Science.gov

Sample records for obese pakistani women

  1. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  2. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  3. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  4. An overview of the predictors of depression among adult Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Zahidie, Aysha; Jamali, Tanzil

    2013-08-01

    Diseases of women that are due to their gender specific roles and responsibilities result from cultural and social factors prevalent in the environs. World Health Organization has put special emphasis on research need regarding gender related factors for diseases disproportionately affecting women in developing countries. The objective of this write up was to determine the prevalence of depression and the associated risk factors among adult women in Pakistan. PubMed was searched using key words depression, risk factors, women and Pakistan. Out of 20 initially retrieved articles, 12 were directly related to depression and its risk factors among Pakistani women within Pakistani geographical context. Women in Pakistan are vulnerable to poor mental health due to marriage related issues, domestic violence, verbal or physical abuse by in-laws, stressful life and poor social conditions. Women in their perinatal period are more at risk of depression due to pregnancy related concerns.

  5. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…

  6. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss.

  7. Pakistani women's use of mental health services and the role of social networks: a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Dharmi; Brooks, Helen Louise; Nazroo, James; Tranmer, Mark

    2015-11-22

    Pakistani women in the UK are an at-risk group with high levels of mental health problems, but low levels of mental health service use. However, the rates of service use for Pakistani women are unclear, partly because research with South Asian women has been incorrectly generalised to Pakistani women. Further, this research has been largely undertaken within an individualistic paradigm, with little consideration of patients' social networks, and how these may drive decisions to seek help. This systematic review aimed to clarify usage rates, and describe the nature of Pakistani women's social networks and how they may influence mental health service use. Ten journal databases (ASSIA, CINAHL Plus, EMBASE, HMIC, IBSS, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Social Sciences Abstracts, Social Science Citation Index and Sociological Abstracts) and six sources of grey literature were searched for studies published between 1960 and the end of March 2014. Twenty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Ten studies (quantitative) reported on inpatient or outpatient service use between ethnic groups. Seven studies (four quantitative, three qualitative) investigated the nature of social networks, and four studies (qualitative) commented on how social networks were involved in accessing mental health services. Pakistani women were less likely than white (British) women to use most specialist mental health services. No difference was found between Pakistani and white women for the consultation of general practitioners for mental health problems. Pakistani women's networks displayed high levels of stigmatising attitudes towards mental health problems and mental health services, which acted as a deterrent to seeking help. No studies were found which compared stigma in networks between Pakistani women and women of other ethnic groups. Pakistani women are at a considerable disadvantage in gaining access to and using statutory mental health services, compared with white women; this, in part, is due to

  8. Determinants of Antenatal Psychological Distress in Pakistani Women

    PubMed Central

    DIN, Zia ud; AMBREEN, Sadaf; IQBAL, Zafar; IQBAL, Mudassar; AHMAD, Summiya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of evidence has demonstrated that poor antenatal psychological health can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Studies conducted in various countries demonstrated a wide range of factors associated with psychological distress during pregnancy. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2011 and December 2012 in Peshawar, north-west Pakistan. A total of 230 women in their third trimester of pregnancy fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The antenatal psychological health status of women was measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Relevant data regarding health and demographic–socioeconomic status were collected through personal interviews using standardized questionnaires. Results Overall, 45% (n=104) of women exhibited symptoms for composite depression, anxiety, and stress (composite DAS). In the univariate analysis, maternal age, husband support, monthly income, family size, stressful life events, lack of confidence, domestic violence, and pregnancy-related concerns were strongly associated with antenatal composite DAS (p<0.01). The association of maternal composite DAS symptoms with age, monthly income, family size, and lack of confidence remained significant in the multivariate analysis (p<0.01). Conclusion A major proportion of women exhibited symptoms of antenatal composite DAS, and various factors were found to be related to their psychological distress. A young maternal age, low husband support, low income, large family size, adverse life events, lack of confidence, pregnancy-related concerns, and domestic violence were stronger determinants of poor antenatal psychological status. The study findings concluded that policymakers at the government level should launch special intervention programs to improve maternal perinatal mental and psychological health at the community level. PMID:28360788

  9. Genetic variants in FGFR2 and TNRC9 genes are associated with breast cancer risk in Pakistani women.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Ayesha; Jamil, Farrukh; Bashir, Qamar; Ahmad, Munawar Saleem; Masood, Misbah; Tanvir, Imrana; Rashid, Naeem; Waheed, Abdul; Afzal, Muhammad Naveed; Tariq, Muhammad Akram

    2016-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lead to genetic differences in breast cancer (BC) susceptibility among women from different ethnicities. The present study aimed at investigating the involvement of SNPs of three genes, including fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), trinucleotide-repeat-containing 9 (TNRC9) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1), as risk factors for the development of BC. A case‑control study (90‑100 cases; 90‑100 controls) was performed to evaluate five genetic variants of three genes, including FGFR2 (SNPs: rs1219648, rs2981582), TNRC9 (SNPs: rs8051542, rs3803662) and MAP3K1 (SNP: rs889312) as BC risk factors in Pakistani women. Significant associations were observed between BC risk and two SNPs of FGFR2 [rs2981582 (P=0.005), rs1219648 (P=9.08e‑006)] and one SNP of TNRC9 [rs3803662) (P=0.012)] in Pakistani women. On examining the different interactions of these SNPs with various clinicopathological characteristics, all three associated genetic variants, rs2981582 rs1219648 and rs3803662, exhibited a greater predisposition to sporadic, in comparison to familial, BC. Furthermore, there was an increased effect of BC risk between haplotype combinations of the two SNPs of FGFR2 (rs2981582 and rs1219648) in Pakistani women. The results of the present study suggest that variants of FGFR2 and TNRC9 may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of BC in Pakistani women.

  10. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women.

  11. Breast cancer histology and receptor status characterization in Asian Indian and Pakistani women in the U.S. - a SEER analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent reports suggest increase in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) negative breast cancer yet little is known about histology or receptor status of breast cancer in Indian/Pakistani women.in the U.S. Methods We examined the United States National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer program to assess: a) frequency of breast cancer by age, b) histologic subtypes, c) receptor status of breast cancer and, d) survival in Indians/Pakistanis compared to Caucasians. There were 360,933 breast cancer cases diagnosed 1988-2006. Chi-Square analyses and Cox proportional hazards models, to estimate relative risks for breast cancer mortality after adjusting for confounders, were performed using Statistical Analysis Software 9.2. Results Among Asian Indian/Pakistani breast cancer patients, 16.2% were < 40 yrs. old compared to 6.23% in Caucasians (p < 0.0001). Asian Indian women had more invasive ductal carcinoma (69.1 vs. 65.7%, p < 0.0001), inflammatory cancer (1.4% vs. 0.8, p < 0.0001) and less invasive lobular carcinoma (4.2% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.0001) than Caucasians. Asian Indian/Pakistani women had more ER/PR negative breast cancer (30.6% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.0095) than Caucasians. Adjusting for stage at diagnosis, age, tumor grade, nodal status, and histology, Asian Indian/Pakistani women's survival was similar to Caucasians, while African Americans' was worse. Conclusions Asian Indian/Pakistani women have higher frequency of breast cancer (particularly in age < 40), ER/PR negative invasive ductal and inflammatory cancer than Caucasians. PMID:20459777

  12. Parenting and Infant Temperament amongst Pakistani Women Living in the UK According to Country of Birth: Results from the Born in Bradford Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prady, Stephanie L.; Kiernan, Kathleen; Fairley, Lesley; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Some parenting behaviours and child characteristics can result in future behavioural problems. Relatively little is known about parenting behaviours in Pakistani-origin women, and how the timing of migration to the United Kingdom might affect such behaviours. We analysed differences in parenting behaviours and six-month infant temperament by…

  13. Impact of obesity on infertility in women.

    PubMed

    Dağ, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients.

  14. Adiposity and response to an obesity prevention intervention in Pakistani and Bangladeshi primary school boys and girls: a secondary analysis using the BEACHeS feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, Geneviève; Bansal, Narinder; Bhopal, Raj; Pallan, Miranda; Gill, Paramjit; Barrett, Timothy; Adab, Peymane

    2016-01-01

    Objectives As a secondary analysis of the BEACHeS study, we hypothesised there would be sex differences in Pakistani and Bangladeshi school children when examining adiposity and their response to an obesity intervention. Design The Birmingham healthy Eating and Active lifestyle for CHildren Study (BEACHeS) was designed as a Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. Setting 8 primary schools with predominantly South Asian children in Birmingham, UK Participants 1090 pupils (aged 5–7 years old) from school year 1 and 2 were allocated at school level to receive an intervention. A total of 574 were enrolled in the study with consent. We focused on the 466 children of Pakistani and Bangladeshi origin (50.6% boys). Intervention Delivered between 2007 and 2009, the 1-year obesity prevention intervention targeted school and family-based dietary and physical activities. Primary and secondary outcome measures and analysis Adiposity measures including skinfold thickness were compared by sex at baseline and follow-up. Gains in adiposity measures were compared between control and intervention arms in boys and in girls. Measures were compared using two-sample t tests and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests according to normality distribution. Results At baseline, girls had larger skinfold measures at all sites compared to boys although body mass index (BMI) was similar (eg, median subscapular skinfold 6.6 mm vs 5.7 mm; p<0.001). At follow-up, girls in the intervention group gained less weight and adiposity compared to respective controls (p<0.05 for weight, BMI, waist circumference, central and thigh skinfold) with a median total skinfold gain of 7.0 mm in the control group compared to 0.3 mm in the intervention group. Conclusions Our secondary analysis suggests differences in adiposity in Pakistani and Bangladeshi girls and boys and in the effect of the intervention reducing adiposity in girls. These preliminary findings indicate that including sex

  15. Sexual dysfunction in obese and overweight women.

    PubMed

    Yaylali, G F; Tekekoglu, S; Akin, F

    2010-01-01

    Both overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men, but the relationship between sexual function and amount of body fat in females is still obscure. There are few reported studies in women assessing the relationship between female sexual function index (FSFI) and body weight. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) among obese and overweight women. A total of 45 obese and overweight and 30 age-matched voluntary healthy women serving as a control group were evaluated by a detailed medical and sexual history, including the FSFI questionnaire. Serum prolactin, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), dehydroepiandrosterone-SO(4) (DHEA-S), testosterone, estradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. No significant difference was observed between controls and patients in terms of the FSH, LH, estradiol, free thyroxine and thyrotropin (TSH), testosterone and DHEA-S levels. The comparison of total FSFI scores between patients and controls showed no significant difference (P=0.74). As the FSFI score of obese patients and 83% of controls were considered to have sexual dysfunction. The mean total FSFI score was 22.1+/-4.3 for obese patients and 23.1+/-3.7 for healthy women. FSFI scores were not correlated with any of the anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and fat percent). The levels of total testosterone and DHEA-S were not correlated with total FSFI scores. We found a significant negative correlation between BMI and orgasm (P=0.007, r=-0.413). Satisfaction was also negatively correlated with BMI (P=0.05, r=-0.305) and weight (P=0.03, r=-0.326). Testosterone levels were negatively correlated with only satisfaction domain scores of FSFI (P=0.01, r=-0.385). We found that 86% of obese women and 83% of controls had sexual dysfunction. Although obesity does not

  16. Contraceptive use and sexual behavior in obese women.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2012-12-01

    Obesity and unintended pregnancy differentially affect women based on sociodemographic factors. Because of the overlap of these factors, obesity and unintended pregnancy have been described as colliding epidemics. Understanding the relationship between obesity and unintended pregnancy, contraceptive use, and sexual behavior is important in improving the reproductive health of women given the increasing weight demographic. A review of the literature reveals contraceptive use versus nonuse does not differ in women of different body weights. Obese women use oral contraceptives less than normal weight women and are more likely to use procedural methods like sterilization. No difference was noted in most types of sexual behavior for women of different body weights.

  17. Perspectives of UK Pakistani women on their behaviour change to prevent type 2 diabetes: qualitative study using the theory domain framework

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Sniehotta, Falko F; White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a debilitating disease, highly prevalent in UK South Asians, and preventable by lifestyle intervention. The ‘New life, New you’ (NLNY) physical activity (PA) and dietary intervention for T2D prevention was culturally adapted to better engage minority ethnic populations and tested for feasibility. Objectives To investigate Pakistani female participants’ perspectives of their behaviour change and of salient intervention features. Setting A community-based 8-week programme of group delivered PA sessions with behavioural counselling and dietary advice, culturally adapted for ethnic minority populations, in an area of socioeconomic deprivation. Participants to NLNY were recruited through screening events in community venues across the town. Participants Interviews were conducted with 20 Pakistani female NLNY participants, aged 26–45 (mean 33.5) years, from different parts of town. Results Within the a priori Theoretical Domains Framework (intentions and goals, reinforcement, knowledge, nature of the activity, social role and identity, social influences, capabilities and skills, regulation and decision, emotion and environment), we identified the importance of social factors relating to participants’ own PA and dietary behaviour change. We also identified cross-cutting themes as collateral benefits of the intervention including participants’ ‘psychological health’; ‘responsibility’ (for others’ health, especially family members included in the new PA and diet regimes) and ‘inclusion’ (an ethos of accommodating differences). Conclusions Our findings suggest that culturally adapted interventions for Pakistani women at risk of T2D, delivered via group PA sessions with counselling and dietary advice, may encourage their PA and dietary behaviour change, and have collateral health and social benefits. The NLNY intervention appeared to be acceptable. We plan to evaluate recruitment, retention and likely effect of the

  18. Poor compensatory hyperventilation in morbidly obese women at peak exercise.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Murias, Juan M; Kim, Do Jun; Gow, Jennifer; Christou, Nicolas V

    2007-11-15

    This study was designed to compare differences in pulmonary gas exchange at rest and at peak exercise in two groups of women: (1) physically active, non-obese women and (2) women with morbid obesity. Fourteen morbidly obese women (body mass index or BMI=49+/-7 kg/m2; peak oxygen consumption or VO2 peak=14+/-2 ml/(kg min)) and 14 physically active non-obese women (BMI=22+/-2 kg/m2; VO2 peak=50+/-6 ml/(kg min)) performed an incremental, ramped exercise test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at peak exercise. At rest, the alveolar to arterial oxygen partial pressure difference was 3x higher in the obese women (14+/-10 mmHg) compared to non-obese women (5+/-4 mmHg). Arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) was identical in both groups at rest (37+/-4 mmHg). Only the non-obese women showed a decrease in PaCO2 rest to peak exercise (-5+/-3 mmHg). The slope between heart rate and VO2 during exercise was higher in the morbidly obese compared to non-obese women indicating that for the same absolute increase in VO2 a larger increase in heart rate is needed, demonstrating poorer cardiac efficiency in obese women. In conclusion, morbidly obese women have poorer exercise capacity, cardiac efficiency, and compensatory hyperventilation at peak exercise, and poorer gas exchange at rest compared to physically active, non-obese women.

  19. Effects of obesity on hormonally driven cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Moley, Kelle H.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of numerous poor health outcomes, including cancer. Obesity is especially problematic in women because both they and their offspring may be at increased risk of cancer. Studying transmission of obesity-induced cancer risk is challenging in humans, but animal studies are beginning to reveal the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26819193

  20. Obesity in minority women: calories, commerce, and culture.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates in all women, but especially in minority women and children. Factors that contribute to this include changes in caloric intake and expenditure (calories), cost and ease of acquiring food along with pressures from the marketplace and media (commerce) and the community response to the increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (culture).

  1. Racial Residential Segregation and Disparities in Obesity among Women.

    PubMed

    Bower, Kelly M; Thorpe, Roland J; Yenokyan, Gayane; McGinty, E Emma E; Dubay, Lisa; Gaskin, Darrell J

    2015-10-01

    The high rate of obesity among black women in the USA is a significant public health problem. However, there is limited research on the relationship between racial residential segregation and disparities in obesity, and the existing evidence is limited and results are mixed. This study examines the relationship between racial residential segregation and obesity among black and white women. We conducted this cross-sectional study by joining data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel logistic regression models found that for every one-point increase in the black isolation index, there was a 1.06 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.11) times higher odds of obesity for black women. In order to address the disparately high rates of obesity among black women, health policies need to address the economic, political, and social forces that produce racially segregated neighborhoods.

  2. Circulatory Estrogen Level Protects Against Breast Cancer in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Literary data suggest apparently ambiguous interaction between menopausal status and obesity-associated breast cancer risk based on the principle of the carcinogenic capacity of estrogen. Before menopause, breast cancer incidence is relatively low and adiposity is erroneously regarded as a protective factor against this tumor conferred by the obesity associated defective estrogen-synthesis. By contrast, in postmenopausal cases, obesity presents a strong risk factor for breast cancer being mistakenly attributed to the presumed excessive estrogen-production of their adipose-tissue mass. Obesity is associated with dysmetabolism and endangers the healthy equilibrium of sexual hormone-production and regular menstrual cycles in women, which are the prerequisites not only for reproductive capacity but also for somatic health. At the same time, literary data support that anovulatory infertility is a very strong risk for breast cancer in young women either with or without obesity. In the majority of premenopausal women, obesity associated insulin resistance is moderate and may be counteracted by their preserved circulatory estrogen level. Consequently, it is not obesity but rather the still sufficient estrogen-level, which may be protective against breast cancer in young adult females. In obese older women, never using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) the breast cancer risk is high, which is associated with their continuous estrogen loss and increasing insulin-resistance. By contrast, obese postmenopausal women using HRT, have a decreased risk for breast cancer as the protective effect of estrogen-substitution may counteract to their obesity associated systemic alterations. The revealed inverse correlation between circulatory estrogen-level and breast cancer risk in obese women should advance our understanding of breast cancer etiology and promotes primary prevention measures. New patents recommend various methods for the prevention and treatment of obesity

  3. Do Ramadan fasting restrictions alter eating behaviours in obese women?

    PubMed

    Savas, Esen; Öztürk, Zeynel Abidin; Tanrıverdi, Derya; Kepekçi, Yalçın

    2014-02-01

    Ramadan fasting can be considered as a kind of dietary restriction. Eating restriction is a risk factor for later development of eating disorders. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether Ramadan fasting changes the eating behaviours of obese women. Our sample consisted of 34 obese women who fasted during the Ramadan month. The data were collected by using Questionnaire Form, Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE). No statistically significant differences were found between the scores of EAT, BITE, BMI, which were administered within the weeks before and after Ramadan. According to our results, Ramadan fasting restrictions do not seem to change the eating behaviours of obese women.

  4. Obesity Patterns among Women in a Slum Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Romero W.; Pinto, Renato A.; Correia, Jailson B.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy diet and sedentary lifestyle fail to completely explain the epidemic of obesity in developing countries. In this cross-sectional survey, the prevalence and patterns of overweight/obesity were assessed among women in a slum in Brazil. Using anthropometric measurements, shorter form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and a 24-hour diet recall questionnaire, data were collected from 632 women aged 20-60 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29% and 17% respectively. Physical inactivity was found in 17% of the women; 12% of them had short stature, and 44% had energy intake below the recommended dietary allowance. Results of multiple logistic regression showed that overweight/obesity differed significantly (p<0.05) in the following aspects: abdominal circumference, energy intake, and short stature. A high prevalence of overweight/obesity was found in a very poor community associated with high-energy intake and short stature. PMID:21766564

  5. Obesity differences between African-American men and women.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Nanda, J P; Bonney, G; Kofie, V

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-demographic and behavioral differences related to obesity between African-American men and women. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of greater than 27.3 kg/m2 for women and 27.8 kg/m2 for men. Data were collected from 661 African-Americans, 418 women and 243 men, residing in wards 7 and 8 in Washington, DC through telephone interviews. Obesity was prevalent among 38.3% of the women and 20.1% of the men (p < 0.01). For women age 55 or older, annual income over $20K, having less than a high school education, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were associated with being overweight in the initial bivariate analysis (p < 0.05). For men, being 35 years or older and unemployment were significant factors associated with obesity. Our final analysis, when known dietary risk factors were adjusted, revealed that in women, obesity was associated with age, hard liquor consumption and non use of tobacco. For men, older age was a primary association. We concluded that gender, with increasing age, plays a significant role in predicting obesity, as defined by concurrent national standards. African American men 55 years of age or older are the most likely group to be overweight even after predisposing and behavioral risk factors are considered.

  6. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Gonzalez, Fernando; Auguet, Teresa; Aragonès, Gemma; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Martinez, Salomé; Martí, Andreu; Sabench, Fátima; Hernandez, Mercé; Aguilar, Carmen; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Jorba, Rosa; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-01-01

    Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A) plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2). We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127). It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032), and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women. PMID:26263971

  7. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Gonzalez, Fernando; Auguet, Teresa; Aragonès, Gemma; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Berlanga, Alba; Martinez, Salomé; Martí, Andreu; Sabench, Fátima; Hernandez, Mercé; Aguilar, Carmen; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Jorba, Rosa; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-07-30

    Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A) plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2) and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2). We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127). It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032), and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women.

  8. Obesity and Body Size Preferences of Jordanian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madanat, Hala; Hawks, Steven R.; Angeles, Heidi N.

    2011-01-01

    The nutrition transition is associated with increased obesity rates and increased desire to be thin. This study evaluates the relationship between actual body size and desired body size among a representative sample of 800 Jordanian women. Using Stunkard's body silhouettes, women were asked to identify their current and ideal body sizes, healthy…

  9. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    PubMed

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  10. Evaluation of genetic susceptibility loci for obesity in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiajun; Long, Jirong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lu, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Wen, Wanqing; Zheng, Ying; Yu, Kai; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Hu, Frank B; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2010-08-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified 18 genetic loci for obesity. Using directly observed and imputed GWA genotyping data on approximately 5,000 Chinese women (1996-2007), the authors evaluated 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represent 17 distinct obesity loci. Two SNPs near the BAT2 and MC4R genes and 3 SNPs within the FTO, SEC16B, and SH2B1 genes were significantly associated with body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), body weight, and the prevalence of obesity. The per-allele increase in body mass index ranged from 0.16 units (BAT2) to 0.38 units (SH2B1). Odds ratios for obesity ranged from 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12, 1.92) for BAT2 to 2.16 (95% CI: 1.39, 3.37) for MC4R. A genetic risk score calculated by summing the number of risk-increasing alleles that each woman carried at these 5 loci was significantly associated with the prevalence of obesity. Women carrying 5 or more risk alleles had a 3.13-fold (95% CI: 2.06, 4.77) higher prevalence of obesity than women carrying 1 or no risk alleles. Results from this study extend some previous GWA findings to Chinese women and show the need for additional studies to identify susceptibility loci in Chinese and other Asian populations.

  11. The Psychosocial Factors Related to Obesity: A Study Among Overweight, Obese, and Morbidly Obese Women in India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors among overweight, obese, and morbidly obese women in Delhi, India were examined. A follow-up survey was conducted of 325 ever-married women aged 20–54 years, systematically selected from 1998–99 National Family Health Survey samples, who were re-interviewed after 4 years in 2003. Information on day-to-day problems, body image dissatisfaction, sexual dissatisfaction, and stigma and discrimination were collected and anthropometric measurements were obtained from women to compute their current body mass index. Three out of four overweight women (BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2) were not happy with their body image, compared to four out of five obese women (BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater), and almost all (95 percent) morbidly obese women (BMI of 35 kg/m2 or greater) (p < .0001). It was found that morbidly obese and obese women were five times (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.02–13.81, p < .001) and two times (aOR 2.30, 95% CI 1.20–4.42, p < .001), respectively, as likely to report day-to-day problems; twelve times (aOR 11.88, 95% CI 2.62–53.87, p < .001) and three times, respectively, as likely (aOR 2.92, 95% CI 1.45–5.88, p = .001) to report dissatisfaction with body image; and nine times (aOR 9.41, 95% CI 2.96–29.94, p < .001) and three times (aOR 2.93, 95% CI 1.03–8.37, p = .001), respectively, as likely to report stigma and discrimination as overweight women. PMID:25905678

  12. Impact of obesity on recovery and pulmonary functions of obese women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A M; Abdelazim, Ibrahim A

    2016-06-01

    To determine impact of obesity on recovery parameters and pulmonary functions of women undergoing major abdominal gynecological surgeries. Eighty women undergoing major gynecological surgeries were included in this study. Anesthesia was induced by remifentanil bolus, followed by propofol and cisatracurium to facilitate oro-tracheal intubation and was maintained by balanced anesthesia of remifentanil intravenous infusion and sevoflurane in oxygen and air. Time from discontinuation of maintenance anesthesia to fully awake were recorded at 1-min intervals and time from discontinuation of anesthesia until patient was transferred to post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and discharged from PACU was also recorded. Pulmonary function tests were performed before surgery and repeated 4 h, days 1, 2 and 3 post-operative for evaluation of forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and peak expiratory flow rate. Occurrence of post-operative complications, re-admission to ICU, hospital stay and morbidities were also recorded. Induction of anesthesia using remifentanil bolus injection resulted in significant decrease of heart rate and arterial pressures compared to pre-operative and pre-induction values. Recovery times were significantly shorter in obese compared to morbidly obese women. Post-operative pulmonary function tests showed significant deterioration compared to pre-operative measures but showed progressive improvement through first 3 post-operative days. Hospital stay was significantly shorter for obese compared to morbid obese women. Obesity delays recovery from general anesthesia, adversely affects pulmonary functions and increases post-operative complications. Remifentanil infusion and sevoflurane could be appropriate combination for obese and morbidly obese women undergoing major surgeries.

  13. Obesity in Women: The Clinical Impact on Gastrointestinal and Reproductive Health and Disease Management.

    PubMed

    Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Uwakwe, Laura; Rashid, Farzana

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 36% of adult women in the United States are obese. Although obesity affects women similarly to men in terms of prevalence, there seem to be gender-specific differences in the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of obesity. Obesity is linked to comorbid diseases involving multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, like gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, and gallstones. This article focuses on obesity in women, specifically the impact of obesity on gastrointestinal diseases and reproductive health, as well as the treatment of obesity in women.

  14. Stress-related development of obesity and cortisol in women.

    PubMed

    Vicennati, Valentina; Pasqui, Francesca; Cavazza, Carla; Pagotto, Uberto; Pasquali, Renato

    2009-09-01

    Chronic exposure to environmental stress may play a role in the development of obesity, through hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. This study investigated the dynamics of weight gain and the activity of the HPA axis in women who developed weight gain after a stressful event. This is a case-control retrospective study. Two groups of age-matched premenopausal women were selected. One (n = 14) included women characterized by a rapid weight gain following a stressful event, defined as the "stress-related obesity " (SRO) group, and the other (n = 21) women with nonstress-related development of obesity, defined as the "nonstress-related obesity " (NSRO) group. Twenty-one healthy premenopausal women served as normal-weight controls. Baseline hormonal and metabolic parameters, and 24-h urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) excretion rate (as a measure of HPA-axis activity) were measured in all women. Anthropometry, diet, and physical activity were similar in both obese groups. Both obese groups showed similar metabolic and hormonal profiles, but the SRO group had UFC/24 h values (41.1 +/- 14.3 microg) significantly higher (P < 0.001) with respect to the NSRO (26.6 +/- 17.6 microg) or the normal-weight control groups (21.1 +/- 9.8 microg). Moreover, time (years) to achieve maximum Deltaweight gain (kg) and the Deltaweight gain/time ratio were significantly shorter (P < 0.001) and higher (P < 0.001) in the SRO group with respect to the NSRO group, respectively. In the SRO group, there was a tendency to a significant correlation between UFC/24 h and the Deltaweight gain/time ratio. These findings support the concept that SRO has distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, including hyperactivity of the HPA axis.

  15. Oxidative stress elevated DNA damage and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in a segment of Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia A; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Z; Jalal, Fatima; Rana, Shahid Mahboob; Nagra, Saeed A

    2011-04-01

    Maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy may impair fetal growth and help in the development of diseases in adulthood. The aim of current study was to assess total oxidation status (TOS), related parameters and their relationship to DNA damage (%) and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in low-income participants. In a cross-sectional study healthy women were grouped as normal, while age matched nulliparous and singleton pregnancies were included for first, second and third trimester groups. TOS (P<0.01), melanodialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), triiodothyronine (T3) (P<0.01), thyroxine (T4) (P<0.01), and homocysteine (P<0.001), in pregnant women were significantly higher as compared to normal healthy women. While serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.01) and total antioxidant status (TAS) (P<0.001) decreased significantly as compared to normal healthy women. Women in third trimester showed a significantly high level of body temperature (P<0.01), triglyceride (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05), AST (P<0.01), T3 (P<0.01), homocysteine (P<0.001), TOS (P<0.01) and MDA (P<0.001) but a lower concentration of serum proteins, albumin and TAS at the end of the pregnancy. Pearson correlation indicated a positive relationship of homocysteine with triglycerides (P<0.027), TOS (P<0.01), MDA (P<0.035) and had a negative relationship with total protein (P<0.026). DNA damage was strongly related with T3 (P<0.008), TOS (P<0.02), MDA (P<0.037) and MBI (P<0.048) profiles of pregnant women. These changes were considered normal for pregnant women having optimum blood pressure and normal child birth. Hormonal influences and hemodilution may contribute towards the observed changes in this study.

  16. European society of contraception statement on contraception in obese women.

    PubMed

    Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Skouby, Sven; Serfaty, David; Lech, Medard; Bitzer, Johannes; Crosignani, Pier Giorgio; Cagnacci, Angelo; Sitruk-Ware, Regine

    2015-02-01

    The obesity 'epidemic' continues to increase, mostly but not only in developed countries. As overweight and obese women are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) at baseline and at a much higher risk during pregnancy, it is essential to help these women to plan pregnancies carefully and to use contraceptives with a positive ratio of benefits versus risks. The Expert Group on hormonal and molecular contraception of the European Society of Contraception convened to review the existing evidence and propose recommendations to the prescribers in line with most recent studies and with the Medical Eligibility Criteria of the World Health Organisation.

  17. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Use in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Reni A; Harris, Sara C; Salcedo, Jennifer; Kaneshiro, Bliss E

    2015-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a safe, effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive that reduces unintended pregnancy and decreases heavy menstrual bleeding. Many procedures such as IUD insertion are more challenging in overweight and obese women. The objective of this study was to describe LNG-IUD insertion, continuation, and complications in overweight and obese women in an ethnically diverse population in Hawai‘i. A retrospective cohort study of women who had a LNG-IUD inserted at the University of Hawai‘i, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Resident and Faculty practice sites between January 2009 and December 2010 was performed. A total of 149 women were followed. The most commonly reported races were Asian (32%), Native Hawaiian (26%), and non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander (20%). The mean BMI of the study population was 28.4 (standard deviation 7.2) with 37% classified as normal weight, 30% as overweight, and 33% as obese. Overall, 76% of women continued the LNG-IUD 12 months after insertion. No statistically significant difference emerged in 12-month IUD continuation between the BMI groups. Difficult (5%) and failed (3%) IUD insertions were rare for all BMI groups. IUD complications occurred in 9% of women and included expulsion and self-removal. In this diverse population, the majority of women continued to use the LNG-IUD one year after insertion with low rates of difficult insertions and complications. PMID:26568900

  18. Metabolic dysfunction in obese Hispanic women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Susan; Scoccia, Bert; Yalamanchi, Sudha; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are certain ethnic groups with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at increased risk of metabolic disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER Obese Hispanic women with PCOS are at increased risk of metabolic disorders compared with age- and BMI-matched obese non-Hispanic white women with PCOS in the USA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Ethnic differences in body composition and metabolic risk are well established. PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age and is associated with high rates of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A cross-sectional observational study was performed at an Academic Medical Center on 60 women of reproductive age with PCOS. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Blood was obtained after fasting from 17 Hispanic, 22 non-Hispanic black and 21 non-Hispanic white women with PCOS who were similar in age and BMI. Anthropometric parameters, insulin, lipid and lipoprotein levels (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance) were compared between the three groups. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Age and BMI did not differ between the groups. Hispanic women with PCOS had higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.03) and a more atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein profile consisting of lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.02), higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number (P = 0.02), higher very low-density lipoprotein particle (VLDL) size (P = 0.03) and lower LDL (P = 0.03) and HDL particle size (P = 0.005) compared with non-Hispanic white women. The differences in HDL, HOMA-IR, VLDL and LDL size did not persist after adjustment for WHR while differences in LDL particle number (P = 0.04) and HDL size (P = 0.01) persisted. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION The sample size for the three groups was small but the findings were still significant. The women were mostly obese so the ethnic differences in metabolic disorders may

  19. Influence of magnesium on insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Pinto, Denise Pereira; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Lima, Fabiana da Silva; Colli, Célia; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of magnesium on insulin resistance in obese women. A case-control study involving 114 women on the age between 20 and 50 years old, divided into two groups: control (eutrophic women, n = 59) and case (obese women, n = 55). The analysis of magnesium intake was carried out through the 3-day food record and also NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The determinations of serum glucose and serum insulin were performed by enzymatic colorimetric method and chemiluminescence, respectively. The insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The mean values of magnesium intake were lower than those recommended, without difference between groups (p > 0.05). All the patients who were evaluated showed adequate mean concentrations of magnesium in the plasma and erythrocyte. The urinary excretion of this mineral was lower than the reference values in both groups and did not show significant difference (p > 0.05). The values of serum glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher in obese women compared to the control group. A negative correlation was observed between erythrocyte magnesium and glycemic parameters (p < 0.05). Obese patients take in foods with low dietary magnesium content, and they show hypomagnesuria as a compensatory mechanism to keep the plasma concentration of this mineral in adequate levels. The correlation between the erythrocyte magnesium concentration and the parameters of glycemic control suggests the influence of this mineral on the index of insulin resistance in obese women.

  20. Overweight and Obesity in Lesbian and Bisexual College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…

  1. The Curves Exercise Suppresses Endotoxemia in Korean Women with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it. Women over body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m2 participated in a resistance training exercise, Curves. At baseline and after 12 weeks exercise, tests including blood samples were taken. In Korean obese women, the fasting endotoxin was 1.45 ± 0.11 EU/mL. Ingestion of a high calorie meal led to a peak level after 2 hours (postprandial 2 hours [PP2]) and a significant rise over the 4 hours (postprandial 4 hours [PP4]) in it (1.78 ± 0.15 and 1.75 ± 0.14 EU/mL for PP2 and PP4, P < 0.05 vs. fasting). After exercise, BMI and hip circumference were reduced significantly. The total cholesterol (TC) at fasting, PP2 and PP4 were decreased significantly. All levels of circulating endotoxin at fasting, PP2 and PP4 showed reduction. But, the peak change was only significant (baseline vs. 12 weeks for PP2; 1.78 ± 0.15 vs. 1.48 ± 0.06 EU/mL, P < 0.05). We report the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women for the first time. Also, we establish that energy intake leads to endotoxemia and exercise suppresses the peak endotoxemia after meal. It suggests an impact for a better prognosis in obese women who follow regular exercise. PMID:28049238

  2. HPA axis response to stress predicts short-term snack intake in obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Pagoto, Sherry L; Peters, Erica N; Spring, Bonnie J

    2010-02-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean women. Stress also blunted an expected rise in hunger only among obese women. Findings suggest that some obese women may be more sensitive to short-term anorectic effects of HPA axis activation.

  3. Culturally Specific Dance to Reduce Obesity in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Murrock, Carolyn J.; Gary, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women. PMID:19098267

  4. Prevalence and degree of bother from pelvic floor disorders in obese women.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Emily L; Lukacz, Emily S; Lawrence, Jean M; Nager, Charles W; Luber, Karl M

    2009-03-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and bother from pelvic floor disorders (PFD) by obesity severity, hypothesizing that both would increase with higher degrees of obesity. We performed a secondary analysis of 1,155 females enrolled in an epidemiologic study that used a validated questionnaire to identify PFD. Prevalence and degree of bother were compared across three obesity groups. Logistic regression assessed the contribution of degree of obesity to the odds of having PFD. Prevalence of any PFD was highest in morbidly (57%) and severely (53%) obese compared to obese women (44%). Regression models demonstrated higher prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, overactive bladder, stress urinary incontinence, and any PFD in morbidly compared to obese women and higher prevalence of stress urinary incontinence in severely obese compared to obese women. Degree of bother did not vary by degree of obesity. Prevalence of PFD increases with higher degrees of obesity.

  5. Reinforcing value of food in obese and non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Saelens, B E; Epstein, L H

    1996-08-01

    Food is a powerful reinforcer, and individual differences in the reinforcing efficacy of food may provide a mechanism to explain the excess intake and positive energy balance responsible for obesity. The present study tested the hypothesis that eating palatable food would be more reinforcing than engaging in sedentary activities (e.g. playing computer games) for obese in comparison to non-obese non-dietary restrained female college students. Subjects could choose to eat food or engage in sedentary activities based on their responding in a computer-generated concurrent schedules task. The reinforcement schedule associated with earning access to sedentary activities was held at variable ratio 2 (VR2) while the food reinforcement schedule was set at VR2 in the first trial of the choice task and doubled across the four subsequent trials from VR4 to VR32. Choice and consumption results indicated that eating was significantly more reinforcing than engaging in sedentary activities for obese subjects than non-obese subjects. Hedonics for the activities and foods were not correlated with total food reinforcers earned and did not differ between the groups. These results confirm the hypothesis that eating food is more reinforcing than selected alternative activities to a greater extent for obese than for non-obese young women.

  6. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity

    PubMed Central

    Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause. PMID:26327888

  7. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity.

    PubMed

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause.

  8. Prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and risk of obesity in adult women.

    PubMed

    Hatch, E E; Troisi, R; Palmer, J R; Wise, L A; Titus, L; Strohsnitter, W C; Ricker, W; Hyer, M; Hoover, R N

    2015-06-01

    Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a non-steroidal estrogen that was commonly prescribed during pregnancy from the late 1940s to 1971. A potent endocrine disruptor, prenatal DES exposure has been linked with reproductive tract malformations, adverse pregnancy outcomes, cancer, infertility and earlier menopause. DES was used for years as a growth promoter in animal production. Some animal studies suggest that prenatal DES exposure is associated with obesity and metabolic disturbances. Using data from the National Cancer Institute DES Follow-Up Study, we evaluated the association between DES and adult obesity, weight gain from age 20 to mid-life, central adiposity and height among 2871 prenatally exposed and 1352 unexposed women between 23 and 52 years of age (median 41.5) at baseline in 1994. DES exposure status was confirmed by prenatal medical record review. We used multivariable log-binomial models to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for obesity in 2006, and linear regression to calculate mean differences in body mass index, weight gain, waist circumference and height. The adjusted RR for DES and obesity was 1.09 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97, 1.22], and RRs were 1.23 (CI: 1.07, 1.42) and 1.05 (CI: 0.91, 1.20) for low and high estimated total DES dose, respectively, compared with no exposure. DES-exposed women gained slightly more weight than unexposed women [mean difference, 0.70 kg (CI: -0.27, 1.66)]. This study suggests that prenatal DES exposure may be associated with a small increase in adult obesity.

  9. Health Professionals' Experiences Providing Breastfeeding-Related Care for Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Stephannie L.; Devine, Carol M.; Thornburg, Loralei L.; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obese women are at high risk of early breastfeeding cessation, and health professionals (HPs) have a unique opportunity to provide them with breastfeeding support. Our objective was to describe HPs' experiences providing breastfeeding care for obese women during the prenatal, peripartum, and postpartum periods. Materials and Methods: In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 HPs (including obstetricians, midwives, pediatricians, nurses, and lactation consultants) who care for pregnant or lactating women. They were recruited from a variety of settings in central New York. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, verified for accuracy, and then analyzed qualitatively. Results: HPs identified obesity in multiple ways, some of which were consistent with standard cutoffs, whereas others implied extreme obesity. Nearly all HPs discussed ways they perceive obese women have challenges with breastfeeding. Some HPs described challenges as specific to obese women (e.g., limited mobility), whereas others described challenges as universal but more likely to occur among obese women (e.g., difficulties positioning the infant to breastfeed). Across professions, HPs described providing breastfeeding care for obese women as requiring more time and physical work and as being more challenging. HPs acknowledged stigma around obesity and discussed treating obese women with dignity and the same as other women. Strategies were suggested for improving breastfeeding support for obese women. Conclusions: HPs identified multiple challenges that obese women encounter with breastfeeding, as well as their own challenges with providing care. Comprehensive strategies are needed to assist obese women with breastfeeding and to alleviate strain on HPs who provide their care. PMID:25347705

  10. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    PubMed Central

    Muscariello, Espedita; Nasti, Gilda; Siervo, Mario; Di Maro, Martina; Lapi, Dominga; D’Addio, Gianni; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women. Materials and methods A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM) was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex −0.071× age +5.102). Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2), as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2). A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104) was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50) administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins), and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54), for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up. Results The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the HPI sarcopenic group (NPI 6.98±0.1 vs 7.10±0.2 kg/m2, HPI 7.13±0.4 vs 6.96±0.1 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline). Conclusion A diet moderately rich in proteins was able to preserve MM in sarcopenic women. Therefore, adequate protein intake could contribute to the prevention of lean-mass loss associated with weight reduction in obese older people. PMID:26917955

  11. The energy cost of cycling in young obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Proietti, Marco; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-05-01

    In order to evaluate the difference in the energy cost of submaximal cycling between normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) females, nine OB (age 23.2 years+/-1.6 SE, BMI 40.4+/-1.2 kg/m2) and nine NW (age 25.6 years+/-1.8, BMI 21.7+/-0.6 kg/m2) healthy young women were studied during a graded bicycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W. At rest and at all workloads, oxygen uptake VO2 was higher in OB than in NW women (Student's t test, P<0.05-0.01), as well as respiratory quotient during all exercise levels (P<0.05-0.01), while similar values of heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and breathing efficiency were found between the two groups. Maximal VO2 and anaerobic threshold were higher in OB women, and they also explained the higher oxygen pulse observed during submaximal exercise, but no difference was found when the values were adjusted for fat-free mass. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (ANOVA, P<0.05), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency in obesity, but suggesting that the increased mass of body segments involved in cycling movements may be chiefly responsible for the higher energy cost of this type of exercise. Comparison of the actual VO2 presently measured with that predicted by available cycle ergometry equations at the different workloads indicated inaccuracy of various degrees ranging from 8.4 to -31.9%. It is concluded that the lower mechanical efficiency displayed by obese women in cycling has to be taken into account when prescribing exercise through methods predicting the metabolic load.

  12. Disgust sensitivity, obesity stigma, and gender: contamination psychology predicts weight bias for women, not men.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination.

  13. Can religion help prevent obesity? Religious messages and the prevalence of being overweight or obese among Korean women in California.

    PubMed

    Ayers, John W; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Song, Yoonju; Park, Hae-Ryun; Paik, Hee-Yong; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the influence of messages from religious leaders and congregants on whether Korean women are overweight or obese. Data were drawn from telephone interviews with a probability sample (N = 591) of women of Korean descent living in California. Overweight or obese prevalence was measured using World Health Organization standards for Asians (BMI > 23). Respondents reported the frequency of messages discouraging “excessive eating” or encouraging “exercise” from religious leaders and congregants during a typical month. When conditioned on leaders’ messages, the frequency of congregants’ messages was associated with a significantly lower probability of being overweight or obese, although messages from either in the absence of the other were unassociated with being overweight or obese. At least for Korean women, religion may help prevent obesity via religious-based social mechanisms.

  14. Osteosarcopenic obesity in women: impact, prevalence, and management challenges

    PubMed Central

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome (OSO) has recently been identified as a condition encompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity. OSO is especially deleterious in older adults (even if they are not obese by conventional measures), due to age-related redistribution of fat and its infiltration into bone and muscle. Osteoporosis and bone fractures in elderly increase the risk of sarcopenia, which, through decreased mobility, increases the risk of more falls and fractures, creating a vicious cycle. Obesity plays a dual role: to a certain extent, it promotes bone and muscle gains through mechanical loading; in contrast, increased adiposity is also a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other endocrine factors that impair bone and muscle. As the elderly population increases, changes in lifestyle to delay the onset of OSO, or prevent OSO, are warranted. Among these changes, dietary patterns and physical activity modifications are the first ones to be implemented. The typical Western diet (and lifestyle) promotes several chronic diseases including OSO, by facilitating a pro-inflammatory state, largely via the imbalance in omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and low-fiber and high-processed food consumption. Nutritional modifications to prevent and/or alleviate the OSO syndrome include adequate intake of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D and increasing consumptions of foods containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. Certain types of physical activity, often decreased in overweight/obese women and in elderly, might preserve bone and muscle, as well as help in reducing body fat accrual and fat infiltration. Habitual daily activities and some alternative modes of exercise may be more appropriate for older adults and play a crucial role in preventing bone and muscle loss and maintaining optimal weight. In conclusion, older adults who suffer from OSO syndrome may benefit from combined efforts to improve diet and physical activity, and such

  15. Osteosarcopenic obesity in women: impact, prevalence, and management challenges.

    PubMed

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome (OSO) has recently been identified as a condition encompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity. OSO is especially deleterious in older adults (even if they are not obese by conventional measures), due to age-related redistribution of fat and its infiltration into bone and muscle. Osteoporosis and bone fractures in elderly increase the risk of sarcopenia, which, through decreased mobility, increases the risk of more falls and fractures, creating a vicious cycle. Obesity plays a dual role: to a certain extent, it promotes bone and muscle gains through mechanical loading; in contrast, increased adiposity is also a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other endocrine factors that impair bone and muscle. As the elderly population increases, changes in lifestyle to delay the onset of OSO, or prevent OSO, are warranted. Among these changes, dietary patterns and physical activity modifications are the first ones to be implemented. The typical Western diet (and lifestyle) promotes several chronic diseases including OSO, by facilitating a pro-inflammatory state, largely via the imbalance in omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and low-fiber and high-processed food consumption. Nutritional modifications to prevent and/or alleviate the OSO syndrome include adequate intake of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D and increasing consumptions of foods containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. Certain types of physical activity, often decreased in overweight/obese women and in elderly, might preserve bone and muscle, as well as help in reducing body fat accrual and fat infiltration. Habitual daily activities and some alternative modes of exercise may be more appropriate for older adults and play a crucial role in preventing bone and muscle loss and maintaining optimal weight. In conclusion, older adults who suffer from OSO syndrome may benefit from combined efforts to improve diet and physical activity, and such

  16. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    PubMed

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  17. Lifestyle behaviors in metabolically healthy and unhealthy overweight and obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To determine whether physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior and/or diet quality differ between metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Methods: Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI =25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 ...

