); and increased from -0.93 (95% CI -1.21, -0.64, p-value < 0.01) to -0.98 (95% CI -1.20, -0.76, p-value < 0.01) among rural dwellers. Similarly wealth related absolute inequalities are also existent. Conclusions Although the FPM use has increased over time, but it is important to note that socio-economic gap in use of FPM persists. Such differences have disadvantaged the poor and the illiterate. Family planning programs may target the disadvantaged subgroups for ensuring well-being of women and children in Pakistan. PMID:27055164

  2. Experiences of Infertility in British and Pakistani Women: A Cross-Cultural Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; de Visser, Richard Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of infertility is affected by cultural factors. In this cross-cultural qualitative study we explored the experience of infertility among six women living in Pakistan and eight living in the UK. Although infertile women in the UK and Pakistan had many shared experiences related to their own desires for motherhood and the hopes of others, they also faced unique psychosocial challenges shaped by cultural context. Based on our findings, we suggest a need for further resources and networks to support women, particularly women living in cultures that allow women few fulfilling social roles other than motherhood.

  3. Adiposity and response to an obesity prevention intervention in Pakistani and Bangladeshi primary school boys and girls: a secondary analysis using the BEACHeS feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, Geneviève; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj; Pallan, Miranda; Gill, Paramjit; Barrett, Timothy; Adab, Peymane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. Design The Birmingham healthy Eating and Active lifestyle for CHildren Study (BEACHeS) was designed as a Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. Setting 8 primary schools with predominantly South Asian children in Birmingham, UK Participants 1090 pupils (aged 5–7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. A total of 574 were enrolled in the study with consent. We focused on the 466 children of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin (50.6% boys). Intervention Delivered between 2007 and 2009, the 1-year obesity prevention intervention targeted school and family-based dietary and physical activities. Primary and secondary outcome measures and analysis Adiposity measures including skinfold thickness were compared by sex at baseline and follow-up. Gains in adiposity measures were compared between control and intervention arms in boys and in girls. Measures were compared using two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests according to normality distribution. Results At baseline, girls had larger skinfold measures at all sites compared to boys although body mass index (BMI) was similar (eg, median subscapular skinfold 6.6 mm vs 5.7 mm; p<0.001). At follow-up, girls in the intervention group gained less weight and adiposity compared to respective controls (p<0.05 for weight, BMI, waist circumference, central and thigh skinfold) with a median total skinfold gain of 7.0 mm in the control group compared to 0.3 mm in the intervention group. Conclusions Our secondary analysis suggests differences in adiposity in Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and boys and in the effect of the intervention reducing adiposity in girls. These preliminary findings indicate that including sex

  4. Contraceptive use and sexual behavior in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2012-12-01

    Obesity and unintended pregnancy differentially affect women based on sociodemographic factors. Because of the overlap of these factors, obesity and unintended pregnancy have been described as colliding epidemics. Understanding the relationship between obesity and unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and sexual behavior is important in improving the reproductive health of women given the increasing weight demographic. A review of the literature reveals contraceptive use versus nonuse does not differ in women of different body weights. Obese women use oral contraceptives less than normal weight women and are more likely to use procedural methods like sterilization. No difference was noted in most types of sexual behavior for women of different body weights.

  5. Differences in socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics between Pakistani and White British women in the Born in Bradford prospective cohort study: the influence of the woman's, her partner's and their parents’ place of birth

    PubMed Central

    West, J; Lawlor, D A; Fairley, L; Wright, J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine differences between Pakistani and White British women in relation to socioeconomic position, lifestyle and health-related pregnancy characteristics, and to determine whether these differences vary depending on the woman's, her partner's and both of their parents’ place of birth. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Bradford, UK Participants 3656 Pakistani and 3503 White British women recruited to the Born in Bradford study. Main outcome measures Socioeconomic position (employment status; level of education; receipt of benefits; housing tenure), lifestyle characteristics (body mass index (BMI) at the start of pregnancy; smoking during pregnancy) and health-related pregnancy characteristics (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; gestational diabetes; fasting glucose, postload glucose and fasting insulin at ∼27 weeks gestation). Results Fewer Pakistani women were employed (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.19), the difference being markedly less for UK born women. UK born Pakistani women were more likely, and South Asian born less likely, to be educated post 16 than White British women. Smoking was uncommon among Pakistani women, though the difference comparing UK born Pakistani women to White British women was less than for other groups. BMI was lower among Pakistani compared to White British women (adjusted mean difference −1.12, 95% CI −1.43 to −0.81), the difference being greatest when partners were UK born irrespective of the woman’s place of birth. Pakistani women had higher fasting and postload glucose (mean difference 0.20 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.24; 0.37, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.45), higher fasting insulin and were more likely to have gestational diabetes (GDM). Conclusions Our results suggest that some socioeconomic, lifestyle and pregnancy characteristics could be beginning to change in response to migration to the UK, with generally beneficial changes, that is, improving education and employment prospects, lower BMI and no

  6. Effects of obesity on women's reproduction and complications during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Linné, Y

    2004-08-01

    Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world, and more women in fertile ages become overweight and obese. Among all other problems, women who are obese have higher rates of amenorrhoea and infertility. Obese women have a higher risk of complications during pregnancy such as hypertensive diagnoses and gestational diabetes, and delivery complications such as higher rates of caesarean sections and prolonged time of delivery. The aim of this article is to review the consequences of being obese during the reproductive life of a woman.

  7. Association of various reproductive rights, domestic violence and marital rape with depression among Pakistani women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Depression among women is common in developing countries. Gender inequality can contribute to women's risk for depression. Lack of reproductive and sexual rights is an important marker of gender inequality and women do not have the freedom to express their reproductive and sexual needs in many parts of the world. Therefore we designed this study to determine the association of depression with lack of various reproductive rights and domestic violence among married women in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A case-control study with 152 cases and 152 controls, which included women 15-48 years, recruited from two teaching hospitals from 1st June 2007 through 31st August 2007. The SRQ was administered to all subjects. A cut off score of 8 was used to confirm cases of depression diagnosed by physicians, and to exclude cases of depression from the controls. Self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the risk factors. Results 61% of the cases and 43% of the controls were ever abused by spouse and the frequency of marital rape was 33% in cases and 13% in controls. After adjusting for the effects of other variables in the model, less than 18 years of age at marriage (OR 2.00; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.7), decision for marriage by parents (OR 3.51; 95% CI = 1.67, 7.37), abuse by in laws (OR 4.91; 95% CI = 2.66, 9.06), ≤ 3 hours per day spent with husband (OR 2.33; 95% CI = 1.34, 4.08), frequency of intercourse ≤ 2 times per week (OR 1.85; 95% CI = 1.06, 3.22) and marital rape (OR 3.03; 95% CI = 1.50, 6.11) were associated with depression among women. Conclusion In our study depression in married women was associated with younger age at marriage, lack of autonomy in marriage decisions, marital rape and domestic abuse by in-laws. Efforts should be directed towards creating awareness about the reproductive and sexual rights of women in Pakistan. Physicians should be trained to screen and identify women who may be at risk for psychological distress as a result of denial

  8. Prevalence of obesity in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Garg, C; Khan, S A; Ansari, S H; Garg, M

    2010-02-01

    Comparison of two major studies conducted by National family health survey (NFHS-2) in 1998-1999 and NFHS-3 in 2005-2006 shows that prevalence of obesity among Indian women has elevated from 10.6% to 12.6% (increased by 24.52%). The prevalence is more profound in the women of age between 40-49 years (23.7%), residing in cities (23.5%), having high qualification (23.8%), belonging to Sikh community (31.6%) and households in the highest wealth quintile (30.5%). Highest percentage of obese women is found in Punjab (29.9%). Although this number seems small in the international perspective, it is significant because of the sheer size of population in India. While the problem of under-nutrition still exists in many parts of India, the additional burden of obesity due to increasing sedentary lifestyle, junk food habits in some urban and economically sound areas is really alarming. Prevention and control of this serious problem through awareness programmes to adopt diversified nutritional food and healthy lifestyle are strongly recommended.

  9. Perspectives of UK Pakistani women on their behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes: qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating disease, highly prevalent in UK South Asians, and preventable by lifestyle intervention. The ‘New life, New you’ (NLNY) physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention for T2D prevention was culturally adapted to better engage minority ethnic populations and tested for feasibility. Objectives To investigate Pakistani female participants’ perspectives of their behaviour change and of salient intervention features. Setting A community-based 8-week programme of group delivered PA sessions with behavioural counselling and dietary advice, culturally adapted for ethnic minority populations, in an area of socioeconomic deprivation. Participants to NLNY were recruited through screening events in community venues across the town. Participants Interviews were conducted with 20 Pakistani female NLNY participants, aged 26–45 (mean 33.5) years, from different parts of town. Results Within the a priori Theoretical Domains Framework (intentions and goals, reinforcement, knowledge, nature of the activity, social role and identity, social influences, capabilities and skills, regulation and decision, emotion and environment), we identified the importance of social factors relating to participants’ own PA and dietary behaviour change. We also identified cross-cutting themes as collateral benefits of the intervention including participants’ ‘psychological health’; ‘responsibility’ (for others’ health, especially family members included in the new PA and diet regimes) and ‘inclusion’ (an ethos of accommodating differences). Conclusions Our findings suggest that culturally adapted interventions for Pakistani women at risk of T2D, delivered via group PA sessions with counselling and dietary advice, may encourage their PA and dietary behaviour change, and have collateral health and social benefits. The NLNY intervention appeared to be acceptable. We plan to evaluate recruitment, retention and likely effect of the

  10. Effects of obesity on hormonally driven cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Moley, Kelle H.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of numerous poor health outcomes, including cancer. Obesity is especially problematic in women because both they and their offspring may be at increased risk of cancer. Studying transmission of obesity-induced cancer risk is challenging in humans, but animal studies are beginning to reveal the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26819193

  11. Effects of obesity on hormonally driven cancer in women.

    PubMed

    Moley, Kelle H; Colditz, Graham A

    2016-01-27

    Obesity increases the risk of numerous poor health outcomes, including cancer. Obesity is especially problematic in women because both they and their offspring may be at increased risk of cancer. Studying transmission of obesity-induced cancer risk is challenging in humans, but animal studies are beginning to reveal the underlying mechanisms.

  12. Obesity in minority women: calories, commerce, and culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates in all women, but especially in minority women and children. Factors that contribute to this include changes in caloric intake and expenditure (calories), cost and ease of acquiring food along with pressures from the marketplace and media (commerce) and the community response to the increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (culture).

  13. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Shukri, Nor A; Duncan, Andrew; Denison, Fiona C; Forbes, Shareen; Walker, Brian R; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-10-01

    The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m²) and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m²) pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation) pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05). Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy. PMID:26457716

  14. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Shukri, Nor A; Duncan, Andrew; Denison, Fiona C; Forbes, Shareen; Walker, Brian R; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2015-10-07

    The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m²) and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m²) pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation) pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05). Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy.

  15. Attitudes toward obesity in obese persons: a matched comparison of obese women with and without binge eating.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R M; Masheb, R M; White, M A; Grilo, C M

    2010-09-01

    No research has compared expressions of weight bias across different subgroups of obese individuals. This study compared attitudes toward and beliefs about obesity in women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and examined whether these attitudes are related to psychological factors. Fifty obese women with BED were compared with an age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 50 obese women without BED on a battery of established measures of anti-fat attitudes and beliefs about weight controllability and psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder features). The ageand BMI-matched groups did not differ with respect to beliefs about obesity or attitudes toward obese persons, or in self-esteem or depression. Correlational analyses conducted separately within each group revealed that women with BED who reported more favorable attitudes towards obese persons had higher self-esteem and lower levels of depression, whereas there were no significant associations between these variables among women without BED. In addition, weight controllability beliefs and eating disorder features were unrelated to self-esteem and depression in both groups. These findings suggest that stigmatizing attitudes endorsed by obese persons are neither tempered nor worsened by psychological distress or eating pathology. Given that stigmatizing attitudes did not differ between obese women with and without BED, it may be that obesity itself, rather than psychological features or disordered eating, increases vulnerability to negative weight-based attitudes. Potential implications for stigma reduction efforts and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20124783

  16. Obesity, school obesity prevalence, and adolescent childbearing among U.S. young women.

    PubMed

    Kane, Jennifer B; Frisco, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    In the United States, adolescent obesity reduces young women's odds of forming romantic and sexual partnerships but increases the likelihood of risky sexual behavior when partnerships occur. This led us to conduct a study examining the relationship between adolescent obesity and adolescent childbearing. Our study has two aims. We draw from prior research to develop and test competing hypotheses about the association between adolescent obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth. Drawing from risk regulation theory, we also examine whether the association between obesity and young women's risk of an adolescent birth may vary across high schools with different proportions of obese adolescents. Multilevel logistic regression models are used to analyze data from 4242 female students in 102 U.S. high schools who participated in Wave I (1994-1995) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results are the first to show that obesity reduces female adolescents' odds of childbearing, but that this association is not uniform across schools with different proportions of obese students. As the obesity prevalence in a school increases, so do obese young women's odds of childbearing. We conclude that understanding whether and how obesity is associated with young women's odds of having an adolescent birth requires attention to the weight context of high schools.

  17. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods.

  18. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods. PMID:26268731

  19. Circulatory Estrogen Level Protects Against Breast Cancer in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Literary data suggest apparently ambiguous interaction between menopausal status and obesity-associated breast cancer risk based on the principle of the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen. Before menopause, breast cancer incidence is relatively low and adiposity is erroneously regarded as a protective factor against this tumor conferred by the obesity associated defective estrogen-synthesis. By contrast, in postmenopausal cases, obesity presents a strong risk factor for breast cancer being mistakenly attributed to the presumed excessive estrogen-production of their adipose-tissue mass. Obesity is associated with dysmetabolism and endangers the healthy equilibrium of sexual hormone-production and regular menstrual cycles in women, which are the prerequisites not only for reproductive capacity but also for somatic health. At the same time, literary data support that anovulatory infertility is a very strong risk for breast cancer in young women either with or without obesity. In the majority of premenopausal women, obesity associated insulin resistance is moderate and may be counteracted by their preserved circulatory estrogen level. Consequently, it is not obesity but rather the still sufficient estrogen-level, which may be protective against breast cancer in young adult females. In obese older women, never using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the breast cancer risk is high, which is associated with their continuous estrogen loss and increasing insulin-resistance. By contrast, obese postmenopausal women using HRT, have a decreased risk for breast cancer as the protective effect of estrogen-substitution may counteract to their obesity associated systemic alterations. The revealed inverse correlation between circulatory estrogen-level and breast cancer risk in obese women should advance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and promotes primary prevention measures. New patents recommend various methods for the prevention and treatment of obesity

  20. Does obesity compromise survival in women with breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Carmichael, A R; Bendall, S; Lockerbie, L; Prescott, R J; Bates, T

    2004-04-01

    Obesity, measured by high body mass index (BMI >30 kg/m2) is associated with an increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer but the effect of obesity on prognosis is not clear. A prospectively accrued and regularly validated database of 1579 patients with breast cancer treated in a district general hospital between 1963 and 1999 was analysed for clinical and pathological tumour characteristics including the family history, grade, tumour type, treatment and outcome. The risk factors and outcome of obese and non-obese patients were compared. Breast cancer in obese women was associated with significantly larger tumour size and worse Nottingham prognostic index. There was no statistically significant difference in overall and disease-free survival between obese and non-obese group. Hazard ratios (95% Cl) were 0.81 (0.62-1.06) and 0.80 (0.63-1.01), respectively. In the present study, obesity is not an indicator of worst prognosis of breast cancer.

  1. Association between juvenile onset obesity and severe adult obesity in 73, 532 women.

    PubMed Central

    Rimm, I J; Rimm, A A

    1976-01-01

    The association between juvenile obesity and severe adult obesity was examined using a questionnaire completed by 73,532 weight conscious women. Relative obesity as an adult was determined by the ratio Weight/Height. The question, "Were you considered a fat child?" determined childhood weight status. Analysis of the data revealed that severely obese women (regardless of age) were 2.4 times more likely than normal weight women to have been fat children. This association was noted for all parity groups. The data also suggests that the risk of a fat child developing severe obesity is substantially greater than that for a non-fat child. Since adult obesity is associated with a number of adult diseases, this study emphasizes the importance of weight control in childhood. PMID:1275125

  2. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that, despite a normal BMI, the NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women.

  3. Obesity patterns among women in a slum area in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Joao G; Falcão, Romero W; Pinto, Renato A; Correia, Jailson B

    2011-06-01

    High-energy diet and sedentary lifestyle fail to completely explain the epidemic of obesity in developing countries. In this cross-sectional survey, the prevalence and patterns of overweight/obesity were assessed among women in a slum in Brazil. Using anthropometric measurements, shorter form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a 24-hour diet recall questionnaire, data were collected from 632 women aged 20-60 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29% and 17% respectively. Physical inactivity was found in 17% of the women; 12% of them had short stature, and 44% had energy intake below the recommended dietary allowance. Results of multiple logistic regression showed that overweight/obesity differed significantly (p < 0.05) in the following aspects: abdominal circumference, energy intake, and short stature. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity was found in a very poor community associated with high-energy intake and short stature.

  4. Design and baseline characteristics of the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians) trial: a cluster, randomised lifestyle intervention in Indian and Pakistani adults with impaired glycaemia at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Anne; Bhopal, Raj S; Bhopal, Ruby; Forbes, John F; Gill, Jason M R; McKnight, John; Murray, Gordon; Sattar, Naveed; Sharma, Anu; Wallia, Sunita; Wild, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design and baseline population characteristics of an adapted lifestyle intervention trial aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity in people of Indian and Pakistani origin at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Design Cluster, randomised controlled trial. Setting Community-based in Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, UK. Participants 156 families, comprising 171 people with impaired glycaemia, and waist sizes ≥90 cm (men) and ≥80 cm (women), plus 124 family volunteers. Interventions Families were randomised into either an intensive intervention of 15 dietitian visits providing lifestyle advice, or a light (control) intervention of four visits, over a period of 3 years. Outcome measures The primary outcome is a change in mean weight between baseline and 3 years. Secondary outcomes are changes in waist, hip, body mass index, plasma blood glucose and physical activity. The cost of the intervention will be measured. Qualitative work will seek to understand factors that motivated participation and retention in the trial and families’ experience of adhering to the interventions. Results Between July 2007 and October 2009, 171 people with impaired glycaemia, along with 124 family volunteers, were randomised. In total, 95% (171/196) of eligible participants agreed to proceed to the 3-year trial. Only 13 of the 156 families contained more than one recruit with impaired glycaemia. We have recruited sufficient participants to undertake an adequately powered trial to detect a mean difference in weight of 2.5 kg between the intensive and light intervention groups at the 5% significance level. Over half the families include family volunteers. The main participants have a mean age of 52 years and 64% are women. Conclusions Prevention of Diabetes & Obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) is one of the first community-based, randomised lifestyle intervention trials in a UK South Asian population. The main trial results will

  5. Alternative Methods for Measuring Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Ashley E.; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women. PMID:23483836

  6. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Gonzalez, Fernando; Auguet, Teresa; Aragonès, Gemma; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Martinez, Salomé; Martí, Andreu; Sabench, Fátima; Hernandez, Mercé; Aguilar, Carmen; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Jorba, Rosa; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A) plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2). We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127). It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032), and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women. PMID:26263971

  7. Obesity and Body Size Preferences of Jordanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Hawks, Steven R.; Angeles, Heidi N.

    2011-01-01

    The nutrition transition is associated with increased obesity rates and increased desire to be thin. This study evaluates the relationship between actual body size and desired body size among a representative sample of 800 Jordanian women. Using Stunkard's body silhouettes, women were asked to identify their current and ideal body sizes, healthy…

  8. A Consciousness-Raising Group for Obese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flack, Ruth; Grayer, Elinor D.

    1975-01-01

    This article describes three consciousness-raising groups for obese women which met to explore what it is like to be fat in a thin-oriented society, to enhance their self-esteem, and to help the women recognize that being fat is one of many choices a person may legitimately make for herself. (Author/EJT)

  9. Influence of physical activity on psychosomatic health in obese women.

    PubMed

    Menzyk, K; Cajdler, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent the known psychosomatic benefits of exercise hold true for the obese. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the psychosomatic health and components of general intelligence, such as the capacity for logical-deductive tasks, would be better in regularly exercising than non-exercising obese women. We addressed the issue in a self-reported survey study, comprising two groups of middle-aged obese women (age 30-50 years, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) of 25 persons each. The criterion for the group division was regular exercise, minimum twice a week, for at least 2 months. The following psychometric tools were used: Physical Fitness and Exercise Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Life Satisfaction Scale, General Health Inventory-28, Raven's Matrices Test for intelligence, and a test for selfcontentment with one's body figure shape. The exercising obese women scored significantly better in Life Satisfaction Scale (17.1 +/- 1.2 vs.12.0 +/- 0.9), had a lower level of depression (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.4 +/- 0.7), and a better assessment of the health status (24.6 +/- 1.6 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.2) (reversed score) compared with non-exercising ones (P<0.05). The exercising obese women also appreciably better assessed their bodily looks. Interestingly, if depression was present in exercising women, it had more detrimental health effects than in physically inactive ones. The study failed to substantiate appreciable changes in general intelligence between active and non-active obese women. In conclusion, physical activity is of benefit for the psychosomatic health in obese women, which should be considered in behavioral counseling.

  10. Leptin promoter variant G2548A is associated with serum leptin and HDL-C levels in a case control observational study in association with obesity in a Pakistani cohort.

    PubMed

    Shabana, -; Hasnain, Shahida

    2016-06-01

    Leptin is a protein hormone synthesized by adipocytes and is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that any change in the promoter sequence can affect the expression of the gene and hence leptin protein levels in the serum. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of such a promoter variant of the leptin gene, G-2548A polymorphism, with obesity and its effect on various anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a Pakistani cohort consisting of 250 obese and 225 non-obese control subjects. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured by standard methods and levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDLC, LDLC, and leptin were determined. Genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The results showed that the LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed significant association with obesity in Pakistan. In addition, the polymorphism showed association with weight, height, BMI, WC, HDLC and serum leptin levels. The findings suggest that the leptin promoter G-2548A variant may play its part in the progression to obesity by not only affecting the body's fat distribution but also by changing the serum leptin and HDLC levels. PMID:27240985

  11. Correlates of Obesity and Body Image in Colombian Women

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Baylin, Ana; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the sociodemographic correlates of overweight and obesity as well as body shape perception in women from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods The sample (n = 671) represented low-income and middle-income women, aged 21–55 years, living in Bogotá, who had children in the public school system. We measured height and weight to calculate body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and defined two dichotomous outcomes: overweight/obesity (BMI ≥25) and obesity (BMI ≥30). Women reported sociodemographic information and used the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale to identify the silhouette that most closely resembled their body shape (current), what they would like to look like (ideal), and what they considered healthiest (healthiest). We estimated body dissatisfaction by subtracting the ideal from the current scores. Results The prevalences of overweight/obesity and obesity, based on measured height and weight, were 41.9% and 11.6%, respectively. Age, being married, and being born in Bogotá were positively associated with overweight/obesity but not with obesity alone, whereas the number of household assets and parity were both positively related to obesity. Women with higher education or who lived in wealthier neighborhoods identified ideal shapes that were thinner than those identified by their less educated or poorer counterparts (p = 0.03 and p = 0.004, respectively). Higher education was also associated with the selection of thinner body shapes as healthiest (p = 0.02). BMI and education were both positively related to body dissatisfaction (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions Indicators of higher socioeconomic status (SES) (e.g., having more household assets) are associated with obesity. Perception of slimmer body shapes as ideal and healthiest and higher body dissatisfaction are associated with higher education. PMID:19630551

  12. The Psychosocial Factors Related to Obesity: A Study Among Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Women in India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors among overweight, obese, and morbidly obese women in Delhi, India were examined. A follow-up survey was conducted of 325 ever-married women aged 20-54 years, systematically selected from 1998-99 National Family Health Survey samples, who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information on day-to-day problems, body image dissatisfaction, sexual dissatisfaction, and stigma and discrimination were collected and anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current body mass index. Three out of four overweight women (BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m(2)) were not happy with their body image, compared to four out of five obese women (BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or greater), and almost all (95 percent) morbidly obese women (BMI of 35 kg/m(2) or greater) (p < .0001). It was found that morbidly obese and obese women were five times (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-13.81, p < .001) and two times (aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.20-4.42, p < .001), respectively, as likely to report day-to-day problems; twelve times (aOR 11.88, 95% CI 2.62-53.87, p < .001) and three times, respectively, as likely (aOR 2.92, 95% CI 1.45-5.88, p = .001) to report dissatisfaction with body image; and nine times (aOR 9.41, 95% CI 2.96-29.94, p < .001) and three times (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.03-8.37, p = .001), respectively, as likely to report stigma and discrimination as overweight women. PMID:25905678

  13. The Psychosocial Factors Related to Obesity: A Study Among Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Women in India.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors among overweight, obese, and morbidly obese women in Delhi, India were examined. A follow-up survey was conducted of 325 ever-married women aged 20-54 years, systematically selected from 1998-99 National Family Health Survey samples, who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information on day-to-day problems, body image dissatisfaction, sexual dissatisfaction, and stigma and discrimination were collected and anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current body mass index. Three out of four overweight women (BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m(2)) were not happy with their body image, compared to four out of five obese women (BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or greater), and almost all (95 percent) morbidly obese women (BMI of 35 kg/m(2) or greater) (p < .0001). It was found that morbidly obese and obese women were five times (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02-13.81, p < .001) and two times (aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.20-4.42, p < .001), respectively, as likely to report day-to-day problems; twelve times (aOR 11.88, 95% CI 2.62-53.87, p < .001) and three times, respectively, as likely (aOR 2.92, 95% CI 1.45-5.88, p = .001) to report dissatisfaction with body image; and nine times (aOR 9.41, 95% CI 2.96-29.94, p < .001) and three times (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.03-8.37, p = .001), respectively, as likely to report stigma and discrimination as overweight women.

  14. The Psychosocial Factors Related to Obesity: A Study Among Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors among overweight, obese, and morbidly obese women in Delhi, India were examined. A follow-up survey was conducted of 325 ever-married women aged 20–54 years, systematically selected from 1998–99 National Family Health Survey samples, who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information on day-to-day problems, body image dissatisfaction, sexual dissatisfaction, and stigma and discrimination were collected and anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current body mass index. Three out of four overweight women (BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2) were not happy with their body image, compared to four out of five obese women (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater), and almost all (95 percent) morbidly obese women (BMI of 35 kg/m2 or greater) (p < .0001). It was found that morbidly obese and obese women were five times (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02–13.81, p < .001) and two times (aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.20–4.42, p < .001), respectively, as likely to report day-to-day problems; twelve times (aOR 11.88, 95% CI 2.62–53.87, p < .001) and three times, respectively, as likely (aOR 2.92, 95% CI 1.45–5.88, p = .001) to report dissatisfaction with body image; and nine times (aOR 9.41, 95% CI 2.96–29.94, p < .001) and three times (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.03–8.37, p = .001), respectively, as likely to report stigma and discrimination as overweight women. PMID:25905678

  15. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries.

  16. Stress-related development of obesity and cortisol in women.

    PubMed

    Vicennati, Valentina; Pasqui, Francesca; Cavazza, Carla; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2009-09-01

    Chronic exposure to environmental stress may play a role in the development of obesity, through hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. This study investigated the dynamics of weight gain and the activity of the HPA axis in women who developed weight gain after a stressful event. This is a case-control retrospective study. Two groups of age-matched premenopausal women were selected. One (n = 14) included women characterized by a rapid weight gain following a stressful event, defined as the "stress-related obesity " (SRO) group, and the other (n = 21) women with nonstress-related development of obesity, defined as the "nonstress-related obesity " (NSRO) group. Twenty-one healthy premenopausal women served as normal-weight controls. Baseline hormonal and metabolic parameters, and 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) excretion rate (as a measure of HPA-axis activity) were measured in all women. Anthropometry, diet, and physical activity were similar in both obese groups. Both obese groups showed similar metabolic and hormonal profiles, but the SRO group had UFC/24 h values (41.1 +/- 14.3 microg) significantly higher (P < 0.001) with respect to the NSRO (26.6 +/- 17.6 microg) or the normal-weight control groups (21.1 +/- 9.8 microg). Moreover, time (years) to achieve maximum Deltaweight gain (kg) and the Deltaweight gain/time ratio were significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.001) in the SRO group with respect to the NSRO group, respectively. In the SRO group, there was a tendency to a significant correlation between UFC/24 h and the Deltaweight gain/time ratio. These findings support the concept that SRO has distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, including hyperactivity of the HPA axis.

  17. European society of contraception statement on contraception in obese women.

    PubMed

    Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Skouby, Sven; Serfaty, David; Lech, Medard; Bitzer, Johannes; Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Cagnacci, Angelo; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-02-01

    The obesity 'epidemic' continues to increase, mostly but not only in developed countries. As overweight and obese women are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) at baseline and at a much higher risk during pregnancy, it is essential to help these women to plan pregnancies carefully and to use contraceptives with a positive ratio of benefits versus risks. The Expert Group on hormonal and molecular contraception of the European Society of Contraception convened to review the existing evidence and propose recommendations to the prescribers in line with most recent studies and with the Medical Eligibility Criteria of the World Health Organisation.

  18. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  19. Influence of magnesium on insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Pinto, Denise Pereira; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Colli, Célia; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of magnesium on insulin resistance in obese women. A case-control study involving 114 women on the age between 20 and 50 years old, divided into two groups: control (eutrophic women, n = 59) and case (obese women, n = 55). The analysis of magnesium intake was carried out through the 3-day food record and also NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The determinations of serum glucose and serum insulin were performed by enzymatic colorimetric method and chemiluminescence, respectively. The insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The mean values of magnesium intake were lower than those recommended, without difference between groups (p > 0.05). All the patients who were evaluated showed adequate mean concentrations of magnesium in the plasma and erythrocyte. The urinary excretion of this mineral was lower than the reference values in both groups and did not show significant difference (p > 0.05). The values of serum glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher in obese women compared to the control group. A negative correlation was observed between erythrocyte magnesium and glycemic parameters (p < 0.05). Obese patients take in foods with low dietary magnesium content, and they show hypomagnesuria as a compensatory mechanism to keep the plasma concentration of this mineral in adequate levels. The correlation between the erythrocyte magnesium concentration and the parameters of glycemic control suggests the influence of this mineral on the index of insulin resistance in obese women.

  20. Weight Cycling, Psychological Health and Binge Eating in Obese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venditti, Elizabeth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationship between weight cycling and psychological health in 120 obese women. Weight cycling was defined in two ways by retrospective self-report: total lifetime weight loss and total number of weight cycles greater than or equal to 20 pounds. Psychological self-report measures assessed psychiatric symptoms, eating behavior, mood,…

  1. Overweight and Obesity in Lesbian and Bisexual College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…

  2. Skeletal alterations in women affected by obesity.

    PubMed

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Donini, Lorenzo M; Di Luigi, Luigi; Lenzi, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Obesity has always been considered a protective factor for the skeleton and for osteoporosis. However, new epidemiologic and clinical data have shown that high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Further, increasing evidences seem to indicate that the different components of metabolic syndrome (i.e. hypertension, increased triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) are also potential risk factors for the development of low bone mineral density and osteoporosis. PMID:24061852

  3. Culturally specific dance to reduce obesity in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A

    2010-07-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  4. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  5. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders. The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors. Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  6. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity

    PubMed Central

    Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause. PMID:26327888

  7. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity.

    PubMed

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause.

  8. Understanding the Effect of Obesity on Fertility Among Reproductive-Age Women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Allison; Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern, and obesity among women of childbearing age can have a negative impact on fertility. The mechanism of action between obesity and infertility is complex and includes hormonal factors, alterations in ovulation, and changes in the menstrual cycle. Maternal obesity has also been linked to spontaneous abortion and poorer maternal and fetal health outcomes. Many interventions exist to help childbearing women achieve a lower body mass index. These include lifestyle modifications (diet/physical activity) and surgical and pharmacologic interventions. This article reviews the pathophysiology of the relationship between obesity and infertility and discusses evidence-based interventions for improving fertility among obese childbearing women. PMID:27520601

  9. Induction of labour and intrapartum care in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Namiko; Lim, Boon H

    2015-04-01

    The rising incidence of obesity in pregnancy has a significant impact on the provision of health services around the world. Due to the pathophysiological processes associated with the condition, the obese pregnant woman is at increased risks of induction of labour, caesarean section, post-partum haemorrhage, infection, longer hospital stay, macrosomia and higher perinatal morbidity and mortality. Labour is more likely to be prolonged and dysfunctional, leading to the requirements for higher doses of oxytocin and increased risks of operative deliveries and morbidity. A multidisciplinary approach to the planning of antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal care is vital to ensure a safe outcome for the obese pregnant woman and her baby. The need for supervision and attendance by senior obstetric staff is increased, emphasising the need to identify the appropriate place of birth for this high-risk group of women, placing a significant strain on the resources of health-care providers.

  10. Predictors of 6-minute walk test results in lean, obese and morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Hulens, M; Vansant, G; Claessens, A L; Lysens, R; Muls, E

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was first, to assess the presence of medical conditions that might interfere with walking; second, to assess the differences in walking capacity, perceived exertion and physical complaints between lean, obese and morbidly obese women; and third, to identify anthropometric, physical fitness and physical activity variables that contribute to the variability in the distance achieved during a 6-minute walk test in lean and obese women. A total of 85 overweight and obese females (18-65 years, body mass index (BMI) > or = 27.5 kg m(-2)), 133 morbidly obese females (BMI > or = 35 kg m-2) and 82 age-matched sedentary lean female volunteers (BMI < or = 26 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Patients suffering from severe musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary disease were excluded from the study. Prior to the test, conditions that might interfere with walking and hours of TV watching were asked for. Physical activity pattern was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Weight, height, body composition (bioelectrical impedance method), isokinetic concentric quadriceps strength (Cybex) and peak oxygen uptake (peakVO2_bicycle ergometer) were measured. A 6-minute walk test was performed and heart rate, walking distance, Borg rating scale of perceived exertion (RPE) and physical complaints at the end of the test were recorded. In obese and particularly in morbidly obese women suffering from skin friction, urinary stress incontinence, varicose veins, foot static problems and pain, wearing insoles, suffering from knee pain, low back pain or hip arthritis were significantly more prevalent than in lean women (P < 0.05). Morbidly obese women (BMI > 35 kg m(-2)N = 133) walked significantly slower (5.4 km h(-1)) than obese (5.9 km h(-1)) and lean women (7.2 km h(-1), P < 0.05), were more exerted (RPE 13.3, 12.8 and 12.4, respectively, P < 0.05) and complained more frequently of dyspnea (9.1%, 4.7% and 0% resp., P < 0.05) and musculoskeletal pain (34.9%, 17.7% and 11.4% resp

  11. Effectiveness of an Internet Community for Severely Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Chomutare, Taridzo; Årsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    While Internet communities have become thriving sources of support, little is yet known about their effectiveness. We retrospectively sampled morbidly obese (Body Mass Index, BMI > 40) women who were active for at least a year in an Internet community. We compared self-reported weight changes between women who had high online participation levels (n = 71) versus those with low participation levels as control (n = 69). Women who actively participated online lost on average 7.52%, while those who were passive lost 5.39% of their original body weight. For active women, there was positive, albeit weak, correlation (r = 0.22, p < 0.05) between online participation levels and weight loss, while no significant correlation was noted for the control. Current results indicate modest evidence supporting active participation in Internet groups as an effective weight loss strategy for the target group. PMID:27332271

  12. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

    PubMed

    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p < 0.0001) when entering pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p < 0.0001). In contrast, the odds ratio of obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p < 0.0001). This study showed a strong association between maternal obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  13. Health Professionals' Experiences Providing Breastfeeding-Related Care for Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Stephannie L.; Devine, Carol M.; Thornburg, Loralei L.; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obese women are at high risk of early breastfeeding cessation, and health professionals (HPs) have a unique opportunity to provide them with breastfeeding support. Our objective was to describe HPs' experiences providing breastfeeding care for obese women during the prenatal, peripartum, and postpartum periods. Materials and Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 HPs (including obstetricians, midwives, pediatricians, nurses, and lactation consultants) who care for pregnant or lactating women. They were recruited from a variety of settings in central New York. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, verified for accuracy, and then analyzed qualitatively. Results: HPs identified obesity in multiple ways, some of which were consistent with standard cutoffs, whereas others implied extreme obesity. Nearly all HPs discussed ways they perceive obese women have challenges with breastfeeding. Some HPs described challenges as specific to obese women (e.g., limited mobility), whereas others described challenges as universal but more likely to occur among obese women (e.g., difficulties positioning the infant to breastfeed). Across professions, HPs described providing breastfeeding care for obese women as requiring more time and physical work and as being more challenging. HPs acknowledged stigma around obesity and discussed treating obese women with dignity and the same as other women. Strategies were suggested for improving breastfeeding support for obese women. Conclusions: HPs identified multiple challenges that obese women encounter with breastfeeding, as well as their own challenges with providing care. Comprehensive strategies are needed to assist obese women with breastfeeding and to alleviate strain on HPs who provide their care. PMID:25347705

  14. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    PubMed Central

    Muscariello, Espedita; Nasti, Gilda; Siervo, Mario; Di Maro, Martina; Lapi, Dominga; D’Addio, Gianni; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women. Materials and methods A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM) was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex −0.071× age +5.102). Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2), as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104) was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50) administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins), and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54), for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up. Results The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the HPI sarcopenic group (NPI 6.98±0.1 vs 7.10±0.2 kg/m2, HPI 7.13±0.4 vs 6.96±0.1 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). Conclusion A diet moderately rich in proteins was able to preserve MM in sarcopenic women. Therefore, adequate protein intake could contribute to the prevention of lean-mass loss associated with weight reduction in obese older people. PMID:26917955

  15. Abdominal obesity, muscle composition, and insulin resistance in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Freeman, Jennifer; Hudson, Robert; Janssen, Ian

    2002-11-01

    The independent relationships between visceral and abdominal sc adipose tissue (AT) depots, muscle composition, and insulin sensitivity were examined in 40 abdominally obese, premenopausal women. Measurements included glucose disposal by euglycemic clamp, muscle composition by computed tomography, abdominal and nonabdominal (e.g. leg) AT by magnetic resonance imaging and cardiovascular fitness. Glucose disposal rates were negatively related to visceral AT mass (r = -0.42, P < 0.01). These observations remained significant (P < 0.01) after control for nonabdominal and abdominal sc AT, muscle attenuation, and peak oxygen uptake. Total, abdominal, or leg sc AT or muscle attenuation was not significantly (P > 0.10) related to glucose disposal. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT into anterior and posterior depots did not alter the observed relationships. Further analysis matched two groups of women for abdominal sc AT but with low and high visceral AT. Women with high visceral AT had lower glucose disposal rates compared with those with low visceral AT (P < 0.05). A similar analysis performed on two groups of women matched for visceral AT but high and low abdominal sc AT revealed no statistically different values for insulin sensitivity (P > 0.10). In conclusion, visceral AT alone is a strong correlate of insulin resistance independent of nonabdominal, abdominal sc AT, muscle composition, and cardiovascular fitness. Subdivision of abdominal sc AT did not provide additional insight into the relationship between abdominal obesity and metabolic risk.

  16. Identification of sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: a cutoff proposal.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R J; Bottaro, M; Júnior, J T; Farinatti, P T V; Bezerra, L A; Lima, R M

    2011-11-01

    Sarcopenic obesity is the combination of reduced fat-free mass (FFM) and increased fat mass (FM) with advancing age but there is lack of clear criteria for its identification. The purposes of the present investigation were: 1) to determine the prevalence of postmenopausal women with reduced FFM relative to their FM and height, and 2) to examine whether there are associations between the proposed classification and health-related variables. A total of 607 women were included in this cross-sectional study and were separated into two subsets: 258 older women with a mean age of 66.8 ± 5.6 years and 349 young women aged 18-40 years (mean age, 29.0 ± 7.5 years). All volunteers underwent body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FFM index relative to FM and height was calculated and the cutoff value corresponded to two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group. To examine the clinical significance of the classification, all older participants underwent measurements of quadriceps strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Values were compared between those who were classified as low FFM or not, using an independent samples t-test and correlations were examined. The cutoff corresponded to a residual of -3.4 and generated a sarcopenic obesity prevalence of 19.8% that was associated with reduced muscle strength and aerobic fitness among the older participants. Also, the index correlated significantly with the health-related fitness variables. The results demonstrated reduced functional capacity for those below the proposed cutoff and suggested applicability of the approach as a definition for sarcopenic obesity.

  17. Patterns of food use and nutrient intake of obese and non-obese Hualapai Indian women of Arizona.

    PubMed

    Teufel, N I; Dufour, D L

    1990-09-01

    To document patterns of food use and nutrient intake associated with obesity in Native American women, a sample of 14 obese and 14 non-obese free-living Hualapai Indian women living in northwest Arizona was studied. Patterns of food use were determined through long-term observation, dietary histories, and 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary intake was determined through 24-hour dietary recalls over 7 consecutive days. Patterns of food acquisition, selection, and preparation were similar for obese and non-obese Hualapai women. The diets of both groups were dominated by nonalcoholic beverages, potatoes, beans, white wheat flour, and canned goods. Wild and locally cultivated foods were not eaten on a regular basis. The diets of both the obese and non-obese women were high in energy (pooled mean +/- standard deviation [SD] = 2,602 +/- 766 kcal/day) and carbohydrates (pooled mean +/- SD = 333.4 +/- 95.6 gm/day), moderate in protein (pooled mean +/- SD = 77.8 +/- 20.9 gm/day) and fat (pooled mean +/- SD = 101.1 +/- 25.4 gm/day), and low in crude fiber (pooled mean +/- SD = 4.7 +/- 2.0 gm/day). The study indicates that significantly (p less than .001) higher energy intakes of the obese women can be attributed to their greater consumption of nonalcoholic and alcoholic beverages. PMID:2398214

  18. Disgust sensitivity, obesity stigma, and gender: contamination psychology predicts weight bias for women, not men.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination. PMID:21836644

  19. Disgust sensitivity, obesity stigma, and gender: contamination psychology predicts weight bias for women, not men.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination.