  18. Safety and Efficacy of Contraceptive Methods for Obese and Overweight Women.

    PubMed

    Lotke, Pamela S; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity have become a major public health challenge. Given the added health risks that obese women have during pregnancy, preventing unwanted pregnancy is imperative. Clinicians who provide contraception must understand the efficacy, risks, and the weight changes associated with various contraceptive methods. Despite differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hormonal contraceptives in overweight and obese women, efficacy does not appear to be severely impacted. Both estrogen-containing contraceptives and obesity increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, but the absolute risk remains acceptably low in reproductive age women.

  19. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  20. Compensating for Stigma: Obese and Nonobese Women's Reactions to Being Visible.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that obese women (n=155) compensate for the prejudice of others. Results supported the hypothesis that obese women who were aware of the need to compensate for their partners' reactions to their appearance were able to do so. (JBJ)

  1. ALTERED HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION IN MORBIDLY OBESE WOMEN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SUSCEPTIBILITY TO OTHER DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the molecular bases of disordered hepatic function and disease susceptibility in obesity. We compared global gene expression in liver biopsies from morbidly obese (MO) women undergoing gastric bypass (GBP) surgery with that of women un...

  2. Obesity and periodontal disease in diabetic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chapper, Ana; Munch, Artur; Schermann, Camila; Piacentini, Carolina Carraro; Fasolo, Maria Thereza Martins

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of pregestational overweight and obesity on periodontal status of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Sixty pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were recruited for the study. According to the pregestational body mass index (BMI), patients were classified into 3 groups: normal, overweight or obese. The periodontal assessment parameters were the presence of gingival bleeding (GB) and bleeding on probing (BOP) per tooth. Clinical attachment loss (CAL) was assessed per tooth and classified according to following values: 1) absence of attachment loss; 2) between 1 and 2 mm, 3) between 3 and 5 mm; and 4) CAL > or = 6 mm. The means of individual percentage of teeth with GB and BOP and the means of the individual classified values of CAL were compared through ANOVA. Differences between the groups were established through post hoc Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). The analysis revealed significant differences between the normal group and the obese group considering GB (52.76% +/- 27.99% and 78.85% +/- 27.44%, respectively) and CAL (2.21 +/- 0.41 and 2.61 +/- 0.54, respectively). Although an increase was found in BOP as the BMI increased (ranging from 55.65% to 75.31%), no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Patients with GDM and pregestational obesity had significantly more gingivitis and periodontal attachment loss that those with normal pregestational BMI. Periodontal treatment should be considered in the establishment of future recommendations for metabolic control for this special group of patients.

  3. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  4. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  5. Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases in Asian Indian girls and women.

    PubMed

    Chopra, S M; Misra, A; Gulati, S; Gupta, R

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising globally and in India. Overweight, obesity and related diseases need to be delineated in Asian Indian women. A literature search was done using key words like 'obesity', 'Asian Indian women', 'body fat distribution', 'type 2 diabetes', 'fertility', 'polycystic ovarian disease', metabolic syndrome', 'cardiovascular disease', 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'gender', 'sex' and 'prevalence' up to September 2012 in Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines. This review highlights the Asian Indian body composition with regards to obesity and provides a collated perspective of gender-specific prevalence of the co-morbidities. Recent data show that women (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 15-61%) have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared with men (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 12-54%) in India and that obesity is increasing in the youth. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both men and women steeply rose in a Punjabi community from Jaipur. Importantly, prevalence of abdominal obesity has been consistently higher in women than in men. The lowest prevalence (6.0%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women is reported from South India (rural Andhra Pradesh; 2006) and the highest (14.0%) by the National Urban Diabetes Survey (2001). Although the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors was generally high, it increased further in post-menopausal women. There are a number of factors that predispose Indian women to obesity; sedentary behaviour, imbalanced diets, sequential and additive postpartum weight gain and further decrease in physical activity during this period and cultural issues. In view of these data, preventive measures should be specifically targeted to Indian women.

  6. Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garin, Margaret C; Butts, Samantha F; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-03-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Total ghrelin levels were lower in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 45) compared to obese controls (n = 33) (p = 0.005), but similar in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 20) compared to non-obese controls (n = 21) (p = NS). In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone (p = 0.008). There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls (p = NS). Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and ovarian function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome that was not observed in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome or controls.

  7. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  8. Obesity and obesity-associated cardiometabolic risk factors in indigenous Nenets women from the rural Nenets Autonomous Area and Russian women from Arkhangelsk city

    PubMed Central

    Petrenya, Natalia; Brustad, Magritt; Dobrodeeva, Liliya; Bichkaeva, Fatima; Lutfalieva, Gulnara; Cooper, Marie; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions varies by population groups. Indigenous women of the circumpolar north are believed to be at high risk of obesity. Objective We studied, first the obesity prevalence in indigenous Arctic women, Nenets, compared to urban Russian women. Second, the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in the combined group of Nenets and Russian women. Third, ethnic differences in the association between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study performed in 2008–2009. Subjects: 93 Nenets women, aged 19–77 (the indigenous village, the Nenets Autonomous Area) and 132 Russian women, aged 21–72 (Arkhangelsk city). Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI)≥30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC)≥88 cm and or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)≥0.85%. We assessed associations between obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors by linear and logistic regression models that included covariates of ethnicity, age, smoking and physical activity. We also tested for interaction between obesity measurements and ethnicity. Results Prevalence of obesity estimated through BMI, WC and WHR were 42.5, 45.3 and 41.9% in Nenets and 34.4, 46.4 and 29.5% in Russians, respectively, with no differences found. BMI, WC and WHR associated positively with triglycerides, fasting insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance index. In addition, BMI and WC correlated negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B/apoliporotein A–I ratio. WC explained significant variation in fasting glucose (FG) level. BMI predicted type 2 diabetes history. FG level associated strongly with ethnicity and was found to be higher in Russians. Conclusions We found no differences in prevalence of obesity between Nenets and Russian females. Obesity was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors independently of ethnicity in the

  9. Clinical Pain Catastrophizing in Women with Migraine and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Buse, Dawn C.; Lipton, Richard B.; Thomas, J. Graham; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; Pavlovic, Jelena M.; Evans, E. Whitney; Wing, Rena R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/Background Obesity is related to migraine. Maladaptive pain coping strategies (e.g., pain catastrophizing), may provide insight into this relationship. In women with migraine and obesity, we cross-sectionally assessed: 1) prevalence of clinical catastrophizing; 2) characteristics of those with and without clinical catastrophizing; and 3) associations of catastrophizing with headache features. Methods Obese women migraineurs seeking weight loss treatment (n=105) recorded daily migraine activity for 1-month via smartphone and completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Clinical catastrophizing was defined as total PCS score ≥30. The Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12), Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE), and assessments for depression (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7) were also administered. Using PCS scores and Body Mass Index (BMI) as predictors in linear regression, we modeled a series of headache features (i.e., headache days, HIT-6, etc.) as outcomes. Results One-quarter (25.7%;95%CI=17.2%–34.1%) of participants met criteria for clinical catastrophizing: they had higher BMI(37.9±7.5 vs. 34.4±5.7 kg/m2, p=0.035), longer migraine attack duration(160.8±145.0 vs. 97.5±75.2 hours/month, p=0.038), higher HIT-6 scores(68.7±4.6 vs. 64.5±3.9, p<0.001), more allodynia(7.0±4.1 vs. 4.5±3.5, p<0.003), depression(25.4±12.4 vs. 13.3±9.2, p<0.001), and anxiety(11.0±5.2 vs. 5.6±4.1, p<0.001), and lower self-efficacy(80.1±25.6 vs. 104.7±18.9, p<0.001) compared to participants without clinical catastrophizing. The odds of chronic migraine were nearly 4-fold greater in those with (n=8/29.6%) versus without (n=8/10.3%) clinical catastrophizing (OR=3.68;95%CI=1.22–11.10, p=0.021). In all participants, higher PCS scores were related to more migraine days(β=0.331, p=0.001), longer attack duration(β=0.390, p<0.001), higher HIT-6 scores(β=0.425, p<0.001), and lower HMSE scores (β=−0.437, p<0.001). Higher BMI

  10. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.

  12. Hypolipemic effect of Garcinia cambogia in obese women.

    PubMed

    Vasques, Carlos A R; Schneider, Ricardo; Klein-Júnior, Luiz C; Falavigna, Andressa; Piazza, Ivone; Rossetto, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citratelyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m(2) ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia.

  13. Race moderates the relationship between obesity and colorectal cancer screening in women

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Lucia A.; Campbell, Marci K.; Satia, Jessie A.; Bowling, J. Michael; Pignone, Michael P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine if the relationship between obesity and usage of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in women varies when stratifying by race. Methods Using nationally representative data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, we examined the relationship between obesity and CRC screening for white and African-American women aged 50 and older. Screening usage variables indicated if a woman was up-to-date for any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, or FOBT. We used multivariable logistic regression models that included interaction terms to determine if race moderates the obesity-screening relationship. We also calculated adjusted up-to-date colonoscopy rates using direct standardization to model covariates. Results The relationship between obesity and screening differed by race for any CRC screening test (P = 0.04 for interaction) and for colonoscopy (P = 0.01 for interaction), but not for FOBT. Obese white women had a lower adjusted colonoscopy rate (30.2%, 95% CI 25.9–34.8) than non-obese white women (39.1%, 95% CI 36.1–42.2). Obese African-American women, on the other hand, had a higher adjusted colonoscopy rate (41.2%, 95% CI 31.6–51.4) than their non-obese counterparts (35.6%, 95% CI 28.3–43.6). Overall, adjusted colonoscopy rates were lowest among obese white women. Conclusions Obesity is associated with lower CRC screening rates in white, but not African-American women. PMID:19941158

  14. Causal attributions of obese men and women in genetic testing: implications of genetic/biological attributions.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Anja; Dierk, Jan-Michael; Conradt, Matthias; Schlumberger, Pia; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Rief, Winfried

    2009-09-01

    The present study sought to investigate genetic/biological attributions of obesity, their associations with a predisposition to obesity and their crossectional and longitudinal implications for weight regulation in obese individuals presenting for genetic testing and counselling. A total of 421 obese men and women underwent psychological and anthropometric assessment and a mutation screen of the melanocortin-4 receptor gene. At study entry, women revealed more genetic/biological attributions than men on the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire adapted to obesity (86.2% versus 59.7%). Genetic/biological attributions of obesity were associated in both sexes with a family history of obesity, assessed through Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale. In both sexes, genetic/biological attributions were unrelated to weight regulation beliefs and behaviour (i.e. self-efficacy, controllability beliefs, restrained eating and physical activity), assessed through standardised questionnaires or interview at baseline and at six-month follow-up. In addition, causal attributions and weight regulation beliefs and behaviour were not predictive of body mass index at six-month follow-up. Overall, the results indicate that causal attributions of obesity to genetic/biological factors in obese individuals presenting for genetic screening and counselling are crossectionally and longitudinally unrelated to weight regulation and longer-term weight outcome. Those who attribute their obesity to genetic/biological factors likely have a familial obesity risk.

  15. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  16. Effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipokines in young obese women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihye; Ahn, Juhee

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state characterized by altered adipokine production and increased levels of inflammatory cytokines. The study explored the effect of zinc supplementation on inflammatory markers and adipocyte hormones in young obese women. Twenty five non-obese women and forty obese women (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)) aged 19-28 years were recruited for this study. Twenty obese women of the study group took 30 mg/day of supplemental zinc as zinc gluconate for 8 weeks and 20 obese women of control group took placebo. Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Serum zinc and urinary zinc concentration were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6 and adipocyte hormones such as lepin and adiponectin were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Inflammatory markers and leptin were significantly higher, but adiponectin was significantly lower in obese women than non-obese women. Zinc supplementation increased serum zinc by 15% and urinary zinc by 56% (P < 0.05). The levels of hs-CRP (P = 0.03) and IL-6 (P = 0.006) significantly decreased with zinc supplementation, but not in placebo group. Serum leptin and plasma adiponectin concentration did not differ with either zinc supplementation or placebo. The levels of IL-6 and leptin were inversely associated with dietary zinc intake. These results suggest that zinc may have a favorable effect on obesity-related inflammation in young adults.

  17. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  18. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  19. The Relationship between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Rural Childbearing Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine M.; Strawderman, Myla S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While food insecurity and obesity have been shown to be positively associated in women, little is known about the direction of the causal relationship between these 2 constructs. Purpose: To clarify the direction of the causal relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods: Chi-square and logistic regression analysis of data…

  20. Personalized medicine in women's obesity prevention and treatment: implications for research, policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, N; Ginsburg, G S; Simmons, L A

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of obesity in America has reached epidemic proportions, and obesity among women is particularly concerning. Severe obesity (body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) ) is more prevalent in women than men. Further, women have sex-specific risk factors that must be considered when developing preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review presents personalized medicine as a dynamic approach to obesity prevention, management and treatment for women. First, we review obesity as a complex health issue, with contributing sex-specific, demographic, psychosocial, behavioural, environmental, epigenetic and genetic/genomic risk factors. Second, we present personalized medicine as a rapidly advancing field of health care that seeks to quantify these complex risk factors to develop more targeted and effective strategies that can improve disease management and/or better minimize an individual's likelihood of developing obesity. Third, we discuss how personalized medicine can be applied in a clinical setting with current and emerging tools, including health risk assessments, personalized health plans, and strategies for increasing patient engagement. Finally, we discuss the need for additional research, training and policy that can enhance the practice of personalized medicine in women's obesity, including further advancements in the '-omics' sciences, physician training in personalized medicine, and additional development and standardization of innovative targeted therapies and clinical tools.

  1. Residential property values are associated with obesity among women in King County, WA, USA.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Drewnowski, Adam

    2012-08-01

    Studies of social determinants of weight and health in the US have typically relied on self-reported education and incomes as the two primary measures of socioeconomic status (SES). The assessed value of one's home, an important component of wealth, may be a better measure of the underlying SES construct and a better predictor of obesity. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS), conducted in 2008-9, was a cross-sectional random digit dial telephone survey of 2001 adults in King County, Washington State, US. Participants' addresses were geocoded and residential property values for each tax parcel were obtained from the county tax assessor's database. Prevalence ratios of obesity by property values, education, and household income were estimated separately for women and men, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, household size, employment status and home ownership. Among women, the inverse association between property values and obesity was very strong and independent of other SES factors. Women in the bottom quartile of property values were 3.4 times more likely to be obese than women in the top quartile. No association between property values and obesity was observed for men. The present data strengthen the evidence for a social gradient in obesity among women. Property values may represent a novel and objective measure of SES at the individual level in the US. Measures based on tax assessment data will provide a valuable resource for future health studies.

  2. Downregulation of de Novo Fatty Acid Synthesis in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue of Moderately Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Auguet, Teresa; Berlanga, Alba; Aragonès, Gemma; Aguilar, Carmen; Sabench, Fàtima; Armengol, Sandra; Porras, José Antonio; Martí, Andreu; Jorba, Rosa; Hernández, Mercè; del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2015-12-16

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes in human adipose tissue from moderately obese women. We used qRT-PCR and Western Blot to analyze visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue mRNA expression involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis (ACC1, FAS), fatty acid oxidation (PPARα, PPARδ) and inflammation (IL6, TNFα), in normal weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m², n = 35) and moderately obese women (BMI 30-38 kg/m², n = 55). In SAT, ACC1, FAS and PPARα mRNA expression were significantly decreased in moderately obese women compared to controls. The downregulation reported in SAT was more pronounced when BMI increased. In VAT, lipogenic-related genes and PPARα were similar in both groups. Only PPARδ gene expression was significantly increased in moderately obese women. As far as inflammation is concerned, TNFα and IL6 were significantly increased in moderate obesity in both tissues. Our results indicate that there is a progressive downregulation in lipogenesis in SAT as BMI increases, which suggests that SAT decreases the synthesis of fatty acid de novo during the development of obesity, whereas in VAT lipogenesis remains active regardless of the degree of obesity.

  3. Metabolic predictors of obesity. Contribution of resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fuel utilization to four-year weight gain of post-obese and never-obese women.

    PubMed Central

    Weinsier, R L; Nelson, K M; Hensrud, D D; Darnell, B E; Hunter, G R; Schutz, Y

    1995-01-01

    This prospective study was designed to identify abnormalities of energy expenditure and fuel utilization which distinguish post-obese women from never-obese controls. 24 moderately obese, postmenopausal, nondiabetic women with a familial predisposition to obesity underwent assessments of body composition, fasting and postprandial energy expenditure, and fuel utilization in the obese state and after weight loss (mean 12.9 kg) to a post-obese, normal-weight state. The post-obese women were compared with 24 never-obese women of comparable age and body composition. Four years later, without intervention, body weight was reassessed in both groups. Results indicated that all parameters measured in the post-obese women were similar to the never-obese controls: mean resting energy expenditure, thermic effect of food, and fasting and postprandial substrate oxidation and insulin-glucose patterns. Four years later, post-obese women regained a mean of 10.9 kg while control subjects remained lean (mean gain 1.7 kg) (P < 0.001 between groups). Neither energy expenditure nor fuel oxidation correlated with 4-yr weight changes, whereas self-reported physical inactivity was associated with greater weight regain. The data suggest that weight gain in obesity-prone women may be due to maladaptive responses to the environment, such as physical inactivity or excess energy intake, rather than to reduced energy requirements. PMID:7883999

  4. Relation with HOMA-IR and thyroid hormones in obese Turkish women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Topsakal, S; Yerlikaya, E; Akin, F; Kaptanoglu, B; Erürker, T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and thyroid function in obese pre- and postmenopausal women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). 141 obese women were divided into two groups, HOMA-IR<2.7 and HOMA-IR>2.7, to evaluate relation with HOMA-IR and fatness, hormone and blood parameters. They were then divided into four groups as pre- and postmenopausal with or without MetS. Various fatness, hormone and blood parameters were examined. Statistically significant difference was found in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, TSH, FT3, FT4, FSH, Anti-microsomal antibody (ANTIM) and triglycerides levels in HOMA-IR<2.7 and HOMA-IR>2.7 obese Turkish women. This study showed that age, weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, FT3, ANTIM, FSH, LH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were related in preand post menopausal status in obese women with or without MetS. Obesity may influence the levels of thyroid hormones and increases the risk of MetS in women. Postmenopausal status with MetS is associated with an increased TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels and HOMA-IR in obese women. Strong relation was observed with MetS and TSH and FT3 levels.

  5. Obesity, Healthcare Utilization and Health-Related Quality of Life after Fracture in Postmenopausal Women: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    PubMed Central

    Compston, Juliet E.; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Frederick H.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Gehlbach, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures in obese postmenopausal women may be associated with higher morbidity than in non-obese women. We aimed to compare healthcare utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, non-obese and underweight women with fractures. Information from GLOW, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2 and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, healthcare utilization, HRQL and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ≥55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 non-obese and 941 obese women with ≥1 incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than non-obese women (6 vs. 5 days, P = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in non-obese women, both before and after fracture, but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of anti-osteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in non-obese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than non-obese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established. PMID:24077896

  6. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  7. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and decreased risk of obesity in women

    PubMed Central

    Goulart, Alessandra C.; Zee, Robert Y.L.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) polymorphisms have been associated with several diseases, but whether they are associated with obesity is uncertain. To elucidate the role of genetic variation in the ESR1 gene with body mass index (BMI), 543 Caucasian women (median age 63 years) from the Women’s Health Study were examined. Most were postmenopausal (99.3%). The relationships between rs2234693 and rs9340799 genotypes and their associated haplotypes with obesity (BMI ≥ 30kg/m2) and overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) were evaluated. Among women with the rs2234693 TT genotype, 18.3% were obese, while only 8.2% of those with the CC genotype only were obese (p=0.04). In a logistic regression model assuming additive inheritance, rs2234693 was associated with decreased odds of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (crude odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95%CI= 0.44-0.90, P=0.01). For rs9340799, only an inverse trend was observed for BMI (P=0.08). Haplotypes that included the variant C allele were associated with a reduced risk of obesity (crude OR=0.65, 95%CI=0.44-0.94, P= 0.02 for C-G). The rs2234693 C allele of ESR1 and its associated genotypes and haplotypes were inversely and consistently associated with obesity. One or more copies of the C allele were associated with decreased risk of obesity in white post-menopausal women. PMID:19375130

  8. The impact of obesity in the kinematic parameters of gait in young women

    PubMed Central

    da Silva-Hamu, Tânia Cristina Dias; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; Gervásio, Flávia Martins; Ribeiro, Darlan Martins; Christofoletti, Gustavo; de França Barros, Jônatas

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the population, particularly in women. Obesity has an impact on the musculoskeletal system, leading to knee and ankle overexertion, difficulty with balance, and functional disability. The aim of this study was to identify changes in kinematic parameters of gait in obese young women. Methods A case-control study with 24 obese women (mean age 35.20 ± 9.9 years and mean body mass index of 31.85 ± 2.94 kg/m2) and 24 eutrophic women (mean age of 36.33 ± 11.14 and mean body mass index of 21.82 ± 1.58 kg/m2). The gait of women was evaluated by the system Vicon Motus® 9.2. The linear parameters of speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths were studied, as well as the angular parameters of knee and ankle. Results There was a decrease in linear gait parameters (P < 0.001), speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths. In regard to the angular parameters of the knee and ankle, there were also differences between the analyses (P < 0.001). At the knee joint, obese women have delayed onset of the second wave of flexion, exacerbating such movement in order to compensate. In regard to the ankle, both groups showed curves of normal plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but there was a delay in the path graph in the ankle of obese women indicating a reduced range of motion and possible over-exertion of the pretibial muscles and soleus muscles simultaneously. Conclusion The results of this study revealed that obesity is a factor that negatively influences the kinematic parameters of gait of young women. PMID:23837005

  9. An increase in lipoprotein oxidation and endogenous lipid peroxides in serum of obese women.

    PubMed

    Mutlu-Türkoğlu, U; Oztezcan, S; Telci, A; Orhan, Y; Aykaç-Toker, G; Sivas, A; Uysal, M

    2003-02-01

    Endogenous malondialdehyde and diene conjugate levels, the susceptibility of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins to copper-induced lipid peroxidation, and antibody titer against oxidized low-density lipoproteins were increased, but serum antioxidant activity was unchanged in obese women. Serum cholesterol, low-density lipoproteincholesterol, and trigliceride levels were also elevated, but high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels remained unchanged in obese women. In vitro, oxidation of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins and levels of antibody against oxidized low-density lipoprotein correlated with body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteincholesterol levels in obese women. These results indicate that obesity is associated with increases in endogenous lipid peroxides, oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, and lipids in serum.

  10. Predictive accuracy of three field methods for estimating relative body fatness of nonobese and obese women.

    PubMed

    Heyward, V H; Cook, K L; Hicks, V L; Jenkins, K A; Quatrochi, J A; Wilson, W L

    1992-03-01

    Three methods of body composition assessment were used to estimate percent body fat (%BF) in nonobese (n = 77) and obese (n = 71) women, 20-72 yrs of age. Skinfolds (SKF), bioelectrical impedance (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) methods were compared to criterion-derived %BF from hydrostatic weighing (%BFHW). Nonobese subjects had < 30% BFHW and obese subjects had > or = 30% BFHW. The Jackson, Pollock, and Ward SKF equation and the manufacturer's equations for BIA (Valhalla) and NIR (Futrex-5000) were used. For nonobese women there were no significant differences between mean %BFHW and %BFSKF, %BFBIA, and %BFNIR. The rs and SEEs were 0.65 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.61 and 3.6% BF for BIA, and 0.58 and 3.7% BF for NIR for nonobese subjects. For obese women, mean %BFHW was significantly underestimated by the SKF, BIA, and NIR methods. The rs and SEEs for the obese group were 0.59 and 3.4% BF for SKF, 0.56 and 3.5% BF for BIA, and 0.36 and 3.9% BF for NIR. The total errors of the equations ranged from 5.6 to 8.0% BF in the obese group. It is concluded that all three field methods accurately estimate %BF for nonobese women; however, none of the methods is suitable for estimating %BF for obese women.

  11. [Contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in pregnant women with obesity].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, K

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese pregnant women depending on the obesity class as well as its effect on the progression of pregnancy. 36 pregnant women of I and II obesity classes and 21 pregnant women with normal body mass participated in the study. Concentrations of insulin, leptin and C-reactive protein in blood serum were measured with immunoenzymatic assays. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined with the Caro index. Contribution of leptin to development of IR was assessed with the ratio "leptin/Caro index". An increase of leptin concentration in blood serum was found in pregnant women with obesity compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the ratio "leptin/Caro index" increased with IR progression and reached maximum in the group with obesity class II, where it was 5.8 times higher than in the control group. An increased frequency of gestoses and placentary dysfunction were manifestations of weakening of adaptive mechanisms of the organism associated with the IR progression and increased role of leptin in its development. Therefore, activation of adipocyte function through the increased leptin secretion and increased ratio "leptin/Caro index" reflects the important role of leptin in pathogenesis of IR in pregnant women with obesity.

  12. Educational Inequalities in Obesity among Mexican Women: Time-Trends from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend p<0.001). Obesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098

  13. Cigarette smoking and obesity are associated with decreased fat perception in women

    PubMed Central

    Pepino, Marta Yanina; Mennella, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Smoking and obesity are independently associated with high consumption of high-fat foods in women. We tested whether the co-occurrence of smoking and obesity associates with reduced oral fat perception. Design and Methods Four groups of women (14 obese smokers, 11 obese never-smokers, 10 normal-weight smokers, 12 normal-weight never-smokers) rated vanilla puddings that varied in fat content for perceived intensity of creaminess and sweetness, using the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS), and degree of pleasantness, using the hedonic gLMS. To determine the role of retronasal smell, subjects rated puddings with and without noseclips. Results For all groups, creaminess grew with increasing fat concentrations; puddings with any amount of fat were perceived as sweeter than fat-free pudding, and sweetness was enhanced when tasted without noseclips. Overall, obese smokers perceived less creaminess, sweetness, and pleasure while tasting the puddings than did the other three groups (all P-values<0.02). Conclusion The ability to perceive fat and sweetness in and derive pleasure from foods is particularly compromised in obese women who smoke, which could contribute to excess calorie intake in this population already at high risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Retronasal olfaction appears not to contribute to blunted flavor perception observed in obese smokers. PMID:24415517

  14. Splitting, impulsivity, and intimate partnerships in young obese women seeking bariatric treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zmolikova, Jana; Pichlerova, Dita; Bob, Petr; Schückova, Denisa; Herlesova, Jitka; Weiss, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30), obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48), and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24). The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants. Results The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Conclusion These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. PMID:27703353

  15. Lipocalin-2 expression and serum levels as early predictors of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese women.

    PubMed

    Rashad, Nearmeen M; El-Shal, Amal S; Etewa, Rasha L; Wadea, Fady M

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and diabetes are increasing in epidemic proportions globally. Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) is an inflammatory adipocytokine and obesity-related marker of low-grade inflammation. We aimed to investigate, for first time, the possible role of LCN-2 expression and serum levels in prediction of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among obese Egyptian women. This study included 188 obese women and 180 controls. Obese women were subdivided into three subgroups according to their fasting blood glucose, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IGT and T2DM. Circulating LCN-2 expression levels were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction. Serum LCN-2 concentrations were assessed by ELISA. Our findings revealed that LCN-2 expression and serum levels were higher in obese women compared to lean controls. They were higher in IGT and T2DM obese cases than in NGT obese women. Receiver operating characteristic analyses revealed that LCN-2 expression level was a useful biomarker discriminating IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women (AUC were 0.735 and 0.740, respectively). It was an independent predictor of IGT and T2DM among obese women. Serum LCN-2 level was a useful biomarker discriminating IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women (AUC were 0.705 and 0.728, respectively). It was independent predictor of T2DM without predicting IGT among obese women. The power of combined LCN-2 serum levels and expression in discriminating between IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women was high (AUC = 0.717 and 0.741, respectively). In conclusion, LCN-2 expression and serum levels could discriminate IGT from NGT and T2DM from IGT obese women and early predicting T2DM among obese women. While, LCN-2 expression level was the independent predictor of IGT in obese women. Combination of both LCN-2 expression and serum levels improved their diagnostic value in early detection of IGT and T2DM among obese women. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(2):88-97, 2017.

  16. Metabolic effects of isoenergetic nutrient exchange over 24 hours in relation to obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Lean, M E; James, W P

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four hour whole body indirect calorimetry has been used to study the effects of feeding, during a sedentary test day, isoenergetic diets which varied in fat (3 or 40 per cent of total energy) and carbohydrate (82 or 45 per cent) content. Three groups of women were studied: lean, obese and 'post-obese' after slimming. Energy expenditure was greater in absolute terms in the obese women. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure was lower by only 3-7 per cent when fasting compared to that when fed to achieve energy balance. There were no large differences in energy expenditure between the two diets or between the groups but the thermogenic effect of the high carbohydrate diet was significantly greater than that of the high fat diet (5.8 vs 3.5 per cent of energy expenditure: P less than 0.01). The post-obese tended to have lower energy expenditure per kg FFM than controls when fasting and when high-fat fed, but this pattern was not shown by the obese. Sleeping energy expenditure was particularly low in the post-obese group when high-fat fed. Dirunal variations in RQ appear to show more marked rise in morning RQ from the nocturnal minimum in the obese and post-obese, which might be evidence for an energy-saving mechanism through greater availability of stored dietary carbohydrate.

  17. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  18. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate replacement improves the human plasma fatty acid profile in plasma of obese women.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Santos, C; Larqué, E; Granero, E; Hernández-Morante, J J; Garaulet, M

    2011-12-11

    DHEA-S treatment is used as an anti-aging and anti-obesity hormone therapy in adults; however, it mechanisms of action are not clearly elucidated. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of a replacement therapy, which included a daily single oral dose of DHEA-S for three months, on the composition of human plasma fatty acids (FAs) in obese women. In the first study, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted involving 61 postmenopausal women, who were assigned to receive 100mg/day of DHEA-S (n = 41) or placebo (n = 20) orally for 3 months. In a second study, the effect of DHEA-S treatment on postmenopausal obese women (n = 41) was compared to that in premenopausal obese women (n = 20). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Plasma FAs were analyzed by gas chromatography. DHEA-S treatment produced significant changes in plasma FAs of both post- and premenopausal women with a reduction of total saturated FAs (SFA) as well as an increase in n-6 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA). Particularly, in premenopausal women the DHEA-S treatment also increased the plasma n-3 PUFA percentage. Regarding estimation of desaturase activity, our data showed that Δ6-desaturase was significantly decreased in postmenopausal women after DHEA-S treatment, whereas Δ5-desaturase was increased in the premenopausal group. In conclusion, DHEA-S treatment in obese women modifies plasma FA composition towards a potentially better metabolic profile, mainly by decreasing SFA and increasing n-6 PUFA in both postmenopausal and premenopausal women.

  20. Exaggerated haemodynamic and neural responses to involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration in normotensive obese versus lean women.

    PubMed

    Dipla, Konstantina; Kousoula, Dimitra; Zafeiridis, Andreas; Karatrantou, Konstantina; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Kyparos, Antonios; Gerodimos, Vassilis; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure response to voluntary exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. We examined whether involuntary contractions elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of blood pressure in normotensive obese versus lean women. What is the main finding and its importance? During involuntary contractions induced by whole-body vibration, there were augmented blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex responses in obese compared with lean women. This finding is suggestive of an overactive mechanoreflex in the exercise-induced hypertensive response in obesity. Passive contractions did not elicit differential heart rate responses in obese compared with lean women, implying other mechanisms for the blunted heart rate response reported during voluntary exercise in obesity. In obesity, the exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is linked to hypertension, yet the mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether involuntary mechanical oscillations, induced by whole-body vibration (WBV), elicit greater haemodynamic responses and altered neural control of BP in obese versus lean women. Twenty-two normotensive, premenopausal women (12 lean and 10 obese) randomly underwent a passive WBV (25 Hz) and a control protocol (similar posture without WVB). Beat-by-beat BP, heart rate, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, parasympathetic output (evaluated by heart rate variability) and spontaneous baroreceptor sensitivity (sBRS) were assessed. We found that during WBV, obese women exhibited an augmented systolic BP response compared with lean women that was correlated with body fat percentage (r = 0.77; P < 0.05). The exaggerated BP rise was driven mainly by the greater increase in cardiac output index in obese versus lean women, associated with a greater stroke volume index in obese women

  1. Effects of obesity and hormone therapy on surgically-confirmed fibroids in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Eva M; Balkwill, Angela; Reeves, Gillian; Green, Jane; Beral, Dame Valerie; Coffey, Kate

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body mass index (BMI), use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT), and incidence of uterine fibroids in postmenopausal women, 610,604 postmenopausal women without prior hysterectomy or diagnosis of fibroids were followed as part of a large United Kingdom prospective cohort study. We used Cox regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (RRs) of surgically-confirmed fibroids (defined as a hospital admission with uterine fibroids as a primary diagnosis with a related surgical procedure), in relation to BMI and use of HT. During an average of 11.4 years of follow-up, 3561 women were admitted to hospital with surgically-confirmed fibroids. Five-year incidence rates decreased with age, from 0.50% (1 in 200 women) at age 50-54, to 0.11% (1 in 1000 women) at age 75-79. The 5-year rate in postmenopausal women aged 50-54 was about a quarter that seen in premenopausal women of the same age (1 in 200 vs. 1 in 50). Compared with normal weight women, obese women had a RR of surgically-detected fibroids of 1.46 (95% CI 1.33-1.59; p < 0.0001). HT use was associated with a RR of 2.33 (95% CI 2.18-2.49; p < 0.0001) in ever versus never users. When we analysed HT use and BMI together, obese vs. normal weight never users had a RR of 2.00 (95% CI 1.77-2.26): the highest risks were seen in women who were obese and had ever used HT, RR = 3.30 (95% CI 2.88-3.79). Uterine fibroids continue to occur in postmenopausal women; obesity and hormone therapy use are important modifiable risk factors.

  2. The incidence of depression by fertility status in overweight and obese Latina women.

    PubMed

    Segall-Gutierrez, Penina; Berman, Courtney S; Opper, Neisha; Dossett, Emily; Moore, Kimberly; Martin, Courtney; Pine, Janet

    2012-12-01

    The link between depression, obesity, and fertility status is poorly understood among Latina women. The Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9) is routinely administered in the Diabetes and Obesity in Reproductive Age women Clinic. We describe median PHQ-9 score and PHQ-9 score ≥10 [indicative of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)] by fertility status. Of the 76 eligible new patients seen between June 2008 and 2009, 18.4% (n = 14) had PHQ-9 scores indicative of MDD. Infertile women had marginally significantly higher PHQ-9 scores than non-infertile women (p = 0.08). 26.5% of infertile women and 12.2% of non-infertile women had a PHQ-9 score indicative of MDD (p = 0.14). Number of previous births was inversely correlated with PHQ-9 score (R = -0.34, p = 0.002), those with no previous births had higher PHQ-9 scores (p = 0.001) and were more likely to have a PHQ-9 score indicative of MDD than those with previous births (28.6 vs. 9.8%, p = 0.04). Among non-infertile women, postpartum women had significantly lower PHQ-9 scores than non-postpartum women (p = 0.002). 4.6% of postpartum women and 21.1% of non-postpartum women had a PHQ-9 indicative of MDD (p = 0.19). Further investigation is needed to determine if reproductive success is protective against MDD among overweight and obese urban Latinas. Overall, depression is common among overweight and obese reproductive-age Latinas and thus routine screening is recommended.

  3. Obesity, health-care utilization, and health-related quality of life after fracture in postmenopausal women: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    PubMed

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Frederick H; Anderson, Frederick A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Gehlbach, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    Fractures may be associated with higher morbidity in obese postmenopausal women than in nonobese women. We compared health-care utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, nonobese, and underweight women with fractures. Information from the GLOW study, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, health-care utilization, HRQL, and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ≥55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 nonobese, and 941 obese women with one or more incident clinical fractures during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities, and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than nonobese women (6 vs. 5 days, p = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in nonobese women, both before and after fracture; but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of antiosteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than nonobese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established.

  4. Interaction between Education and Household Wealth on the Risk of Obesity in Women in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Chandola, Tarani; Friel, Sharon; Nouraei, Reza; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing problem in lower income countries particularly among women. There are few studies exploring individual socioeconomic status indicators in depth. This study examines the interaction of education and wealth in relation to obesity, hypothesising that education protects against the obesogenic effect of wealth. Methods Four datasets of women of reproductive age from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys spanning the period 1992–2008 are used to examine two distinct time periods: 1992/95 (N = 11097) and 2005/08 (N = 23178). The association in the two time periods between education level and household wealth in relation to the odds of being obese is examined, and the interaction between the two socioeconomic indicators investigated. Estimates are adjusted for age group and area of residence. Results An interaction was found between the association of education and wealth with obesity in both time periods (P-value for interaction <0.001). For women with the lowest education level, moving up one wealth quintile was associated with a 78% increase in the odds of obesity in 1992/95 (OR; 95%CI: 1.78; 1.65,1.91) and a 33% increase in 2005/08 (OR; 95%CI: 1.33; 1.26,1.39). For women with the highest level of education, there was little evidence of an association between wealth and obesity (OR; 95%CI: 0.82; 0.57,1.16 in 1992/95 and 0.95; 0.84,1.08 in 2005/08). Obesity levels increased most in women who were in the no/primary education, poorest wealth quintile and rural groups (absolute difference in prevalence percentage points between the two time periods: 20.2, 20.1, and 21.3 respectively). Conclusion In the present study, wealth appears to be a risk factor for obesity in women with lower education levels, while women with higher education are protected. The findings also suggest that a reversal in the social distribution of obesity risk is occurring which can be explained by the large increase in obesity levels in lower

  5. Physical Activity Patterns in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Bonin, Cecilia; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Zambotti, Francesca; Livornese, Dario; Donà, Silvia; Tosi, Flavia; Baldisser, Giulia; Ihnatava, Tatsiana; Di Sarra, Daniela; Bonora, Enzo; Moghetti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the volume of physical activity (PA) throughout pregnancy in normal-weight vs overweight/obese women, and to investigate which factors may predict compliance to PA recommendations in these women throughout gestation. In 236 pregnant women, 177 normal-weight and 59 overweight/obese (median[IQR] BMI 21.2[19.9–22.8] vs 26.5[25.5–29.0] kg/m2, respectively), medical history, anthropometry and clinical data, including glucose tolerance, were recorded. In addition, pre-pregnancy PA was estimated by the Kaiser questionnaire, while total, walking and fitness/sport PA during pregnancy were assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) modified questionnaire, at 14–16, 24–28 and 30–32 weeks of gestation. PA volume was very low in the first trimester of pregnancy in both groups of women. However, it increased in the second and third trimester in normal-weight, but not in overweight/obese subjects. Higher pre-pregnancy PA was a statistically significant predictor of being physically active (>150 minutes of PA per week) during all trimesters of gestation. In conclusion, physical activity volume is low in pregnant women, especially in overweight/obese subjects. PA volume increases during pregnancy only in normal-weight women. Pre-pregnancy PA is an independent predictor of achieving a PA volume of at least 150 min per week during pregnancy. PMID:27829017

  6. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  7. Evaluation of specific metabolic rates of major organs and tissues: comparison between nonobese and obese women.

    PubMed

    Wang, ZiMian; Ying, Zhiliang; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Zhang, Junyi; Heller, Martin; Later, Wiebke; Heymsfield, Steven B; Müller, Manfred J

    2012-01-01

    Elia (1992) identified the specific resting metabolic rates (K(i)) of major organs and tissues in young adults with normal weight: 200 for liver, 240 for brain, 440 for heart and kidneys, 13 for skeletal muscle, 4.5 for adipose tissue and 12 for residual mass (all units in kcal/kg per day). The aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of Elia's K(i) values for obese adults. A sample of young women (n = 80) was divided into two groups, nonobese (BMI <29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI 30.0-43.2 kg/m(2)). This study was based on the mechanistic model: REE = σ (K(i) × T(i)), where REE is whole-body resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry and T(i) is the mass of individual organs and tissues measured by magnetic resonance imaging. For each organ/tissue, the corresponding Elia's K(i) value was analyzed respectively for nonobese and obese groups by using stepwise univariate regression analysis. Elia's K(i) values were within the range of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the nonobese group. However, Elia's K(i) values were outside the right boundaries of 95% CIs in the obese group and a corresponding obesity-adjusted coefficient was calculated as 0.98, indicating that Elia's values overestimate K(i) by 2.0% in obese adults. Obesity-adjusted K(i) values were 196 for liver, 235 for brain, 431 for heart and kidneys, 12.7 for skeletal muscle, 4.4 for adipose tissue, and 11.8 for residual mass. In conclusion, although Elia's K(i) values were validated in nonobese women, obesity-adjustments are appropriate for application in obese women.

  8. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  9. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Deborah A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. Objective We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. Design In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21–39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995–2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Main outcome measures Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Results Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of ≥2 times/week compared with <5 times/year was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14–1.40; P-trend<0.001). For sugar-sweetened soft drink intake, the HR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99–1.23; P-trend=0.14) for ≥2 drinks/day compared with <1 drink/month. The associations were stronger among women younger than age 30 with normal weight at baseline. Conclusions Frequent consumption of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute to obesity among young African American women. PMID:24392607

  10. Childbearing, stress and obesity disparities in women: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Davis, Esa M; Stange, Kurt C; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2012-01-01

    The perinatal period, from early in the first trimester to 1 year postpartum, provides opportunities for novel public health interventions to reduce obesity disparities. We present a unifying socio-biological framework to suggest opportunities for multidisciplinary research and public health approaches to elucidate and target the mechanisms for the development of maternal obesity and related disparities. The framework illustrates the interplay of the social, cultural and physical environment; stress appraisal and response; and coping behaviors on short-term outcomes (e.g. allostatic load and gestational weight gain), the intermediate outcomes of persistent insulin resistance and post-partum weight retention, and longer term outcomes of obesity and its disease consequences. Testing the proposed relationships may provide insights into how childbearing risk factors such as gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention and parity contribute to obesity, which are needed to inform public health policies and clinical care guidelines aimed at reducing obesity and improving the health of women.

  11. Obese women's reasons for not attending a weight management service during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Olander, Ellinor K; Atkinson, Lou

    2013-10-01

    Evaluations of services targeting obese women's gestational weight gain often report low uptake. Thus it is important to elicit the reasons why obese pregnant women decline to participate in these services and to identify their barriers to participation. Sixteen obese pregnant and postnatal women were interviewed regarding their reasons for declining a group-based service targeting their gestational weight gain. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Both pragmatic and motivational barriers were identified. The most common practical reasons for not attending the service were its inconvenient location and time, and feeling unable to attend due to work commitments. Pregnancy-specific barriers included decreased mobility and feeling unwell. Motivational barriers included lack of interest and not wanting to focus on one's weight in pregnancy. These findings highlight issues that need to be taken into consideration when designing group-based weight management services for this population.

  12. Luteal Phase Dynamics of Follicle Stimulating and Luteinizing Hormones in Obese and Normal Weight Women

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lauren W.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Bradshaw-Pierce, Erica L.; Lesh, Jennifer; Chosich, Justin; Kohrt, Wendy; Bradford, Andrew P.; Polotsky, Alex J.; Santoro, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Female obesity is a state of relative hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The aim of this study is to examine gonadotrophin secretion and response to GnRH in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and to investigate the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of endogenous and exogenous LH in obese women. Design Participants underwent a luteal phase frequent blood sampling study. Endogenous LH pulsatility was observed, gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was given in 2 weight based doses, and GnRH antagonist was administered followed by recombinant LH. Patients Regularly menstruating obese (n=10) and normal weight (n=10) women Measurements Endogenous hypothalamic-pituitary function (as measured by LH pulsatility), pituitary sensitivity (GnRH induced LH secretion), pharmacodynamics of endogenous LH, and pharmacokinetics of exogenous LH were compared between the obese and normal weight groups. Results There were no statistically significant differences in endogenous LH pulsatility or pituitary responses to two weight-based doses of GnRH between the obese and normal weight women. There were no differences in the pharmacodynamics of endogenous LH or the pharmacokinetics of exogenous LH between the groups. FSH dynamics did not differ between the groups throughout the study. Conclusions The relative hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism of obesity cannot be explained by differences in LH and FSH luteal phase dynamics or differences in endogenous LH pharmacodynamics or exogenous LH pharmacokinetics. Clinical trial registration number NCT01457703, www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:24576183

  13. [Nutritional knowledge and its association with overweight and obesity in Mexican women with low socioeconomic level].

    PubMed

    Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.

  14. Obesity, Gynecological Factors, and Abnormal Mammography Follow-Up in Minority and Medically Underserved Women

    PubMed Central

    Wujcik, Debra; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Grau, Ana; Wilson, Veronica; Champion, Victoria; Zheng, Wei; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between obesity and screening mammography adherence has been examined previously, yet few studies have investigated obesity as a potential mediator of timely follow-up of abnormal (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BIRADS-0]) mammography results in minority and medically underserved patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 35 women who did not return for follow-up >6 months from index abnormal mammography and 41 who returned for follow-up ≤6 months in Nashville, Tennessee. Patients with a BIRADS-0 mammography event in 2003–2004 were identified by chart review. Breast cancer risk factors were collected by telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression was performed on selected factors with return for diagnostic follow-up. Results Obesity and gynecological history were significant predictors of abnormal mammography resolution. A significantly higher frequency of obese women delayed return for mammography resolution compared with nonobese women (64.7% vs. 35.3%). A greater number of hysterectomized women returned for diagnostic follow-up compared with their counterparts without a hysterectomy (77.8% vs. 22.2%). Obese patients were more likely to delay follow-up >6 months (adjusted OR 4.09, p = 0.02). Conversely, hysterectomized women were significantly more likely to return for timely mammography follow-up ≤6 months (adjusted OR 7.95, p = 0.007). Conclusions Study results suggest that weight status and gynecological history influence patients' decisions to participate in mammography follow-up studies. Strategies are necessary to reduce weight-related barriers to mammography follow-up in the healthcare system including provider training related to mammography screening of obese women. PMID:19558307

  15. Obesity as a public health problem among adult women in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Keding, Gudrun B; Msuya, John M; Maass, Brigitte L; Krawinkel, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: For many developing countries, obesity and its sequelae have become a challenge of a magnitude similar to hunger and undernutrition. The main objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate the weight status of women in rural Tanzania with reference to season as well as the link between women's weight, food consumption, and attitudes toward obesity. Methods: Three cross-sectional surveys in 3 different seasons within 1 year interviewed the same 210 women, ages 17–45 years, from 3 rural districts of northeastern and central Tanzania. These surveys assessed body mass index (BMI), food intake, and dietary diversity through 24-hour recalls, women's attitudes toward obesity, vegetable production, and socioeconomic status. Results: Although 71% of the women had a normal BMI, 7% were underweight, 16% overweight, and 6% obese. The BMI was correlated with the Dietary Diversity Score (DDS), the Food Variety Score (FVS), with the consumption of foods from the food groups “bread/cakes,” “sugar,” and “tea,” and with the production of exotic vegetables. In a multiple regression model, FVS was directly associated with BMI. When asked to describe the typical characteristics of an obese person, women mentioned more negative than positive characteristics. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 3 times higher than that of underweight. Apparently, even in rural areas of Tanzania, a nutrition transition is underway. No direct association was identified between vegetable consumption and BMI. Although this study did not assess behavioral factors, such behavioral factors as activity levels as well as attitudes need to be considered, even in rural settings, to address all facets of malnutrition. PMID:25276549

  16. Drivers of Cousin Marriage among British Pakistanis

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? Methods A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. Results British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a ‘better’ life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Conclusion Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. PMID:25060267

  17. Relationship between Attitudes and Indicators of Obesity for Midlife Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudo, Noriko; Degeneffe, Dennis; Vue, Houa; Merkle, Emily; Kinsey, Jean; Ghosh, Koel; Reicks, Marla

    2009-01-01

    This study uses segmentation analyses to identify five distinct subgroups of U.S. midlife women (n = 200) based on their prevailing attitudes toward food and its preparation and consumption. Mean age of the women is 46 years and they are mostly White (86%), highly educated, and employed. Attitude segments (clusters of women sharing similar…

  18. Experiences of obesity among Saudi Arabian women contemplating bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.

    PubMed

    Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances

    2014-05-01

    This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach.

  19. Assessment of interpersonal skills in obese women with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Mônica; de Oliveira Falcone, Eliane Mary; de Freitas, Silvia Regina; D'Augustin, Juliana Furtado; Marinho, Viviane; Appolinario, Jose Carlos

    2012-10-01

    Based upon interpersonal theory that suggests an association between binge eating disorder (BED) and interpersonal problems, the present study examined empathy and other social skills of obese women with BED. The findings showed that five social skills were statistically associated with the chance of presenting BED. Obese women with less assertiveness, lower ability to express feelings, lower capacity to deal with strangers, lower ability to understand the perspective of others, and with higher levels of distress in interpersonal situations had a higher probability of presenting the diagnosis of BED. These results highlight an association between social skills deficits and BED.

  20. Greater physical activity levels during pregnancy are associated with lower inflammation and insulin resistance in obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to lean pregnant women, obese women develop greater insulin resistance and systemic inflammation during pregnancy. Identifying lifestyle factors that can reduce the metabolic effect of obesity during pregnancy is critical to protect both the mother and the fetus from insulin resistance and ...

  1. [Self-acceptance motivation and expectations for loosing weight in obese women].

    PubMed

    Chałabis, Kinga; Lange, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine acceptance, motivation and expectations for loosing weight in obese women. The study included 189 under weight and obese women at the age of 22-65 years (44.3 +/- 10.4 years), with BMI from 25 to 46 kg/m2 (32.4 +/- 4.5 kg/m2), patients from Warsaw University of Life Science Dietary Counseling. Women divided by the degree of under weight and age. The acceptance, motivation and expectations for loosing weight was evaluated on the strength of ours questionnaire, witch was create especially for this aim. Age of obese women influenced on their self acceptance, women at the age of 30-50 years better approve their body weight than others. Degree of under weight influenced on self-confidence and their expectation of acceptance after loosing weight. The most important factors to loosing weight for women after 50 years old was health and the meetings with person who had the problem, but for women before 40 years old was more motivated by relatives.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Lowers Serum FSH in Normal Weight But Not Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safi, Zain A.; Liu, Huayu; Carlson, Nichole E.; Chosich, Justin; Harris, Mary; Bradford, Andrew P.; Robledo, Celeste; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Dietary omega-3 fatty acids delay ovarian aging and promote oocyte quality in mice. Objective: To test whether dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulates reproductive hormones in reproductive-age women. Design: Prospective interventional study. Setting: Academic center. Participants: Fifteen obese and 12 normal-weight (NW) eumenorrheic women, ages 28–34 years. Intervention: Two frequent blood-sampling studies were performed before and after 1 month of omega-3 PUFA supplementation with 4 g of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid daily. Main Outcome Measures: Serum LH and FSH (basal and after GnRH stimulation). Results: The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA was significantly reduced in plasma and red blood cell components for both groups after treatment (both P < .01). Omega-3 PUFA supplementation resulted in reduction of FSH and FSH response to GnRH by 17% on average (P = .06 and P = .03, respectively) in NW but not obese women. Serum levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were reduced after omega-3 PUFA supplementation (−72% for IL-1β; −56% for TNF-α; both, P < .05) in obese but not in NW women. This reduction, however, was not associated with a hormonal change in obese women. Conclusions: Dietary administration with omega-3 PUFA decreased serum FSH levels in NW but not in obese women with normal ovarian reserve. This effect is intriguing and is directionally consistent with murine data whereby higher dietary omega-3 PUFA extends reproductive lifespan. Our results imply that this nutritional intervention should be tested in women with diminished ovarian reserve in an attempt to delay ovarian aging. PMID:26523525

  3. Electrophysiological indices of visual food cue-reactivity. Differences in obese, overweight and normal weight women.

    PubMed

    Hume, David John; Howells, Fleur Margaret; Rauch, H G Laurie; Kroff, Jacolene; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2015-02-01

    Heightened food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese individuals has been related to aberrant functioning of neural circuitry implicated in motivational behaviours and reward-seeking. Here we explore the neurophysiology of visual food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese women, as compared with normal weight women, by assessing differences in cortical arousal and attentional processing elicited by food and neutral image inserts in a Stroop task with record of EEG spectral band power and ERP responses. Results show excess right frontal (F8) and left central (C3) relative beta band activity in overweight women during food task performance (indicative of pronounced early visual cue-reactivity) and blunted prefrontal (Fp1 and Fp2) theta band activity in obese women during office task performance (suggestive of executive dysfunction). Moreover, as compared to normal weight women, food images elicited greater right parietal (P4) ERP P200 amplitude in overweight women (denoting pronounced early attentional processing) and shorter right parietal (P4) ERP P300 latency in obese women (signifying enhanced and efficient maintained attentional processing). Differential measures of cortical arousal and attentional processing showed significant correlations with self-reported eating behaviour and body shape dissatisfaction, as well as with objectively assessed percent fat mass. The findings of the present study suggest that heightened food cue-reactivity can be neurophysiologically measured, that different neural circuits are implicated in the pathogenesis of overweight and obesity, and that EEG techniques may serve useful in the identification of endophenotypic markers associated with an increased risk of externally mediated food consumption.

  4. Beliefs about causes and consequences of obesity among women in two Mexican cities.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; de Escobar-Aznar, Yolanda Martínez; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Raul; Bacardi-Gascón, Montserrat

    2012-09-01

    Personal beliefs might be barriers to the prevention and treatment of obesity. To assess the beliefs about causes and consequences of and possible solutions to obesity among 18-40 years old women in two Mexican cities and to analyze the association with demographic variables, we developed a questionnaire and assessed the women's weight status. The questionnaire was applied at two outpatient healthcare centres and assessed the responses by the Likert scale. Results were analyzed by demographics, using the chi-square and Spearman correlations. One thousand one hundred adult women participated in the study. Mean age was 27.8 years, and mean BMI (kg/m²) was 27.05. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 24% respectively. The most mentioned causes of obesity were eating oil and fat (4.1), fried foods (4.1), and eating too much (4.00). The most reported consequences were diseases (4.1), discrimination (3.9), and early death (3.7). The main solutions were physical activity (4.2), healthful eating (4.2), and personal motivation (4.1). Age of participants higher than 30 years, living with a partner, having more than 6 years of education, and having overweight and obesity were predictors of more knowledge about the causes, consequences, and solutions. These Mexican women from low SES had reasonably good knowledge about the causes and consequences of obesity. Although improving education might be beneficial to prevent obesity, changes in environmental contingencies are also necessary to prevent this epidemic.

  5. Beliefs about Causes and Consequences of Obesity among Women in Two Mexican Cities

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; de Escobar-Aznar, Yolanda Martínez; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Personal beliefs might be barriers to the prevention and treatment of obesity. To assess the beliefs about causes and consequences of and possible solutions to obesity among 18-40 years old women in two Mexican cities and to analyze the association with demographic variables, we developed a questionnaire and assessed the women's weight status. The questionnaire was applied at two outpatient healthcare centres and assessed the responses by the Likert scale. Results were analyzed by demographics, using the chi-square and Spearman correlations. One thousand one hundred adult women participated in the study. Mean age was 27.8 years, and mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.05. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 24% respectively. The most mentioned causes of obesity were eating oil and fat (4.1), fried foods (4.1), and eating too much (4.00). The most reported consequences were diseases (4.1), discrimination (3.9), and early death (3.7). The main solutions were physical activity (4.2), healthful eating (4.2), and personal motivation (4.1). Age of participants higher than 30 years, living with a partner, having more than 6 years of education, and having overweight and obesity were predictors of more knowledge about the causes, consequences, and solutions. These Mexican women from low SES had reasonably good knowledge about the causes and consequences of obesity. Although improving education might be beneficial to prevent obesity, changes in environmental contingencies are also necessary to prevent this epidemic. PMID:23082633

  6. The alteration of zinc transporter gene expression is associated with inflammatory markers in obese women.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong

    2014-04-01

    Obesity, a chronic inflammatory state, is associated with altered zinc metabolism. ZnT and Zip transporters are involved in the regulation of zinc metabolism. This study examined the relationships among obesity, zinc transporter gene expression, and inflammatory markers in young Korean women. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of leukocyte zinc transporters between obese (BMI = 28.3 ± 0.5 kg/m(2), n = 35) and nonobese (BMI = 20.7 ± 0.2 kg/m(2), n = 20) women aged 18-28 years were examined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6, were measured in serum by enzyme immunoassay. ZnT1 and Zip1 were the most abundantly expressed zinc transporters in leukocytes. The mRNA levels of many zinc transporters (ZnT4, ZnT5, ZnT9, Zip1, Zip4, and Zip6) were significantly lower in obese women, and expression of these genes was inversely correlated with BMI and body fat percentage. In addition, inflammatory markers (CRP and TNF-α) were significantly higher in obese women. The mRNA levels of ZnT4, Zip1, and Zip6 were inversely correlated with CRP (P < 0.05), and mRNA levels of ZnT4 and ZnT5 were inversely correlated with TNF-α (P < 0.05). In standardized simple regression models, levels of TNF-α and CRP were negatively associated with mRNA levels of zinc transporters such as ZnT4, ZnT5, Zip1, and Zip6 (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the expression of zinc transporters may be altered in obese individuals. Changes in zinc transporters may also be related to the inflammatory state associated with obesity.

  7. The impact of obesity on reproduction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A; Pagotto, U

    2006-10-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common causes of infertility due to anovulation in women. The clinical features of PCOS are heterogeneous and may change throughout the lifespan, starting from adolescence to postmenopausal age. This is largely dependent on the influence of obesity and metabolic alterations, including an insulin-resistant state and the metabolic syndrome, which consistently affect most women with PCOS. Obesity does in fact have profound effects on both the pathophysiology and the clinical manifestation of PCOS, by different mechanisms leading to androgen excess and increased free androgen availability and to alterations of granulosa cell function and follicle development. Notably, simple obesity per se represents a functional hyperandrogenic state. These mechanisms involve early hormonal and metabolic factors during intrauterine life, leptin, insulin and the insulin growth factor system and, potentially, the endocannabinoid system. Compared with normal weight women with PCOS, those with obesity are characterised by a worsened hyperandrogenic and metabolic state, poorer menses and ovulatory performance and, ultimately, poorer pregnancy rates. The importance of obesity in the pathogenesis of PCOS is emphasised by the efficacy of lifestyle intervention and weight loss, not only on metabolic alterations but also on hyperandrogenism, ovulation and fertility. The increasing prevalence of obesity among adolescent and young women with PCOS may partly depend on the increasing worldwide epidemic of obesity, although this hypothesis should be supported by long-term prospective epidemiological trials. This may have great relevance in preventive medicine and offer the opportunity to expand our still limited knowledge of the genetic and environmental background favouring the development of the PCOS.

  8. Association between Obesity and Cervical Microflora Dominated by Lactobacillus iners in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hea Young; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kong, Ji-Sook; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2015-10-01

    Lactobacillus spp. are associated with the maintenance of reproductive health, but obesity reduces fertility and is a risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. We assessed the association between obesity and the cervical Lactobacillus composition, which has not been examined previously. Pyrosequencing was performed using cervical swabs collected from 76 normal participants with negative results for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and 57 participants with CIN, based on histological examinations. Cluster analysis of nine Lactobacillus spp. was performed, and five cluster types were identified. The association between obesity and the Lactobacillus community was assessed by logistic regression analysis after adjustment for confounding factors. The proportion of Lactobacillus iners increased and that of Lactobacillus crispatus decreased according to body mass index (BMI) categories, i.e., underweight (BMI of <18.5 kg m(-2)), normal weight (BMI of 18.5 to 22.9 kg m(-2)), overweight (BMI of 23.0 to 24.9 kg m(-2)), and obese (BMI of ≥25 kg m(-2)). The L. iners-dominant type had a significant association with obesity (odds ratio [OR], 7.55 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 48.2]), compared to the L. crispatus-dominant type. The group with high values for the ratio obtained by dividing the relative abundance of L. iners by that of L. crispatus had a significant association with obesity (OR, 6.54 [95% CI, 1.22 to 35.1]), compared to the low-ratio group. Associations between obesity and the L. iners/L. crispatus ratio were observed among young women (OR, 6.26 [95% CI, 1.15 to 33.9]) but not older women and in the normal group (OR, 6.97 [95% CI, 1.20 to 70.4]) but not the CIN group. Obesity was associated with cervical microflora dominated by L. iners in reproductive-age women without dysplasia.

  9. Being overweight or obese and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis among women: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bing; Hiraki, Linda; Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Malspeis, Susan; Chen, Chia-Yen; Awosogba, J. Adebukola; Arkema, Elizabeth V.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between being overweight or obese and developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) Methods We followed 109,896 women enrolled in NHS and 108,727 in NHSII who provided lifestyle, environmental exposure and anthropometric information through biennial questionnaires. We assessed the association between time-varying and cumulative body mass index (BMI) in WHO categories of normal, overweight, and obese (18.5-< 25, 25.0-<30, ≥30.0 kg/m2) and incident RA meeting the 1987 ACR criteria. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall RA and serologic subtypes with Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. We repeated analyses restricted to RA diagnosed at age 55 years or younger. Results During 2,765,195 person-years of follow-up (1976–2008) in NHS and 1,934,518 person-years (1989–2009) in NHSII, we validated 1181 incident cases of RA (826 in NHS, 355 in NHSII). There was a trend toward increased risk of all RA among overweight and obese women [HR (95% CI): 1.37 (0.95, 1.98) and 1.37 (0.91, 2.09), p for trend=0.068]. Among RA cases diagnosed at age 55 years or younger, this association appeared stronger [HR 1.45(1.03, 2.03) for overweight and 1.65(1.34, 2.05) for obese women (p trend <0.001)]. Ten cumulative years of being obese, conferred a 37% increased risk of RA at younger ages [HR 1.37 (1.11, 1.69)]. Conclusions Risks of both seropositive and seronegative RA were elevated among overweight and obese women, particularly among women diagnosed with RA at earlier ages. PMID:25057178

  10. Acupoint catgut embedding therapy with moxibustion reduces the risk of diabetes in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Vivas, Jessica M.; Galaviz-Hernandez, Carlos; Becerril-Chavez, Flavia; Lozano-Rodriguez, Francisco; Zamorano-Carrillo, Absalom; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Marchat, Laurence A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide for which conventional therapy efficacy is limited. Traditional Chinese medicine, particularly body acupoint stimulation, provides an alternative, effective, and safe therapy for this medical challenge. The present study was designed to compare the effects of distinct methods to stimulate the same set of acupoints, on anthropometric and biochemical parameters in obese women. Materials and Methods: Ninety-nine obese women were randomly assigned to six groups of treatment: Acupuncture with moxibustion, long needle acupuncture with moxibustion, electroacupuncture (EA), EA with moxibustion, embedded catgut with moxibustion (CGM) and sham acupuncture as control. Obesity-related parameters, including body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences, waist/hip ratio, biochemical parameters (triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin) and homeostasis model of assessment - insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, were determined before and after each treatment. Results: Body weight and BMI were significantly reduced in response to all treatments. Interestingly, acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with moxibustion was the only treatment that produced a significant reduction in body weight (3.1 ± 0.2 kg, P < 0.001), BMI (1.3 ± 0.1 kg/m2, P < 0.001), insulin (3.5 ± 0.8 mcU/ml, P < 0.1) and HOMA-IR (1.4 ± 0.2 units, P < 0.01) in comparison with sham group. Furthermore, this treatment was able to bring back obese women to a state of insulin sensitivity, indicating that acupoint catgut embedding therapy combined with moxibustion could be useful as a complementary therapy to reduce the risk of diabetes associated to obesity in women. Conclusion: Overall, our results confirmed the effectiveness of acupoints stimulation to assist in the control of body weight in women. They also highlighted the more favorable effects of embedded catgut-moxibustion combination that may be due to the extended and

  11. Weight change and psychological state in obese women.

    PubMed

    Weighill, V E; Buglass, D

    1984-06-01

    Data were collected during a three-month double-blind trial of evening primrose oil (EPO) in 100 obese females attending a hospital obesity clinic. Initial weight was not related to subsequent weight loss. There was, however, a significant correlation between change in mood and change in weight, with weight loss being associated with improved mood state and weight gain with increased disturbance. Such associations were strongest for patients who were new to the clinic, as opposed to refractory patients, and for patients who were initially depressed, as opposed to those who were not psychologically disturbed. It is suggested that new patients have a swift psychological response to even minor changes in weight and that, because of a risk of increasing depression, particular attention should be given to obese patients who fail to show any weight loss.

  12. Early alterations of the immune transcriptome in cultured progenitor cells from obese African-American women.

    PubMed

    Pemu, Priscilla E; Anderson, Leonard; Gee, Beatrice E; Ofili, Elizabeth O; Ghosh, Sujoy

    2012-07-01

    Progenitor cells (PCs) are key components of vasculogenic remodeling and hematopoietic development. Decreases in the number and function of angiogenic progenitors have been observed in coronary artery disease, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy. Several recent studies have also demonstrated a close relationship between increased visceral fat and cardiovascular disease, implying an association between obesity and vascular dysfunction. However, very little is known about the role of PCs in obesity. We generated whole genome expression profiles of cultured PCs from 18 obese and 6 lean African-American women on Agilent microarrays and analyzed the data through bioinformatic pathway analysis using multiple databases and analytic tools. False-discovery rates (FDR) were calculated to assess statistical significance while controlling for multiple testing. We identified 1,145 upregulated and 2,257 downregulated genes associated with obesity (1.5-fold or greater absolute fold-change). Pathway analysis further identified a statistically significant downregulation of immune-response pathways in the obese subjects, including T-cell receptor signaling, natural killer cell signaling, and chemokine-signaling pathways (FDR <5%). Chemokine gene-expression patterns were consistent with an angiogenic-angiostatic imbalance and a downregulation of CXCR3 receptor-mediated signaling in the PCs from obese subjects. Overall, these findings reveal a novel transcriptional signature in cultured PCs from obese African-American women and further suggest that obesity-associated immune-compromise may originate much earlier in cellular development than currently appreciated. Clinically, this may translate into a lengthier period of immune dysregulation in obese subjects exposing them to greater risks of infection and other morbidities.

  13. Obese women have lower monosodium glutamate taste sensitivity and prefer higher concentrations than do normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Pepino, M Yanina; Finkbeiner, Susana; Beauchamp, Gary K; Mennella, Julie A

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether obese women exhibit altered umami and sweet taste perception compared to normal-weight women. A total of 57 subjects (23 obese and 34 normal weight) participated in a 2-day study separated by 1 week. Half of the women in each group were evaluated using monosodium glutamate (MSG; prototypical umami stimulus) on the first test day and sucrose on the second test day; the order was reversed for the remaining women. We used two-alternative forced-choice staircase procedures to measure taste detection thresholds, forced-choice tracking technique to measure preferences, the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) to measure perceived intensity of suprathreshold concentrations, and a triangle test to measure discrimination between 29 mmol/l MSG and 29 mmol/l NaCl. Obese women required higher MSG concentrations to detect a taste and preferred significantly higher MSG concentrations in a soup-like vehicle. However, their perception of MSG at suprathreshold concentrations, their ability to discriminate MSG from salt, and their preference for sucrose were similar to that observed in normal-weight women. Regardless of their body weight category, 28% of the women did not discriminate 29 mmol/l MSG from 29 mmol/l NaCl (nondiscriminators). Surprisingly, we found that, relative to discriminators, nondiscriminators perceived less savoriness when tasting suprathreshold MSG concentrations and less sweetness from suprathreshold sucrose concentrations but had similar MSG and sucrose detection thresholds. Taken together, these data suggest that body weight is related to some components of umami taste and that different mechanisms are involved in the perception of threshold and suprathreshold MSG concentrations.

  14. Estrogen exposure, obesity and thyroid disease in women with severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Severe pulmonary hypertension is a lethal group of disorders which preferentially afflicts women. It appears that in recent years the patient profile has shifted towards older, obese, and postmenopausal women, suggesting that endocrine factors may be important. Several studies have revealed an increased prevalence of thyroid disease in these patients, but no studies have evaluated for a coexistence of endocrine factors. In particular, no studies have attempted to evaluate for concurrent thyroid disease, obesity and long-term estrogen exposure in patients. 88 patients attending the Pulmonary Hypertension Association 8th International meeting completed a questionnaire and were interviewed. Information was collected regarding reproductive history, height, weight, and previous diagnosis of thyroid disease. 46% met criteria for obesity. 41% reported a diagnosis of thyroid disease. 81% of women reported prior use of hormone therapy. 70% reported greater than 10 years of exogenous hormone use. 74% of female patients reported two or more of potentially disease modifying endocrine factors (obesity, thyroid disease or estrogen therapy). The coexistent high prevalence in our cohort of exogenous estrogen exposure, thyroid disease and obesity suggests that an interaction of multiple endocrine factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and may represent epigenetic modifiers in genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:19748850

  15. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight.

  16. The energetic and cardiovascular response to treadmill walking and cycle ergometer exercise in obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Agosti, Fiorenza; Galli, Raffaela; Busti, Carlo; Lazzer, Stefano; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2008-08-01

    Physical activity is essential in obesity management, but exercise capacity is compromised in obese individuals due to the excessive body mass, impacting on body movement's energetics, and to the dysfunctions of regulatory mechanisms, affecting cardiovascular responses. This study aims to compare the energetics and cardiovascular responses of walking and cycling in obese women, and to formulate recommendations regarding the most suitable type of exercise for obesity. Fifteen obese (OB) and six normal weight (NW) women exercised on treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). During both exercise modalities, metabolic rate was higher in OB than in NW and correlated with measures of body mass. Leg movement metabolic rate during cycling depended upon individual adiposity, and when accounted for, mechanical efficiency was similar in the two groups. When accounting for extra mass, differences in metabolic rate among groups are abolished for CE, indicating no obesity impairment of muscle efficiency, but not for TM, suggesting that differences in biomechanics may explain the higher net cost of transport of OB. In both groups, HR was higher during CE than TM at the same oxygen uptake (VO(2)), but in OB the HR increment over VO(2) was greater for CE than for TM. Therefore, due to different cardiovascular responses to TM and CE in OB, walking is more convenient, enabling OB to attain target energy expenditure at lower HR or in a shorter time.

  17. Association of Circulating Irisin with Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Belviranli, M; Okudan, N; Çelik, F

    2016-09-01

    Irisin is a myokine/adipokine with potential role in obesity and diabetes. The purpose of the present study was to assess irisin levels and its association with insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers in premenopausal normal-weight and obese women. Ten obese (mean body mass index, 32.65±3.04 kg m(-2)) and 10 normal-weight (23.00±2.23 kg m(-2)) premenopausal women were involved in the present study. Anthropometric, and body composition parameters, blood chemistry, oxidative stress markers, and irisin concentrations of different groups were measured. Correlation analyses were performed between irisin and other measured parameters. Plasma irisin levels were lower in the obese group than the normal-weight group (p<0.05). Glucose, homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR), and MDA levels in the obese group were higher than that in the normal-weight group (p<0.05). Plasma irisin was negatively correlated with insulin (r=-0.648, p<0.05), HOMA-IR (r=-0.664, p<0.05) and MDA (r=-0.690, p<0.05). These data suggest that irisin levels are decreased with obesity, and irisin may have an antidiabetic and antioxidant effects.

  18. Low estrogen levels and obesity are associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yun-A; Lee, Kyoung-Young

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL), and estrogen level, oxidative stress, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Fifty-four obese women (premenopausal, n=25; postmenopausal, n=29) were selected to participate in this study. The outcome measurements in the pre- and postmenopausal groups were compared using independent t-tests and Pearson correlation analysis. The estrogen level (P<0.001), LTL (P<0.05), high-density lipoprotein level (P<0.05), and CRF (P<0.001) were higher in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. The body fat percentage (P<0.05) and triglyceride concentration (P<0.05) were lower in premenopausal women than in postmenopausal women. There were no significant associations between LTL, CVD risk, CRF, and oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in pre-menopausal women. The body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent-age in postmenopausal women were negatively associated with LTL (P<0.05). When all women were considered (i.e., both pre- and post-menopause), the BMI, percentage of fat, and waist circumference had a negative association with LTL (P<0.05), and estrogen levels were positively associated with LTL (P<0.05). Decreased estrogen levels after menopause, a pivotal factor in the biology of aging, and obesity were more associated with shorter telomere lengths in pre- and postmenopausal women than aerobic capacity and other CVD risk factors. PMID:27419121

  19. 4G/5G polymorphism modulates PAI-1 circulating levels in obese women.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Karla S; Sandrim, Valéria C

    2012-05-01

    The increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) has been described as a risk factor to thrombosis-related diseases. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the variant 4G of polymorphism 4G/5G located in promoter region of PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels. We investigate the role of this polymorphism on circulating PAI-1 concentration in a population of 57 obese women (23%, 4G/4G; 49%, 4G/5G and 28%, 5G/5G genotypes). Our results demonstrate a genotype-specific modulation on PAI-1 levels in obese women, thus 5G/5G genotype presented significantly lower levels of plasma PAI-1 when compared to 4G/4G group (46 ± 19 ng/mL vs. 63 ± 13 ng/mL, respectively). Our findings indicate that obese carriers of 4G/4G genotype may have increased risk to develop thrombotic diseases.

  20. The effects of horseback riding on body mass index and gait in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; An, Byung-Wook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of horseback riding on body mass index (BMI) and gait in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four obese women residing in Seoul and Gyeonggi-do were randomly divided into a horseback riding group and a walking group and conducted their respective exercises 3 times a week for 8 weeks. [Results] Step length increased significantly and BMI and width of the base of support significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of BMI and width of the base of support after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the horseback riding group showed larger decreases than the walking group. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the horseback riding may improve gait ability and obesity. PMID:25995581

  1. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  2. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  3. Does weight loss in overweight or obese women improve fertility treatment outcomes? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sim, K A; Partridge, S R; Sainsbury, A

    2014-10-01

    This systematic review assessed the effect of weight loss in overweight and/or obese women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) on their subsequent pregnancy outcome. Weight losses achieved by diet and lifestyle changes, very-low-energy diets, non-surgical medical interventions and bariatric surgery translated into significantly increased pregnancy rates and/or live birth in overweight and/or obese women undergoing ART in 8 of the 11 studies reviewed. In addition, regularization of the menstrual pattern, a decrease in cancellation rates, an increase in the number of embryos available for transfer, a reduction in the number of ART cycles required to achieve pregnancy and a decrease in miscarriage rates were reported. There were also a number of natural conceptions in five of the six studies that reported this outcome. Non-surgical medical weight loss procedures and bariatric surgery induced the greatest weight losses, but their use, as well as that of very-low-energy diets, for weight loss prior to ART requires careful consideration. While the overall quality of the studies included in this review was poor, these results support the clinical recommendation of advising overweight and/or obese women to lose weight prior to ART. Prospective randomized controlled trials are required to establish efficacious evidence-based guidelines for weight loss interventions in overweight and/or obese women prior to ART treatment.

  4. The Impact of Full-Length, Trimeric and Globular Adiponectin on Lipolysis in Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipocytes of Obese and Non-Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Wedellova, Zuzana; Kovacova, Zuzana; Tencerova, Michaela; Vedral, Tomas; Rossmeislova, Lenka; Siklova-Vitkova, Michaela; Stich, Vladimir; Polak, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Contribution of individual adiponectin isoforms to lipolysis regulation remains unknown. We investigated the impact of full-length, trimeric and globular adiponectin isoforms on spontaneous lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal (SCAAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) of obese and non-obese subjects. Furthermore, we explored the role of AMPK (5'-AMP-activated protein kinase) in adiponectin-dependent lipolysis regulation and expression of adiponectin receptors type 1 and 2 (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) in SCAAT and VAT. Primary adipocytes isolated from SCAAT and VAT of obese and non-obese women were incubated with 20 µg/ml of: A) full-length adiponectin (physiological mixture of all adiponectin isoforms), B) trimeric adiponectin isoform or C) globular adiponectin isoform. Glycerol released into media was used as a marker of lipolysis. While full-length adiponectin inhibited lipolysis by 22% in non-obese SCAAT, globular isoform inhibited lipolysis by 27% in obese SCAAT. No effect of either isoform was detected in non-obese VAT, however trimeric isoform inhibited lipolysis by 21% in obese VAT (all p<0.05). Trimeric isoform induced Thr172 p-AMPK in differentiated preadipocytes from a non-obese donor, while globular isoform induced Ser79 p-ACC by 32% (p<0.05) and Ser565 p-HSL by 52% (p = 0.08) in differentiated preadipocytes from an obese donor. AdipoR2 expression was 17% and 37% higher than AdipoR1 in SCAAT of obese and non-obese groups and by 23% higher in VAT of obese subjects (all p<0.05). In conclusion, the anti-lipolytic effect of adiponectin isoforms is modified with obesity: while full-length adiponectin exerts anti-lipolytic action in non-obese SCAAT, globular and trimeric isoforms show anti-lipolytic activity in obese SCAAT and VAT, respectively.

  5. Oxidation of nonplasma fatty acids during exercise is increased in women with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, J F; Klein, S

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated plasma fatty acid availability and plasma and whole body fatty acid oxidation during exercise in five lean and five abdominally obese women (body mass index = 21 +/- 1 vs. 38 +/- 1 kg/m(2)), who were matched on aerobic fitness, to test the hypothesis that obesity alters the relative contribution of plasma and nonplasma fatty acids to total energy production during exercise. Subjects exercised on a recumbent cycle ergometer for 90 min at 54% of their peak oxygen consumption. Stable isotope tracer methods ([(13)C]palmitate) were used to measure fatty acid rate of appearance in plasma and the rate of plasma fatty acid oxidation, and indirect calorimetry was used to measure whole body substrate oxidation. During exercise, palmitate rate of appearance increased progressively and was similar in obese and lean groups between 60 and 90 min of exercise [3.9 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 micromol. kg fat free mass (FFM)(-1). min(-1)]. The rate of plasma fatty acid oxidation was also similar in obese and lean subjects (12.8 +/- 1.7 vs. 14.5 +/- 1.8 micromol. kg FFM(-1). min(-1); P = not significant). However, whole body fatty acid oxidation during exercise was 25% greater in obese than in lean subjects (21.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 17.5 +/- 1.6 micromol. kg FFM(-1). min(-1); P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that, although plasma fatty acid availability and oxidation are similar during exercise in lean and obese women, women with abdominal obesity use more fat as a fuel by oxidizing more nonplasma fatty acids.

  6. Magnesium Status and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; da Silva Dias, Thaline Milany; de Assis, Régina Célia; Colli, Célia; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between magnesium status and oxidative stress in obese and nonobese women. This cross-sectional study included 83 women, aged between 20 and 50 years, who were divided into two groups: the obese group (n = 31) and the control group (n = 52). The control group was age-matched with the obese group. Magnesium intake was monitored using 3-day food records and NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were determined as biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and therefore of oxidative stress. The mean values of the magnesium content in the diet were found to be lower than those recommended, though there was no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). The mean concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium were within the normal range, with no significant difference between groups (p > 0.05). The mean concentration of plasma TBARS was higher in obese woman, and the difference between the groups was statistically different (p < 0.05). There was a positive correlation between erythrocyte magnesium and plasma TBARS in the obese group (p = 0.021). Obese patients ingest low dietary magnesium content, which does not seem to affect the plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of the mineral. The study showed a negative correlation between erythrocyte magnesium concentrations and plasma TBARS, suggesting the influence of magnesium status on the parameters of oxidative stress in obese women.

  7. Excess weight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal Brazilian women: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The menopause is associated with a tendency to gain weight. Several alterations in fat deposits occur, leading to changes in the distribution of body fat. There are strong indications that, in middle age, obesity is associated with increased mortality. This study set out to determine the factors associated with the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity in postmenopausal women in a population-based study in Brazil. Methods The sample included 456 women, aged 45–69 years, residing in the urban area of Maringa, Parana. Systematic sampling, with a probability proportional to the size of the census sector, was performed. Behavioral, economic, and sociodemographic data were collected, and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were determined. Results According to BMI criteria (≥25.0 kg/m2), 72.6% of the women were overweight, and according to WC (≥88 cm), 63.6% had abdominal obesity. Based on logistic regression analysis, the factors that were most closely associated with overweight were: having three or more children (odds ratio (OR): 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–3.00); and not taking hormone replacement therapy (OR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.06–2.63). The prevalence of abdominal obesity was positively associated with greater parity (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05–1.72) and age older than 65 years (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.03–2.19). Conclusions This study found that the prevalences of overweight and abdominal obesity were higher for postmenopausal women who had three or more children. Age over 65 years was also a risk factor for abdominal obesity and no use of hormonal replacement therapy was a risk factor for overweight. PMID:24228934

  8. Temperament and character in obese women with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Fassino, Secondo; Leombruni, Paolo; Pierò, Andrea; Daga, Giovanni Abbate; Amianto, Federico; Rovera, Giuseppe; Rovera, Giovanni Giacomo

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a serious disorder and its treatment involves dietitians, psychologists, and psychiatrists, often with a poor outcome. The role of psychiatric issues in obesity is equivocal, and so is the fact whether emotional and behavioral disturbances are causes or consequences of an individual's overweight condition. We performed a study that included 120 obese women (59 with binge eating disorder [BED] and 61 with non-BED) according to specific selection criteria, and compared to 80 healthy controls. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all patients and they were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Despite the fact that obese patients with BED and without BED display a similar personality profile, those with BED show lower scores in Self-Directedness (SD). Both groups of obese patients differ from nonobese controls in Novelty Seeking (NS), Harm Avoidance (HA), Cooperativeness (C), and SD. SD seems to be the strongest predictor for the development of BED. The idea that two distinct groups of obese patients exist is supported. Moreover, as regards personality, a lower SD and a higher risk of Personality Disorders were found in obese BED patients. Different severities of overweight do not seem to relate to a specific personality susceptibility.

  9. Effect of walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hye-Ryun; Jeong, Jin-Ok; Kong, Ji-Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Seung-Hun; Ha, Chang-Duk; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of 12-week walking exercise on abdominal fat, insulin resistance and serum cytokines in obese women. [Methods] Following baseline measurements, obese women (N = 20) who met obesity criterion of BMI at 25 kg/m2 or greater were randomly assigned to the control (n = 10) or exercise groups (n = 10). Women assigned to the exercise group participated in a walking exercise (with an intensity of 50-60% of predetermined VO2max, a frequency of 3 days per week and duration of 50-70 minutes targeting 400 kcal of energy expenditure per session) for 12 weeks, while women assigned to the control group maintained their sedentary lifestyle. After the 12-week walking intervention, post-test measurements were conducted using the same procedure as the baseline measurement. Analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to evaluate any significant time by group interactions for the measured variables. [Results] With respect to body fat parameters, significant time-by-group interactions were found in the abdominal subcutaneous (p = < 0.001) and visceral adipose tissues (p = 0.011). The exercise group had significant reductions in both subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, and the control group had no significant changes in those parameters. Similarly, there were significant time by group interactions in fasting glucose (p = 0.008), HOMA-IR (p = 0.029), serum TNF-α (p = 0.027), and IL-6 (p = 0.048) such that the exercise group had significant reductions in those parameters, with no such significant changes found in the control group. The exercise group also had a significant increase in serum adiponectin (p = 0.002), whereas the control group had no significant change in the parameter. [Conclusion] In summary, the current findings suggest that walking exercise can provide a safe and effective lifestyle strategy against abdominal obesity and serum insulin resistance markers in obese women. PMID:25566464

  10. Early Antenatal Prediction of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women: Development of Prediction Tools for Targeted Intervention

    PubMed Central

    White, Sara L.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Briley, Annette L.; Nelson, Scott M.; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T.; Welsh, Paul; Whitworth, Melissa; Poston, Lucilla; Pasupathy, Dharmintra

    2016-01-01

    All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0–18+6 weeks’ gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention. Twenty one candidate biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and a targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolome were measured. Prediction models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression. Twenty six percent of women (n = 337) developed GDM (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). A model based on clinical and anthropometric variables (age, previous GDM, family history of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfold thicknesses, waist:height and neck:thigh ratios) provided an area under the curve of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68–0.74). This increased to 0.77 (95%CI 0.73–0.80) with addition of candidate biomarkers (random glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin, triglycerides), but was not improved by addition of NMR metabolites (0.77; 95%CI 0.74–0.81). Clinically translatable models for GDM prediction including readily measurable variables e.g. mid-arm circumference, age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and adiponectin are described. Using a ≥35% risk threshold, all models identified a group of high risk obese women of whom approximately 50% (positive predictive value) later developed GDM, with a negative predictive value of 80%. Tools for early pregnancy identification of obese women at risk of GDM are described

  11. Exploring Relationship Between Spiritual Intelligence, Religiosity and Life Satisfaction Among Elderly Pakistani Muslims.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Khadeeja; Tariq, Omama

    2017-01-21

    This study is an effort to explore the relationship between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction in elderly Pakistani Muslims. A non-probability purposive sampling technique is utilized in order to recruit a sample of 100 elderly people (n = 50 men; n = 50 = women). Standardized questionnaires were used for collecting data. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson product-moment correlation analysis and independent sample t test. Findings revealed a significant correlation between spiritual intelligence, religiosity and life satisfaction among Pakistani elderly Muslim people. Gender differences were considered while conducting the study, and findings are valid for both male and female elderly Pakistani Muslims. Some findings of this study endorse findings of some previous studies, and it adds latest insights to the existing body of knowledge on the subject.

  12. A phenomenological study of obesity and physical activity in southern African American older women.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Pamela G; Eaves, Yvonne D; Vance, David E; Moneyham, Linda D

    2015-04-01

    African American women are more likely to be classified as overweight or obese than European American women and little is known about this phenomenon. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the lived experiences of overweight and obese African American older women living in the southern regions of the United States. Semistructured, audiotaped interviews were conducted to elicit narratives from nine participants. Interview data were transcribed verbatim and then coded and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological analysis framework. Three major categories emerged: impact of health conditions, incongruent perceptions, and the desire for independence. The focus of culturally appropriate interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for this group should incorporate activities that will help them remain independent, because weight loss is not a primary motivator.

  13. Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity?

    PubMed

    Buss, Julia; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and eating behaviors, stress, metabolic, cardiovascular, and cell aging factors among overweight women, but not among obese women due to lower circulating ghrelin levels and/or central resistance to ghrelin. Confirming previous studies demonstrating lowered plasma ghrelin in obesity, ghrelin levels were lower in the obese compared with overweight women. Among the overweight, ghrelin was positively correlated with caloric intake, giving in to cravings for highly palatable foods, and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope across 3days. These relationships were non-significant among the obese group. Among overweight women, ghrelin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and positively correlated with telomere length. Among the obese subjects, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with insulin resistance, but were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, heart rate or telomere length. Total plasma ghrelin and its associations with food intake, hedonic eating, and stress are decreased in obesity, providing evidence consistent with the theory that central resistance to ghrelin develops in obesity and ghrelin's function in appetite regulation may have evolved to prevent starvation in food scarcity rather than cope with modern food excess. Furthermore, ghrelin is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health, and may have anti-aging effects, but these effects may be attenuated in obesity.

  14. Psychological Disturbances and Quality of Life in Obese and Infertile Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Kocełak, Piotr; Chudek, Jerzy; Naworska, Beata; Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Kotlarz, Barbara; Mazurek, Monika; Madej, Paweł; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Skałba, Piotr; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed. PMID:22844280

  15. Obesity and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: A Primary-care Cross-Sectional Study at Santa Maria, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Copês, Rafaela Martinez; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Langer, Felipe Welter; Codevilla, Antonio Aurelio da Silveira; Sartori, Giovani Ruviaro; de Oliveira, Cristina; Cocco, Aline Rubin; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; de Almeida, Luciana Leiria; Dal Osto, Léo Canterle; Compston, Juliet Elizabeth; Premaor, Melissa Orlandin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are chronic disorders with increasing prevalence worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and fracture in postmenopausal women from Santa Maria, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out at Santa Maria (parallel 29° south), Brazil. Postmenopausal women aged ≥55 yr who had at least 1 appointment at the primary care in the 2 years before the study were recruited from March 1, 2013 to August 31, 2013. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women study questionnaire was applied with permission of The Center for Outcomes Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School. Height and weight were measured according to the World Health Organization protocol. Bone fractures (excluding hand, feet, and head) that occurred after the age of 45 yr were considered as the outcome. Overall, 1057 women completed the study, of whom 984 had body mass index measured. The mean (standard deviation) age and body mass index of the women included in the study were 67.1 (7.6) yr and 29.2 (5.5) kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of fractures in obese and nonobese women was similar (17.3% vs 16.0%); 41.4% of all fractures occurred in obese women. Obese postmenopausal women make a substantial contribution to the overall burden of prevalent fractures in this population. Our results provide further evidence in support of the concept that obesity is not protective against fracture.

  16. Identifying Contextual and Emotional Factors to Explore Weight Disparities between Obese Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Xu, Huiping; de Groot, Mary; Hemmerlein, Kimberly; Clark, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. METHODS In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30) black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day’s EMA. RESULTS Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8%) or fitness equipment (68.8%) in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%). The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53), working (7.1 ± 8.80), and happy (6.9 ± 10.03), respectively. CONCLUSION Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management. PMID:27840584

  17. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    PubMed

    Jürgensen, S P; Trimer, R; Di Thommazo-Luporini, L; Dourado, V Z; Bonjorno-Junior, J C; Oliveira, C R; Arena, R; Borghi-Silva, A

    2016-07-11

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2) prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) was calculated (210 - age in years) (16) and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05) with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79) as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65). The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option.

  18. Quality of life in overweight (obese) and normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Panico, Annalisa; Messina, Giovanni; Lupoli, Gelsy Arianna; Lupoli, Roberta; Cacciapuoti, Marianna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Villano, Ines; Valenzano, Anna; Monda, Vincenzo; Messina, Antonietta; Precenzano, Francesco; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Lupoli, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Objective Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity and has a wide variety of consequences. Approximately half of women with PCOS are overweight or obese, and their obesity may be a contributing factor to PCOS pathogenesis through different mechanisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate if PCOS alone affects the patients’ quality of life and to what extent obesity contributes to worsen this disease. Design To evaluate the impact of PCOS on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), 100 Mediterranean women with PCOS (group A), 50 with a body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2 (group A1) and 50 with BMI <25 kg/m2 (group A2), were recruited. They were evaluated with a specific combination of standardized psychometric questionnaires: the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire. The patients were compared with a normal-weight healthy control group of 40 subjects (group B). Another control group of 40 obese healthy women (group C) was used to make a comparison with PCOS obese patients (A1). Results Our results showed a considerable worsening of HRQoL in PCOS patients (A) compared with controls (B). In addition, patients with PCOS and BMI >25 (A1) showed a significant and more marked reduction in scores, suggesting a lower quality of life, compared with controls (B) and with normal-weight PCOS patients (A2). Conclusion PCOS is a complex disease that alone determines a deterioration of HRQoL. The innovative use of these psychometric questionnaires in this study, in particular the PCOS questionnaire, has highlighted that obesity has a negative effect on HRQoL. It follows that a weight decrease is associated to phenotypic spectrum improvement and relative decrement in psychological distress. PMID:28280314

  19. Abdominal obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Han, Myung Ok; Lee, Nan Young; Park, Hye Soon

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between abdominal obesity and stress urinary incontinence in Korean women. Women aged 30 and over, who visited the Department of Family Medicine of Asan Medical Center were recruited to participate in this study. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were taken, and associated factors of stress urinary incontinence was assessed by questionnaire. Stress urinary incontinence was significantly associated with physical work, vaginal delivery, and high waist circumference. In comparison with women in the lowest quartile of waist circumference, the odds ratios (OR) for stress urinary incontinence in women in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were increased significantly (1.79, 95% CI 1.07-2.98; 3.50, 95% CI 2.02-6.07; and 6.07, 95% CI 3.23-11.40, respectively). Our results indicate that high waist circumference may be a risk factor associated with stress urinary incontinence in women.

  20. Differences in Obesity Rates Among Minority and White Women: The Latent Role of Maternal Stress.

    PubMed

    Patchen, Loral; Rebok, George; Astone, Nan M

    2016-07-01

    White and minority women experience different rates of obesity in the United States. Yet our understanding of the dynamics that give rise to this gap remains limited. This article presents a conceptual framework that considers pathways leading to these different rates. It draws upon the life-course perspective, allostatic load, and the weathering hypothesis to identify pathways linking childbearing, stress, and obesity. This conceptual framework extends prior work by identifying age at first birth as an important parameter that influences these pathways. Empirical evidence to test these pathways is needed.