  20. Coming unmoored: Disproportionate increases in obesity prevalence among young, disadvantaged White women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Whitney R.; Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Mezuk, Briana; Rafferty, Jane; Lee, Hedwig; Johnson/Lawrence, Vicki; Seamans, Marissa J.; Jackson, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Since the 1980s, older low-educated White women experienced an unprecedented decrease in life expectancy. We investigated whether a similar phenomenon was evident among younger women for obesity. Design and Methods Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we estimated age-adjusted changes in prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference>88 cm) between 1988-1994 and 2003-2010 among non-Hispanic White women aged 25-44 years, stratified by educational attainment (women's changes in obesity prevalence to changes among similarly educated Black women. Results Relative increases in overall obesity were disproportionately larger for low- educated (women: 12.3 (95% CI: 3.1, 21.5) percentage points (ppts). For overall and abdominal obesity, general trends indicated dissimilar racial differences by educational attainment. For instance, overall obesity increased more in Blacks than Whites among college-educated (9.9 ppts) but not low- educated (−2.5 ppts) women. Conclusions Contemporary young, low-educated White women showed indications of disproportionate worsening of overall obesity prevalence compared to more educated White and similarly educated Black women. Low education levels are more powerful indicators of obesity risk among contemporary White women than 30 years ago. PMID:25294582

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery in obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S; Marshall, P; Ingle, L; Borkoles, E

    2012-12-01

    Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a measure of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in apparently healthy adults. We aimed to determine the effects of a lifestyle intervention on HRR among clinically obese premenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a 3-month non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and HRR among healthy clinically obese premenopausal women. Thirty-one were randomly assigned to 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention and 31 served as controls. Sixty-one participants performed a maximal treadmill walking test with metabolic gas exchange. Baseline anthropometric measures were closely related to HRR at 1 min, which may indicate reduced parasympathetic reactivation. Post-exercise HRR at 60 s (HRR60) increased from 21.3 ± 6.2 to 27.8 ± 10.2 bpm in the intervention group compared with a smaller reduction (26.8 ± 12.3 to 24.5 ± 9.9 bpm) in controls (test for interaction P = 0.0001). HRR120 showed a significant effect of time (P = 0.0002) with no significant interaction with lifestyle intervention. A significant increase in VO2 peak was evident in the lifestyle group (21.6 to 23.6 mL/kg/min) compared with a modest reduction in the controls (22.6 to 21.6 mL/kg/min; test for interaction, P = 0.001). Clinically obese healthy premenopausal women achieved significant improvements in HRR60 and VO peak following a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention.

  2. Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism (Met235Thr) influences visceral obesity and insulin resistance in obese Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Yasuto; Yoshida, Toshihide; Yoshioka, Keiji; Umekawa, Tsunekazu; Kogure, Akinori; Toda, Hitoshi; Kagawa, Keizo; Fukui, Susumu; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between angiotensinogen (AGT) Met235Thr polymorphism (M235T) and human obesity, because AGT is regarded as one of the cytokines produced from adipocytes and serum AGT concentrations are reported to be positively correlated with body mass index. One hundred and twenty obese Japanese women (age, 58.8+/-9.4 years; body mass index, 32.2+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) were enrolled. Angiotensinogen genotypes were determined with a fluorescent allele-specific DNA primer assay system. Subjects were divided into M/M, M/T, and T/T groups. Control subjects comprised 146 healthy age-matched women. Clinical characteristics and the effects of diet and exercise therapy for 6 months were compared among the 3 genotypes. The genotype frequencies of AGT M235T polymorphism were in accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equation (obese: M/M, 6.7%; M/T, 27.5%; T/T, 65.8%; control: M/M, 6.8%; M/T, 21.2%; T/T, 71.9%). The frequency of the T allele did not differ between obese and control subjects (0.80 vs 0.83). As the number of obese women with M/M genotype was only 8, comparisons of the characteristics and outcomes of weight reduction therapy were performed only between subjects with M/T genotype and T/T genotype. In the T/T group, % body fat and waist circumference at baseline were significantly greater than in the M/T group (36.3%+/-4.8% vs 33.8%+/-4.7%, P=.0105; 107.9+/-10.9 vs 102.6+/-7.9 cm, P=.0428, respectively). Before the weight reduction therapy, significantly higher insulin and higher homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R) were demonstrated in the T/T group than in the M/T group (9.1+/-5.5 microU/mL vs 5.9+/-4.4 microU/mL, P=.0056; 2.3+/-1.4 vs 1.6+/-1.3, P=.0252, respectively). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at baseline in the T/T group tended to be higher than those in the M/T group, but the differences were not significant. No genotype-dependent difference in energy expenditure or outcome of weight reduction therapy was observed with respect to AGT

  3. Severe Obesity in Young Women and Reproductive Health: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nohr, Ellen A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Andersen, Camilla S.; Davey Smith, George; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. Principal Findings Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. Conclusion Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and planning health care at

  4. Identifying 'at risk' women and the impact of maternal obesity on National Health Service maternity services.

    PubMed

    Heslehurst, Nicola

    2011-11-01

    Obesity is a public health concern worldwide, arising from multifaceted and complex causes that relate to individual choice and lifestyle, and the influences of wider society. In addition to a long-standing focus on both childhood and adult obesity, there has been more recent concern relating to maternal obesity. This review explores the published evidence relating to maternal obesity incidence and associated inequalities, the impact of obesity on maternity services, and associated guidelines. Epidemiological data comprising three national maternal obesity datasets within the UK have identified a significant increase in maternal obesity in recent years, and reflect broad socio-demographic inequalities particularly deprivation, ethnicity and unemployment. Obese pregnancies present increased risk of complications that require more resource intensive antenatal and perinatal care, such as caesarean deliveries, gestational diabetes, haemorrhage, infections and congenital anomalies. Healthcare professionals also face difficulties when managing the care of women in pregnancy as obesity is an emotive and stigmatising topic. There is a lack of good-quality evidence for effective interventions to tackle maternal obesity. Recently published national guidelines for the clinical management and weight management of maternal obesity offer advice for professionals, but acknowledge the limitations of the evidence base. The consequence of these difficulties is an absence of support services available for women. Further evaluative research is thus required to assess the effectiveness of interventions with women before, during and after pregnancy. Qualitative work with women will also be needed to help inform the development of more sensitive risk communication and women-centred services.

  5. Differential heart rate responses to social and monetary reinforcement in women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Kube, Jana; Schrimpf, Anne; García-García, Isabel; Villringer, Arno; Neumann, Jane; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is often accompanied by weight stigmatization; subsequently, individuals with obesity frequently face social rejection. It has been shown that recurrent negative social experiences can alter the perception of social cues. However, the way individuals with obesity process social stimuli is not well understood. This study aims to investigate obesity-related alterations in social compared to nonsocial information processing. Women with obesity (n = 14) and without obesity (n = 14) participated in a social and a monetary incentive delay task in which they anticipated and received positive, negative, and neutral outcomes in the form of faces or money. During the experiment, phasic heart rate changes and reaction times were measured. Women with obesity, compared to lean women, exhibited a stronger differentiation during the anticipation of monetary and social reinforcement, showing slower reaction times to social cues compared to monetary cues. During the outcome processing phase, women with obesity relative to controls demonstrated diminished heart rate responses particularly to negative social outcomes. Interestingly, differences in cardiac responses in participants with obesity were moderated by weight-related teasing experiences. In women with obesity, a higher BMI was associated with blunted cardiac responses to social cues relative to monetary cues only if they reported more emotional pain after weight-related teasing. Our results contribute to a better understanding of social information processing in obesity and give first evidence for the role of negative social experiences in reinforcement processing. PMID:26871590

  6. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  7. Race and Ethnicity, Obesity, Metabolic Health, and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H; Martin, Lisa W; Vitolins, Mara Z; Stefanick, Marcia L; Perez, Marco V; Allison, Matthew; Hlatky, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. Methods and Results We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m2) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to <25), overweight (body mass index 25 to <30), or obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined first as the metabolic syndrome (metabolically unhealthy: ≥3 metabolic abnormalities) and second as the number of metabolic abnormalities. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to assess associations between baseline characteristics and cardiovascular risk. Over 13 years of follow-up, 1101 women had a first cardiovascular disease event (coronary heart disease or ischemic stroke). Among black women without metabolic syndrome, overweight women had higher adjusted cardiovascular risk than normal weight women (hazard ratio [HR] 1.49), whereas among white women without metabolic syndrome, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased in black women who were overweight (HR 1.77) or obese (HR 2.17) but not in white women who were overweight (HR 0.98) or obese (HR 1.06). Overweight and obese women with ≤1 metabolic abnormality did not have increased cardiovascular risk, regardless of race or ethnicity. Conclusions Metabolic abnormalities appeared to convey more cardiovascular risk among black women. PMID:25994446

  8. Barriers to contraceptive use among Pakistani couples.

    PubMed

    Harel, K

    1997-01-01

    Despite the existence of a family planning program in Pakistan since 1965 and widespread knowledge among Pakistanis about contraception, there is a high level of unmet need for family planning. One recent survey found that while 53% of married women express the desire to avoid pregnancy, less than 20% use contraception. A recent Population Council study conducted in urban and rural areas of Punjab province investigated personal beliefs, family circumstances, social norms, and gender relations among 1310 married women and 554 of their husbands. The unmet need for contraception was highest among women over age 30 years, those with more living children, less educated women, and women living in rural areas. The study found that while most Pakistanis approve of family planning, obstacles to contraceptive use exist in most marriages. 97% of respondents who wanted another child wished for a boy. That preference for sons influences contraceptive use behavior. The fear of social disapproval of contraceptive use, perceived opposition from in-laws and husbands, and fear of health side effects and divine punishment were major reasons identified against contraceptive use. Female contraceptive users were more autonomous and likely to make domestic decisions without consulting their husbands, while husbands defer to social and cultural norms. PMID:12292988

  9. Prevalent osteoporotic fractures in 622 obese and non- obese menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, C; Carsote, M; Radoi, V; Mihai, A; Capatina, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis. The osteoporotic fractures represent a worldwide economical issue. In order to prevent them, we need to understand the risk factors constellation. Although obesity was traditionally considered as protective against osteoporosis, recent data exposed an increased risk of falling and thus a high risk of some fractures. Objective. We aimed to analyze the body mass index (BMI) in relationship with the bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalent fractures. Methods and Results. Between 2008 and 2014, a cross-sectional observational study included Romanian menopausal Caucasian women without a previous diagnosis of bone maladies, or specific anti-osteoporotic therapy. Prevalent fragility fractures were both self-declared and incidental vertebral. All the subjects had lumbar BMD (GE Lunar Prodigy DXA machine). Out of 622 females (mean age of 58.65 years, mean BMI of 30.30 kg/ m2), 39.22% were obese (BMI ≥ 30kg/ m2). The fracture prevalence was 1.35% versus 1.67% in obese versus non-obese patients. The correlation coefficient between lumbar BMD and BMI was r=0.165, p<0.005. BMI in the fracture group was 31.68 kg/ m2 vs. 30.04 kg/ m2 in the non-fracture group (p=0.08). 15.91% of the entire cohort had prevalent fractures. Obesity prevalence among females with fractures was 30.3% versus 40.73% in the non-fracture group. The most frequent sites were distal forearm (42.42%) and vertebral (21.21%). Discussions & Conclusions. Although the vertebral fractures might be underdiagnosed in our study and despite the fact that we enrolled a relatively young menopausal population, BMI positively correlated with BMD, regardless of the fractures’ prevalence. In early menopause, the most frequent fracture is distal forearm. BMI is higher in patients with prevalent fractures vs. non-fractures (borderline significance). Obesity might not protect from any type of fracture but future evidence is necessary since one third of osteoporotic fractures are met in women with a BMI ≥ 30

  10. Prevalent osteoporotic fractures in 622 obese and non- obese menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Poiana, C; Carsote, M; Radoi, V; Mihai, A; Capatina, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis. The osteoporotic fractures represent a worldwide economical issue. In order to prevent them, we need to understand the risk factors constellation. Although obesity was traditionally considered as protective against osteoporosis, recent data exposed an increased risk of falling and thus a high risk of some fractures. Objective. We aimed to analyze the body mass index (BMI) in relationship with the bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalent fractures. Methods and Results. Between 2008 and 2014, a cross-sectional observational study included Romanian menopausal Caucasian women without a previous diagnosis of bone maladies, or specific anti-osteoporotic therapy. Prevalent fragility fractures were both self-declared and incidental vertebral. All the subjects had lumbar BMD (GE Lunar Prodigy DXA machine). Out of 622 females (mean age of 58.65 years, mean BMI of 30.30 kg/ m2), 39.22% were obese (BMI ≥ 30kg/ m2). The fracture prevalence was 1.35% versus 1.67% in obese versus non-obese patients. The correlation coefficient between lumbar BMD and BMI was r=0.165, p<0.005. BMI in the fracture group was 31.68 kg/ m2 vs. 30.04 kg/ m2 in the non-fracture group (p=0.08). 15.91% of the entire cohort had prevalent fractures. Obesity prevalence among females with fractures was 30.3% versus 40.73% in the non-fracture group. The most frequent sites were distal forearm (42.42%) and vertebral (21.21%). Discussions & Conclusions. Although the vertebral fractures might be underdiagnosed in our study and despite the fact that we enrolled a relatively young menopausal population, BMI positively correlated with BMD, regardless of the fractures' prevalence. In early menopause, the most frequent fracture is distal forearm. BMI is higher in patients with prevalent fractures vs. non-fractures (borderline significance). Obesity might not protect from any type of fracture but future evidence is necessary since one third of osteoporotic fractures are met in women with a BMI ≥ 30kg

  11. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  12. ALTERED HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION IN MORBIDLY OBESE WOMEN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OTHER DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the molecular bases of disordered hepatic function and disease susceptibility in obesity. We compared global gene expression in liver biopsies from morbidly obese (MO) women undergoing gastric bypass (GBP) surgery with that of women un...

  13. Compensating for Stigma: Obese and Nonobese Women's Reactions to Being Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that obese women (n=155) compensate for the prejudice of others. Results supported the hypothesis that obese women who were aware of the need to compensate for their partners' reactions to their appearance were able to do so. (JBJ)

  14. Exercise prescription for overweight and obese women: pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Mottola, Michelle F

    2009-06-01

    Once a low-risk pregnancy has been established, walking in combination with nutritional control may be effective in preventing excessive weight gain in overweight and obese women. Maternal exercise prescription should use the Frequency, Intensity, Time spent and Type of exercise principle, with a frequency of three to four sessions per week as ideal. Intensity based on a target heart-rate zone of 110 to 131 beats per minute for women 20 to 29 years of age and 108 to 127 beats per minute for women 30 to 39 years of age, coupled with use of the rating of perceived exertion scale and the "Talk Test" is suggested. Dieting and exercise together are most effective in reducing weight retention after childbirth and compliance may be improved by incorporating child-care and children into the exercise routine. After medical consultation, postpartum women should begin exercise slowly, starting from 15 minutes, and building to at least 150 minutes of aerobic activity per week, with this activity spread throughout the week.

  15. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  16. Associations among Organochlorine Pesticides, Methanobacteriales, and Obesity in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae-Sook; Lee, Je-Chul; Lee, In-Kyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Background Although Methanobacteriales in the gut has recently been linked to obesity, no study has examined the hypothesis that waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, are positively associated with Methanobacteriales in the general population. Since Methanobacteriales increase in a petroleum-contaminated environment to biodegrade petroleum as one way of autopurification, we also hypothesized that high body burden of highly lipophilic petroleum-based chemicals like organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is associated with higher levels of Methanobacteriales in the gut. Methodology/Principal Findings Among 83 Korean women who visited a community health service center for a routine health checkup, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on 16S rDNA was used to quantify Methanobacteriales in feces. Nine OCPs were measured in both serum and feces of 16 subjects. Methanobacteriales were detected in 32.5% (27/83 women). Both BMI and waist circumference among women with Methanobacteriales were significantly higher than in women without Methanobacteriales (P = 0.04 and P = 0.01, respectively). Also, Methanobacteriales levels in feces were positively associated with BMI and waist circumference (r = +0.23 and P = 0.03 for both). Furthermore, there were significant correlations between feces Methanobacteriales levels and serum concentrations of most OCPs, including with cis-nonachlor (r = +0.53, P<0.05), oxychlordane (r = +0.46, P<0.1), and trans-nonachlor (r = +0.43, P<0.1). Despite high correlations of serum and feces concentrations of most OCPs, feces OCP concentrations were not clearly associated with feces Methanobacteriales levels. Conclusion/Significance In this cross-sectional study, the levels of Methanobacteriales in the human gut were associated with higher body weight and waist circumference. In addition, serum OCP concentrations were positively correlated with levels of Methanobacteriales. There may be a meaningful link among

  17. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  18. Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases in Asian Indian girls and women.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S M; Misra, A; Gulati, S; Gupta, R

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising globally and in India. Overweight, obesity and related diseases need to be delineated in Asian Indian women. A literature search was done using key words like 'obesity', 'Asian Indian women', 'body fat distribution', 'type 2 diabetes', 'fertility', 'polycystic ovarian disease', metabolic syndrome', 'cardiovascular disease', 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'gender', 'sex' and 'prevalence' up to September 2012 in Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines. This review highlights the Asian Indian body composition with regards to obesity and provides a collated perspective of gender-specific prevalence of the co-morbidities. Recent data show that women (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 15-61%) have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared with men (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 12-54%) in India and that obesity is increasing in the youth. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both men and women steeply rose in a Punjabi community from Jaipur. Importantly, prevalence of abdominal obesity has been consistently higher in women than in men. The lowest prevalence (6.0%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women is reported from South India (rural Andhra Pradesh; 2006) and the highest (14.0%) by the National Urban Diabetes Survey (2001). Although the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors was generally high, it increased further in post-menopausal women. There are a number of factors that predispose Indian women to obesity; sedentary behaviour, imbalanced diets, sequential and additive postpartum weight gain and further decrease in physical activity during this period and cultural issues. In view of these data, preventive measures should be specifically targeted to Indian women.

  19. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ), 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women. PMID:21226958

  20. Correlates of obesity in young black and white women: the CARDIA Study.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, G L; Savage, P J; Manolio, T A; Sprafka, J M; Wagenknecht, L E; Sidney, S; Perkins, L L; Liu, K; Jacobs, D R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Although differences in obesity between Blacks and Whites are well documented in adult women, less information is available on potential correlates of these differences, especially in young adults. METHODS. The association between behavioral and demographic factors and body size was assessed in 2801 Black and White women aged 18 to 30 years. RESULTS. Black women had significantly higher age-adjusted mean body mass index and subscapular skinfold thickness than did White women. Obesity had different associations with age and education across racial groups. A positive relationship between age and obesity was seen in Black women but not in White women, whereas a negative association between education and body size was noted only in White women. Potential contributing factors to the increased prevalence of obesity in Black women include a more sedentary lifestyle, higher energy intake, earlier menarche, and earlier age at first childbirth. CONCLUSIONS. The difference in obesity across race could not be explained completely by these factors, since within virtually all strata, Black women had higher body mass indexes. Further investigation is needed to develop interventional strategies to prevent or reduce excess levels of obesity in Black women. PMID:1456336

  1. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  2. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26386682

  3. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

    PubMed Central

    Petrenya, Natalia; Brustad, Magritt; Dobrodeeva, Liliya; Bichkaeva, Fatima; Lutfalieva, Gulnara; Cooper, Marie; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity. Objective We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study performed in 2008–2009. Subjects: 93 Nenets women, aged 19–77 (the indigenous village, the Nenets Autonomous Area) and 132 Russian women, aged 21–72 (Arkhangelsk city). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC)≥88 cm and or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)≥0.85%. We assessed associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by linear and logistic regression models that included covariates of ethnicity, age, smoking and physical activity. We also tested for interaction between obesity measurements and ethnicity. Results Prevalence of obesity estimated through BMI, WC and WHR were 42.5, 45.3 and 41.9% in Nenets and 34.4, 46.4 and 29.5% in Russians, respectively, with no differences found. BMI, WC and WHR associated positively with triglycerides, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index. In addition, BMI and WC correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apoliporotein A–I ratio. WC explained significant variation in fasting glucose (FG) level. BMI predicted type 2 diabetes history. FG level associated strongly with ethnicity and was found to be higher in Russians. Conclusions We found no differences in prevalence of obesity between Nenets and Russian females. Obesity was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of ethnicity in the

  4. Clinical Pain Catastrophizing in Women with Migraine and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Buse, Dawn C.; Lipton, Richard B.; Thomas, J. Graham; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; Pavlovic, Jelena M.; Evans, E. Whitney; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Obesity is related to migraine. Maladaptive pain coping strategies (e.g., pain catastrophizing), may provide insight into this relationship. In women with migraine and obesity, we cross-sectionally assessed: 1) prevalence of clinical catastrophizing; 2) characteristics of those with and without clinical catastrophizing; and 3) associations of catastrophizing with headache features. Methods Obese women migraineurs seeking weight loss treatment (n=105) recorded daily migraine activity for 1-month via smartphone and completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Clinical catastrophizing was defined as total PCS score ≥30. The Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12), Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE), and assessments for depression (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7) were also administered. Using PCS scores and Body Mass Index (BMI) as predictors in linear regression, we modeled a series of headache features (i.e., headache days, HIT-6, etc.) as outcomes. Results One-quarter (25.7%;95%CI=17.2%–34.1%) of participants met criteria for clinical catastrophizing: they had higher BMI(37.9±7.5 vs. 34.4±5.7 kg/m2, p=0.035), longer migraine attack duration(160.8±145.0 vs. 97.5±75.2 hours/month, p=0.038), higher HIT-6 scores(68.7±4.6 vs. 64.5±3.9, p<0.001), more allodynia(7.0±4.1 vs. 4.5±3.5, p<0.003), depression(25.4±12.4 vs. 13.3±9.2, p<0.001), and anxiety(11.0±5.2 vs. 5.6±4.1, p<0.001), and lower self-efficacy(80.1±25.6 vs. 104.7±18.9, p<0.001) compared to participants without clinical catastrophizing. The odds of chronic migraine were nearly 4-fold greater in those with (n=8/29.6%) versus without (n=8/10.3%) clinical catastrophizing (OR=3.68;95%CI=1.22–11.10, p=0.021). In all participants, higher PCS scores were related to more migraine days(β=0.331, p=0.001), longer attack duration(β=0.390, p<0.001), higher HIT-6 scores(β=0.425, p<0.001), and lower HMSE scores (β=−0.437, p<0.001). Higher BMI

  5. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  6. Obesity-related phenotypes and the beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tchernof, A; Starling, R D; Walston, J D; Shuldiner, A R; Dvorak, R V; Silver, K; Matthews, D E; Poehlman, E T

    1999-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that postmenopausal women with the beta3-adrenoceptor gene variant (Trp64Arg) have reduced total daily energy expenditure (TEE), altered free fatty acid kinetics, and increased intra-abdominal fat. A secondary objective was to examine whether the obese state masks the effect of the variant on resting metabolic rate (RMR). There were 23 obese heterozygous women with the genetic variant (age 58 +/- 6 years; BMI 36 +/- 7 kg/m2) who were compared with 19 homozygous obese women with the normal allele (age 56 +/- 4 years; BMI 36 +/- 3 kg/m2). Daily energy expenditure was determined from doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry, lipolysis from infusion of [1-13C]palmitate, and body fat distribution from computed tomography. No significant differences were found in TEE, RMR, energy expenditure of physical activity, the thermic effect of a meal, fat oxidation as estimated by fasting and postprandial respiratory quotients (RQs), or rate of lipolysis. Similarly, no difference was found in visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous fat areas. When RMR was compared between obese (n = 23) and never-obese women with the Trp64Arg variant (n = 16), we found a 317 kcal/day lower RMR in never-obese women after controlling for fat mass, fat-free mass, and age (P < 0.0017). These results do not support the hypothesis that already obese women with the Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene have lower daily energy expenditure, altered lipolysis, and increased abdominal obesity. On the other hand, the lower RMR in never-obese women suggests that the obese state may mask a moderate effect of the Trp64Arg variant on energy expenditure. Although these results need to be confirmed in other populations, the obese state may have been a confounding factor in previous studies of the beta3-adrenoceptor Trp64Arg variant and energy expenditure. PMID:10389848

  7. Should obesity be blamed for the high prevalence rates of hypertension in black South African women?

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Huisman, H W; Van Rooyen, J M; Schutte, R; Malan, L; Reimann, M; De Ridder, J H; van der Merwe, A; Schwarz, P E H; Malan, N T

    2008-08-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent in South Africa, resulting in high stroke mortality rates. Since obesity is very common among South African women, it is likely that obesity contributes to the hypertension prevalence. The aims were to determine whether black African women have higher blood pressures (BPs) than Caucasian women, and whether obesity is related to their cardiovascular risk. African (N=102) and Caucasian (N=115) women, matched for age and body mass index, were included. Correlations between obesity (total body fat, abdominal obesity and peripheral fat) and cardiovascular risk markers (haemodynamic parameters, lipids, inflammatory markers, prothrombotic factors, adipokines, HOMA-IR (homoeostasis model assessment insulin resistance)) were compared between the ethnic groups (adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and physical activity). Comparisons between low- and high-BP groups were also made for each ethnic group. Results showed that African women had higher BP (P<0.01) with increased peripheral vascular resistance. Surprisingly, African women showed significantly weaker correlations between obesity measures and cardiovascular risk markers when compared to Caucasian women (specifically systolic BP, arterial resistance, cardiac output, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin and resistin). Interestingly, the latter risk markers were also not significantly different between low- and high-BP African groups. African women, however, presented significant correlations of obesity with triglycerides, C-reactive protein and HOMA that were comparable to the Caucasian women. Although urban African women have higher BP than Caucasians, their obesity levels are weakly related to traditional cardiovascular risk factors compared to Caucasian women. The results, however, suggest a link with the development of insulin resistance. PMID:18432254

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.

  9. Body temperature set-point and the conscious perception of skin temperature in obese women.

    PubMed

    Zahorska-Markiewicz, B; Staszkiewicz, M

    1987-01-01

    Obese and control women were immersed in a bath of water kept at 37 degrees C. Oral temperature was measured. The subjects left hand was placed outside the bath for the local application of thermal stimuli between 20 degrees and 45 degrees C, subjects reporting the most pleasant temperature. The lower oral temperatures and lower levels of skin temperature rated as pleasant by obese women as compared with women of normal body weight or less suggests that in obesity the set-point of body temperature is lowered.

  10. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia. PMID:24133059

  11. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth.We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI >25 kg/m, nongeneral obesity; BMI ≤25 kg/m, abdominal obesity; waist circumference >85 cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ≤85 cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from a total of 4382 postmenopausal women were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis with complex survey design sampling. And, the subjects were subdivided into groups according to obesity or not. Age, smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, education, income level, number of pregnancies, oral contraceptive uses, breast feeding experience were adjusted as the confounders.The prevalence of general obesity among Korean postmenopausal women was 37.08%. Women with general obesity and abdominal obesity were significantly younger at first childbirth compared with women with nongeneral obesity and no abdominal obesity (23.89 ± 0.1 vs. 23.22 ± 0.1, P <0.001). Age at first childbirth was inversely associated with obesity, while age at last childbirth was not associated with obesity or abdominal obesity. Women with a higher number of pregnancies were also more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity. Age at first childbirth remained significantly associated with obesity, after adjusting for confounding factors.Obesity in postmenopausal women is associated with first childbirth at a young age, and higher parity. Further research is needed to clarify the association between obesity and reproductive characteristics. PMID:27175656

  12. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk. PMID:20205024

  13. Prevalence and correlates of obesity and overweight among asian immigrant women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sook Ja; Choi, Hye Young; Chee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Jung A

    2012-07-01

    This study examines the prevalence of obesity and overweight as well as associations between obesity and overweight and demographic, sociocultural, and lifestyle factors among Asian immigrant women in Korea. Data were collected from physical measurements and standardized questionnaires from 287 adult women from China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and other Asian countries. The mean BMI (body mass index) was 22.0 kg/m(2); 15.0% of the sample were obese (BMI ≥ 25.0), and 17.1% were overweight (23.0 ≤ BMI < 25.0). The highest obesity proportion was found in Filipino (22.0%) and the lowest in Vietnamese women (7.8%). Adjusted for demographic, sociocultural, and lifestyle variables, individuals with greater length of residence (5+ years; odds ratio = 3.22, P = .010) were more likely to be obese or overweight. For prevention of excess body weight, public health efforts need to be targeted to immigrants starting at arrival in Korea.

  14. Overweight and obesity among women by economic stratum in urban India.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Jitendra; Prusty, Ranjan Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Using data of the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) 2005-2006, this study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity among women from different economic strata in urban India. The study used a separate wealth index for urban India constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). The result shows that prevalence of overweight and obesity is very high in urban areas, more noticeably among the non-poor households. Furthermore, overweight and obesity increase with age, education, and parity of women. The results of multinomial logistic regression show that non-poor women are about 2 and 3 times more at risk of being overweight and obese respectively. Marital status and media exposure are the other covariates associated positively with overweight and obesity. Thus, the growing demand which now appears before the Government or urban health planners is to address this rising urban epidemic with equal importance as given to other issues in the past.

  15. Attitudes and first heterosexual experiences among Indians and Pakistanis in Britain: evidence from a national probability survey.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, C; Johnson, A M; Fenton, K A; Erens, B; Hart, G J; Wellings, K; Mercer, C H

    2011-03-01

    We compare attitudes, experiences of learning about sex and first intercourse among Indians (n = 393) and Pakistanis (n = 365) using a probability survey of Britain's general population aged 16-44 years conducted during 1999-2001 (n = 12,110). Higher proportions of Pakistanis (64.6%) and Indians (28.1%) reported religion as 'very important' versus 6.2% of other ethnicities. Pakistanis were more conservative in their attitudes, e.g. reporting premarital sex as wrong (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] for sociodemographic differences, 4.71 [men] and 6.59 [women]). Pakistanis were more likely to be married at first sex (AORs 6.2 [men] and 9.53 [women]), yet men were more likely than women to be in non-marital relationships at this time (69.4% versus 25.2%). Pakistani men and women and Indian women were more likely to report not using reliable contraception at first sex relative to others (AORs 2.33, 3.16 and 1.90, respectively). Pakistani and Indian women were more likely than others to report school lessons as their main source of sex education (AORs 2.23 and 1.77) and not discussing sex with their parents during adolescence (AORs 2.04 and 2.62). These unique data have implications for ensuring that sex and relationship education and health promotion messages are appropriately planned, targeted and delivered to benefit Pakistanis and Indians. PMID:21464449

  16. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  17. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  18. The Relationship between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Rural Childbearing Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine M.; Strawderman, Myla S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While food insecurity and obesity have been shown to be positively associated in women, little is known about the direction of the causal relationship between these 2 constructs. Purpose: To clarify the direction of the causal relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods: Chi-square and logistic regression analysis of data…

  19. Downregulation of de Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Moderately Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Aragonès, Gemma; Aguilar, Carmen; Sabench, Fàtima; Armengol, Sandra; Porras, José Antonio; Martí, Andreu; Jorba, Rosa; Hernández, Mercè; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα), in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2, n = 35) and moderately obese women (BMI 30–38 kg/m2, n = 55). In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity. PMID:26694359

  20. Residential property values are associated with obesity among women in King County, WA, USA.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Studies of social determinants of weight and health in the US have typically relied on self-reported education and incomes as the two primary measures of socioeconomic status (SES). The assessed value of one's home, an important component of wealth, may be a better measure of the underlying SES construct and a better predictor of obesity. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS), conducted in 2008-9, was a cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey of 2001 adults in King County, Washington State, US. Participants' addresses were geocoded and residential property values for each tax parcel were obtained from the county tax assessor's database. Prevalence ratios of obesity by property values, education, and household income were estimated separately for women and men, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, household size, employment status and home ownership. Among women, the inverse association between property values and obesity was very strong and independent of other SES factors. Women in the bottom quartile of property values were 3.4 times more likely to be obese than women in the top quartile. No association between property values and obesity was observed for men. The present data strengthen the evidence for a social gradient in obesity among women. Property values may represent a novel and objective measure of SES at the individual level in the US. Measures based on tax assessment data will provide a valuable resource for future health studies. PMID:22591823

  1. Reproducing stigma: Interpreting "overweight" and "obese" women's experiences of weight-based discrimination in reproductive healthcare.

    PubMed

    Bombak, Andrea E; McPhail, Deborah; Ward, Pamela

    2016-10-01

    Amidst a barrage of policy documents, bio-medical research, and press items concerned with the "crisis" of obesity, a growing scholarship is concerned with what has come to be known as "obesity stigma." This scholarship hails from a range of sources including critical obesity scholars who problematize the idea of obesity as a health concern, as well as from "mainstream" organizations and researchers who, while maintaining obesity is a world-wide health problem, also argue that "obese" people are the targets of discrimination. In this paper, we analyze both interpretations of obesity stigma, particularly as that stigma applies to obese women's experiences of accessing and receiving reproductive care. We describe a qualitative study conducted with 24 overweight and obese women in 2 Canadian cities. Participants related overt and covert experiences of stigma when accessing reproductive care founded in healthcare practitioners' focus on fetal risk and "mother-blame" which, though partially evidence-based, was interpreted by participants as discriminatory. As such, we maintain that any true interruption of obesity stigma in the reproductive healthcare interaction requires a bridge between critical and mainstream scholarship, and careful attention to the risk-based foci in clinical settings which can be interpreted by clients as moralizing. PMID:27544463

  2. Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. Methods and analysis The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30 kg/m2) pregnant women from 16 weeks’ gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16 weeks’ gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36 weeks’ gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3 months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. Ethics and dissemination The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial

  3. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  4. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and decreased risk of obesity in women

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Alessandra C.; Zee, Robert Y.L.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms have been associated with several diseases, but whether they are associated with obesity is uncertain. To elucidate the role of genetic variation in the ESR1 gene with body mass index (BMI), 543 Caucasian women (median age 63 years) from the Women’s Health Study were examined. Most were postmenopausal (99.3%). The relationships between rs2234693 and rs9340799 genotypes and their associated haplotypes with obesity (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) and overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) were evaluated. Among women with the rs2234693 TT genotype, 18.3% were obese, while only 8.2% of those with the CC genotype only were obese (p=0.04). In a logistic regression model assuming additive inheritance, rs2234693 was associated with decreased odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (crude odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95%CI= 0.44-0.90, P=0.01). For rs9340799, only an inverse trend was observed for BMI (P=0.08). Haplotypes that included the variant C allele were associated with a reduced risk of obesity (crude OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.44-0.94, P= 0.02 for C-G). The rs2234693 C allele of ESR1 and its associated genotypes and haplotypes were inversely and consistently associated with obesity. One or more copies of the C allele were associated with decreased risk of obesity in white post-menopausal women. PMID:19375130

  5. A qualitative investigation of obese women's experiences of effective and ineffective social support for weight management.

    PubMed

    Zwickert, K; Rieger, E

    2014-10-01

    An obese individual's social context influences the extent to which they engage in weight control behaviors. Although the available literature acknowledges the importance of social support for weight management, detailed analyses of obese individuals' experiences of social support for weight loss and/or weight loss maintenance have not been undertaken. Using a qualitative approach, this study presents 22 Australian obese women's perspectives of the availability and effectiveness of social support for weight control. Three superordinate categories, namely, ineffective support, effective support and personal barriers to accessing support, and 12 subcategories were identified. Participants reported minimal access to quality support for weight management, while also suggesting ways in which obese women themselves may hamper significant others' provision of effective support. The results support the investigation of interventions designed to enhance the skills of significant others in assisting obese individuals with weight management.

  6. Variables associated with obesity among African-American women in Omaha.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Shirley A

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a health disparity related to environmental, social, and physical health issues, including ethnicity, education, and gender. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among obesity, age, education, and socioeconomic status and the relationship between obesity and depression among African-American women living in Omaha, Nebraska. A convenience sample of 378 African-American women completed the African-American Female Health Survey, which included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. Body mass index (BMI) was used to measure obesity. Results indicated that 87% of the women were overweight; mean BMI was 32.78 with high cardiovascular disease risks. There was a statistically significant and positive relationship between depression and BMI (r = .201, p < .01). Occupational therapists may provide primary, secondary, and tertiary intervention through culturally relevant and meaningful health education programs.

  7. Inflammation and increased aromatase expression occur in the breast tissue of obese women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Patrick G.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Giri, Dilip; Morrow, Monica; Falcone, Domenick J.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Du, Baoheng; Brogi, Edi; Crawford, Carolyn B.; Kopelovich, Levy; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women and has been associated with an increased risk of recurrence and reduced survival. In humans, obesity causes subclinical inflammation in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, characterized by necrotic adipocytes surrounded by macrophages forming crown-like structures (CLS). Recently, we found increased numbers of CLS, activation of the NF-κB transcription factor and elevated aromatase levels and activity in the mammary glands of obese mice. These preclinical findings raised the possibility that the obesity→inflammation axis is important for the development and progression of breast cancer. Here, our main objective was to determine if the findings in mouse models of obesity translated to women. Breast tissue was obtained from 30 women who underwent breast surgery. CLS of the breast (CLS-B) were found in nearly 50% (14 of 30) of patient samples. The severity of breast inflammation, defined as the CLS-B index, correlated with both body mass index (P<0.001) and adipocyte size (P=0.01). Increased NF-κB binding activity and elevated aromatase expression and activity were found in the inflamed breast tissue of overweight and obese women. Collectively, our results suggest that the obesity→inflammation→aromatase axis is present in the breast tissue of most overweight and obese women. The presence of CLS-B may be a biomarker of increased breast cancer risk or poor prognosis. PMID:21622727

  8. Prepregnancy obesity trends among low-income women, United States, 1999-2008.

    PubMed

    Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sharma, Andrea J; Kim, Shin Y; Park, Sohyun; Dalenius, Karen; Brindley, Patricia L; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2012-10-01

    There is limited data on prepregnancy obesity trends specifically among low-income women, a population at high risk for obstetric complications. Using the Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System, we assessed prepregnancy obesity [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2)] trends among women who participated in the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children in 1999, 2004, and 2008. Prepregnancy BMI was calculated using measured height and self-reported prepregnancy weight. We report unadjusted contributor (state, territory or Indian tribal organization) specific trends, and both unadjusted and adjusted overall trends, to account for changes in maternal age and race-ethnic distributions, using 1999 as the referent. Of the 27 contributors in 1999, 2 had a prepregnancy obesity prevalence <20%, and 1 had a prevalence ≥ 30%. Of the 35 contributors in 2008, none had a prepregnancy obesity prevalence <20%, and 14 had a prevalence ≥ 30%. From 1999 to 2008, the overall prevalence of prepregnancy obesity increased among all racial-ethnic groups, except among American Indian/Alaskan Natives, where it remained high, but stable. Overall prepregnancy obesity increased most rapidly among Hispanics, and remained stable from 2004 to 2008 among non-Hispanic blacks. In 2008, prevalence was highest among American Indian/Alaskan Natives (36.1%) and lowest among Asians/Pacific Islanders (10.8%). The adjusted prepregnancy obesity prevalence increased from 24.8% in 1999 to 28.3% in 2008, a relative increase of 14.1%. Prepregnancy obesity among low-income women increased from 1999 to 2008 and varied by race-ethnicity. These data can be used by obesity prevention programs to better target high-risk women.

  9. Educational Inequalities in Obesity among Mexican Women: Time-Trends from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098

  10. Sociodemographic, Behavioral, and Psychological Correlates of Current Overweight and Obesity in Older, Urban African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patt, Madhavi Reddy; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.

    2004-01-01

    To better understand obesity and overweight among urban African American women, the authors examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors within body mass index (BMI) categories. A total of 496 women were recruited for cardiovascular risk factor screening from 20 urban African American churches. Study participants had a mean age…

  11. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women. PMID:25509968

  12. Food Intake Does Not Differ between Obese Women Who Are Metabolically Healthy or Abnormal1234

    PubMed Central

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Judd, Suzanne E; Shikany, James M; Newby, PK

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolically healthy obesity may confer lower risk of adverse health outcomes compared with abnormal obesity. Diet and race are postulated to influence the phenotype, but their roles and their interrelations on healthy obesity are unclear. Objective: We evaluated food intakes of metabolically healthy obese women in comparison to intakes of their metabolically healthy normal-weight and metabolically abnormal obese counterparts. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in 6964 women of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. Participants were aged 45–98 y with a body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≥18.5 and free of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Food intake was collected by using a food-frequency questionnaire. BMI phenotypes were defined by using metabolic syndrome (MetS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) criteria. Mean differences in food intakes among BMI phenotypes were compared by using ANCOVA. Results: Approximately one-half of obese women (white: 45%; black: 55%) as defined by MetS criteria and approximately one-quarter of obese women (white: 28%; black: 24%) defined on the basis of HOMA-IR values were metabolically healthy. In age-adjusted analyses, healthy obesity and normal weight as defined by both criteria were associated with lower intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages compared with abnormal obesity among both white and black women (P < 0.05). HOMA-IR–defined healthy obesity and normal weight were also associated with higher fruit and low-fat dairy intakes compared with abnormal obesity in white women (P < 0.05). Results were attenuated and became nonsignificant in multivariable-adjusted models that additionally adjusted for BMI, marital status, residential region, education, annual income, alcohol intake, multivitamin use, cigarette smoking status, physical activity, television viewing, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, menopausal status, hormone therapy

  13. Splitting, impulsivity, and intimate partnerships in young obese women seeking bariatric treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zmolikova, Jana; Pichlerova, Dita; Bob, Petr; Schückova, Denisa; Herlesova, Jitka; Weiss, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30), obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48), and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24). The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants. Results The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Conclusion These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. PMID:27703353

  14. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status), Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI), and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373). Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013), ethnicity (p = 0.001), religion (p = 0.002), schooling (p = 0.020), educational level (p = 0.016), marital status (p = 0.001) and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023). Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken. PMID:19358728

  15. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  16. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  17. Natural history of obesity in 6,946 women between 50 and 59 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Rimm, A A

    1980-01-01

    A health survey of 6946 50-to-59 year-old women of TOPS, an organization for weight reduction, was used to study the natural history of obesity. Weight history was compared for four groups of women divided on the basis of their per cent above ideal body weight (IBW) in their 50s (less than 20%, 20-49%, 50-99% and 100+%). In each of the four groups, the majority of women were not obese by age 20. Sixteen per cent of the women who were 100+% overweight in their 50s were not obese at anytime during their first 30 years of life. Thirty-six per cent of the women who were 50-99% about IBW were not overweight at anytime prior to their 30th birthday. The history of obesity prior to age 30 was not associated with weight gain between the ages of 30 and 50. These data suggest: 1) than there is no critical time for the development of obesity, and 2) that previous weight history is not a dominant factor in determining subsequent weight gain. PMID:7361956

  18. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  19. Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Eva M; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane; Beral, Dame Valerie; Coffey, Kate

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of surgically-confirmed fibroids (defined as a hospital admission with uterine fibroids as a primary diagnosis with a related surgical procedure), in relation to BMI and use of HT. During an average of 11.4 years of follow-up, 3561 women were admitted to hospital with surgically-confirmed fibroids. Five-year incidence rates decreased with age, from 0.50% (1 in 200 women) at age 50-54, to 0.11% (1 in 1000 women) at age 75-79. The 5-year rate in postmenopausal women aged 50-54 was about a quarter that seen in premenopausal women of the same age (1 in 200 vs. 1 in 50). Compared with normal weight women, obese women had a RR of surgically-detected fibroids of 1.46 (95% CI 1.33-1.59; p < 0.0001). HT use was associated with a RR of 2.33 (95% CI 2.18-2.49; p < 0.0001) in ever versus never users. When we analysed HT use and BMI together, obese vs. normal weight never users had a RR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.77-2.26): the highest risks were seen in women who were obese and had ever used HT, RR = 3.30 (95% CI 2.88-3.79). Uterine fibroids continue to occur in postmenopausal women; obesity and hormone therapy use are important modifiable risk factors. PMID:25784364

  20. Interaction between Education and Household Wealth on the Risk of Obesity in Women in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Chandola, Tarani; Friel, Sharon; Nouraei, Reza; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing problem in lower income countries particularly among women. There are few studies exploring individual socioeconomic status indicators in depth. This study examines the interaction of education and wealth in relation to obesity, hypothesising that education protects against the obesogenic effect of wealth. Methods Four datasets of women of reproductive age from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys spanning the period 1992–2008 are used to examine two distinct time periods: 1992/95 (N = 11097) and 2005/08 (N = 23178). The association in the two time periods between education level and household wealth in relation to the odds of being obese is examined, and the interaction between the two socioeconomic indicators investigated. Estimates are adjusted for age group and area of residence. Results An interaction was found between the association of education and wealth with obesity in both time periods (P-value for interaction <0.001). For women with the lowest education level, moving up one wealth quintile was associated with a 78% increase in the odds of obesity in 1992/95 (OR; 95%CI: 1.78; 1.65,1.91) and a 33% increase in 2005/08 (OR; 95%CI: 1.33; 1.26,1.39). For women with the highest level of education, there was little evidence of an association between wealth and obesity (OR; 95%CI: 0.82; 0.57,1.16 in 1992/95 and 0.95; 0.84,1.08 in 2005/08). Obesity levels increased most in women who were in the no/primary education, poorest wealth quintile and rural groups (absolute difference in prevalence percentage points between the two time periods: 20.2, 20.1, and 21.3 respectively). Conclusion In the present study, wealth appears to be a risk factor for obesity in women with lower education levels, while women with higher education are protected. The findings also suggest that a reversal in the social distribution of obesity risk is occurring which can be explained by the large increase in obesity levels in lower

  1. Mental health, family function and obesity in African-American women.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Esa M.; Rovi, Sue; Johnson, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity and its related diseases. How psychological and psychosocial factors that affect this population differ across weight categories remains poorly understood. PURPOSE: To determine whether poor mental health and family functioning are associated with obesity in African-American women. METHODS: African-American women patients aged 21-65 years were interviewed at three primary care centers. Four well-established assessment tools were used to measure general mental and physical health status, family functioning, depressive symptoms and anxiety levels. Demographics, health behaviors and family and personal histories of overweight were assessed. RESULTS: Among 113 patients, after controlling for age and parity, obese women had significantly higher anxiety levels, poorer perception of their physical health, more often were overweight as a child, had overweight parents or siblings and experienced more psychosocial problems in their family growing up, compared to overweight and normal weight women. CONCLUSIONS: The observed findings of poor mental health, perception of physical health and family function in obese African-American women support a need for clinical attention and further study. PMID:15868768

  2. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  3. The Association between Sleep Duration and Hypertension in Non-obese Premenopausal Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mi-Yeon; Sung, En; Lee, Keun-Mi; Keum, Shin-Ho; Ryu, Sun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have revealed that sleep duration is linked to both obesity and hypertension. Here, we evaluated the association between sleep duration and hypertension in obese and non-obese premenopausal women using representative national survey data from the Korean population. Methods A total of 4,748 subjects over 20 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2010 to 2012 were included. To control for risk factors, multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of hypertension across the following sleep duration categories: <6, 6-8, and >8 h/d. Results Among the participants, 367 subjects (7.7%) had hypertension. Their mean sleep duration was 7 hours. In the non-obese subjects, after controlling for potential confounding variables, the odds ratio for hypertension was 1.86 fold greater in those with a sleep duration of <6 hours (odds ratio, 1.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 3.03) as compared to those who slept for 6.8 hours. However, there was no association between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension in obese subjects. Long sleep duration (over 8 h/d) was not associated with hypertension in either the non-obese or the obese subjects in this study. Conclusion Short sleep duration (less than 6 h/d) may be a significant risk factor for hypertension in non-obese premenopausal women. However, there is no association between sleep duration and the risk of hypertension in obese women. PMID:27073613

  4. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations. PMID:27417793

  5. Childbearing, stress and obesity disparities in women: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esa M; Stange, Kurt C; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2012-01-01

    The perinatal period, from early in the first trimester to 1 year postpartum, provides opportunities for novel public health interventions to reduce obesity disparities. We present a unifying socio-biological framework to suggest opportunities for multidisciplinary research and public health approaches to elucidate and target the mechanisms for the development of maternal obesity and related disparities. The framework illustrates the interplay of the social, cultural and physical environment; stress appraisal and response; and coping behaviors on short-term outcomes (e.g. allostatic load and gestational weight gain), the intermediate outcomes of persistent insulin resistance and post-partum weight retention, and longer term outcomes of obesity and its disease consequences. Testing the proposed relationships may provide insights into how childbearing risk factors such as gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention and parity contribute to obesity, which are needed to inform public health policies and clinical care guidelines aimed at reducing obesity and improving the health of women.