  1. Intense pulsed light photoepilation in hirsute women: the role of obesity.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, Francesca R; Angelini, Matteo; Chiossi, Maria Rosaria; Toscano, Vincenzo

    2009-05-01

    Intense pulsed light (IPL) has shown diverse results in hair clearance related to treatment protocols or skin phototype. Hirsutism may be due to endocrine disease, as in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), both of which conditions may be associated with obesity. Obesity complicates the metabolic pattern, particularly in terms of insulin resistance, which may worsen the clinical condition of hirsutism. This study evaluated the role of obesity in photoepilation, comparing the clinical efficacy, long-term hair reduction and patient satisfaction in 40 hirsute women with PCOS or CAH, either obese (n = 20) or of normal weight (n = 20). The IPL settings were the same for both groups, but the number of sessions varied according to the clinical results. Obese patients showed a statistically significant severity of initial hirsutism if compared to the non-obese population and, for this reason, required more sessions to achieve hair reduction. The results were maintained at the 2-year follow-up examination, with a high satisfaction rate in both groups.

  2. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-01-01

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women. PMID:28264442

  3. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007), body mass index (p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016), and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  4. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  5. Chromium, zinc and magnesium concentrations in the pubic hair of obese and overweight women.

    PubMed

    Wiechuła, Danuta; Loska, Krzysztof; Ungier, Dagmara; Fischer, Agnieszka

    2012-07-01

    The study addressed chromium, zinc and magnesium concentrations in the pubic hair of obese and overweight women. It was carried out on hair collected from 85 women at the age of 16-80 living in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship (southern Poland). The experimental and control groups consisted of 39 and 46 females, respectively. The pubic hair was prepared under a procedure established by the International Atomic Energy Agency, followed by wet digestion in a microwave oven. The concentration of the metals in the pubic hair and reference material was assayed with the flame (Mg, Zn) and flameless (Cr) atomic absorption spectrometry. The pubic hair of overweight and obese women from the experimental group revealed significantly higher chromium and magnesium concentrations and significantly lower concentrations of zinc than in the control group. An increase in BMI brought about an increase in chromium and magnesium concentrations while zinc concentration decreased with increasing BMI. The disturbances in the mineral balance of overweight and obese women were also demonstrated by significantly different ratios of the elements compared with the control group.

  6. Enhanced biglycan gene expression in the adipose tissues of obese women and its association with obesity-related genes and metabolic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jimin; Lee, Seul Ki; Shin, Ji-min; Jeoun, Un-woo; Jang, Yeon Jin; Park, Hye Soon; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Gong, Gyung-Yub; Lee, Taik Jong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Yeon Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling dynamically occurs to accommodate adipose tissue expansion during obesity. One non-fibrillar component of ECM, biglycan, is released from the matrix in response to tissue stress; the soluble form of biglycan binds to toll-like receptor 2/4 on macrophages, causing proinflammatory cytokine secretion. To investigate the pattern and regulatory properties of biglycan expression in human adipose tissues in the context of obesity and its related diseases, we recruited 21 non-diabetic obese women, 11 type 2 diabetic obese women, and 59 normal-weight women. Regardless of the presence of diabetes, obese patients had significantly higher biglycan mRNA in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Biglycan mRNA was noticeably higher in non-adipocytes than adipocytes and significantly decreased during adipogenesis. Adipose tissue biglycan mRNA positively correlated with adiposity indices and insulin resistance parameters; however, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for BMI. In both fat depots, biglycan mRNA strongly correlated with the expression of genes related to inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, culture of human preadipocytes and differentiated adipocytes under conditions mimicking the local microenvironments of obese adipose tissues significantly increased biglycan mRNA expression. Our data indicate that biglycan gene expression is increased in obese adipose tissues by altered local conditions. PMID:27465988

  7. Visceral adipose tissue is an independent correlate of glucose disposal in older obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brochu, M; Starling, R D; Tchernof, A; Matthews, D E; Garcia-Rubi, E; Poehlman, E T

    2000-07-01

    Older obese postmenopausal women have an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Increased abdominal obesity may contribute to these comorbidities. There is considerable controversy, however, regarding the effects of visceral adipose tissue as a singular predictor of insulin resistance compared to the other constituents of adiposity. To address this issue, we examined the independent association of regional adiposity and total fat mass with glucose disposal in obese older postmenopausal women. A secondary objective examined the association between glucose disposal with markers of skeletal muscle fat content (muscle attenuation) and physical activity levels. We studied 44 healthy obese postmenopausal women between 50 and 71 yr of age (mean +/- SD, 56.5 +/- 5.3 yr). The rate of glucose disposal was measured using the euglycemic/hyperinsulinemic clamp technique. Visceral and sc adipose tissue areas and midthigh muscle attenuation were measured from computed tomography. Fat mass and lean body mass were estimated from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Peak VO2 was measured from a treadmill test to volitional fatigue. Physical activity energy expenditure was measured from indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water. Pearson correlations indicated that glucose disposal was inversely related to visceral adipose tissue area (r = -0.40; P < 0.01), but not to sc adipose tissue area (r = 0.17), total fat mass (r = 0.05), midthigh muscle attenuation (r = 0.01), peak VO2 (r = -0.22), or physical activity energy expenditure (r = -0.01). The significant association persisted after adjusting visceral adipose tissue for fat mass and abdominal sc adipose tissue levels (r = -0.45; P < 0.005; in both cases). Additional analyses matched two groups of women for fat mass, but with different visceral adipose tissue levels. Results showed that obese women with high visceral adipose tissue levels (283 +/- 59 vs. 137 +/- 24 cm2; P < 0.0001) had a lower glucose

  8. Weight loss improves reproductive outcomes in obese women undergoing fertility treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sim, K A; Dezarnaulds, G M; Denyer, G S; Skilton, M R; Caterson, I D

    2014-04-01

    For women attempting pregnancy, obesity reduces fertility and is an independent risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. The aim of this evaluator-blinded, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate a weight loss intervention on pregnancy rates in obese women undertaking fertility treatment. Forty-nine obese women, aged ≤ 37 years, presenting for fertility treatment were randomized to either a 12-week intervention (n = 27) consisting of a very-low-energy diet for the initial 6 weeks followed by a hypocaloric diet, combined with a weekly group multidisciplinary programme; or a control group (n = 22) who received recommendations for weight loss and the same printed material as the intervention. Anthropometric and reproductive parameters were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. The 22 women who completed the intervention had greater anthropometric changes (-6.6 ± 4.6 kg and -8.7 ± 5.6 cm vs. -1.6 ± 3.6 kg and -0.6 ± 6.3 cm) compared with the control group (n = 17; P < 0.001). The intervention group achieved a pregnancy rate of 48% compared with 14% (P = 0.007), took a mean two fertility treatment cycles to achieve each pregnancy compared with four in the control group (P = 0.002), and had a marked increase in the number of live births (44% vs. 14%; P = 0.02). A group weight loss programme, incorporating dietary, exercise and behavioural components, is associated with a significant improvement in pregnancy rates and live births in a group of obese women undergoing fertility treatment.

  9. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared with inactive obese women.

    PubMed

    Tinius, Rachel A; Cahill, Alison G; Strand, Eric A; Cade, W Todd

    2016-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive (OBI; means ± SD; age, 25.0 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), 36.3 ± 4.3 kg/m(2); body fat percentage in late gestation, 37.7% ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active (OBA; age, 28.9 ± 4.8 years; prepregnancy BMI, 34.0 ± 3.7 kg/m(2); body fat in late gestation, 36.6% ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-min bout of low-intensity (40% peak oxygen uptake) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared with OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L vs. 6.3 ± 2.5 mg/L, p = 0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r = 0.43, p = 0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r = 0.39, p = 0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r = 0.36, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation.

  10. Lower resting and total energy expenditure in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Hodson, Leanne; Harnden, Karin; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Real, Belen; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The menopause is accompanied by increased risk of obesity, altered body fat distribution and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The resulting decrease in RMR should be accompanied by a compensatory change in energy balance to avoid weight gain. We aimed to investigate habitual energy intake and expenditure in pre- and postmenopausal women matched for abdominal obesity. We recruited fifty-one healthy Caucasian women, BMI > 18·5 and <35 kg/m(2), aged 35-45 years (premenopausal, n 26) and 55-65 years (postmenopausal, n 25). Energy intake was measured using 3 d diet diaries and dietary fat quality assessed using adipose tissue fatty acid biomarkers. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry, and total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor. Postmenopausal women had lower RMR and TEE and spent significantly less time undertaking moderate exercise than premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women had a tendency for a lower energy intake, and a similar macronutrient intake but a significantly lower adipose tissue n-6:n-3 ratio (24·6 (se 1·6) v. 37·7 (se 3·1); P < 0·001). The main lifestyle determinant of bone mineral density (which was significantly lower in postmenopausal women) was TEE for premenopausal women, and dietary n-6:n-3 ratio for postmenopausal women. The present results suggest that weight maintenance is achieved in the post- compared with premenopausal status through a combination of reduced energy intake and reduced TEE in a regimen that compromises micronutrient intake and has a negative impact on lean tissue mass. However, lower n-6:n-3 fatty acid intake in postmenopausal women is associated with greater bone mineral density.

  11. A proteomic analysis of the endometrium in obese and overweight women with recurrent miscarriage: preliminary evidence for an endometrial defect

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obese women have been shown to have an increased risk of recurrent miscarriage as well as other adverse reproductive outcomes, but it is yet unclear whether this is due to an effect on the endometrium, embryo or both. The current study employs proteomic analysis to examine for a potential endometrial defect in obese and overweight women with recurrent miscarriage. Methods Proteomic tissue analysis of 21 endometrial samples obtained In the midluteal phase from 16 women with recurrent miscarriage (obese, n = 12 and lean, n = 4) and 5 fertile volunteers (Obese, n = 2 and Lean, n = 3). Proteins were separated using 2-D gel electrophoresis and principle component analysis was used to quantitatively compare protein expression between groups. Protein spots showing significantly altered expression were identified using mass spectrometry. Results Obese and overweight recurrent miscarriage patients had a significantly increased endometrial expression of haptoglobin compared to their lean counterparts (p = 0.01). These patients also displayed a significant increase in endometrial expression of transthyretin (p = 0.04) and beta- globulin (p = 0.04). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the studied groups also demonstrated that endometrial samples could be grouped based on differences in the BMI, suggesting that obesity is an independent factor influencing endometrial protein expression. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence for an alteration in the endometrial protein profile in overweight/obese women with recurrent miscarriage mainly in the form of increased haptoglobin, an inflammatory marker associated with obesity. PMID:25096020

  12. Pakistanis living in Oslo have lower serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels but higher serum ionized calcium levels compared with ethnic Norwegians. The Oslo Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Haug, Egil; Falch, Jan A

    2007-01-01

    Background Persons of Pakistani origin living in Oslo have a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism but similar bone mineral density compared with ethnic Norwegians. Our objective was to investigate whether Pakistani immigrants living in Oslo have an altered vitamin D metabolism by means of compensatory higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (s-1,25(OH)2D) compared with ethnic Norwegians; and whether serum levels of ionized calcium (s-Ca2+) differ between Pakistanis and Norwegians. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study venous serum samples were drawn from 94 Pakistani men and 67 Pakistani women aged 30–60 years, and 290 Norwegian men and 270 Norwegian women aged 45–60 years; in total 721 subjects. Results Pakistanis had lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with Norwegians (p < 0.001). Age- and gender adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 93 (86, 99) pmol/l in Pakistanis and 123 (120, 126) pmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. The difference persisted after controlling for body mass index. There was a positive relation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) and s-1,25(OH)2D in both groups. S-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis; age-adjusted mean (95% CI) levels were 1.28 (1.27, 1.28) mmol/l in Pakistanis and 1.26 (1.26, 1.26) mmol/l in Norwegians, p < 0.001. In both groups, s-Ca2+ was inversely correlated to serum intact parathyroid hormone levels (s-iPTH). For any s-iPTH, s-Ca2+ was higher in Pakistanis, also when controlling for age. Conclusion Community-dwelling Pakistanis in Oslo with low vitamin D status and secondary hyperparathyroidism have lower s-1,25(OH)2D compared with ethnic Norwegians. However, the Pakistanis have higher s-Ca2+. The cause of the higher s-Ca2+ in Pakistanis in spite of their higher iPTH remains unclear. PMID:17945003

  13. Weight loss reduces circulating asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in morbidly obese women.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanowska, Katarzyna; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Kopp, Hans-Peter; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Guntram

    2004-12-01

    The endogenous nitric oxide-synthase inhibitor asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA) is elevated in patients with increased risk for arteriosclerosis. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We measured plasma ADMA concentrations in morbidly obese women before and after weight loss following gastroplastic surgery. ADMA and symmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine concentrations were analyzed by HPLC from 34 female patients (age 41 +/- 7 yr) with a body mass index (BMI) of 49 +/- 1 kg/m2 before and 14 months after vertical ring gastroplasty. Age-matched healthy women (BMI < 25 kg/m2; n = 24) were studied as controls. After gastroplastic surgery, BMI decreased to 34 +/- 1 kg/m2 in obese women (P < 0.00001), and ADMA concentrations were reduced from 1.06 +/- 0.06 micromol/liter at baseline to 0.81 +/- 0.04 micromol/liter after weight loss (P < 0.00001). Symmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine plasma levels were not affected. ADMA correlated with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein at baseline (r = 0.42; P < 0.05) and after weight loss (r = 0.56; P < 0.005). No association with blood pressure or plasma lipids could be observed. ADMA concentrations were lower in controls (0.68 +/- 0.04 micromol/liter; P < 0.05) compared with obese patients before or after weight reduction. The decrease of highly elevated ADMA concentrations in morbidly obese patients is paralleled by improvement of parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome after weight loss.

  14. Objectively measured physical activity during pregnancy: a study in obese and overweight women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obese and overweight women may benefit from increased physical activity (PA) during pregnancy. There is limited published data describing objectively measured PA in such women. Methods A longitudinal observational study of PA intensity, type and duration using objective and subjective measurement methods. Fifty five pregnant women with booking body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were recruited from a hospital ultrasound clinic in North East England. 26 (47%) were nulliparous and 22 (40%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). PA was measured by accelerometry and self report questionnaire at 13 weeks, 26 weeks and/or 36 weeks gestation. Outcome measures were daily duration of light, moderate or vigorous activity assessed by accelerometry; calculated overall PA energy expenditure, (PAEE), and PAEE within four domains of activity based on self report. Results At median 13 weeks gestation, women recorded a median 125 mins/day light activity and 35 mins/day moderate or vigorous activity (MVPA). 65% achieved the minimum recommended 30 mins/day MVPA. This proportion was maintained at 26 weeks (62%) and 36 weeks (71%). Women achieving more than 30 mins/day MVPA in the first trimester showed a significant reduction in duration of MVPA by the third trimester (11 mins/day, p = 0.003). Walking, swimming and floor exercises were the most commonly reported recreational activities but their contribution to estimated energy expenditure was small. Conclusion Overweight and obese pregnant women can achieve and maintain recommended levels of PA throughout pregnancy. Interventions to promote PA should target changes in habitual activities at work and at home, and in particular walking. PMID:21114834

  15. Suppressed cytokine production in whole blood cultures is related to iron status and is partially corrected following weight reduction in morbidly obese pre-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assess ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production and its association with iron status in obese versus non-obese women. Determine the change in ex vivo whole-blood cytokine production six months after restrictive bariatric surgery in the obese group. Subjects were 17 obese (BMI: 46.6 ±7.9 kg/m2) and 1...

  16. Relationships between blood pressure and health and fitness-related variables in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jeong Yeop; Ha, Chang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to separately compare systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with health and fitness-related variables among Asian obese and normal weight middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 1,201 women aged 30–59 years. The participants were classified into obese and normal weight groups. The blood pressure and health and fitness-related variables of all participants were assessed. [Results] Significant interaction effects were observed for most blood pressure and health and fitness-related variables between the groups. However, significant interaction effects were not observed for standard weight, basal metabolic rate, and heart rate. Blood pressure showed significant positive correlations with weight, body fat, fat weight, core fat, body mass index, and basal metabolic rate in both groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with muscular endurance, power, and agility in the obese group and with VO2max and flexibility in the normal weight group. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly correlated with muscular endurance and power in the obese group and with VO2max in the normal weight group. [Conclusion] The relationships between systolic blood pressure and heart rate, muscle endurance, power, and agility are stronger than the relationships between diastolic blood pressure and these variables. PMID:27821965

  17. Contraceptive vaginal ring effectiveness is maintained during six weeks use: A prospective study of normal BMI and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Dragoman, Monica; Petrie, Kelsey; Torgal, Anupama; Thomas, Tiffany; Cremers, Serge; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2013-01-01

    Background A single study shows that contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) use for up to 35 days in women with a normal BMI maintains serum hormone levels sufficient to suppress ovulation. This study is intended to confirm those results and to evaluate prolonged CVR use up to 42 days in both normal BMI and obese women. Study Design Twenty women with a normal BMI and 20 obese women enrolled in a prospective open label clinical study of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and etonogestrel (ENG) pharmacokinetics during six weeks of use of a single CVR. Participants underwent twice weekly evaluations to determine serum hormone concentrations, ovarian follicle development, endometrial thickness and bleeding patterns. Results Thirty-seven women completed follow-up including eighteen women with a normal BMI and nineteen obese women. EE and ENG concentrations remained in therapeutic range for all women. Follicular development and endometrial proliferation were minimal. By the sixth week, 30% of participants reported spotting or bleeding. Conclusions A single CVR used for six weeks demonstrates therapeutic serum levels of EE and ENG among women with normal and obese BMI. Women who forget to remove the CVR at day 21 may well have continued contraceptive protection during the next three weeks. PMID:23312933

  18. Narcissism as a Moderator of Satisfaction with Body Image in Young Women with Extreme Underweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Objective Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. Methods The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI < 17.5, n = 85), and women with normal body weight (21.7 < “ideal BMI” > 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Principal Findings We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. Conclusion The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one’s body varies depending on BMI level: extremely underweight women and obese individuals constitute groups in which narcissism has the strongest impact on the self-satisfaction with body. PMID:25961302

  19. Is Household Food Insecurity Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Women?

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADI, Fatemeh; OMIDVAR, Nasrin; HARRISON, Gail G; GHAZI-TABATABAEI, Mahmood; ABDOLLAHI, Morteza; HOUSHIAR-RAD, Anahita; MEHRABI, Yadollah; DOROSTY, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite reports on association between overweight/obesity among women and household food insecurity (FI) in developed countries, such association is not evident in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the association between household FI and weight status in adult females in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 households were selected through systematic cluster sampling from 6 districts of Tehran. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Socio-economic status of the household was assessed by a questionnaire. Three consecutive 24-hour diet recalls were completed. FI was measured using adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of SES and food security on weight status, simultaneously. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) potential causal relationships between FI and weight status was explored. Results: Only 1.0% of women were underweight, while 40.3% were overweight and 33% were obese, respectively. Severe, moderate, and mild food insecurity was observed in 11.5, 14.7, and 17.8%, respectively. Among women in moderately food insecure households, the possibility of overweight was lower than those of food secure households (OR 0.41; CI95%:0.17–0.99), while in severely food insecure households, the risk of abdominal obesity for women was 2.82 times higher than food secures (CI95%:1.12–7.08) (P<0.05). SEM detected no causal relationship between FI and weight status. Conclusion: Association of severe food insecurity with abdominal obesity in adult females of households may indicate their vulnerability and the need for tailoring programs to prevent further health problems in this group. PMID:23785677

  20. Follistatin-like 3 across gestation in preeclampsia and uncomplicated pregnancies among lean and obese women.

    PubMed

    Founds, Sandra A; Ren, Dianxu; Roberts, James M; Jeyabalan, Arun; Powers, Robert W

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine circulating maternal follistatin-like 3 (FSTL-3) by gestational age and obesity in pregnancy and preeclampsia. FSTL-3 was quantified in maternal plasma collected in each trimester from prepregnancy body mass index-determined groups: 15 lean and 24 obese controls and 20 obese women who developed preeclampsia. Repeated measures mixed models and logistic regression were conducted (P ≤ .05). FSTL-3 was not related to maternal adiposity. FSTL-3 changed across pregnancy in lean controls and obese preeclampsia but not in obese controls. FSTL-3 was higher in preeclampsia in the second trimester compared to lean controls and in the third trimester compared to both control groups. Elevated FSTL-3 at mid-gestation was associated with an increased odds of preeclampsia (odds ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.19-8.36; P = .02). Elevated FSTL-3 concentrations were attributable to preeclampsia and were associated with increased likelihood of later developing preeclampsia, suggesting further study as a biomarker prior to clinically evident disease.

  1. Placing the burden on the individual: overweight and obesity in African American and mainstream women's magazines.

    PubMed

    Campo, Shelly; Mastin, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    One third of all U.S. adult women, and more than 75% of African American women, are overweight or obese. This study examined overweight and obesity editorial content (N=406) in three mainstream and three African American women's magazines between 1984 and 2004. Content analysis was used to determine which strategies were suggested regarding diet, overweight, and obesity, which components of social cognitive theory were offered (behavior, person, or environment), and whether or not there were differences in the genres. The results suggest that although a wide range of strategies were being offered, the vast majority were behavioral changes with an individual solution focus. Although African American and mainstream magazines suggested many of the same strategies, nearly half more frequently appeared in one or the other genre. Mainstream magazines were twice as likely to offer the limiting or eliminating of fast food or junk food, eating more protein, eating lower-fat foods, and eating smaller portions. African American magazines were much more likely to cover fad diets and to suggest readers rely on God or faith in their diet plans. The average number of strategies offered per article was significantly higher in mainstream than in African American magazines.

  2. Determinants of exercise-induced fat oxidation in obese women and men.

    PubMed

    Haufe, S; Engeli, S; Budziarek, P; Utz, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Hermsdorf, M; Wiesner, S; Otto, C; Fuhrmann, J C; Luft, F C; Boschmann, M; Jordan, J

    2010-03-01

    Endurance training at an intensity eliciting maximal fat oxidation may have a beneficial effect on body weight and glucose metabolism in obese patients. However, the exercise intensity at which maximal fat oxidation occurs and the factors limiting fat oxidation are not well studied in this population. Obese, otherwise healthy men (n=38) and women (n=91) performed an incremental exercise test up to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Substrate oxidation was estimated using indirect calorimetry. Magnetic resonance tomography and spectroscopy were conducted to assess body fat distribution and intramyocellular fat content. We determined the exercise intensity at which maximal body fat oxidation occurs and assessed whether body composition, body fat distribution, intramyocellular fat content, or oxidative capacity predict exercise-induced fat oxidation. Maximal exercise-induced fat oxidation was 0.30+/-0.02 g/min in men and 0.23+/-0.01 g/min in women (p<0.05). Exercise intensity at the maximum fat oxidation was 42+/-2.2% VO (2 max) in men and 43+/-1.7% VO (2 max) in women. With multivariate analysis, exercise-induced fat oxidation was related to fat-free mass, percent fat mass, and oxidative capacity, but not to absolute fat mass, visceral fat, or intramyocellular fat content. We conclude that in obese subjects the capacity to oxidize fat during exercise appears to be limited by skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity rather than the availability of visceral or intramyocellular fat.

  3. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    PubMed

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  4. Effect Modification of Obesity on Associations between Endogenous Steroid Sex Hormones and Arterial Calcification in Women at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Powell, Lynda; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine whether obesity modify the effects of endogenous steroid sex hormones on arterial calcification in women at midlife. Methods Associations between estradiol, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin and free androgen index and the presence and extent of coronary and aortic calcification were evaluated in 187 obese (body mass index ≥30) and 281 non-obese (body mass index <30) women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Logistic and linear regressions were used as appropriate. Results Prevalence rates of coronary and aortic calcification were significantly higher among obese compared to non-obese (P <0.001, for both). In multivariable analyses, steroid sex hormones were not associated with presence of coronary calcification. However, for extent of coronary calcification, significant interactions were found between obesity and both sex hormone binding globulin (P<0.0001) and free androgen index (P=0.008). In non-obese women, higher sex hormone binding globulin (P=0.0006) and lower free androgen index (P=0.01) were associated with greater extent of coronary calcification while lower sex hormone binding globulin was associated with greater extent of coronary calcification in obese women (P=0.05). For aortic calcification outcomes, higher sex hormone binding globulin was associated with presence of aortic calcification among non-obese (OR:1.64, 95%CI:1.16, 2.32, for each 1-SD greater sex hormone binding globulin). Conclusions Associations between endogenous steroid sex hormones and arterial calcification vary by obesity status among perimenopausal women. Further research is needed to better understand the possible mechanisms. PMID:21471825

  5. Effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin hormone release and satiety in obese and normal-weight women.

    PubMed

    Wikarek, Tomasz; Chudek, Jerzy; Owczarek, Aleksander; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-28

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin responses and satiety and hunger sensation in obese and normal-weight women. A total of eleven obese and nine normal-weight women were recruited for the assessment of plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and insulin and the sensation of satiety and hunger using a visual analogue scale before and during a 6 h period after administration of three different macronutrient test meals. The AUCtotal GLP-1 and AUCtotal GIP values were decreased in obese women after the consumption of a fatty meal and all the test meals, respectively. However, the AUCtotal insulin value after a carbohydrate meal was greater in the obese group. The AUCtotal satiety value was decreased only after the intake of the protein meal in obese women when compared with normal-weight women. After the consumption of the fatty meal, a significant positive correlation between maximum satiety sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the obese group and that between minimum hunger sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the normal-weight group were observed. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that: (1) satiety sensation after consumption of carbohydrate and protein meals in the obese group is related to the postprandial insulin response, while after consumption of a fatty meal, it is related to the postprandial GLP-1 release; (2) the postprandial GIP response does not influence the sensation of satiety and hunger; (3) the reduced GLP-1 release after the intake of a fatty meal in obese individuals may explain impaired satiety sensation; (4) the impaired postprandial GIP response is not related to the consumption of macronutrients and may be the early indicator of incretin axis dysfunction in obese women.

  6. Optimal Cutoffs of Obesity Measures in Relation to Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women in the Women's Health Initiative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kabat, Geoffrey C.; Strickler, Howard D.; Lin, Juan; Hou, Lifang; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Rohan, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obesity is a risk factor for several cancers in postmenopausal women. We attempted to determine cutoffs of adiposity measures in relation to risk of obesity-related cancers among postmenopausal women and to examine the effects of hormone therapy (HT) use on the cutoffs, neither of which has been broadly studied. Methods: We used data from the Women's Health Initiative cohort (n=144,701) and applied Cox-proportional hazards regressions to each combination of 17 cancer types and 6 anthropometric measures (weight, body mass index [BMI], weight to height ratio, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio [WHR], and waist to height ratio). Interactions between the anthropometric measures and HT use were also examined. Cutoffs were determined by applying a grid search followed by a two-fold cross validation method. Survival ROC analysis of 5- and 10-year incidence followed. Results: Breast, colorectal, colon, endometrium, kidney, and all cancers combined were significantly positively associated with all six anthropometric measures, whereas lung cancer among ever smokers was significantly inversely associated with all measures except WHR. The derived cutoffs of each obesity measure varied across cancers (e.g., BMI cutoffs for breast and endometrium cancers were 30 kg/m2 and 34 kg/m2, respectively), and also depended on HT use. The Youden indices of the cutoffs for predicting 5- and 10-year cancer incidence were higher among HT never users. Conclusion: Using a panel of different anthropometric measures, we derived optimal cut-offs categorizing populations into high- and low-risk groups, which differed by cancer type and HT use. Although the discrimination abilities of these risk categories were generally poor, the results of this study could serve as a starting point from which to determine adiposity cutoffs for inclusion in risk prediction models for specific cancer types. PMID:25587642

  7. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  8. In vivo nitric oxide suppression of lipolysis in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue is greater in obese than lean women.

    PubMed

    Hickner, Robert C; Kemeny, Gabor; Clark, Paige D; Galvin, Vaughna B; McIver, Kerry L; Evans, Chris A; Carper, Michael J; Garry, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    Mounting evidence suggests there is a reduced mobilization of stored fat in obese compared to lean women. It has been suggested that this decreased lipid mobilization may lead to, or perpetuate, the obese state; however, there may be a beneficial effect of reduced lipolysis, either by allowing for a sink of excess fatty acids, or by limiting a potentially harmful rise in interstitial and circulating fatty acid concentration. Nitric oxide (NO) may be responsible for a portion of the reduced in vivo rates of lipolysis in obese women because NO reduces adipose tissue lipolysis and adipose tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA is higher in obese than lean individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine if the inhibition of NOS by L-N(g)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) in the absence and presence of lipolytic stimulation would result in a larger increase in lipolytic rate in obese (OB) than lean (LN) women. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue of seven obese and six lean women to monitor lipolysis. Dialysate glycerol concentration increased in response to L-NMMA in OB (basal 125 ± 26 µmol/l; L-NMMA 225 ± 35 µmol/l) to a greater extent than in LN (basal 70 ± 18 µmol/l; L-NMMA 84 ± 20 µmol/l) women (P < 0.05). Dialysate glycerol increased to a similar extent in OB and LN in response to adrenergic stimulation by isoprenaline or norepinephrine in the presence of L-NMMA. The differential glycerol responses to L-NMMA between obese and lean could not be explained by differential blood flow responses. It can be concluded that NO suppresses basal lipolysis in obese women to a greater extent than in lean women.

  9. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  10. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research.

  11. MEASURES OF OBESITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK AMONG MEN AND WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gelber, Rebecca P.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Orav, E. John; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined associations between anthropometric measures (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], waist-to-hip ratio [WHR], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) and risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, cardiovascular death). Background Controversy exists regarding the optimal approach to measure adiposity, and the utility of BMI has been questioned. Methods Participants included 16,332 men in the Physicians’ Health Study (mean age 61, 1991) and 32,700 women in the Women’s Health Study (mean age 61, 1999). We used Cox proportional hazards models to determine relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for developing CVD according to self-reported anthropometric indices. Results A total of 1505 CVD cases occurred in men, and 414 occurred in women (median follow-up, 14.2 and 5.5 years, respectively). While WHtR demonstrated statistically the strongest associations with CVD and best model fit, CVD risk increased linearly and significantly with higher levels of all indices. Adjusting for confounders, the RR (CI) for CVD was 0.58 (0.32–1.05) for men with the lowest WHtR (<0.45) and 2.36 (1.61–3.47) for the highest WHtR (≥0.69; versus WHtR 0.49-<0.53). Among women, the RR (95% CI) was 0.65 (0.33– 1.31) for those with the lowest WHtR (<0.42) and 2.33 (1.66–3.28) for the highest WHtR (≥0.68; versus WHtR 0.47- <0.52). Conclusions WHtR demonstrated statistically the best model fit and strongest associations with CVD. However, as compared to BMI, differences in cardiovascular risk assessment using other indices were small and likely not clinically consequential. Our findings emphasize that higher levels of adiposity, however measured, confer increased risk of CVD. PMID:18702962

  12. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular autonomic control. Cardiovascular autonomic control, systolic and diastolic mean BP, and body mass index were obtained from one hundred thirty-two American Indian and Mexican American men and women who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Men had a significant greater systolic and diastolic BP and were more likely to develop systolic prehypertension and hypertension than women. Obese participants showed greater mean heart rate (HR) and systolic and diastolic BP than nonobese participants. Obese men also exhibited greater cardiac sympathetic activity and lower cardiovagal control than obese women. These results suggest that obesity and gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic control may contribute to risk for cardiovascular disorders in this sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans. PMID:24024026

  13. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Tanvig, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were

  14. Morning plasma cortisol is low among obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan P; Khurana, Madan L; John, Jomimol; Gupta, Nandita; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause for androgen excess in women. It is associated with wide variety of metabolic disorders. The present study assessed morning plasma cortisol in women with PCOS. One hundred and ninety seven cases and 55 controls were enrolled for this study. The mean age of patients and controls were 23 ± 5.6 years and 25 ± 4.3 years. One hundred twelve (56%) women with PCOS had BMI >25. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in lean PCOS women compared to controls (13.4 ± 5.1 versus 11.3 ± 4.5, p < 0.01) and over-weight PCOS women group (13.4 ± 5.1 versus 9.3 ± 3.2, p < 0.01). There was a trend for less acne and hirsutism with increase in BMI. Morning plasma cortisol was lower among obese women with PCOS. Morning plasma cortisol correlated negatively with BMI in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  15. Short term low-calorie diet improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic parameters in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bôas Huguenin, Grazielle Vilas; Kimi Uehara, Sofia; Nogueira Netto, José Firmino; Gaspar de Moura, Egberto; Rosa, Glorimar; da Fonseca Passos, Magna Cottini

    2014-07-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with an increase of cardiovascular risk factors, including adipocytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-calorie diet on serum lipids, adipokines, insulin resistance and body composition in obese women. It was a clinical trial with class I obese women aged 30-45 years submitted to hypocaloric diet for 90 days. Dietary intake, anthropometric parameters, body composition, serum lipids, glucose, insulin, leptin, adiponectin, HOMA-IR and QUICKI indexes were evaluated at the baseline, 30, 60 and 90 days. There was 30% significant decrease in energy intake, and also decrease in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (p < 0.01) throughout the treatment period. Despite the amount of lean body mass (kg) reduced in average, it was observed that lean body mass (%) had increased (p < 0.01) and that the amount of fat body mass (kg) had decreased significantly in the third month (p < 0.05). Systolic blood pressure reduced up to -5mmHg (p < 0.05) after 90 days. Was observed a decrease (p < 0.05) on serum insulin and HOMA-IR until the 60th day, while the serum adiponectin increased (p < 0.01) during treatment. Corroborating with the reduction of fat body mass and weight, serum leptin also reduced (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the short-term low-calorie diet reduces total body fat, mainly found in the abdominal region, and efficiently improve insulin sensitivity decreasing cardiovascular risk in obese women.

  16. The Effect of Onion Peel Extract on Inflammatory Mediators in Korean Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects and improves endothelial function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on the inflammatory mediators in overweight and obese women. This study was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy overweight and obese women were randomly assigned to two groups, and one group was given a soft capsuled OPE (100 mg quercetin/day, n = 18) and the other group a same capsuled placebo (n = 19) for 12 weeks. Fat mass was measured by bioimpendance method at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured with colorimetric assay kits. The concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-4 in plasma were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between placebo and OPE groups. Compared with baseline value, both placebo and OPE supplementation significantly decreased the percent of body fat mass and induced plasma adiponectin levels while ALT and AST activities as well as leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, and IL-4 levels in plasma were not significantly different between two groups after 12 weeks of the supplementation. These findings suggest that 12-week supplementation of OPE do not affect modulators of systemic inflammation in overweight and obese women. PMID:27812515

  17. Magnesium Status and Its Relationship with C-Reactive Protein in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; de Freitas, Taynáh Emannuelle Coelho; Veras, Antonio Lobão; da Rocha Romero, Amanda Batista; Colli, Célia; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between magnesium status and C-reactive protein concentration in obese and nonobese women. This cross-sectional study included 131 women, aged between 20 and 50 years, who were divided into two groups: obese (n=65) and control (n=66) groups. Magnesium intake was monitored using 3-day food records and NutWin software version 1.5. The plasma, erythrocyte, and urinary magnesium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. C-reactive protein concentration in serum was measured by immunoturbidimetric assay. The mean values of the magnesium content in the diet were lower than those recommended, though there was no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). The mean concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte magnesium were within the normal range, with no significant difference between groups (p>0.05). Urinary excretion of this mineral was less than the reference values in both groups, with no significant difference (p>0.05). The mean concentration of serum C-reactive protein was within the normal range in both groups, with no significant difference (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between urinary magnesium and serum C-reactive protein (p=0.015). Obese patients ingest low dietary magnesium content, which seems to induce hypomagnesuria as a compensatory mechanism to keep plasma concentrations of the mineral at adequate levels. The study shows a positive correlation between urinary magnesium concentrations and serum C-reactive protein, suggesting the influence of hypomagnesuria on this inflammatory protein in obese women.

  18. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    PubMed Central

    Jürgensen, S.P.; Trimer, R.; Di Thommazo-Luporini, L.; Dourado, V.Z.; Bonjorno-Junior, J.C.; Oliveira, C.R.; Arena, R.; Borghi-Silva, A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2) prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (ABP) and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax) was calculated (210 – age in years) (16) and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05) with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79) as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65). The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option. PMID:27409333

  19. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Walker, Renee E; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-06-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of the literature to identify lifestyle and behavioral modification obesity intervention studies for Black women. We included articles published between February 1992 and January 2013. This search identified 28 articles from the PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases. Results of these studies were summarized primarily into six categories. The importance of modest improvements in health outcomes that result from adapting healthier behaviors was highlighted. Future research is required for identifying the most salient intervention component or combination of components that lead to the best outcomes for ensuring intervention success and minimizing weight regain postintervention.

  20. New adipokines vaspin and omentin. Circulating levels and gene expression in adipose tissue from morbidly obese women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Vaspin and omentin are recently described molecules that belong to the adipokine family and seem to be related to metabolic risk factors. The objectives of this study were twofold: to evaluate vaspin and omentin circulating levels and mRNA expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in non-diabetic morbidly obese women; and to assess the relationship of vaspin and omentin with anthropometric and metabolic parameters, and other adipo/cytokines. Design We analysed vaspin and omentin circulating levels in 71 women of European descent (40 morbidly obese [BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2] and 31 lean [BMI ≤ 25]). We assessed vaspin and omentin gene expression in paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from 46 women: 40 morbidly obese and 6 lean. We determined serum vaspin and plasma omentin levels with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and adipose tissue mRNA expression by real time RT-PCR. Results Serum vaspin levels in the morbidly obese were not significantly different from those in controls. They correlated inversely with levels of lipocalin 2 and interleukin 6. Vaspin mRNA expression was significantly higher in the morbidly obese, in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma omentin levels were significantly lower in the morbidly obese and they correlated inversely with glucidic metabolism parameters. Omentin circulating levels, then, correlated inversely with the metabolic syndrome (MS). Omentin expression in visceral adipose tissue was significantly lower in morbidly obese women than in controls. Conclusions The present study indicates that vaspin may have a compensatory role in the underlying inflammation of obesity. Decreased omentin circulating levels have a close association with MS in morbidly obese women. PMID:21526992

  1. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects.

  2. Beverages contribute extra calories to meals and daily energy intake in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Bleil, Maria E; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Nackers, Lisa M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2013-10-02

    Caloric beverages may promote obesity by yielding energy without producing satiety, but prior laboratory and intervention studies are inconclusive. This study examined whether the diets of free-living overweight and obese women show evidence that calories from beverages are offset by reductions in solid food within individual eating occasions and across entire days. Eighty-two women weighed and recorded all consumed foods and beverages for seven days. Beverages were coded as high-calorie (≥ 0.165 kcal/g) or low-calorie (<0.165 kcal/g), and total energy intake and energy intake from solid food were calculated for each eating occasion and day. In covariate-adjusted models, energy intake from solid food did not differ between eating occasions that included high-calorie or low-calorie beverages and those with no reported beverage. Energy intake from solid food was also unrelated to the number of high-calorie or low-calorie beverages consumed per day. On average, eating occasions that included a high-calorie beverage were 169 kcal higher in total energy than those with no reported beverage, and 195 kcal higher in total energy than those that included a low-calorie beverage. Each high-calorie beverage consumed per day contributed an additional 147 kcal to women's daily energy intake, whereas low-calorie beverage intake was unrelated to daily energy intake. Beverages contributed to total energy intake in a near-additive fashion among free-living overweight and obese women, suggesting a need to develop more effective interventions to reduce caloric beverage intake in the context of weight management, and to potentially reexamine dietary guidelines.

  3. Altered functional connectivity within the central reward network in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Coveleskie, K; Gupta, A; Kilpatrick, L A; Mayer, E D; Ashe-McNalley, C; Stains, J; Labus, J S; Mayer, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity alterations within regions of the reward network. Subjects/Methods: Fifty healthy, premenopausal women, 19 overweight and obese (high BMI=26–38 kg m−2) and 31 lean (BMI=19–25 kg m−2) were selected from the University of California Los Angeles' Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress database. Structural and RS functional scans were collected. Group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) of the NAcc, oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity of the NAcc to regions within the reward network were examined. Results: GMV of the left NAcc was significantly greater in the high BMI group than in the lean group (P=0.031). Altered frequency distributions were observed in women with high BMI compared with lean group in the left NAcc (P=0.009) in a medium-frequency (MF) band, and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (P=0.014, <0.001) and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (P=0.034, <0.001) in a high-frequency band. Subjects with high BMI had greater connectivity of the left NAcc with bilateral ACC (P=0.024) and right vmPFC (P=0.032) in a MF band and with the left ACC (P=0.03) in a high frequency band. Conclusions: Overweight and obese women in the absence of food-related stimuli show significant structural and functional alterations within regions of reward-related brain networks, which may have a role in altered ingestive behaviors. PMID:25599560

  4. High LPL Activity and Adipocyte Hypertrophy Reduce Visceral Fat and Metabolic Risk in Obese, Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C.; Ryan, Alice S.; Sorkin, John D.; Favors, Knachelle H.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine if higher subcutaneous adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase activity (AT-LPLA) is associated with greater triglyceride (TG) storage in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), thereby reducing visceral adipose tissue (VAT) accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. Design and Method Obese postmenopausal women (60±1 yrs; mean±SEM; N=101) had body composition by DXA and CT, fat aspirations for fat-cell weight (FCW) and AT-LPLA. Women were ranked by visceral to total abdominal fat ratio (VAT/TAF), and the lowest and highest groups (n=24) matched for % fat and age. Results The prevalence of metabolic dysfunction was 7–10 fold higher in women with high VAT/TAF (P’s<0.01). Women with low VAT/TAF had 11% and 6% lower abdominal and gluteal FCWs, but 28% and 54% higher AT-LPLA/106 cells in abdominal and gluteal fat, respectively. Abdominal FCW correlated with AT-LPLA in women with low (r=0.63, P<0.01), but not high (r=0.14, P=0.52) VAT/TAF, and these lines differed in slope (P<0.05) and intercept (P<0.01), suggesting greater capacity for TG storage with low VAT/TAF. There were no relationships between gluteal FCW and AT-LPLA. The relationship between SAT and abdominal AT-LPLA (r=0.39, P<0.01) suggests that higher AT-LPLA promotes TG storage. Conclusions These results suggest that higher AT-LPLA is associated with SAT adipocyte hypertrophy, which reduces visceral adiposity and metabolic risk in obese, older women. PMID:25612068

  5. Heterogeneity in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Morphology and Metabolic Complications in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Gracie; Chandalia, Manisha; Jiang, Yongquan; Davila, Himara; Motamedi, Massoud

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to assess morphological features of intact adipose tissue (AT) ex vivo from both subcutaneous (s.c.) abdominal and gluteal areas using a novel approach of multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) combined with second harmonic generation microscopy (SHGM), and to assess the relationship between morphological features in the two AT sites and insulin resistance to peripheral glucose disposal. Method This study was a cross-sectional evaluation of AT morphology feature and peripheral insulin resistance. Subjects Fourteen overweight/obese premenopausal women underwent body composition studies, hyperinsulinemic–euglycemic clamps, and needle biopsy of both the s.c. abdominal and gluteal AT areas. MPAM combined with SHGM was used to measure adipocyte maximal diameter and collagen fiber bundle thickness within a sampled image volume after three-dimensional visualization. Results Higher body mass index (BMI) was associated with larger adipocyte diameter in s.c. abdominal, but not gluteal, AT. Higher adipocyte diameter was associated with higher pericellular collagen thickness. Adipocyte diameter in s.c. abdominal, but not gluteal, AT was associated positively with leptin and negatively with adiponectin plasma levels and peripheral glucose disposal rate. The latter correlation was no longer significant after adjustment for collagen thickness. Conclusion In overweight/obese premenopausal women, larger adipocyte diameter in s.c. abdominal, but not gluteal, AT associates with low plasma adiponectin and systemic insulin resistance, and suggests that increased collagen thickness (obesity-related scarring) could contribute to these findings. PMID:23621112

  6. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Babb, Tony G

    2016-01-15

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70-80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n=12, RPB≥4, 37±7 years, 34±4 kg/m(2)) and -DOE (n=10, RPB≤2, 32±6 years, 33±3 kg/m(2)). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training,peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12±7, -DOE: 14±8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the +DOE (4.7±1.0-2.5±1.0) and remained low in the -DOE group (1.2±0.6-1.3±1.0) (interaction p<0.001). The reduction in RPB was not significantly correlated with the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. Aerobic exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women.

  7. Body fat assessment by a new bipedal bioimpedance instrument in normal weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Horejs, J; Müller, L

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a new bioimpedance method for assessment of body fat employing bipedal electrodes instead of those attached to both upper and lower extremities. The new analyzer (TBF-105, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan) enables simultaneous measurements of body weight and total body resistance in a subject standing on the stainless steel electrodes. The instrument was tested in both normal weight and obese women. Fat mass estimated by bipedal bioimpedance was highly correlated with that determined by hydrodensitometry (n = 145, r = 0.945, p < 0.001). Fat mass estimated by bipedal bioimpedance significantly correlated not only with subcutaneous fat measured as a sum of 10 skinfolds (r = 0.758, p < 0.001) but also with visceral fat determined as an area on CT scan (r = 0.780, p < 0.001). Anthropometric variables did not substantially influence the differences revealed in fat mass determined by bipedal bioimpedance and by densitometry. An overestimation of total fat mass by bipedal bioimpedance has not been revealed in severely obese individuals, even in those with higher fat accumulation in the limb region. In conclusion, our data have demonstrated that the new bioimpedance instrument employing bipedal electrodes represents a reliable tool for rapid body fat assessment in both normal weight and obese women.

  8. Obstetric Obesity is Associated with Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia with High Prevalence in Native Hawaiians and Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Rougée, Luc RA; Miyagi, Shogo J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and pregnancy both place the liver under metabolic stress, but interactions between obstetric obesity and bilirubin metabolism have not been studied. We determined associations between obesity, maternal/neonatal bilirubin levels, and uridine 5′diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) enzyme that eliminates bilirubin. Adult livers were analyzed for UGT1A1 expression, activity, and bilirubin clearance by pharmacokinetic modeling. Then, matched maternal and neonatal sera (N = 450) were assayed for total and unconjugated bilirubin. Associations between obesity, UGT1A1, maternal and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were determined statistically through correlation analysis (Pearson's test) as well as binned categories (one-way ANOVA). Morbid obesity decreased hepatic UGT1A1 protein levels, activity, and bilirubin clearance (P < .001). Increasing obesity corresponded to elevated maternal unconjugated bilirubin (P < .05). Maternal obesity was also significantly positively correlated with elevated neonatal bilirubin levels (P < .01, N = 450) and this was strongest in Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islander (NHPI) women (P < .01, n = 150). Obstetric obesity is associated with maternal and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, likely through inhibition of hepatic UGT1A1. The NHPI cohort was the most obese and had the highest levels of maternal and neonatal unconjugated bilirubin. Neonates from obese mothers may be more susceptible to jaundice and side effects from parenteral nutrition. PMID:27980881

  9. Maternal inflammation during late pregnancy is lower in physically active compared to inactive obese women

    PubMed Central

    Tinius, Rachel A.; Cahill, Alison G.; Strand, Eric A.; Todd Cade, W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare maternal plasma inflammation between physically active and inactive obese women during late pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between maternal plasma inflammation and lipid metabolism and maternal and neonatal metabolic health in these women. Methods A cross-sectional, observational study design was performed in 16 obese-inactive ((OBI) age: 25.0 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 36.3 ± 4.3kg/m2, body fat percentage in late gestation: 37.7 ± 3.5%) and 16 obese-active ((OBA) age: 28.9 ± 4.8 years, pre-pregnancy BMI: 34.0±3.7kg/m2, body fat in late gestation: 36.6 ± 3.8%) women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Maternal plasma inflammation (C -reactive protein (CRP)) and insulin resistance (Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR)) were measured at rest. Plasma lipid concentration and metabolism (lipid oxidation and lipolysis) were measured at rest, during a 30-minute bout of low-intensity (40% VO2peak) exercise, and during a resting recovery period using indirect calorimetry. Umbilical cord blood was collected for measurement of neonatal plasma insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid concentration. Neonatal body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography. Results Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly higher in OBI compared to OBA women (9.1 ± 4.0 mg/L versus 6.3 ±2.5mg/L, p=0.02). Maternal plasma CRP concentration was significantly associated with maternal lipolysis (r=0.43, p=0.02), baseline lipid oxidation rate (r=0.39, p=0.03), and baseline plasma free fatty acid concentration (r=0.36, p=0.04). Conclusions Maternal physical activity may reduce inflammation during pregnancy in obese women. Maternal lipid metabolism is related to systemic inflammation. PMID:26799789

  10. Urodynamic Characterization of Obese Women with Urinary Incontinence Undergoing a Weight Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Holly E.; Creasman, Jennifer M.; Myers, Deborah L.; Wheeler, Thomas L.; Burgio, Kathryn L.; Subak, Leslee L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to describe urodynamic characteristics of overweight or obese women with urinary incontinence and explore the relationship between urodynamic parameters, body mass index (BMI), and abdominal circumference (AC). Materials & Methods One hundred ten women underwent a standardized cough stress test and urodynamic study. Results 86% of women had urodynamic stress incontinence and 15% detrusor overactivity. Intraabdominal pressure (Pabd) at maximum cystometric capacity (MCC) increased 0.4 cm H2O per kg/m2 unit of BMI (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.0,0.7, p=0.04) and 0.4 cm H2O per 2 cm increase in AC (CI: 0.2, 0.7, p<0.01). Intravesical pressure (Pves) at MCC increased 0.4 cm H2O per 2 cm increase in AC (CI: 0.0, 0.8, p=0.05), but was not associated with BMI (p=0.18). Conclusion BMI and AC had a stronger association with Pabd than with Pves, suggesting a possible mechanism for the association between obesity and urinary incontinence. PMID:18679560

  11. Effects of weight loss on erythrocyte membrane composition and fluidity in overweight and moderately obese women.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Roberta; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Trotti, Rosita; Cestaro, Benvenuto

    2011-04-01

    A previous study showed chemical and physical impairment of the erythrocyte membrane of overweight and moderately obese women. The present study investigated the effects of a low-calorie diet (800 kcal/day deficit for 8 weeks) on erythrocyte membrane properties in 70 overweight and moderately obese (body mass index, 25-33 kg/m(2)) normotensive, nondiabetic women. At the end of dietary intervention, 24.3% of women dropped out, 45.7% lost less than 5% of their initial weight (Group I) and only 30% of patients lost at least 5% of their initial body weight (Group II). Group I showed no significant changes in erythrocyte membrane composition and function. The erythrocyte membranes of Group II showed significant reductions in malondialdehyde, lipofuscin, cholesterol, sphingomyelin, palmitic acid and nervonic acid and an increase in di-homo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and membrane fluidity. Moreover, Group II showed an improvement in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glycemia and insulin resistance. These changes in erythrocyte membrane composition could reflect a virtuous cycle resulting from the reduction in insulin resistance associated with increased membrane fluidity that, in turn, results in a sequence of metabolic events that concur to further improve membrane fluidity.

  12. Stress, sleep, depression and dietary intakes among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan; Smith, Barbara; Eghtedary, Kobra

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the mediating roles of sleep and depression on the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake among low-income overweight and obese pregnant women by trimesters. Participants (N = 213) completed a self-administered survey including stress (exogenous variable), depression, sleep (mediators), fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake (endogenous variables). Path analysis was performed to compare mediation effects among pregnant women in each trimester. Consistently across three trimesters, stress was related to depression but not sleep duration, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency or fat intake. Sleep duration was not associated with depression. Depending on trimester, night time sleep disturbance, sleep quality, and sleep latency were related to depression; night time sleep disturbance and depression affected fat intake; stress influenced fruit and vegetable intake. Sleep duration, sleep disturbance, sleep quality, sleep latency and depression did not mediate the relationships between stress, fat intake, and fruit and vegetable intake in the second and third trimesters. However, depression mediated the relationship between stress and fat intake in the first trimester. Stress management interventions may help low-income overweight and obese pregnant women decrease depressive symptoms and therefore contribute to overall nutritional health.

  13. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer: results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer. Methods: We used original data from 21 studies, which included 12 390 women with ovarian carcinoma. We combined study-specific adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects models to estimate pooled HRs (pHR). We further explored associations by histologic subtype. Results: Overall, 6715 (54%) deaths occurred during follow-up. A significant OS disadvantage was observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30–34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99–1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01–1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m−2) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m−2), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m−2) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. Conclusions: Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among the majority of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26151456

  14. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBP<130mmHg, DBP<85mmHg). The anthropometric and body fat distribution measurements, as well as the metabolic characteristics of MHO women identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women.

  15. Effect of weight loss on operational lung volumes and oxygen cost of breathing in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bhammar, Dharini M.; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bernhardt, Vipa; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effect of moderate weight loss on operational lung volumes during exercise and the oxygen (O2) cost of breathing are unknown in obese women but could have important implications regarding exercise endurance. Methods In twenty-nine obese women (33 ± 8yr, 97 ± 14kg, BMI: 36 ± 4, body fat: 45.6 ± 4.5%; means ± SD), body composition, fat distribution (by MRI), pulmonary function, operational lung volumes during exercise, and the O2 cost of breathing during eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea ( V˙O2 vs. V˙E slope) were studied before and after a 12-week diet and resistance exercise weight loss program. Results Participants lost 7.5 ± 3.1kg or ≈8% of body weight (p < 0.001), but fat distribution remained unchanged. After weight loss, lung volume subdivisions at rest were increased (p < 0.05) and were moderately associated (p < 0.05) with changes in weight. End-expiratory lung volume (%Total Lung Capacity) increased at rest and during constant load exercise (p < 0.05). O2 cost of breathing was reduced by 16% (2.52 ± 1.02 to 2.11 ± 0.72ml/L; P=0.003). As a result, O2 uptake of the respiratory muscles (V˙O2Resp), estimated as the product of O2 cost of breathing and exercise V˙E during cycling at 60W, was significantly reduced by 27 ± 31ml (P<0.001), accounting for 46% of the reduction in total body V˙O2 during cycling at 60W. Conclusions Moderate weight loss yields important improvements in respiratory function at rest and during submaximal exercise in otherwise healthy obese women. These changes in breathing load could have positive effects on the exercise endurance and adherence to physical activity. PMID:26869243

  16. [Relationship between serum levels of C-reactive protein and alpha1-antitrypsin and insulin resistance in obese women].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Alvarado, María Matilde; Sánchez Roitz, César

    2014-09-01

    Adipose tissue produces cytokines involved in insulin resistance (IR) such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and proinflammatory molecules such as C reactive protein (CRP). alpha1-antitrypsin is an inflammation-sensitive plasma protein. The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between serum CRP high-sensitivity (CRPhs) and alpha1-antitrypsin levels with IR indices in obese Venezuelan women. The study population consisted of 15 normal weight women (BMI 21.8 +/- 1.9 kg/m2) and 15 obese women (BMI 35.3 +/- 5.3 kg/m2). Obese and lean women underwent a 2 h-75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the following indices were calculated: homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-beta), Matsuda Index and Insulinogenic Index. The relationship between serum CRPhs and alpha1-antitrypsin levels and these indices were determined. Obese women had higher CRPhs levels (p = 0.001) compared with normal weight women. In obese women, serum CRPhs levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p = 0.0021), HOMA-beta (r = 0.53, p = 0.031) and negatively correlated with the Matsuda Index (r = -0.60, p = 0.017). No correlation between serum levels of alpha1-antitrypsin and IR indices in the obese group and the lean group was observed. There was a relation between serum CRPhs levels and insulin resistance, suggesting a role of subclinical inflammation in IR.

  17. Overweight and obese perimenopausal and postmenopausal women exhibit increased abnormal mammary epithelial cytology.

    PubMed

    Seewaldt, Victoria L; Goldenberg, Vanessa; Jones, Lee W; Peace, Charlotte; Broadwater, Gloria; Scott, Victoria; Bean, Gregory R; Wilke, Lee Gravit; Zalles, Carola M; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2007-03-01

    High body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m2) is associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, few studies have explored associations between BMI and direct measures on target tissue. Epithelial cytology was assessed in 62 high-risk perimenopausal and postmenopausal women using random periareolar fine needle aspiration. Masood cytology index scores were significantly higher among women with BMIs >or=25 kg/m2 than in women with BMIs <25 kg/m2 (13.9 +/- 0.42 versus 12.7 +/- 0.29 kg/m2; P = 0.017). Overweight or obese women also had significantly higher random periareolar fine needle aspiration epithelial cell counts compared with those who were normal weight (1,230 +/- 272 versus 521 +/- 185; P = 0.028). These data suggest that overweight in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women is associated with direct cytologic abnormalities within the breast. Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to determine if this potential biomarker is responsive to changes in body weight resulting from diet and/or exercise interventions.

  18. Differential effects of weight bias experiences and internalization on exercise among women with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Dovidio, John F

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of experiences with weight stigma and weight bias internalization on exercise. An online sample of 177 women with overweight and obesity (M(age) = 35.48 years, M(BMI) = 32.81) completed questionnaires assessing exercise behavior, self-efficacy, and motivation; experiences of weight stigmatization; weight bias internalization; and weight-stigmatizing attitudes toward others. Weight stigma experiences positively correlated with exercise behavior, but weight bias internalization was negatively associated with all exercise variables. Weight bias internalization was a partial mediator between weight stigma experiences and exercise behavior. The distinct effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias carry implications for clinical practice and public health.

  19. Journalism Education in the Pakistani Borderlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pintak, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Students brave roadside bombs and Taliban threats while on class assignments. Professors are kidnapped and killed. Campus radio stations get regular visits from military intelligence. Welcome to journalism education in Pakistan's tribal areas. The region is off-limits to most outsiders, so students find themselves reporting for Pakistani and…

  20. The Religification of Pakistani-American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffar-Kucher, Ameena

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a cultural production process called religification, in which religious affiliation, rather than race or ethnicity, has become the core category of identity for working-class Pakistani-American youth in the United States. In this dialectical process, triggered by political changes following the September 11 terrorist…

  1. Clinical insights from adiponectin analysis in breast cancer patients reveal its anti-inflammatory properties in non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Herrera, A C S A; Aranome, A M F; Victorino, V J; Michelleti, P L; Morimoto, H K; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Cecchini, R

    2014-01-25

    Adiponectin is a cytokine reported as a determinant of poor prognosis in women with breast cancer. However, because data regarding its role in breast cancer have been obtained primarily from studies employing overweight or obese women, the adiponectin profile in non-obese women is poorly understood. In this study, we determined adiponectin levels in plasma from non-obese women with breast cancer and investigated a possible correlation with systemic inflammatory status. We determined the plasma adiponectin levels as well as biochemical and oxidative stress parameters in 80 women. Our results revealed that plasma adiponectin levels were affected by chemotherapy, estrogen receptor status, and disease progression. Adiponectin was positively correlated with antioxidant levels, without affecting either the metastatic behavior of disease or patient outcome. These findings highlight adiponectin as a novel player in the endocrine signaling that modulates the oxidative inflammatory response in human breast cancer, and contribute to the understanding of the role of adiponectin in pathological conditions in non-obese women.

  2. Levels of adipocytokines and vitamin D in a biracial sample of young metabolically healthy obese and metabolically abnormal obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Adipocytokines and vitamin D (vitD) concentrations may contribute to cardiometabolic risk profiles in obese populations. The purpose was to determine if levels of adipocytokines and vitD differ between young metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) black and ...

  3. Effects of a healthy life exercise program on arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules in elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Taek; Min, Seok-Ki; Park, Hyuntae; Park, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jin-Kee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules after a healthy life exercise program that included aerobic training, anaerobic training, and traditional Korean dance. [Subjects] The subjects were 20 elderly women who were over 65 years of age and had 30% body fat. [Methods] The experimental group underwent a 12-week healthy life exercise program. To evaluate the effects of the healthy life exercise program, measurements were performed before and after the healthy life exercise program in all the subjects. [Results] After the healthy life exercise program, MCP-1 and the arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules sE-selectin and sVCAM-1 were statistically significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The 12-week healthy life exercise program reduced the levels of arteriosclerosis adhesion molecules. Therefore, the results of our study suggest that a healthy life exercise program may be useful in preventing arteriosclerosis and improving quality of life in elderly obese women. PMID:26157257

  4. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Camhi, Sarah M.; Crouter, Scott E.; Hayman, Laura L.; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Methods Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19–35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, <2). Time (mins/day) in light, moderate, vigorous PA, and sedentary behavior were estimated using an accelerometer (≥3 days; ≥8 hrs wear time). Questionnaires were used to quantify sitting time, TV/computer use and usual daily activity. The Block Food Frequency Questionnaire assessed dietary food intake. Differences between MHO and MUO for lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Results Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Conclusion Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat

  5. Dietary Calcium but Not Elemental Calcium from Supplements Is Associated with Body Composition and Obesity in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Wang, Jian; Sun, Changhao; Feng, Rennan; Teng, Jianhua; He, Yonghan; Li, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%). Height, weight, fat mass (FM), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m2 (overall obesity); WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І) and waist hip ratio (WHR) ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П). The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity. Principal Findings The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, −0.086, P<0.001 for BMI; β, −0.072, P<0.001 for WC; β, −0.044, P<0.05 for WHR; and β, −0.058, P<0.01 for FM, respectively) and both measures of abdominal obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.86, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.80–0.93; P<0.001, for abdominal obesity I; OR = 0.92, 95% CI, 0.86–0.99; P = 0.026, for abdominal obesity II). These associations were not observed among men (P>0.05). Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05). Conclusions Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women. PMID:22163269

  6. Effects of high-frequency current therapy on abdominal obesity in young women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-seop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-frequency current therapy on the abdominal obesity levels of young women. [Subjects] Twenty-two women with abdominal obesity were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n1 = 10) or a control group (n2 = 12). [Methods] The experimental group subjects received high-frequency current therapy for the abdominal region 3 times per week for 6 weeks (a total of 18 sessions). Outcome measures were waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition data (abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage). [Results] Significant main effects of time in the waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage were found. Significant time-by-group interactions were found for waist circumference, abdominal obesity rate, subcutaneous fat mass, and body fat percentage. [Conclusion] The use of the high-frequency current therapy may be beneficial for reducing the levels of abdominal obesity in young women. PMID:25642031

  7. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women.

  8. The association between obesity, depression, and educational attainment in women: The mediating role of body image dissatisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Amelia R.; Simon, Greg E.; Ludman, Evette J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examine the mediating role of body image dissatisfaction (BID) on the association between obesity and depression and the variation of this association as a function of years of education among a population-based sample of women aged 40–65 years. Methods A series of sample-weighted logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations between obesity, BID, and depression, stratified by educational attainment. Data were obtained from a structured telephone interview of 4543 female health plan enrollees, including self-reported height and weight, the Patient Health Questionnaire assessment of depression, and a single-item measure of BID. Results Among those with <16 years of education, in both the unadjusted and adjusted models, obesity and BID were significantly associated with depression. Similarly, among those with ≥16 years of education, obesity and BID were significantly associated with depression in the unadjusted models. However, in the adjusted model, only BID was associated with depression. A formal test for mediation suggests that the association between obesity and depression was mediated by BID regardless of level of education. Conclusions Our data suggest that BID-mediated the obesity-depression association. In addition, obesity and BID may be salient risk factors for depression among middle-aged women as a function of the level of education. PMID:21109045

  9. Differences in daily rhythms of wrist temperature between obese and normal-weight women: associations with metabolic syndrome features.

    PubMed

    Corbalán-Tutau, M D; Madrid, J A; Ordovás, J M; Smith, C E; Nicolás, F; Garaulet, M

    2011-05-01

    The circadian rhythm of core body temperature is associated with widespread physiological effects. However, studies with other more practical temperature measures, such as wrist (WT) and proximal temperatures, are still scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity is associated with differences in mean WT values or in its daily rhythmicity patterns. Daily patterns of cortisol, melatonin, and different metabolic syndrome (MetS) features were also analyzed in an attempt to clarify the potential association between chronodisruption and MetS. The study was conducted on 20 normal-weight women (age: 38 ± 11 yrs and BMI: 22 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) and 50 obese women (age: 42 ± 10 yrs and BMI: 33.5 ± 3.2 kg/m(2)) (mean ± SEM). Skin temperature was measured over a 3-day period every 10 min with the "Thermochron iButton." Rhythmic parameters were obtained using an integrated package for time-series analysis, "Circadianware." Obese women displayed significantly lower mean WT (34.1°C ± 0.3°C) with a more flattened 24-h pattern, a lower-quality rhythm, and a higher intraday variability (IV). Particularly interesting were the marked differences between obese and normal-weight women in the secondary WT peak in the postprandial period (second-harmonic power [P2]), considered as a marker of chronodisruption and of metabolic alterations. WT rhythmicity characteristics were related to MetS features, obesity-related proteins, and circadian markers, such as melatonin. In summary, obese women displayed a lower-quality WT daily rhythm with a more flattened pattern (particularly in the postprandial period) and increased IV, which suggests a greater fragmentation of the rest/activity rhythm compared to normal-weight women. These 24-h changes were associated with higher MetS risk.

  10. The effects of cigarette smoking and gestational weight change on birth outcomes in obese and normal-weight women.

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstedt, W L; Himes, J H; Story, M; Alton, I R; Edwards, L E

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The associations of infant birth outcomes with maternal pregravid obesity, gestational weight gain, and prenatal cigarette smoking were examined. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 1343 obese and normal-weight gravidas evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking, gestational weight change, and pregravid body mass index with birthweight, low birthweight, and small- and large-for-gestational-age births. RESULTS: Smoking was associated with the delivery of lower-birthweight infants for both obese and normal-weight women, and gestational weight gain did not eliminate the birthweight-lowering effects of smoking. Women at highest risk of delivering lower-birthweight infants were obese smokers whose gestational gains were less than 7 kg and normal-weight smokers whose gestational gains were less than 11.5 kg. CONCLUSIONS: To balance the risks of small and large-size infants, gains of 7 to 11.5 kg for obese women and 11.5 to 16 kg for normal-weight women appear appropriate. PMID:9146437

  11. Trekking poles reduce downhill walking-induced muscle and cartilage damage in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the use of trekking poles on muscle and cartilage damage and fatigue during downhill walking in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects included eight obese women who had a body fat percentage greater than 30. Subjects performed downhill walking without a trekking pole (NP) and with a trekking pole (TP) at 50% heart rate reserve for 30 minutes on a treadmill. The treadmill was set at a 15% downhill declination. Blood samples were collected to examine muscle damage (serum creatine kinase [CK] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] levels), cartilage damage (serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP] levels), and fatigue (plasma lactate levels) at the pre-walking baseline (PWB), immediately after walking (IAW), and 2 hours post-walking (2HPW). [Results] The CK, LDH, COMP, and lactate levels were significantly increased IAW when compared with those at the PWB in both trials. In addition, in the NP trial, the CK, LDH, and COMP levels were significantly increased at 2HPW when compared with those at the PWB. [Conclusion] Downhill walking can cause muscle and cartilage damage, and our results suggest that the use of a trekking pole can reduce temporary muscle and cartilage damage after downhill walking. PMID:27313374

  12. The preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Dashti, Sareh; Esfehani, Ali Jafarzadeh; Leonard Joseph, H J

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has increased recently especially in women. Obesity is related to mortality due to non-communicable diseases and has become a public health issue. Among the two important factors to reduce weight calorie limitation alone is modestly effective in initial weight but can result in weight gain after primary weight reduction is common. Therefore adding physical activity to weight maintenance program can reduce weight gain rebound. The aim of this review article was to identify the preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight women. Articles were selected from PubMed database and screened for the relativity to the study objectives, using scoring systems. Eleven studies were found appropriate. No statistical test was done on the data except simple mean and some descriptive analyses. Physical activity is proved to have a significant effect in weight loss/maintenance both in induction and maintenance period. This effect was more significant in higher intensities. Sever intensity physical activity can be effective in weight maintenance in long term but the effect of moderate and light physical activity could not be evaluated due to lack of data.

  13. Association of betatrophin with metabolic characteristics in overweight/obese and lean women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxia; Zhang, Feng; Cui, Jingjing; Shi, Yu; Xiang, Jiangdong; Wang, Xuejiao; Zhao, Naisi; Yan, Qingwu; Greenberg, Andrew S; Peng, Yongde; Ding, Xiaoying

    2017-03-01

    As a new hormone, betatrophin has gained attention as a potential new target to combat insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder among women of the reproductive age with long term sequelae which include IR and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the circulating plasma betatrophin levels in overweight/obese or lean women with or without PCOS and also to elucidate possible correlations with anthropometric and metabolic parameters. Thirty-two patients with PCOS as well as fifty-three control subjects were enrolled after obtaining informed written consent. Clinical and biochemical parameters of all subjects were determined. Plasma adiponectin, GLP-1 and betatrophin levels were measured by ELISA. Plasma betatrophin levels were significantly increased in lean patients with PCOS compared with lean and obese controls. Moreover, in PCOS group, betatrophin levels were significantly negatively correlated with waist hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin level (FINS) and HOMA-IR, whereas, significantly positively correlated with adiponectin level. Multiple regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR was an independent factor influencing serum betatrophin levels. Further follow-up studies are needed to highlight whether and how increased betatrophin secretion play an important role in IR and carbohydrates metabolism in patients with PCOS.

  14. [Evolution and quality of the diet of women with severe and morbid obesity undergoing gastric bypass].

    PubMed

    Rebolledo, Annabella; Basfi-fer, Karen; Rojas, Pamela; Codoceo, Juana; Inostroza, Jorge; Carrasco, Fernando; Ruz, Manuel

    2009-03-01

    Evolution and quality of the diet of women with severe and morbid obesity undergoing gastric bypass. The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of dietary intake and quality of the diet in patients undergoing gastric bypass. In forty-four women with severe and morbid obesity it was assessed their nutrient intakes before and 6, 12, and 18 months after gastric bypass by using three-day food records. Vitamin and mineral intakes from supplements were strictly controlled though personalized records. With the exceptions of calcium and vitamin A, energy and nutrient intakes were significantly decreased at 6, 12, and 18 month after bypass compared to the pre-surgery period. Dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, copper, folic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E were below 100% of adequacy from the 6th month after the surgery and thereafter. This situation is reverted when nutrient intakes supplied by supplements are taken into account. Although a "U" shape trend was observed in the nutrient intakes results during the experimental period, in most cases the differences between the observed values at month 12 and 18 were not significant. In conclusion, these patients had important reductions of their energy and nutrient intakes as result of gastric bypass. Routine supplements may correct this situation, nevertheless, the anatomical alterations inherent to this type of surgery may cause that total nutrient intakes reaching adequacy values slightly above 100%, may not necessarily be able to avoid the development of nutritional deficiencies.

  15. Effect of a 12-week aerobic training program on perceptual and affective responses in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Luís Alberto Garcia; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Freitas, Rosemari Queiroz; Henrique de Souza, Carlos; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to observe the effect of self-selected intensity or imposed intensity during aerobic training on perceptual and affective responses in obese women. [Subjects] The study included 26 obese women aged 30–60 years. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into two groups, with 13 subjects in each group: self-selected intensity and imposed intensity (10% above ventilatory threshold) groups. All subjects completed an intervention program that lasted 12 weeks, with three exercise sessions a week. The rating of perceived exertion and affective responses (Feeling Scale and Felt Arousal Scale) were monitored in the first, sixth, and twelfth weeks. [Results] Significant differences were observed between groups in heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. The affective responses during exercise were more negative in the imposed intensity group. [Conclusion] Use of a self-selected exercise intensity can promote smaller negative affective responses during exercise and provide a sufficient stimulus for improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26311958

  16. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  17. Association between urinary incontinence and depressive symptoms in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, Vivian W.; WEST, Delia S.; HERNANDEZ, Alexandra L.; WHEELER, Thomas L.; MYERS, Deborah L.; SUBAK, Leslee L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine the association between urinary incontinence (UI) and depressive symptoms. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study of 338 incontinent and overweight women at baseline in the Program to Reduce Incontinence by Diet and Exercise trial. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Beck Depression Inventory score ≥ 10. UI frequency was determined by 7-day voiding diary. Symptom bother and quality of life were determined using the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Multivariable regression was used to estimate the association between UI and depressive symptoms. RESULTS Women with depressive symptoms (N=101) reported a higher mean number of UI episodes per week (28 vs. 23, P=.005) and higher (worse) mean scores on the UDI (176 vs. 162, P=.02) and IIQ (136 vs. 97, P<.001) compared to women without depressive symptoms. The risk of having depressive symptoms increased with each 7-episode increase in UI per week (AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.01–1.21), each 50-point increase in UDI (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01–1.60) and each 50-point increase in IIQ (AOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.22–1.71). CONCLUSIONS Urinary incontinence frequency, symptom bother, and quality of life are independently associated with depressive symptoms in overweight and obese women. PMID:19236869

  18. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... In some cases, weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is an option. Weight-loss surgery limits the ... et al. Treatment of obesity: The impact of bariatric surgery. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & Endoscopy. 2nd ...

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Dietary Combo in Overweight and Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Amany Alsayed; Amine, Ezzat Khamis; Salem, Hesham Abd Elfattah; Abd El Fattah, Nesrin Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological features. Aim: The study was to investigate the effect of anti-inflammatory dietary combo on metabolic, endocrine, inflammatory, and reproductive profiles in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 nonpregnant, overweight, and obese adult females with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria, were screened during the year 2012, and 75 completed the trial. At baseline and study end, fasting blood samples were drawn to measure biological markers, body fat percent (BFP), and visceral fat area (VFA) were assessed by the InBody720 device and anthropometric measurements were done for all participants who were subjected to an anti-inflammatory hypocaloric diet and physical activity for 12 weeks. Results: At study completion, we achieved moderate weight loss of (± 7%) and significant improvements in body composition, hormones and menstrual cyclicity, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) (surrogate measures of cardiovascular risk (CVR)). This was a clinically relevant weight loss that is associated with a reduced prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the general population and improved fertility outcomes in PCOS. We achieved 63% regain of menstrual cyclicity and 12% spontaneous pregnancy rate within 12 week. Conclusions: We have explored an additional dietary treatment option with good prognostic metabolic and reproductive responses to weight loss that occur in overweight and obese PCOS. PMID:26258078

  20. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment.

  1. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.

  2. Diet composition and physical activity in overweight and obese premenopausal women with or without polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F

    2011-12-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex polygenic disorder in which environmental factors play an important modifying role. We aimed to find differences in diet and life-style that might contribute to the development of PCOS among overweight or obese premenopausal women. We compared diet composition and self-reported physical activity among 22 patients with PCOS and 59 women without androgen excess recruited from a total of 113 consecutive premenopausal women reporting for management of weight excess. After correcting for a difference in age between women with PCOS and controls, there were no overall statistical significant differences between them in the total caloric intake, in the intake of macro- and micro-nutrients, caffeine, fiber and alcohol, in the proportion of women exercising regularly, or in the number of hours of exercise per week. The proportion of fat in the diets of the overweight and obese women irrespective of PCOS was well-above current recommendations, yet this excessive fat intake occurred at the expense of monounsaturated fatty acids mostly. In conclusion, diet composition and physical activity were apparently not decisive for the development of PCOS among overweight and obese premenopausal women.

  3. Characterization and predicted role of the microRNA expression profile in amnion from obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, C; Iaffaldano, L; Ferrigno, M; Labruna, G; Maruotti, G M; Quaglia, F; Capobianco, V; Di Noto, R; Del Vecchio, L; Martinelli, P; Pastore, L; Sacchetti, L

    2014-03-01

    Maternal obesity and nutrient excess in utero increase the risk of future metabolic diseases. The mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood, but probably include genetic, epigenetic alterations and changes in fetal nutrient supply. We have studied the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile in amnion from obese and control women at delivery to investigate if a specific miRNA signature is associated with obesity. The expression profile of 365 human miRNAs was evaluated with the TaqMan Array in amnion from 10 obese and 5 control (prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) >30 and <25 kg m(-2), respectively) women at delivery. Target genes and miRNA-regulated pathways were predicted by bioinformatics. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were also measured in mothers and newborns. Seven miRNAs were expressed only in obese women (miR-422b, miR-219, miR-575, miR-523, miR-579, miR-618 and miR-659), whereas 13 miRNAs were expressed at a higher level and 12 miRNAs at a lower level in obese women than in controls. MicroRNAs significantly downregulated the neurotrophin, cancer/ErbB, mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin, adipocytokine, actin cytoskeleton and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. In conclusion, we show that the miRNA profile is altered in amnion during obesity and hypothesize that this could affect pathways important for placental growth and function, thereby contributing to an increase in the newborn's risk of future metabolic diseases.

  4. Socioeconomic changes as covariates of overweight and obesity among Tangkhul Naga tribal women of Manipur, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Mungreiphy, N K; Kapoor, Satwanti

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight/obesity is increasing worldwide. Although countries like India are typically thought of as having a high prevalence of undernutrition, significant proportions of overweight/obese now co-exist with the undernourished. This study aims to find the prevalence of overweight/obesity, and its association with socioeconomic change, among Tangkhul women in India. The cross-sectional study was carried out among 346 Tangkhul women aged 20-70 years, who were divided into five 10-year age groups. Mean BMI was found to be lowest among the youngest age group, and it increased with age until the age of 59 and then declined. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was found to be 27.1%, as assessed from the Asian cut-off point. Although the prevalence of obesity (2.0%) was low when compared with Indian non-tribal female populations, the prevalence of overweight (25.1%) was not far behind. Overweight and obesity were found to be associated with age, marital status, physical activity level, lifestyle and improvement in socioeconomic status, especially occupation and income. When compared with urban non-tribal Indian females, who have a higher socioeconomic status, the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Tangkhul females is lower, indicating its association with socioeconomic status. Tangkhul Naga is a population where the majority are believed to be thin traditionally owing to the difficult hilly terrain and their physically active lifestyle. With urbanization and economic development, nutritional transition, improved socioeconomic status and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle have been observed, which have contributed to the increasing prevalence of overweight/obesity among Tangkhul Naga women.

  5. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p < .001). Older overweight and obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions.

  6. Prevalence of Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity Among Reproductive-Age Women and Adolescent Girls in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yuan; Pan, An; Yang, Ying; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhang, Ya; Liu, Dujia; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To provide prevalence and trends of underweight, overweight, and obesity among reproductive-age women and adolescent girls in rural China. Methods. We measured weight and height in 16 742 344 women aged 20 to 49 years and 178 556 girls aged 15 to 19 years from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project between 2010 and 2014. Results. Among women, the prevalence of underweight was 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.7%, 7.9%), and overweight or obesity was 16.5% (95% CI = 16.4%, 16.6%; World Health Organization criteria). Among adolescents, prevalence of underweight was 6.0% (95% CI = 5.7%, 6.2%; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria) and overweight or obesity was 8.3% (95% CI = 7.9% to 8.8%; International Obesity Task Force criteria). According to Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity prevalence was 24.8% (95% CI = 24.7%, 24.9%) for women and 17.2% (95% CI = 16.6%, 17.8%) for adolescents, and underweight prevalence was 2.9% (95% CI = 2.8%, 3.1%) for adolescents. Considerable disparities existed in prevalence and trends within subpopulations (age groups, parity, region, education levels, and socioeconomic status). Conclusions. Our results reveal coexisting underweight and overweight or obesity among rural women and adolescents of reproductive age, which requires public health attention. PMID:27831775

  7. The changes of zinc transporter ZnT gene expression in response to zinc supplementation in obese women.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hwayoung; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jihye; Chung, Jayong

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is associated with an alteration in zinc metabolism. This alteration may be associated with changes in gene expression of zinc transporters. In this study, we examined the leukocyte expression of zinc transporter ZnTs in response to zinc supplementation in young obese women. Thirty-five young obese women (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), aged 18-28 years, were randomly assigned to two groups: a placebo group or a zinc group (30 mg zinc/day for 8 weeks). Usual dietary zinc intake was estimated from 3-day diet records. Serum zinc and urinary zinc concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of leukocyte ZnT transporters were examined using quantitative real-time PCR. Expression levels of two ZnT transporters, ZnT1 and ZnT5, in obese women, increased significantly after zinc supplementation. At the end of the study, mRNA levels of ZnT1 and ZnT5 showed no correlation with serum zinc or urinary zinc concentration in obese women. In addition, a further study was conducted to identify whether the association between the gene expression levels of leukocyte ZnT1 and ZnT5 and dietary zinc intake remained consistent in 216 healthy young adults aged 20-29 years. A positive correlation between ZnT1 and dietary zinc intake (r = 0.181, P = 0.089) was also observed in healthy men although the significance was marginal. Taken together, these results show that the gene expression levels of ZnT1 and ZnT5 may be changed by zinc intake, suggesting that zinc supplementation could potentially restore ZnT transporter expression in obese women with altered zinc metabolism.

  8. Frequency of TV viewing and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adult women in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, Bishwajit

    2017-01-01

    Background Research in developed countries has demonstrated an association of varying degrees between watching TV and the risk of being overweight and obese. However, there is no evidence of such an association in the context of the South Asian population. Objective To investigate whether watching TV increases the risk of being overweight and obese among women in Bangladesh. Setting Rural and urban areas in Bangladesh. Participants Participants were 16 624 non-pregnant women aged between 15 and 49 years. Methods The study was based on cross-sectional data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) conducted in 2014. The main outcome variables were overweight and obesity measured by body mass index. Data were analysed by using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and multivariable logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample population were, respectively, 4.5% (4.18% to 4.82%) and 20% (95% CI 19.39% to 20.61%). In the multivariable analysis, no statistically significant association was found between watching TV and being overweight. However, the odds of being obese among rural women were 63% higher (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.625, 95% CI 1.179 to 2.241) among those who watched less than once a week, and 68% (AOR 1.683, 95% CI 1.029 to 2.751) higher among women who watched TV at least once a week compared to those who did not watch TV at all. Urban women who watched TV at least once a week were 67% more likely to be obese (AOR 1.665, 95% CI 1.079 to 2.568) compared to those who did not watch at all. Conclusions Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen considerably among women aged between 15 and 49 years since the previous estimates based on BDHS data. Frequent TV watching was associated with a higher risk of being obese among adult women in rural areas. PMID:28143839

  9. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Vega-López, Sonia; Pignotti, Giselle A. P.; Todd, Michael; Keller, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern. PMID:26445060

  10. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Trexler, Eric T.; Wingfield, Hailee; Blue, Malia N.M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids, and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; Weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg·m2) were randomly assigned to ten 1-minute high-intensity intervals (90%VO2peak, 1min recovery), or five 2-minute high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2peak, 1 min recovery), or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak power output, body composition, and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (p>0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in peak power output (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; p=0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 sec; p=0.001); non-significant increase in VO2peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml·kg−1·min−1; p=0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (∆−1.96 ± 0.99kg; p=0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing fat mass and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women. PMID:26934687

  11. Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Improves Cardiometabolic Function in Young Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tasali, Esra; Chapotot, Florian; Leproult, Rachel; Whitmore, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Context: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are insulin resistant and have a high risk of early-onset diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has adverse cardiometabolic consequences and is highly prevalent in women with PCOS. We sought to determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA has beneficial effects on cardiometabolic function in PCOS. Methods: Laboratory polysomnography and cardiometabolic measurements including insulin sensitivity and secretion (iv glucose tolerance test); 24-h profiles of plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and leptin; and daytime profiles of blood pressure and cardiac autonomic activity (heart rate variability) were obtained at baseline and again after 8 wk of home CPAP treatment with daily usage monitoring. Results: CPAP treatment modestly improved insulin sensitivity after controlling for body mass index (P = 0.013). The change in insulin sensitivity correlated positively with CPAP use (adjusted P = 0.027) and negatively with body mass index (adjusted P = 0.003). Daytime and nighttime norepinephrine levels were decreased after CPAP (P = 0.002), and the reductions were greater with increased CPAP use (P = 0.03). Epinephrine, cortisol, and leptin levels were not changed significantly. Daytime diastolic blood pressure decreased by an average of 2.3 mm Hg after CPAP (P = 0.035). Cardiac sympathovagal balance was 44% lower (P = 0.007) after CPAP, reflecting a shift toward lower sympathetic activity. Conclusions: In young obese women with PCOS, successful treatment of OSA improves insulin sensitivity, decreases sympathetic output, and reduces diastolic blood pressure. The magnitude of these beneficial effects is modulated by the hours of CPAP use and the degree of obesity. PMID:21123449

  12. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Øyvind; Moholdt, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition. Methods and Findings This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1) 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46) or control (standard maternity care) (n = 45). Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12–18) and in late pregnancy (week 34–37), as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group). Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19) compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI −1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43). Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition) in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1%) compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%), with an odds ratio

  13. Correlations of changes in weight and body satisfaction for obese women initiating exercise: assessing effects of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2009-12-01

    A significant relationship between changes in Body Mass Index and Body Areas Satisfaction scores was found for a sample of obese Euro-American (n = 97), but not for African-American (n = 79), women initiating a moderate exercise program. For the African-American women only, compliance with the assigned exercise regimen directly predicted change in Body Areas Satisfaction. Implications of ethnicity for behavioral weight loss treatment were discussed.

  14. Physical activity in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood: a case-control study among women shift workers.

    PubMed

    Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Beatriz Anselmo; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity may have a protective effect against abdominal obesity, an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association between the practice of physical activities in adolescence and abdominal obesity in adulthood among women shift workers in Southern Brazil in 2011. This case-control study included 215 cases (waist circumference greater than or equal to 88 cm) and 326 controls. For both the case and control groups, participation in leisure-time physical activities was most frequent in adolescence and was significantly less in adulthood. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women who participated in five or more physical activities in adolescence were 50 percent less likely to have abdominal obesity than women who participated in one activity or no physical activities (Odds Ratio = 0.50; 95% confidential interval: 0.27-0.93, p value = .029). Participation in various types of leisure-time physical activities in adolescence may protect against abdominal obesity in adulthood, even if the number of physical activities decreases over time. This finding demonstrated the importance of physical activity as well as the period of life in which these should be encouraged for the prevention of health disorders, such as abdominal obesity.

  15. Bone density, microstructure and strength in obese and normal weight men and women in younger and older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Evans, Amy L; Paggiosi, Margaret A; Eastell, Richard; Walsh, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with greater areal BMD (aBMD) and is considered protective against hip and vertebral fracture. Despite this, there is a higher prevalence of lower leg and proximal humerus fracture in obesity. We aimed to determine if there are site-specific differences in BMD, bone structure, or bone strength between obese and normal-weight adults. We studied 100 individually-matched pairs of normal (body mass index [BMI] 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI >30 kg/m2) men and women, aged 25 to 40 years or 55 to 75 years. We assessed aBMD at the whole body (WB), hip (TH), and lumbar spine (LS) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), LS trabecular volumetric BMD (Tb.vBMD) by quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and vBMD and microarchitecture and strength at the distal radius and tibia with high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and micro-finite element analysis. Serum type 1 procollagen N-terminal peptide (P1NP) and collagen type 1 C-telopeptide (CTX) were measured by automated electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA). Obese adults had greater WB, LS, and TH aBMD than normal adults. The effect of obesity on LS and WB aBMD was greater in older than younger adults (p < 0.01). Obese adults had greater vBMD than normal adults at the tibia (p < 0.001 both ages) and radius (p < 0.001 older group), thicker cortices, higher cortical BMD and tissue mineral density, lower cortical porosity, higher trabecular BMD, and higher trabecular number than normal adults. There was no difference in bone size between obese and normal adults. Obese adults had greater estimated failure load at the radius (p < 0.05) and tibia (p < 0.01). Differences in HR-pQCT measurements between obese and normal adults were seen more consistently in the older than the younger group. Bone turnover markers were lower in obese than in normal adults. Greater BMD in obesity is not an artifact of DXA measurement. Obese adults have higher BMD, thicker and denser cortices, and higher

  16. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    PubMed Central

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Lima, Lucas S; de Andrade, Socrates; Madureira, Angelo; Rica, Roberta L; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. Methods Seventy older women (>60 years old) voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI): appropriate weight (AW) control (AWC) and trained (AWT) groups, overweight (OW) control (OWC) and trained (OWT) groups, and obesity (O) control (OC) and trained (OT) groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work). The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m), body weight (BW, kg), body fat (BF, %), fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and BMI (kg/m2). Results The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%), BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%), LM (3.0% ± 0.3%), and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0%) to the OT group were higher (P < 0.05) than in the AWT (BW: −2.0% ± 1.1%; BF: −4.6% ± 1.8%; FM: −7.0% ± 2.8%; LM: 0.2% ± 1.1%) and OWT (BW: −4.5% ± 1.0%; BF: −11.0% ± 2.2%; FM: −16.1% ± 3.2%; LM: −0.2% ± 1.0%) groups; additionally, no differences were found for C groups. While reduction (P < 0.03) in BMI according to absolute values was observed for all trained groups (AWT: 22 ± 1 versus 21 ± 1; OWT: 27 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1, OT: 34 ± 1 versus 30 ± 1) after training, no differences were found for C groups. Conclusion In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. PMID:23271901

  17. Excess gestational weight gain in low-income overweight and obese women: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Cynthie K.; Walch, Tanis J.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Smith, Aubrey M.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Whigham, Leah D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine factors implicated in gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income overweight and obese women. Design Qualitative study. Setting Community-based perinatal center. Participants 8 focus groups with women (Black=48%, White non-Hispanic=41%, Hispanic=10%) in the first half of (n=12) and last half of pregnancy (n=10), or post-partum (n=7); 2 with obstetrician-gynecologists (OB-GYNs) (n=9). Phenomenon of Interest Barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and GWG within different levels of the Social Ecological Model (SEM), e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, etc. Analysis Coding guide was based on the SEM. Transcripts were coded by 3 researchers for common themes. Thematic saturation was reached. Results At an intrapersonal level, knowledge/skills and cravings were the most common barriers. At an interpersonal level, family and friends were most influential. At an organizational level, the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program and clinics were influential. At the community level, lack of transportation was most frequently discussed. At a policy level, complex policies and social stigma surrounding WIC were barriers. There was consensus that ideal intervention approaches would include peer-facilitated support groups with information from experts. OB-GYNs felt uncomfortable counseling patients about GWG due to time constraints, other priorities, and lack of training. Conclusions and Implications There are multi-level public health opportunities to promote healthy GWG. Better communication between nutrition specialists and OB-GYNs is needed. PMID:26187348

  18. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  19. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  20. Changes in the salivary protein profile of morbidly obese women either previously subjected to bariatric surgery or not.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Elsa; Simões, Carla; Rodrigues, Lénia; Costa, Ana Rodrigues; Vitorino, Rui; Amado, Francisco; Antunes, Célia; do Carmo, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is a non-invasive source of biomarkers useful in the study of physiological mechanisms. Moreover, this fluid has diverse functions, among which food perception and ingestion, making it particularly suitable for the study of obesity. The aims of this study were to assess changes in salivary proteome among morbidly obese women, with a view to provide information about mechanisms potentially related to the development of obesity, and to evaluate whether these changes persist after weight loss. Mixed saliva samples from morbidly obese women (N = 18) who had been either subjected (group O-BS) or not (group O) to bariatric surgery and women with normal weight (N = 14; group C) were compared for protein profiles, alpha-amylase abundance and enzymatic activity, and carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI abundance. Differences in salivary obese profiles were observed for 23 different spots. Zinc-alpha-2 glycoprotein-containing spots showed higher abundance in group O only, whereas cystatin S-containing spots presented higher abundance in the two groups of obese subjects. Most of the spots identified as salivary amylase were present at lower levels in group O-BS. With regard to the amylase enzymatic activity, increases were observed for group O and decreases for group O-BS. One interesting finding was the high correlation between levels of CA VI and body mass index in group O, which was not observed for groups O-BS or C. The differences between groups, mainly regarding salivary proteins involved in taste sensitivity and metabolism, point to the potential of using saliva in the study of obesity development.