  6. Personality features of obese women in relation to binge eating and night eating.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Bosello, Ottavio; Compare, Angelo; Cuzzolaro, Massimo; Grossi, Enzo; Mannucci, Edoardo; Molinari, Enrico; Tomasi, Franco; Melchionda, Nazario

    2013-05-15

    Personality traits can affect eating behaviors, the development of obesity, and obesity treatment failure. We investigated the personality characteristics and their relation with disordered eating in 586 obese women consecutively seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centers (age, 47.7±9.8 years) and 185 age-matched, normal weight women without symptoms of eating disorders (Eating Attitude Test<20). The assessment included anthropometry, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Logistic regression analyses were carried out in different models with BES score≥27 and NEQ≥30 as dependent variables and TCI scores as independent factors. Personality traits of obese individuals included significantly lower self-directedness and cooperativeness on TCI. BES and NEQ scores were higher in obese women, and values above the defined cut-offs were present in 77 and 18 cases (14 with high BES), respectively. After controlling for age and BMI, high BES values were associated with high novelty seeking and harm avoidance and low self-directedness, the last two scales being also associated with high NEQ. We conclude that personality traits differ between obese patients seeking treatment and controls, and the presence of disordered eating is associated with specific personality characteristics.

  7. Optimizing weight gain in pregnancy to prevent obesity in women and children.

    PubMed

    Herring, S J; Rose, M Z; Skouteris, H; Oken, E

    2012-03-01

    Pregnancy is now considered to be an important risk factor for new or persistent obesity among women during the childbearing years. High gestational weight gain is the strongest predictor of maternal overweight or obesity following pregnancy. A growing body of evidence also suggests that both high and low gestational weight gains are independently associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity, suggesting that influences occurring very early in life are contributing to obesity onset. In response to these data, the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) revised gestational weight gain guidelines in 2009 for the first time in nearly two decades. However, less than one third of pregnant women achieve guideline-recommended gains, with the majority gaining above IOM recommended levels. To date, interventions to optimize pregnancy weight gains have had mixed success. In this paper, we summarize the evidence from human and animal studies linking over-nutrition and under-nutrition in pregnancy to maternal and child obesity. In addition, we discuss published trials and ongoing interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain as a strategy for obesity prevention in women and their children.

  8. Obesity, Gynecological Factors, and Abnormal Mammography Follow-Up in Minority and Medically Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Wujcik, Debra; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Grau, Ana; Wilson, Veronica; Champion, Victoria; Zheng, Wei; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between obesity and screening mammography adherence has been examined previously, yet few studies have investigated obesity as a potential mediator of timely follow-up of abnormal (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BIRADS-0]) mammography results in minority and medically underserved patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35 women who did not return for follow-up >6 months from index abnormal mammography and 41 who returned for follow-up ≤6 months in Nashville, Tennessee. Patients with a BIRADS-0 mammography event in 2003–2004 were identified by chart review. Breast cancer risk factors were collected by telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on selected factors with return for diagnostic follow-up. Results Obesity and gynecological history were significant predictors of abnormal mammography resolution. A significantly higher frequency of obese women delayed return for mammography resolution compared with nonobese women (64.7% vs. 35.3%). A greater number of hysterectomized women returned for diagnostic follow-up compared with their counterparts without a hysterectomy (77.8% vs. 22.2%). Obese patients were more likely to delay follow-up >6 months (adjusted OR 4.09, p = 0.02). Conversely, hysterectomized women were significantly more likely to return for timely mammography follow-up ≤6 months (adjusted OR 7.95, p = 0.007). Conclusions Study results suggest that weight status and gynecological history influence patients' decisions to participate in mammography follow-up studies. Strategies are necessary to reduce weight-related barriers to mammography follow-up in the healthcare system including provider training related to mammography screening of obese women. PMID:19558307

  9. Effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes on protein anabolic response to insulin in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jessica; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Goulet, Éric D B; Morais, José A

    2015-09-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes have been shown to alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose and protein metabolism in middle-aged women. We aimed to determine whether these findings translate to the elderly who are at increased risk of muscle loss. We assessed whole-body protein (1-(13)C-leucine) and glucose (3-(3)H-glucose) kinetics in 10 healthy (age: 71.6±1.8years; BMI: 23.2±0.8kg/m(2)), 8 obese (age: 72.9±1.3; BMI: 33.1±1.0) and 8 obese well-controlled type 2 diabetic (age: 69.8±1.6; BMI: 34.4±1.5) elderly women in the postabsorptive state and during a hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic, isoaminoacidemic clamp. All subjects followed an isoenergetic, protein-controlled diet for 6days preceding the clamp. The net protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinemia was similarly blunted in obese (0.08±0.06) and obese type 2 diabetic women (0.06±0.04) compared to healthy women (0.24±0.05μmol·kg fat free mass(-1)·min(-1); ANOVA p=0.018). In contrast, the insulin-mediated glucose disposal (healthy: 9.72±0.67) was decreased with obesity (6.96±0.86) and further with diabetes (5.23±0.27mg·kg fat free mass(-1)·min(-1); ANOVA p<0.001). Endogenous glucose production was not completely suppressed during the clamp only in diabetic women. Thus, the glucose infusion rate was the lowest in this group. Obese elderly women with and without type 2 diabetes have a similar degree of insulin resistance of protein anabolism, despite worse glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Similar to previous findings in middle-aged women, obesity exerted a blunting effect on protein anabolism, which may contribute to the development of sarcopenic obesity. Our results suggest that the presence of type 2 diabetes at an advancing age does not further aggravate this effect. PMID:26068615

  10. Relationship between Attitudes and Indicators of Obesity for Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudo, Noriko; Degeneffe, Dennis; Vue, Houa; Merkle, Emily; Kinsey, Jean; Ghosh, Koel; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    This study uses segmentation analyses to identify five distinct subgroups of U.S. midlife women (n = 200) based on their prevailing attitudes toward food and its preparation and consumption. Mean age of the women is 46 years and they are mostly White (86%), highly educated, and employed. Attitude segments (clusters of women sharing similar…

  11. Experiences of obesity among Saudi Arabian women contemplating bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances

    2014-05-01

    This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach.

  12. Experiences of obesity among Saudi Arabian women contemplating bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances

    2014-05-01

    This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach. PMID:23479306

  13. Circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin levels affect insulin resistance in healthy premenopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Ugur-Altun, Betul; Altun, Armagan

    2007-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between circulating leptin and osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels and insulin resistance assessed by HOMA-IR in premenopausal obese and normal weight women. Thirty four obese women (age 31 +/- 8 years) (BMI 35 +/- 4 kg/m(2)) with 19 healthy controls (age 31 +/- 7 years) (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) (BMI 21 +/- 2 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Women were healthy and had no osteoporosis. Circulating leptin levels were significantly higher in obese women (17.11 +/- 2.05 ng/mL vs. 8.38 +/- 4.71 ng/mL, p <0.0001) and decreased OPG levels were found (14.7 +/- 7.15 pg/mL vs. 19.17 +/- 6.37 pg/mL, p = 0.03). Leptin showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.851, p <0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.692, p <0.0001), fasting insulin (r = 0.441, p <0.001), HOMA-IR (r = 0.412, p = 0.002), fibrinogen (r = 0.387, p = 0.004), uric acid (r = 0.293, p = 0.033), hematocrit (r = 0.394, p = 0.003), systolic (r = 0.504, p <0.0001), and diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.363, p = 0.008). OPG showed a negative correlation with insulin (r = -0.341, p = 0.013) and HOMA-IR (r = -0.324, p = 0.018). In obese women group, the regression equation of HOMA-IR was (HOMA-IR = [0.095 x leptin]-[0.051 x OPG] + 1.71). However, there was no relation between leptin and OPG levels. In conclusion, circulating leptin and OPG levels were related to insulin resistance in premenopausal obese women. However, leptin had no interference in OPG in premenopausal women. PMID:17923273

  14. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m(-2)), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m(-2)), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m(-2)), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m(-2)). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia. PMID:26269625

  15. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m−2), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m−2), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m−2), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m−2). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia. PMID:26269625

  16. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m(-2)), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m(-2)), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m(-2)), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m(-2)). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia.

  17. Acupoint catgut embedding therapy with moxibustion reduces the risk of diabetes in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Vivas, Jessica M.; Galaviz-Hernandez, Carlos; Becerril-Chavez, Flavia; Lozano-Rodriguez, Francisco; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide for which conventional therapy efficacy is limited. Traditional Chinese medicine, particularly body acupoint stimulation, provides an alternative, effective, and safe therapy for this medical challenge. The present study was designed to compare the effects of distinct methods to stimulate the same set of acupoints, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women. Materials and Methods: Ninety-nine obese women were randomly assigned to six groups of treatment: Acupuncture with moxibustion, long needle acupuncture with moxibustion, electroacupuncture (EA), EA with moxibustion, embedded catgut with moxibustion (CGM) and sham acupuncture as control. Obesity-related parameters, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio, biochemical parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin) and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, were determined before and after each treatment. Results: Body weight and BMI were significantly reduced in response to all treatments. Interestingly, acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with moxibustion was the only treatment that produced a significant reduction in body weight (3.1 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.001), BMI (1.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, P < 0.001), insulin (3.5 ± 0.8 mcU/ml, P < 0.1) and HOMA-IR (1.4 ± 0.2 units, P < 0.01) in comparison with sham group. Furthermore, this treatment was able to bring back obese women to a state of insulin sensitivity, indicating that acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with moxibustion could be useful as a complementary therapy to reduce the risk of diabetes associated to obesity in women. Conclusion: Overall, our results confirmed the effectiveness of acupoints stimulation to assist in the control of body weight in women. They also highlighted the more favorable effects of embedded catgut-moxibustion combination that may be due to the extended and

  18. Influence of Sucrose Ingestion on Brainstem and Hypothalamic Intrinsic Oscillations in Lean and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Coveleskie, Kristen; Connolly, Lynn; Labus, Jennifer S.; Ebrat, Bahar; Stains, Jean; Jiang, Zhiguo; Suyenobu, Brandall Y.; Raybould, Helen E.; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain–gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women. METHODS In a 2-day, double-blind crossover study, 11 lean and 11 obese healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans after ingestion of 2 beverages of different sucrose content, but identical sweetness. During scans, subjects rested with eyes closed. RESULTS Blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations demonstrated significantly greater power in the highest frequency band (slow-3: 0.073–0.198 Hz) after ingestion of high-sucrose compared with low-sucrose beverages in the nucleus tractus solitarius for both groups. Obese women had greater connectivity between the right lateral hypothalamus and a reward-related brain region and weaker connectivity with homeostasis and gustatory-related brain regions than lean women. CONCLUSIONS In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed sucrose-related changes in oscillatory dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in brainstem and hypothalamus in lean and obese women. The observed frequency changes are consistent with a rapid vagally mediated mechanism due to nutrient absorption, rather than sweet taste receptor activation. These findings provide support for altered interaction between homeostatic and reward networks in obese individuals. PMID:24480616

  19. Obese Women Have Lower Monosodium Glutamate Taste Sensitivity and Prefer Higher Concentrations Than Do Normal-weight Women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, M. Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Beauchamp, Gary K.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether obese women exhibit altered umami and sweet taste perception compared to normal-weight women. A total of 57 subjects (23 obese and 34 normal weight) participated in a 2-day study separated by 1 week. Half of the women in each group were evaluated using monosodium glutamate (MSG; prototypical umami stimulus) on the first test day and sucrose on the second test day; the order was reversed for the remaining women. We used two-alternative forced-choice staircase procedures to measure taste detection thresholds, forced-choice tracking technique to measure preferences, the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) to measure perceived intensity of suprathreshold concentrations, and a triangle test to measure discrimination between 29 mmol/l MSG and 29 mmol/l NaCl. Obese women required higher MSG concentrations to detect a taste and preferred significantly higher MSG concentrations in a soup-like vehicle. However, their perception of MSG at suprathreshold concentrations, their ability to discriminate MSG from salt, and their preference for sucrose were similar to that observed in normal-weight women. Regardless of their body weight category, 28% of the women did not discriminate 29 mmol/l MSG from 29 mmol/l NaCl (nondiscriminators). Surprisingly, we found that, relative to discriminators, nondiscriminators perceived less savoriness when tasting suprathreshold MSG concentrations and less sweetness from suprathreshold sucrose concentrations but had similar MSG and sucrose detection thresholds. Taken together, these data suggest that body weight is related to some components of umami taste and that different mechanisms are involved in the perception of threshold and suprathreshold MSG concentrations. PMID:20075854

  20. Interest in healthy living outweighs presumed cultural norms for obesity for Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Rosemary B; Jumah, Naana Afua; Hill, Allan G; Seffah, Joseph; Biritwum, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background Cultural norms indicate that obesity reflects increased wealth and prosperity. Yet obesity is linked to serious medical illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine if Ghanaian women would change their body image if it meant a healthier life. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 305 Ghanaian women waiting for clinic appointments at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra Ghana. This survey included questions on current health, selection of figural stimuli, decision making on health and social determinants and 5 questions on self-perception of health from SF-36. Anthropometric measures were taken and body mass index calculated. Women were also provided with health related information at the conclusion of the interview. Results The majority of all women surveyed would reduce their current body image if it meant that they would have an overall healthier life and reduce the risks of obesity-linked illnesses and complications. Currently obese women were significantly more likely than non-obese women to reduce their body image to reduce the risk of hypertension (OR 2.03 [1.64 – 2.51],<0.001); cardiovascular accident (OR 1.96 [1.61 – 2.38],<0.001); diabetes (OR 2.00 [1.63 – 2.44],<0.001); myocardial infarction (OR 2.27 [1.80 – 2.86],<0.001); if requested by a spouse(OR 2.64 [1.98 – 3.52],<0.001); and to improve overall health (OR 1.95 [1.60 – 2.37], <0.001). There was no association with current body image and responses to SF-36. The decision to select a new body image was not influenced by education, income, marital status or parity. Age 50 years old and less was significantly associated with the body image size reduction to reduce the risk of hypertension, diabetes, and a cardiovascular accident. Conclusion The Ghanaian women interviewed in this study are interested in living a healthy life and are willing to reduce their body size to reduce the risk of obesity-linked illnesses. The target group for any interventional studies and

  1. Circadian Rhythms of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Women with Different Types of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pinkhasov, B B; Selyatinskaya, V G; Astrakhantseva, E L; Anufrienko, E V

    2016-07-01

    Blood levels of glucose and immunoreactive insulin were assessed in women with android and gynoid types of obesity or normal body weight (control group) in the dynamics of oral glucose tolerance test in the morning and in the evening. In the control group, the mean concentrations of glucose and immunoreactive insulin were significantly higher in the evening at all test terms (0, 60 and 120 min), which is indicative of physiological insulin resistance in the evening. In the group of women with gynoid obesity, no difference in the levels of glucose and immunoreactive insulin was revealed in the morning and evening tests, but in the evening tests, glucose (60 and 120 min) and immunoreactive insulin (120 min) levels were lower than in the control group. In the group of women with android obesity, the evening glucose level on minutes 60 and 120 of the test was higher than in the morning, but immunoreactive insulin did not vary throughout the day and on minutes 60 and 120 it surpassed the corresponding parameter in the control group by 2-4 times. In case of gynoid obesity, glucose load was followed by hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia; in android obesity, it was followed by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance irrespective of the time of the day. PMID:27492405

  2. Increased postprandial energy expenditure in obese women after peroral K- and Mg-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Jaedig, S; Lindgärde, F; Arborelius, M

    1994-01-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) was studied in 15 obese (BMI > 27.5, median 29.2) and 15 lean (BMI < 22.9, median 21.7) healthy, postmenopausal women before and after peroral orange juice with or without K- and Mg-phosphate supplementation. The women, 56-58 years old, were studied in a double-blind, crossover experiment on two separate days. They received 100 ml of orange juice (10 g of carbohydrates) with or without a supplement of K+ (35 mmol), Mg2+ (17 mmol) and HPO4(2-) (39 mmol). Measurements were made before and 30 and 60 min after the stimuli. Intake of juice only had no effect on EE in either the lean or the obese subjects. When the minerals were added, EE (+6.3%; p < 0.001) increased significantly in the obese group with in a maximum 30 min after stimulus, while no such increase was seen in the lean group. The difference between the groups was significant (p < 0.05) and so was the difference in the obese group with or without minerals (p < 0.01). We conclude that an addition of potassium/magnesium-phosphate to glucose increases the postprandial thermogenesis in obese postmenopausal women, but not in lean ones.

  3. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight.

  4. The energetic and cardiovascular response to treadmill walking and cycle ergometer exercise in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Agosti, Fiorenza; Galli, Raffaela; Busti, Carlo; Lazzer, Stefano; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management, but exercise capacity is compromised in obese individuals due to the excessive body mass, impacting on body movement's energetics, and to the dysfunctions of regulatory mechanisms, affecting cardiovascular responses. This study aims to compare the energetics and cardiovascular responses of walking and cycling in obese women, and to formulate recommendations regarding the most suitable type of exercise for obesity. Fifteen obese (OB) and six normal weight (NW) women exercised on treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). During both exercise modalities, metabolic rate was higher in OB than in NW and correlated with measures of body mass. Leg movement metabolic rate during cycling depended upon individual adiposity, and when accounted for, mechanical efficiency was similar in the two groups. When accounting for extra mass, differences in metabolic rate among groups are abolished for CE, indicating no obesity impairment of muscle efficiency, but not for TM, suggesting that differences in biomechanics may explain the higher net cost of transport of OB. In both groups, HR was higher during CE than TM at the same oxygen uptake (VO(2)), but in OB the HR increment over VO(2) was greater for CE than for TM. Therefore, due to different cardiovascular responses to TM and CE in OB, walking is more convenient, enabling OB to attain target energy expenditure at lower HR or in a shorter time.

  5. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  6. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  7. The effects of horseback riding on body mass index and gait in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; An, Byung-Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of horseback riding on body mass index (BMI) and gait in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four obese women residing in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do were randomly divided into a horseback riding group and a walking group and conducted their respective exercises 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] Step length increased significantly and BMI and width of the base of support significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of BMI and width of the base of support after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the horseback riding group showed larger decreases than the walking group. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the horseback riding may improve gait ability and obesity. PMID:25995581

  8. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  9. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  10. Oxidation of nonplasma fatty acids during exercise is increased in women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J F; Klein, S

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated plasma fatty acid availability and plasma and whole body fatty acid oxidation during exercise in five lean and five abdominally obese women (body mass index = 21 +/- 1 vs. 38 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), who were matched on aerobic fitness, to test the hypothesis that obesity alters the relative contribution of plasma and nonplasma fatty acids to total energy production during exercise. Subjects exercised on a recumbent cycle ergometer for 90 min at 54% of their peak oxygen consumption. Stable isotope tracer methods ([(13)C]palmitate) were used to measure fatty acid rate of appearance in plasma and the rate of plasma fatty acid oxidation, and indirect calorimetry was used to measure whole body substrate oxidation. During exercise, palmitate rate of appearance increased progressively and was similar in obese and lean groups between 60 and 90 min of exercise [3.9 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 micromol. kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1). min(-1)]. The rate of plasma fatty acid oxidation was also similar in obese and lean subjects (12.8 +/- 1.7 vs. 14.5 +/- 1.8 micromol. kg FFM(-1). min(-1); P = not significant). However, whole body fatty acid oxidation during exercise was 25% greater in obese than in lean subjects (21.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 17.5 +/- 1.6 micromol. kg FFM(-1). min(-1); P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that, although plasma fatty acid availability and oxidation are similar during exercise in lean and obese women, women with abdominal obesity use more fat as a fuel by oxidizing more nonplasma fatty acids.

  11. Obesity with no metabolic syndrome and adipose tissue expansion based solely on risk factors and inflammatory marker of coronary heart disease in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alves Ramos, Sabrina; Sabino, Adriano de Paula; Corrêa Ferreira, Daniela; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline Isaura

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze whether obese women with no metabolic syndrome (MetS) have increased cardiometabolic risk compared to non-obese women and to observe the correlations between adiposity and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in metabolically healthy women. 20-40 year old non-obese (n=41), obese with no MetS (n=30) and obese with MetS (n=28) women were studied. Lipid profile, blood pressure, CHD family history, physical inactivity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were analyzed. A subset of obese (13) and non-obese (33) women with no major components of MetS (except waist circumference) were further compared. Obese women with no MetS and non-obese women presented a similar metabolic profile that was statistically different from those seen in obese women with MetS. The number of obese women with no MetS and non-obese women presenting two or more risk factors (23.3 and 19.5%, respectively) or presenting high Framingham Risk Score (6.7 and 2.4%, respectively) were also similar. The only pro inflammatory protein correlated to waist circumference was hs-CRP. These data suggest that obesity with no MetS induce a CHD risk comparable to the risk seen in non-obese women. However, when women with no major components of MetS alone were considered, adiposity was positively correlated to blood pressure and hs-CRP. Although CHD risk of obese women with no MetS is closer to non-obese women, adipose tissue expansion was positively correlated to blood pressure and hs-CRP that are important risk factors for CHD.

  12. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  13. The Utility of Ultrasound Surveillance of Fluid and Growth in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Lorie M.; Jauk, Victoria C.; Owen, John; Biggio, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of ultrasound surveillance in obese women. Study Design Retrospective cohort of all obese women undergoing sonography at a single center from 2005–2013. Inclusion criteria were: body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, singleton, ≥1 ultrasound performed <20 weeks, and ≥1 ultrasound performed ≥24 weeks. Pregnancies with medical complications, fetal anomalies or preterm premature rupture of membranes were excluded. Outcomes considered were small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), macrosomia, oligohydramnios, and polyhydramnios. We calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for scans performed during 3 gestational age ranges (240/7-316/7, 320/7-356/7, and ≥360/7 weeks). Results 2,002 sonograms were performed in 1,164 obese women ≥24 weeks. SGA was diagnosed in 59 (5.1%) pregnancies; 7 (0.6%) were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 159 (95% CI 69–490). LGA was diagnosed in 38 (3.3%) cases; only 1 was identified <32 weeks and was not LGA at birth. For every 29 (95% CI 19–46) scans performed >36 weeks, 1 case of macrosomia was identified. Amniotic fluid abnormalities were diagnosed in 44 (3.8%) pregnancies (oligohydramnios n=19, polyhydramnios n=25); 34.1% were diagnosed <32 weeks (NNS 113, 95% CI 55–282 for oligohydramnios, NNS 100, 95% CI 50–230 for polyhydramnios). At ≥36 weeks, 7 (95% CI 6–8) scans were needed to diagnose any fluid or growth abnormality. Conclusion In obese women without co-morbidities, few sonographic diagnoses of amniotic fluid or fetal growth abnormalities are made <32 weeks gestational age. Therefore, if a policy of serial sonographic surveillance is utilized, we suggest ultrasounds for fluid and growth in obese women begin ≥32 weeks. PMID:24791732

  14. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Morbid obesity; Fat - obese ... is because the body stores unused calories as fat. Obesity can be caused by: Eating more food ... use your BMI to estimate how much body fat you have. Your waist measurement is another way ...

  15. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  16. Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: Preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Julia; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3 day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and eating behaviors, stress, metabolic, cardiovascular, and cell aging factors among overweight women, but not among obese women due to lower circulating ghrelin levels and/or central resistance to ghrelin. Confirming previous studies demonstrating lowered plasma ghrelin in obesity, ghrelin levels were lower in the obese compared with overweight women. Among the overweight, ghrelin was positively correlated with caloric intake, giving in to cravings for highly palatable foods, and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope across 3 days. These relationships were non-significant among the obese group. Among overweight women, ghrelin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and positively correlated with telomere length. Among the obese subjects, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with insulin resistance, but were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, heart rate or telomere length. Total plasma ghrelin and its associations with food intake, hedonic eating, and stress are decreased in obesity, providing evidence consistent with the theory that central resistance to ghrelin develops in obesity and ghrelin’s function in appetite regulation may have evolved to prevent starvation in food scarcity rather than cope with modern food excess. Furthermore, ghrelin is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health, and may have anti-aging effects, but these effects may be attenuated in obesity. PMID:24462487

  17. Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity?

    PubMed

    Buss, Julia; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and eating behaviors, stress, metabolic, cardiovascular, and cell aging factors among overweight women, but not among obese women due to lower circulating ghrelin levels and/or central resistance to ghrelin. Confirming previous studies demonstrating lowered plasma ghrelin in obesity, ghrelin levels were lower in the obese compared with overweight women. Among the overweight, ghrelin was positively correlated with caloric intake, giving in to cravings for highly palatable foods, and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope across 3days. These relationships were non-significant among the obese group. Among overweight women, ghrelin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and positively correlated with telomere length. Among the obese subjects, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with insulin resistance, but were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, heart rate or telomere length. Total plasma ghrelin and its associations with food intake, hedonic eating, and stress are decreased in obesity, providing evidence consistent with the theory that central resistance to ghrelin develops in obesity and ghrelin's function in appetite regulation may have evolved to prevent starvation in food scarcity rather than cope with modern food excess. Furthermore, ghrelin is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health, and may have anti-aging effects, but these effects may be attenuated in obesity.

  18. Gene expression of different adipose tissues of severely obese women with or without a dysmetabolic profile.

    PubMed

    Mauriège, P; Joanisse, D R; CasparBauguil, S; Cartier, A; Lemieux, I; Bergeron, J; Biron, S; Marceau, P; Richard, D

    2015-12-01

    Despite well-established variations in the health risks posed by visceral vs. subcutaneous abdominal (SCABD) fat depots, surprisingly little is known on the differences within a given adipose tissue (AT) among severely obese patients displaying varying metabolic dysfunction. We thus compared, by quantitative PCR, the expression profile of a number of genes in the SCABD, omental (OME), and mesenteric (MES) depots of severely obese women with (DYS; n = 25) or without (NDYS; n = 23) a dysmetabolic profile. Fasting insulinemia and HOmeostasis Model Assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher and plasma adiponectin level lower in DYS women (p < 0.05). Among enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism and local cortisol production, phosphodiesterase-3B expression was lower in SCABD and MES fat, while 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 mRNA levels were higher in visceral depots of DYS women (p < 0.05). Regarding vascular homeostasis and inflammation, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and interleukin-6 mRNA levels were higher in OME fat, while adiponectin expression was lower in SCABD and OME ATs of DYS women (p < 0.05). Finally, HOMA-IR was positively associated with SCABD AT IL6 mRNA, only in DYS women (r = 0.47; p < 0.05). In conclusion, although metabolic and secretory characteristics of all depots vary with subjects' metabolic profile, we find little evidence for a protective role of SCABD AT and no evidence for a further deleterious role of MES fat in DYS vs. NDYS severely obese women. Regional variation in the overall gene expression revealed that OME and MES fat were more closely related to each other in DYS women, while SCABD and MES depots showed greater resemblance in NDYS women. PMID:26452503

  19. Meaning of the Terms "Overweight" and "Obese" Among Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Samantha; Rosenblum, Katherine; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine how low-income United States women understand the meanings of the terms “overweight” and “obese”. Methods Low-income women [n = 145; 72% white, 12% black, 8% Hispanic; 59% obese, 21% overweight] each participated in an individual semi-structured interview during which they were asked to explain what the terms overweight and obese mean to them. Responses were transcribed and the constant comparative method was used to identify themes. Results Three themes emerged: (1) The terms are offensive and describe people who are unmotivated, depressed and do not care about themselves; (2) Obese is an extreme weight (e.g. 500 pounds and being immobile); (3) Being overweight is a matter of opinion; if a woman is “comfortable in her own skin” and “feels healthy” she is not overweight. Conclusions and Implications Health education focused on obesity should consider that vulnerable populations might consider the terms "overweight" and "obese" offensive and stigmatizing. PMID:24135314

  20. Altered maternal lipid metabolism is associated with higher inflammation in obese women during late pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Strand, Eric A.; Cade, W. Todd

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is elevated in obese pregnant women and is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Maternal lipid metabolism and its relationships with maternal inflammation, insulin resistance and neonatal metabolic health are poorly understood in obese pregnant women. 18 lean (age: 26.1 ± 5.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 21.5 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 16 obese (age: 25.0 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m2) women participated in this case-control study during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma markers of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP)) were measured at rest, and lipid concentration and kinetics (lipid oxidation rate and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-minute bout of low-intensity (40% VO2peak) exercise, and during a recovery period. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Pregnant obese women had higher plasma CRP (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L versus 2.3 ± 1.8 mg/L, p<0.001) and higher HOMA-IR (3.8 ± 1.9 versus 2.3 ± 1.5, p=0.009) compared to pregnant lean women. Obese women had higher lipid oxidation rates during recovery from low-intensity exercise (0.13 ± 0.03 g/min versus 0.11 ±0.04 g/min, p=0.02) that was associated with higher maternal CRP (r=0.55, p=0.001). Maternal CRP was positively associated with maternal HOMA-IR (r=0.40, p<0.02) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.40, p<0.02). Maternal lipid metabolism-associated inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance and higher blood pressure in obese women during pregnancy. PMID:27239331

  1. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, S P; Trimer, R; Di Thommazo-Luporini, L; Dourado, V Z; Bonjorno-Junior, J C; Oliveira, C R; Arena, R; Borghi-Silva, A

    2016-07-11

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2) prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) was calculated (210 - age in years) (16) and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05) with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79) as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65). The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option.

  2. Associations of negative affect and eating behaviour in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Laessle, R G

    2010-12-01

    The present study was planned to investigate differences in psychopathological features, eating behaviour and eating habits between obese women with and without BED. It also aimed to identify specific relationships between affective symptoms and eating behaviour in obese women with BED. Eighty-four obese women were studied (40 with BED, 44 non-BED). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed with the structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depressive symptoms were measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Eating habits (emotional and restrained eating) were assessed by the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ). Food diaries were used for assessing naturalistic eating behaviour (food intake) and mood before and after food intake. BED subjects exhibited higher levels of comorbidity (in particular mood disorders, anxiety disorders and substance-related disorders), higher depressive symptoms, trait anxiety, external and emotional eating scores than non-BED subjects. Regression analyses revealed that anxiety and emotional eating were significant predictors for BED status. In the BED group, depressive symptoms were significantly related to emotional eating and food intake and negatively related to restraint. Anxiety was significantly related to emotional eating. In general, food intake significantly enhanced mood. Mood was worse on the days with self-reported binge eating episodes than on nonbinge days. These results are discussed with regard to aetiological models for BED and for BED being a distinct diagnostic category separate from obesity. PMID:21406953

  3. Differences in Obesity Rates Among Minority and White Women: The Latent Role of Maternal Stress.

    PubMed

    Patchen, Loral; Rebok, George; Astone, Nan M

    2016-07-01

    White and minority women experience different rates of obesity in the United States. Yet our understanding of the dynamics that give rise to this gap remains limited. This article presents a conceptual framework that considers pathways leading to these different rates. It draws upon the life-course perspective, allostatic load, and the weathering hypothesis to identify pathways linking childbearing, stress, and obesity. This conceptual framework extends prior work by identifying age at first birth as an important parameter that influences these pathways. Empirical evidence to test these pathways is needed. PMID:27355406

  4. Anthropometric and health-related fitness characteristics in middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Jürimäe, T; Jürimäe, J

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the possible relationships between anthropometrical and health-related fitness parameters in obese middle-aged women. Twenty one obese (BMI > 27 kg/m2) and 12 control (BMI < 27 kg/m2) middle-aged females (35-45 yrs) participated in this investigation. Three series of anthropometrical measurements on the right side of the body were taken according to the O-scale physique assessment system. The Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotyping method was used and the ratio of waist to hip circumferences was calculated. The body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance method (Bodystat-500, UK). The following health-related fitness tests used were: dynamic sit-up, hand grip, sit-and-reach, single leg balance and plate tapping. Physical working capacity (PWC) was measured using single ergometer test. Obese women possessed significantly higher (p < 0.05) values for skinfold, girth and breadth measurements. While the differences in somatotype indices were not statistically significant (p > 0.05) between obese and control groups, the transformation of somatotype characteristics to the effect sizes (ESs) revealed that these differences were large (ectomorphy: ES = 1.73; endomorphy: ES = 1.64; mesomorphy: ES = 1.71). Relative aerobic fitness (VO2max/kg, calculated from PWC) and dynamic sit-up were higher (p < 0.05) in control subjects, while obese women presented significantly higher values for hand grip strength. The thicker skinfold thicknesses increased the absolute value of PWC in obese group (r = 0.39-0.57; p < 0.05). In contrast, the thinner skinfold thicknesses in suprailiac and mid-thigh significantly increased the absolute value of PWC in control women. There were only a few significant correlations between girth and breadth measures, and health-related fitness parameters. In addition, somatotype characteristics seldom influenced the results of health-related fitness tests. Stepwise multiple regression

  5. Parity and Breastfeeding in Relation to Obesity among Black and White Women in the Southern Community Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Celia O.; Matthews, Charles E.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective This research sought to describe associations among parity, breastfeeding, and adult obesity in black and white women in the southeastern United States. Methods Cross-sectional data from 7,986 white women and 23,198 black women (age 40–79 years) living in the southeastern United States and enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study during 2002–2006 were used to examine self-reported body mass index (BMI) and weight change since age 21 in association with parity and breastfeeding. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression with adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors were used. Results At all levels of parity and breastfeeding, black women had higher BMI and weight gain since age 21 than white women. Compared to nulliparity, five or more live births was associated with increased odds of obesity in white women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08–1.74) and, to a lesser extent, in black women (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.38). In white women, breastfeeding for more than 12 months compared to none was associated with decreased odds of obesity (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56–0.82), whereas in black women, no association between obesity and breastfeeding was seen. Conclusions The associations between childbearing factors and measures of adult obesity appear to be larger in white women compared to black women but relatively small overall. However, when considered as part of the constellation of factors that lead to obesity, even these small associations may be important in an overall obesity prevention strategy. PMID:19743905

  6. Long-term habituation to food in obese and nonobese women123

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A; Cavanaugh, Meghan D; Paluch, Rocco A; Bouton, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Habituation is a form of learning in which repeated exposure to a stimulus leads to a decrease in responding. Eating involves repeated presentation of the same food stimulus in a meal, and habituation is reliably observed within a meal such that faster rates of habituation are associated with less energy intake. It is possible that repeated presentation of the same food over days will lead to long-term habituation, such that subjects habituate to foods repeated over meals. However, no research on long-term habituation to food in humans has been conducted. Objective: The current study was designed to assess long-term habituation in 16 obese and 16 nonobese premenopausal women. Design: Obese and nonobese women (aged 20–50 y) were randomly assigned to receive a macaroni and cheese meal presented 5 times, either daily for 1 wk or once per week for 5 wk. Results: In both obese and nonobese women, daily presentation of food resulted in faster habituation and less energy intake than did once-weekly presentation of food. Conclusions: Long-term habituation was observed when the same food was presented at daily meals but not when presented once weekly for 5 wk. These results provide the first evidence of long-term habituation to food in women and show that memory of food over daily meals can increase the rate of habituation and reduce energy intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01208870. PMID:21593492

  7. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  8. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  9. Racism, Segregation, and Risk of Obesity in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  10. Enhanced biglycan gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese women and its association with obesity-related genes and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Seul Ki; Shin, Ji-Min; Jeoun, Un-Woo; Jang, Yeon Jin; Park, Hye Soon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Gong, Gyung-Yub; Lee, Taik Jong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2016-07-28

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women. Regardless of the presence of diabetes, obese patients had significantly higher biglycan mRNA in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Biglycan mRNA was noticeably higher in non-adipocytes than adipocytes and significantly decreased during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue biglycan mRNA positively correlated with adiposity indices and insulin resistance parameters; however, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for BMI. In both fat depots, biglycan mRNA strongly correlated with the expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, culture of human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes under conditions mimicking the local microenvironments of obese adipose tissues significantly increased biglycan mRNA expression. Our data indicate that biglycan gene expression is increased in obese adipose tissues by altered local conditions.

  11. Enhanced biglycan gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese women and its association with obesity-related genes and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Seul Ki; Shin, Ji-Min; Jeoun, Un-Woo; Jang, Yeon Jin; Park, Hye Soon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Gong, Gyung-Yub; Lee, Taik Jong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women. Regardless of the presence of diabetes, obese patients had significantly higher biglycan mRNA in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Biglycan mRNA was noticeably higher in non-adipocytes than adipocytes and significantly decreased during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue biglycan mRNA positively correlated with adiposity indices and insulin resistance parameters; however, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for BMI. In both fat depots, biglycan mRNA strongly correlated with the expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, culture of human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes under conditions mimicking the local microenvironments of obese adipose tissues significantly increased biglycan mRNA expression. Our data indicate that biglycan gene expression is increased in obese adipose tissues by altered local conditions. PMID:27465988

  12. Enhanced biglycan gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese women and its association with obesity-related genes and metabolic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Seul Ki; Shin, Ji-min; Jeoun, Un-woo; Jang, Yeon Jin; Park, Hye Soon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Gong, Gyung-Yub; Lee, Taik Jong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women. Regardless of the presence of diabetes, obese patients had significantly higher biglycan mRNA in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Biglycan mRNA was noticeably higher in non-adipocytes than adipocytes and significantly decreased during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue biglycan mRNA positively correlated with adiposity indices and insulin resistance parameters; however, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for BMI. In both fat depots, biglycan mRNA strongly correlated with the expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, culture of human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes under conditions mimicking the local microenvironments of obese adipose tissues significantly increased biglycan mRNA expression. Our data indicate that biglycan gene expression is increased in obese adipose tissues by altered local conditions. PMID:27465988

  13. Weight perceptions among overweight and obese women: a US-Mexico binational perspective.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha

    2011-12-01

    We examined actual and perceived weight in nationally representative cohorts of adults in Mexico (n = 9,527) and the United States (n = 855) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (waves 2001-2006) and Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (2006). Actual weight was assessed by health technicians using BMI and perceived weight was collected through self-report. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (OO) in Mexican women was 72% and in Mexican-American women was 71%. OO Mexican-American women were more likely than OO Mexican women to label themselves as "overweight" (86% vs. 64%, P < 0.001), and this difference was significant while controlling for socio-demographic and weight-related variables. Among OO women from both populations, those who had been told by a health provider that they were OO were much more likely to perceive themselves as such (odds ratio = 5.3; 95% confidence intervals: 3.8-7.3). Significantly fewer OO women in Mexico than in the United States (13% vs. 42%, P < 0.0001) recalled having been screened for obesity by their health care provider. Weight misperceptions were common in both populations but more prevalent in Mexico, and low screening by health providers may be an important contributor to poor weight control in both countries.