  1. The Expansion of the Pulmonary Rib Cage during Breath Stacking Is Influenced by Age in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Barcelar, Jacqueline de Melo; Aliverti, Andrea; Rattes, Catarina; Ximenes, Maria Eduarda; Campos, Shirley Lima; Brandão, Daniella Cunha; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze in obese women the acute effects of the breath stacking technique on thoraco-abdominal expansion. Design and Methods Nineteen obese women (BMI≥30 kg/m2) were evaluated by anthropometry, spirometry and maximal respiratory muscle pressures and successively analyzed by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography and a Wright respirometer during quiet breathing and breath stacking maneuvers and compared with a group of 15 normal-weighted healthy women. The acute effects of the maneuvers were assessed in terms of total and compartmental chest wall volumes at baseline, end of the breath stacking maneuver and after the maneuver. Obese subjects were successively classified into two groups, accordingly to the response during the maneuver, group 1 = prevalent rib cage or group 2 = abdominal expansion. Results Age was significantly lower in group 1 than group 2. When considering the two obese groups, FEV1 was lower and minute ventilation was higher only in group 2 compared to controls group. During breath stacking, inspiratory capacity was significant differences in obese subjects with a smaller expansion of the pulmonary rib cage and a greater expansion of the abdomen compared to controls and also between groups 1 and 2. A significant inverse linear relationship was found between age and inspiratory capacity of the pulmonary rib cage but not of the abdomen. Conclusions In obese women the maximal expansion of the rib cage and abdomen is influenced by age and breath stacking maneuver could be a possible therapy for preventing respiratory complications. PMID:25372469

  2. Supernatants of Adipocytes From Obese Versus Normal Weight Women and Breast Cancer Cells: In Vitro Impact on Angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bougaret, Lauriane; Delort, Laetitia; Billard, Hermine; Lequeux, Charlotte; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Mojallal, Ali; Damour, Odile; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Caldefie-Chezet, Florence

    2016-11-25

    Breast cancer is correlated with a higher risk of metastasis in obese postmenopausal women. Adipokines, whose plasma concentrations are modulated in obese subjects and adipocytes surround mammary cells, suggesting that adipocyte secretome affect mammary tumorogenesis. We hypothesize that mature adipocyte secretions from obese women conditioned or not by breast neoplasic cells, increase changes on the angiogenesis stages. Supernatants of human mature adipocytes, differentiated from stem cells of either adipose tissue of normal weight (MA20) or obese (MA30) women or obtained from co-cultures between MA20 and MA30 and breast cancer cell line MCF-7, were collected. The impact of these supernatants was investigated on proliferation, migration, and tube formation by endothelial cells (HUVEC). MA20 and MA30 showed a preservation of their "metabolic memory" (increase of Leptin, ObR, VEGF, CYP19A1, and a decrease of Adiponectin expression in MA30 compared to MA20). Supernatants from obese-adipocytes increased HUVEC proliferation, migration, and sprouting like with supernatants obtained from co-cultures of MA/MCF-7 regardless the women's BMI. Additional analyses such as the use of neutralizing antibodies, analysis of supernatants (Milliplex®) and variations in gene expression (qRT-PCR), strongly suggest an implication of IL-6, or a synergistic action among adipokines, probably associated with that of VEGF or IL-6. As a conclusion, supernatants from co-cultures of MA30 and MCF-7 cells increase proliferation, migration, and sprouting of HUVEC cells. These results provide insights into the interaction between adipocytes and epithelial cancer cells, particularly in case of obesity. The identification of synergistic action of adipokines would therefore be a great interest in developing preventive strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: 1-9, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Obesity stigma as a determinant of poor birth outcomes in women with high BMI: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle

    2015-04-01

    Obesity stigma has been linked to poor health outcomes on an individual and population basis. However, little research has been conducted on the role of chronic or recent obesity stigma in the health disparities experienced by pregnant women with high body mass index. The purpose of this article is to discuss poor birth outcomes in this population from an integrated perinatal health framework perspective, incorporating obesity stigma as a social determinant. In studies of non-pregnant populations, obesity stigma has been associated with stress, unhealthy coping strategies, psychological disorders, and exacerbations of physical illness. This article examines the mechanisms by which obesity stigma influences health outcomes and suggests how they might apply to selected complications of pregnancy, including macrosomia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Given the rates of obesity and associated pregnancy complications in the United States, it is critical to examine the determinants of those problems from a life course and multiple determinants perspective. This paper offers a conceptual framework to guide exploratory research in this area, incorporating the construct of obesity stigma.

  4. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  5. Specific gut microbiota features and metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brahe, L K; Le Chatelier, E; Prifti, E; Pons, N; Kennedy, S; Hansen, T; Pedersen, O; Astrup, A; Ehrlich, S D; Larsen, L H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gut microbial gene richness and specific bacterial species are associated with metabolic risk markers in humans, but the impact of host physiology and dietary habits on the link between the gut microbiota and metabolic markers remain unclear. The objective of this study was to identify gut metagenomic markers associated with estimates of insulin resistance, lipid metabolism and inflammation in obesity, and to explore whether the associations between metagenomic and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for body fat, age and habitual dietary intake. Methods: Faecal DNA from 53 women with obesity was analysed through quantitative metagenomic sequencing and analysis, and a systematic search was performed for bacterial genes associated with estimates of insulin resistance, inflammation and lipid metabolism. Subsequently, the correlations between metagenomic species and metabolic markers were tested by linear regression models, with and without covariate adjustment. Results: One hundred and fourteen metagenomic species correlated with metabolic markers (P<0.001) including Akkermansia muciniphila, Bilophila wadsworthia, Bifidobacterium longum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, but also species not previously associated with metabolic markers including Bacteroides faecis and Dorea longicatena. The majority of the identified correlations between bacterial species and metabolic markers persisted after adjustment for differences in body fat, age and dietary macronutrient composition; however, the negative correlation with insulin resistance observed for B. longum and F. prausnitzii appeared to be modified by the intake of dietary fibre and fat, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that several gut bacterial species are linked to metabolic risk markers in obesity, also after adjustment for potential confounders, such as long-term diet composition. The study supports the use of gut metagenomic markers for metabolic disease prediction and warrants

  6. Metformin reduces thyrotropin levels in obese, diabetic women with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Isidro, M Luisa; Penín, Manuel A; Nemiña, Rosa; Cordido, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    Context It has been reported that metformin might modify thyroid hormone economy. In two retrospective studies, initiation of treatment with metformin caused suppression of TSH to subnormal levels. Objective To prospectively evaluate if administration of metformin to obese, diabetic patients with primary hypothyroidism on stable thyroxine replacement doses modifies TSH levels. Patients and methods Eight obese, diabetic postmenopausal women with primary hypothyroidism participated in the study. They received 1,700 mg of metformin daily for 3 months. Weight, TSH, free T4, and free T3 levels were measured at baseline, 3 months after metformin initiation and 3 months after its withdrawal. Results After 3 months of on metformin, mean TSH was significantly lower than basal TSH (3.11 +/- 0.50 microUI/ml vs. 1.18 +/- 0.36 microUI/ml; P = 0.01). Mean TSH 3 months after metformin withdrawal was 2.21 +/- 0.37 microUI/ml, significantly higher than TSH after metformin (P = 0.05), but not different from basal TSH. Mean fT4 level increased during metformin administration (basal fT4: 1.23 +/- 0.06 ng/dl, fT4 after metformin: 1.32 +/- 0.04 ng/dl; P = ns), and decreased after its withdrawal (fT4 3 months after metformin withdrawal: 1.15 +/- 0.05 ng/dl; vs. 3 months after metformin, P = 0.04; vs. basal; P = ns). Conclusions In obese, diabetic patients with primary hypothyroidism on thyroxine replacement treatment, short-term metformin administration is associated with a significant fall in TSH.

  7. Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota--a randomised controlled trial in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brahe, Lena K; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Prifti, Edi; Pons, Nicolas; Kennedy, Sean; Blædel, Trine; Håkansson, Janet; Dalsgaard, Trine Kastrup; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Larsen, Lesli H

    2015-08-14

    The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and its progression towards metabolic disease. Dietary interventions that target the gut microbiota have been suggested to improve metabolic health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of interventions with Lactobacillus paracasei F19 or flaxseed mucilage on the gut microbiota and metabolic risk markers in obesity. A total of fifty-eight obese postmenopausal women were randomised to a single-blinded, parallel-group intervention of 6-week duration, with a daily intake of either L. paracasei F19 (9.4 × 1010 colony-forming units), flaxseed mucilage (10 g) or placebo. Quantitative metagenomic analysis of faecal DNA was performed to identify the changes in the gut microbiota. Diet-induced changes in metabolic markers were explored using adjusted linear regression models. The intake of flaxseed mucilage over 6 weeks led to a reduction in serum C-peptide and insulin release during an oral glucose tolerance test (P< 0.05) and improved insulin sensitivity measured by Matsuda index (P< 0.05). Comparison of gut microbiota composition at baseline and after 6 weeks of intervention with flaxseed mucilage showed alterations in abundance of thirty-three metagenomic species (P< 0.01), including decreased relative abundance of eight Faecalibacterium species. These changes in the microbiota could not explain the effect of flaxseed mucilage on insulin sensitivity. The intake of L. paracasei F19 did not modulate metabolic markers compared with placebo. In conclusion, flaxseed mucilage improves insulin sensitivity and alters the gut microbiota; however, the improvement in insulin sensitivity was not mediated by the observed changes in relative abundance of bacterial species.

  8. Expression of the zinc transporters genes and metallothionein in obese women.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Rocha, Paula Beatriz Krebsky; de Castro Amorim, Amanda; de Sousa, Artemizia Francisca; do Monte, Semíramis Jamil Hadad; da Mata Sousa, Luiz Claudio Demes; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Neto, José Machado Moita; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2011-11-01

    Research has investigated the participation of zinc transport proteins and metallothionein in the metabolism of this mineral. However, studies about the genetic expression of these proteins in obese patients are scarce. The study determined the expression of zinc transporter protein codifying genes (ZnT-1, Zip-1 and Zip-3) and of metallothionein in 55 obese women, aged between 20 and 56 years. The assessment of body composition was carried out using anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance. Zinc intake was obtained by recording diet over a 3-day period, and the nutritional analysis was carried out using NutWin software version 1.5. The plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ=213. 9 nm). The determination of mRNA expression of the zinc transporter proteins and metallothionein was carried out using blood, using the RT-PCR method. The mean values of body mass index were 37.9±5.5 kg/m2. The average intake of zinc was 9.4±2.3 mg/day. The analysis of the zinc plasma concentrations showed values of 58.4±10.9 μg/dL. The mean values of zinc in the erythroytes were 38.7±9.1 μg/g Hb. The metallothionein gene had a higher expression in the blood, when compared to zinc transporters ZnT-1, Zip-1, and Zip-3 (p=0.01). The study shows that there are alterations in the biochemical parameters of zinc in obese patients assessed, as well as higher expression of the codifying gene metallothionein, when compared to the investigated zinc transporters.

  9. Combined effects of exercise and restriction of energy intake on moderately obese women.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, D P; Belko, A Z; Mulroy, G L; Haas, J D; Roe, D A

    1986-01-01

    The current study was designed to assess the contribution of dietary-induced weight reduction on improvements in functional capacity in moderate obesity. Twelve females (means age = 29 yr, means fat percentage = 37%) served as subjects for the study. Subjects trained on a cycle ergometer 30 min.day-1, six day.wk-1 for three or six weeks at 75 to 85 per cent of maximum heart rate (HR max). Improvements in maximal oxygen uptake (delta VO2 max I.min-1) and functional capacity (delta VO2 max ml.kg-1 min-1) were compared in an attempt to separate out training and dietary effects respectively. Measurements were also taken on both the cycle ergometer and treadmill to test for any specificity of training effects. Changes in body composition were assessed by densitometry. Following three weeks of training, there was an average increase in VO2 max ml.kg-1 min-1 on the cycle ergometer and the treadmill of 14 and 19 per cent respectively. By six weeks, this had increased to 18 and 26 per cent respectively. The contribution of weight reduction to the improvements in functional capacity was calculated to range from 20 to 33 per cent. Thus, both energy restriction and exercise training appear to be effective means of improving functional capacity in moderately obese women. PMID:3730763

  10. Effects of dietary coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Assunção, Monica L; Ferreira, Haroldo S; dos Santos, Aldenir F; Cabral, Cyro R; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2009-07-01

    The effects of dietary supplementation with coconut oil on the biochemical and anthropometric profiles of women presenting waist circumferences (WC) >88 cm (abdominal obesity) were investigated. The randomised, double-blind, clinical trial involved 40 women aged 20-40 years. Groups received daily dietary supplements comprising 30 mL of either soy bean oil (group S; n = 20) or coconut oil (group C; n = 20) over a 12-week period, during which all subjects were instructed to follow a balanced hypocaloric diet and to walk for 50 min per day. Data were collected 1 week before (T1) and 1 week after (T2) dietary intervention. Energy intake and amount of carbohydrate ingested by both groups diminished over the trial, whereas the consumption of protein and fibre increased and lipid ingestion remained unchanged. At T1 there were no differences in biochemical or anthropometric characteristics between the groups, whereas at T2 group C presented a higher level of HDL (48.7 +/- 2.4 vs. 45.00 +/- 5.6; P = 0.01) and a lower LDL:HDL ratio (2.41 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.1 +/- 0.8; P = 0.04). Reductions in BMI were observed in both groups at T2 (P < 0.05), but only group C exhibited a reduction in WC (P = 0.005). Group S presented an increase (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol, LDL and LDL:HDL ratio, whilst HDL diminished (P = 0.03). Such alterations were not observed in group C. It appears that dietetic supplementation with coconut oil does not cause dyslipidemia and seems to promote a reduction in abdominal obesity.

  11. Genetic Background, Adipocytokines, and Metabolic Disorders in Postmenopausal Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna; Kaczmarek, Elżbieta; Mosor, Maria; Przysławski, Juliusz; Bogacz, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between the genetic background, adipocytokines, and metabolic state in postmenopausal women has not yet been fully described. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between PPAR gamma-2 (Pro12Ala, C1431T) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) polymorphisms and serum adipocytokines (adiponectin, visfatin, and resistin) and metabolic disorders in 176 postmenopausal women with increased body mass (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2)). The distributions of selected alleles and genotype frequencies were determined with the PCR-RFLP method. The bioimpedance method was used to determine nutritional status, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were applied to determine serum concentrations of adipocytokines. Viscerally obese postmenopausal women had higher body mass, body fat content, serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, uric acid, and HOMA-IR and a higher prevalence of the Ala12 allele. In models based on cytokine concentration, higher body mass and glucose concentration (visfatin model, p = 0.008) and higher insulin and triglyceride levels (resistin model, p = 0.002) were observed in visceral fat deposition and this was potentiated by the presence of the T1431 allele. In resistin models, co-existence of Ala12/X polymorphisms with the T1431 allele was associated with higher resistin and triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.045). In postmenopausal women, metabolic parameters are mainly determined by the distribution of body fat, but Ala12/X polymorphism may increase the metabolic disorders and this effect can be enhanced by the T1431 allele.

  12. "We're Changing Our Ways": Women's Coping Strategies for Obesity Risk-reducing Behaviors in American Indian Households.

    PubMed

    Gadhoke, Preety; Christiansen, Karina; Pardilla, Marla; Frick, Kevin; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals women caregivers' perceptions and coping strategies to improve households' food and physical activity habits. Results emerged from the pre-intervention formative research phase of a multi-site, multi-level obesity prevention pilot intervention on American Indian (AI) reservations. Using purposive sampling, 250 adults and children participated in qualitative research. Results reveal that having local institutional support was a key structural facilitator. 'Family connectedness' emerged as a key relational facilitator. Hegemony of systems, food deserts, transportation, and weather were key structural barriers; Childcare needs and time constraints were key relational barriers. Women's coping strategies included planning ahead, maximizing, apportioning, tempting healthy, and social support. Findings informed the development and implementation of a novel obesity prevention pilot intervention tailored for each participating AI community addressing culturally relevant messages, institutional policies, and programs. We conclude with future consideration for comparative, ethnicity-based, class-based, and gender-specific studies on women's coping strategies for household health behaviors.

  13. Shift Work and Obesity among Canadian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study Using a Novel Exposure Assessment Tool

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Natalie; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Harris, M. Anne; Nadalin, Victoria; Kreiger, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives It has been suggested that the association between shift work and chronic disease is mediated by an increase in obesity. However, investigations of the relationship between shift work and obesity reveal mixed findings. Using a recently developed exposure assessment tool, this study examined the association between shift work and obesity among Canadian women from two studies: a cohort of university alumni, and a population-based study. Methods Self-administered questionnaire data were used from healthy, currently employed females in a population-based study, the Ontario Women’s Diet and Health case-control study (n = 1611 controls), and from a subset of a of university alumni from the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health (n = 1097) cohort study. Overweight was defined as BMI≥25 to <30, and obesity as BMI≥30. Reported occupation was converted to occupational codes and linked to a probability of shift work value derived from Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics data. Regular evenings, nights, or rotating work comprised shift work. Polytomous logistic regression estimated the association between probability of shift work, categorized as near nil, low, medium, and high probability of shift work, on overweight and obesity, controlling for detected confounders. Results In the population-based sample, high probability of shift work was associated with obesity (reference = near nil probability of shift work, OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.01–3.51, p = 0.047). In the alumni cohort, no significant association was detected between shift work and overweight or obesity. Conclusions As these analyses found a positive association between high probability of shift work exposure and obesity in a population-based sample, but not in an alumni cohort, it is suggested that the relationship between shift work and obesity is complex, and may be particularly susceptible to occupational and education-related factors within a given population. PMID:26376050

  14. Acoustic Analysis of /?/ and /ð/ Sounds in Pakistani English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Muhammad Asim; Asghar, Muhammad; Jabeen, Farhat

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at discovering the nature and extent of deviation in the articulation of consonants in Pakistani English due to the impact of mother tongue. A detailed experiment has been carried out with the help of Praat to analyze the acoustic properties of /?/ and /ð/ sounds spoken by Pakistani speakers. The research reveals that Pakistani…

  15. Moral Reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maqsud, M.

    1977-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the universality of Piaget's and Kohlberg's stages of development of moral judgment in Nigerian and Pakistani cultures. Results show that the moral reasoning of Nigerian and Pakistani Muslim adolescents are greatly affected by their cultural values. (Editor/RK)

  16. An Investigation of Generic Structures of Pakistani Doctoral Thesis Acknowledgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofess, Sakander; Mahmood, Muhammad Asim

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates Pakistani doctoral thesis acknowledgements from genre analysis perspective. A corpus of 235 PhD thesis acknowledgements written in English was taken from Pakistani doctoral theses collected from eight different disciplines. HEC Research Repository of Pakistan was used as a data sources. The theses written by Pakistani…

  17. High Levels of Serum DPP-4 Activity Are Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase 4/CD26 (DPP-4) is a widely expressed cell surface serine protease. DPP-4 inhibitors, one of common anti-diabetic agents play a protective role in bone metabolism in recent studies. A soluble form of DPP-4 is found in serum, and exhibits DPP-4 enzymatic activity. However, the physiological role of serum or soluble DPP-4 and its relationship with DPP-4 enzymatic function remain poorly understood. The aims of current study were to determine the association between serum DPP-4 activity and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women. Methods We recruited data and serum samples from 124 consecutive healthy postmenopausal women aged >50 years. We divided study subjects into obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) and non-obese (BMI <25 kg/m2) postmenopausal women and examined the correlation between serum DPP-4 activity and clinical variables in each groups. Results A total of 124 postmenopausal women was enrolled, with a mean age of 59.9±7.1 years. The mean BMI of the study patients was 24.4±2.8 kg/m2. Regarding bone turnover markers, serum DPP-4 activity was positively correlated with serum calcium concentrations, intact parathyroid hormone, and serum C-telopeptide levels in all of the study subjects. However, there was no association between serum DPP-4 activity and BMD in the spine or femoral neck in all of the study subjects. Serum DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated (R=−0.288, P=0.038) with BMD of the spine in obese postmenopausal women. Conclusion This study demonstrated for the first time that serum soluble DPP-4 activity was negatively correlated with BMD in obese postmenopausal women. PMID:26676330

  18. Effects of a weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese postmenopausal women displaying various obesity phenotypes: a MONET group study.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Eve; Doucet, Eric; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition, since the metabolic profile may differ greatly from one individual to another. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a 6-month diet-induced weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese individuals displaying different obesity phenotypes. Secondary analyses were done on 129 obese (% body fat: 46% ± 4%) postmenopausal women (age: 57 ± 4 years). Outcome measures included body composition, body fat distribution, glucose homeostasis, fasting lipids, and blood pressure. Obesity phenotypes were determined based on lean body mass (LBM) index (LBMI = LBM/height(2)) and visceral fat (VF) accumulation, as follows: 1, lower VF and lower LBMI (n = 35); 2, lower VF and higher LBMI (n = 19); 3, higher VF and lower LBMI (n = 14); and 4, higher VF and higher LBMI (n = 61). All groups had significantly improved measures of body composition after the intervention (P < 0.0001). Greater decreases in LBM and LBMI were observed in the higher LBMI groups than in the lower LBMI groups (P < 0.0001). Similarly, decreases in VF were greater in the higher VF groups than in the lower VF groups (P < 0.05). Overall, fasting insulin levels and glucose disposal improved following the intervention, with higher LBMI groups showing a trend for greater improvements (P = 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). Overall, no difference was observed among the different obesity phenotypes regarding improvements in the metabolic profile in response to weight loss. Individuals displaying higher VF or higher LBMI at baseline experienced significantly greater decreases for these variables after the intervention.

  19. Antiobesity effect of caraway extract on overweight and obese women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Hajifaraji, Majid; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Mosaddegh, Mohammad Hossein; Cordell, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377.

  20. Household food insecurity and excess weight/obesity among Brazilian women and children: a life-course approach.

    PubMed

    Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Silva, Antonio Augusto Moura da; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kac, Gilberto

    2013-02-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI) may increase obesity risk, but results are not consistent across the life course or between developed/underdeveloped settings. The objective of this paper is to review findings from previous analyses in Brazil among adult women, female adolescents, and children up to five. Data were derived from the 2006 Brazilian Demographic and Health Survey. Associations between HFI (measured with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale) and excess weight/obesity were investigated through Poisson regression models. While severe HFI was associated with obesity risk among adult women (PR: 1.49; 95%CI: 1.17-1.90), moderate HFI was associated with excess weight among female adolescents (PR: 1.96; 95%CI: 1.18-3.27). There was no association between HFI and obesity among children (either boys or girls). The nutrition transition in Brazil may be shaping the differential deleterious effect of HFI on body fat accumulation across the life course; the association is already evident among female adolescents and adult women but still not among children.

  1. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Nutrition Education for Improvement of Diet Quality and Inflammation in Iranian Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadshahi, Majid; Karandish, Majid; Ebrahimi, Sara; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Obesity is considered as a low grade inflammation condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nutritional education on diet quality and biomarkers of inflammation in Iranian obese women. Method. Sixty obese women voluntarily participated in this randomized clinical trial and were randomly assigned to intervention or control group (n = 30). Intervention group was instructed to attend nutrition education sessions (1 hr/wk, for 3 months) in small groups. Diet quality scores were measured by Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Anthropometric indices and serum concentration of hs-CRP, TNF-α, and adiponectin were measured at the baseline and end of the intervention. Results. There were no significant differences in anthropometric indices of participants between the two groups at the end of intervention (P > 0.05). However, the total HEI score was significantly higher in the educated group compared to the control group after intervention (P < 0.05). The educated group also showed significant lower concentration of TNF-α and hs-CRP and higher levels of adiponectin than the control group at the end of study (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Our results provide limited evidence that higher dietary quality contributes to reduced inflammation in obese women. This effect could be independent of the weight loss. PMID:25349725

  2. No differences in rates of energy expenditure between post-obese women and their matched, lean controls.

    PubMed

    de Peuter, R; Withers, R T; Brinkman, M; Tomas, F M; Clark, D G

    1992-10-01

    Rates of energy expenditure at rest, during different daily activities and following a standardized liquid meal were compared in eight post-obese women, with a mean weight loss of 21.5 kg (range 14.1 to 33.3 kg) and eight controls who had never been overweight. Age, height, body mass index, fat-free mass and average daily energy intake were similar for both experimental groups. Resting metabolic rate averaged 23.04 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 1.14) in the post-obese and 22.70 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 0.64) in the controls on their first visit to the laboratory. Metabolic rates in the two groups rose in parallel as energy expenditure was increased by sitting, standing and walking at three different speeds (2.4, 3.9 and 5.4 km/h). At the highest walking speed energy expenditure averaged 95.30 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 4.18) in the post-obese and 93.42 cal/min/kg FFM (s.e.m. 2.97) in the control women. Comparisons of postprandial thermogenesis revealed no significant differences between the two groups. The results of the present study do not support the thesis that rates of energy expenditure, whether at rest, during different activities, or after eating, are reduced in post-obese women.

  3. Increased Circulating Levels of Alpha-Ketoglutarate in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Martinez, Salomé; Armengol, Sandra; Sabench, Fàtima; Ras, Rosa; Hernandez, Mercè; Aguilar, Carmen; Colom, Josep; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) causes a wide spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. However, simple steatosis (SS) and steatohepatitis (NASH) cannot yet be distinguished by clinical or laboratory features. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between alpha-ketoglutarate and the degrees of NAFLD in morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods We used a gas chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry analysis to quantify alpha-ketoglutarate in serum from normal-weight subjects (n = 30) and morbidly obese women (n = 97) with or without NAFLD. Results We found that serum levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were significantly higher in morbidly obese women than in normal-weight women. We showed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower in lean controls and morbidly obese patients without NAFLD. We also found that alpha-ketoglutarate serum levels were higher in both SS and NASH than in normal liver of morbidly obese patients. However, there was no difference between SS and NASH. Moreover, we observed that circulating levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were associated with glucose metabolism parameters, lipid profile, hepatic enzymes and steatosis degree. In addition, diagnostic performance of alpha-ketoglutarate has been analyzed in NAFLD patients. The AUROC curves from patients with liver steatosis exhibited an acceptable clinical utility. Finally, we showed that the combination of biomarkers (AST, ALT and alpha-ketoglutarate) had the highest accuracy in diagnosing liver steatosis. Conclusion These findings suggest that alpha-ketoglutarate can determine the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver in morbidly obese patients but it is not valid a biomarker for NASH. PMID:27123846

  4. Geographic Variation of Overweight and Obesity among Women in Nigeria: A Case for Nutritional Transition in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Stranges, Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors. Methods The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), including 27,967 women aged 15–49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25) was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR) & 95% Credible Region (CR): 1.68 (1.38, 2.00)], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05)], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36)] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40)], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61)]. Conclusions This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. PMID:24979753

  5. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity classifications and cardiometabolic risks in older women.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Enivaldo Pereira; Gadelha, André Bonadias; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Nóbrega, Otávio Toledo; Oliveira, Ricardo Jacó; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) with cardiometabolic risk factors in postmenopausal women. 149 volunteers (67.17±6.12 years) underwent body composition assessment using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and had analyzed blood samples collected for lipid profile, glucose metabolism and C-reactive protein (CRP). Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular fat-free mass (AFFM) divided by height squared ≤5.45 kg/m(2) while SO was classified based on the residuals of a regression. Waist circumference (WC) and arterial blood pressure were also measured. Student's t-tests and correlations were used for analyses. Prevalence of sarcopenia and SO were respectively 16.8 and 21.5%. WC was significantly correlated with all the examined risk factors. AFFM relative to height squared was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), CRP, insulinaemia, HOMA score, and those classified as sarcopenic presented lower HOMA score when compared to nonsarcopenic. Regarding SO, although volunteers classified presented significantly higher fat mass (FM) and lower AFFM, it was not observed association with the examined risk factors. These findings support the association between WC and cardiometabolic risk factors in older women. In contrast, the approaches used to define sarcopenia and SO are not associated with cardiometabolic impairments.

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in Turkish people: a positive correlation with abdominal obesity in women

    PubMed Central

    Karayaka, Sergul; Mesci, Banu; Oguz, Aytekin; Tamer, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing around the world due to abdominal obesity with altered eating habits and decreased physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for gastroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and the prevalence of GERD in patients with MetS. METHODS: Five hundred patients (MetS, n=300 and the control group, n=200) were enrolled in the study. A detailed questionnaire reflux symptoms and behavioral habits was performed. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the subjects were with MetS. GERD rate was significantly higher in the group with MetS compared to subjects without MetS (50.7% vs 26%). Women were more likely to have GERD in both groups (62.6% of women and 28.6% of men ın the MetS group while corresponding rates were 37% vs 16.7% in the control group). Waist circumferences were found to be higher in female MetS patients with GERD. CONCLUSION: GERD is present approximately in every one of the two patients with MetS. Every patient who has MetS should be evaluated in terms of GERD symptoms. PMID:28058320

  7. Activation to self-management and exercise in overweight and obese older women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kawi, Jennifer; Schuerman, Sue; Alpert, Patricia T; Young, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 1 in 10 adults in the United States, with higher prevalence in women, aggravated by increased weight. This quasi-experimental pilot study implemented an online self-management (SM) program for older overweight and obese women with knee OA combined with a two-arm progressive exercise trial (walking and stepping groups). After the 10-week intervention using an interprofessional approach, activation to SM scores were significantly higher in all participants (N = 16) and between groups, with a higher increase in the stepping group. Those with higher activation scores pre-intervention obtained higher scores post-intervention. Activation levels also increased significantly among all participants with majority at the highest activation level. Follow-up data at 6 weeks and 6 months showed sustained SM and health-directed behaviors. These findings, although preliminary, highlight the value of combined SM and progressive exercise intervention using an interprofessional approach. Further investigations are essential toward potential practice and policy changes.

  8. Circuit Resistance Training Attenuates Acute Exertion-Induced Reductions in Arterial Function but Not Inflammation in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Nina C.; Robinson, Austin T.; Bian, Jing-Tan; Ali, Mohamed M.; Norkeviciute, Edita; McGinty, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of preventable death among young women in the United States. Habitual resistance exercise training is known to have beneficial effects on endothelial function and CVD risk factors, including obesity; however, previous studies show that acute resistance exercise impairs endothelial function in obese adults who are sedentary, a response that may be linked to inflammation. We sought to determine if circuit-based resistance training (CRT) attenuates acute resistance exercise-induced reductions in endothelial function in a population of young, obese, sedentary women and whether or not inflammation plays a role in this response. Methods: Eighteen obese [body mass index (BMI) 30.0–40.0 kg·m−2] young premenopausal women were randomly assigned to either a CRT group or a no-exercise control group (CON). Conduit artery endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) determined by ultrasound before and after a single bout of strenuous weightlifting (SWL). In addition, circulating inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein), blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, glucose, waist circumference, body composition, and aerobic capacity were assessed. Results: Among participants randomized to the CRT group, 8 weeks of training led to considerable increases in FMD after SWL (P=0.001) compared to the CON group. However, no significant differences between the groups were observed in circulating inflammatory mediators, blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, or other physical and physiological characteristics. Conclusions: This study shows that CRT alleviates acute exertion-induced reductions in endothelial function among obese sedentary women in the absence of changes in inflammation. PMID:25844686

  9. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake.

  10. Validation of obesity based on self-reported data in Spanish women participants in breast cancer screening programmes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Measurement of obesity using self-reported anthropometric data usually involves underestimation of weight and/or overestimation of height. The dual aim of this study was, first, to ascertain and assess the validity of new cut-off points, for both overweight and obesity, using self-reported Body Mass Index furnished by women participants in breast cancer screening programmes, and second, to estimate and validate a predictive model that allows recalculate individual BMI based on self-reported data. Methods The study covered 2927 women enrolled at 7 breast cancer screening centres. At each centre, women were randomly selected in 2 samples, in a ratio of 2:1. The larger sample (n = 1951) was used to compare the values of measured and self-reported weight and height, to ascertain new overweight and obesity cut-off points with self-reported data, using ROC curves, and to estimate a predictive model of real BMI using a regression model. The second sample (n = 976) was used to validate the proposed cut-off points and the predictive model. Results Whereas reported prevalence of obesity was 19.8%, measured prevalence was 28.2%. The sensitivity and specificity of this classification would be maximised if the new cut-off points were 24.30 kg/m2 for overweight and 28.39 kg/m2 for obesity. The probability of classifying women correctly in their real weight categories on the basis of these points was 82.5% in the validation sample. Sensitivity and specificity for determining obesity using the new cut-off point in the validation sample were 90.0% and 92.3% respectively. The predictive model for real BMI included the self-reported BMI, age and educational level (university studies vs lower levels of education). This model succeeded in correctly classifying 90.5% of women according to BMI categories, but its performance was similar to that obtained with the new cut-off points. Conclusions Quantification of self-reported obesity entails a considerable underestimation of

  11. The impact of cash transfers to poor women in Colombia on BMI and obesity: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forde, Ian; Chandola, Tarani; Garcia, Sandra; Marmot, Michael G.; Attanasio, Orazio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Prevalence of obesity is rising in Latin America, is increasingly affecting socially disadvantaged groups, particularly women. Conditional cash transfers are recently established welfare interventions in the region. One, Familias en Accion, transfers ~20% of average monthly income to women in Colombia’s poorest families. Previous work has found that families buy more food as a result. We tested the hypothesis that participation in Familias would be associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) in participating women Methods Women from participating areas and control areas (matched on environmental and socioeconomic criteria) were surveyed in 2002 and 2006. Pregnant, breast-feeding or women aged<18 or with BMI<18.5kg/m2 were excluded. The sample comprises 835 women from control and 1238 from treatment areas. Because some treatment areas started Familias shortly before baseline data collection, a dummy variable was created that identified exposure independent of time-point or area. Follow-up was 61.5%. BMI was measured by trained personnel using standardized techniques. Overweight was defined as BMI>25kg/m2 and obesity as >30kg/m2. The effect of Familias was estimated using linear regression (or logistic regression for dichotomous outcomes) in a double-difference technique, controlling for several individual, household and area characteristics, including parity and baseline BMI, using robust standard-errors clustered at area-level in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results At baseline, women’s mean age was 33.3 years and mean BMI 25.3kg/m2; 12.3% women were obese. After adjustment, exposure to Familias was significantly associated with increased BMI (β=0.25, 95% CI 0.03, 0.47; p=0.03). Age (β=0.09; 95%CI 0.06, 0.13; p<0.001) and household wealth (β=0.78; 95%CI 0.41, 1.15; p<0.001) were also positively associated with BMI. Familias was also associated with increased odds of obesity (O.R.=1.27 95%CI 1.03, 1.57; p=0.03), as was age (O.R.=1.04; 95

  12. Dietary restraint, anxiety, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in non-obese women.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S; Legg, Christine

    2006-11-01

    This study tested the independent and interactive effects of anxiety and dietary restraint on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. Thirty non-obese, female university students were assigned to one of four groups based on median split scores on measures of dietary restraint and state-anxiety: low-restraint/low-anxiety (n=7), low-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7), high-restraint/low-anxiety (n=9), and high-restraint/high-anxiety (n=7). Participants were provided the choice to earn points for palatable snack foods or fruits and vegetables using a computerized concurrent schedules choice task. The behavioural cost to gain access to snack foods increased across trials, whereas the cost to gain access to fruits and vegetables was held constant across trials. The relative reinforcing value of palatable snack food in relation to fruits and vegetables was defined as the total amount of points earned for snack food. Two-way analysis of covariance, with hunger and hedonic snack food ratings as covariates, showed that dietary restraint and anxiety had a significant interactive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food, indicating that the effect of anxiety on snack food reinforcement is moderated by dietary restraint. Specifically, the high-anxiety/low-restraint women found snack food significantly less reinforcing than low-anxiety/low-restraint women, but no differences emerged between high- and low-anxiety women with high-restraint. Neither restraint nor anxiety had an independent effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food. These findings indicate that anxiety may have a suppressive effect on the relative reinforcing value of snack food in low-restrained eaters, but not an enhancing effect on snack food reinforcement in high-restrained eaters. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Child Abuse Is Related to Inflammation in Mid-life Women: Role of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Karen A.; Chang, Yue-Fang; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated inflammation biomarkers are associated with incident cardiovascular disease. Several studies suggest that childhood abuse may be associated with inflammation later in life. This study examined whether childhood abuse predicted elevated levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and whether the association was due to body size. Methods Participants were 326 (104 Black, 222 White) women from the Pittsburgh site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). SWAN included a baseline assessment of premenopausal or early perimenopausal women in midlife (mean age = 45.7), and CRP, depressive symptoms, body mass index (BMI), and other covariates were measured over 7 annual follow-up visits. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a standardized measure that retrospectively assesses abuse and neglect in childhood and adolescence, was administered at year 8 or 9 of follow-up. Results Approximately 37% of the participants reported a history of abuse or neglect. Generalized estimating equations showed that sexual and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect, and the total number of types of abuse were associated with higher CRP levels over 7 years, adjusting for race, age, education, smoking status, use of hormone therapy, depressive symptoms, occurrence of heart attack or stroke, and medications for hypertension. The coefficients for indirect effects for emotional and sexual abuse, physical neglect, and total number of types of abuse on CRP levels through BMI were significant. A history of emotional abuse and neglect was related to percent change in CRP over the 7 years but not through percent change in BMI over the 7 years. Conclusion A history of childhood abuse and neglect retrospectively reported is related to overall elevated inflammation in mid-life women, perhaps through obesity. A history of some types of abuse and neglect (emotional) may be related to change in inflammation, independent of simultaneously measured change in BMI. PMID

  14. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women. PMID:26400463

  15. Overweight and obesity in young adult women: A matter of health or appearance? The Tromsø study: Fit futures.

    PubMed

    Sand, Anne-Sofie; Emaus, Nina; Lian, Olaug

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of overweight and obese people, there is a growing public health concern and focus on body size and lifestyle issues, especially in the media. Young adult women comprise a vulnerable group regarding issues of weight balance and appearance. The aim of the study was to examine the experiences of young women on how this focus influences their attitudes concerning weight changes, appearance, and health. We conducted 12 interviews with young women from two different weight groups about the attention on overweight issues. The results from the in-depth interviews were scrutinized through content analyses. The main findings indicate that young women experience a considerable focus on overweight issues with a trend towards appearance rather than health. Overweight and obesity are sensitive topics, and participants expressed strong views on the cultural definitions of normal body size and appearance. The squeeze between cultural norms and young women's perceptions of their own body and health was described as a possible negative factor influencing well-being as well as motivation for lifestyle changes. A more relaxed focus on overweight issues and especially on appearance is necessary when addressing weight-balance issues and lifestyle changes in young adult women.

  16. Bioactives in blueberries improve insulin sensitivity in obese, insulin-resistant men and women.

    PubMed

    Stull, April J; Cash, Katherine C; Johnson, William D; Champagne, Catherine M; Cefalu, William T

    2010-10-01

    Dietary supplementation with whole blueberries in a preclinical study resulted in a reduction in glucose concentrations over time. We sought to evaluate the effect of daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from blueberries on whole-body insulin sensitivity in men and women. A double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled clinical study design was used. After screening to resolve study eligibility, baseline (wk 0) insulin sensitivity was measured on 32 obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant subjects using a high-dose hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin infusion of 120 mU(861 pmol)⋅m(-2)⋅min(-1)). Serum inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity were measured at baseline. At the end of the study, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory biomarkers, and adiposity were reassessed. Participants were randomized to consume either a smoothie containing 22.5 g blueberry bioactives (blueberry group, n = 15) or a smoothie of equal nutritional value without added blueberry bioactives (placebo group, n = 17) twice daily for 6 wk. Both groups were instructed to maintain their body weight by reducing ad libitum intake by an amount equal to the energy intake of the smoothies. Participants' body weights were evaluated weekly and 3-d food records were collected at baseline, the middle, and end of the study. The mean change in insulin sensitivity improved more in the blueberry group (1.7 ± 0.5 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) than in the placebo group (0.4 ± 0.4 mg⋅kg FFM(-1)⋅min(-1)) (P = 0.04). Insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the blueberry group at the end of the study without significant changes in adiposity, energy intake, and inflammatory biomarkers. In conclusion, daily dietary supplementation with bioactives from whole blueberries improved insulin sensitivity in obese, nondiabetic, and insulin-resistant participants.

  17. Dietary patterns of women are associated with incident abdominal obesity but not metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kimokoti, Ruth W; Gona, Philimon; Zhu, Lei; Newby, P K; Millen, Barbara E; Brown, Lisa S; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fung, Teresa T

    2012-09-01

    Data on the relationship between empirical dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in prospective study designs are limited. In addition, demographic and lifestyle determinants of MetS may modify the association between dietary patterns and the syndrome. We prospectively examined the relationship between empirically derived patterns and MetS and MetS components among 1146 women in the Framingham Offspring/Spouse cohort. They were aged 25-77 y with BMI ≥18.5 kg/m(2) and free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and MetS at baseline, and followed for a mean of 7 y. Five dietary patterns, Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calorie, were previously identified using cluster analysis from food intake collected using a FFQ. After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed lower odds for abdominal obesity for Higher Fat [OR = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.91)] and Wine and Moderate Eating clusters [OR = 0.28 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.72)] compared with the Empty Calorie cluster. Additional adjustment for BMI somewhat attenuated these OR [Higher Fat OR = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.00); Wine and Moderate Eating OR = 0.34 (95% CI: 0.13, 0.89)]. None of the clusters was associated with MetS or other MetS components. Baseline smoking status and age did not modify the relation between dietary patterns and MetS. The Higher Fat and Wine and Moderate Eating patterns showed an inverse association with abdominal obesity; certain foods might be targeted in these habitual patterns to achieve optimal dietary patterns for MetS prevention.

  18. The Power Semantics in Self and Other Repertory Grid Representations: A Comparison between Obese and Normal-Weight Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Faccio, Elena; Belloni, Eleonora; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    According to systemic-constructivist theory, all psycho-pathological organizations are linked to specific meanings which are developed by the individual within problematic situations in the context of learning, particularly within the family. The aim of this empirical study is to support the theory that eating disorders are linked to the “power semantics,” concept developed by Ugazio. The hypothesis that the bipolar construct “winner/loser” and the associated meanings are predominant for obese people, has been verified by interviewing 44 women (22 obese/overweight; 22 controls) using the Repertory Grid Test developed by Kelly. The participants’ elicited constructs were classified according to their semantic content and the data compared using statistical techniques. The power semantics were more prevalent and important in the Obese Group than in the Control Group. These results are critically discussed, highlighting possible clinical developments. PMID:23267334

  19. The Power Semantics in Self and Other Repertory Grid Representations: A Comparison between Obese and Normal-Weight Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Elena; Belloni, Eleonora; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    According to systemic-constructivist theory, all psycho-pathological organizations are linked to specific meanings which are developed by the individual within problematic situations in the context of learning, particularly within the family. The aim of this empirical study is to support the theory that eating disorders are linked to the "power semantics," concept developed by Ugazio. The hypothesis that the bipolar construct "winner/loser" and the associated meanings are predominant for obese people, has been verified by interviewing 44 women (22 obese/overweight; 22 controls) using the Repertory Grid Test developed by Kelly. The participants' elicited constructs were classified according to their semantic content and the data compared using statistical techniques. The power semantics were more prevalent and important in the Obese Group than in the Control Group. These results are critically discussed, highlighting possible clinical developments.

  20. 24-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates are unaffected by body fat distribution in obese women.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A; Quaade, F; Madsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure (EE) and nonprotein respiratory quotient (RQnp) were measured by indirect calorimetry in 19 upper-body-obese (UBO) and 15 lower-body-obese (LBO) women with similar body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent. The measurements were performed in a respiration chamber on a predetermined physical activity program and a controlled diet. No differences between the UBO and LBO groups were found in 24-hour, daytime, and sleeping EE after adjustment for differences in fat-free mass (FFM). Furthermore, no group effect was observed in RQnp, but a positive correlation was found between RQnp and age. Despite the fact that an increased free fatty acid (FFA) turnover has been found in UBO subjects, the present study does not support the contention that upper-body obesity is accompanied by an increased lipid oxidation.

  1. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  2. Dental health behavior in a migrant perspective: use of dental services of Pakistani immigrants in Norway.

    PubMed

    Selikowitz, H S; Holst, D

    1986-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the utilization pattern of dental services in a group of Pakistani immigrants in Norway. Use was related to sociodemographic characteristics, level of urbanization in Pakistan, knowledge and belief about dental diseases and evaluated and perceived dental health. A total of 160 immigrants were clinically examined and interviewed by a structured questionnaire. The effect change analysis was performed, and separate analyses were performed for men and women. Altogether 60% had visited the dentist during the last 3 yr. While 69% coming from the cities had been to the dentist in Norway, this was the case for only 38% of those from the villages of Pakistan. Pain was given as the main reason for dental visits, and the data indicated insufficient ability to perform self-assessment of own dental health. The independent variables could explain more of the variance in use of dental services among the Pakistani men (R2 = 40%) than among the women (R2 = 21%). While number of decayed teeth and level of urbanization were among the strongest predictors among the men, dental behavior in Pakistan and number of years in Norway were of importance among the women. The latter variable indicated that the women in terms of dental behavior had a higher degree of acculturation than the men, leading to a change in traditional health behavior.

  3. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI <25 kg/m2; 58.3±8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; BMI ≥25 kg/m2; 58.3±8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. PMID:21655751

  4. Effect of zinc supplementation on serum leptin levels and insulin resistance of obese women.

    PubMed

    Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento; Geloneze, Bruno; Tambascia, Marcos A; Lerário, Antonio C; Halpern, Alfredo; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2006-08-01

    Leptin is thought to be a lipostatic signal that contributes to body weight regulation. Zinc might play an important role in appetite regulation and its administration stimulates leptin production. However, there are few reports in the literature on its role on leptin levels in the obese population. The present work assesses the effect of zinc supplementation on serum leptin levels in insulin resistance (IR). A prospective double-blind, randomized, clinical, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Fifty-six normal glucose-tolerant obese women (age: 25-45 yr, body mass index [BMI] = 36.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2) were randomized for treatment with 30 mg zinc daily for 4 wk. Baseline values of both groups were similar for age, BMI, caloric intake, insulin concentration, insulin resistance, and zinc concentration in diet, plasma, urine, and erythrocytes. Insulin and leptin were measured by radioimmunoassay and IR was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The determinations of zinc in plasma, erythrocytes, and 24- h urine were performed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After 4 wk, BMI, fasting glucose, and zinc concentration in plasma and erythrocyte did not change in either group, although zinc concentration in the urine increased from 385.9 +/- 259.3 to 470.2 +/- 241.2 +/- microg/24 h in the group with zinc supplementation (p < 0.05). Insulin did not change in the placebo group, whereas there was a significant decrease of this hormone in the supplemented group. HOMA also decreased from 5.8 +/- 2.6 to 4.3 +/- 1.7 (p < 0.05) in the zinc-supplemented group but did not change in the placebo group. Leptin did not change in the placebo group. In the zinc group, leptin was 23.6 +/- 12.3 microg/L and did not change. More human data from a unique population of obese individuals with documented insulin resistance would be useful in guiding future studies on zinc supplementation (with higher doses or longer intervals) or different measures.

  5. Taste Perception: An Examination of Fat Preference, Sensory Specific Satiety, and the Function of Eating Among Moderately Obese and Normal Weight Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    obese and normal weight women indicate similar overall dietary composition (carbohydrate, protein, and fat ), but greater caloric intake among obese...dietary changes . For example, many weight reduction programs promote decreasing caloric intake and decreasing the overall percentage of dietary fat to 25...Information Table 3: Intercorrelations Between BMI, Food Intake Information, and Hedonic Ratings Mean Hedonic Ratings of High and Low Fat Puddings

  6. Role of Haptoglobin in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Obesity and Disorders of Glucose Tolerance in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Blasco, Francisco; Martínez-García, Ma Ángeles; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; Parraza, Naiara; San Millán, José L.; Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Hp2 alleles of the haptoglobin α–chain polymorphism reduce the anti-oxidant properties and increase the pro-inflammatory actions of this acute-phase protein in a gene-dosage fashion. We hypothesized that the haptoglobin polymorphism might contribute to the increased oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation frequently associated with polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, and abnormalities of glucose tolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings Serum haptoglobin and the haptoglobin α–chain polymorphism were determined in 141 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and 102 non-hyperandrogenic women. Of the whole group of 243 premenopausal women, 117 were obese and 51 showed abnormal glucose tolerance. Although serum haptoglobin concentrations were similar in PCOS patients and controls, the former presented with an increased frequency of Hp2 alleles (62% vs. 52%, P = 0.023). Circulating haptoglobin levels increased with obesity (P<0.001), yet no association was found between obesity and haptoglobin genotypes. No differences were observed in haptoglobin levels or genotype frequencies depending on glucose tolerance. Fifty percent of the variation in serum haptoglobin concentrations was explained by the variability in serum C-reactive protein concentrations, BMI, insulin sensitivity and haptoglobin genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Serum haptoglobin concentrations in premenopausal women are largely dependent on the haptoglobin polymorphism and on the presence of obesity, with insulin resistance and chronic inflammation possibly modulating this relationship. The association of polycystic ovary syndrome with Hp2 alleles suggests that the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of haptoglobin may be reduced in these patients. PMID:19440331

  7. Does obesity diminish the positive effect of oral contraceptive treatment on hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome?

    PubMed

    Cibula, D; Hill, M; Fanta, M; Sindelka, G; Zivny, J

    2001-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an obvious indication for long-term treatment. Combined oral contraceptives (COC) remain the first choice for the treatment of hyperandrogenism in most patients. However, differences in endocrine and metabolic parameters between obese and lean patients have been postulated. This is the first study evaluating the effect of COC treatment in obese versus non-obese PCOS patients. In total, 28 lean [body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m(2))] and 15 obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) women patients were enrolled in the study. The concentrations of androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and lipids were measured before and after 6 months of treatment with COC containing low-androgenic progestins. Clinical androgenic symptoms were monitored. There was a lower concentration of SHBG in obese patients, but there were no differences in androgen concentrations between both groups before the study. Highly significant changes in concentrations of testosterone (P < 0.001), androstenedione (P < 0.0001), SHBG (P < 0.001) and LH (P = 0.01) were demonstrated in lean patients, with only less significant changes in SHBG (P < 0.01) and testosterone (P < 0.05) in obese patients during the study. Clinical androgenic symptoms improved significantly (P = 0.05) only in the group of lean women. No reduction in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio was observed in either group. In conclusion, the positive effect of COC treatment on androgen production, serum androgen binding capacity, and clinical androgenic symptoms was negatively influenced by an increased BMI.

  8. Physiological and Psychological Changes Following Liposuction of Large Volumes of Fat in Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Geliebter, Allan; Krawitz, Emily; Ungredda, Tatiana; Peresechenski, Ella; Giese, Sharon Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Liposuction can remove a substantial amount of body fat. We investigated the effects of liposuction of large volumes of fat on anthropometrics, body composition (BIA), metabolic hormones, and psychological measures in overweight/obese women. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine both physiological and psychological changes following liposuction of large volumes of fat in humans. Method Nine premenopausal healthy overweight/obese women (age = 35.9 ± 7.1 SD, weight = 84.4 kg ± 13.6, BMI = 29.9 kg/m2 ± 2.9) underwent liposuction, removing 3.92 kg ± 1.04 SD of fat. Following an overnight fast, height, weight, waist, and hip circumferences were measured at baseline (one week pre-surgery) and post-surgery (wk 1,4,12). Blood samples were drawn for fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Examination Self-Report (BDDE-SR), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDS) were administered. Results Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and body fat consistently decreased over time (p < .05). Glucose did not change significantly, but insulin decreased from wk 1 to wk 12 (p < .05). Leptin decreased from baseline to wk 1 (p = .01); ghrelin increased but not significantly. Changes in body fat and waist circumference (baseline to wk 1) correlated positively with changes in insulin during that period, and correlated inversely with changes in ghrelin (p < .05). BSQ scores decreased significantly over time (p = .004), but scores for BDDE-SR (p = .10) and ZDS (p = .24) did not change significantly. Conclusion Liposuction led to significant decreases in body weight and fat, waist circumference, and leptin levels. Changes in body fat and waist circumference correlated with concurrent changes in the adipose-related hormones, insulin and ghrelin (baseline to wk 1), and body shape perception improved. Thus, besides the obvious cosmetic effects, liposuction led to several

  9. A hybrid online intervention for reducing sedentary behavior in obese women.

    PubMed

    Adams, Melanie M; Davis, Paul G; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. While exercise is known to reduce these risks, reducing SB through increases in non-structured PA and breaks from sitting may appeal to obese women who have lower self-efficacy for PA. This study examined effects of a combined face-to-face and online intervention to reduce SB in overweight and obese women. A two-group quasi-experimental study was used with measures taken pre and post. Female volunteers (M age = 58.5, SD = 12.5 years) were enrolled in the intervention (n = 40) or waitlisted (n = 24). The intervention, based on the Social Cognitive Theory, combined group sessions with email messages over 6 weeks. Individualized feedback to support mastery and peer models of active behaviors were included in the emails. Participants self-monitored PA with a pedometer. Baseline and post measures of PA and SB were assessed by accelerometer and self-report. Standard measures of height, weight, and waist circumference were conducted. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for analyses. Self-reported SB and light PA in the intervention group (I) changed significantly over time [SB, F(1, 2) = 3.81, p = 0.03, light PA, F(1, 2) = 3.39, p = 0.04]. Significant Group × Time interactions were found for light PA, F(1, 63) = 5.22, p = 0.03, moderate PA, F(1, 63) = 3.90, p = 0.05, and for waist circumference, F(1, 63) = 16.0, p = 0.001. The intervention group decreased significantly while the comparison group was unchanged. Hybrid computer interventions to reduce SB may provide a non-exercise alternative for increasing daily PA and potentially reduce waist circumference, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Consumer-grade accelerometers may aide improvements to PA and SB and should be tested as part of future interventions.

  10. OBESITY, BODY FAT DISTRIBUTION, AND RISK OF BREAST CANCER SUBTYPES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN PARTICIPATING IN THE AMBER CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Hong, Chi-Chen; Troester, Melissa A.; Bethea, Traci N.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Park, Song-Yi; Olshan, Andrew F.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose African American (AA) women are more likely than white women to be obese and to be diagnosed with ER- and triple negative (TN) breast cancer, but few studies have evaluated the impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer subtypes in AA women. We evaluated these associations in the AMBER Consortium by pooling data from four large studies. Methods Cases were categorized according to hormone receptor status as ER+, ER-, and TN (ER-, PR-, and HER2-) based on pathology data. A total of 2,104 ER+ cases, 1,070 ER- cases (including 491 TN cases), and 12,060 controls were included. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression, taking into account breast cancer risk factors. Results In postmenopausal women, higher recent (most proximal value to diagnosis/index date) BMI was associated with increased risk of ER+ cancer (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02–1.67 for BMI≥35 vs <25 kg/m2) and with decreased risk of TN tumors (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.39–0.93 for BMI≥35 vs. <25). High young adult BMI was associated with decreased premenopausal ER+ cancer and all subtypes of postmenopausal cancer, and high recent waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with increased risk of pre-menopausal ER+ tumors (OR: 1.35; 95% CI: 1.01–1.80) and all tumor subtypes combined in postmenopausal women (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.02–1.56). Conclusions The impact of general and central obesity varies by menopausal status and hormone receptor subtype in AA women. Our findings imply different mechanisms for associations of adiposity with TN and ER+ breast cancers. PMID:25809092

  11. VOCAL COMPLAINT, AUDITORY-PERCEPTUAL ASSESSMENT OF VOICE AND VOCAL SELF-ASSESSMENT IN WOMEN WITH MORBID OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha; PERNAMBUCO, Leandro de Araujo; dos SANTOS, Marquiony Marques; da SILVA, Joana Cristina Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    Background : Obese people often have altered breathing patterns and therefore may experience difficulties in voice production. Aim : To verify the presence of vocal complaints and the correlation between the auditory-perceptual analysis of voice and vocal self-assessment of a group of women with morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. Methods : A longitudinal, exploratory, descriptive study of 21 morbidly obese women aged between 28 and 68 years, assessed before and after bariatric surgery, was performed. The women filled out a form containing identification data and type of vocal complaint. Perceptual evaluation of voice and vocal self-assessment were performed using a visual analog scale. For perceptual assessment of voice the women were asked to say three sentences from the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice. Results : Of the 21 patients, 14 (66.6%) reported vocal complaints, of which 10 (71%) vocal fatigue, eight (57.14%) voice failures and seven (50%) vocal effort. All participants reported improvements in the voice after surgery, irrespective of having reported vocal complaints before surgery. There was no correlation between vocal self-assessment and auditory-perceptual assessment of the voice before or after the procedure. There was no correlation between vocal self-assessment and perceptual evaluation of the voice before surgery. Conclusion : Obesity interfered with voice production and influenced negative perception and therefore vocal complaints. Complaints about vocal production cannot be perceived by a speech therapist with the same impact as by patients, as both employ different criteria for vocal evaluation. Vocal self-assessment is an important tool in voice evaluation. PMID:26537268

  12. Weight loss reduces breast ductal fluid estrogens in obese postmenopausal women: a single arm intervention pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2) postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass); exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max); 1-repetition strength maximum); and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop), VO2Max (+36% increase) and strength improvement (+26%). Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline), estrone sulfate (−10%), estradiol (−25%), and Il-6 (−33%). Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention. PMID:23217221

  13. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Weight Efficacy Lifestyle among Women with Overweight and Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Eri, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and overweight have become increasingly a major public health problem across the world. This study aimed at exploring the effects of motivational interviewing on weight efficacy lifestyle among women with obesity and overweight. A single-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 100 overweight and obese women who attended a nutrition clinic. The samples were selected based on the clinical records and assigned into two groups, namely motivational interviewing arm (50 samples) and nutrition education arm (50 samples). Data were collected using a standard validated questionnaire entitled “weight efficacy lifestyle”. The intervention was designed according to five motivation sessions and four nutrition education programs, such that the participants of the nutrition education arm were also provided with the nutrition pamphlets related to weight control. Data were finally analyzed using the SPSS statistical software by performing the independent t-test, chi-square, LSD and repeated measures ANOVA tests. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of women was 39.9±9.1 and 36.3±8.9 years in the control and motivational interviewing arms, respectively. Compared with the control group, the score of the motivational interviewing group was statistically significant in terms of weight efficacy lifestyle P=0.0001) and all subscales including social pressure (P=0.0001), physical discomfort (P=0.005), food accessibility (P=0.0001), positive and entertainment activities (P=0.0001), as well as negative emotions (P=0.003). Motivational interviewing appeared to be effective in increasing weight efficacy lifestyle among women with overweight and obesity. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014051817736N1 PMID:28360445

  14. Women's and Midwives' Perspectives on the Design of a Text Messaging Support for Maternal Obesity Services: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, H.; Furness, P. J.; Arden, M. A.; McSeveny, K.; Garland, C.; Sustar, H.; Dearden, A.

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to explore women's and midwives' views on the use of mobile technology in supporting obese pregnant women with healthy lifestyle choices. A purposive sample of 14 women and midwives participated in four focus groups in Doncaster, UK. A content analysis of the transcripts from the first focus group led to the emergence of three main constructs with associated subcategories including Benefits (“modernising,” “motivating,” “reminding,” and “reducing” the sense of isolation), Risks and Limitations (possibility of “being offensive,” “creating pressure or guilt,” and “being influenced by mood”), and Service Delivery (making it “available to all pregnant women,” giving attention to the “message tone” and development of “message content”). They also suggested the use of other modalities such as web-based services for weight management during pregnancy. Based on the above results a text messaging service was developed and presented to the 2nd focus group participants who confirmed the positive views from the first focus group on the use of the text messaging as being supportive and informative. The participants also welcomed “women's engagement and choice” in deciding the content, timing and frequency of messages. The results informed the development of a text messaging service to support maternal obesity management. The implementation and acceptability of this service requires further investigation. PMID:22900153

  15. Motivational interviewing: a part of the weight loss program for overweight and obese women prior to fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-09-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg versus 7.3 kg, difference p = 0.01, 3.3 kg/m(2) versus 2.6 kg/m(2), difference p = 0.02). The mean period of intervention was comparable in the two groups, 7.9 month and 7.3 month, respectively, (difference non significant: NS). The study indicates that motivational interviewing may be a valuable tool in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment.

  16. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  17. Obesity, Schooling and Health Knowledge: An Empirical Study of Taiwanese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsou, Meng-Wen; Liu, Jin-Tan

    2006-01-01

    This paper sets out to examine the impacts of schooling and health knowledge on the level of obesity in Taiwan. The results obtained from a sample of Taiwanese females support the hypothesis of Grossman that schooling has a direct positive effect on health by reducing the likelihood of a person being obese. The awareness of obesity-disease…

  18. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  19. Effects of aerobic exercise on plasma lipoproteins in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abazar, Elaheh; Taghian, Farzaneh; Mardanian, Farahnaz; Forozandeh, Dashti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders. The PCOS manifest by hyperandrogenism, hypertension and cholesterol and lipoprotein improper profiles. Changing the life style, e.g. increasing physical activities is the first approach in controlling PCOS. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) after medical screening were divided in to two groups: Experimental group (n = 12) and control group (n = 12), with the average age, weight, height, BMI and WHR of 26.87 ± 4.43 years, 75.71 ± 10.65 kg. 159.29 ± 6.44 cm, 29.86 ± 3.22 kg/m2 and 91.75 ± 5.86 respectively. First the body composition such as BMI, WHR, percent body fat, weight and body fat mass were measured. In fasting blood samples the level of HDL, LDL, VLDL, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured. Then the experiment group underwent the effect of an aerobic exercise program. After 12 weeks, all the measured variables before intervention the test were re-measured. Correlated t-test was used for comparing the two groups before and after intervention the test and independent t-test was used for comparing the two groups (P < 0.05). Results: The results showed that after 12 weeks of exercise, BMI, WHR, fat rate, weight and fat mass and triglyceride had significant reduction and HDL had significant increase. But no significant changes happened in LDL, VLDL, and cholesterol levels. Conclusion: Reducing the weight by aerobic exercise in obese women and affected by PCOS can correct lipoprotein profile and improving health. PMID:25878993

  20. Food outlet availability, deprivation and obesity in a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in Bradford, UK.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L K; Edwards, K L; Tominitz, M; Clarke, G P; Hill, A J

    2012-09-01

    The obesogenic environment model would suggest that increased availability or access to energy dense foods which are high in saturated fat may be related to obesity. The association between food outlet location, deprivation, weight status and ethnicity was analysed using individual level data on a sample of 1198 pregnant women in the UK Born in Bradford cohort using geographic information systems (GIS) methodology. In the non South Asian group 24% were obese as were 17% of the South Asian group (BMI > 30). Food outlet identification methods revealed 886 outlets that were allocated into 5 categories of food shops. More than 95% of all participants lived within 500 m of a fast food outlet. Women in higher areas of deprivation had greater access to fast food outlets and to other forms of food shops. Contrary to hypotheses, there was a negative association between BMI and fast food outlet density in close (250 m) proximity in the South Asian group. Overall, these women had greater access to all food stores including fast food outlets compared to the non South Asian group. The stronger association between area level deprivation and fast food density than with area level deprivation and obesity argues for more detailed accounts of the obesogenic environment that include measures of individual behaviour.

  1. Association of obesity with hormonal imbalance in infertility: a cross-sectional study in north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Seth, Bhavna; Arora, Sarika; Singh, Ritu

    2013-10-01

    Hormones play an important role in the development and regulation of reproductive function and the menstrual cycle of women. Extremes of body weight tend to affect the homeostasis of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 113 women (57 with primary infertility and 56 with secondary infertility) in the age group 20-35 years, presenting for hormonal evaluation of infertility in a tertiary care hospital. After preliminary clinical evaluation, anthropometric indices (height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist hip ratio) were measured in all subjects. Fasting blood sample drawn on second/third day of menstrual cycle was analysed for serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Serum FSH levels showed a significant positive correlation with indicators of central obesity (waist circumference and waist hip ratio in both the study groups). In primary infertility, significant positive correlation was also observed between serum FSH levels and other markers of obesity like body weight, hip circumference and BMI. In secondary infertility, serum prolactin and serum TSH levels demonstrated a significant positive correlation with body weight and BMI. Obesity is associated with hormonal derangements which are responsible for infertility. In overweight women with infertility, weight loss should be considered as a first line treatment.

  2. Ventral frontal satiation-mediated responses to food aromas in obese and normal-weight women123

    PubMed Central

    Eiler, William JA; Dzemidzic, Mario; Case, K Rose; Armstrong, Cheryl LH; Mattes, Richard D; Cyders, Melissa A; Considine, Robert V; Kareken, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sensory properties of foods promote and guide consumption in hunger states, whereas satiation should dampen the sensory activation of ingestive behaviors. Such activation may be disordered in obese individuals. Objective: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we studied regional brain responses to food odor stimulation in the sated state in obese and normal-weight individuals targeting ventral frontal regions known to be involved in coding for stimulus reward value. Design: Forty-eight women (25 normal weight; 23 obese) participated in a 2-day (fed compared with fasting) fMRI study while smelling odors of 2 foods and an inedible, nonfood object. Analyses were conducted to permit an examination of both general and sensory-specific satiation (satiation effects specific to a given food). Results: Normal-weight subjects showed significant blood oxygen level–dependent responses in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to food aromas compared with responses induced by the odor of an inedible object. Normal-weight subjects also showed general (but not sensory-specific) satiation effects in both the vmPFC and orbitofrontal cortex. Obese subjects showed no differential response to the aromas of food and the inedible object when fasting. Within- and between-group differences in satiation were driven largely by changes in the response to the odor of the inedible stimulus. Responses to food aromas in the obese correlated with trait negative urgency, the tendency toward negative affect-provoked impulsivity. Conclusions: Ventral frontal signaling of reward value may be disordered in obesity, with negative urgency heightening responses to food aromas. The observed nature of responses to food and nonfood stimuli suggests that future research should independently quantify each to fully understand brain reward signaling in obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02041039. PMID:24695888

  3. Increased calorie intake at a specific mid-morning meal and increased intake of soft drinks are strongly associated with obesity in Mexican rural women.

    PubMed

    Caamaño, María C; Gutierrez, Jessica; García, Olga P; Ronquillo, Dolores; Martinez, Guadalupe; Rosado, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the dietary habits and foods that are associated with obesity in women from a rural area in Mexico. Anthropometry and body fat were measured in 580 women. Participants answered a socioeconomic and a food-frequency questionnaire; a subsample (n = 80) also answered three 24-hour-recall questionnaires. Results showed that obese women consumed more soft drinks and fat than did overweight and normal-weight women. Women who consumed more energy during a mid-morning meal had higher BMI. A strategy to decrease the prevalence of obesity in rural areas could be to encourage limiting the consumption of soft drinks and eliminating or reducing caloric intake at a mid-morning meal.

  4. The sex of the foetus affects maternal blood glucose concentrations in overweight and obese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, Sumudu N; Derraik, José G B; Jiang, Yannan; McCowan, Lesley M E; Gusso, Silmara; Cutfield, Wayne S; Hofman, Paul L

    2016-12-26

    There is increasing evidence that the sex of the foetus may alter the maternal metabolic milieu during pregnancy. Following a randomized controlled trial of exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women, we assessed whether the sex of the foetus was associated with changes in maternal metabolism. Data were analysed on 74 randomized participants who completed the trial, including 38 mothers carrying males and 36 mothers carrying females. At 19 weeks of gestation, mothers carrying boys had higher blood glucose concentrations than those carrying girls (5.4 vs 4.9 mmol/l; p = .046). At 36 weeks of gestation, differences were more marked, with blood glucose concentrations 15% higher in mothers carrying females (5.7 vs 5.0 mmol/l; p = .004). In addition, mothers carrying girls had higher concentrations of hs-CRP across pregnancy (5.0 vs 3.6 mg/l; p = .029). Our findings provide further evidence that the sex of the foetus appears to influence maternal metabolism.

  5. Limiting weight gain in overweight and obese women during pregnancy to improve health outcomes: the LIMIT randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a significant global health problem, with the proportion of women entering pregnancy with a body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2 approaching 50%. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with a well-recognised increased risk of adverse health outcomes both for the woman and her infant, however there is more limited information available regarding effective interventions to improve health outcomes. The aims of this randomised controlled trial are to assess whether the implementation of a package of dietary and lifestyle advice to overweight and obese women during pregnancy to limit gestational weight gain is effective in improving maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised, controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria: Women with a singleton, live gestation between 10+0-20+0 weeks who are obese or overweight (defined as body mass index greater than or equal to 25 kg/m2), at the first antenatal visit. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Eligible, consenting women will be randomised between 10+0 and 20+0 weeks gestation using a central telephone randomisation service, and randomisation schedule prepared by non-clinical research staff with balanced variable blocks. Stratification will be according to maternal BMI at trial entry, parity, and centre where planned to give birth. Treatment Schedules: Women randomised to the Dietary and Lifestyle Advice Group will receive a series of inputs from research assistants and research dietician to limit gestational weight gain, and will include a combination of dietary, exercise and behavioural strategies. Women randomised to the Standard Care Group will continue to receive their pregnancy care according to local hospital guidelines, which does not currently include routine provision of dietary, lifestyle and behavioural advice. Outcome assessors will be blinded to the allocated treatment group. Primary Study Outcome: infant large for gestational age (defined as

  6. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ásbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, Signe S.; Kelstrup, Louise; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Since January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0–5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A retrospective cohort comprised the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex. RESULTS Seventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range) gestational weight gains were 3.7 kg (−4.7 to 5 kg) and 12.1 kg (5.5–25.5 kg), respectively. Prepregnancy BMI was 33.5 kg/m2 (30–53 kg/m2) vs. 36.8 kg/m2 (30–48 kg/m2), P = 0.037, and median HbA1c was 6.7% at first visit in both groups and decreased to 5.7 and 6.0%, P = 0.620, in late pregnancy, respectively. Gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with lower birth weight z score (P = 0.008), lower rates of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infants (12 vs. 39%, P = 0.041), delivery closer to term (268 vs. 262 days, P = 0.039), and less perinatal morbidity (35 vs. 71%, P = 0.024) compared with pregnancies with maternal weight gain >5 kg. CONCLUSIONS In this pilot study in obese women with type 2 diabetes, maternal gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with a more proportionate birth weight and less perinatal morbidity. PMID:23248191

  7. INS VNTR class genotype and indexes of body size and obesity: population-based studies of 7,999 middle-aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Manjinder S; Heude, Barbara; Young, Elizabeth H; Luben, Robert; Luan, Jian'an; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Todd, John; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2005-09-01

    The relevance of the insulin gene (INS) variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism to indexes of body size and adult obesity is inconclusive. Given the equivocal reports on the association between the VNTR class genotype at the insulin gene locus and indexes of body size and obesity, we assessed these associations in a series of cohort studies based on 7,999 middle-aged men and women. We found no convincing evidence that INS VNTR class genotype was associated with indexes of body size and adult obesity. These data suggest that INS VNTR class is not an important determinant of size and body weight regulation in middle-aged men and women.

  8. Disparities in Risk Factors Associated with Obesity between Zanzibar and Tanzania Mainland among Women of Reproductive Age Based on the 2010 TDHS

    PubMed Central

    Mtumwa, Abdalla H.; Ntwenya, Julius Edward; Vuai, Said A. H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of overweight and obesity has serious health implications. The 2010 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey data set was reanalysed to compare the prevalences of overweight and obesity between Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar and to determine how demographic factors can predict overweight and obesity across the United Republic of Tanzania. About 7.92% of the Tanzanian women of reproductive age were obese, 15% were overweight, and 11.5% were underweight. Women from Mainland Tanzania (6.56%) were significantly less likely (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.53–0.82) to be affected by obesity as compared to women from Zanzibar (12.19%). The common predictors of obesity in Mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar were wealth index, marital status, and age. Whereas the place of residence and education level emerged as predictors of obesity in the Mainland Tanzania alone, the number of meals per day did so in Zanzibar. Most importantly, Zanzibar had a greater prevalence of obesity compared to Mainland Tanzania. PMID:27721990

  9. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  10. Altered Preconception Fatty Acid Intake Is Associated with Improved Pregnancy Rates in Overweight and Obese Women Undertaking in Vitro Fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Moran, Lisa J; Tsagareli, Victoria; Noakes, Manny; Norman, Robert

    2016-01-04

    Maternal preconception diet is proposed to affect fertility. Prior research assessing the effect of altering the fatty acid profile on female fertility is conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of preconception maternal diet, specifically fatty acid profile, on pregnancies and live births following in vitro fertilisation (IVF). Forty-six overweight and obese women undergoing IVF were randomised to a diet and physical activity intervention (intervention) or standard care (control). Outcome measures included pregnancy, live birth and pre-study dietary intake from food frequency questionnaire. Twenty pregnancies (n = 12/18 vs. n = 8/20, p = 0.12) and 12 live births (n = 7/18 vs. n = 5/20, p = 0.48) occurred following the intervention with no differences between the treatment groups. On analysis adjusted for BMI and smoking status, women who became pregnant had higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake (p = 0.03), specifically omega-6 PUFA and linoleic acid (LA) (p = 0.045) with a trend for an elevated intake of omega-3 PUFA (p = 0.06). There were no dietary differences for women who did or did not have a live birth. Maternal preconception PUFA, and specifically omega-6 and LA intake, are associated with improved pregnancy rates in overweight and obese women undergoing IVF. This has implications for optimising fertility through preconception nutrition.

  11. Reduced LPL and subcutaneous lipid storage capacity are associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, A. S.; Goldberg, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Sumary Objectives This study examines the hypothesis that lower adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and a limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte expansion will be associated with metabolic syndrome (MSyn) in postmenopausal women who are overweight and obese. Methods Women (N = 150; age 60 ± 1 year; BMI: 31.5 ± 0.3 kg m−2; mean ± standard errors of the means [SEM]) with and without MSyn had dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry scans for total body fat, CT scans for visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue areas, lipid and glucose metabolic profiles, and abdominal and gluteal fat aspirations for subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; N = 150) and LPL activity (N = 100). Results Women with MSyn had similar total body fat, but 15% larger abdominal and 11% larger gluteal FCWs and more visceral fat (179 ± 7 vs. 134 ± 6 cm2) than women without MSyn (P's < 0.05). Abdominal LPL activity was 13% (P = 0.18) lower in women with than without MSyn and correlated with abdominal FCW (r = 0.49, P < 0.01) only in those without MSyn. Visceral fat and abdominal and gluteal FCWs correlated with MSyn components, and subcutaneous adipose tissue correlated with abdominal FCW (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and LPL activity (r = 0.18, P < 0.05), independent of total body fat. Conclusions These results show that women with MSyn have lower LPL activity, limited capacity for subcutaneous adipocyte lipid storage and greater ectopic fat accumulation in viscera than women without MSyn of comparable obesity. This suggests that the development of novel therapies that would enhance adipocyte expandability might prevent the accumulation of ectopic fat and reduce the risk for MSyn in postmenopausal women with obesity.

  12. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  13. Effect of diet and exercise, alone or combined, on weight and body composition in overweight-to-obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Alfano, Catherine M; Duggan, Catherine R; Xiao, Liren; Campbell, Kristin L; Kong, Angela; Bain, Carolyn E; Wang, Ching-Yun; Blackburn, George L; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-08-01

    Lifestyle interventions for weight loss are the cornerstone of obesity therapy, yet their optimal design is debated. This is particularly true for postmenopausal women; a population with a high prevalence of obesity yet toward whom fewer studies are targeted. We conducted a year-long, 4-arm randomized trial among 439 overweight-to-obese postmenopausal sedentary women to determine the effects of a calorie-reduced, low-fat diet (D), a moderate-intensity, facility-based aerobic exercise program (E), or the combination of both interventions (D+E), vs. a no-lifestyle-change control (C) on change in body weight and composition. The group-based dietary intervention had a weight-reduction goal of ≥10%, and the exercise intervention consisted of a gradual escalation to 45-min aerobic exercise 5 day/week. Participants were predominantly non-Hispanic whites (85%) with a mean age of 58.0 ± 5.0 years, a mean BMI of 30.9 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) and an average of 47.8 ± 4.4% body fat. Baseline and 12-month weight and adiposity measures were obtained by staff blinded to participants' intervention assignment. Three hundred and ninety nine women completed the trial (91% retention). Using an intention-to-treat analysis, average weight loss at 12 months was -8.5% for the D group (P < 0.0001 vs. C), -2.4% for the E group (P = 0.03 vs. C), and -10.8% for the D+E group (P < 0.0001 vs. C), whereas the C group experienced a nonsignificant -0.8% decrease. BMI, waist circumference, and % body fat were also similarly reduced. Among postmenopausal women, lifestyle-change involving diet, exercise, or both combined over 1 year improves body weight and adiposity, with the greatest change arising from the combined intervention.

  14. Brazilian nut consumption improves selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity and reduces atherogenic risk in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cominetti, Cristiane; de Bortoli, Maritsa C; Garrido, Arthur B; Cozzolino, Silvia M F

    2012-06-01

    Studies have shown that there are inverse relationships between nut consumption and the reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study tested the hypothesis that daily consumption of Brazilian nuts would have a positive effect upon selenium (Se) status, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, lipid profile, and atherogenic risk in severely obese women. Thirty-seven severely obese women each consumed 1 Brazilian nut a day (290 μg of Se a day) for 8 weeks. Blood Se concentrations, total erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, lipid profile, and Castelli I and II indexes were evaluated before and after the nuts consumption. All the patients were Se deficient at baseline; this deficiency was remedied by the consumption of the Brazilian nut (P < .0001). The intake of Brazilian nuts promoted a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (P < .00001), which then resulted in a significant improvement of the Castelli I (P < .0002) and II (P < .0004) indexes. This study shows that obese people who implement daily consumption of Brazilian nuts can improve both Se status and lipid profile, especially high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, thereby reducing cardiovascular risks.

  15. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  16. CLINICAL AND NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS IN OBESE WOMEN DURING THE FIRST YEAR AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS

    PubMed Central

    dos SANTOS, Tiago Dália; BURGOS, Maria Goretti Pessoa de Araújo; de LEMOS, Maria da Conceição Chaves; CABRAL, Poliana Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Background: Clinic care for morbid obesity is not very effective. Bariatric surgery is being considered the best way of intervention for this kind of obesity. Aim : Evaluate the clinical and nutritional evolution during the first year of obese women submitted to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Method : Retrospective series non-concurrent with 61 women. The variables were weight, BMI, weight loss percentage, loss of excessive weight percentage, waist circumference, hip circumference, lipid profile, daily use of supplements, practice of physical exercise, occurrence of sickness, nausea, constipation, diarrhea, asthenia, alopecia, dry skin, cramps and brittle nails. Results : They presented significant weight and IMC reduction as well as improvement in their lipid profile, in all consultations. After one year they presented 36,6% loss of the initial weight and 75% loss of excessive weight. The waist circumference also presented a considerable reduction on all the moments, decreasing from 122,1±13,4 cm to 94,1±10,6 cm. Regarding the intercurrences, the most frequent were alopecia, asthenia, dry skin and cramps. Conclusion : The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in promoting and maintenance weight loss during the period of the first postoperative year. PMID:26537276

  17. Whole-Body Vibration Training Improves Heart Rate Variability and Body Fat Percentage in Obese Hispanic Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Severino, Gregory; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Nordvall, Michael; Chernykh, Oksana; Adames, Jason; Wong, Alexei

    2016-12-05

    The present study examined the effects of a 6-week whole body vibration training (WBVT) regimen on heart rate variability (HRV) and body composition in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned to either WBVT (n=13) or non-exercising control group (n=14). HRV and body composition were measured before and after 6 weeks. There was a significant group x time interaction (P<0.05) for heart rate, sympathovagal balance and body fat percentage (BF%) such that all significantly decreased (P<0.05); and R-R intervals which significant increased (P<0.05) following WBVT compared to no changes after control. The changes in sympathovagal balance were correlated with changes in BF% (r=0.63, P<0.05). Our findings indicate that WBVT improves HRV and BF% in obese Hispanic postmenopausal women. The improvement in BF% partially explained the decrease in sympathovagal balance. Since obese and older individuals are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, they could potentially benefit from WBVT.

  18. Exercise improves adiponectin concentrations irrespective of the adiponectin gene polymorphisms SNP45 and the SNP276 in obese Korean women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Young; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Shin, Yun-A

    2013-03-10

    The effects of exercise on adiponectin levels have been reported to be variable and may be attributable to an interaction between environmental and genetic factors. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) 45 (T>G) and SNP276 (G>T) of the adiponectin gene are associated with metabolic risk factors including adiponectin levels. We examined whether SNP45 and SNP276 would differentially influence the effect of exercise training in middle-aged women with uncomplicated obesity. We conducted a prospective study in the general community that included 90 Korean women (age 47.0±5.1 years) with uncomplicated obesity. The intervention was aerobic exercise training for 3 months. Body composition, adiponectin levels, and other metabolic risk factors were measured. Prior to exercise training, only body weight differed among the SNP276 genotypes. Exercise training improved body composition, systolic blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and leptin levels. In addition, exercise improved adiponectin levels irrespective of weight gain or loss. However, after adjustments for age, BMI, body fat (%), and waist circumference, no differences were found in obesity-related characteristics (e.g., adiponectin) following exercise training among the SNP45 and the 276 genotypes. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise affects adiponectin levels regardless of weight loss and this effect would not be influenced by SNP45 and SNP276 in the adiponectin gene.

  19. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Heemskerk, Mattijs M; Giera, Martin; Bouazzaoui, Fatiha El; Lips, Mirjam A; Pijl, Hanno; van Dijk, Ko Willems; van Harmelen, Vanessa

    2015-09-11

    Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT.

  20. Carry-over of self-regulation for physical activity to self-regulating eating in women with morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Porter, Kandice J; Johnson, Ping H

    2015-01-01

    Poor outcomes from behavioral treatments of severe obesity have led to a dependence on invasive medical interventions, including surgery for morbidly obese individuals. Improved methods to self-regulate eating will be required to reduce obesity. The use of self-regulation methods for completing physical activity may carry over to increased self-regulation for eating through improved feelings of competence (self-efficacy) and mood. The study recruited women (Meanage = 43 years) with morbid obesity (MeanBMI = 44 kg/m(2)) to participate in 26 weeks of cognitive-behavioral support of physical activity paired with either nutrition education (n = 51) or cognitive-behavioral nutrition (n = 51) methods. Data collected were from 2011 and 2012. Significant improvements in self-regulation for physical activity, self-regulation for eating, overall mood, and self-efficacy for eating, with greater improvement in self-regulation for eating, were observed in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition group. Changes in mood and self-efficacy for eating significantly mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for physical activity and self-regulation for eating. When subscales of overall mood and self-efficacy were entered into separate regression equations as mediators, the only significant mediators were vigor, and controlling eating when socially pressured and when increased cues to overeat were present.

  1. Using Community Insight to Understand Physical Activity Adoption in Overweight and Obese African American and Hispanic Women: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Thompson, Deborah I.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women. PMID:25504569

  2. Using community insight to understand physical activity adoption in overweight and obese African American and Hispanic women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mama, Scherezade K; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Evans, Alexandra E; Thompson, Deborah I; Diamond, Pamela M; Lee, Rebecca E

    2015-06-01

    Ecologic models suggest that multiple levels of influencing factors are important for determining physical activity participation and include individual, social, and environmental factors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to use an ecologic framework to gain a deeper understanding of the underlying behavioral mechanisms that influence physical activity adoption among ethnic minority women. Eighteen African American and Hispanic women completed a 1-hour in-depth interview. Verbatim interview transcripts were analyzed for emergent themes using a constant comparison approach. Women were middle-aged (age M = 43.9 ± 7.3 years), obese (body mass index M = 35.0 ± 8.9 kg/m(2)), and of high socioeconomic status (88.9% completed some college or more, 41.2% reported income >$82,600/year). Participants discussed individual factors, including the need for confidence, motivation and time, and emphasized the importance of environmental factors, including their physical neighborhood environments and safety of and accessibility to physical activity resources. Women talked about caretaking for others and social support and how these influenced physical activity behavior. The findings from this study highlight the multilevel, interactive complexities that influence physical activity, emphasizing the need for a more sophisticated, ecologic approach for increasing physical activity adoption and maintenance among ethnic minority women. Community insight gleaned from this study may be used to better understand determinants of physical activity and develop multilevel solutions and programs guided by an ecologic framework to increase physical activity in ethnic minority women.

  3. Postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism in obese women after either endurance or resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Davitt, Patrick M; Arent, Shawn M; Tuazon, Marc A; Golem, Devon L; Henderson, Gregory C

    2013-06-15

    We investigated the effects of two exercise modalities on postprandial triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism. Sedentary, obese women were studied on three occasions in randomized order: endurance exercise for 60 min at 60-65% aerobic capacity (E), ~60 min high-intensity resistance exercise (R), and a sedentary control trial (C). After exercise, a liquid-mixed meal containing [U-(13)C]palmitate was consumed, and subjects were studied over 7 h. Isotopic enrichment (IE) of plasma TG, plasma FFA, and breath carbon dioxide compared with meal IE indicated the contribution of dietary fat to each pool. Total and endogenously derived plasma TG content was reduced significantly in both E and R compared with C (P < 0.05), with no effect of exercise on circulating exogenous (meal-derived) TG content. Exogenous plasma FFA content was increased significantly following both E and R compared with C (P < 0.05), whereas total and endogenous FFA concentrations were elevated only in E (P < 0.05) compared with C. Fatty acid (FA) oxidation rates were increased significantly after E and R compared with C (P < 0.05), with no difference between exercise modalities. The present results indicate that E and R may be equally effective in reducing postprandial plasma TG concentration and enhancing lipid oxidation when the exercise sessions are matched for duration rather than for energy expenditure. Importantly, tracer results indicated that the reduction in postprandial lipemia after E and R exercise bouts is not achieved by enhanced clearance of dietary fat but rather, is achieved by reduced abundance of endogenous FA in plasma TG.

  4. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0 kg/m2; Age 24.3±4.6 y) participated in 3 counter-balanced study days where a standardized meal was preceded by: 1) No exercise (NoEx), 2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and 3) IntEx(4 min (80% VO2max)/3 min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280 min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (P<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (P<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (P<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response. PMID:26188172

  5. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and methylcellulose consumption reduce postprandial insulinemia in overweight and obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Maki, Kevin C; Carson, Michael L; Miller, Marvin P; Turowski, Maciej; Bell, Marjorie; Wilder, Donna M; Rains, Tia M; Reeves, Matthew S

    2008-02-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and methylcellulose (MC) are modified cellulose dietary fibers that generate viscous solutions in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This study assessed the effects of high viscosity (HV) HPMC, ultra-HV (UHV) HPMC, and medium viscosity MC on postprandial glucose and insulin responses in overweight and obese men and women (n = 50). After overnight fasts, subjects consumed 5 breakfast meals containing 75 g carbohydrate, each of which contained 1 of the following: 1 g HV-HPMC, 2 g HV-HPMC, 2 g UHV-HPMC, 4 g medium-viscosity MC or control (2 g cellulose). Test sequence was randomized and double-blind, except the MC test, which was last and single-blind (46 subjects completed all 5 tests). Glucose and insulin responses were determined pre-meal and for 120 min postprandially. Median (interquartile limits) peak glucose concentration was lower (P = 0.001) after the meal containing 2.0 g UHV-HPMC (7.1, 6.3-8.2 mmol/L) compared with the control meal (7.7, 6.6-8.7 mmol/L). The control did not differ from the other conditions for peak glucose or for any of the HPMC/MC conditions for glucose incremental areas under the curves (IAUC). Peak insulin was reduced (P < 0.05) for all HPMC/MC conditions compared with control. Insulin IAUC was lower than control (P < 0.001) after meals containing 2 g HV-HPMC, 2 g UHV-HPMC, and 4 g MC. GI symptoms did not differ among treatments. These findings indicate that HV-HPMC (1 and 2 g), UHV-HPMC (2 g), and MC (4 g) consumption reduced postprandial insulin excursions consistent with delayed glucose absorption.

  6. Prior exercise does not alter the incretin response to a subsequent meal in obese women.

    PubMed

    Nyhoff, Lauryn M; Heden, Timothy D; Leidy, Heather J; Winn, Nathan C; Park, Young-Min; Thyfault, John P; Kanaley, Jill A

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has shown an increase in GLP-1 concentrations during exercise but this exercise bout was conducted postprandially. The purpose of this study was to examine the incretin response to a meal following an exercise bout of different intensities in obese subjects. Eleven women (BMI>37.3±7.0kg/m(2); Age 24.3±4.6year) participated in 3 counter- balanced study days, where a standardized meal was preceded by: (1) No exercise (NoEx), (2) ModEx (55% VO2max), and (3) IntEx (4min (80% VO2max)/3min (50% VO2max). Frequent blood samples were analyzed for glucose, lactate, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and C-peptide concentrations throughout 280min of testing. Glucose concentrations were not different between conditions during exercise or meals. There were no differences between conditions in insulin levels during exercise and recovery, but postprandial insulin incremental area under the curve was lower in ModEx vs. NoEx (p<0.01). GIP and GLP-1 levels were not different between conditions during exercise, but during exercise recovery, GLP-1 concentrations were higher in ModEx vs. NoEx (p=0.03). The meal increased the incretin responses (p<0.01) but this response was not affected by prior exercise. Glucagon concentrations increased with exercise (p<0.05) and continued to be elevated during recovery, with the greatest increase with IntEx compared with NoEx (p<0.05). No differences between conditions were detected for hepatic insulin extraction, insulin secretion, or insulin sensitivity. Exercise prior to an evening meal has no impact on the incretin response to the subsequent meal, yet insulin concentrations were lower during the meals that followed exercise. Exercise intensity had no impact on this response.

  7. Differing Patterns of Overweight and Obesity among Black Men and Women in Cape Town: The CRIBSA Study

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Nasheeta; Lombard, Carl; Steyn, Krisela; Gwebushe, Nomonde; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the prevalence and determinants of overweight/obesity in the 25–74-year-old urban black population of Cape Town and examine the changes between 1990 and 2008/09. Methods In 2008/09, a representative cross-sectional sample, stratified for age and sex, was randomly selected from the same townships sampled in 1990. Data were collected by questionnaires, clinical measurements and biochemical analyses. Gender-specific linear regression models evaluated the associations with overweight/obesity. Results There were 1099 participants, 392 men and 707 women (response rate 86%) in 2008/09. Mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were 23.7 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 23.1–24.2) and 84.2 cm (95% CI: 82.8–85.6) in men, and 33.0 kg/m2 (95% CI: 32.3–33.7) and 96.8 cm (95% CI: 95.5–98.1) in women. Prevalence of BMI ≥25 kg/m2 and raised WC were 28.9% (95% CI: 24.1–34.3) and 20.1% (95% CI: 15.9–24.9) in men, and 82.8% (95% CI: 79.3–85.9) and 86.0% (95% CI: 82.9–88.6) in women. Among 25–64-year-olds, BMI ≥25 kg/m2 decreased between 1990 (37.3%, 95% CI: 31.7–43.1) and 2008/09 (27.7%, 95% CI: 22.7–33.4) in men but increased from 72.7% (95% CI: 67.6–77.2) to 82.6% (95% CI: 78.8–85.8) in women. In the regression models for men and women, higher BMI was directly associated with increasing age, wealth, hypertension and diabetes but inversely related to daily smoking. Also significantly associated with rising BMI were raised low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and being employed compared to unemployed in men, and having >7 years of education in women. Conclusions Overweight/obesity, particularly in urban black women, requires urgent action because of the associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors and their serious consequences. PMID:25221948

  8. Sex-specific regulation of NUCB2/nesfatin-1: Differential implication in anxiety in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Ahnis, Anne; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Nesfatin-1 is cleaved from nucleobindin2 (NUCB2) and implicated in the regulation of hunger and satiety as anorexigenic peptide hormone. Circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is elevated in obesity and decreased in anorexia nervosa. In addition, a role in the regulation of stress, anxiety and depression has been demonstrated. First evidence suggested that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 might be regulated in a sex-specific manner. Thus, we investigated NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels in association with perceived stress, anxiety and depressiveness in obese men and women. We enrolled 140 inpatients (87 female, 53 male; body mass index, BMI, 30.3-81.7 kg/m(2)) hospitalized due to obesity with mental and somatic comorbidities. Perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and depressiveness (PHQ-9) were measured psychometrically, and at the same time NUCB2/nesfatin-1 plasma levels by ELISA. Males and females did not differ in terms of age and BMI. NUCB2/nesfatin-1 did not show a correlation with age or BMI. Mean NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels (+25%, p<0.001) as well as mean scores for perceived stress (+26%, p < 0.01), anxiety (+54%, p < 0.001) and depressiveness (+32%, p = 0.02) were higher in females compared to males. Scores for perceived stress (r = 0.39; p < 0.001) and depressiveness (r = 0.35; p < 0.01) showed a positive correlation with NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in women, while in men no correlation was observed (p>0.19). The strongest association was observed between NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and anxiety with a positive correlation in women (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), while in men even an inverse correlation was found (r = -0.32; p = 0.03). This result was reflected in higher NUCB2/nesfatin-1 levels in women with high versus low anxiety (+51%, p<0.001) and an opposite alteration in men (-17%, p = 0.04) after a median split into two groups with high and low anxiety. In conclusion, circulating NUCB2/nesfatin-1 showed a positive correlation with anxiety, perceived stress, and depressiveness in obese women. In men, no

  9. Psychological Factors Associated with Weight Loss in Obese and Severely Obese Women in a Behavioral Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Whitaker, Ann C.