  14. The role of physical activity in preventing obesity in midlife women

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska-Galas, Magdalena; Naworska, Beata; Wodarska, Magdalena; Plinta, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is one of the most common nutrition-related disorders worldwide and one of the major health problems in menopausal women, which significantly worsens the quality of life and can lead to severe diseases or even premature death. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relation between physical activity in different domains undertaken by menopausal women while performing daily activities and their body mass index (BMI). Material and methods The study was conducted on a random sample of 400 healthy Polish women aged 45-55. The questionnaire contained questions concerning the respondents’ socio-economic status, medical history and the long format of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. Results Fifty-one percent (50.6%) of women had normal body mass, 43.75% of respondents were overweighed and 5.65% of women were obese. A moderate physical activity level was presented by most midlife women in domestic and garden domain, active transportation and leisure time. Pearson's correlation showed that such factors as age, education and physical activity level in different domains have a significant correlation with BMI. Conclusions Most respondents presented a moderate physical activity level in all domains except work, where the respondents had a high physical activity (PA) level. A high PA level especially at work (r = –0.5788) and during leisure time (r = –0.5175) strongly correlate with lower BMI. PMID:26327883

  15. Weight loss improves reproductive outcomes in obese women undergoing fertility treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sim, K A; Dezarnaulds, G M; Denyer, G S; Skilton, M R; Caterson, I D

    2014-04-01

    For women attempting pregnancy, obesity reduces fertility and is an independent risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. The aim of this evaluator-blinded, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate a weight loss intervention on pregnancy rates in obese women undertaking fertility treatment. Forty-nine obese women, aged ≤ 37 years, presenting for fertility treatment were randomized to either a 12-week intervention (n = 27) consisting of a very-low-energy diet for the initial 6 weeks followed by a hypocaloric diet, combined with a weekly group multidisciplinary programme; or a control group (n = 22) who received recommendations for weight loss and the same printed material as the intervention. Anthropometric and reproductive parameters were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. The 22 women who completed the intervention had greater anthropometric changes (-6.6 ± 4.6 kg and -8.7 ± 5.6 cm vs. -1.6 ± 3.6 kg and -0.6 ± 6.3 cm) compared with the control group (n = 17; P < 0.001). The intervention group achieved a pregnancy rate of 48% compared with 14% (P = 0.007), took a mean two fertility treatment cycles to achieve each pregnancy compared with four in the control group (P = 0.002), and had a marked increase in the number of live births (44% vs. 14%; P = 0.02). A group weight loss programme, incorporating dietary, exercise and behavioural components, is associated with a significant improvement in pregnancy rates and live births in a group of obese women undergoing fertility treatment. PMID:25826729

  16. SORCS1 polymorphism and insulin secretion in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hrovat, Ana; Kravos, Nika Aleksandra; Goričar, Katja; Jensterle Sever, Mojca; Janež, Andrej; Dolžan, Vita

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of SORCS1 polymorphisms on insulin secretion in obese women with PCOS. Metabolic status was recorded in 50 clinically well characterized PCOS patients. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed and laboratory parameters of insulin resistance measured. All patients were genotyped for SORCS1 rs1358030, rs1416406 and rs11192966 polymorphisms. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. SORCS1 rs1416406 significantly influenced stimulated glucose plasma levels (p = 0.006) and increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion (p = 0.034). None of the polymorphisms influenced insulin resistance as measured by homeostatic model assessment. We report for the first time the relevance of SORCS1 polymorphisms for glycemic control and glucose stimulated insulin secretion in obese women with PCOS. PMID:27052493

  17. Suppressed cytokine production in whole blood cultures is related to iron status and is partially corrected following weight reduction in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assess ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production and its association with iron status in obese versus non-obese women. Determine the change in ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production six months after restrictive bariatric surgery in the obese group. Subjects were 17 obese (BMI: 46.6 ±7.9 kg/m2) and 1...

  18. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  19. Effects of a resistive training program on lipoprotein--lipid levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Manning, J M; Dooly-Manning, C R; White, K; Kampa, I; Silas, S; Kesselhaut, M; Ruoff, M

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a resistive training program on the time course of changes in strength, body mass index, lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins in sedentary obese women. Sixteen sedentary obese women strength trained 3 times . wk-1 for 12 wk performing three sets of six to eight repetitions per set with sets 1 and 2 at 60-70% of one-repetition maximum. During set 3, the subjects used the greatest weight possible so that failure occurred between six to eight repetitions. Six sedentary obese women served as controls. Blood samples for serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), TC/HDL-C ratio, apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), and apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) were obtained pre, and after 4, 8, and 12 wk of training and approximately 3-4 d following the last training session. A 3-d dietary record was obtained on all subjects pre and post, and subjects were instructed not to alter their diet. The 12 wk of resistive training did not result in a significant change in body weight, BMI, or total kilocalories consumed per day but did show a mean improvement of 58% in muscular strength (P less than 0.05). The training program did not significantly alter the TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, TG, TC/HDL-C ratio, apo A-I, or apo B-100 levels, which suggests that this increase in strength owing to resistive training in the absence of body weight loss did not alter the lipid profiles in these sedentary obese women.

  20. Follistatin-like 3 across gestation in preeclampsia and uncomplicated pregnancies among lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Founds, Sandra A; Ren, Dianxu; Roberts, James M; Jeyabalan, Arun; Powers, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine circulating maternal follistatin-like 3 (FSTL-3) by gestational age and obesity in pregnancy and preeclampsia. FSTL-3 was quantified in maternal plasma collected in each trimester from prepregnancy body mass index-determined groups: 15 lean and 24 obese controls and 20 obese women who developed preeclampsia. Repeated measures mixed models and logistic regression were conducted (P ≤ .05). FSTL-3 was not related to maternal adiposity. FSTL-3 changed across pregnancy in lean controls and obese preeclampsia but not in obese controls. FSTL-3 was higher in preeclampsia in the second trimester compared to lean controls and in the third trimester compared to both control groups. Elevated FSTL-3 at mid-gestation was associated with an increased odds of preeclampsia (odds ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.19-8.36; P = .02). Elevated FSTL-3 concentrations were attributable to preeclampsia and were associated with increased likelihood of later developing preeclampsia, suggesting further study as a biomarker prior to clinically evident disease.

  1. Obesity susceptibility loci and uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and cognitive restraint behaviors in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Curhan, Gary C.; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Hu, Frank B.; van Dam, Rob M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Many confirmed genetic loci for obesity are expressed in regions of the brain that regulate energy intake and reward-seeking behavior. Whether these loci contribute to the development of specific eating behaviors has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between a genetic susceptibility to obesity and cognitive restraint, uncontrolled and emotional eating. Design and Methods Eating behavior and body mass index (BMI) were determined by questionnaires for 1471 men and 2381 women from two U.S cohorts. Genotypes were extracted from genome-wide scans and a genetic-risk score (GRS) derived from 32 obesity-loci was calculated. Results The GRS was positively associated with emotional and uncontrolled eating(P<0.002). In exploratory analysis, BMI-increasing variants of MTCH2, TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with emotional eating and those of TNNI3K and ZC3H4 were positively associated with uncontrolled eating. The BMI-increasing variant of FTO was positively and those of LRP1B and TFAP2B were inversely associated with cognitive restraint. These associations for single SNPs were independent of BMI but were not significant after multiple-testing correction. Conclusions An overall genetic susceptibility to obesity may also extend to eating behaviors. The link between specific loci and obesity may be mediated by eating behavior but larger studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:23929626

  2. Electrical acupoint stimulation changes body composition and the meridian systems in postmenopausal women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Yu-Min; Liu, Chi-Feng

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of electrical stimulation on body composition and the meridian system in postmenopausal women with obesity. Forty-one postmenopausal women were recruited in Taiwan. The body composition was used as a screening test for obesity (percentage of body fat: > 30%, waist circumference: > 80 cm). The experimental group (EG, n = 20) received modulated middle-frequency electrical stimulation treatment for 20 min twice a week for 12 consecutive weeks at the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints. The control group (CG, n = 21) did not receive any intervention. The measurements of body composition and the meridian system were recorded for both groups in the pre- and post-study. The results showed that the data of body composition (weight, waist and hip circumference, percentage of body fat, and percentage of lean muscle mass) changed considerably in the EG (p < 0.05); however, no significant difference was observed in the CG. The left triple burner meridian changed notably in both EG and CG throughout the study (p < 0.05), however there was no difference between the two groups in the overall mean value, up-down ratio, qi and blood ratio, and yin-yang ratio. Our findings suggest that modulated middle-frequency electrical stimulation could help to improve body composition in postmenopausal women with obesity, potentially providing them with better care and health by integrating Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine.

  3. Using pedometers to increase physical activity in overweight and obese women: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sebely; Cheng, Cheryl; Egger, Garry; Binns, Colin; Donovan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background Most public health guidelines recommend that adults participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Establishing new ways to achieve these targets in sedentary populations need to be explored. This research evaluated whether the daily use of pedometers could increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in sedentary overweight and obese women. Methods Twenty six overweight and obese middle-aged women were randomized into two groups: The control group was not able to record their steps daily, whilst the pedometer group, were asked to record the number of steps on a daily basis for 12 weeks. Results Our data showed that the pedometer group significantly increased their steps/day, by 36%, at the end of the 12 weeks, whereas the control group's physical activity levels remained unchanged. There was no significant difference in weight or body fat composition in the pedometer group compared to the control group. However, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in the pedometer group (112.8 ± 2.44 mm Hg) compared to the control group (117.3 ± 2.03 mm Hg) (p = 0.003). Conclusion In conclusion, this pilot study shows that the combination of having step goals and immediate feedback from using a pedometer was effective in increasing physical activity levels in sedentary overweight and obese women. Trial registration ACTRN12609000176268 PMID:19703317

  4. Placing the burden on the individual: overweight and obesity in African American and mainstream women's magazines.

    PubMed

    Campo, Shelly; Mastin, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    One third of all U.S. adult women, and more than 75% of African American women, are overweight or obese. This study examined overweight and obesity editorial content (N=406) in three mainstream and three African American women's magazines between 1984 and 2004. Content analysis was used to determine which strategies were suggested regarding diet, overweight, and obesity, which components of social cognitive theory were offered (behavior, person, or environment), and whether or not there were differences in the genres. The results suggest that although a wide range of strategies were being offered, the vast majority were behavioral changes with an individual solution focus. Although African American and mainstream magazines suggested many of the same strategies, nearly half more frequently appeared in one or the other genre. Mainstream magazines were twice as likely to offer the limiting or eliminating of fast food or junk food, eating more protein, eating lower-fat foods, and eating smaller portions. African American magazines were much more likely to cover fad diets and to suggest readers rely on God or faith in their diet plans. The average number of strategies offered per article was significantly higher in mainstream than in African American magazines.

  5. Association of the acid phosphatase (ACP1) gene with triglyceride levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Nunzio; MacMurray, James; Peters, Warren; Rostamkhani, Masoud; Comings, David E

    2002-11-01

    The acid phosphatase (ACP1) locus codes for a low molecular weight protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMPTP) that is found ubiquitously in human tissues. The *A allele of the ACP1 gene is associated with lower total enzymatic activity than the *B and *C alleles. An association between the *A allele and extreme values of body-mass-index (BMI) and dyslipidemia has previously been described in several samples of obese subjects from the Italian population. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between ACP1 *A allele genotypes (*A/*A, *A/*B, and *A/*C) and non-*A allele genotypes (*B/*B, *B/*C, and *C/*C) and metabolic variables in 277 Caucasian post-menopausal subjects consisting of 82 non-obese subjects (BMIobese (BMI 30-34) and 135 very obese (BMI>/=35) subjects. ACP1 genotypes were found to be significantly associated with total cholesterol (pobese and very obese women only. The significantly lower levels of triglycerides in *A carriers in this group suggest a protective effect of the *A allele against hypertriglyceridemia. It has been unclear why some individuals who gain weight develop dyslipidemia and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome while others do not. The present study suggests that those who gain weight and carry the ACP1 *A allele may be partially protected against developing the metabolic syndrome. The confirmation of ACP1 as a modifier gene of the metabolic complications could open the door to the prevention of the lethal complications of obesity. PMID:12409270

  6. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns. PMID:19786392

  7. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  8. Effect Modification of Obesity on Associations between Endogenous Steroid Sex Hormones and Arterial Calcification in Women at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Powell, Lynda; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether obesity modify the effects of endogenous steroid sex hormones on arterial calcification in women at midlife. Methods Associations between estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index and the presence and extent of coronary and aortic calcification were evaluated in 187 obese (body mass index ≥30) and 281 non-obese (body mass index <30) women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Logistic and linear regressions were used as appropriate. Results Prevalence rates of coronary and aortic calcification were significantly higher among obese compared to non-obese (P <0.001, for both). In multivariable analyses, steroid sex hormones were not associated with presence of coronary calcification. However, for extent of coronary calcification, significant interactions were found between obesity and both sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.0001) and free androgen index (P=0.008). In non-obese women, higher sex hormone binding globulin (P=0.0006) and lower free androgen index (P=0.01) were associated with greater extent of coronary calcification while lower sex hormone binding globulin was associated with greater extent of coronary calcification in obese women (P=0.05). For aortic calcification outcomes, higher sex hormone binding globulin was associated with presence of aortic calcification among non-obese (OR:1.64, 95%CI:1.16, 2.32, for each 1-SD greater sex hormone binding globulin). Conclusions Associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification vary by obesity status among perimenopausal women. Further research is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms. PMID:21471825

  9. Optimal Cutoffs of Obesity Measures in Relation to Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Strickler, Howard D.; Lin, Juan; Hou, Lifang; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for several cancers in postmenopausal women. We attempted to determine cutoffs of adiposity measures in relation to risk of obesity-related cancers among postmenopausal women and to examine the effects of hormone therapy (HT) use on the cutoffs, neither of which has been broadly studied. Methods: We used data from the Women's Health Initiative cohort (n=144,701) and applied Cox-proportional hazards regressions to each combination of 17 cancer types and 6 anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], weight to height ratio, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio [WHR], and waist to height ratio). Interactions between the anthropometric measures and HT use were also examined. Cutoffs were determined by applying a grid search followed by a two-fold cross validation method. Survival ROC analysis of 5- and 10-year incidence followed. Results: Breast, colorectal, colon, endometrium, kidney, and all cancers combined were significantly positively associated with all six anthropometric measures, whereas lung cancer among ever smokers was significantly inversely associated with all measures except WHR. The derived cutoffs of each obesity measure varied across cancers (e.g., BMI cutoffs for breast and endometrium cancers were 30 kg/m2 and 34 kg/m2, respectively), and also depended on HT use. The Youden indices of the cutoffs for predicting 5- and 10-year cancer incidence were higher among HT never users. Conclusion: Using a panel of different anthropometric measures, we derived optimal cut-offs categorizing populations into high- and low-risk groups, which differed by cancer type and HT use. Although the discrimination abilities of these risk categories were generally poor, the results of this study could serve as a starting point from which to determine adiposity cutoffs for inclusion in risk prediction models for specific cancer types. PMID:25587642

  10. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  11. Interventions to Reduce and Prevent Obesity in Pre-Conceptual and Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Maliha; Agha, Riaz A.; Sandell, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in pregnant women is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and increased costs to healthcare, the economy and broader society. Objectives To assess the efficacy of behavioural interventions for managing gestational weight gain (GWG) in the pre-conceptual and pregnancy period in overweight, obese and morbidly obese women. Search Methods A search was performed for published studies in the English language, from date? 2000–31 December 2012 in five electronic databases; PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO. Selection criteria Studies were included if they compared the efficacy or effectiveness of a particular behavioural intervention in pregnant or pre-conceptual women with standard maternity care. Studies that included women with co-morbid conditions such as diabetes mellitus and polycystic ovarian syndrome were excluded to help isolate the effect of the intervention. Results Fifteen studies involving 3,426 participants were included. One study (n = 692) focused on the pre-conceptual period and the remaining 14 (n = 2,734) in the pregnancy period. Pooled mean difference for GWG indicated a lower GWG in the intervention groups when compared to standard maternity care groups (n = 1771, mean difference (MD) −1.66 kg, 95% CI −3.12 to −0.21 kg). With respect to the types of participants, considerable heterogeneity between studies was shown in the obese subgroup [Tau2 = 15.61; Chi2 = 40.80, df = 3 (P<0.00001); I2 = 93%]. Conclusions Behavioural interventions in pregnancy may be effective in reducing GWG in obese women without comorbid conditions, but not overweight or morbidly obese women. Behavioural interventions had no effect on postpartum weight loss or retention, gestation week of delivery and infant birth weight in overweight, obese and morbidly obese women. PMID:24827704

  12. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI <25 (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.66; p for trend: 0.03). There was also a strong association with weight gain since age 18 (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07-2.16; p for trend: 0.02) comparing the highest to lowest quartile. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, the association with BMI and weight gain was limited to postmenopausal women, with a 15% (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) increase in risk per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI and 6% (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) increase in risk per 5 kg of weight gain. Excluding hormone therapy users essentially did not change results. Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women.

  13. Association of adolescent obesity and lifetime nulliparity – SWAN, the study of women's health across the nation

    PubMed Central

    Polotsky, Alex J.; Hailpern, Susan M.; Skurnick, Joan H.; LO, Joan C.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Santoro, Nanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether adolescent obesity is associated with difficulties for becoming pregnant later in life. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal cohort Setting Multiethnic, community-based observational study of US women Patient(s) 3154 midlife women Main Outcome Measure(s) Lifetime nulliparity and lifetime nulligravidity Result(s) 527 women (16.7%) women had never delivered a baby. Participants were categorized by self-reported high school body mass index (BMI): underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (> 30 kg/m2). The prevalence of lifetime nulliparity increased progressively across the high school BMI categories: 12.7%, 16.7%, 19.2%, and 30.9%, respectively (p<0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that women who were obese adolescents had significantly higher odds of remaining childless as compared to normal weight women (odds ratio [OR] 2.84, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.59 to 5.10) after adjusting for adult BMI, history of non-gestational amenorrhea, marital status, ethnicity, study site, and measures of socioeconomic status. Furthermore, adolescent obesity was associated with lifetime nulligravidity (OR 3.93, 95% CI 2.12 to 7.26). Conclusion(s) Adolescent obesity is associated with lifetime nulliparity and nulligravidity in midlife U.S. women. PMID:19185860

  14. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  15. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research.

  16. Leishmaniasis in refugee and local Pakistani populations.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Simon; Mohammed, Nasir; Adil, Khaksar; Agha, Said; Reithinger, Richard; Rowland, Mark; Ali, Iftikhar; Kolaczinski, Jan

    2004-09-01

    The epidemiology of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis was investigated in northwest Pakistan. Results suggested similar patterns of endemicity in both Afghan refugee and Pakistani populations and highlighted risk factors and household clustering of disease. PMID:15498178

  17. ADRB2 haplotype is associated with glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2011-02-01

    The β(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) mediates obesity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and insulin resistance. We examined the hypothesis that ADRB2 Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu haplotype is associated with body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in obese, postmenopausal women. Obese (>35% body fat), postmenopausal (age 45-75 years) women (n = 123) underwent genotyping, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography scans, exercise testing (VO(2(max))), 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps (80 mU/m(2)/min). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) tested for differences among haplotypes, with race, % body fat, and VO(2(max)) as covariates. We found that ADRB2 haplotype was independently associated with % body fat, abdominal fat distribution, VO(2(max)), insulin sensitivity (M/ΔInsulin), and glucose tolerance (ANOVA, P < 0.05 for all). Women homozygous for Gly16-Gln27 haplotype had the highest % body fat (52.7 ± 1.9%), high abdominal fat, low M/ΔInsulin (0.49 ± 0.08 mg/kg/min/pmol/l/10(2)), and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) during an OGTT (G(120) = 10.2 ± 0.9 mmol/l). Women homozygous for Gly16-Glu27 haplotype also had low M/ΔInsulin (0.51 ± 0.05 mg/kg/min/pmol/l/10(2)) and IGT (G(120) = 8.2 ± 0.7 mmol/l). Subjects with Arg16-Gln27/Gly16-Gln27 haplotype combination had the highest VO(2(max)) (1.84 ± 0.07 l/min) and M/ΔInsulin (0.7 ± 0.04 mg/kg/min/pmol/l/10(2)), and normal glucose tolerance (G(120) = 6.4 ± 0.4 mmol/l), despite being obese. These data show associations of the ADRB2 Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu haplotype with VO(2(max)) and body composition, and an independent association with glucose metabolism, which persists after controlling for body composition and fitness. This suggests that ADRB2 haplotypes may mediate insulin action, glucose tolerance, and potentially risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese, postmenopausal women.

  18. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Tanvig, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were

  19. Association of chemerin levels and bone mineral density in Chinese obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Rencong; Li, Lin; Mou, Xiao; Xu, Ping; Li, Hongli; Xu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment and laboratory measurements were performed. The age, time after menopause, and fat mass were negatively correlated with femoral and lumbar BMD, whereas lean mass was positively correlated with aforementioned variables. Furthermore, BMD at the lumbar spine was inversely associated with serum chemerin and TNF-α levels (r = −0.155, P = 0.001; r = −0.147, P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum chemerin levels were negatively correlated with BMD at the lumbar site after controlling for the age, lean, and fat mass (β = −0.125, P = 0.001). Chronic low-grade inflammation state in obese population has an inverse effect on bone mass. Chemerin as an adipocytokine and chemoattractant negatively affects the bone mass of Chinese obese postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of chemerin in the crosstalk between bone and fat accumulation in obese population. PMID:27583869

  20. Breastfeeding offers protection against obesity in children of recently immigrated Latina women.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Sofia G; Heyman, Melvin B; Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-06-01

    Breastfeeding has been found to have a protective effect on subsequent development of obesity in childhood, particularly in white, non-Hispanic populations. The protective effect of nursing for more than 12 months in children of Latina women is less clear, which may be due to differences in levels of acculturation in previously studied populations. We evaluated the association between breastfeeding for 12 months or more and risk for obesity in a cohort of children of recently immigrated relatively unacculturated Latina mothers. Maternal characteristics at birth, including length of stay in the United States, breastfeeding habits at 4-6 weeks of age, 6 months, and 1 year, and anthropometric measurements were obtained for a cohort of 196 children participating in a prospective study. At 1 year of age 39.0% of infants were being breastfed. Being breastfed at 1 year of age was associated with a decreased risk of obesity in both univariate (odds ratio (OR) 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.83) and multivariate models (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.02-0.93) adjusting for maternal BMI, marital status, education level, country of origin, age, years of living in the United States, and child's birth weight at 3 years of age, regardless of mother's acculturation status using length of stay in the United States as a proxy for acculturation. The association with breastfeeding persisted at 4 years of age as a protective factor for obesity (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11-0.80). Breastfeeding for longer than 12 months provides a significant protective effect on the development of obesity in early childhood in a cohort of children of high-risk recently immigrated Latina women in San Francisco who were relatively unacculturated to the United States. PMID:24249439

  1. Association of chemerin levels and bone mineral density in Chinese obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Mao, Chaoming; Wang, Xuefeng; Liu, Rencong; Li, Lin; Mou, Xiao; Xu, Ping; Li, Hongli; Xu, Chengcheng; Yuan, Guoyue; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hao

    2016-08-01

    Increasing evidence suggests the association between obesity and bone metabolism. However, whether excessive fat accumulation has a beneficial or adverse effect on bone health remains controversial. Chemerin is a novel adipocyte-derived hormone and a chemoattractant cytokine that regulates adipogenesis. This study was performed to investigate the associations of serum chemerin with bone mineral density (BMD) and serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in 543 Chinese obese postmenopausal women. BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine, lean mass, and fat mass were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric assessment and laboratory measurements were performed. The age, time after menopause, and fat mass were negatively correlated with femoral and lumbar BMD, whereas lean mass was positively correlated with aforementioned variables. Furthermore, BMD at the lumbar spine was inversely associated with serum chemerin and TNF-α levels (r = -0.155, P = 0.001; r = -0.147, P = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses showed that serum chemerin levels were negatively correlated with BMD at the lumbar site after controlling for the age, lean, and fat mass (β = -0.125, P = 0.001). Chronic low-grade inflammation state in obese population has an inverse effect on bone mass. Chemerin as an adipocytokine and chemoattractant negatively affects the bone mass of Chinese obese postmenopausal women. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential role of chemerin in the crosstalk between bone and fat accumulation in obese population. PMID:27583869

  2. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks. Fat mass was measured by bioimpendance method at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with colorimetric assay kits. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 in plasma were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between placebo and OPE groups. Compared with baseline value, both placebo and OPE supplementation significantly decreased the percent of body fat mass and induced plasma adiponectin levels while ALT and AST activities as well as leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, and IL-4 levels in plasma were not significantly different between two groups after 12 weeks of the supplementation. These findings suggest that 12-week supplementation of OPE do not affect modulators of systemic inflammation in overweight and obese women. PMID:27812515

  3. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, S.P.; Trimer, R.; Di Thommazo-Luporini, L.; Dourado, V.Z.; Bonjorno-Junior, J.C.; Oliveira, C.R.; Arena, R.; Borghi-Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2) prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) was calculated (210 – age in years) (16) and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05) with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79) as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65). The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option. PMID:27409333

  4. Meal termination using oral sensory satisfaction: a study in non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Poothullil, John M

    2009-02-01

    Non-obese individuals limit energy intake and maintain weight long-term. Knowledge of the mechanism they use to accomplish this could help in weight maintenance after weight loss and prevention of unneeded weight gain. The objective of the present study was to determine whether non-obese women use orosensory cues to limit short-term intake of high-energy density foods. Forty non-obese women consumed two high-energy rice puddings of equal energy density, one with high sugar and one with high fat. There were four study conditions. Participants ate until satisfied (basal), satisfied based on taste (taste), satisfied based on fullness (fullness) and while watching television (distraction). The participants were asked to refrain from eating and drinking after 2200. The treatments were done between 0830 and 0900. The order of treatments was randomized and all subjects completed all treatments. The quantity consumed and variation in hunger and taste intensity were the primary measures. Results were subjected to within subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA). Intake was significantly greater in the high-fat groups than in the high-carbohydrate groups (P = 0.0001). Study condition had a significant effect on intake (P = 0.0000) with the taste condition generally resulting in the lowest intake. Hunger intensity significantly decreased after meal intake (P = 0.0156). There was a significant effect of condition (P = 0.0001) with base and taste conditions showing the greatest decrease. In the taste condition, specifically, the intensity of taste and hunger declined after intake (P = 0.0000). These results indicate that taste satisfaction can limit meal intake in non-obese women. Taste satisfaction could be a mechanism that is used to reduce food intake to compensate for previous excess consumption.

  5. Fundamental frequency, phonation maximum time and vocal complaints in morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; PEREIRA, Rayane Medeiros; dos SANTOS, Marquiony Marques; GODOY, Cynthia Meida de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese people have abnormal deposition of fat in the vocal tract that can interfere with the acoustic voice. Aim To relate the fundamental frequency, the maximum phonation time and voice complaints from a group of morbidly obese women. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study that included 44 morbidly obese women, mean age of 42.45 (±10.31) years old, observational group and 30 women without obesity, control group, with 33.79 (±4.51)years old. The voice recording was done in a quiet environment, on a laptop using the program ANAGRAF acoustic analysis of speech sounds. To extract the values ​​of fundamental frequency the subjects were asked to produce vowel [a] at usual intensity for a period in average of three seconds. After the voice recording, participants were prompted to produce sustained vowel [ a] , [ i] and [ u] at usual intensity and height, using a stopwatch to measure the time that each participant could hold each vowel. Results The majority, 31(70.5%), had vocal complaints, with a higher percentage for complaints of vocal fatigue 20(64.51%) and voice failures 19(61.29%) followed by dryness of the throat in 15 (48.38%) and effort to speak 13(41.93%). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the mean fundamental frequency of the voice in both groups, but there was significance between the two groups regarding maximum phonation. Conclusion Increased adipose tissue in the vocal tract interfered in the vocal parameters. PMID:24676298

  6. Short term low-calorie diet improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic parameters in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bôas Huguenin, Grazielle Vilas; Kimi Uehara, Sofia; Nogueira Netto, José Firmino; Gaspar de Moura, Egberto; Rosa, Glorimar; da Fonseca Passos, Magna Cottini

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk factors, including adipocytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-calorie diet on serum lipids, adipokines, insulin resistance and body composition in obese women. It was a clinical trial with class I obese women aged 30-45 years submitted to hypocaloric diet for 90 days. Dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes were evaluated at the baseline, 30, 60 and 90 days. There was 30% significant decrease in energy intake, and also decrease in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (p < 0.01) throughout the treatment period. Despite the amount of lean body mass (kg) reduced in average, it was observed that lean body mass (%) had increased (p < 0.01) and that the amount of fat body mass (kg) had decreased significantly in the third month (p < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure reduced up to -5mmHg (p < 0.05) after 90 days. Was observed a decrease (p < 0.05) on serum insulin and HOMA-IR until the 60th day, while the serum adiponectin increased (p < 0.01) during treatment. Corroborating with the reduction of fat body mass and weight, serum leptin also reduced (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the short-term low-calorie diet reduces total body fat, mainly found in the abdominal region, and efficiently improve insulin sensitivity decreasing cardiovascular risk in obese women.

  7. Magnesium Status and Its Relationship with C-Reactive Protein in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; de Freitas, Taynáh Emannuelle Coelho; Veras, Antonio Lobão; da Rocha Romero, Amanda Batista; Colli, Célia; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between magnesium status and C-reactive protein concentration in obese and nonobese women. This cross-sectional study included 131 women, aged between 20 and 50 years, who were divided into two groups: obese (n=65) and control (n=66) groups. Magnesium intake was monitored using 3-day food records and NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. C-reactive protein concentration in serum was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. The mean values of the magnesium content in the diet were lower than those recommended, though there was no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). The mean concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium were within the normal range, with no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). Urinary excretion of this mineral was less than the reference values in both groups, with no significant difference (p>0.05). The mean concentration of serum C-reactive protein was within the normal range in both groups, with no significant difference (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between urinary magnesium and serum C-reactive protein (p=0.015). Obese patients ingest low dietary magnesium content, which seems to induce hypomagnesuria as a compensatory mechanism to keep plasma concentrations of the mineral at adequate levels. The study shows a positive correlation between urinary magnesium concentrations and serum C-reactive protein, suggesting the influence of hypomagnesuria on this inflammatory protein in obese women.

  8. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, S P; Trimer, R; Di Thommazo-Luporini, L; Dourado, V Z; Bonjorno-Junior, J C; Oliveira, C R; Arena, R; Borghi-Silva, A

    2016-07-11

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2) prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) was calculated (210 - age in years) (16) and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05) with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79) as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65). The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option. PMID:27409333

  9. Overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia and urban Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Robles, Brenda; Frost, Stephanie; Moore, Lucas; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We described the prevalence of overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia (WV) and urban Los Angeles County (LA County). Both communities participated in the national Communities Putting Prevention to Work program during 2010-2012. In each community, we completed health assessments on adult women recruited from public-sector clinics serving low-income populations. All participants answered survey questions regarding socio-demographics and diets. In both jurisdictions, we assessed obesity using objectively measured height and weight (calculated BMI). As part of each community case study, we performed multivariable regression analyses to describe the relationships between overweight and obesity and selected covariates (e.g., dietary behaviors). Overweight and obesity were prevalent among low-income women from WV (73%, combined) and LA County (67%, combined). In both communities, race and ethnicity appeared to predict the two conditions; however, the associations were not robust. In LA County, for example, African American and Hispanic women were 1.4 times (95% CI=1.12, 1.81) more likely than white women to be overweight and obese. Collectively, these subpopulation health data served as an important guide for further planning of obesity prevention efforts in both communities. These efforts became a part of the subsequent Community Transformation Grants portfolio.

  10. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2012-12-30

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. METHODS: We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. RESULTS: Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. CONCLUSIONS: A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  11. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Tanvig, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were

  12. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]). We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women. PMID:21526992

  13. Altered cardiorespiratory response to exercise in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Koskela-Koivisto, Tiina; Hägglund, Harriet; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Tiitinen, Aila; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2016-02-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cardiovascular risk is increased. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) predicts the cardiovascular risk. We were the first to examine the contribution of systemic O2 delivery and arteriovenous O2 difference to V˙O2peak in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Fifteen overweight or obese PCOS women and 15 age-, anthropometry-, and physical activity-matched control women performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise test. Alveolar gas exchange (volume turbine and mass spectrometry), arterial O2 saturation (pulse oximetry), and cardiac output (CO) (impedance cardiography) were monitored. Hb concentration was determined. Arterial O2 content and arteriovenous O2 difference (C(a-v)O2) (Fick equation) were calculated. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). PCOS women had lower V˙O2peak than controls (40 ± 6 vs. 46 ± 5 mL/min/kg fat-free mass [FFM], P = 0.011). Arterial O2 content was similarly maintained in the groups throughout the exercise test (P > 0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed a pronounced response of CO to increasing V˙O2 in PCOS women during the exercise test: A ∆CO/∆V˙O2 slope was steeper in PCOS women than in controls (β = 5.84 vs. β = 5.21, P = 0.004). Eventually, the groups attained similar peak CO and peak CO scaled to FFM (P > 0.05). Instead, C(a-v)O2 at peak exercise was lower in PCOS women than in controls (13.2 ± 1.6 vs. 14.8 ± 2.4 mL O2/100 mL blood, P = 0.044). HOMA-IR was similar in the groups (P > 0.05). The altered cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in overweight and obese PCOS women indicate that PCOS per se is associated with alterations in peripheral adjustments to exercise rather than with limitations of systemic O2 delivery. PMID:26884479

  14. Altered cardiorespiratory response to exercise in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Koskela-Koivisto, Tiina; Hägglund, Harriet; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Tiitinen, Aila; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2016-02-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), cardiovascular risk is increased. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) predicts the cardiovascular risk. We were the first to examine the contribution of systemic O2 delivery and arteriovenous O2 difference to V˙O2peak in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Fifteen overweight or obese PCOS women and 15 age-, anthropometry-, and physical activity-matched control women performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise test. Alveolar gas exchange (volume turbine and mass spectrometry), arterial O2 saturation (pulse oximetry), and cardiac output (CO) (impedance cardiography) were monitored. Hb concentration was determined. Arterial O2 content and arteriovenous O2 difference (C(a-v)O2) (Fick equation) were calculated. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). PCOS women had lower V˙O2peak than controls (40 ± 6 vs. 46 ± 5 mL/min/kg fat-free mass [FFM], P = 0.011). Arterial O2 content was similarly maintained in the groups throughout the exercise test (P > 0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed a pronounced response of CO to increasing V˙O2 in PCOS women during the exercise test: A ∆CO/∆V˙O2 slope was steeper in PCOS women than in controls (β = 5.84 vs. β = 5.21, P = 0.004). Eventually, the groups attained similar peak CO and peak CO scaled to FFM (P > 0.05). Instead, C(a-v)O2 at peak exercise was lower in PCOS women than in controls (13.2 ± 1.6 vs. 14.8 ± 2.4 mL O2/100 mL blood, P = 0.044). HOMA-IR was similar in the groups (P > 0.05). The altered cardiorespiratory responses to exercise in overweight and obese PCOS women indicate that PCOS per se is associated with alterations in peripheral adjustments to exercise rather than with limitations of systemic O2 delivery.

  15. Class III obesity and unwanted pregnancy among women with live births in New York City, 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous adverse health effects for pregnant women and their newborns. Unintended pregnancy is associated with suboptimal prenatal health behaviors and adverse birth outcomes. While research has suggested a link between obesity and unintended pregnancy, the evidence has been contradictory. Research has not focused on women at the highest level of obesity, Class III (body mass index ≥40). Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data for 4,161 women in New York City with a live birth from 2004 to 2007 and complete data on pregnancy intention, height, and weight were examined. The primary outcome, having a live birth that resulted from an unwanted pregnancy (not wanted at that time or at any time in the future), was compared across 6 groups of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic factors and stressors during pregnancy were conducted. The proportion of women reporting their pregnancy was unwanted increased with increasing BMI level to a high of 24 % among women with Class III obesity. After adjustment for confounding sociodemographic factors, women classified as Class III obese were significantly more likely than women with normal BMI to report an unwanted pregnancy [AOR = 2.81 (95 % CI: 1.41-5.60)]; this relationship held after adjusting for stressors during pregnancy. No significant association was found for women of other BMI groups. Previous analyses may have masked a relationship between BMI and unwanted pregnancy among women with Class III obesity. Further research exploring underlying mechanisms which are amenable to intervention is of critical public health importance.

  16. Metabolic profile and quality of life in class I sarcopenic overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Karelis, Antony D; Lavoie, Marie-Eve; Brochu, Martin; Faraj, May; Strychar, Irene; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi

    2009-02-01

    Sarcopenia is believed to be associated with disability and metabolic complications. The objective of this study was to examine the metabolic and quality-of-life profile of sarcopenic overweight and obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study of 136 healthy overweight and obese postmenopausal women, 9 class I sarcopenic women were identified. Class I sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular lean body mass index (ALBMI) women (n = 9) had a significantly lower ALBMI and appendicular lean body mass than nonsarcopenic women (n = 127). In addition, class I sarcopenic women tended to have lower levels of insulin resistance (p = 0.070) and fasting glucose (p = 0.054). However, no difference between the groups was observed for quality of life. This study showed that, in our sample of class I sarcopenic overweight and obese postmenopausal women, subjects did not present an unfavourable metabolic or quality-of-life profile, compared with nonsarcopenic overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  17. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  18. Altered functional connectivity within the central reward network in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Coveleskie, K; Gupta, A; Kilpatrick, L A; Mayer, E D; Ashe-McNalley, C; Stains, J; Labus, J S; Mayer, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity alterations within regions of the reward network. Subjects/Methods: Fifty healthy, premenopausal women, 19 overweight and obese (high BMI=26–38 kg m−2) and 31 lean (BMI=19–25 kg m−2) were selected from the University of California Los Angeles' Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress database. Structural and RS functional scans were collected. Group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) of the NAcc, oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity of the NAcc to regions within the reward network were examined. Results: GMV of the left NAcc was significantly greater in the high BMI group than in the lean group (P=0.031). Altered frequency distributions were observed in women with high BMI compared with lean group in the left NAcc (P=0.009) in a medium-frequency (MF) band, and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (P=0.014, <0.001) and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (P=0.034, <0.001) in a high-frequency band. Subjects with high BMI had greater connectivity of the left NAcc with bilateral ACC (P=0.024) and right vmPFC (P=0.032) in a MF band and with the left ACC (P=0.03) in a high frequency band. Conclusions: Overweight and obese women in the absence of food-related stimuli show significant structural and functional alterations within regions of reward-related brain networks, which may have a role in altered ingestive behaviors. PMID:25599560

  19. Relationship between obesity and coronary heart disease among urban Bangladeshi men and women

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rumana J; Harvey, Danielle J; Leistikow, Bruce N; Haque, KMHS Sirajul; Stewart, Christine P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of different measures of obesity (body mass index or BMI, waist circumference or WC, waist to hip ratio or WHR and waist height ratio or WHtR) with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Bangladeshi population. The study included 189 hospitalized CHD cases (133 men and 52 women) and 201 controls (137 men and 68 women). Logistic regression was done to assess the associations between obesity and CHD. The mean age was 53.1 ± 8.3 for men and 51.9 ± 8.4 for women. After adjustment for confounders the odds ratio (OR) of CHD for men was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.24–2.32), 1.94 (95% CI 1.40–2.70), and 1.32 (95% CI, 1.01–2.16) per 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in BMI, WC, and WHtR respectively. The OR for women was 2.64 (CI, 1.61–4.34), 1.82 (95% CI 1.12–2.95), 2.32 (95% CI, 1.36–3.96), and 1.94 (95% CI, 1.23–3.07) per 1 SD increase in BMI, WC, WHtR and WHR respectively. Since both total obesity and abdominal adiposity were associated with development of CHD and since measurement of WC and BMI are inexpensive, both should be included in the clinical setting for CHD risk assessment for this group of population. PMID:26550484

  20. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  1. Effect of sprint interval training on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Trilk, Jennifer L; Singhal, Arpit; Bigelman, Kevin A; Cureton, Kirk J

    2011-08-01

    Very high-intensity, low-volume, sprint interval training (SIT) increases muscle oxidative capacity and may increase maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), but whether circulatory function is improved, and whether SIT is feasible in overweight/obese women is unknown. To examine the effects of SIT on [Formula: see text] and circulatory function in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Twenty-eight women with BMI > 25 were randomly assigned to SIT or control (CON) groups. One week before pre-testing, subjects were familarized to [Formula: see text] testing and the workload that elicited 50% [Formula: see text] was calculated. Pre- and post-intervention, circulatory function was measured at 50% of the pre-intervention [Formula: see text], and a GXT was performed to determine [Formula: see text]. During the intervention, SIT training was given for 3 days/week for 4 weeks. Training consisted of 4-7, 30-s sprints on a stationary cycle (5% body mass as resistance) with 4 min active recovery between sprints. CON maintained baseline physical activity. Post-intervention, heart rate (HR) was significantly lower and stroke volume (SV) significantly higher in SIT (-8.1 and 11.4%, respectively; P < 0.05) during cycling at 50% [Formula: see text]; changes in CON were not significant (3 and -4%, respectively). Changes in cardiac output ([Formula: see text]) and arteriovenous oxygen content difference [(a - v)O(2) diff] were not significantly different for SIT or CON. The increase in [Formula: see text] by SIT was significantly greater than by CON (12 vs. -1%). Changes by SIT and CON in HR(max) (-1 vs. -1%) were not significantly different. Four weeks of SIT improve circulatory function during submaximal exercise and increases [Formula: see text] in sedentary, overweight/obese women.

  2. Phenotypic characteristics associated with insulin resistance in metabolically obese but normal-weight young women.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, R V; DeNino, W F; Ades, P A; Poehlman, E T

    1999-11-01

    Metabolically obese, normal-weight (MONW) individuals are a hypothesized subgroup of the general population. These normal-weight individuals potentially display a cluster of obesity-related features, although this has not been systematically tested in young women. We hypothesized that MONW young women would display higher levels of total and visceral fat and lower levels of physical activity than normal women. In a cohort of 71 healthy nonobese women (21-35 years old), we identified MONW women based on cut points for insulin sensitivity (normal = glucose disposal >8 mg x min(-1) x kg(-1) of fat-free mass [FFM], n = 58; impaired = glucose disposal <8 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) of FFM, n = 13). Thereafter, we measured body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and body fat distribution (computed tomography), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max on a treadmill), physical activity energy expenditure (doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry), glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test), serum lipid profile, and dietary intake. We found a higher body fat percentage (32 +/- 6 vs. 27 +/- 6%, P = 0.01) and higher subcutaneous (213 +/- 61 vs. 160 +/- 78 cm2, P = 0.03) and visceral (44 +/- 16 vs. 35 +/- 14 cm2, P < 0.05) abdominal adiposity in the MONW group versus the normal group. The MONW group showed a lower physical activity energy expenditure (2.66 +/- 0.92 vs. 4.39 +/- 1.50 MJ/day, P = 0.01), but no difference in cardiorespiratory fitness was noted between groups. In conclusion, despite a normal body weight, a subset of young, apparently healthy women displayed a cluster of risky phenotypic characteristics that, if left untreated, may eventually predispose them to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  3. Relationship of internalized racism to abdominal obesity and blood pressure in Afro-Caribbean women.

    PubMed

    Tull, S E; Wickramasuriya, T; Taylor, J; Smith-Burns, V; Brown, M; Champagnie, G; Daye, K; Donaldson, K; Solomon, N; Walker, S; Fraser, H; Jordan, O W

    1999-08-01

    Racism is associated with increased psychosocial stress and blood pressure in blacks. However, little is known of the relationship of racism to other features of insulin resistance syndrome. This study examined the relationship of internalized racism to abdominal obesity and elevated blood pressure in a population of black Caribbean women aged 20-55 years. One hundred thirty-three randomly selected women from the island of Barbados comprised the study sample. Data collected included anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and information about internalized racism, anxiety, and depression. The stress measures including anxiety, depression, and internalized racism were significantly correlated with waist circumference (r = .25, r = .21, and r = .25). After adjusting for age, education, anxiety, and depression, internalized racism remained significantly correlated with waist circumference. The odds ratio associated with development of abdominal obesity among those with high internalized racism (OR = 2.4 [95% CI, 1.1,5.3]) was significant (P < .05) after adjusting for age, education, and body mass index. Blood pressure was not independently related to internalized racism. Studies comparing black-white differences in diseases for which abdominal obesity is a risk factor (eg, diabetes and cardiovascular disease) should take into account the potential role of internalized racism in defining the differences between ethnic groups.

  4. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  5. Cross-modal interactions for custard desserts differ in obese and normal weight Italian women.

    PubMed

    Proserpio, Cristina; Laureati, Monica; Invitti, Cecilia; Pasqualinotto, Lucia; Bergamaschi, Valentina; Pagliarini, Ella

    2016-05-01

    The effects of variation in odors and thickening agents on sensory properties and acceptability of a model custard dessert were investigated in normal weight and obese women. Subjects rated their liking and the intensity of sensory properties (sweetness, vanilla and butter flavors, and creaminess) of 3 block samples (the first varied in vanilla aroma, the second varied in butter aroma and the third varied in xanthan gum). Significant differences were found in acceptability and intensity ratings in relation to body mass index. The addition of butter aroma in the custard was the most effective way to elicit odor-taste, odor-flavor and odor-texture interactions in obese women. In this group, butter aroma, signaling energy dense products, increased the perception of sweetness, vanilla flavor and creaminess, which are all desirable properties in a custard, while maintaining a high liking degree. Understanding cross-modal interactions in relation to nutritional status is interesting in order to develop new food products with reduced sugar and fat, that are still satisfying for the consumer. This could have important implications to reduce caloric intake and tackle the obesity epidemic. PMID:26911260

  6. Influence of diet and/or exercise on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese women.

    PubMed

    Utter, A C; Nieman, D C; Shannonhouse, E M; Butterworth, D E; Nieman, C N

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of diet, exercise, or both on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese women. Ninety-one obese subjects were randomized into one of four groups: diet (D) (4.19-5.44 MJ or 1,200-1,300 kcal/day), exercise (E) (five 45-min sessions at 78.5+/-0.5% maximum heart rate), exercise and diet (ED), and controls (C). Maximal aerobic power and body composition were measured in all subjects before and after a 12-week diet intervention period. Subjects in D and ED lost 7.8+/-0.7 and 8.1+/-0.6 kg body mass, with no significant change for E relative to C. Losses of percent body fat and fat mass were significantly greater in D and ED but not in E relative to C. The change in VO2max was greater in ED and E but not D when compared to C. Results indicate that moderate aerobic exercise training during a 12-week period has no discernible effects on body composition but does improve cardiorespiratory fitness in dieting obese women.

  7. Prediction of metabolic syndrome among postmenopausal Ghanaian women using obesity and atherogenic markers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important health problem which puts individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes as well as obesity-related cancers such as colon and renal cell in men, and endometrial and oesophageal in women. Objective This study was aimed at examining how obesity indicators and related determinants influence metabolic syndrome, and how the factors can be used to predict the syndrome and its cut-offs in postmenopausal Ghanaian women. Methods Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian subjects were involved in the study with one hundred and forty-three (143) being premenopausal women and one hundred and seven (107) postmenopausal women. The influence of traditional metabolic risk factors including high blood pressure, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance on obesity and atherogenic indices i.e. body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), Waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), high density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (HDL-C/TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol to low density lipoprotein ratio (HDL-C/LDL-C) and triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) were identified according to the Harmonization (H_MS) criterion. Results The predominant anthropometric marker that significantly influence metabolic risk factors among the pre- and postmenopausal women was waist-to-hip ratio (premenopausal: p- 0.004, 0.026 and 0.002 for systolic blood pressure (SBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HDL-C; postmenopausal: p-0.012, 0.048, 0.007 and 0.0061 for diastolic blood pressure (DBP), FBG, triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) respectively). Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the area under the curve for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL-C/TC among postmenopausal women were estimated at 0.6, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.8 respectively. The appropriate cut-off values for WC, WHR, TG/HDL-C and HDL

  8. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared to inactive obese women

    PubMed Central

    Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Strand, Eric A.; Todd Cade, W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive ((OBI) age: 25.0 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 36.3 ± 4.3kg/m2, body fat percentage in late gestation: 37.7 ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active ((OBA) age: 28.9 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 34.0±3.7kg/m2, body fat in late gestation: 36.6 ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-minute bout of low-intensity (40% VO2peak) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Results Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared to OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L versus 6.3 ±2.5mg/L, p=0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r=0.43, p=0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r=0.39, p=0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r=0.36, p=0.04). Conclusions Maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation. PMID:26799789

  9. Obesity and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: A Primary-care Cross-Sectional Study at Santa Maria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Copês, Rafaela Martinez; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Langer, Felipe Welter; Codevilla, Antonio Aurelio da Silveira; Sartori, Giovani Ruviaro; de Oliveira, Cristina; Cocco, Aline Rubin; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; de Almeida, Luciana Leiria; Dal Osto, Léo Canterle; Compston, Juliet Elizabeth; Premaor, Melissa Orlandin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are chronic disorders with increasing prevalence worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and fracture in postmenopausal women from Santa Maria, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out at Santa Maria (parallel 29° south), Brazil. Postmenopausal women aged ≥55 yr who had at least 1 appointment at the primary care in the 2 years before the study were recruited from March 1, 2013 to August 31, 2013. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women study questionnaire was applied with permission of The Center for Outcomes Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School. Height and weight were measured according to the World Health Organization protocol. Bone fractures (excluding hand, feet, and head) that occurred after the age of 45 yr were considered as the outcome. Overall, 1057 women completed the study, of whom 984 had body mass index measured. The mean (standard deviation) age and body mass index of the women included in the study were 67.1 (7.6) yr and 29.2 (5.5) kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of fractures in obese and nonobese women was similar (17.3% vs 16.0%); 41.4% of all fractures occurred in obese women. Obese postmenopausal women make a substantial contribution to the overall burden of prevalent fractures in this population. Our results provide further evidence in support of the concept that obesity is not protective against fracture. PMID:25534276

  10. 'If I was in my daughter's body I'd be feeling devastated': women's experiences of mothering an overweight or obese child.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Debra; Wilkes, Lesley; McDonald, Glenda

    2007-03-01

    Overweight and obesity in children is a major and ongoing public health concern and the negative physical, social, and psychological sequelae of childhood obesity are well documented. Parents, particularly mothers, are implicated in discourses around childhood obesity; however, little is known about women's experiences of mothering an overweight or obese child. This article reports findings from a narrative-based study that sought to develop understandings into women's experiences of mothering an overweight or obese child. The findings provide insights into the experiences of mothering an overweight or obese child, and reveals how the climate of blame associated with mothering an overweight or obese child complicated the mothering experience for the women in this study. These insights can assist health, welfare and child care workers to understand the importance of establishing supportive and no-blame relationships with mothers of obese and overweight children, in order to develop supportive therapeutic alliances better.

  11. Decreased permeability surface area for glucose in obese women with postprandial hyperglycemia: no effect of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Sandqvist, M; Strindberg, L; Lönnroth, P; Jansson, P-A

    2013-08-01

    Insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment is recognized as a potential mechanism contributing to insulin resistance. In this study, we compared a marker of microvascular function, the permeability surface area for glucose (PS(glu)), and forearm glucose uptake after an OGTT in obese women with impaired glucose metabolism and healthy lean nondiabetic women, with the aim to characterize whether decreased permeability surface area for glucose or decreased glucose uptake may contribute to postprandial hyperglycemia in the obese group. In addition, we evaluated whether the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor tadalafil, in a randomized double blind placebo controlled design, might attenuate postprandial glucose levels in obese women. For these purposes, intramuscular microdialysis, blood sampling from arterial and venous blood of the forearm, and measurements of forearm blood flow were performed. The results showed an impaired permeability surface area for glucose (IAUC PS(glu) 31±13 vs. 124±31; p<0.05) in obese when compared with lean participants, but no differences in forearm glucose uptake appeared between the groups. Furthermore, a single dose of tadalafil 10 mg showed no improvement of the permeability surface area for glucose, glucose uptake, or circulating glucose levels in obese participants. In conclusion, the postprandial PS(glu) response was impaired in obese women showing postprandial hyperglycemia, indicating a compromised microcirculation. However, we were unable to demonstrate any acute effect on either vascular function or glucose uptake of the phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor tadalafil. PMID:23613014

  12. Effects of weight loss on erythrocyte membrane composition and fluidity in overweight and moderately obese women.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Roberta; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Trotti, Rosita; Cestaro, Benvenuto

    2011-04-01

    A previous study showed chemical and physical impairment of the erythrocyte membrane of overweight and moderately obese women. The present study investigated the effects of a low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day deficit for 8 weeks) on erythrocyte membrane properties in 70 overweight and moderately obese (body mass index, 25-33 kg/m(2)) normotensive, nondiabetic women. At the end of dietary intervention, 24.3% of women dropped out, 45.7% lost less than 5% of their initial weight (Group I) and only 30% of patients lost at least 5% of their initial body weight (Group II). Group I showed no significant changes in erythrocyte membrane composition and function. The erythrocyte membranes of Group II showed significant reductions in malondialdehyde, lipofuscin, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, palmitic acid and nervonic acid and an increase in di-homo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and membrane fluidity. Moreover, Group II showed an improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia and insulin resistance. These changes in erythrocyte membrane composition could reflect a virtuous cycle resulting from the reduction in insulin resistance associated with increased membrane fluidity that, in turn, results in a sequence of metabolic events that concur to further improve membrane fluidity.

  13. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. Methods: We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Results: Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30–34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99–1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01–1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m−2) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m−2), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m−2) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Conclusions: Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26151456

  14. Obesity alters cortical and trabecular bone density and geometry in women

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, D.; Schlussel, Y.; Riedt, C. S.; Gordon, C.; Stahl, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The goal in this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index and trabecular and cortical bone using quantitative computed tomography. A higher body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with trabecular and cortical bone parameters, and serum parathyroid hormone, and negatively associated with cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D. When BMI is greater than 35 kg/m2, adiposity affects vBMD and may explain the higher fracture risk in this population without low BMD. Introduction The influence of adult obesity on the trabecular and cortical bone, geometry, and strength has not been fully addressed. The goal in this study was to determine the relationship between body mass index and trabecular and cortical bone mass and geometry, over a wide range of body weights. Methods We examined 211 women (25–71 years; BMI 18–57 kg/m2) who were classified into three categories of BMI (kg/m2) including normal-weight (BMI<25), overweight and obese-class I (BMI 25–35) and obese-class II–III (BMI>35), and also by menopausal status. Volumetric bone mineral density (mg/cm3), trabecular, and cortical components as well as geometric characteristics at the 4%, 38%, and 66% from the distal tibia were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and serum was analyzed for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD). Results Higher BMI was associated with greater values of trabecular bone and cortical BMC and area and PTH (r>0.39, p<0.001), but lower cortical vBMD and 25OHD (r>−0.27, p<0.001). When controlling for lower leg muscle area, fat area was inversely associated with cortical vBMD (r=−0.16, p<0.05). Premenopausal obese women with both higher BMI and PTH had lower cortical vBMD (r<−0.40, p<0.001). While age is a predictor for most bone variables, fat mass explains more variance for vBMD, and lean mass and 25OHD explain greater variance in geometric and strength indices (p<0

  15. Perinatal Outcomes Associated With Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Judette; Auckley, Dennis; Miladinovic, Branko; Shepherd, Anna; Mencin, Patricia; Kumar, Deepak; Mercer, Brian; Redline, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and maternal and neonatal morbidities in a cohort of obese gravid women. Methods Participants were enrolled in a prospective observational study designed to screen for OSA and describe the possible risk factors for and outcomes of OSA among obese (BMI 30 kg/m2 or higher) pregnant women. Women underwent an overnight sleep study using a portable home monitor. Studies were manually scored by a central masked Sleep Reading Center using American Academy of Sleep Medicine diagnostic criteria. An apnea hypopnea index of 5 or greater was considered diagnostic of OSA. Perinatal outcomes were compared between women with and without OSA. Results Among 175 women, OSA prevalence was 15.4% (13 mild, 9 moderate, 5 severe). Compared with no-OSA (AHI<5), the OSA group had a higher BMI (46.8 ±12.2 vs. 38.1± 7.5 kg/m2, p=0.002) and more chronic hypertension (55.6 vs. 32.4%, p=0.02). Maternal complications included: maternal death (n=1, amniotic fluid embolus [no-OSA group]) and cardiac arrest (n=1, intraoperative at cesarean delivery [OSA group]). One previable birth and two stillbirths occurred in the no-OSA group. Among live births, OSA was associated with more frequent cesarean delivery (65.4 vs. 32.8%, p=0.003), preeclampsia (42.3 vs. 16.9, p=0.005), and NICU admission (46.1 vs. 17.8, p=0.002). After controlling for BMI, maternal age, and diabetes, OSA (OR 3.55 [1.1–11.3]), prior preeclampsia (OR 2.79 [1.09–7.19]), and hypertension (4.25 [1.67–10.77]) were associated with developing preeclampsia. Conclusion OSA among obese pregnant women is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, neonatal intensive care unit admissions, and cesarean delivery. PMID:23090526

  16. Effect of weight loss on operational lung volumes and oxygen cost of breathing in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bhammar, Dharini M.; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bernhardt, Vipa; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of moderate weight loss on operational lung volumes during exercise and the oxygen (O2) cost of breathing are unknown in obese women but could have important implications regarding exercise endurance. Methods In twenty-nine obese women (33 ± 8yr, 97 ± 14kg, BMI: 36 ± 4, body fat: 45.6 ± 4.5%; means ± SD), body composition, fat distribution (by MRI), pulmonary function, operational lung volumes during exercise, and the O2 cost of breathing during eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea ( V˙O2 vs. V˙E slope) were studied before and after a 12-week diet and resistance exercise weight loss program. Results Participants lost 7.5 ± 3.1kg or ≈8% of body weight (p < 0.001), but fat distribution remained unchanged. After weight loss, lung volume subdivisions at rest were increased (p < 0.05) and were moderately associated (p < 0.05) with changes in weight. End-expiratory lung volume (%Total Lung Capacity) increased at rest and during constant load exercise (p < 0.05). O2 cost of breathing was reduced by 16% (2.52 ± 1.02 to 2.11 ± 0.72ml/L; P=0.003). As a result, O2 uptake of the respiratory muscles (V˙O2Resp), estimated as the product of O2 cost of breathing and exercise V˙E during cycling at 60W, was significantly reduced by 27 ± 31ml (P<0.001), accounting for 46% of the reduction in total body V˙O2 during cycling at 60W. Conclusions Moderate weight loss yields important improvements in respiratory function at rest and during submaximal exercise in otherwise healthy obese women. These changes in breathing load could have positive effects on the exercise endurance and adherence to physical activity. PMID:26869243

  17. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Bleil, Maria E.; Waring, Molly E.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Nackers, Lisa M.; Busch, Andrew M.; Whited, Matthew C.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women’s daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines. PMID:24041722

  18. Association of insulin sensitivity and muscle strength in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Tousignant, Benoit; Nantel, Julie; Proteau-Labelle, Majorique; Malita, Florin M; St-Pierre, David H; Brochu, Martin; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between insulin sensitivity and lower body muscle strength in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women. The design of the study was cross-sectional. The study population consisted of 82 non-diabetic overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women (age: 58.2 +/- 5.1 y; body mass index (BMI): 32.4 +/- 4.6 kg.m-2). Subjects were classified by dividing the entire cohort into quartiles based on relative insulin sensitivity expressed per kilograms of lean body mass (LBM) (Q1, < 10.3, vs. Q2, 10.3-12.4, vs. Q3, 12.5-14.0, vs. Q4, >14.0 mg.min-1.kg LBM-1). We measured insulin sensitivity (using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique), body composition (using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), visceral fat and muscle attenuation (using computed tomography), and a lower-body muscle strength index expressed as weight lifted in kilograms per kilogram of LBM (kg.kg LBM-1) (using weight-training equipment). A positive and significant relationship was observed between insulin sensitivity and the muscle strength index (r = 0.37; p < 0.001). Moreover, a moderate but significant correlation was observed between the muscle strength index and muscle attenuation (r = 0.22; p < 0.05). Finally, the muscle strength index was significantly higher in the Q4 group compared with the Q2 and Q1 groups, respectively (3.78 +/- 1.13 vs. 2.99 +/- 0.77 and 2.93 +/- 0.91 kg.kg LBM-1; p < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity is positively associated with lower-body muscle strength in overweight and obese sedentary postmenopausal women.

  19. Effects of aerobic exercise on serum leptin levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, R R; Kraemer, G R; Acevedo, E O; Hebert, E P; Temple, E; Bates, M; Etie, A; Haltom, R; Quinn, S; Castracane, V D

    1999-07-01

    It has been demonstrated that leptin concentrations in obese patients may be altered by weight loss. We examined the effects of a 9-week aerobic exercise program on serum leptin concentrations in overweight women (20-50% above ideal body mass) under conditions of weight stability. Sixteen overweight women, mean (SE) age 42.75 (1.64) years, comprised the exercise group which adhered to a supervised aerobic exercise program. A graded exercise treadmill test was conducted before and after the exercise program to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) using open-circuit spirometry. The women demonstrated improved aerobic fitness (VO2max increased 12.29%), however, body fat and the body mass index did not change significantly [42.27 (1.35)-41.87 (1.33)%]. Fourteen women, age 40.57 (2.80) years, did not exercise over the same time period and served as a control group. Serum leptin levels were not significantly altered for either the exercise [28.00 (2.13)-31.04 (2.71) ng x ml(-1)] or the control group [33.24 (3.78)-34.69 (3.14) ng x mg(-1)]. The data indicate that 9 weeks of aerobic exercise improves aerobic fitness, but does not affect leptin concentrations in overweight women.

  20. Obesity, diet and physical inactivity and risk of breast cancer in Thai women.

    PubMed

    Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Chaiwerawattana, Arkom; Ploysawang, Pattama; Nooklang, Kanjamad; Jamsri, Paphawin; Somharnwong, Sopittra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between obesity, diet, physical activity and breast cancer in Thai women, we conducted a case control study with 1,130 cases and 1,142 controls. Informed consent was obtained from all participants and a structured questionnaire was performed by trained interviewers to collect information on demographic and anthropometric data, reproductive and medical history, residential history, physical activity and occupation as well as dietary habits. A significant positive association with an increased risk of breast cancer was observed in women body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 25 mg/m2 (OR=1.33, 95%CI 1.07-1.65), the risk being higher in postmenopausal women (OR=1.67, 95%CI 1.24-2.25). In addition, underweight BMI at ages 10 and 20 years showed an inverse association in all women (OR=0.70, 95%CI 0.56-0.88 and OR=0.74, 95%CI 0.59-0.93, respectively) and in those with a premenopausal status (OR=0.69, 95%CI 0.51-0.93 and OR=0.76, 95%CI 0.56- 0.99, respectively). Regular exercise was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer (OR=0.78, 95%CI 0.68-0.98). Interestingly, analysis by type of activity revealed significant protective effects for women who reported the highest levels of walking for shopping (OR=0.58, 95%CI 0.38-0.88). High consumption of vegetables and fruit were associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer, while high consumption of animal fat showed an increased risk in postmenopausal women. In conclusion, our results indicate that obesity and high consumption of animal fat are associated with breast cancer risk, particularly in postmenopausal women, while recreational physical activity has protective effects. It seems that primary prevention of breast cancer should be promoted in an integrated manner. Effective strategies need to be identified to engage women in healthy lifestyles.

  1. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  2. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women.

  3. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. PMID:26262729

  4. The association between obesity, depression, and educational attainment in women: The mediating role of body image dissatisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amelia R.; Simon, Greg E.; Ludman, Evette J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examine the mediating role of body image dissatisfaction (BID) on the association between obesity and depression and the variation of this association as a function of years of education among a population-based sample of women aged 40–65 years. Methods A series of sample-weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between obesity, BID, and depression, stratified by educational attainment. Data were obtained from a structured telephone interview of 4543 female health plan enrollees, including self-reported height and weight, the Patient Health Questionnaire assessment of depression, and a single-item measure of BID. Results Among those with <16 years of education, in both the unadjusted and adjusted models, obesity and BID were significantly associated with depression. Similarly, among those with ≥16 years of education, obesity and BID were significantly associated with depression in the unadjusted models. However, in the adjusted model, only BID was associated with depression. A formal test for mediation suggests that the association between obesity and depression was mediated by BID regardless of level of education. Conclusions Our data suggest that BID-mediated the obesity-depression association. In addition, obesity and BID may be salient risk factors for depression among middle-aged women as a function of the level of education. PMID:21109045

  5. Lipoprotein lipase variants interact with polyunsaturated fatty acids for obesity traits in women: Replication in two populations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y.; Tucker, K.L.; Smith, C.E.; Lee, Y.C.; Huang, T.; Richardson, K.; Parnell, L.D.; Lai, C.Q.; Young, K.L.; Justice, A.E.; Shao, Y.; North, K.E.; Ordovás, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a candidate gene for obesity based on its role in triglyceride hydrolysis and the partitioning of fatty acids towards storage or oxidation. Whether dietary fatty acids modify LPL associated obesity risk is unknown. Methods and results We examined five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs320, rs2083637, rs17411031, rs13702, rs2197089) for potential interaction with dietary fatty acids for obesity traits in 1171 participants (333 men and 838 women, aged 45–75 y) of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). In women, SNP rs320 interacted with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) for body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.002) and waist circumference (WC) (P = 0.001) respectively. Higher intake of PUFA was associated with lower BMI and WC in homozygotes of the major allele (TT) (P = 0.01 and 0.005) but not in minor allele carriers (TG and GG). These interactions were replicated in an independent population, African American women of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 1334). Conclusion Dietary PUFA modulated the association of LPL rs320 with obesity traits in two independent populations. These interactions may be relevant to the dietary management of obesity, particularly in women. PMID:25156894

  6. Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance and Absence of Inflammation Characterize Insulin-Resistant Grade I Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Bourret, Annick; Lambert, Karen; Birot, Olivier; Fédou, Christine; Dupuy, Anne-Marie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Sutra, Thibault; Molinari, Nicolas; Maimoun, Laurent; Mariano-Goulart, Denis; Galtier, Florence; Avignon, Antoine; Stanke-Labesque, Françoise; Mercier, Jacques; Sultan, Ariane; Bisbal, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Context Obesity is associated with insulin-resistance (IR), the key feature of type 2 diabetes. Although chronic low-grade inflammation has been identified as a central effector of IR development, it has never been investigated simultaneously at systemic level and locally in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in obese humans characterized for their insulin sensitivity. Objectives We compared metabolic parameters and inflammation at systemic and tissue levels in normal-weight and obese subjects with different insulin sensitivity to better understand the mechanisms involved in IR development. Methods 30 post-menopausal women were classified as normal-weight insulin-sensitive (controls, CT) and obese (grade I) insulin-sensitive (OIS) or insulin-resistant (OIR) according to their body mass index and homeostasis model assessment of IR index. They underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, blood sampling, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies, an activity questionnaire and a self-administrated dietary recall. We analyzed insulin sensitivity, inflammation and IR-related parameters at the systemic level. In tissues, insulin response was assessed by P-Akt/Akt expression and inflammation by macrophage infiltration as well as cytokines and IκBα expression. Results Systemic levels of lipids, adipokines, inflammatory cytokines, and lipopolysaccharides were equivalent between OIS and OIR subjects. In subcutaneous adipose tissue, the number of anti-inflammatory macrophages was higher in OIR than in CT and OIS and was associated with higher IL-6 level. Insulin induced Akt phosphorylation to the same extent in CT, OIS and OIR. In skeletal muscle, we could not detect any inflammation even though IκBα expression was lower in OIR compared to CT. However, while P-Akt/Akt level increased following insulin stimulation in CT and OIS, it remained unchanged in OIR. Conclusion Our results show that systemic IR occurs without any change in systemic and tissues

  7. The preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Sareh; Esfehani, Ali Jafarzadeh; Leonard Joseph, H J

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has increased recently especially in women. Obesity is related to mortality due to non-communicable diseases and has become a public health issue. Among the two important factors to reduce weight calorie limitation alone is modestly effective in initial weight but can result in weight gain after primary weight reduction is common. Therefore adding physical activity to weight maintenance program can reduce weight gain rebound. The aim of this review article was to identify the preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight women. Articles were selected from PubMed database and screened for the relativity to the study objectives, using scoring systems. Eleven studies were found appropriate. No statistical test was done on the data except simple mean and some descriptive analyses. Physical activity is proved to have a significant effect in weight loss/maintenance both in induction and maintenance period. This effect was more significant in higher intensities. Sever intensity physical activity can be effective in weight maintenance in long term but the effect of moderate and light physical activity could not be evaluated due to lack of data.

  8. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment.

  9. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity. PMID:27045156

  10. Obesity and Physical Function in Rural Women who enroll in a Lifestyle Modification Intervention for Reducing Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Hageman, Patricia A.; Pullen, Carol H.; Dizona, Paul; Schmidt, Kristin; Boeckner, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Rural women have high prevalence of obesity and prehypertension. Obesity, if associated with poor physical function, may have implications for applying activity guidelines for women volunteering for lifestyle modification. This study examined associations of body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat with measures of 1-mile walk time, post-walk perceived exertion, and 10-repetition chair stands in rural women ages 40-69. Methods Cross-sectional baseline data were collected using standardized methods from 289 rural women with prehypertension who volunteered for a lifestyle clinical trial for reducing blood pressure. ANOVAs and linear regression were used for analysis. Results With exception of the chair stands measure across categories of BMI, group differences were noted in all measures across categories of BMI and percent body fat, with women in the two highest categories demonstrating the poorest performance. These two body composition measures were significant predictors for 1-mile walk-time and 10-repetition chair stands, after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions Poorer scores were observed in performance-based measures in women with higher BMI and percent body fat, though mean scores were above thresholds for functional limitation. Physical performance needs to be assessed and addressed by physical therapists when providing lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese women. PMID:25741228

  11. Maternal and newborn infants amino acid concentrations in obese women born themselves with normal and small for gestational age birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tsyvian, P B; Bashmakova, N V; Kovtun, O P; Makarenko, L V; Pestryaeva, L A

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to compare amino acid concentrations in maternal and newborn infants' serum in normal pregnancy and two groups of obese women who were born themselves with normal and small for gestational age (SGA) birth weight. Maternal cholesterol, lipoproteins concentrations and maternal and infants amino acid concentrations were evaluated at the time of delivery in 28 normal pregnancies, 46 obese pregnant women with normal birth weight (Ob-AGA group) and 44 obese pregnant women born themselves SGA (Ob-SGA group). Mean birth weight of newborn infants in Ob-SGA group was significantly less than in normal and Ob-AGA groups. Cholesterol and lipoproteins were significantly elevated in obese women (more prominent in Ob-SGA group). Most amino acid concentrations and fetal-maternal amino acid gradients were significantly lower in Ob-SGA group. These data suggest significant changes in placental amino acid transport/synthetic function in obese women who were born themselves SGA.

  12. Characterization and predicted role of the microRNA expression profile in amnion from obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, C; Iaffaldano, L; Ferrigno, M; Labruna, G; Maruotti, G M; Quaglia, F; Capobianco, V; Di Noto, R; Del Vecchio, L; Martinelli, P; Pastore, L; Sacchetti, L

    2014-03-01

    Maternal obesity and nutrient excess in utero increase the risk of future metabolic diseases. The mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood, but probably include genetic, epigenetic alterations and changes in fetal nutrient supply. We have studied the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in amnion from obese and control women at delivery to investigate if a specific miRNA signature is associated with obesity. The expression profile of 365 human miRNAs was evaluated with the TaqMan Array in amnion from 10 obese and 5 control (prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) >30 and <25 kg m(-2), respectively) women at delivery. Target genes and miRNA-regulated pathways were predicted by bioinformatics. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were also measured in mothers and newborns. Seven miRNAs were expressed only in obese women (miR-422b, miR-219, miR-575, miR-523, miR-579, miR-618 and miR-659), whereas 13 miRNAs were expressed at a higher level and 12 miRNAs at a lower level in obese women than in controls. MicroRNAs significantly downregulated the neurotrophin, cancer/ErbB, mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin, adipocytokine, actin cytoskeleton and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. In conclusion, we show that the miRNA profile is altered in amnion during obesity and hypothesize that this could affect pathways important for placental growth and function, thereby contributing to an increase in the newborn's risk of future metabolic diseases.

  13. Burden of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in “Metabolically Benign” and “At-Risk” Overweight and Obese Women: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Dan, Wang D; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Matthews, Karen A.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolically benign obese individuals have a 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk comparable to healthy normal weight individuals. However, the burden of subclinical CVD among metabolically benign obese is not well known. Methods In cross-sectional analyses of 475 mid-life women, we compared common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA-IMT), aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and coronary (CAC) and aortic calcification (AC) among three groups: healthy normal weight, metabolically benign overweight/obese (<3 metabolic syndrome components/elevated CRP), and at-risk overweight/obese (≥3 metabolic syndrome components/elevated CRP). Results The mean (SD) CCA-IMT and aPWV were lowest in the normal weight group (n=145), followed by the benign overweight/obese (n=260) and at-risk overweight/obese (n=70) groups [CCA-IMT: 0.64 (0.08) vs. 0.68 (0.09) vs. 0.73 (0.13) mm, p<0.001; aPWV: 731.0 (176.4) vs. 809.9 (182.3) vs. 875.7 (228.8) cm/s, p<0.001]. Similar results were found for the frequency (%) of women with increased CAC and AC [CAC: 13 (9%) vs. 53(20%) vs. 28(40%), p<0.001; AC: 47(32%) vs. 130 (50%) vs. 55(79%), p<0.001]. These differences remained significant after multivariable adjustment. Further adjustment for BMI attenuated the statistical significance of differences in aPWV and calcification between benign and at-risk overweight/obese women, but had little effect on the magnitude of these differences. Conclusions Metabolically benign overweight/obese women have a significantly greater subclinical CVD burden than normal weight women, despite published data finding similar CVD event rates between the two groups. Prospective studies tracking the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis to clinical CVD in these women are needed. PMID:21310415

  14. The StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts Program: Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Rural Sedentary, Overweight, and Obese Midlife and Older Women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives. We tested a community-based intervention to reduce heart disease risk in sedentary, overweight and obese older women. Methods. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 8 counties in Arkansas and Kansas. Counties were randomly assigned to the intervention or delayed intervention co...

  15. Sex Differences in Associations Among Obesity, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Chronic Kidney Disease in Japanese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Masaru; Kobayashi, Junji; Takeda, Yasuo; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Yamakawa, Junichi; Moriya, Junji; Mabuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Aims The present study aimed to investigate relationships among abdominal obesity, metabolic abnormalities, and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relatively lean Japanese men and women. Participants and methods The participants included 8133 men and 15 934 women between 40 and 75 years of age recruited from the government health check-up center in Kanazawa City, Japan. The prevalence of abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels were assessed according to the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation for the Japanese population, and participants with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or proteinuria were diagnosed with CKD. Results Overall, 23% of males and 14% of females met criteria for CKD. Having more numerous complicated metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher odds ratio (OR) of CKD for men and women, irrespective of abdominal obesity. However, there was a sex difference in the OR of CKD for obese participants without metabolic abnormalities, such that abdominal obesity without metabolic abnormalities was significantly associated with a higher OR for men (multivariate-adjusted OR 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–2.28) but not for women (OR 1.01; 95% CI, 0.71–1.44). Conclusions The present findings demonstrated that obesity without metabolic abnormalities was associated with a higher risk of CKD in men but not women in a relatively lean Japanese population. PMID:27087606

  16. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  17. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Trexler, Eric T.; Wingfield, Hailee; Blue, Malia N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids, and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; Weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg·m2) were randomly assigned to ten 1-minute high-intensity intervals (90%VO2peak, 1min recovery), or five 2-minute high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2peak, 1 min recovery), or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, body composition, and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (p>0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; p=0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 sec; p=0.001); non-significant increase in VO2peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml·kg−1·min−1; p=0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (∆−1.96 ± 0.99kg; p=0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing fat mass and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women. PMID:26934687

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    PubMed

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women. PMID:26934687

  19. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A. P.; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern. PMID:26445060

  20. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A P; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-10-02

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m²) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  1. Proportion of gestational diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Hispanic women in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cavicchia, Philip P; Liu, Jihong; Adams, Swann A; Steck, Susan E; Hussey, James R; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hebert, James R

    2014-10-01

    Objective was to estimate race-specific proportions of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) attributable to overweight and obesity in South Carolina. South Carolina birth certificate and hospital discharge data were obtained from 2004 to 2006. Women who did not have type 2 diabetes mellitus before pregnancy were classified with GDM if a diagnosis was reported in at least one data source. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using the log-binomial model. The modified Mokdad equation was used to calculate population attributable fractions for overweight body mass index (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)), obese (30.0-34.9 kg/m(2)), and extremely obese (≥35 kg/m(2)) women after adjusting for age, gestational weight gain, education, marital status, parity, tobacco use, pre-pregnancy hypertension, and pregnancy hypertension. Overall, the adjusted RR of GDM was 1.6, 2.3, and 2.9 times higher among the overweight, obese, and extremely obese women compared to normal-weight women in South Carolina. RR of GDM for extremely obese women was higher among White (3.1) and Hispanic (3.4) women than that for Black women (2.6). The fraction of GDM cases attributable to extreme obesity was 14.0 % among White, 18.1 % among Black, and 9.6 % among Hispanic women. The fraction of GDM cases attributable to obesity was about 12 % for all racial groups. Being overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9) explained 8.8, 7.8, and 14.4 % of GDM cases among White, Black, and Hispanic women, respectively. Results indicate a significantly increased risk of GDM among overweight, obese, and extremely obese women. The strength of the association and the proportion of GDM cases explained by excessive weight categories vary by racial/ethnic group.

  2. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Øyvind; Moholdt, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition. Methods and Findings This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1) 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46) or control (standard maternity care) (n = 45). Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12–18) and in late pregnancy (week 34–37), as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group). Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19) compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI −1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43). Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition) in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1%) compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%), with an odds ratio

  3. Journalism Education in the Pakistani Borderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintak, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Students brave roadside bombs and Taliban threats while on class assignments. Professors are kidnapped and killed. Campus radio stations get regular visits from military intelligence. Welcome to journalism education in Pakistan's tribal areas. The region is off-limits to most outsiders, so students find themselves reporting for Pakistani and…

  4. The Religification of Pakistani-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffar-Kucher, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a cultural production process called religification, in which religious affiliation, rather than race or ethnicity, has become the core category of identity for working-class Pakistani-American youth in the United States. In this dialectical process, triggered by political changes following the September 11 terrorist…

  5. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle architecture in untrained young vs. old women.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Winwood, K; Morse, C I; Onambélé, G L

    2014-12-01

    It is unknown whether loading of the lower limbs through additional storage of fat mass as evident in obesity would promote muscular adaptations similar to those seen with resistance exercise. It is also unclear whether ageing modulates any such adjustments. This study aimed to examine the relationships between adiposity, ageing and skeletal muscle size and architecture. A total of 100 untrained healthy women were categorised by age into young (Y) (mean ± SD: 26.7 ± 9.4 years) vs. old (O) (65.1 ± 7.2 years) and body mass index (BMI) classification (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese). Participants were assessed for body fat using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and for gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle architecture (skeletal muscle fascicle pennation angle and length) and size [GM muscle volume and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA)] using B-mode ultrasonography. GM fascicle pennation angle (FPA) in the obese Y females was 25% greater than underweight (P = 0.001) and 25% greater than normal weight (P = 0.001) individuals, while O females had 32 and 22% greater FPA than their underweight (P = 0.008) and normal weight (P = 0.003) counterparts. Furthermore, FPA correlated with body mass in both Y and O females (Y r = 0.303; P < 0.001; O r = 0.223; P = 0.001), yet no age-related differences in the slope or r-values were observed (P > 0.05). Both GM muscle volume (P = 0.003) and PCSA (P = 0.004) exhibited significant age × BMI interactions. In addition, muscle volume and PCSA correlated with BMI, body mass and fat mass. Interestingly, ageing reduced both the degree of association in these correlations (P < 0.05) and the slope of the regressions (P < 0.05). Our findings partly support our hypotheses in that obesity-associated changes in GM PCSA and volume differed between the young and old. The younger GM muscle adapted to the loading induced by high levels of body mass, adiposity and BMI by increasing its volume and increasing its pennation

  6. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Lima, Lucas S; de Andrade, Socrates; Madureira, Angelo; Rica, Roberta L; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. Methods Seventy older women (>60 years old) voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI): appropriate weight (AW) control (AWC) and trained (AWT) groups, overweight (OW) control (OWC) and trained (OWT) groups, and obesity (O) control (OC) and trained (OT) groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work). The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m), body weight (BW, kg), body fat (BF, %), fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and BMI (kg/m2). Results The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%), BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%), LM (3.0% ± 0.3%), and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0%) to the OT group were higher (P < 0.05) than in the AWT (BW: −2.0% ± 1.1%; BF: −4.6% ± 1.8%; FM: −7.0% ± 2.8%; LM: 0.2% ± 1.1%) and OWT (BW: −4.5% ± 1.0%; BF: −11.0% ± 2.2%; FM: −16.1% ± 3.2%; LM: −0.2% ± 1.0%) groups; additionally, no differences were found for C groups. While reduction (P < 0.03) in BMI according to absolute values was observed for all trained groups (AWT: 22 ± 1 versus 21 ± 1; OWT: 27 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1, OT: 34 ± 1 versus 30 ± 1) after training, no differences were found for C groups. Conclusion In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. PMID:23271901

  7. Primary prevention of gestational diabetes for women who are overweight and obese: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has well recognised adverse health implications for the mother and her newborn that are both short and long term. Obesity is a significant risk factor for developing GDM and the prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. It is a matter of public health importance that clinicians have evidence based strategies to inform practice and currently there is insufficient evidence regarding the impact of dietary and lifestyle interventions on improving maternal and newborn outcomes. The primary aim of this study is to measure the impact of a telephone based intervention that promotes positive lifestyle modifications on the incidence of GDM. Secondary aims include: the impact on gestational weight gain; large for gestational age babies; differences in blood glucose levels taken at the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) and selected factors relating to self-efficacy and psychological wellbeing. Method/design A randomised controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted involving pregnant women who are overweight (BMI >25 to 29.9 k/gm2) or obese (BMI >30 kgm/2), less than 14 weeks gestation and recruited from the Barwon South West region of Victoria, Australia. From recruitment until birth, women in the intervention group will receive a program informed by the Theory of Self-efficacy and employing Motivational Interviewing. Brief ( less than 5 minute) phone contact will alternate with a text message/email and will involve goal setting, behaviour change reinforcement with weekly weighing and charting, and the provision of health information. Those in the control group will receive usual care. Data for primary and secondary outcomes will be collected from medical record review and a questionnaire at 36 weeks gestation. Discussion Evidence based strategies that reduce the incidence of GDM are a priority for contemporary maternity care. Changing health behaviours is a complex undertaking and trialling a composite intervention that

  8. Effects of resistance training on sarcopenic obesity index in older women: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gadelha, André Bonadias; Paiva, Flávio Macedo Lahud; Gauche, Rafael; de Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training (RT) on sarcopenic obesity (SO) in older women. 243 older women underwent body composition measurement using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the SO index was calculated. This randomized controlled trial adopted from the baseline sample, 113 volunteers (67.0±5.2years) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n=64) or an experimental group (EG, n=69). The EG took part in a 24-week RT program, conducted three times per week. Body composition measurements were repeated at the end of the training program. RT induced a significant increase in fat-free mass (P<0.01), but not decrease in fat mass in the EG. Moreover, the SO index was also significantly improved in the EG (P<0.01), while it decreased significantly in the CG (P<0.01). It is concluded that RT is an effective approach to promote body composition alterations in older women, and it might improve SO-related phenotypes. PMID:27057600

  9. Excess gestational weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348

  10. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  11. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  12. The Expansion of the Pulmonary Rib Cage during Breath Stacking Is Influenced by Age in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Aliverti, Andrea; Rattes, Catarina; Ximenes, Maria Eduarda; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze in obese women the acute effects of the breath stacking technique on thoraco-abdominal expansion. Design and Methods Nineteen obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were evaluated by anthropometry, spirometry and maximal respiratory muscle pressures and successively analyzed by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography and a Wright respirometer during quiet breathing and breath stacking maneuvers and compared with a group of 15 normal-weighted healthy women. The acute effects of the maneuvers were assessed in terms of total and compartmental chest wall volumes at baseline, end of the breath stacking maneuver and after the maneuver. Obese subjects were successively classified into two groups, accordingly to the response during the maneuver, group 1 = prevalent rib cage or group 2 = abdominal expansion. Results Age was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2. When considering the two obese groups, FEV1 was lower and minute ventilation was higher only in group 2 compared to controls group. During breath stacking, inspiratory capacity was significant differences in obese subjects with a smaller expansion of the pulmonary rib cage and a greater expansion of the abdomen compared to controls and also between groups 1 and 2. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between age and inspiratory capacity of the pulmonary rib cage but not of the abdomen. Conclusions In obese women the maximal expansion of the rib cage and abdomen is influenced by age and breath stacking maneuver could be a possible therapy for preventing respiratory complications. PMID:25372469

  13. Obesity stigma as a determinant of poor birth outcomes in women with high BMI: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle

    2015-04-01

    Obesity stigma has been linked to poor health outcomes on an individual and population basis. However, little research has been conducted on the role of chronic or recent obesity stigma in the health disparities experienced by pregnant women with high body mass index. The purpose of this article is to discuss poor birth outcomes in this population from an integrated perinatal health framework perspective, incorporating obesity stigma as a social determinant. In studies of non-pregnant populations, obesity stigma has been associated with stress, unhealthy coping strategies, psychological disorders, and exacerbations of physical illness. This article examines the mechanisms by which obesity stigma influences health outcomes and suggests how they might apply to selected complications of pregnancy, including macrosomia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Given the rates of obesity and associated pregnancy complications in the United States, it is critical to examine the determinants of those problems from a life course and multiple determinants perspective. This paper offers a conceptual framework to guide exploratory research in this area, incorporating the construct of obesity stigma.

  14. Efficacy of Korean Red Ginseng by Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Obese Women: Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dong Hyun; Bose, Shambhunath; Song, Mi Young; Lee, Myeong Jong; Lim, Chi Yeon; Kwon, Bum Sun; Kim, Ho Jun

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on obese women and aimed to confirm that the effects of KRG on obesity differ dependently on a gene. Fifty obese women were recruited and randomized to receive KRG (n=24) or placebo (n=26) for 8 wk. Measurements of blood pressure, height, weight, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), total fat mass, percentage of body fat, resting metabolic rate, basal body temperature, and daily food intake (FI), blood test (serum lipid, liver and renal function), Korean version of obesity-related quality of life scale (KOQOL), and a gene examination were performed. Comparisons of subjects before and after the administration of KRG revealed significant improvements of obesity in terms of weight, body mass index (BMI), WHR, FI, and KOQOL. However, in the comparison between KRG group and placebo group, only KOQOL was significantly different. KRG displayed significant efficacy on BMI and KOQOL in the CT genotype of the G protein beta 3 gene, but not in the CC genotype, on blood sugar test in the Trp64/Arg genotype of the beta 3 adrenergic receptor gene, but not in Trp64/ Trp genotype, on KOQOL in the DD genotype of the angiotensin I converting enzyme gene, but not in the ID and DD genotypes. The effects of KRG on obesity were confirmed to some extent. However, a distinct effect compared to placebo was not confirmed. KRG is more effective for improving the secondary issues of the quality of life derived from obesity rather than having direct effects on the obesity-related anthropometric assessment and blood test indices. PMID:23717118

  15. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota--a randomised controlled trial in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Blædel, Trine; Håkansson, Janet; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Lesli H

    2015-08-14

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9.4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0.05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0.01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species. PMID:26134388

  16. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota--a randomised controlled trial in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Blædel, Trine; Håkansson, Janet; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Lesli H

    2015-08-14

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9.4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0.05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0.01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species.

  17. Metformin reduces thyrotropin levels in obese, diabetic women with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Isidro, M Luisa; Penín, Manuel A; Nemiña, Rosa; Cordido, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    Context It has been reported that metformin might modify thyroid hormone economy. In two retrospective studies, initiation of treatment with metformin caused suppression of TSH to subnormal levels. Objective To prospectively evaluate if administration of metformin to obese, diabetic patients with primary hypothyroidism on stable thyroxine replacement doses modifies TSH levels. Patients and methods Eight obese, diabetic postmenopausal women with primary hypothyroidism participated in the study. They received 1,700 mg of metformin daily for 3 months. Weight, TSH, free T4, and free T3 levels were measured at baseline, 3 months after metformin initiation and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results After 3 months of on metformin, mean TSH was significantly lower than basal TSH (3.11 +/- 0.50 microUI/ml vs. 1.18 +/- 0.36 microUI/ml; P = 0.01). Mean TSH 3 months after metformin withdrawal was 2.21 +/- 0.37 microUI/ml, significantly higher than TSH after metformin (P = 0.05), but not different from basal TSH. Mean fT4 level increased during metformin administration (basal fT4: 1.23 +/- 0.06 ng/dl, fT4 after metformin: 1.32 +/- 0.04 ng/dl; P = ns), and decreased after its withdrawal (fT4 3 months after metformin withdrawal: 1.15 +/- 0.05 ng/dl; vs. 3 months after metformin, P = 0.04; vs. basal; P = ns). Conclusions In obese, diabetic patients with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement treatment, short-term metformin administration is associated with a significant fall in TSH. PMID:17992605

  18. Specific gut microbiota features and metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brahe, L K; Le Chatelier, E; Prifti, E; Pons, N; Kennedy, S; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O; Astrup, A; Ehrlich, S D; Larsen, L H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify gut metagenomic markers associated with estimates of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, and to explore whether the associations between metagenomic and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for body fat, age and habitual dietary intake. Methods: Faecal DNA from 53 women with obesity was analysed through quantitative metagenomic sequencing and analysis, and a systematic search was performed for bacterial genes associated with estimates of insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Subsequently, the correlations between metagenomic species and metabolic markers were tested by linear regression models, with and without covariate adjustment. Results: One hundred and fourteen metagenomic species correlated with metabolic markers (P<0.001) including Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but also species not previously associated with metabolic markers including Bacteroides faecis and Dorea longicatena. The majority of the identified correlations between bacterial species and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for differences in body fat, age and dietary macronutrient composition; however, the negative correlation with insulin resistance observed for B. longum and F. prausnitzii appeared to be modified by the intake of dietary fibre and fat, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that several gut bacterial species are linked to metabolic risk markers in obesity, also after adjustment for potential confounders, such as long-term diet composition. The study supports the use of gut metagenomic markers for metabolic disease prediction and warrants

  19. Abdominal wall pain in obese women: frequently missed and easily treated

    PubMed Central

    Mishriki, Yehia Yousri

    2009-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common symptom with an extensive differential diagnosis. The work-up is frequently costly, yet many patients elude definitive diagnosis. We describe 12 obese women with long-standing abdominal pain, many of whom eluded diagnosis but who met criteria for abdominal wall pain. Each patient underwent a focused history and physical examination which included checking for Carnett’s sign and performing a “pinch test”. All patients had positive Carnett’s sign and pinch tests. An injection of local anaesthetic, with or without corticosteroid, completely relieved the pain within 10 min. Of the six patients seen in follow-up, four remained pain free and two responded to a second injection of local anaesthetic. Abdominal wall pain is an under-appreciated cause of chronic abdominal pain. Diagnosis is often straightforward and treatment with a local injection of anaesthetic is both diagnostic and curative. PMID:21686788

  20. Regional fat loss from the thigh in obese women after adrenergic modulation.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L; Bray, G A

    1987-01-01

    Beta-adrenergic stimulation and alpha 2-adrenergic inhibition increase lipolysis from fat cells. Twenty-eight obese women were placed on a calorie-restricted diet and one of five treatments was applied to one thigh three to five times per week for four weeks: (1) isoproterenol injections; (2) cream containing colforsin (forskolin), aminophylline, and yohimbine; (3) yohimbine cream; (4) colforsin cream; or (5) aminophylline cream. The opposite thigh was treated with a placebo (injection or cream). The treated thighs lost significantly more girth after treatment, both by injection and by cream. No adverse reactions were attributable to either the cream or the injections. It is concluded that local fat reduction from the thigh can be safely accomplished. PMID:2894247

  1. Differential effects of weight bias experiences and internalization on exercise among women with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Dovidio, John F

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of experiences with weight stigma and weight bias internalization on exercise. An online sample of 177 women with overweight and obesity (M(age) = 35.48 years, M(BMI) = 32.81) completed questionnaires assessing exercise behavior, self-efficacy, and motivation; experiences of weight stigmatization; weight bias internalization; and weight-stigmatizing attitudes toward others. Weight stigma experiences positively correlated with exercise behavior, but weight bias internalization was negatively associated with all exercise variables. Weight bias internalization was a partial mediator between weight stigma experiences and exercise behavior. The distinct effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias carry implications for clinical practice and public health. PMID:24505060

  2. Greater Survival After Breast Cancer in Physically Active Women With High Vegetable-Fruit Intake Regardless of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, John P.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Natarajan, Loki; Sternfeld, Barbara; Madlensky, Lisa; Al-Delaimy, Wael K.; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Kealey, Sheila; Hajek, Richard; Parker, Barbara A.; Newman, Vicky A.; Caan, Bette; Rock, Cheryl L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Single-variable analyses have associated physical activity, diet, and obesity with survival after breast cancer. This report investigates interactions among these variables. Patients and Methods A prospective study was performed of 1,490 women diagnosed and treated for early-stage breast cancer between 1991 and 2000. Enrollment was an average of 2 years postdiagnosis. Only seven women were lost to follow-up through December 2005. Results In univariate analysis, reduced mortality was weakly associated with higher vegetable-fruit consumption, increased physical activity, and a body mass index that was neither low weight nor obese. In a multivariate Cox model, only the combination of consuming five or more daily servings of vegetables-fruits, and accumulating 540+ metabolic equivalent tasks-min/wk (equivalent to walking 30 minutes 6 d/wk), was associated with a significant survival advantage (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.98). The approximate 50% reduction in risk associated with these healthy lifestyle behaviors was observed in both obese and nonobese women, although fewer obese women were physically active with a healthy dietary pattern (16% v 30%). Among those who adhered to this healthy lifestyle, there was no apparent effect of obesity on survival. The effect was stronger in women who had hormone receptor–positive cancers. Conclusion A minority of breast cancer survivors follow a healthy lifestyle that includes both recommended intakes of vegetables-fruits and moderate levels of physical activity. The strong protective effect observed suggests a need for additional investigation of the effect of the combined influence of diet and physical activity on breast cancer survival. PMID:17557947

  3. Interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and traditional constitution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Dal; Hong, Seung-Heon; Jeong, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Hyung-Min; Um, Jae-Young

    2008-06-01

    In adipose tissue metabolism, cytokines were major regulators. mRNA expression studies show that adipocytes can synthesize both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and several interleukins (ILs), notably IL-1 beta (IL-1beta) and IL-6. In particular, IL-1beta expression is under strong genetic control. We examined the relationship among obesity, polymorphism of the IL-1beta at position +3953 in exon 5, and Sasang constitution. In a group of 181 healthy females with a marked variation in body mass index (BMI), we determined the genotype of IL-1beta by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. A significant decrease was found for the IL-1beta T allele in the overweight group (BMI 25 approximately 29 kg/m(2)) compared with the lean group with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (P = .049, odds ratio [OR] = 0.296). Carriers of T allele in the heterozygous or homozygous form did not show a significant difference in physical and clinical characteristics. In addition, in Taeumin female subjects, the frequency of IL-1beta T allele was apparently decreased in the overweight group (BMI 25 approximately 29 kg/m(2)) compared with the lean group with a BMI < 25 kg/m(2) (P = .007, OR = 0.152). In overweight women, we found an association between the +3953 C/T polymorphism in the IL-1beta gene and BMI. In addition, we found an association among IL-1beta polymorphism, obesity, and Sasang constitution.

  4. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Anna E; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  5. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  6. Negative association between trunk fat, insulin resistance and skeleton in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Emanuela A; Francomano, Davide; Fornari, Rachele; Marocco, Chiara; Lubrano, Carla; Papa, Vincenza; Wannenes, Francesca; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea; Aversa, Antonio; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the potential interference of trunk fat (TF) mass on metabolic and skeletal metabolism. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 340 obese women (mean age: 44.8 ± 14 years; body mass index: 36.0 ± 5.9 kg/m2) were included. Patients were evaluated for serum vitamin D, osteocalcin (OSCA), inflammatory markers, lipids, glucose and insulin (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) levels, and hormones profile. Moreover, all patients underwent measurements of bone mineral density (BMD; at lumbar and hip site) and body composition (lean mass, total and trunk fat mass) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Data showed that: (1) high TF mass was inversely correlated with low BMD both at lumbar (P < 0.001) and hip (P < 0.01) sites and with serum vitamin D (P < 0.0005), OSCA (P < 0.0001) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; P < 0.0001) levels; (2) a positive correlation was found between TF and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01), fibrinogen (P < 0.0001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P < 0.0001); (3) vitamin D levels were directly correlated with IGF-1 (P < 0.0005), lumbar (P < 0.006) and hip (P < 0.01) BMD; and (4) inversely with HOMA-IR (P < 0.001) and fibrinogen (P < 0.0005).Multivariate analysis demonstrated that only vitamin D was independent of TF variable. CONCLUSION: In obese women, TF negatively correlates with BMD independently from vitamin D levels. Reduced IGF-1 and increased inflammatory markers might be some important determinants that account for this relationship. PMID:23593534

  7. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  8. OBESITY AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN BEHAVIORALLY HIV-INFECTED YOUNG WOMEN: ADOLESCENT TRIALS NETWORK (ATN) STUDY 021

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Harris, D. Robert; Monte, Dina; Stoszek, Sonia; Emmanuel, Patricia; Hardin, Dana S.; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Worrell, Carol; Meyer, William A.; Sleasman, John; Wilson, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to determine the nature and prevalence of abnormalities in lipids, glucose metabolism, and body composition in behaviorally HIV-infected young women and their relationship to different classes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional multicenter study in behaviorally infected women ages 12-24 years (HIVpos; N=173) and seronegative controls (HIVneg; N=61). HIVpos women were categorized as ART-naïve (N=85), on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimen (NNRTI; N=33), on a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (PI; N=36), or on a non-NNRTI/non-PI containing regimen (N=19). Measurements included fasting lipids; glucose and insulin before and 2 hours after an oral glucose challenge; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP); anthropometry; fat distribution (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry); and ART and medical histories. Race-adjusted results were compared across groups and within HIVpos groups. Results The median age was 20 (range 14-24) years. 77% of HIVpos were African American, 35% smoked cigarettes, and 32% reported exercising regularly. More than 40% had a BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Triglycerides; total, HDL, and non-HDL cholesterol; and hsCRP differed significantly among groups, with higher levels most common among those on ART. Indices of glucose metabolism did not differ among groups. In general, cholesterol, hsCRP, and indices of glucose metabolism worsened as BMI increased. Conclusions Obesity, dyslipidemia, and inflammation were prominent in HIV-infected adolescent women and, coupled with other risk factors, may accelerate the lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and other adverse events. These results underscore the need for a multifaceted approach to addressing risk reduction in this population. PMID:19947855

  9. Genetic Background, Adipocytokines, and Metabolic Disorders in Postmenopausal Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Mosor, Maria; Przysławski, Juliusz; Bogacz, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the genetic background, adipocytokines, and metabolic state in postmenopausal women has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) polymorphisms and serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin) and metabolic disorders in 176 postmenopausal women with increased body mass (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2)). The distributions of selected alleles and genotype frequencies were determined with the PCR-RFLP method. The bioimpedance method was used to determine nutritional status, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were applied to determine serum concentrations of adipocytokines. Viscerally obese postmenopausal women had higher body mass, body fat content, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, uric acid, and HOMA-IR and a higher prevalence of the Ala12 allele. In models based on cytokine concentration, higher body mass and glucose concentration (visfatin model, p = 0.008) and higher insulin and triglyceride levels (resistin model, p = 0.002) were observed in visceral fat deposition and this was potentiated by the presence of the T1431 allele. In resistin models, co-existence of Ala12/X polymorphisms with the T1431 allele was associated with higher resistin and triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.045). In postmenopausal women, metabolic parameters are mainly determined by the distribution of body fat, but Ala12/X polymorphism may increase the metabolic disorders and this effect can be enhanced by the T1431 allele. PMID:27246401

  10. "We're Changing Our Ways": Women's Coping Strategies for Obesity Risk-reducing Behaviors in American Indian Households.

    PubMed

    Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors.

  11. Effect of a MAST Exercise Program on Anthropometric Parameters, Physical Fitness, and Serum Lipid Levels in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Trabka, Bartosz; Zubrzycki, Igor Z.; Ossowski, Zbigniew; Bojke, Olgierd; Clarke, Anna; Wiacek, Magdalena; Latosik, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine an influence of a mixed aerobic and strength training program (MAST) on anthropometry, serum lipid levels, physical performance, and functional fitness in obese postmenopausal women. The MAST sessions were held three times per week, and the exercise program lasted for 10 weeks. The exercise group demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in maximal oxygen uptake, a waist/hip ratio, and strength of the upper and lower body. An increase in LDL-C levels was observed in the control group. A 10-week MAST program encompassing Nordic-walking as an aerobic component, and strength exercises, induces positive changes in functional fitness, HDL-C, LDL-C and a waist/hip ratio in obese postmenopausal women. The observed changes implicate an increase in a health-related quality of life among the women administered to the physical exercise program. PMID:25414748

  12. Shift Work and Obesity among Canadian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study Using a Novel Exposure Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Natalie; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Harris, M. Anne; Nadalin, Victoria; Kreiger, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been suggested that the association between shift work and chronic disease is mediated by an increase in obesity. However, investigations of the relationship between shift work and obesity reveal mixed findings. Using a recently developed exposure assessment tool, this study examined the association between shift work and obesity among Canadian women from two studies: a cohort of university alumni, and a population-based study. Methods Self-administered questionnaire data were used from healthy, currently employed females in a population-based study, the Ontario Women’s Diet and Health case-control study (n = 1611 controls), and from a subset of a of university alumni from the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health (n = 1097) cohort study. Overweight was defined as BMI≥25 to <30, and obesity as BMI≥30. Reported occupation was converted to occupational codes and linked to a probability of shift work value derived from Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics data. Regular evenings, nights, or rotating work comprised shift work. Polytomous logistic regression estimated the association between probability of shift work, categorized as near nil, low, medium, and high probability of shift work, on overweight and obesity, controlling for detected confounders. Results In the population-based sample, high probability of shift work was associated with obesity (reference = near nil probability of shift work, OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.01–3.51, p = 0.047). In the alumni cohort, no significant association was detected between shift work and overweight or obesity. Conclusions As these analyses found a positive association between high probability of shift work exposure and obesity in a population-based sample, but not in an alumni cohort, it is suggested that the relationship between shift work and obesity is complex, and may be particularly susceptible to occupational and education-related factors within a given population. PMID:26376050

  13. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  14. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  15. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377.

  16. Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377. PMID:24319489

  17. Proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from obese women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: a new approach for identifying new candidates in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    PubMed

    Lecube, A; Poca, M A; Colomé, N; Bech-Serra, J J; Hernández, C; García-Ramírez, M; Gándara, D; Canals, F; Simó, R

    2012-06-01

    Body weight control is tightly regulated in the hypothalamus. The inaccessibility of human brain tissue can be partially solved by using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a tool for assessing the central nervous system's production of orexigen and anorexigen factors. Using proteomic analysis, the present study investigated the differentially displayed proteins in human CSF from obese and non-obese subjects. We designed a case-control study conducted in a reference hospital where eight obese (cases) and eight non-obese (controls) women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension were included. Intracranial hypertension was normalised through the placement of a ventriculo- or lumboperitoneal shunt in the 12 months before their inclusion in the study. Isotope-coded protein label (for proteins > 10 kDa) and label-free liquid chromatography (for proteins < 10 kDa) associated with mass spectrometry analysis were used. Eighteen differentially expressed proteins were identified. Many of them fall into three main groups: inflammation (osteopontin, fibrinogen γ and β chain, α1 acid glycoprotein 2 and haptoglobin), neuroendocrine mediators (neurosecretory protein VGF, neuroendocrine protein 7B2, chromogranin-A and chromogranin B), and brain plasticity (testican-1, isoform 10 of fibronectin, galectin-3 binding protein and metalloproteinase inhibitor type 2). The differential production of osteopontin, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A and fibrinogen γ chain was further confirmed by either enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. In conclusion, we have identified potential candidates that could be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity. Further studies aiming to investigating the precise role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of obesity and their potential therapeutic implications are needed. PMID:22296024

  18. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nutrition Education for Improvement of Diet Quality and Inflammation in Iranian Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadshahi, Majid; Karandish, Majid; Ebrahimi, Sara; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group (n = 30). Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1 hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > 0.05). However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-α and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. PMID:25349725

  19. Geographic Variation of Overweight and Obesity among Women in Nigeria: A Case for Nutritional Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. PMID:24979753

  20. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Martinez, Salomé; Armengol, Sandra; Sabench, Fàtima; Ras, Rosa; Hernandez, Mercè; Aguilar, Carmen; Colom, Josep; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS) and steatohepatitis (NASH) cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30) and morbidly obese women (n = 97) with or without NAFLD. Results We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate) had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH. PMID:27123846

  1. A study of effect of the compound physical activity therapy on muscular strength in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kak, Hwang-Bo; Cho, Sung-Hyoun; Lee, Young-Hwa; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Jin-Woo; Oh, Byoung-Don; Koh, Hyung-Woo

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine how compound physical activity affects muscular strength of middle-aged obese women. [Subjects] The research subjects were 40-50 year-old middle-aged women with excess body fat (30%). [Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to two group, the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group performed two types of exercise programs for 16 weeks. Aerobic physical activity was performed 5 times per week, and anaerobic physical activity was performed every two days, and the exercise program each day was composed of a warm-up, the main exercise, and cooldown. The type of exercise focused on walking at a quick pace, and the intensity of the exercise focused on long periods of exercise at low intensity with the level of HRmax being 40-60%. The weight training, which was useful for beginners, as a type of kinetic load exercise, was applied with a composition recommended by the ACSM for muscle fitness (intensity of 40-60% of 1 RM and 10-15 repetitions). SPSS version 16.0 was used to analyze the data by ANCOVA and the t-test. [Results] The chest, leg, and abdominal strengths were significantly increased in the experimental group, and this indicates that compound physical activity is effective for improvement of muscular strength. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of muscular strength.

  2. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. PMID:26948161

  3. Neck Circumference Is a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Short-Sleeping Obese Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Lilian; Piaggi, Paolo; Mattingly, Megan; Zhao, Xiongce; Lucassen, Eliane; Rother, Kristina I.; Sumner, Anne E.; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The constellation of metabolic syndrome, although controversial with regard to its clinical usefulness, is epidemiologically related to increased diabetes risk and cardiovascular mortality. Our goal was to investigate the associations among neck circumference (NC), obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSAS), and metabolic syndrome in obese men and women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of obese men and premenopausal obese women sleeping less than 6.5 hr per night. We enrolled 120 individuals (92 women), age 40.5±6.9 years and body mass index (BMI) 38.6±6.5 kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome severity was assessed by a score and OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥5. Metabolic end endocrine parameters were measured, and sleep duration was determined by actigraphy and validated questionnaires. Results: Metabolic syndrome was found in 41% and OSAS in 58% (28% had both). Subjects with metabolic syndrome were 3 years older and more often Caucasian; they had higher RDI scores, larger NC, more visceral fat, lower serum adiponectin, higher 24-hr urinary norepinephrine (NE) excretion, and lower growth hormone concentrations. A NC of ≥38 cm had a sensitivity of 54% and 58% and a specificity of 70% and 79% in predicting the presence of metabolic syndrome and OSAS, respectively. RDI, adiponectin, and NC accounted for approximately 30% of the variability in the metabolic syndrome score, as estimated by an age-, gender-, and race-corrected multivariate model (R2=0.376, P<0.001). Conclusion: Greater NC is associated with OSAS and metabolic syndrome in short-sleeping obese men and premenopausal obese women. Addition of NC to the definition of metabolic syndrome should be considered and needs to be validated in future studies. PMID:24571423

  4. Validation of obesity based on self-reported data in Spanish women participants in breast cancer screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measurement of obesity using self-reported anthropometric data usually involves underestimation of weight and/or overestimation of height. The dual aim of this study was, first, to ascertain and assess the validity of new cut-off points, for both overweight and obesity, using self-reported Body Mass Index furnished by women participants in breast cancer screening programmes, and second, to estimate and validate a predictive model that allows recalculate individual BMI based on self-reported data. Methods The study covered 2927 women enrolled at 7 breast cancer screening centres. At each centre, women were randomly selected in 2 samples, in a ratio of 2:1. The larger sample (n = 1951) was used to compare the values of measured and self-reported weight and height, to ascertain new overweight and obesity cut-off points with self-reported data, using ROC curves, and to estimate a predictive model of real BMI using a regression model. The second sample (n = 976) was used to validate the proposed cut-off points and the predictive model. Results Whereas reported prevalence of obesity was 19.8%, measured prevalence was 28.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of this classification would be maximised if the new cut-off points were 24.30 kg/m2 for overweight and 28.39 kg/m2 for obesity. The probability of classifying women correctly in their real weight categories on the basis of these points was 82.5% in the validation sample. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity using the new cut-off point in the validation sample were 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. The predictive model for real BMI included the self-reported BMI, age and educational level (university studies vs lower levels of education). This model succeeded in correctly classifying 90.5% of women according to BMI categories, but its performance was similar to that obtained with the new cut-off points. Conclusions Quantification of self-reported obesity entails a considerable underestimation of

  5. The impact of cash transfers to poor women in Colombia on BMI and obesity: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ian; Chandola, Tarani; Garcia, Sandra; Marmot, Michael G.; Attanasio, Orazio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of obesity is rising in Latin America, is increasingly affecting socially disadvantaged groups, particularly women. Conditional cash transfers are recently established welfare interventions in the region. One, Familias en Accion, transfers ~20% of average monthly income to women in Colombia’s poorest families. Previous work has found that families buy more food as a result. We tested the hypothesis that participation in Familias would be associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) in participating women Methods Women from participating areas and control areas (matched on environmental and socioeconomic criteria) were surveyed in 2002 and 2006. Pregnant, breast-feeding or women aged<18 or with BMI<18.5kg/m2 were excluded. The sample comprises 835 women from control and 1238 from treatment areas. Because some treatment areas started Familias shortly before baseline data collection, a dummy variable was created that identified exposure independent of time-point or area. Follow-up was 61.5%. BMI was measured by trained personnel using standardized techniques. Overweight was defined as BMI>25kg/m2 and obesity as >30kg/m2. The effect of Familias was estimated using linear regression (or logistic regression for dichotomous outcomes) in a double-difference technique, controlling for several individual, household and area characteristics, including parity and baseline BMI, using robust standard-errors clustered at area-level in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results At baseline, women’s mean age was 33.3 years and mean BMI 25.3kg/m2; 12.3% women were obese. After adjustment, exposure to Familias was significantly associated with increased BMI (β=0.25, 95% CI 0.03, 0.47; p=0.03). Age (β=0.09; 95%CI 0.06, 0.13; p<0.001) and household wealth (β=0.78; 95%CI 0.41, 1.15; p<0.001) were also positively associated with BMI. Familias was also associated with increased odds of obesity (O.R.=1.27 95%CI 1.03, 1.57; p=0.03), as was age (O.R.=1.04; 95

  6. Defects in mitochondrial efficiency and H2O2 emissions in obese women are restored to a lean phenotype with aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Konopka, Adam R; Asante, Albert; Lanza, Ian R; Robinson, Matthew M; Johnson, Matthew L; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Amols, Mark H; Irving, Brian A; Nair, K S

    2015-06-01

    The notion that mitochondria contribute to obesity-induced insulin resistance is highly debated. Therefore, we determined whether obese (BMI 33 kg/m(2)), insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome had aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology compared with lean, insulin-sensitive women (BMI 23 kg/m(2)). Maximal whole-body and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were not different between obese and lean women. However, obese women exhibited lower mitochondrial coupling and phosphorylation efficiency and elevated mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emissions compared with lean women. We further evaluated the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on obesity-related impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial energetics in the fasted state and after a high-fat mixed meal. Exercise training reversed obesity-related mitochondrial derangements as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency and decreased mtH2O2 production. A concomitant increase in catalase antioxidant activity and decreased DNA oxidative damage indicate improved cellular redox status and a potential mechanism contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. mtH2O2 emissions were refractory to a high-fat meal at baseline, but after exercise, mtH2O2 emissions increased after the meal, which resembles previous findings in lean individuals. We demonstrate that obese women exhibit impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the form of decreased efficiency and impaired mtH2O2 emissions, while exercise effectively restores mitochondrial physiology toward that of lean, insulin-sensitive individuals.

  7. Food group preferences and energy balance in moderately obese postmenopausal women subjected to brisk walking program.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Sophie; Vallée, Karine; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Auneau, Gérard; Mauriège, Pascale

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of a 16-week walking program on food group preferences and energy balance of sedentary, moderately obese (body mass index, 29-35 kg/m(2)), postmenopausal Caucasian women, aged 60 ± 5 years old. One hundred and fifty-six volunteers were subjected to 3 sessions/week of 45 min of walking at 60% of heart rate reserve. Total energy intake (TEI) and food group preferences (3-day dietary record), total energy expenditure (TEE, 3-day physical activity diary), cardiorespiratory fitness (2-km walking test), anthropometry, and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were measured before and after walking. Data were statistically analyzed using an ANOVA with repeated measures on 1 factor (time). The modest increase in TEE of 151 ± 24 kcal/day (p < 0.0001) leads to body weight, fat mass losses, and waist girth reduction (p < 0.0001). TEI remained unchanged despite a slight decrease in carbohydrate intake and a minor increase in protein intake (p < 0.05). Analysis of food records revealed a decreased consumption of fruits (p < 0.05) and sweet and fatty foods (p < 0.01), but an increase in oil consumption (p < 0.0001) after walking. Women with the highest body weight loss showed the greatest reduction in the consumption of fruits, sugar, sweet foods, and fatty foods (p < 0.05). Women with the greatest fat mass loss showed the highest decrease in fatty food intake (p < 0.05). In conclusion, although our walking program changed some food group consumption patterns, body weight loss was primarily because of the increased TEE.

  8. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms, dietary fat intake, obesity and serum lipid concentrations in black and white South African women.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Yael T; van der Merwe, Lize; Evans, Juliet; Collins, Malcolm; Lambert, Estelle V; September, Alison V; Goedecke, Julia H

    2014-06-24

    This study investigated interactions between dietary fat intake and IL-6 polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white South African (SA) women. Normal-weight and obese, black and white women underwent measurements of body composition, serum lipids and dietary fat intake, and were genotyped for the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms. In black women the IVS4 +869 G allele was associated with greater adiposity, and with increasing dietary fat intake adiposity increased in the IVS3 +281 GT+GG and IVS4 +869 AA or AG genotypes. In white women, with increasing omega-3 (n-3) intake and decreasing n-6:n-3 ratio, body mass index (BMI) decreased in those with the -174 C allele, IVS3 +281 T allele and IVS4 +869 AG genotype. In the white women, those with the IVS3 +281 T allele had lower triglycerides. Further, with increasing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA); triglyceride and total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (T-C:HDL-C) ratio decreased in those with the -174 C allele. In black women, with increasing total fat intake, triglycerides and T-C:HDL-C ratio increased in those with the IVS4 +869 G allele. This study is the first to show that dietary fat intake modulates the relationship between the IL-6 -174 G>C, IVS3 +281 G>T and IVS4 +869 A>G polymorphisms on obesity and serum lipids in black and white SA women.

  9. Water aerobics is followed by short-time and immediate systolic blood pressure reduction in overweight and obese hypertensive women.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Arsa, Gisela; Neves, Eduardo Borba; Lopes, Lorena Curado; Santana, Fabio; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Rolim, Thais I; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2016-07-01

    One exercise training session such as walking, running, and resistance can lead to a decrease in blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive individuals, but few studies have investigated the effects of exercise training in an aquatic environment for overweight and obese hypertensive individuals. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a water aerobics session on blood pressure changes in pharmacologically treated overweight and obese hypertensive women. A randomized crossover study was carried out with 18 hypertensive women, 10 of them were overweight (54.4 ± 7.9 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) and eight obese (56.4 ± 6.6 years; body mass index: 33.0 ± 2.0 kg/m(2)). The water aerobics exercise session consisted of a 45-minute training at the intensity of 70%-75% of maximum heart rate adjusted for the aquatic environment. The control group did not enter the pool and did not perform any exercise. We measured systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) before, immediately after, and every 10 minutes up to 30 minutes after the aerobic exercise or control session. Overall (n = 18), DBP did not change after the water aerobic exercise and control session, and SBP decreased at 10 and 20 minutes postexercise compared to the control session. Among overweight women, SBP decreased at 10 and 20 minutes postexercise. In contrast, among obese women, SBP decreased only at 10 minutes postexercise. SBP variation was -2.68 mm Hg in overweight and -1.24 mm Hg in obese women. In conclusion, the water aerobics session leads to a reduction in SBP, but not in DBP, during 10 and 20 minutes postexercise recovery. Thus, it may be safely prescribed to overweight and obese women. PMID:27245928

  10. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    PubMed

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  11. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment Versus Combined Weight Loss/Depression Treatment Among Women with Comorbid Obesity and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Ichikawa, Laura E.; Operskalski, Belinda H.; Arterburn, David; Rohde, Paul; Finch, Emily A.; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with clinical depression among women. However, depressed women are often excluded from weight loss trials. Purpose This study examined treatment outcomes among women with comorbid obesity and depression. Methods Two hundred three (203) women were randomized to behavioral weight loss (n=102) or behavioral weight loss combined with cognitive-behavioral depression management (n=101). Results Average participant age was 52 years; mean baseline body mass index was 39 kg/m2. Mean Patient Health Questionnaire and Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-20) scores indicated moderate to severe baseline depression. Weight loss and SCL-20 changes did not differ between groups at 6 or 12 months in intent-to-treat analyses (p=0.26 and 0.55 for weight, p=0.70 and 0.25 for depressive symptoms). Conclusions Depressed obese women lost weight and demonstrated improved mood in both treatment programs. Future weight loss trials are encouraged to enroll depressed women. PMID:20878292

  13. Sarcopenic/obesity and physical capacity in older men and women: data from the Nutrition as a Determinant of Successful Aging (NuAge)-the Quebec longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Dionne, Isabelle J; Brochu, Martin

    2009-11-01

    Sarcopenia and obesity have been independently associated with physical capacity impairments. However, few studies have investigated the impact of sarcopenic/obesity on physical capacity in older individuals using objective measures of physical capacity and body composition. This study included 904 older individuals aged between 68 and 82 years old. Body composition (fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LBM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)), physical capacity (timed up and go, chair stands, walking speed at normal and fastest pace, and one leg stand), sum of reported chronic conditions and physical activity level were measured. A global physical capacity score was then calculated giving a maximal score of 20. Finally, four groups were created within genders based on sarcopenia and obesity ((i) nonsarcopenic/nonobese; (ii) sarcopenic/nonobese; (iii) nonsarcopenic/obese; (iv) sarcopenic/obese). The four groups were significantly different for the sit-to-stand test and the one leg stand test (P < 0.05) and only for the one leg stand test in women (P < 0.05). In both genders results for the global physical capacity score revealed that both obese groups (sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic) were similar (P = 0.14 in men and P = 0.19 in women) and had a lower global physical capacity score compared to nonsarcopenic/nonobese individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, sarcopenic women displayed a higher score than both obese nonsarcopenic and obese sarcopenic groups (P < 0.01). Sarcopenic/obese men and women do not display lower physical capacity compared to nonsarcopenic/obese individuals in this cohort of well-functioning older men and women. Obesity per se appears to contribute more to lower physical capacity than sarcopenia.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity in Pakistani microcephaly families.

    PubMed

    Sajid Hussain, M; Marriam Bakhtiar, S; Farooq, M; Anjum, I; Janzen, E; Reza Toliat, M; Eiberg, H; Kjaer, K W; Tommerup, N; Noegel, A A; Nürnberg, P; Baig, S M; Hansen, L

    2013-05-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is caused by mutations in at least eight different genes involved either in cell division or DNA repair. Most mutations are identified in consanguine families from Pakistan, Iran and India. To further assess their genetic heterogeneity and mutational spectra, we have analyzed 57 consanguine Pakistani MCPH families. In 34 MCPH families, we detected linkage to five out of the eight well-characterized disease loci and identified mutations in 27 families, leaving seven families without mutations in the coding exons of the presumably underlying MCPH genes. In the MCPH cohort 23 families could not be linked to any of the known loci, pointing to remarkable locus heterogeneity. The majority of mutations were found in ASPM followed by WDR62, CENPJ, CEP152 and MCPH1. One ASPM mutation (p.Trp1326*) was found in as many as eight families suggesting a Pakistani founder mutation. One third of the families were linked to ASPM followed by WDR62 confirming previous data. We identified three novel ASPM mutations, four novel WDR62 mutations, one novel MCPH1 mutation and two novel CEP152 mutations. CEP152 mutations have not been described before in the Pakistani population.

  15. Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome123

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Arpita; Du, Mei; Leyva, Misti J.; Sanchez, Karah; Betts, Nancy M.; Wu, Mingyuan; Aston, Christopher E.; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Among all fruits, berries have shown substantial cardio-protective benefits due to their high polyphenol content. However, investigation of their efficacy in improving features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors in obesity is limited. We examined the effects of blueberry supplementation on features of metabolic syndrome, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in obese men and women. Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 ± 2.3 kg/m2; age: 50.0 ± 3.0 y (mean ± SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, #126 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (− 6 and − 4%, respectively) than in controls (− 1.5 and − 1.2%) (P lt 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (− 28 and − 17%, respectively) than in the control group (− 9 and − 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses. PMID:20660279

  16. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Johnson, William D; Champagne, Catherine M; Cefalu, William T

    2010-10-01

    Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m(-2)⋅min(-1)). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants.

  17. The Adipokine Profile of Metabolically Benign Obese and At-Risk Normal Weight Postmenopausal Women: The Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Unab I.; Ogorodnikova, Alexandra D.; Xu, Linzhi; Wang, Dan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Ho, Gloria Y.F.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Allison, Matthew A.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly a third of obese individuals, termed metabolically benign obese, have a low burden of adiposity-related cardiometabolic abnormalities, while a substantial proportion of normal weight individuals possess risk factors. In cross-sectional analyses of 699 normal weight and 1294 overweight/obese postmenopausal women enrolled in a nested case-control stroke study ancillary to the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study, we compared levels of adiponectin, leptin, and resistin among metabolically benign normal weight, at-risk normal weight, metabolically benign obese, and at-risk obese women using components of the ATP III definition of the metabolic syndrome (metabolically benign: ≤1 of the 4 components; at-risk phenotype: ≥2 components or diabetes). Overall, 382/699 normal weight women (54.6%) and 328/1194 overweight/obese women (27.5%) were metabolically benign. Among normal weight women, at-risk women had higher leptin and lower adiponectin levels compared to metabolically benign women; multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were significant for having leptin (OR: 2.51; 95% CI: 1.28–5.01) and resistin (1.46; 1.03–2.07) in the top tertile and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.64; 1.81–3.84). Compared to metabolically benign overweight/obese women, at-risk obese women had higher odds of having leptin in the top tertile (1.62; 1.24–2.12) and adiponectin in the bottom tertile (2.78; 2.04–3.77). Overall, metabolically benign overweight/obese women had an intermediate adipokine profile (between at-risk obese and metabolically benign normal weight women), while at-risk normal weight women had a less favorable profile compared to metabolically benign normal weight women. As adiponectin was the only adipokine independent of BMI, it may be most likely to have a role in the etiological pathway of these phenotypes. PMID:24357553

  18. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  19. Obesity and African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. Circulating irisin and glucose metabolism in overweight/obese women: effects of α-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Huerta, A E; Prieto-Hontoria, P L; Fernández-Galilea, M; Sáinz, N; Cuervo, M; Martínez, J A; Moreno-Aliaga, M J

    2015-09-01

    Irisin is a myokine/adipokine with potential role in obesity and diabetes. The objectives of the present study were to analyse the relationship between irisin and glucose metabolism at baseline and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and to determine the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or α-lipoic acid treatment on irisin production in cultured human adipocytes and in vivo in healthy overweight/obese women following a weight loss program. Seventy-three overweight/obese women followed a 30% energy-restricted diet supplemented without (control) or with EPA (1.3 g/day), α-lipoic acid (0.3 g/day) or both EPA + α-lipoic acid (1.3 + 0.3 g/day) during 10 weeks. An OGTT was performed at baseline. Moreover, human adipocytes were treated with EPA (100-200 μM) or α-lipoic acid (100-250 μM) during 24 h. At baseline plasma, irisin circulating levels were positively associated with glucose levels; however, serum irisin concentrations were not affected by the increment in blood glucose or insulin during the OGTT. Treatment with α-lipoic acid (250 μM) upregulated Fndc5 messenger RNA (mRNA) and irisin secretion in cultured adipocytes. In overweight/obese women, irisin circulating levels decreased significantly after weight loss in all groups, while no additional differences were induced by EPA or α-lipoic acid supplementation. Moreover, plasma irisin levels were positively associated with higher glucose concentrations at beginning and at endpoint of the study. The data from the OGTT suggest that glucose is not a direct contributing factor of irisin release. The higher irisin levels observed in overweight/obese conditions could be a protective response of organism to early glucose impairments.

  1. Role of Haptoglobin in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Obesity and Disorders of Glucose Tolerance in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Martínez-García, Ma Ángeles; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Parraza, Naiara; San Millán, José L.; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hp2 alleles of the haptoglobin α–chain polymorphism reduce the anti-oxidant properties and increase the pro-inflammatory actions of this acute-phase protein in a gene-dosage fashion. We hypothesized that the haptoglobin polymorphism might contribute to the increased oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation frequently associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, and abnormalities of glucose tolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum haptoglobin and the haptoglobin α–chain polymorphism were determined in 141 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and 102 non-hyperandrogenic women. Of the whole group of 243 premenopausal women, 117 were obese and 51 showed abnormal glucose tolerance. Although serum haptoglobin concentrations were similar in PCOS patients and controls, the former presented with an increased frequency of Hp2 alleles (62% vs. 52%, P = 0.023). Circulating haptoglobin levels increased with obesity (P<0.001), yet no association was found between obesity and haptoglobin genotypes. No differences were observed in haptoglobin levels or genotype frequencies depending on glucose tolerance. Fifty percent of the variation in serum haptoglobin concentrations was explained by the variability in serum C-reactive protein concentrations, BMI, insulin sensitivity and haptoglobin genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Serum haptoglobin concentrations in premenopausal women are largely dependent on the haptoglobin polymorphism and on the presence of obesity, with insulin resistance and chronic inflammation possibly modulating this relationship. The association of polycystic ovary syndrome with Hp2 alleles suggests that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of haptoglobin may be reduced in these patients. PMID:19440331

  2. OBESITY, BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION, AND RISK OF BREAST CANCER SUBTYPES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN THE AMBER CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Troester, Melissa A.; Bethea, Traci N.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Park, Song-Yi; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose African American (AA) women are more likely than white women to be obese and to be diagnosed with ER- and triple negative (TN) breast cancer, but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We evaluated these associations in the AMBER Consortium by pooling data from four large studies. Methods Cases were categorized according to hormone receptor status as ER+, ER-, and TN (ER-, PR-, and HER2-) based on pathology data. A total of 2,104 ER+ cases, 1,070 ER- cases (including 491 TN cases), and 12,060 controls were included. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression, taking into account breast cancer risk factors. Results In postmenopausal women, higher recent (most proximal value to diagnosis/index date) BMI was associated with increased risk of ER+ cancer (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02–1.67 for BMI≥35 vs <25 kg/m2) and with decreased risk of TN tumors (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93 for BMI≥35 vs. <25). High young adult BMI was associated with decreased premenopausal ER+ cancer and all subtypes of postmenopausal cancer, and high recent waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with increased risk of pre-menopausal ER+ tumors (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01–1.80) and all tumor subtypes combined in postmenopausal women (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02–1.56). Conclusions The impact of general and central obesity varies by menopausal status and hormone receptor subtype in AA women. Our findings imply different mechanisms for associations of adiposity with TN and ER+ breast cancers. PMID:25809092

  3. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Reduces Inflammation in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghiac, Maricela; Yang, Xiao-hua; Presley, Larraine; Smith, Shoi; Dettelback, Shirley; Minium, Judi; Belury, Martha A.; Catalano, Patrick M.; Hauguel-de Mouzon, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) exert potent anti-inflammatory properties in humans. This study characterized the effects of omega-3 ω-3 fatty acids supplements (ω-3 FA) on the inflammatory status in the placenta and adipose tissue of overweight/obese pregnant women. Study Design A randomized, double-masked controlled trial was conducted in overweight/obese pregnant women that were randomly assigned to receive DHA plus EPA (2g/day) or the equivalent of a placebo twice a day from week 10–16 to term. Inflammatory pathways were characterized in: 1) adipose tissue and placenta of treated vs. untreated women; and 2) adipose and trophoblast cells cultured with long chain FAs. Results The sum of plasma DHA and EPA increased by 5.8 fold and ω-3 FA/ ω-6 FA ratio was 1.5 in treated vs. untreated women (p< 0.005). Plasma CRP concentrations were reduced (p<0.001). The adipose tissue and placenta of treated women exhibited a significant decrease in TLR4 adipose and placental expression as well as IL6, IL8, and TNFα In vitro, EPA and DHA suppressed the activation of TLR4, IL6, IL8 induced by palmitate in culture of adipose and trophoblast cells. Conclusion Supplementation of overweight/obese pregnant women with dietary ω-3 FAs for >25 weeks reduced inflammation in maternal adipose and the placental tissue. TLR4 appears as a central target of the anti-inflammatory effects at the cellular level. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00957476 PMID:26340264

  4. Factor structure and clinical correlates of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rachel D; Sawaoka, Takuya; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2013-01-01

    Prior research on the relations among eating behaviors and thought suppression is limited to a measure of general thought suppression, the White Bear Suppression Inventory. To address this limitation, researchers recently validated the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI). Analyses using this measure suggest that food thought suppression is distinct from and is more predictive of eating disorder psychopathology than is general thought suppression. The FTSI, however, has not yet been validated in clinical samples. The purpose of the current study is to examine the factor structure and clinical correlates of the FTSI within treatment seeking obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; N=128). Analyses revealed a valid and reliable one-factor measure of food thought suppression that was related to higher levels of eating and general psychopathology. The findings provide evidence for the use of the FTSI with obese women with BED. Future research should examine the psychometric properties of the FTSI within larger and more diverse samples.

  5. Childhood trauma in obese and overweight women with food addiction and clinical-level of binge eating.

    PubMed

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Lamis, Dorian A; Farina, Benedetto; Pompili, Maurizio; Contardi, Anna; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2016-08-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is considered a major risk factor for several disorders as well as for the development of eating psychopathology and adult obesity. The main aims of the present study were to assess in overweight and obese women: (i) the independent association between CT and food addiction (FA), and (ii) CT in patients with both FA and clinical-level of binge eating (BE), versus patients who only engage in FA or BE. Participants were 301 overweight and obese women seeking low-energy-diet therapy. All of the patients were administered self-report measures investigating FA, BE, CT, anxiety and depressive symptoms. CT severity was moderately and positively associated with both FA (r=0.37; p<0.001) and BE (r=0.36; p<0.001) severity. The association between FA and CT remained significant after controlling for potential confounding variables. Furthermore, compared to patients without dysfunctional eating patterns, the co-occurrence of FA and BE was associated with more severe CT as well as with more severe psychopathology (i.e., anxiety and depressive symptoms) and higher BMI. Our results suggest that clinicians should carefully assess the presence of CT in individuals who report dysfunctional eating patterns in order to develop treatment approaches specifically for obese and overweight patients with a history of CT. PMID:27442689

  6. A Risk Algorithm for Assessing Short–Term Mortality for Obese Black and White Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Lakoski, Susan G.; Mallick, Himel; McClure, Leslie A.; Safford, Monika; Kissela, Brett; Howard, George; Cushman, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a mortality risk algorithm for obese black and white men and women to elucidate risk factors prognostic of short-term mortality among obese persons. Methods Prospective cohort study. Reasons for geographic and racial differences in stroke (REGARDS) study, is a cohort of black and white men and women aged ≥45 years. Obese (≥30 kg m−2) participants in REGARDS (n = 11 288) were randomly assigned to the derivation data set or an independent validation set. Results During the mean follow-up period of 4.9 years, 8.9% (n = 504) in the derivation cohort and 8.7% (n = 492) in the validation cohort died. The best-fitting model based on data from the derivation cohort included demographic (age, sex), coronary heart disease (CHD) conditions (diabetes, systolic blood pressure, history of CHD), health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, alcohol use), and socioeconomic variables (income, use of physician services). The C-statistic when the model was applied to the validation cohort was 0.80. Observed and predicted rates of mortality were similar across deciles of mortality risk by race. Conclusions A risk algorithm was established and validated to predict mortality among black and white obese subjects based on CHD risk factors, behavioral risk factors, and socioeconomic status. PMID:24115735

  7. Healthy Moms, a randomized trial to promote and evaluate weight maintenance among obese pregnant women: study design and rationale

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy; Eckhardt, Cara; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Observational studies suggest that minimal or no gestational weight gain (GWG) may minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes for obese women. Objective This report describes the design of Healthy Moms, a randomized trial testing a weekly, group-based, weight management intervention designed to help limit GWG to 3% of weight (measured at the time of randomization) among obese pregnant women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2). Participants are randomized at 10–20 weeks gestation to either the intervention or a single dietary advice control condition. Primary Outcomes The study is powered for the primary outcome of total GWG, yielding a target sample size of 160 women. Additional secondary outcomes include weight change between randomization and one-year postpartum and proportion of infants with birth weight > 90th percentile for gestational age. Statistical analyses will be based on intention-to-treat. Methods Following randomization, all participants receive a 45-minute dietary consultation. They are encouraged to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet without sodium restriction. Intervention group participants receive an individualized calorie intake goal, a second individual counseling session and attend weekly group meetings until they give birth. Research staff assess all participants at 34-weeks gestation and at 2-weeks and one-year postpartum with their infants. Summary The Healthy Moms study is testing weight management techniques that have been used with non-pregnant adults. We aim to help obese women limit GWG to improve their long-term health and the health of their offspring. PMID:22465256

  8. VOCAL COMPLAINT, AUDITORY-PERCEPTUAL ASSESSMENT OF VOICE AND VOCAL SELF-ASSESSMENT IN WOMEN WITH MORBID OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; PERNAMBUCO, Leandro de Araujo; dos SANTOS, Marquiony Marques; da SILVA, Joana Cristina Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Background : Obese people often have altered breathing patterns and therefore may experience difficulties in voice production. Aim : To verify the presence of vocal complaints and the correlation between the auditory-perceptual analysis of voice and vocal self-assessment of a group of women with morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. Methods : A longitudinal, exploratory, descriptive study of 21 morbidly obese women aged between 28 and 68 years, assessed before and after bariatric surgery, was performed. The women filled out a form containing identification data and type of vocal complaint. Perceptual evaluation of voice and vocal self-assessment were performed using a visual analog scale. For perceptual assessment of voice the women were asked to say three sentences from the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. Results : Of the 21 patients, 14 (66.6%) reported vocal complaints, of which 10 (71%) vocal fatigue, eight (57.14%) voice failures and seven (50%) vocal effort. All participants reported improvements in the voice after surgery, irrespective of having reported vocal complaints before surgery. There was no correlation between vocal self-assessment and auditory-perceptual assessment of the voice before or after the procedure. There was no correlation between vocal self-assessment and perceptual evaluation of the voice before surgery. Conclusion : Obesity interfered with voice production and influenced negative perception and therefore vocal complaints. Complaints about vocal production cannot be perceived by a speech therapist with the same impact as by patients, as both employ different criteria for vocal evaluation. Vocal self-assessment is an important tool in voice evaluation. PMID:26537268

  9. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight. PMID:26108649

  10. A QTL on 12q influencing an inflammation marker and obesity in white women: the NHLBI Family Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Pankow, James S; Tracy, Russell P; North, Kari E; Myers, Richard H; Feitosa, Mary E; Province, Michael A; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2009-03-01

    It has been recognized that obese individuals are intrinsically in a state of chronic inflammation, as indicated by positive correlations between serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and various anthropometric measures of obesity. To explore the hypothesis that a gene(s) may underlie this relationship, we conducted bivariate linkage analyses of BMI and CRP in white and African-American (AA) families of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study (FHS). Variance components linkage analysis as implemented in SOLAR was performed in 1,825 whites (840 men and 985 women) and 548 AAs (199 men and 351 women). CRP exhibited significant genetic correlations with BMI in women (0.54 +/- 0.10 for white and 0.53 +/- 0.14 for AA) and the combined samples (0.37 +/- 0.09 for white and 0.56 +/- 0.13 for AA), but not in men. We detected a maximum bivariate lod score of 3.86 on chromosome 12q24.2-24.3 at 139 cM and a suggestive linkage signal (lod = 2.19) on chromosome 19p13.1 (44 cM) in white women. Both bivariate peaks were substantially higher than their respective univariate lods at the same locus for each trait. No significant lod scores were detected in AAs. Our results indicate that chromosome 12q may harbor quantitative trait loci (QTLs) jointly regulating BMI and CRP in white women.

  11. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  12. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  13. Long-Term Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Dietary Intake and Weight Loss in Iranian Obese/Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Mohammadi-Zeidi, Isa; Samadi, Mohammad; Chen, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI) could change dietary habit and body mass index (BMI) in obese/overweight women. Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled study was performed in four health centers in Qazvin, central Iran. In total, 327 obese/overweight women were selected by a multi-stage sampling method and randomly assigned into control and experimental groups. Food frequency (using questionnaire; FFQ), BMI, and metabolic markers including blood pressure, total serum cholesterol and fasting blood glucose levels were measured in all participants. Data were collected twice (before and one year after the MI interventions). Data were analyzed using student t-test, and Stepwise Linear Regression. Results: There was a significant increase in daily consumption of dietary fiber, whole grain products, fruits and vegetables in the MI group (P<0.05). The consumption of meat product, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate and total energy intake were also significantly reduced after MI intervention (P<0.05). As a result, body weight and BMI were significantly reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: MI is suggested to be an effective strategy to change life style and reduce BMI in overweight/obese women in the long term. This effect needs to be further investigated in different gender and age populations. PMID:25648690

  14. Effects of Whole Body Vibration and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density and Anthropometry in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of two exercise programs, whole body vibration and resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometry in obese postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. Eighty Egyptian obese postmenopausal women were enrolled in this study; their age ranged from 50 to 68 years. Their body mass index ranged (30–36 kg/m2). The exercise prescription consisted of whole body vibration (WBV) and resistance training. Bone mineral density (BMD) and anthropometrical parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of the study. Changes from baseline to eight months in BMD and anthropometric parameters were investigated. Results. BMD at the greater trochanter, at ward's triangle, and at lumbar spine were significantly higher after physical training, using both WBV and resistive training. Moreover, both exercise programs were effective in BMI and waist to the hip ratio. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity duration and BMD at all sites. The highest values of R2 were found for the models incorporating WBV plus BMI. Conclusion. The study suggests that both types of exercise modalities had a similar positive effect on BMD at all sites in obese postmenopausal women. Significant association was noted between physical activity and anthropometric variables and BMD measures at all sites. PMID:25136473

  15. The association among fat distribution, physical fitness, and the risk factors of cardiovascular disease in obese women.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Kakiyama, T; Takahara, K; Yamauchi, M; Tanaka, M; Sasaki, J; Taniguchi, T; Matsuo, H; Shindo, M

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether fat distribution and physical fitness are independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in obese women. Seventy-four obese women aged 19 to 65 years participated in this study. The data were collected on plasma lipid profiles, plasma glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test, blood pressure, fat distribution determined by the waist to hip ratio (WHR), total body fat determined by the hydrostatic weighing method and a direct measurement of blood lactate threshold. Significant correlations were found between WHR and plasma cholesterol (TC), plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) and LDL-c to the plasma HDL cholesterol ratio (LDL-c/HDL-c), independent of age, percent body fat, and VO2 per lean body mass at blood lactate threshold (LT). On the other hand, LT was significantly related to the area under the curve of insulin during OGTT (insulin area) and DBP, independent of age, percent body fat, and WHR. In conclusion, both fat distribution and physical fitness are considered to be independently related to some important risk factors in obese women after adjustment for percent body fat.

  16. Effects of aerobic exercise on plasma lipoproteins in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abazar, Elaheh; Taghian, Farzaneh; Mardanian, Farahnaz; Forozandeh, Dashti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders. The PCOS manifest by hyperandrogenism, hypertension and cholesterol and lipoprotein improper profiles. Changing the life style, e.g. increasing physical activities is the first approach in controlling PCOS. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after medical screening were divided in to two groups: Experimental group (n = 12) and control group (n = 12), with the average age, weight, height, BMI and WHR of 26.87 ± 4.43 years, 75.71 ± 10.65 kg. 159.29 ± 6.44 cm, 29.86 ± 3.22 kg/m2 and 91.75 ± 5.86 respectively. First the body composition such as BMI, WHR, percent body fat, weight and body fat mass were measured. In fasting blood samples the level of HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured. Then the experiment group underwent the effect of an aerobic exercise program. After 12 weeks, all the measured variables before intervention the test were re-measured. Correlated t-test was used for comparing the two groups before and after intervention the test and independent t-test was used for comparing the two groups (P < 0.05). Results: The results showed that after 12 weeks of exercise, BMI, WHR, fat rate, weight and fat mass and triglyceride had significant reduction and HDL had significant increase. But no significant changes happened in LDL, VLDL, and cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Reducing the weight by aerobic exercise in obese women and affected by PCOS can correct lipoprotein profile and improving health. PMID:25878993

  17. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women123

    PubMed Central

    Eiler, William JA; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl LH; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Objective: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Design: Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Results: Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level–dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Conclusions: Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02041039. PMID:24695888

  18. An Investigation of Generic Structures of Pakistani Doctoral Thesis Acknowledgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofess, Sakander; Mahmood, Muhammad Asim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates Pakistani doctoral thesis acknowledgements from genre analysis perspective. A corpus of 235 PhD thesis acknowledgements written in English was taken from Pakistani doctoral theses collected from eight different disciplines. HEC Research Repository of Pakistan was used as a data sources. The theses written by Pakistani…

  19. Greater Impulsivity is Associated with Decreased Brain Activation in Obese Women during a Delay Discounting Task

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckel, Luke E.; Murdaugh, Donna L.; Cox, James E.; Cook, Edwin W.; Weller, Rosalyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity and poor inhibitory control are associated with higher rates of delay discounting (DD) or a greater preference for smaller, more immediate rewards at the expense of larger, but delayed rewards. Of the many functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of DD, few have investigated the correlation between individual differences in DD rate and brain activation related to DD trial difficulty, with difficult DD trials expected to activate putative executive function brain areas involved in impulse control. In the current study, we correlated patterns of brain activation as measured by fMRI during difficult vs. easy trials of a DD task with DD rate (k) in obese women. Difficulty was defined by how much a reward choice deviated from an individual’s ‘indifference point’, or the point where the subjective preference for an immediate and a delayed reward was approximately equivalent. We found that greater delay discounting was correlated with less modulation of activation in putative executive function brain areas, such as the middle and superior frontal gyri and inferior parietal lobule, in response to difficult compared to easy DD trials. These results support the suggestion that increased impulsivity is associated with deficient functioning of executive function areas of the brain. PMID:22948956

  20. [Daily eating habits of obese women living in Rocinha Shanytown (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Magalhães, Rosana

    2011-06-01

    This article presents conclusions of research conducted at Ensp/Fiocruz, as part of a master's degree course. One of the objectives of the research to investigate the eating habits of women living in the Rocinha Shantytown (Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) from a socio-anthropological perspective. The results revealed that the eating habits of the group were repetitive, with few variations in the menu consisting basically of rice, bean, sugars and fats. We further observed the rejection of industrialized and canned products. This food consumption pattern seems to conform to Brazilian food culture revealing the preservation of the national identity based on feeding habits. Consequently, it is necessary to set aside presuppositions regarding the relationship between food consumption and obesity, especially with respect to the predominant idea of changes in diet with the incorporation of a "modern" or "western" diet that prevail in studies in the field of nutrition in Brazil. In this sense, we signaled the need to reassert a multidimensional approach for studies about food and nutrition in the country. This proposal involves overcoming restricted conceptual outlooks and the creation of new avenues of investigation.

  1. Relation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea to Coronary Artery Calcium in Non-obese versus Obese Men and Women Aged 45 – 75 Years

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Kip, Kevin E.; Aiyer, Aryan N.; Reis, Steven E.; Strollo, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep apnea and obesity are strongly associated and both increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Several cross-sectional studies have reported discrepant results regarding the role that obesity plays in the relation between sleep apnea and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary disease. The present study investigated the association between sleep apnea and presence of CAC in a community cohort of middle-aged men and women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, stratified by body mass index (BMI) (BMI < 30 versus ≥ BMI 30). Participants underwent electron beam computed tomography to measure CAC and underwent home sleep testing for sleep apnea. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score > 0. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using apnea hypopnea index (AHI). The sample was comprised of primarily males (61%) and Caucasians (56%), with a mean age of 61 years. The prevalence of CAC was 76%. Among participants with a BMI < 30 (n = 139), AHI ≥ 15 (compared to AHI < 5) was associated with a 2.7-fold odds of having CAC, but the effect only approached significance. Conversely, in participants with a BMI ≥ 30, sleep apnea was not independently associated CAC. In conclusion, sleep apnea is independently associated with early atherosclerotic plaque burden in non-obese individuals. PMID:25307200

  2. Effects of Gn-RH, TRH, and CRF administration on plasma leptin levels in lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, J; Jankiewicz-Wika, J; Stepień, H

    2000-04-01

    Leptin, a hormone which is produced by adipose tissue, has been shown to inhibit food intake, increase energy expenditure and influence the function of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal, -thyroid, and -adrenal systems. We have examined the association between leptin concentrations (RIA method) and levels of different hormones using standard Gn-RH, TRH and CRF tests (at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min) in regularly menstruating 10 lean and 10 obese premenopausal women in follicular phase. FSH, LH, estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) concentrations in Gn-RH test; TSH, PRL, fT3, fT4 in TRH test; ACTH, DHEA-S, cortisol in CRF test were measured by RIA, ELISA or IRMA methods. The obese subjects had thicker four skinfolds, higher fat content in the body, and bigger BMI, compared to the lean females. Gn-RH test: We have noted higher basal leptin values in obese women than in lean subjects, which was stable during the Gn-RH test. In the same blood specimen, basal insulin concentrations did not differ between the tested groups of patients. There were no correlations between E(2), P, or gonadotropins and plasma leptin concentrations between both groups of patients. We have revealed the negative correlation between LH mobilization (maximal incremental values over basal levels; Delta%) and baseline leptin concentrations in all observed subjects. TRH test: In both groups of patients the leptin levels decreased at 120 min of TRH administration. We have noted diminished PRL and TSH mobilisation in obese subjects in comparison to the controls. In all females (n = 20) the correlations between TSH or PRL mobilization and BMI, skinfold thickness and the mass of body fat in kg were negative. In obese subjects only we observed the positive correlations between fT(3)concentrations at 60 and 120 min of the test or Delta% of fT(3)and leptin levels. CRF test: In obese females, we noted higher basal ACTH and cortisol concentrations with decreased mobilization (Delta%) of ACTH or cortisol, as compared to

  3. Impaired insulin-mediated antilipolysis and lactate release in adipose tissue of upper-body obese women.

    PubMed

    Nellemann, Birgitte; Gormsen, Lars C; Sørensen, Lars P; Christiansen, Jens S; Nielsen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Upper-body/visceral obesity is associated with abnormalities of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism and greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared with lower-body obesity. In lean subjects lipolysis is readily suppressed by insulin; however, metabolic inflexibility with respect to antilipolysis is a frequent finding in obesity, partly determined by body composition. This study investigates effects of insulin on regional adipose tissue lipolysis and lactate levels in upper-body overweight/obese (UBO), lower-body overweight/obese (LBO), and lean women. The microdialysis technique was used to assess adipose tissue glycerol and lactate concentrations in abdominal and femoral fat during a 5-h basal period and a 2-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. The main findings were that the antilipolytic effect of insulin was attenuated in abdominal fat of UBO (glycerol reduction, abd (%): UBO 40.4 (-14 to 66), LBO 46.0 (-8 to 66), lean 66.2 (2-78), ANOVA, P < 0.05), and in femoral fat in both obese groups (glycerol reduction, fem (%): UBO 44.4 (35-67), LBO 44.4 (0-63), lean 65.0 (43-79), ANOVA, P < 0.05). Further, abdominal fat insulin-mediated increase in lactate concentration was greater in lean women compared with UBO women (lactate increase, abd (%): UBO -6.1 (-37.1 to 57.4), LBO 16.5 (-32.2 to 112.5), lean 51.4 (-45.7 to 162.9), P < 0.05), whereas no differences were found between groups in femoral fat (lactate increase, fem (%), UBO -12.9 (-43 to 24), LBO 12.7 (-30.7 to 92), lean 27.6 (-9.5 to 123.8), not significant). Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) increased significantly and similarly in all groups. So, UBO women were metabolically inflexible with respect to insulins antilipolytic and lactate increasing effects in abdominal adipose tissue. These phenomena are probably both consequences of insulin resistance of adipose tissue. PMID:21959346

  4. Disparities in Risk Factors Associated with Obesity between Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland among Women of Reproductive Age Based on the 2010 TDHS

    PubMed Central

    Mtumwa, Abdalla H.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Vuai, Said A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82) to be affected by obesity as compared to women from Zanzibar (12.19%). The common predictors of obesity in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar were wealth index, marital status, and age. Whereas the place of residence and education level emerged as predictors of obesity in the Mainland Tanzania alone, the number of meals per day did so in Zanzibar. Most importantly, Zanzibar had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to Mainland Tanzania. PMID:27721990

  5. Smoking as subculture? Influence on Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women's attitudes toward smoking and obesity.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Lisa; MacKirnan, David; Spring, Bonnie; Pingitore, Regina; Sommerfeld, Beth Kaplan

    2002-05-01

    Cultural stereotypes might help explain why smoking is less prevalent among Hispanic than non-Hispanic White women, whereas obesity is more prevalent. Hispanic (n = 130) and non-Hispanic White (n = 114) women rated their thoughts and feelings regarding a female smoker and an overweight woman. Ethnicity did not influence evaluations, but attitudes toward smokers were more positive among more acculturated Hispanic women, F(1, 66) = 9.9, p < .01. Less acculturated women evaluated an overweight woman more positively than a smoker, F(1, 28) = 5.65, p < .05; more acculturated women did the opposite, F( 1, 36) = 5.92, p < .05. Smokers evaluated smokers more positively than overweight women, F(1, 86) = 40.8, p < .01; nonsmokers did the opposite, F(l, 138) = 7.7, p < .01. Personal body weight did not influence evaluations. Acculturation and smoking status appear to have a greater influence than ethnicity or weight status on women's attitudes toward smoking and weight.

  6. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  7. Combined whole-body vibration training and l-citrulline supplementation improves pressure wave reflection in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexei; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Jaime, Salvador J; Kinsey, Amber W; Spicer, Maria T; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Figueroa, Arturo

    2016-03-01

    Postmenopausal women have increased wave reflection (augmentation pressure (AP) and index (AIx)) and reduced muscle function that predispose them to cardiac diseases and disability. Our aim was to examine the combined and independent effects of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) and l-citrulline supplementation on aortic hemodynamics and plasma nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) in postmenopausal women. Forty-one obese postmenopausal women were randomized to 3 groups: l-citrulline, WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo for 8 weeks. Brachial and aortic systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, AP, AIx, AIx adjusted to 75 beats/min (AIx@75), and NOx were measured before and after 8 weeks. All groups similarly decreased (P < 0.05) brachial and aortic pressures as well as AP, and similarly increased (P < 0.05) NOx levels. AIx and AIx@75 decreased (P < 0.01) in the WBVT+l-citrulline and WBVT+Placebo groups, but not in the l-citrulline group. The improvement in AIx@75 (-10.5% ± 8.8%, P < 0.05) in the WBVT+l-citrulline group was significant compared with the l-citrulline group. l-Citrulline supplementation and WBVT alone and combined decreased blood pressures. The combined intervention reduced AIx@75. This study supports the effectiveness of WBVT+l-citrulline as a potential intervention for prevention of hypertension-related cardiac diseases in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26863234

  8. Delay discounting and intake of ready-to-eat and away-from-home foods in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L; DeBiasse, Michelle A; Debiasse, Michelle A; Whited, Matthew C; Lynch, Elizabeth B

    2012-10-01

    A shift from home-prepared to away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods has occurred in recent decades, which has implications for obesity and health. This study tested whether delay discounting, a facet of impulsivity reflecting sensitivity to immediate reward, is associated with the frequency of consumption and typical amount consumed of home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods among overweight and obese women. Seventy-eight participants completed a binary choice task assessing discounting of delayed monetary rewards. Nutrient analysis of weighed food records characterized dietary intake over seven consecutive days. Foods were categorized as home-prepared, away-from-home, or ready-to-eat by a registered dietitian from information provided by participants. Delay discounting was not associated with the frequency of consuming home-prepared, away-from-home, and ready-to-eat foods as reflected in the percentages of recorded foods or total energy intake from each category. However, once consuming away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods (but not home-prepared foods), impulsive women consumed more energy than less impulsive women. Exploratory analyses indicated that more impulsive women chose away-from-home foods with a higher energy density (kcal/g). Impulsivity was associated with the quantity of away-from-home and ready-to-eat foods consumed, but not the frequency of their consumption. Home food preparation may be critical to weight control for impulsive individuals.

  9. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  10. The relationship between obesity and health related quality of life of women in a Turkish city with a high prevalence of obesity.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Gonul; Eser, Erhan; Saatli, Gül L; Cihan, Umit Atman; Oral, Ahmet; Baydur, Hakan; Ozcan, Cemil

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between body weight and HRQOL in a representative sample of nonpregnant women in reproductive age period. The data of this cross-sectional study was extracted from a survey: Manisa Demographic and Health Survey (MDHS) conducted in Manisa city in 2000. The study population of MDHS is a representative sample of 1602 reproductive (15-49) age women. World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF), which was composed of four domain factors (physical, psychological, social relations and the environment), was used to assess HRQOL. Each of four domains had a possible score ranged between 0 (poor HRQOL) and 20 (excellent HRQOL). The mean age of the women was 35.29+/- 8.19 years. Among them, 35.8 % had normal weight (BMI 18.5 to 24.9), 32.3 % were overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9) while 31.9 % were moderate and 3.4% were morbidly obese. After adjusting for age, level of education and co-morbid illnesses, subjects with a BMI higher than normal value, had significantly lower HRQOL scores, compared to normal-weight individuals on each of the domains, except for the environmental domain. Our results suggested that the body weight alone could negatively affect HRQOL. In other words, obesity not only increased the risk of morbidity and mortality, but also affected the perceived health and life quality negatively. In conclusion, in addition to age, socioeconomic status and co-morbid illnesses, body weight should also be controlled in studies examining HRQOL.

  11. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks.

  12. Dietary patterns of obese and normal-weight women of reproductive age in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Yulia; Khusun, Helda; Fahmida, Umi

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries including Indonesia imperatively require an understanding of factors leading to the emerging problem of obesity, especially within low socio-economic groups, whose dietary pattern may contribute to obesity. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the dietary patterns and food consumption of 103 obese and 104 normal-weight women of reproductive age (19-49 years) in urban slum areas in Central Jakarta. A single 24-h food recall was used to assess energy and macronutrient intakes (carbohydrate, protein and fat) and calculate energy density. A principal component analysis was used to define the dietary patterns from the FFQ. Obese women had significantly higher intakes of energy (8436·6 (sd 2358·1) v. 7504·4 (sd 1887·8) kJ (2016·4 (sd 563·6) v. 1793·6 (sd 451·2) kcal)), carbohydrate (263·9 (sd 77·0) v. 237·6 (sd 63·0) g) and fat (83·11 (sd 31·3) v. 70·2 (sd 26·1) g) compared with normal-weight women; however, their protein intake (59·4 (sd 19·1) v. 55·9 (sd 18·5) g) and energy density (8·911 (sd 2·30) v. 8·58 (sd 1·88) kJ/g (2·13 (sd 0·55) v. 2·05 (sd 0·45) kcal/g)) did not differ significantly. Two dietary patterns were revealed and subjectively named 'more healthy' and 'less healthy'. The 'less healthy' pattern was characterised by the consumption of fried foods (snacks, soyabean and roots and tubers) and meat and poultry products, whereas the more healthy pattern was characterised by the consumption of seafood, vegetables, eggs, milk and milk products and non-fried snacks. Subjects with a high score for the more healthy pattern had a lower obesity risk compared with those with a low score. Thus, obesity is associated with high energy intake and unhealthy dietary patterns characterised by consumption of oils and fats through fried foods and snacks. PMID:26931206

  13. Obesity as an independent risk factor for elective and emergency caesarean delivery in nulliparous women--systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Poobalan, A S; Aucott, L S; Gurung, T; Smith, W C S; Bhattacharya, S

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the association between increasing maternal body mass index (BMI) and elective/emergency caesarean delivery rates. Systematic review and meta-analysis of published cohort studies were used. The bibliographic databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, were searched systematically, with no language restrictions, from 1996 to May 2007. MeSH terms and key words for 'pregnancy', 'obesity', 'overweight,''body mass index' and 'caesarean section' were combined with the Cochrane Collaboration strategy for identifying primary studies. Finally, 11 papers were considered eligible for inclusion in the review. Although all the papers were cohort studies, only three were prospective in nature. Compared with women with normal BMI (20-25 kg m(-2)), the crude pooled odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for caesarean section in overweight (BMI 25-30 kg m(-2)), obese (BMI 30-35 kg m(-2)) and morbidly obese (BMI > 35 kg m(-2)) women were 1.53 (1.48, 1.58), 2.26 (2.04, 2.51) and 3.38 (2.49, 4.57) respectively. The pooled odds of having an emergency caesarean section were 1.64 (95% confidence intervals 1.55, 1.73) in overweight and 2.23 (2.07, 2.42) in obese women. Caesarean delivery risk is increased by 50% in overweight women and is more than double for obese women compared with women with normal BMI. PMID:19021871

  14. Relationships of serum soluble E-selectin concentration with insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility in lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Adamska, Agnieszka; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika; Nikołajuk, Agnieszka; Otziomek, Elżbieta; Górska, Maria; Kowalska, Irina; Strączkowski, Marek

    2014-04-01

    The markers of endothelial dysfunction, including soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), are related to insulin resistance, which is associated with metabolic inflexibility, i.e., impaired stimulation of carbohydrate oxidation and impaired inhibition of lipid oxidation by insulin. Endothelial dysfunction may also be important in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to analyze the association of sE-selectin with insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility in lean and obese women. We examined 22 lean women (BMI < 25 kg m(-2)) and 26 overweight or obese women (BMI > 25 kg m(-2)) with normal glucose tolerance. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and indirect calorimetry were performed. An increase in the respiratory exchange ratio in response to insulin was used as a measure of metabolic flexibility. Obese women had lower insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01), higher plasma sE-selectin (P = 0.007), and higher the metabolic syndrome total Z-score (MS Z-score) (P < 0.0001). Insulin sensitivity was negatively correlated with sE-selectin level (r = -0.24, P = 0.04). sE-selectin was associated with the rate of carbohydrate oxidation at the baseline state (r = 0.31, P = 0.007) and was negatively correlated with metabolic flexibility (r = -0.34, P = 0.003). MS Z-score correlated positively with sE-selectin level and negatively with metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001, r = -0.29, P = 0.04, r = -0.51, P < 0.0001, respectively). In multiple regression analysis we observed that the relationship between metabolic flexibility and sE-selectin (β = -0.36; P = 0.004) was independent of the other evaluated factors. Our data suggest that endothelial dysfunction as assessed by plasma sE-selectin is associated with metabolic flexibility, inversely and independently of the other estimated factors. PMID:23934358

  15. Relationships of serum soluble E-selectin concentration with insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility in lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Adamska, Agnieszka; Karczewska-Kupczewska, Monika; Nikołajuk, Agnieszka; Otziomek, Elżbieta; Górska, Maria; Kowalska, Irina; Strączkowski, Marek

    2014-04-01

    The markers of endothelial dysfunction, including soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), are related to insulin resistance, which is associated with metabolic inflexibility, i.e., impaired stimulation of carbohydrate oxidation and impaired inhibition of lipid oxidation by insulin. Endothelial dysfunction may also be important in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of our study was to analyze the association of sE-selectin with insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility in lean and obese women. We examined 22 lean women (BMI < 25 kg m(-2)) and 26 overweight or obese women (BMI > 25 kg m(-2)) with normal glucose tolerance. A hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and indirect calorimetry were performed. An increase in the respiratory exchange ratio in response to insulin was used as a measure of metabolic flexibility. Obese women had lower insulin sensitivity (P < 0.01), higher plasma sE-selectin (P = 0.007), and higher the metabolic syndrome total Z-score (MS Z-score) (P < 0.0001). Insulin sensitivity was negatively correlated with sE-selectin level (r = -0.24, P = 0.04). sE-selectin was associated with the rate of carbohydrate oxidation at the baseline state (r = 0.31, P = 0.007) and was negatively correlated with metabolic flexibility (r = -0.34, P = 0.003). MS Z-score correlated positively with sE-selectin level and negatively with metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity (r = 0.49, P < 0.0001, r = -0.29, P = 0.04, r = -0.51, P < 0.0001, respectively). In multiple regression analysis we observed that the relationship between metabolic flexibility and sE-selectin (β = -0.36; P = 0.004) was independent of the other evaluated factors. Our data suggest that endothelial dysfunction as assessed by plasma sE-selectin is associated with metabolic flexibility, inversely and independently of the other estimated factors.

  16. The effects of aspartame versus sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in obese and lean women.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Massien, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J; Fricker, J; Chapelot, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1994-08-01

    This study examined the effects of four breakfast preloads of different sweetness and energy content on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes of 12 obese and 12 lean women. The preloads consisted of creamy white cheese (fromage blanc) and were either plain, sweetened with sucrose or aspartame, or sweetened with aspartame and supplemented with maltodextrin. Their energy content was either 300 kcal (1,255 kJ) or 700 kcal (2,929 kJ). Motivational ratings of hunger and the desire to eat were obtained prior to and at 30 min intervals after breakfast. Taste preferences were measured prior to and 150 min after breakfast. The subjects ate buffet-style lunch, snack, and dinner meals in the laboratory. Obese women consumed significantly more energy at meals (2,596 kcal or 10,862 kJ) than did lean women (1,484 kcal or 6,209 kJ); derived a greater proportion of energy from fat (39.9% vs. 35.5%), and had lower dietary carbohydrate-to-fat ratios. Consumption of low-energy as opposed to high-energy breakfast preloads was associated with elevated motivational ratings by noon. However, energy intakes at lunch, snack, or dinner did not vary as a function of preload type, and no compensation was observed for the energy consumed at breakfast. Taste preferences were not affected by preload ingestion or by preload type. The study provided no evidence that aspartame promotes hunger or results in increased energy intakes in obese or in lean women.

  17. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marina; Darimont, Christian; Drapeau, Vicky; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Lepage, Melissa; Rezzonico, Enea; Ngom-Bru, Catherine; Berger, Bernard; Philippe, Lionel; Ammon-Zuffrey, Corinne; Leone, Patricia; Chevrier, Genevieve; St-Amand, Emmanuelle; Marette, André; Doré, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo

    2014-04-28

    The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, each subject consumed two capsules per d of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (1.6 × 10(8) colony-forming units of LPR/capsule with oligofructose and inulin). Each group was submitted to moderate energy restriction for the first 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition were measured at baseline, at week 12 and at week 24. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P = 0.02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0.53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss.

  18. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M.; Giera, Martin; el Bouazzaoui, Fatiha; Lips, Mirjam A.; Pijl, Hanno; Willems van Dijk, Ko; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT. PMID:26378572

  19. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  20. CLINICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS IN OBESE WOMEN DURING THE FIRST YEAR AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    dos SANTOS, Tiago Dália; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo; de LEMOS, Maria da Conceição Chaves; CABRAL, Poliana Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinic care for morbid obesity is not very effective. Bariatric surgery is being considered the best way of intervention for this kind of obesity. Aim : Evaluate the clinical and nutritional evolution during the first year of obese women submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method : Retrospective series non-concurrent with 61 women. The variables were weight, BMI, weight loss percentage, loss of excessive weight percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, lipid profile, daily use of supplements, practice of physical exercise, occurrence of sickness, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, asthenia, alopecia, dry skin, cramps and brittle nails. Results : They presented significant weight and IMC reduction as well as improvement in their lipid profile, in all consultations. After one year they presented 36,6% loss of the initial weight and 75% loss of excessive weight. The waist circumference also presented a considerable reduction on all the moments, decreasing from 122,1±13,4 cm to 94,1±10,6 cm. Regarding the intercurrences, the most frequent were alopecia, asthenia, dry skin and cramps. Conclusion : The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in promoting and maintenance weight loss during the period of the first postoperative year. PMID:26537276

  1. The Combined Effects of Tai Chi, Resistance Training, and Diet on Physical Function and Body Composition in Obese Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Maris, S. A.; Quintanilla, D.; Taetzsch, A.; Picard, A.; Letendre, J.; Mahler, L.; Lofgren, I.; Xu, F.; Delmonico, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the USA, especially in minority populations over the age of 60 years, and the aging process can cause adverse effects on physical function. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi, resistance training (RT), and diet result in overall health improvements. However, the combination of these specific interventions has yet to be translated to obese older women in an urban setting. The purpose of this study was to examine a combined intervention on the primary outcomes of physical function and body composition. Using a nonrandomized design, 26 obese women (65.2 ± 8.1 years) completed a 12-week intervention; participants were assigned to an intervention (EXD) group or a control (CON) group. The EXD group (n = 17) participated in Tai Chi, RT, and a dietary session. The CON group (n = 9) was asked to continue their normal lifestyle. Timed up and go (TUG) time was reduced by 0.64 ± 2.1 seconds (P = 0.04) in the EXD group while the CON group saw a borderline significant increase of 0.71 sec (P = 0.051). The combined intervention helped improve performance on TUG time, but there were no significant increases in other body composition or function measures. PMID:25614836

  2. Brazilian nut consumption improves selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduces atherogenic risk in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cominetti, Cristiane; de Bortoli, Maritsa C; Garrido, Arthur B; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that there are inverse relationships between nut consumption and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study tested the hypothesis that daily consumption of Brazilian nuts would have a positive effect upon selenium (Se) status, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, lipid profile, and atherogenic risk in severely obese women. Thirty-seven severely obese women each consumed 1 Brazilian nut a day (290 μg of Se a day) for 8 weeks. Blood Se concentrations, total erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, lipid profile, and Castelli I and II indexes were evaluated before and after the nuts consumption. All the patients were Se deficient at baseline; this deficiency was remedied by the consumption of the Brazilian nut (P < .0001). The intake of Brazilian nuts promoted a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < .00001), which then resulted in a significant improvement of the Castelli I (P < .0002) and II (P < .0004) indexes. This study shows that obese people who implement daily consumption of Brazilian nuts can improve both Se status and lipid profile, especially high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, thereby reducing cardiovascular risks.

  3. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  4. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides in obese diabetic women after bariatric surgery: a 2-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Kunešová, M; Sedláčková, B; Bradnová, O; Tvrzická, E; Staňková, B; Šrámková, P; DoleŽalová, K; Kalousková, P; Hlavatý, P; Hill, M; Bendlová, B; Fried, M; Hainer, V; Vrbíková, J

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective method in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of bariatric procedures on remission of T2DM and on the fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Patients included obese diabetic women who underwent bariatric surgery: biliopancreatic diversion (BPD), n=8, laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB), n=9 or laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP), n=12. Anthropometric characteristics and fatty acid composition of adipose tissue (FA AT) were analyzed before surgery, then 6 months and 2 years after surgery. FA AT was analyzed by gas chromatography. Diabetes remission was estimated. BPD was most efficient in inducing a remission of diabetes (p=0.004). Significantly higher increases in lauric (12:0), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and palmitoleic (16:1n-7) acids and delta-9 desaturase were found two years after BPD, suggesting higher lipogenesis in adipose tissue. Docosatetraenoic acid (22:4n-6) increased significantly after BPD, while docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3) decreased 6 months after BPD and increased after 2 years. No changes were found after LAGB and LGCP after 2 years. Bariatric surgery led to significant changes in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose tissue in severely obese diabetic women after six months and two years, and was partly influenced by the type of surgery used. PMID:26680476

  5. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  6. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women.

  7. Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Lind, Erik; Vazou, Spiridoula

    2010-01-01

    At least 60 min of daily physical activity (PA) are recommended for weight control, a target achieved by only 3% of obese (OB) women. The purposes of this study were to examine (i) the affective responses of normal-weight (NW), overweight (OW), and OB middle-aged sedentary women to exercise of increasing intensity and (ii) the relationship of affective responses to self-efficacy and social physique anxiety. The women participated in a graded treadmill protocol to volitional exhaustion while providing ratings of pleasure-displeasure and perceived activation each minute. The Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD ACL) was also completed before and after exercise. The affective responses of NW and OW women did not differ. However OB women gave lower pleasure ratings during the incremental protocol and reported lower Energy scores immediately after the protocol. Social physique anxiety, but not self-efficacy, was inversely related to pleasure and energy. The lower levels of pleasure and energy experienced by OB than nonobese women could account in part for their dramatically low levels of PA participation. Modifying the cognitive antecedents of social physique anxiety might be a useful intervention strategy.

  8. Bone minerals changes in obese women during a moderate weight loss with and without calcium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L B; Kollerup, G; Quaade, F; Sørensen, O H

    2001-01-01

    A significant relationship between body weight (BW) and bone mass (BM) has been established previously. A diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by a significant decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and total body bone mineral (TBBM), but the underlying mechanisms are not clarified. Sixty-two obese women were included in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and measurements of a series of calcium-regulating hormones and biochemical markers of bone turnover were performed at baseline and after 1 month and 3 months on a low calorie diet. Thirty of the women were randomized to a daily supplement of 1 g of calcium. After an additional 3 months without dietary prescriptions or calcium supplements, a subgroup of 48 subjects (24 from each group) were scanned again using DXA. There was a significant decrease in TBBM after 1 month and 3 months. A similar pattern was observed in the bone mineral content (BMC) of the lumbar spine in the patients who did not receive a calcium supplement, whereas no changes occurred in the supplemented group. The initial calcium supplementation seemed to protect against bone loss in the lumbar spine but not in the TBBM. In the nonsupplemented group, a statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the calcium/creatinine ratio in the morning urine and the changes in BMC of the lumbar spine. Such a relationship was not seen in the calcium-supplemented group. In the nonsupplemented group, no significant biochemical changes were observed, whereas a significant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) was seen in the calcium-supplemented group. This might explain some of the protective effects of calcium supplementation on trabecular bone mass. We conclude that a diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by a generalized bone loss, which probably is explained mainly by a reduced mechanical strain on the skeleton. This loss can be partly inhibited by a high calcium intake. Therefore, a calcium supplementation should

  9. Sulphate, acid-base, and mineral balances of obese women during weight loss.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, M; Glock, C; Margen, S; Bradfield, R B

    1980-02-01

    Four obese women, each at least 50% above their expected weight for height were maintained in the metabolic unit for 63 days on liquid formula diets of differing protein and calorie content. We made the following findings: 1) When 12 g protein nitrogen was consumed, 1 mEq of acid was excreted in the urine for every 2 mEq of urinary sulphate. 2) On a protein-free diet more acid was excreted in the urine than could be accounted for by oxidation of sulphur to the sulphate which was excreted in the urine. 3) Both increased consumption of protein and a restriction of dietary calories was associated with an increase of urinary acid. 4) Urinary sulphur excretion was closely correlated with nitrogen intake and urinary urea nitrogen excretion. However, on a protein-free diet the ratio of total nitrogen to sulphur in the urine was greater than when 12 g protein nitrogen was consumed. 5) There is some evidence that when total calorie intake was reduced at a level of 12 g protein nitrogen intake, the ratio of urinary urea nitrogen to urinary sulfur decreased. This suggests selective retention of some nonsulphur containing amino acids and/or selective oxidation of sulphur-containing amino acids. 6) In general, urinary calcium and magnesium excretions were depressed both with a decrease in protein consumption and a decrease in caloric intake. 7) The urinary excretions of calcium and magnesium showed a tendency to fall during the 63 days of the experiment. 8) The urinary and fecal phosphorus excretion remained constant during the various metabolic periods of the experiment. PMID:7355797

  10. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0 kg/m2; Age 24.3±4.6 y) participated in 3 counter-balanced study days where a standardized meal was preceded by: 1) No exercise (NoEx), 2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and 3) IntEx(4 min (80% VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280 min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (P<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (P<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (P<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response. PMID:26188172

  11. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women.

    PubMed

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (p<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (p<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (p<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response.

  12. Delayed reward discounting and grit in men and women with and without obesity

    PubMed Central

    Seiden, Andrew; Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Bickel, Warren K.; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The objective of this study was to examine how sensitivity to short‐term reward and long‐term goal perseverance are related to body mass index (BMI; kg m2) in a large sample of men and women with and without obesity. Methods A total of 450 participants (56.2% male; 73.1% non‐Hispanic White) with mean ± standard deviation age of 30.7 ± 10.4 years and BMI of 29.3 ± 8.2 completed online versions of the Delayed Reward Discounting task to measure sensitivity to short‐term reward and the Grit Scale to measure long‐term goal perseverance. Results In regression analysis, higher sensitivity to short‐term reward (i.e. a preference for receiving smaller rewards after a shorter delay; b = 0.49, p = 0.016) and lower long‐term goal perseverance (b = −1.26, p = 0.042) were independently associated with higher BMIs. Individuals with a favourable score on one measure were not ‘protected’ from the risk associated with an unfavourable score on the other measure. Conclusions An overvaluation of short‐term reward (e.g. the taste of palatable food and the comfort of engaging in sedentary activities) and undervaluation of long‐term health goals (e.g. achieving a healthy weight and avoiding obesity‐related comorbidities) may contribute to excess weight. Additional research incorporating prospective experimental designs is needed to determine whether decision‐making strategies can be targeted to improve weight management.

  13. REDUCED GLUTEAL EXPRESSION OF ADIPOGENIC AND LIPOGENIC GENES IN BLACK SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN IS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY-RELATED INSULIN RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Goedecke, Julia H.; Evans, Juliet; Keswell, Dheshnie; Stimson, Roland H.; Livingstone, Dawn E.W.; Hayes, Philip; Adams, Kevin; Dave, Joel A.; Victor, Hendriena; Levitt, Naomi S.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Walker, Brian R.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Olsson, Tommy; Kahn, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Black South African women are less insulin sensitive than their white counterparts, despite less central and greater peripheral fat deposition. We hypothesized that this paradox may be explained, in part, by differences in the adipogenic capacity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Objective To measure adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots, and determine their relationships with insulin sensitivity (SI) in South African women. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 14 normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m2) black, 13 normal-weight white, 14 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) black and 13 obese white premenopausal South African women. Main outcomes SI (frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test) in relation to expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in abdominal and gluteal SAT depots. Results With increasing BMI, black women had less visceral fat (P=0.03) and more abdominal (P=0.017) and gynoid (P=0.041) SAT but had lower SI (P<0.01) than white women. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes was proportionately lower with obesity in black, but not white women in the gluteal and deep SAT depots (P<0.05 for ethnicity x BMI effect). In black women only, the expression of these genes correlated positively with SI (all P<0.05), independently of age and fat mass. Conclusions Obese black women have reduced SAT expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes compared to white women, which associates with reduced SI. These findings suggest that obesity in black women impairs SAT adipogenesis and storage, potentially leading to insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21956425

  14. Sex-specific regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1: Differential implication in anxiety in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 is cleaved from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) and implicated in the regulation of hunger and satiety as anorexigenic peptide hormone. Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is elevated in obesity and decreased in anorexia nervosa. In addition, a role in the regulation of stress, anxiety and depression has been demonstrated. First evidence suggested that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Thus, we investigated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels in association with perceived stress, anxiety and depressiveness in obese men and women. We enrolled 140 inpatients (87 female, 53 male; body mass index, BMI, 30.3-81.7 kg/m(2)) hospitalized due to obesity with mental and somatic comorbidities. Perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and depressiveness (PHQ-9) were measured psychometrically, and at the same time NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels by ELISA. Males and females did not differ in terms of age and BMI. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 did not show a correlation with age or BMI. Mean NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (+25%, p<0.001) as well as mean scores for perceived stress (+26%, p < 0.01), anxiety (+54%, p < 0.001) and depressiveness (+32%, p = 0.02) were higher in females compared to males. Scores for perceived stress (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and depressiveness (r = 0.35; p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in women, while in men no correlation was observed (p>0.19). The strongest association was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and anxiety with a positive correlation in women (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), while in men even an inverse correlation was found (r = -0.32; p = 0.03). This result was reflected in higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in women with high versus low anxiety (+51%, p<0.001) and an opposite alteration in men (-17%, p = 0.04) after a median split into two groups with high and low anxiety. In conclusion, circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 showed a positive correlation with anxiety, perceived stress, and depressiveness in obese women. In men, no

  15. Relevance of Haematologic Parameters in Obese Women with or without Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Vijayashree; Gunasekar, Damini

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is rapidly growing problem worldwide. It predisposes to a variety of serious ailments including heart disease, diabetes mellitus, degenerative joint disease, atherosclerosis, etc. This is probably related to proinflammatory state associated with obesity due to release of several inflammatory mediators by the adipose tissue. The mediators are also probably responsible for metabolic syndrome associated with obesity. Besides, they may also induce significant changes in haematological parameters associated with inflammation. Aim Present study was undertaken to ascertain the relationship between obesity and leucocyte counts (particularly TLC and ANC) and find out if the changes induced in them are significant enough to be used as predictors of metabolic syndrome. Materials and Methods This case-control study was carried out on 243 female subjects allocated to four groups based on WHO and IDF criteria: Control, Overweight, Obese and Obese with Metabolic Syndrome. From all the subjects, data pertaining to obesity related anthropometric measurements, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose levels and complete blood counts were collected. These were analysed statistically. Results There was a strong positive correlation between obesity related anthropometric measurements (BMI, BF, WC) and leucocyte counts – TLC and ANC – which were statistically highly significant; TNC and ANC also showed strong positive correlation with FPG. Mean values for TLC and ANC showed statistically significant difference between each and every group. The difference in the mean values of these parameters between obese and metabolic syndrome was highly significant. Both elevated FPG and BMI were independently associated with relative leucocytosis; when both of them were elevated simultaneously, the effect appeared to be potentiating. Conclusion Increase in obesity associated anthropometric measurements (BMI, WC, BF) is associated with relative leucocytosis within the

  16. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  17. Effect on Insulin-Stimulated Release of D-Chiro-Inositol-Containing Inositolphosphoglycan Mediator during Weight Loss in Obese Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sistrun, Sakita N.; Morel, Kelley S.; Nestler, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A deficiency of D-chiro-inositol-inositolphosphoglycan mediator (DCI-IPG) may contribute to insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whether the relationship between impaired DCI-IPG release and insulin resistance is specific to PCOS rather than obesity is unknown. We assessed insulin-released DCI-IPG and its relationship to insulin sensitivity at baseline and after weight loss in obese women with and without PCOS. Methods. Obese PCOS (n = 16) and normal (n = 15) women underwent 8 weeks of a hypocaloric diet. The Matsuda index, area under the curve DCI-IPG (AUCDCI-IPG), AUCinsulin, and AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin were measured during a 2 hr OGTT at baseline and 8 weeks. Results. PCOS women had lower AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin at baseline and a significant relationship between AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin and Matsuda index (p = 0.0003), which was not present in controls. Weight loss was similar between PCOS (−4.08 kg) and normal women (−4.29 kg, p = 0.6281). Weight loss in PCOS women did not change the relationship between AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin and Matsuda index (p = 0.0100), and this relationship remained absent in control women. Conclusion. The association between AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin and insulin sensitivity was only found in PCOS but not in normal women, and this relationship was unaffected by weight loss. DCI and its messenger may contribute to insulin resistance in PCOS independent of obesity. PMID:27721826

  18. Common Variations in Perilipin Gene, Central Obesity, and Risk of Type 2 diabetes in US Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The variations in perilipin gene (PLIN) were previously associated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We examined whether PLIN variability was associated with diabetes risk and whether obesity status modified such associations. Research Methods and Procedures: We conducted a nested cas...

  19. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  20. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Tulio C.; Pires, Alause S.; Paula, Roberta S.; Moraes, Clayton F.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Vianna, Lucy G.; Nobrega, Otávio T.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = −0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women. PMID:23055794

  1. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Lins, Tulio C; Pires, Alause S; Paula, Roberta S; Moraes, Clayton F; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Vianna, Lucy G; Nobrega, Otávio T; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = -0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women.

  2. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Retinol Binding Protein4, Insulin Resistance and Blood Lipids in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    TAGHIAN, Farzaneh; ZOLFAGHARI, Maryam; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Retinol binding protein4 (RBP4) is a type of adipokine which transports vitamin A to serum. RBP4 could be a bridge between obesity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercises on RBP4 serum’s concentration and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese women. Methods Twenty obese women with body max index 35.81±3.67Kg/m2, fat percentage 43.98±4.02, and waist to hip ratio 1.03±0.05 were included and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received aerobic exercises for a period of 12 weeks each three sessions on treadmill workout. The treadmill speed were based on a 60-65 and 80-85 maximal heart rate percentage and duration of 15-20 and 45-50 minutes, at the beginning and the end of exercise, respectively. Body composition, serum glucose, insulin, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and RBP4, were measured in both groups before and after the treatment by ELISA method. Insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR. To compare within group differences and between group comparisons t-correlated and t-independent tests were used, respectively. Results After 12 week aerobic exercises; weight, fat percentage, WHR, and BMI in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). RBP4, insulin, insulin resistance, TG and HDL-C had significant differences between two groups. The cholesterol level, LDL-C and glucose did not have any significant changes. Conclusion The aerobic exercises can decrease body composition, insulin resistance, TG, and RBP4, so it can be beneficial for obese women’s health, because it. PMID:26060767

  3. Defects in Mitochondrial Efficiency and H2O2 Emissions in Obese Women Are Restored to a Lean Phenotype With Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Asante, Albert; Lanza, Ian R.; Robinson, Matthew M.; Johnson, Matthew L.; Dalla Man, Chiara; Cobelli, Claudio; Amols, Mark H.; Irving, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The notion that mitochondria contribute to obesity-induced insulin resistance is highly debated. Therefore, we determined whether obese (BMI 33 kg/m2), insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome had aberrant skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology compared with lean, insulin-sensitive women (BMI 23 kg/m2). Maximal whole-body and mitochondrial oxygen consumption were not different between obese and lean women. However, obese women exhibited lower mitochondrial coupling and phosphorylation efficiency and elevated mitochondrial H2O2 (mtH2O2) emissions compared with lean women. We further evaluated the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on obesity-related impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial energetics in the fasted state and after a high-fat mixed meal. Exercise training reversed obesity-related mitochondrial derangements as evidenced by enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency and decreased mtH2O2 production. A concomitant increase in catalase antioxidant activity and decreased DNA oxidative damage indicate improved cellular redox status and a potential mechanism contributing to improved insulin sensitivity. mtH2O2 emissions were refractory to a high-fat meal at baseline, but after exercise, mtH2O2 emissions increased after the meal, which resembles previous findings in lean individuals. We demonstrate that obese women exhibit impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics in the form of decreased efficiency and impaired mtH2O2 emissions, while exercise effectively restores mitochondrial physiology toward that of lean, insulin-sensitive individuals. PMID:25605809

  4. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality.

  5. Ectopic fat and Adipokines in Metabolically Benign Overweight/Obese Women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, AD.; Khan, UI.; McGinn, AP.; Zeb, I.; Budoff, MJ.; Harman, SM.; Miller, VM.; Brinton, EA.; Manson, JE.; Hodis, HN.; Merriam, GR.; Cedars, MI.; Taylor, HS.; Naftolin, F.; Lobo, RA.; Santoro, N.; Wildman, RP.

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is unclear why despite a comparable cardiometabolic risk profile, “metabolically benign” overweight/obese individuals show an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease compared to normal weight individuals. Design and Methods In cross-sectional analyses, we compared levels of ectopic fat (epicardial, pericardial, and hepatic fat) and adipokines (leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin) among metabolically benign (MBOO) and at-risk overweight/obese (AROO), and metabolically benign normal weight (MBNW) women, screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. We defined “metabolically benign” with ≤ 1, and “at-risk” with ≥2 components of the metabolic syndrome. Results Compared to MBOO women, AROO women had significantly elevated odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR:1.76, 95%CI:1.04–2.99), hepatic fat (OR:1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and leptin (OR:2.15, 95%CI:1.23–3.76), and the bottom tertile of HMW-adiponectin (OR:2.90, 95%CI:1.62–5.19). Compared to MBNW women, MBOO women had significantly higher odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR:5.17, 95%CI:3.22–8.29), pericardial fat (OR:9.27, 95%CI:5.52–15.56) and hepatic fat (OR:2.72, 95%CI:1.77–4.19) and the bottom tertile of HMW adiponectin levels (OR:2.51, 95%CI:1.60–3.94). Conclusions Levels of ectopic fat and the adverse adipokine profile increase on a continuum of BMI, suggesting that the metabolically benign phenotype may be a transient state. PMID:23670850

  6. Circadian rhythm of plasma leptin levels in upper and lower body obese women: influence of body fat distribution and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Langendonk, J G; Pijl, H; Toornvliet, A C; Burggraaf, J; Frölich, M; Schoemaker, R C; Doornbos, J; Cohen, A F; Meinders, A E

    1998-05-01

    Plasma leptin concentrations were measured every 20 min for 24 h in eight normal weight women and in eight upper body and eight lower body obese women matched for body mass index. The circadian rhythm of leptin, which could mathematically be described by a cosine, was characterized by an acrophase just after midnight in all subjects. The amplitude of a cosine fit as well as the average 24-h leptin concentration were increased by 280% and 420%, respectively, in obese compared to normal weight women. All characteristics of leptin concentration profiles were similar in upper body and lower body obese women, except for a significantly higher amplitude in the lower body obese group. Visceral and sc body fat depots were measured using magnetic resonance imaging in all three groups. Average 24-h leptin concentrations were strongly correlated with sc fat (r = 0.84), whereas visceral fat was not an independent predictor of the plasma leptin level. A loss of 50% of the overweight was associated with a 55% decrease in the average 24-h leptin concentrations in obese women (95% confidence interval, 12.3, 26.6), whereas the characteristics of the circadian rhythm of leptin remained unchanged. Finally, it was observed that a fasting plasma leptin concentration is not an acceptable indicator of the average leptin concentration over 24 h. PMID:9589680

  7. Lifestyle interventions for overweight and obese pregnant women to improve pregnancy outcome: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity pose a big challenge to pregnancy as they are associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcome. Evidence of lifestyle intervention resulting in improved pregnancy outcome is conflicting. Hence the objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of antenatal dietary, activity, behaviour or lifestyle interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women to improve maternal and perinatal outcomes. Methods A systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials following prior registration (CRD420111122 http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO) and PRISMA guidelines was employed. A search of the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Maternity and Infant care and eight other databases for studies published prior to January 2012 was undertaken. Electronic literature searches, study selection, methodology and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to Cochrane risk of bias tool. All appropriate randomised and non-randomised clinical trials were included while exclusions consisted of interventions in pregnant women who were not overweight or obese, had pre-existing diabetes or polycystic ovarian syndrome, and systematic reviews. Maternal outcome measures, including maternal gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes and Caesarean section, were documented. Fetal outcomes, including large for gestational age and macrosomia (birth weight > 4 kg), were also documented. Results Thirteen randomised and six non-randomised clinical trials were identified and included in the meta-analysis. The evidence suggests antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women reduces maternal pregnancy weight gain (10 randomised clinical trials; n = 1228; -2.21 kg (95% confidence interval -2.86 kg to -1.59 kg)) and a trend towards a reduction in the prevalence of gestational diabetes (six randomised clinical trials; n

  8. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m2) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10-4). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted. RESULTS We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10-7, rs1040675; 2.3 × 10-6) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10-5, rs10786764; 6.57 × 10-5). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10-4. Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10-4). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group. CONCLUSION We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate. PMID:26865924

  9. Body composition and metabolic effects of a diet and exercise weight loss regimen on obese, HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Engelson, Ellen S; Agin, Denise; Kenya, Sonjia; Werber-Zion, Galila; Luty, Besa; Albu, Jeanine B; Kotler, Donald P

    2006-10-01

    HIV has classically been a wasting disease. However, in the United States, obesity is increasingly common among HIV-infected individuals receiving effective antiviral treatment. The risks of obesity are unclear in HIV, although the increased prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the presence or absence of obesity causes growing concern. This study aimed to assess the effects of weight loss (through energy restriction combined with aerobic and resistance exercise) on body composition, body fat distribution, resting energy expenditure, quality of life (QOL), strength and fitness, and metabolic risk factors in obese, HIV-infected women. Eighteen HIV-infected women with a body mass index of 30 or more completed a 12-week weight loss program. Before and after the intervention, body composition and fat distribution by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, QOL, strength, and fitness were measured. Insulin sensitivity by intravenous glucose tolerance test and circulating cardiovascular risk factors (including lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) were measured in a subset (n = 9). Daily food intake and total body weight decreased (mean +/- SD) by 3195 +/- 477 kJ and 6.7 +/- 4.2 kg, respectively. Weight lost was 95.5% fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or 6.2 L of subcutaneous adipose tissue, 0.7 L visceral adipose tissue, and 0.8 L skeletal muscle by magnetic resonance imaging. Resting energy expenditure fell approximately 419 kJ, strength and fitness increased by 28.9% +/- 18.5% and 36.8% +/- 41.6%, respectively, and QOL improved in 11 of 13 dimensions. There was significant insulin resistance in the subset with metabolic measurements at baseline, and at follow-up there was no improvement in fasting glucose, insulin, or insulin sensitivity, nor was there any change in fasting lipids, tissue plasminogen activator, or

  10. Relation of obstructive sleep apnea to coronary artery calcium in non-obese versus obese men and women aged 45-75 years.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Kip, Kevin E; Aiyer, Aryan N; Reis, Steven E; Strollo, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Sleep apnea and obesity are strongly associated, and both increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Several cross-sectional studies have reported discrepant results regarding the role obesity plays in the relation between sleep apnea and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep apnea and the presence of CAC in a community cohort of middle-aged men and women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, stratified by body mass index (<30 vs ≥30 kg/m(2)). Participants underwent electron-beam computed tomography to measure CAC and underwent home sleep testing for sleep apnea. The presence of CAC was defined as an Agatston score >0. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea-hypopnea index. The sample was composed of primarily men (61%) and Caucasians (56%), with a mean age of 61 years. The prevalence of CAC was 76%. In participants with body mass indexes <30 kg/m(2) (n = 139), apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 (vs <5) was associated with 2.7-fold odds of having CAC, but the effect only approached significance. Conversely, in participants with body mass indexes ≥30 kg/m(2), sleep apnea was not independently associated with CAC. In conclusion, sleep apnea is independently associated with early atherosclerotic plaque burden in nonobese patients.

  11. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24–49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. Results We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). Conclusion This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity. PMID:26963247

  12. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Grineva, E N; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, I L

    2013-07-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(ОН)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p$#X003C0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p$#X003C0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p$#X003C0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age

    PubMed Central

    Grineva, EN; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, IL

    2013-01-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(OH)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p<0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p<0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p<0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2. PMID:23924693

  14. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    PubMed

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  15. Efficacy of a group-based dietary intervention for limiting gestational weight gain among obese women: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Karanja, Njeri; King, Janet C.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Leo, Michael C.; Perrin, Nancy; McEvoy, Cindy T.; Eckhardt, Cara L.; Smith, K. Sabina; Stevens, Victor J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that minimal gestational weight gain (GWG) may optimize pregnancy outcomes for obese women. This trial tested the efficacy of a group-based weight management intervention for limiting GWG among obese women. Methods We randomized 114 obese women (BMI [mean±SD] 36.7±4.9 kg/m2) between 7–21 weeks’ (14.9±2.6) gestation to intervention (n=56) or usual care control conditions (n=58). The intervention included individualized calorie goals, advice to maintain weight within 3% of randomization and follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern without sodium restriction, and attendance at weekly group meetings until delivery. Control participants received one-time dietary advice. Our three main outcomes were maternal weight change from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum and from randomization to 34 weeks gestation, and newborn large-for-gestational age (birth weight >90th percentile, LGA). Results Intervention participants gained less weight from randomization to 34 weeks gestation (5.0 vs 8.4 kg, mean difference=−3.4 kg, 95% CI [−5.1, −1.8]), and from randomization to 2 weeks postpartum (−2.6 vs +1.2 kg, mean difference=−3.8 kg, 95% CI [−5.9, −1.7]). They also had a lower proportion of LGA babies (9% vs. 26%, odds ratio=0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.84]). Conclusions The intervention resulted in lower GWG and lower prevalence of LGA newborns. PMID:25164259

  16. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women

    PubMed Central

    Guessogo, Wiliam R.; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H.; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B.; Messina Ondoua, Regine T.; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S.; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  17. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    PubMed

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation.

  18. Characteristics of overweight and obesity at age two and the association with breastfeeding in Hawai'i Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Johanna; Hayes, Donald; Chock, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with many adverse health effects during childhood and is linked to an increased risk for obesity in adulthood. The objective of this study was to determine the characteristics of early childhood overweight and obesity and assess the impact of breastfeeding. Data from Hawai'i's Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) were analyzed for children 2 years of age born between 2005 and 2009 and their mothers. Childhood overweight and obesity was examined using a log-binomial regression model to estimate prevalence ratios. In the sample population, 12.5 % of children were overweight and 8.5 % of children were obese. Significant differences in childhood overweight and obesity were seen between breastfeeding duration and other socio-demographic groups. Children who were breastfed for 6 months or more had a lower risk of childhood obesity at age two compared to those who were never breastfed (APR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.69-0.91) with adjustment for child race/ethnicity, maternal age, trimester of prenatal care entry, maternal smoking status, and child birth weight. The prevalence of early childhood overweight and obesity is associated with shorter durations of breastfeeding. Early and continued breastfeeding support and education for mothers in the WIC program that improves duration of breastfeeding may help reduce the risk of early childhood obesity.

  19. I am pregnant and want to do better but i can't: focus groups with low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Buist, Diana; Cain, Deborah; Horning, Stefanie; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors that influenced stress, healthy eating and physical activity among low-income overweight or obese pregnant women. We conducted seven focus groups with 96 low-income overweight and obese pregnant women. Common themes were identified from audio tapes and transcripts. Women said that poor communication affected their relationships with spouses or significant others. They were frustrated or upset with significant others for three key reasons: failure to understand or listen to the pregnant women's pregnancy concerns, refusal to be helpful when asked and being overly concerned with the woman's safety. Most women said that they were emotional and took naps throughout the day after becoming pregnant. Many withdrew from their social interactions. They also faced numerous challenges that made healthy eating more difficult, e.g., craving for unhealthy foods and eating foods for comfort. To eat healthier, some reminded themselves to avoid overeating or stop eating in the car. Women were not physically active because of tiredness, lack of motivation, inadequate social support, or bad weather. Some stayed physically active to prevent excessive pregnancy weight gain and have an easier labor. Women equivocally said weighing themselves to manage weight would add to their stress and make them feel more depressed. When designing interventions to help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain, it is important to include information and practical advice on stress management, emphasizing effective communication skills with significant others and helping them plan effective ways to manage negative feelings.

  20. Gestational weight gain and the risk of offspring obesity at 10 and 16 years: a prospective cohort study in low-income women

    PubMed Central

    Diesel, JC; Eckhardt, CL; Day, NL; Brooks, MM; Arslanian, SA; Bodnar, LM

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring obesity risk at ages chosen to approximate prepuberty (10 years) and postpuberty (16 years). Design Prospective pregnancy cohort. Setting Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Sample Low-income pregnant women (n = 514) receiving prenatal care at an obstetric residency clinic and their singleton offspring. Methods Gestational weight gain was classified based on maternal GWG-for-gestational-age Z-score charts and was modelled using flexible spline terms in modified multivariable Poisson regression models. Main outcome measures Obesity at 10 or 16 years, defined as body mass index (BMI) Z-scores ≥95th centile of the 2000 CDC references, based on measured height and weight. Results The prevalence of offspring obesity was 20% at 10 years and 22% at 16 years. In the overall sample, the risk of offspring obesity at 10 and 16 years increased when GWG exceeded a GWG Z-score of 0 SD (equivalent to 30 kg at 40 weeks); but for gains below a Z-score of 0 SD there was no relationship with child obesity risk. The association between GWG and offspring obesity varied by prepregnancy BMI. Among mothers with a pregravid BMI <25 kg/m2, the risk of offspring obesity increased when GWG Z-score exceeded 0 SD, yet among overweight women (BMI ≥25 kg/m2), there was no association between GWG Z-scores and offspring obesity risk. Conclusions Among lean women, higher GWG may have lasting effects on offspring obesity risk. PMID:26032698

  1. DEXA MEASURED VISCERAL ADIPOSE TISSUE PREDICTS IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN OBESE CAUCASIAN AND AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Bi, X; Seabolt, L; Shibao, C; Buchowski, M; Kang, H; Keil, CD; Tyree, R; Silver, HJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims New methods to measure visceral adipose tissue (VAT) by DEXA may help discern sex, race and phenotype differences in the role of VAT in cardiometabolic risk. This study was designed to: a) compare relationships between cardiometabolic risk factors and DEXA-VAT, anthropometric and body composition measures; b) determine thresholds for DEXA-VAT by race; and c) determine the most robust predictors of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and metabolic syndrome (MetSx) in obese women. Methods VAT area (cm2) was measured using Lunar iDXA scanner in 229 obese (BMI 30-49.9) women age 21–69 years of European American (EA = 123) and African American (AA = 106) descent. Linear regression modeling and areas under the curve (AUC) compared relationships with cardiometabolic risk. Bootstrapping with LASSO regression modeling determined thresholds and predictors of IGT and MetSx. Results DEXA-VAT explained more of the variance in triglycerides, blood pressure, glucose and HOMA-IR compared to anthropometric and body composition variables. DEXA-VAT had the highest AUC for IGT (0.767) and MetSx (0.749). Including race and interactionXrace terms in modeling did not significantly change results. Thresholds at which probability was ≥ 50% for IGT or MetSx were lower in AA women (IGT: 2120cm2 AA vs 2550cm2 EA; MetSx: 1320cm2 AA vs 1713cm2 EA). The odds for IGT or MetSx was 3-fold greater with each standard deviation increase in DEXA-VAT. Conclusion DEXA-VAT provides robust clinical information regarding cardiometabolic risk in AA and EA women and has great potential in risk reduction efforts. PMID:25335442

  2. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  3. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  4. Socio-Demographic and Dietary Factors Associated with Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity among Resettled Bhutanese Refugee Women in Northeast Ohio, United States

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Madhav P.; Assad, Lori; Shakya, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Studies of obesity and related health conditions among the Bhutanese, one of the largest refugee groups resettled in the United States in the past five years, are limited. This study examined the factors associated with excess body weight (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2) and abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 80 cm) in a community-based sample of 18–65 year old Bhutanese refugee women in Northeast Ohio. A Nepali-language questionnaire was used to measure socio-demographic and dietary factors. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured to define excess body weight and abdominal obesity. The mean (±standard deviation) age of the 108 participants was 36.5 (±12.2) years and length of time in the U.S. was 19.4 (±11.9) months. Overall, 64.8% and 69.4% of the women had excess body weight and abdominal obesity, respectively. Age was significantly associated with both excess body weight (odds ratio: 1.10; 95% confidence interval: 1.05–1.16) and abdominal obesity (1.09; 1.04–1.14). Consuming meat (4.01; 1.14–14.60) was significantly associated with excess body weight but not abdominal obesity. These findings suggest the need for lifestyle and dietary change education programs among this new and vulnerable group to reduce the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and their health consequences. PMID:24968209

  5. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. Methods: This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Results: Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. Conclusions: These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women. PMID:26473159

  6. Effects on weight and metabolic rate of obese women of a 3.4 MJ (800 kcal) diet.

    PubMed

    Garrow, J S; Webster, J D

    1989-06-24

    103 obese women (mean [SD] Quetelet's index [weight/height2] 38 [8] kg/m2) were admitted to a metabolic ward and were kept strictly to a diet providing 3.4 MJ (800 kcal) daily for 3 weeks. Body weight was measured daily and fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) on days 1, 7, and 21. Both weight and RMR fell more rapidly in the first week than later. The thermic effect of feeding fell immediately on the lower energy intake, and there was an adaptive reduction of about 6% in RMR in week 1. After 3 weeks, the average weight loss was 4.9 (1.2) kg (about 5% of initial weight) and the average fall in RMR 8.8%. If after substantial weight loss a woman eats just enough to maintain energy balance the adaptive reduction in metabolic rate is restored to normal, and the thermic effect of feeding is restored in proportion to the new energy intake, but total energy requirements remain less than in the obese state to the extent that fat-free mass has been reduced. Thus, an obese woman who reduces weight by 30% over a year will thereafter have requirements for weight maintenance which are reduced by about 15%. PMID:2567437

  7. Spatial Distribution of Underweight, Overweight and Obesity among Women and Children: Results from the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Turi, Kedir N.; Christoph, Mary J.; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420) and their children (N = 1,099) using ordinary least squares and multinomial logit regression and the ArcGIS Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Overweight and obese women were significantly more likely to have overweight children, and overweight was correlated with being in the highest wealth class (OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.99–4.35), and residing in an urban (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.34–2.29) but not a conflict prone (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.29–0.78) area. Underweight clustered significantly in the Northern and Northeastern regions, while overweight females and children clustered in the Southeast. We demonstrate that the DHS can be used to assess geographic clustering and burden of disease, thereby allowing for targeted programs and policies. Further, we pinpoint specific regions and population groups in Uganda for targeted preventive measures and treatment to reduce the burden of overweight and chronic diseases in Uganda. PMID:24157515

  8. Weight Loss Instead of Weight Gain within the Guidelines in Obese Women during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Park, Christina K.; Beyene, Joseph; Giglia, Lucy; Maxwell, Cindy; McDonald, Sarah D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists about how much, if any, weight obese pregnant women should gain. While the revised Institute of Medicine guidelines on gestational weight gain (GWG) in 2009 recommended a weight gain of 5–9 kg for obese pregnant women, many studies suggested even gestational weight loss (GWL) for obese women. Objectives A systematic review was conducted to summarize pregnancy outcomes in obese women with GWL compared to GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines (5–9 kg). Design Five databases were searched from 1 January 2009 to 31 July 2014. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the PRISMA Statement were followed. A modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess individual study quality. Small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA) and preterm birth were our primary outcomes. Results Six cohort studies were included, none of which assessed preterm birth. Compared to GWG within the guidelines, women with GWL had higher odds of SGA <10th percentile (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45–2.14) and SGA <3rd percentile (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.19–2.20) but lower odds of LGA >90th percentile (AOR 0.57; 95% CI 0.52–0.62). There was a trend towards a graded relationship between SGA <10th percentile and each of three obesity classes (I: AOR 1.73; 95% CI 1.53–1.97; II: AOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.44–1.85 and III: AOR 1.39; 95% CI 1.17–1.66, respectively). Conclusion Despite decreased odds of LGA, increased odds of SGA and a lack of information on preterm birth indicate that GWL should not be advocated in general for obese women. PMID:26196130

  9. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  10. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2) recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32]) and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86]) than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]). A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]). Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that contribute to metabolic status

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308 G>A polymorphism, adherence to Mediterranean diet, and risk of overweight/obesity in young women.

    PubMed

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Adornetto, Veronica; Marchese, Anna Elisa; Agodi, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to (i) characterize the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern and fatty acids (FAs) intakes and (ii) explore interactions between TNFA -308 G>A polymorphism and adherence to MD and FAs intakes, respectively, on overweight/obesity risk. From 2010 to 2013, 380 healthy women were enrolled, and MD score (MDS) and FAs intakes were evaluated by a Food Frequencies Questionnaire in relation to nutritional status. TNFA -308 G/A polymorphism was characterized using PCR-RFLP. A total of 32.6% of women were overweight or obese. Lower mean MDS values were more observed in the younger age group than in the older age group (3.60 versus 4.45). The risk of being overweight/obese was 3.5-fold increased due to poor adherence to MD and was about twofold increased in less educated women. Furthermore, younger age was associated with poor adherence to MD. No evidence for an independent effect of the polymorphism on overweight/obesity risk was found. There was no evidence of biological interaction from the gene-diet interaction analyses. Young women, less educated and with poor adherence to MD, are a target group for the nutritional interventions that aimed to control the obesity risk, thus improving the adherence to MD and particularly the intake of unsaturated FAs. PMID:25028665

  12. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha −308 G>A Polymorphism, Adherence to Mediterranean Diet, and Risk of Overweight/Obesity in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Anna Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to (i) characterize the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern and fatty acids (FAs) intakes and (ii) explore interactions between TNFA −308 G>A polymorphism and adherence to MD and FAs intakes, respectively, on overweight/obesity risk. From 2010 to 2013, 380 healthy women were enrolled, and MD score (MDS) and FAs intakes were evaluated by a Food Frequencies Questionnaire in relation to nutritional status. TNFA −308 G/A polymorphism was characterized using PCR-RFLP. A total of 32.6% of women were overweight or obese. Lower mean MDS values were more observed in the younger age group than in the older age group (3.60 versus 4.45). The risk of being overweight/obese was 3.5-fold increased due to poor adherence to MD and was about twofold increased in less educated women. Furthermore, younger age was associated with poor adherence to MD. No evidence for an independent effect of the polymorphism on overweight/obesity risk was found. There was no evidence of biological interaction from the gene-diet interaction analyses. Young women, less educated and with poor adherence to MD, are a target group for the nutritional interventions that aimed to control the obesity risk, thus improving the adherence to MD and particularly the intake of unsaturated FAs. PMID:25028665

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308 G>A polymorphism, adherence to Mediterranean diet, and risk of overweight/obesity in young women.

    PubMed

    Barchitta, Martina; Quattrocchi, Annalisa; Adornetto, Veronica; Marchese, Anna Elisa; Agodi, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    The present study was conducted in order to (i) characterize the adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern and fatty acids (FAs) intakes and (ii) explore interactions between TNFA -308 G>A polymorphism and adherence to MD and FAs intakes, respectively, on overweight/obesity risk. From 2010 to 2013, 380 healthy women were enrolled, and MD score (MDS) and FAs intakes were evaluated by a Food Frequencies Questionnaire in relation to nutritional status. TNFA -308 G/A polymorphism was characterized using PCR-RFLP. A total of 32.6% of women were overweight or obese. Lower mean MDS values were more observed in the younger age group than in the older age group (3.60 versus 4.45). The risk of being overweight/obese was 3.5-fold increased due to poor adherence to MD and was about twofold increased in less educated women. Furthermore, younger age was associated with poor adherence to MD. No evidence for an independent effect of the polymorphism on overweight/obesity risk was found. There was no evidence of biological interaction from the gene-diet interaction analyses. Young women, less educated and with poor adherence to MD, are a target group for the nutritional interventions that aimed to control the obesity risk, thus improving the adherence to MD and particularly the intake of unsaturated FAs.

  14. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women. PMID:27774458

  15. Inhibiting food reward: delay discounting, food reward sensitivity, and palatable food intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Woolf, Kathleen; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Whited, Matthew C; Liebman, Rebecca

    2011-11-01

    Overeating is believed to result when the appetitive motivation to consume palatable food exceeds an individual's capacity for inhibitory control of eating. This hypothesis was supported in recent studies involving predominantly normal weight women, but has not been tested in obese populations. The current study tested the interaction between food reward sensitivity and inhibitory control in predicting palatable food intake among energy-replete overweight and obese women (N = 62). Sensitivity to palatable food reward was measured with the Power of Food Scale. Inhibitory control was assessed with a computerized choice task that captures the tendency to discount large delayed rewards relative to smaller immediate rewards. Participants completed an eating in the absence of hunger protocol in which homeostatic energy needs were eliminated with a bland preload of plain oatmeal, followed by a bogus laboratory taste test of palatable and bland snacks. The interaction between food reward sensitivity and inhibitory control was a significant predictor of palatable food intake in regression analyses controlling for BMI and the amount of preload consumed. Probing this interaction indicated that higher food reward sensitivity predicted greater palatable food intake at low levels of inhibitory control, but was not associated with intake at high levels of inhibitory control. As expected, no associations were found in a similar regression analysis predicting intake of bland foods. Findings support a neurobehavioral model of eating behavior in which sensitivity to palatable food reward drives overeating only when accompanied by insufficient inhibitory control. Strengthening inhibitory control could enhance weight management programs. PMID:21475139

  16. Home environment and psychosocial predictors of obesity status among community-residing men and women

    PubMed Central

    Emery, CF; Olson, KL; Lee, VS; Habash, DL; Nasar, JL; Bodine, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Prior research indicates that features of the home environment (for example, televisions, exercise equipment) may be associated with obesity, but no prior study has examined objective features of the home food environment (for example, location of food) in combination with behavioral (for example, food purchasing), psychological (for example, self-efficacy) and social factors among obese adults. This study identified factors associated with obesity status from measures of home environment, food purchasing behavior, eating behavior and psychosocial functioning. SUBJECTS/METHODS One hundred community-residing obese (mean body mass index (BMI) = 36.8, s.e. = 0.60) and nonobese (mean BMI = 23.7, s.e. = 0.57) adults (mean age = 42.7, s.e. = 1.50; range = 20–78 years) completed an observational study with 2-h home interview/assessment and 2-week follow-up evaluation of food purchases and physical activity. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and logistic regression, controlling for sex. RESULTS Univariate analyses revealed that homes of obese individuals had less healthy food available than homes of nonobese (F(1,97) = 6.49, P = 0.012), with food distributed across a greater number of highly visible locations (F(1,96) = 6.20, P = 0.01). Although there was no group difference in household income or size, obese individuals reported greater food insecurity (F(1,97) = 9.70, P < 0.001), more reliance on fast food (F(1,97) = 7.63, P = 0.01) and more long-term food storage capacity in number of refrigerators (F(1,97) = 3.79, P = 0.05) and freezers (F(1,97) = 5.11, P = 0.03). Obese individuals also reported greater depressive symptoms (F(1,97) = 10.41, P = 0.002) and lower ability to control eating in various situations (F(1,97) = 20.62, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity status was associated with lower self-esteem (odds ratio (OR) 0.58, P = 0.011), less healthy food consumption (OR 0.94, P = 0.048) and more food

  17. Can weight loss improve migraine headaches in obese women? Rationale and design of the WHAM randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; O’Leary, Kevin C.; Thomas, J. Graham; Lipton, Richard B.; Papandonatos, George D.; Roth, Julie; Rathier, Lucille; Daniello, Richard; Wing, Rena R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity. Obesity increases the risk of frequent migraines and is associated with migraine prevalence among reproductive-aged women. These findings are substantiated by several plausible mechanisms and emerging evidence of migraine improvements after surgical and non-surgical weight loss. However, no previous study has examined the effect of weight loss on migraine within a treatment-controlled framework. The WHAM trial is a RCT to test the efficacy of behavioral weight loss as a treatment for migraine. Study design Overweight/obese women (n=140; BMI=25.0–49.9 kg/m2) who meet international diagnostic criteria for migraine and record ≥3 migraines and 4–20 migraine days using a smartphone-based headache diary during a 4-week baseline period, will be randomly assigned to 4 months of either group-based behavioral weight loss (intervention) or migraine education (control). Intervention participants will be taught strategies to increase physical activity and consume fewer calories in order to lose weight. Control participants will receive general education on migraine symptoms/triggers and various treatment approaches. Both groups will use smartphones to record their headaches for 4 weeks at baseline, after the 16-week treatment period, and at the end of a 16-week follow-up period. Changes in weight and other potential physiological (inflammation), psychological (depression), and behavioral (diet and physical activity) mediators of the intervention effect will also be assessed. Conclusion The WHAM trial will evaluate the efficacy of a standardized behavioral weight loss intervention for reducing migraine frequency, and the extent to which weight loss and other potential mediators account for intervention effects. PMID:23524340

  18. n3 PUFAs do not affect adipose tissue inflammation in overweight to moderately obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Mario; Kuzma, Jessica N; Hagman, Derek K; van Yserloo, Brian; Matthys, Colleen C; Callahan, Holly S; Weigle, David S

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that omega-3 (n3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decrease adipose tissue inflammation in rodents and in morbidly obese humans. We investigated whether a diet rich in n3 PUFAs from both marine and plant sources reduces adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese adults. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, parallel-design, placebo-controlled feeding trial. Healthy men and women with a body mass index between 28 and 33 kg/m(2) consumed a diet rich in n3 PUFAs (3.5% of energy intake; n = 11) from plant and marine sources or a control diet (0.5% of energy intake from n3 PUFAs; n = 13). These diets were consumed for 14 wk (ad libitum for 12 wk). All foods were provided for the entire study period. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue and fasting plasma were collected after the first 2 wk with the control diet and again at the end of the 14-wk dietary period. The primary outcome of this ex post analysis was the adipose tissue gene expression of 13 key mediators of inflammation. Adipose tissue gene expression of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the 2 groups, after adjustment for weight change. Furthermore, none of the 5 plasma markers of systemic inflammation differed significantly as an effect of diet treatment. We conclude that a relatively high dose of n3 PUFAs from plant and marine sources did not significantly lower adipose tissue or systemic inflammation in overweight to moderately obese healthy men and women over 14 wk.

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  20. A Pilot Study: Effects of Decreasing Serum Insulin with Diazoxide on Vitamin D Levels in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, John E.; Reilly, Elizabeth R.; Cheang, Kai I.; Bachmann, Lorin M.; Downs, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We conducted a pilot project to test the hypothesis that decreasing insulin concentrations with diazoxide would affect parameters of vitamin D in obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Materials and Methods. Eight obese women with PCOS and nine matched controls participated in the study. Diazoxide was administered orally 100 mg three times daily for 10 days, and parameters of vitamin D were measured at baseline and end-of-study. Results. At baseline, women with polycystic ovary syndrome had significantly lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels than controls. After treatment with diazoxide, there were no significant changes in vitamin D parameters when PCOS and control women were evaluated separately. Diazoxide exhibited differential effects on 25(OH)D concentrations in PCOS as compared with normal women (P for interaction =0.045), and serum 25(OH)D levels converged after diazoxide treatment. Conclusions.