    2010-01-01

    The behavioral processes of weight reduction are poorly understood, and responses to treatments based primarily on caloric restriction have been unfavorable. A theory-based path derived from proposed relations of physical activity, changes in psychological factors, and weight loss was separately tested with women with Class I and Class II obesity…

  10. Effect of Oral Glucose Administration on Rebound Growth Hormone Release in Normal and Obese Women: The Role of Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity and Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Pena-Bello, Lara; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Outeiriño-Blanco, Elena; Garcia-Buela, Jesus; Tovar, Sulay; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Dieguez, Carlos; Cordido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Context Metabolic substrates and nutritional status play a major role in growth hormone (GH) secretion. Uncovering the mechanisms involved in GH secretion following oral glucose (OG) administration in normal and obese patients is a pending issue. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate GH after OG in relation with adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, to further elucidate the mechanism of GH secretion after OG and the altered GH secretion in obesity. Participants and Methods We included 64 healthy and obese women. After an overnight fast, 75 g of OG were administered; GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin were obtained during 300 minutes. Insulin secretion and action indices and the area under the curve (AUC) were calculated for GH, glucose, insulin and ghrelin. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were employed. Results The AUC of GH (μg/L•min) was lower in obese (249.8±41.8) than in healthy women (490.4±74.6), P=0.001. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/mL•min) was lower in obese (240995.5±11094.2) than in healthy women (340797.5±37757.5), P=0.042. There were significant correlations between GH secretion and the different adiposity, insulin secretion and action, and ghrelin secretion indices. After multivariate analysis only ghrelin AUC remained a significant predictor for fasting and peak GH. PMID:25782001

  11. Uncontrolled pilot study of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Health at Every Size intervention for obese, depressed women: Accept Yourself!

    PubMed

    Berman, Margit I; Morton, Stephanie N; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-12-01

    Depression and obesity frequently co-occur, but providing adequate treatment to depressed obese women is challenging because existing treatments for each problem in isolation are suboptimal, and treatments to address one problem may exacerbate the other. This study used an uncontrolled, pretreatment-to-posttreatment design, with 3-month follow-up, to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a novel, self-acceptance-based treatment for obese women with depression, "Accept Yourself!" Accept Yourself! is an 11-week manualized, group-based intervention that integrates Health At Every Size (an evidence-based paradigm to enhance physical health) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (an evidence-based psychotherapy often used to treat depression and eating-related concerns) to improve the physical and mental health of obese, depressed women without encouraging weight loss. Twenty-one obese women with Major Depressive Disorder received the intervention; 18 completed at least seven sessions, a minimal dose of the intervention. Depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, physical health outcomes (including physical activity and blood pressure), and obesity-related quality of life were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Weight was also monitored. Depression, blood pressure, and obesity-related quality of life significantly improved from pretreatment to posttreatment, and improvements were sustained over a 3-month follow-up. Participants did not gain significant weight during the intervention or at follow-up. These data, although preliminary and nonexperimental, suggest that Accept Yourself! could be a promising treatment for obese, depressed women, and support the value of larger randomized controlled trials. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Effect on Insulin-Stimulated Release of D-Chiro-Inositol-Containing Inositolphosphoglycan Mediator during Weight Loss in Obese Women with and without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sistrun, Sakita N.; Morel, Kelley S.; Nestler, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. A deficiency of D-chiro-inositol-inositolphosphoglycan mediator (DCI-IPG) may contribute to insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whether the relationship between impaired DCI-IPG release and insulin resistance is specific to PCOS rather than obesity is unknown. We assessed insulin-released DCI-IPG and its relationship to insulin sensitivity at baseline and after weight loss in obese women with and without PCOS. Methods. Obese PCOS (n = 16) and normal (n = 15) women underwent 8 weeks of a hypocaloric diet. The Matsuda index, area under the curve DCI-IPG (AUCDCI-IPG), AUCinsulin, and AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin were measured during a 2 hr OGTT at baseline and 8 weeks. Results. PCOS women had lower AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin at baseline and a significant relationship between AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin and Matsuda index (p = 0.0003), which was not present in controls. Weight loss was similar between PCOS (−4.08 kg) and normal women (−4.29 kg, p = 0.6281). Weight loss in PCOS women did not change the relationship between AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin and Matsuda index (p = 0.0100), and this relationship remained absent in control women. Conclusion. The association between AUCDCI-IPG/AUCinsulin and insulin sensitivity was only found in PCOS but not in normal women, and this relationship was unaffected by weight loss. DCI and its messenger may contribute to insulin resistance in PCOS independent of obesity. PMID:27721826

  13. Common Variations in Perilipin Gene, Central Obesity, and Risk of Type 2 diabetes in US Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The variations in perilipin gene (PLIN) were previously associated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We examined whether PLIN variability was associated with diabetes risk and whether obesity status modified such associations. Research Methods and Procedures: We conducted a nested cas...

  14. Aerobic Training Improved Low-Grade Inflammation in Obese Women with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, F. J.; Rosety, M. A.; Camacho, A.; Rosety, I.; Diaz, A. J.; Fornieles, G.; Garcia, N.; Rosety-Rodriguez, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major health problem in people with intellectual disabilities. It is also widely accepted that low-grade systemic inflammation associated to obesity plays a key role in the pathogenic mechanism of several disorders. Fortunately, physical activity has shown to improve inflammation in people with metabolic syndrome and type…

  15. Association of serum lipid components and obesity with genetic ancestry in an admixed population of elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Lins, Tulio C.; Pires, Alause S.; Paula, Roberta S.; Moraes, Clayton F.; Vieira, Rodrigo G.; Vianna, Lucy G.; Nobrega, Otávio T.; Pereira, Rinaldo W.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disorders varies among ethnic populations and these disorders represent a critical health care issue for elderly women. This study investigated the correlation between genetic ancestry and body composition, metabolic traits and clinical status in a sample of elderly women. Clinical, nutritional and anthropometric data were collected from 176 volunteers. Genetic ancestry was estimated using 23 ancestry-informative markers. Pearsons correlation test was used to examine the relationship between continuous variables and an independent samples t-test was used to compare the means of continuous traits within categorical variables. Overall ancestry was a combination of European (57.49%), Native American (25.78%) and African (16.73%). Significant correlations were found for European ancestry with body mass index (r = 0.165; p = 0.037) and obesity (mean difference (MD) = 5.3%; p = 0.042). African ancestry showed a significant correlation with LDL (r = 0.159, p = 0.035), VLDL (r = −0.185; p = 0.014), hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 6.4%; p = 0.003) and hyperlipidemia (MD = 4.8%; p = 0.026). Amerindian ancestry showed a significant correlation with triglyceride levels (r = 0.150; p = 0.047) and hypertriglyceridemia (MD = 4.5%; p = 0.039). These findings suggest that genetic admixture may influence the etiology of lipid metabolism-related diseases and obesity in elderly women. PMID:23055794

  16. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Serum Retinol Binding Protein4, Insulin Resistance and Blood Lipids in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    TAGHIAN, Farzaneh; ZOLFAGHARI, Maryam; HEDAYATI, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Retinol binding protein4 (RBP4) is a type of adipokine which transports vitamin A to serum. RBP4 could be a bridge between obesity and insulin resistance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aerobic exercises on RBP4 serum’s concentration and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese women. Methods Twenty obese women with body max index 35.81±3.67Kg/m2, fat percentage 43.98±4.02, and waist to hip ratio 1.03±0.05 were included and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received aerobic exercises for a period of 12 weeks each three sessions on treadmill workout. The treadmill speed were based on a 60-65 and 80-85 maximal heart rate percentage and duration of 15-20 and 45-50 minutes, at the beginning and the end of exercise, respectively. Body composition, serum glucose, insulin, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, total cholesterol, and RBP4, were measured in both groups before and after the treatment by ELISA method. Insulin resistance was measured by HOMA-IR. To compare within group differences and between group comparisons t-correlated and t-independent tests were used, respectively. Results After 12 week aerobic exercises; weight, fat percentage, WHR, and BMI in the experimental group was significantly decreased (P<0.05). RBP4, insulin, insulin resistance, TG and HDL-C had significant differences between two groups. The cholesterol level, LDL-C and glucose did not have any significant changes. Conclusion The aerobic exercises can decrease body composition, insulin resistance, TG, and RBP4, so it can be beneficial for obese women’s health, because it. PMID:26060767

  17. Ectopic fat and Adipokines in Metabolically Benign Overweight/Obese Women: the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Ogorodnikova, AD.; Khan, UI.; McGinn, AP.; Zeb, I.; Budoff, MJ.; Harman, SM.; Miller, VM.; Brinton, EA.; Manson, JE.; Hodis, HN.; Merriam, GR.; Cedars, MI.; Taylor, HS.; Naftolin, F.; Lobo, RA.; Santoro, N.; Wildman, RP.

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is unclear why despite a comparable cardiometabolic risk profile, “metabolically benign” overweight/obese individuals show an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease compared to normal weight individuals. Design and Methods In cross-sectional analyses, we compared levels of ectopic fat (epicardial, pericardial, and hepatic fat) and adipokines (leptin, soluble leptin receptor, and high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin) among metabolically benign (MBOO) and at-risk overweight/obese (AROO), and metabolically benign normal weight (MBNW) women, screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. We defined “metabolically benign” with ≤ 1, and “at-risk” with ≥2 components of the metabolic syndrome. Results Compared to MBOO women, AROO women had significantly elevated odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR:1.76, 95%CI:1.04–2.99), hepatic fat (OR:1.90, 95%CI:1.12–3.24) and leptin (OR:2.15, 95%CI:1.23–3.76), and the bottom tertile of HMW-adiponectin (OR:2.90, 95%CI:1.62–5.19). Compared to MBNW women, MBOO women had significantly higher odds of being in the top tertile of epicardial fat (OR:5.17, 95%CI:3.22–8.29), pericardial fat (OR:9.27, 95%CI:5.52–15.56) and hepatic fat (OR:2.72, 95%CI:1.77–4.19) and the bottom tertile of HMW adiponectin levels (OR:2.51, 95%CI:1.60–3.94). Conclusions Levels of ectopic fat and the adverse adipokine profile increase on a continuum of BMI, suggesting that the metabolically benign phenotype may be a transient state. PMID:23670850

  18. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality.

  19. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-jung

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m2) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (< 1426.3 kcal/day) compared to high BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P < 1 × 10-4). Surveys to estimate energy intake using 24-h recall method for three days and questionnaires for family history, a medical examination, and physical activities were conducted. RESULTS We found that two NRG3 gene SNPs in the 10q23.1 chromosomal region were highly associated with BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10-7, rs1040675; 2.3 × 10-6) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10-5, rs10786764; 6.57 × 10-5). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P <10 × 10-4. Five new loci associated with BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P < 1 × 10-4). In the questionnaire investigation, significant differences were found in the number of starvation periods per week, family history of stomach cancer, coffee intake, and trial of weight control in each group. CONCLUSION We discovered several common BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate. PMID:26865924

  20. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and obesity with metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese midlife women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have simultaneously examined physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the independent roles of both PA and CRF with MS are less firmly established. The combined contributions of PA and CRF with MS are less studied, particularly among Chinese women. There is uncertainty over the extent to which metabolically healthy but overweight/obese individuals have a higher CRF level. Methods The sample included 184 Chinese women aged 55 to 69 years with available metabolic data and lifestyle factors. PA was assessed by self-reported questionnaire; CRF was assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during a symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Metabolically healthy/abnormal was defined on the basis of absence or presence of MS. Overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 23 kg/m2 and obese was defined as a BMI of ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results The prevalence of MS was 21.7%. PA was inversely associated with the prevalence of MS after adjustment for age, BMI, and dietary total calories intake, but the association was eliminated after further adjustment for CRF. CRF was inversely associated with the prevalence of MS independent of age, BMI, and dietary total calories intake, and the association remained significant after further adjustment for PA. In the PA and CRF combined analysis, compared with those in the lowest tertile of PA (inactive) and lowest tertile of CRF (unfit), the OR (95%CI) of having MS was 0.31 (0.09–1.06) for subjects in the higher tertiles (2nd–3rd) of PA (active) but were unfit, 0.23 (0.06–0.88) for subjects who were inactive but in the higher tertiles (2nd–3rd) of CRF (fit), and 0.14 (0.04–0.45) for subjects who were active and fit. Metabolically healthy but overweight/obese subjects had a higher CRF level than their metabolically abnormal and overweight/obese peers. However, the difference did not reach statistically significance

  1. Minimum Wage and Overweight and Obesity in Adult Women: A Multilevel Analysis of Low and Middle Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I.; Ponce, Ninez A.; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24–49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. Results We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). Conclusion This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity. PMID:26963247

  2. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Grineva, E N; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, I L

    2013-07-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(ОН)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p$#X003C0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p$#X003C0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p$#X003C0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.

  3. Vitamin B12 Status among Pregnant Women in the UK and Its Association with Obesity and Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sukumar, Nithya; Venkataraman, Hema; Wilson, Sean; Goljan, Ilona; Selvamoni, Selvin; Patel, Vinod; Saravanan, Ponnusamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate vitamin B12 and folate status in pregnancy and their relationship with maternal obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and offspring birthweight. Methods: A retrospective case-control study of 344 women (143 GDM, 201 no-GDM) attending a district general hospital and that had B12 and folate levels measured in the early 3rd trimester was performed. Maternal history including early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and neonatal data (birthweight, sex, and gestational age) was recorded for all subjects. Results: 26% of the cohort had B12 levels <150 pmol/L (32% vs. 22% in the two groups respectively, p < 0.05) while 1.5% were folate deficient. After adjusting for confounders, 1st trimester BMI was negatively associated with 3rd trimester B12 levels. Women with B12 insufficiency had higher odds of obesity and GDM (aOR (95% CI) 2.40 (1.31, 4.40), p = 0.004, and 2.59 (1.35, 4.98), p = 0.004, respectively), although the latter was partly mediated by BMI. In women without GDM, the lowest quartile of B12 and highest quartile of folate had significantly higher adjusted risk of fetal macrosomia (RR 5.3 (1.26, 21.91), p = 0.02 and 4.99 (1.15, 21.62), p = 0.03 respectively). Conclusion: This is the first study from the UK to show that maternal B12 levels are associated with BMI, risk of GDM, and additionally may have an independent effect on macrosomia. Due to the increasing burden of maternal obesity and GDM, longitudinal studies with B12 measurements in early pregnancy are needed to explore this link. PMID:27916927

  4. Increasing consumption of breakfast cereal improves thiamine status in overweight/obese women following a hypocaloric diet.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Rosa M; López-Sobaler, Ana M; Andrés, Pedro; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Bermejo, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the thiamine status in a group of young, overweight/obese women and to analyse the changes in this status produced by two weight-control programmes based on approximating the diet to the theoretical ideal, increasing the relative consumption of vegetables (V) or cereals (C) (especially breakfast cereals). The study subjects were 57 Spanish women with a body mass index (BMI) of 24-35 kg/m(2), all of whom were randomly assigned to one of two slightly hypocaloric diets. Dietetic, anthropometric and biochemical data were collected at the beginning of the study and at 2 and 6 weeks. C and V subjects showed a reduction in their energy intake, body weight and BMI, both at 2 and 6 weeks. Thiamine intake and blood thiamine levels only increased with diet C (both at 2 and 6 weeks). 21.8% cf the women, 21.8% had blood thiamine levels <150 nmol/L at the beginning of the study, but at 6 weeks of intervention only 3.7% of the women in diet C, as compared with 30.8% of the women in diet V, showed blood thiamine levels <150 nmol/L. Although both diet C and diet V induced weight loss and a reduction in BMI, diet C would appear to be more useful in the maintenance of an adequate thiamine status.

  5. Diet quality and six-year risk of overweight and obesity among mid-age Australian women who were initially in the healthy weight range.

    PubMed

    Aljadani, Haya M; Patterson, Amanda J; Sibbritt, David; Collins, Clare E

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The present study investigated the association between diet quality, measured using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), and 6-year risk of becoming overweight or obese in mid-age women from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH). Methods Women (n=1107) aged 47.6-55.8 years who were a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI) between ≤18.5 and <25.0kgm(-2)) at baseline and who reported valid total energy intakes were included in the study. BMI was calculated from self-reported data in 2001 and 2007. ARFS scores were calculated from data collected using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies Version 2. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between ARFS score as a continuous variable and risk of becoming overweight or obese. Results The 6-year incidence of overweight and obesity was 18.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The mean (± s.d.) ARFS (maximum possible 74) among those who remained within the healthy weight range and those who became overweight or obese at follow-up was 35.3±8.1 and 34.3±8.8, respectively. There was no relationship between baseline ARFS and risk of becoming overweight or obese over 6 years. Women who were smokers were more likely to become overweight or obese (odds ratio 1.5; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.09; P=0.008). Conclusions Poor diet quality was common among mid-age women of a healthy weight in the ALSWH. Higher diet quality was not associated with the risk of overweight or obesity after 6 years, yet smoking status was. So what? Better diet quality alone will not achieve maintenance of a healthy weight, but should be encouraged to improve other health outcomes.

  6. Changing the metabolic profile by large-volume liposuction: a clinical study conducted with 123 obese women.

    PubMed

    D'Andrea, Francesco; Grella, Roberto; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Grella, Elisa; Grella, Rodolfo; Nicoletti, Gianfranco; Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a metabolically active tissue. The hypertrophic fat cells of obese patients produce increased quantities of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and are less sensitive to insulin. This study aimed to determine whether aspirating large amounts of these subcutaneous fat cells by large-volume liposuction (LVL), could change the metabolic profile in 123 obese women. All the patients had a main central body fat distribution (waist-hip ratio, 0.91+/-0.01) and a body mass index of 32.8 +/- 0.8 kg/m). They were studied for 90 days after LVL to determine their changes in insulin sensitivity, resting metabolic rate, serum adipocytokines, and inflammatory marker levels. During 3 months of follow-up evaluation, LVL resulted in a significantly improved insulin sensitivity, resting metabolic rate, serum adipocytokines, and inflammatory marker levels. Such parameters correlate with a decrease in fat mass and waist-hip ratio. Interestingly, no significant changes were seen between the first (21 days) and second (90 days) metabolic determinations after LVL. However, these findings, confirm other preliminary data published previously, and could change the actual role of LVL in the multidisciplinary treatment of obesity.

  7. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  8. Home environment and psychosocial predictors of obesity status among community-residing men and women

    PubMed Central

    Emery, CF; Olson, KL; Lee, VS; Habash, DL; Nasar, JL; Bodine, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Prior research indicates that features of the home environment (for example, televisions, exercise equipment) may be associated with obesity, but no prior study has examined objective features of the home food environment (for example, location of food) in combination with behavioral (for example, food purchasing), psychological (for example, self-efficacy) and social factors among obese adults. This study identified factors associated with obesity status from measures of home environment, food purchasing behavior, eating behavior and psychosocial functioning. SUBJECTS/METHODS One hundred community-residing obese (mean body mass index (BMI) = 36.8, s.e. = 0.60) and nonobese (mean BMI = 23.7, s.e. = 0.57) adults (mean age = 42.7, s.e. = 1.50; range = 20–78 years) completed an observational study with 2-h home interview/assessment and 2-week follow-up evaluation of food purchases and physical activity. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance and logistic regression, controlling for sex. RESULTS Univariate analyses revealed that homes of obese individuals had less healthy food available than homes of nonobese (F(1,97) = 6.49, P = 0.012), with food distributed across a greater number of highly visible locations (F(1,96) = 6.20, P = 0.01). Although there was no group difference in household income or size, obese individuals reported greater food insecurity (F(1,97) = 9.70, P < 0.001), more reliance on fast food (F(1,97) = 7.63, P = 0.01) and more long-term food storage capacity in number of refrigerators (F(1,97) = 3.79, P = 0.05) and freezers (F(1,97) = 5.11, P = 0.03). Obese individuals also reported greater depressive symptoms (F(1,97) = 10.41, P = 0.002) and lower ability to control eating in various situations (F(1,97) = 20.62, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression revealed that obesity status was associated with lower self-esteem (odds ratio (OR) 0.58, P = 0.011), less healthy food consumption (OR 0.94, P = 0.048) and more food

  9. Design of Lifestyle Intervention Trials to Prevent Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Women with Overweight or Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Lifestyle Interventions for Expectant Moms (LIFE-Moms) Consortium is designed to determine, in pregnant women with overweight or obesity, whether various behavioral and lifestyle interventions reduce excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and subsequent adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and obesity in offspring. The design and planning process of the LIFE-Moms Consortium is described. Design and Methods The LIFE-Moms Consortium is a collaboration among seven clinical centers, a Research Coordinating Unit, and the NIH designed to support each clinical center’s conduct of a separate trial of a unique intervention. Specific common measures, procedures, and eligibility criteria are consistent across the 7 trials allowing data to be combined in exploratory analyses and/or compared readily. Results Numerous committees and working groups were created to define common measures and outcomes during pregnancy and through 1 year postpartum, develop Consortium policies and oversee progress of the trials. The primary outcome for the Consortium is excessive GWG. Secondary outcomes include maternal, neonatal and infant anthropometric measures, physical activity, sleep, and complications of pregnancy and delivery. Conclusion A multi-center consortium of independent, lifestyle interventions with common measures and outcomes may enhance the ability to identify promising interventions for improving outcomes in pregnant women and their offspring. PMID:26708836

  10. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women. PMID:27774458

  11. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption following acute aerobic and resistance exercise in women who are lean or obese.

    PubMed

    Crommett, April D; Kinzey, Stephen J

    2004-08-01

    Seventeen women were divided into lean (19.5 +/- 0.5 years; 22.2 +/- 0.6 kg.m(-2)) and obese (20.4 +/- 0.5 years; 34.9 +/- 2.1 kg.m(-2)) groups. On completion of a submax cycle ergometer test and 10-repetition maximum (10RM) of 5 exercises on a Smith machine, subjects returned for 2 exercise sessions during menses. Session 1 consisted of performing 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of the predetermined 10RM for the following exercises: squat, calf raises, bench press, upright row, and shoulder press. Session 2 consisted of cycling at 60-65% VO2max for a duration that would expend the same number of calories as the resistance session. Postexercise respiratory exchange ratio and EPOC magnitude/duration were similar for both groups. These findings indicate that women who are lean or obese will respond similarly to exercise at similar relative intensities and that aerobic and resistance exercise of equal caloric expenditure will elicit similar EPOC responses.

  12. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p = 0.042). Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  13. Effects of improved self-appraisal and mood factors on weight loss in obese women initiating supported exercise.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to test to what extent improvements in self-appraisal and mood factors were associated with changes in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and waist circumference. Women with obesity (N=171) completed Physical Self-Concept, Exercise Self-Efficacy, Body Areas Satisfaction, Tension, and Depression scales, and were measured on BMI and waist circumference, at baseline and just after a 24-week supported exercise program. With the exception of Physical Self-Concept, improvements on each psychological factor were associated with significantly greater weight and waist circumference improvements. Multiple regression analyses indicated that improvement/non-improvement on the psychological factors explained a significant 9 to 11 percent of the variance in BMI change, and 13 to 20 percent of the variance in waist circumference change. Significant unique contributions to the explained variance in BMI were made by improvements in Exercise Self-Efficacy and Depression, with improvement in Tension also making significant unique contributions to the explained variance in waist circumference change. Consistent with tenets of social cognitive theory, the association of improvements in self-appraisal and mood factors with weight and waist circumference improvements was supported in obese women. Replications and extensions of this preliminary research to, ultimately, improve weight loss theory and treatment, was suggested.

  14. Therapeutic effects of metformin and clomiphene in combination with lifestyle intervention on infertility in women with obese polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Si, Qinqin; Li, Jinqiong

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of metformin and clomiphene in combination with lifestyle adjustment on infertility in women with obese polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Methods: A total of 101 infertile women with obese PCOS admitted to our hospital from July 2013 to July 2015 were randomly divided into an observation group (n=51) and a control group (n=50). The control group was treated with metformin plus clomiphene, based on which the observation group was also subjected to lifestyle adjustment. The body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured before and after treatment. The changes of reproductive hormones, ovaries and endometrium were detected, and the rates of menstrual recovery, ovulation and pregnancy were observed. Results: The body weight and BMI of the observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment and of the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in WHR between the two groups. In the observation group, there were significant differences in LH, T, LH/FSH, FINS and TG levels before and after treatment and from those of the control group after treatment (P<0.05). Both the left and right ovarian volumes of the observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment and of the control group after treatment (P<0.05). The menstrual recovery, ovulation and pregnancy rates of the observation group were significantly higher than those of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Lifestyle adjustment combined with metformin and clomiphene can improve the reproductive endocrine and lipid metabolism of obese PCOS patients, decrease the volumes of left and right ovaries, and increase the menstrual recovery, ovulation and pregnancy rates. PMID:28367163

  15. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Overweight/Obese Women With and Without Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Design and Methods of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may be beneficial for overweight/obese women, including women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), as it has been shown to reduce psychological distress and improve quality of life in other patient populations. Preliminary studies suggest that MBSR may also have salutary effects on blood pressure and blood glucose. This paper describes the design and methods of an ongoing pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility and effects of MBSR in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. Eighty six (86) women with body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, including 31 women with PCOS, have been randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education control, and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome is mindfulness assessed with the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes include measures of blood pressure, blood glucose, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Our overall hypothesis is that MBSR will increase mindfulness and ultimately lead to favorable changes in blood pressure, blood glucose, psychological distress and quality of life in PCOS and non-PCOS women. This would support the integration of MBSR with conventional medical treatments to reduce psychological distress, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in PCOS and non-PCOS women who are overweight or obese. PMID:25662105

  16. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  17. Lipid exposure elicits differential responses in gene expression and DNA methylation in primary human skeletal muscle cells from severely obese women.

    PubMed

    Maples, Jill M; Brault, Jeffrey J; Shewchuk, Brian M; Witczak, Carol A; Zou, Kai; Rowland, Naomi; Hubal, Monica J; Weber, Todd M; Houmard, Joseph A

    2015-05-01

    The skeletal muscle of obese individuals exhibits an impaired ability to increase the expression of genes linked with fatty acid oxidation (FAO) upon lipid exposure. The present study determined if this response could be attributed to differential DNA methylation signatures. RNA and DNA were isolated from primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSkMC) from lean and severely obese women following lipid incubation. mRNA expression and DNA methylation were quantified for genes that globally regulate FAO [PPARγ coactivator (PGC-1α), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs)]. With lipid oversupply, increases in NRF-1, NRF-2, PPARα, and PPARδ expression were dampened in skeletal muscle from severely obese compared with lean women. The expression of genes downstream of the PPARs and NRFs also exhibited a pattern of not increasing as robustly upon lipid exposure with obesity. Increases in CpG methylation near the transcription start site with lipid oversupply were positively related to PPARδ expression; increases in methylation with lipid were depressed in HSkMC from severely obese women. With severe obesity, there is an impaired ability to upregulate global transcriptional regulators of FAO in response to lipid exposure. Transient changes in DNA methylation patterns and differences in the methylation signature with severe obesity may play a role in the transcriptional regulation of PPARδ in response to lipid. The persistence of differential responses to lipid in HSkMC derived from lean and obese subjects supports the possibility of stable epigenetic programming of skeletal muscle cells by the respective environments.

  18. The influence of oral water load on energy expenditure and sympatho-vagal balance in obese and normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Żak-Gołąb, Agnieszka; Rzemieniuk, Anna; Smętek, Joanna; Sordyl, Ryszard; Tyrka, Agata; Sosnowski, Maciej; Zahorska-Markiewicz, Barbara; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Oral water load may increase the energy expenditure (EE) by stimulation of sympathetic dependent thermogenesis. Thus, drinking of water may be helpful in weight reduction. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of water load on energy expenditure and sympathetic activity in obese and normal weight women. Material and methods Forty-five women were included. Energy expenditure was measured twice, in the morning and after oral water load, by the indirect calorimetric method. The heart rate variability parameters low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), LF/HF index, standard deviation of normal RR intervals (SDNN) and root mean square difference among successive RR normal intervals (rMSSD) were used for the indirect assessment of the sympatho-vagal balance. Results Resting energy expenditure (REE) was significantly higher in obese than in normal weight women (1529 ±396 kcal/day vs. 1198 ±373 kcal/day; p = 0.02). In both study groups after water load EE increased significantly (by 20% and by 12%, corresponding to 8.6 kcal/h and 5.2 kcal/h respectively), while, LF/HF index increased simultaneously. The increase of energy expenditure (EE) did not exceed the energetic cost of water heating, from room to body temperature – 15 kcal/1000 ml. There was no correlation between changes of energy expenditure (EE) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters. Conclusions The increase of EE induced by water load is mostly related to the heating of the consumed water to body temperature. The assessment of autonomic balance by means of standard HRV indices had been found insufficient for detection of actually operating mechanisms. PMID:23319974

  19. The effectiveness of a weight loss diet in a group of overweight and obese women with recurrent depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wendołowicz, Agnieszka; Konarzewska, Beata; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The research conducted among patients with depression shows that such patients commit a range of nutritional mistakes which may predispose them to the development of many diseases including obesity and its complications. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of a balanced weight loss diet in a group of women with recurrent depressive disorders. Material and methods 60 women suffering from depression, aged 41-64 (mean 52 ±5.3) on a six-month weight loss diet took part in the study. The patients’ nutrition was assessed both in terms of quality and quantity, they were also subjected to anthropometric tests and their body composition was analysed. Results An average reduction in the women's body weight was 4.1 ±3.1 kg. The percentage content of the fatty tissue was reduced by 2.5 ±1.1% on average after modification of the nutrition (a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of wheat bread, cream, fat pork and eggs was observed). A considerable reduction in the mean energy value of the diet and a decrease in the total fat supply was also implemented. Conclusions It seems that the dietary procedure which is aimed at obtaining the most advantageous effects of the reduction in the body mass of obese patients suffering from depression should be based not only on proper selection of food products and reduction in the energy value of the diet, but it should also take into account actions aimed at introducing permanent lifestyle changes including increased motivation of the patients to undertake physical activity. PMID:27582679

  20. The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Khodaveisi, Masoud; Omidi, Afsar; Farokhi, Shima; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Changes in lifestyle and eating habits have put women at risk of obesity and overweight more than ever. This aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) to improve the nutritional behavior of overweight and obese women admitted to Fatemiyeh Hospital clinics in Hamadan, west Iran in 2015. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 108 eligible women were selected and randomly assigned to two groups: one experimental and one control. Data were gathered using three questionnaires: demographics, Pender’s HPM constructs, and nutritional behavior. The questionnaires were filled out by both groups as pre-test and two months later. A Pender’s HPM-based intervention was conducted for the experimental group. The data were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests, ANCOVA, and Spearmans’ correlation coefficient in SPSS/16. The level of significance was considered to be <0.05. Results: The mean score of nutritional behavior was 41.75±3.28 and 42.36±3.69 before the intervention and 79.09±5.27 and 49.72±9.49 after it in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The difference was significant only between before and after the intervention in the experimental group (P<0.001). Furthermore, the mean scores of the following variables were significantly different between before and after the intervention in the experimental group: nutritional behavior, perceived benefits, perceived self-efficacy, commitment to action, interpersonal and situational influences, behavior-related affect, and perceived barriers (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results showed that Pender’s HPM-based training improved nutritional behavior and some constructs of the model. Therefore, this educative model can be used by healthcare providers to improve the nutritional and other health promoting behaviors.

  1. Impact of whole body electromyostimulation on cardiometabolic risk factors in older women with sarcopenic obesity: the randomized controlled FORMOsA-sarcopenic obesity study

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Katharina; Sieber, Cornel; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias; Freiberger, Ellen; Jakob, Franz; Lell, Michael; Engelke, Klaus; Kemmler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is characterized by a combination of low muscle and high fat mass with an additive negative effect of both conditions on cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. Methods The study was conducted in an ambulatory university setting. Seventy-five community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were randomly allocated to either 6 months of WB-EMS application with (WB-EMS&P) or without (WB-EMS) dietary supplementation (150 kcal/day, 56% protein) or a non-training control group (CG). WB-EMS included one session of 20 min (85 Hz, 350 μs, 4 s of strain–4 s of rest) per week with moderate-to-high intensity. The primary study endpoint was the MetS Z-score with the components waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); secondary study endpoints were changes in these determining variables. Results MetS Z-score decreased in both groups; however, changes compared with the CG were significant (P=0.001) in the WB-EMS&P group only. On analyzing the components of the MetS, significant positive effects for both WB-EMS groups (P≤0.038) were identified for MAP, while the WB-EMS group significantly differed for WC (P=0.036), and the WB-EMS&P group significantly differed for HDL-C (P=0.006) from the CG. No significant differences were observed between the WB-EMS groups. Conclusion The study clearly confirms the favorable effect of WB-EMS application on the MetS in community-dwelling women aged ≥70 years with SO. However, protein-enriched supplements did not increase effects of WB-EMS alone. In summary, we considered this novel technology an effective and safe method to prevent cardiometabolic risk factors and diseases in older women unable or

  2. Preproghrelin gene polymorphisms in obese Japanese women. Minor homozygotes are light eaters, do not prefer protein or fat, and apparently have a poor appetite.

    PubMed

    Takezawa, Jun; Yamada, Kouichi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Morita, Akemi; Aiba, Naomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shaw

    2013-04-01

    Preproghrelin gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms are possible predisposing factors to obesity and other metabolic syndromes. To study the correlation between genotypes and obesity, we recruited 117 obese Japanese women (BMI, 25.0-41.1; average, 31.1). Minor homozygotes for five preproghrelin gene polymorphisms, namely, -1500C>G (rs3755777), -1062G>C (rs26311), -994C>T (rs26312) (promoter region), Leu72Met (rs696217) (exon 2), and +3056T>C (rs2075356) (intron 2), had high values of total and visceral fat areas, waist circumference, and BMI, indicating significant correlation of the polymorphisms with obesity and fat metabolism. Here, we studied the relationship between the genotypes and dietary tendency. Self-administered Diet History Questionnaire showed that total food intake, sugar, and dairy product intake were low in +3056C/C women. Their energy, protein, fat, and meat intake was also low. Energy balance calculation showed considerably reduced fat and protein consumption. Dietary habits were surveyed using Sakata's Questionnaire on Eating Behavior. Of the genotypes, -1062C/C women showed low scores for "motivation for eating" and "eating because of stress or something else." Thus, surprisingly, it was revealed that minor homozygotes for preproghrelin gene polymorphisms were light eaters, did not prefer fat or protein, and apparently had a poor appetite, although they were predisposed to obesity.

  3. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50-60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (∆ score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  4. Preventing obesity: exercise and daily activities of low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Seonae; Logan, Jeongok G

    2014-01-01

    Low-income women are at risk for excessive gestational weight gain. Inactive lifestyle and lack of regular moderate exercise may contribute to the risk of weight gain. This study was conducted to (1) determine the rate and characteristics of low-income pregnant women who exercised regularly and met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation and (2) describe how these women spent time for other physical activities compared with those who did not exercise regularly. Medicaid-recipient or uninsured pregnant women (n = 816) were asked to complete a physical activity questionnaire at rural and urban county health departments located in North Carolina. Twenty percent of low-income women met the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommendation for moderate exercise (≥10 METs-h/wk [metabolic equivalent task-hours per week]). The women who met the recommendation spent 3 hours 45 minutes per week walking as exercise, whereas those who did not meet the recommendation spent 1 hour per week (P < .0001). Women who exercised regularly spent longer hours at work (4.25 vs. 1.75 hours per day; P = .019) and on household tasks (5.25 vs. 4.0 hours per day; P = .002) than women who did not exercise regularly. Time spent on domestic and occupation activities does not seem to prohibit low-income women from engaging in moderate exercise on a regular basis.

  5. Efficacy of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the prevention of the atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: retrospective data from selected obese menopausal symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Venturella, Roberta; Mocciaro, Rita; D'Alessandro, Pietro; Zullo, Fulvio

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system-releasing (LNG-IUS) insertion in preventing atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in symptomatic postmenopausal overweight/obese women. A total of 34 overweight/obese postmenopausal women, presenting abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), and who were submitted to LNG-IUS insertion, were identified from registry data. Endometrial histology at LNG-IUS insertion showed simple EH in 20 cases (58.8%), complex EH in 14 cases (41.2%). At 36 months, 91% of patients showed no recurrence of AUB and a significant reduction in the mean endometrial thickness (from 8.2 ± 2.2 to 3.2 ± 1.5 mm, p < 0.05) was observed. Histologic regression of EH was observed in 27 (79.4%) and 33 (97.5%) cases at 12 and 36 months, respectively. None of the women in which EH persisted, reported cellular atypia or cancer progression at 12 and 36 months of follow-up. LNG-IUS represents an effective treatment option to manage postmenopausal obese women affected by AUB and EH. The device seems to be able to prevent the onset of AH and EC in women at high risk. Further prospective controlled studies in a well selected group of women are needed.

  6. Attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage medical students regarding professionalism at a medical college in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increased interest in professionalism has been reported in the field of medical education due to concerns regarding deterioration of humanism and professional values in the teaching and practice of medicine. The primary aim of this study was to assess attitudes of Pakistani and Pakistani heritage students at a medical college in Pakistan about important elements of professionalism that an ideal medical doctor should possess. A further objective of the study was to determine students’ preferred ways of learning professionalism. Methods A written survey was distributed to undergraduate medical students at a public sector medical college at Karachi, Pakistan in 2011. Using the Penn State College of Medicine (PSCOM) Professionalism Questionnaire, attitudes of medical students of semester 1, 5, and 8 regarding professionalism were assessed anonymously. Results The mean age of the students was 21.11 ± 2.72 years. Forty-three percent of the respondents were male. Forty percent of the students held Pakistani citizenship. Thirty-five percent students were US citizens with Pakistani parents and twenty-five percent were Pakistani heritage students that had dual citizenships. No significant differences in the elements of professionalism (Accountability, Altruism, Duty, Excellence, Honesty & Integrity and Respect) mean scores or in the overall mean score of professionalism among the various classes were found. The total overall Cronbach alpha value for all elements of the professionalism in the selected classes was above 0.9. The most preferred methods for learning professionalism were role modeling by faculty, case based scenarios and role plays. Conclusion The students rated all the attributes of professionalism as important and there was no difference across the study years. The overall internal consistency of each element of professionalism was high in different classes. Faculty role models, case based scenarios and role plays may be used to teach

  7. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  8. Pubertal timing and adult obesity and cardiometabolic risk in women and men: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Prentice, P; Viner, R M

    2013-08-01

    Obesity has complex multifactorial aetiology. It has been suggested by many, but not all, reports that earlier pubertal maturation may increase adult obesity risk. We conducted a systemic review and meta-analysis in both women and men, and hypothesised that any association between pubertal timing and adult obesity is likely to be confounded by childhood adiposity. In addition, we investigated whether pubertal timing is related to other cardiometabolic risk and long-term cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and TRIP databases, with a hand search of references. Both authors independently reviewed and extracted pre-defined data from all selected papers. Meta-analyses were conducted using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.0.24. A total of 48 papers were identified. Out of 34 studies, 30 reported an inverse relationship between pubertal timing and adult body mass index (BMI), the main adiposity measure used. Meta-analysis of 10 cohorts showed association between early menarche (menarche <12 vs ≥12 years) and increased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of 0.34 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: 0.33-0.34). Heterogeneity was large (I(2)=92%) but reduced significantly when grouped by outcome age. Late menarche (menarche ≥15 vs <15 years) was associated with decreased adult BMI, with a standardised mean difference of -0.26 kg m(-2) (95% confidence interval: -0.36, -0.21) (seven cohorts). Only eight papers included data on childhood BMI; the majority reported that childhood BMI only partially attenuated association between early menarche and later obesity. Although not suitable for meta-analysis, data on cardiometabolic risk factors and puberty suggested negative association between earlier pubertal timing and cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abnormal glycaemia. Earlier pubertal timing is predictive of higher adult BMI and greater risk of obesity

  9. Severity of depressive symptoms and accuracy of dietary reporting among obese women with major depressive disorder seeking weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Ma, Yunsheng; Waring, Molly E; DeBiasse, Michele A; Busch, Andrew M; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Olendzki, Barbara C; Crawford, Sybil L; Ockene, Ira S; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    An elevation in symptoms of depression has previously been associated with greater accuracy of reported dietary intake, however this association has not been investigated among individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. The purpose of this study was to investigate reporting accuracy of dietary intake among a group of women with major depressive disorder in order to determine if reporting accuracy is similarly associated with depressive symptoms among depressed women. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake was calculated based on three 24-hour phone-delivered dietary recalls from the baseline phase of a randomized trial of weight loss treatment for 161 obese women with major depressive disorder. Regression models indicated that higher severity of depressive symptoms was associated with greater reporting accuracy, even when controlling for other factors traditionally associated with reporting accuracy (coefficient  =  0.01 95% CI = 0.01 - 0.02). Seventeen percent of the sample was classified as low energy reporters. Reporting accuracy of dietary intake increases along with depressive symptoms, even among individuals with major depressive disorder. These results suggest that any study investigating associations between diet quality and depression should also include an index of reporting accuracy of dietary intake as accuracy varies with the severity of depressive symptoms.

  10. Considering J.Lo and Ugly Betty: a qualitative examination of risk factors and prevention targets for body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and obesity in young Latina women.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Coen, Emilie J; Roehrig, James P; Rodgers, Rachel F; Jenkins, Amy; Lovering, Meghan E; Dela Cruz, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women.

  11. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  12. A comparison of the accuracy of self reported intake vs. measured intake of a laboratory overeating episode in obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose was to: 1) Confirm that those with binge eating disorder (BED) consume significantly more kilocalories (kcal) than obese controls when instructed to overeat in the laboratory and 2) Compare dietary recall data with measured intake. Methods: Fifteen women fulfilling BED criteria and 17 c...

  13. The Effects of a "Health at Every Size(®)"-Based Approach in Obese Women: A Pilot-Trial of the "Health and Wellness in Obesity" Study.

    PubMed

    Ulian, Mariana Dimitrov; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Roble, Odilon J; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; de Morais Sato, Priscila; Brito, Bruna Cristina; Murakawa, Karina Akemi; Modesto, Bruno T; Aburad, Luiz; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Lancha, Antonio H; Gualano, Bruno; Scagliusi, Fernanda B

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the effects of Health at Every Size(®)-based intervention on obese women by qualitatively evaluating participants' perception toward the program and quantitatively evaluating changes related to psychological, behavioral, and body composition assessments. A prospective 1-year quasi-experimental mixed-method trial was conducted. The mixed-method design was characterized by a spiral method, and quantitative and qualitative findings were combined during the interpretation phase. The qualitative data involved three focus groups; and quantitative data comprised physiological, psychological, and behavioral assessments. Initially, 30 participants were recruited; 14 concluded the intervention. From the focus groups, the following interpretative axes were constructed: the intervention as a period of discoveries; shifting parameters: psychological, physical, and behavioral changes; eating changes, and; redefining success. Body weight, body mass index, total body fat mass, and body fat percentage were significantly decreased after the intervention (-3.6, -3.2, -13.0, and -11.1%, respectively; p ≤ 0.05, within-time effect). Participants reported to be more physically active and perceiving better their bodies. Eating-wise, participants reported that the hunger and satiety cues and the consumption of more frequent meals facilitated their eating changes. Finally, participants reported that they could identify feelings with eating choices and refrain from the restrained behavior. These qualitative improvements were accompanied by modest but significant improvements in quantitative assessments. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT02102061.

  14. Fast Food Intake in Relation to Employment Status, Stress, Depression, and Dietary Behaviors in Low-Income Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Brown, Roger; Nitzke, Susan

    2016-07-01

    Objective This study explored fast food intake as a potential mediator of the relationships among employment status; stress; depression; and fruit, vegetable, and fat intakes by race (African American vs. Non-Hispanic White) and body mass index (BMI category: overweight vs. obesity). Methods Low-income overweight and obese pregnant women (N = 332) were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Michigan. Path analysis was performed to explore mediation effects by race and BMI category. Results Fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.02) in Non-Hispanic White women, but no mediation effect was detected in African American women. For overweight women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04) and the relationship between depression and vegetable intake (p = 0.01). Also, fast food intake partially mediated the relationship between depression and fat intake (p = 0.003). For obese women, fast food intake mediated the relationship between employment status and fat intake (p = 0.04). Conclusion Fast food is an important topic for nutrition education for overweight and obese pregnant women. Future interventions may be more successful if they address issues associated with employment status (e.g., lack of time to plan and cook healthy meals) and depressive mood (e.g., inability to plan meals or shop for groceries when coping with negative emotions).

  15. Entrepreneurial Attributes among Postgraduate Students of a Pakistani University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Akhtar; Topping, Keith J.; Tariq, Riaz H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores entrepreneurial attributes among the students of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, a public sector Pakistani university. Multistage sampling was employed to maximize the representation. Five hundred and twenty one master's level students from thirty departments returned completed questionnaires. Three factors emerged: self…

  16. Sexual dimorphism in activation of placental autophagy in obese women with evidence for fetal programming from a placenta-specific mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Muralimanoharan, Sribalasubashini; Gao, Xiaoli; Weintraub, Susan; Myatt, Leslie; Maloyan, Alina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The incidence of maternal obesity and its co-morbidities (diabetes, cardiovascular disease) continues to increase at an alarming rate, with major public health implications. In utero exposure to maternal obesity has been associated with development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the offspring as a result of developmental programming. The placenta regulates maternal-fetal metabolism and shows significant changes in its function with maternal obesity. Autophagy is a cell-survival process, which is responsible for the degradation of damaged organelles and misfolded proteins. Here we show an activation of autophagosomal formation and autophagosome-lysosome fusion in placentas of males but not females from overweight (OW) and obese (OB) women vs. normal weight (NW) women. However, total autophagic activity in these placentas appeared to be decreased as it showed an increase in SQSTM1/p62 and a decrease in lysosomal biogenesis. A mouse model with a targeted deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 in placental tissue showed significant placental abnormalities comparable to those seen in human placenta with maternal obesity. These included a decrease in expression of mitochondrial genes and antioxidants, and decreased lysosomal biogenesis. Strikingly, the knockout mice were developmentally programmed as they showed an increased sensitivity to high-fat diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, increased adiposity, and cardiac remodeling. In summary, our results indicate a sexual dimorphism in placental autophagy in response to maternal obesity. We also show that autophagy plays an important role in placental function and that inhibition of placental autophagy programs the offspring to obesity, and to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26986453

  17. The exercise-induced myokine irisin does not show an association with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in obese women.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, T; Elbelt, U; Ahnis, A; Obbarius, A; Rose, M; Klapp, B F; Stengel, A

    2016-04-01

    Irisin has recently been proposed to act as a myokine secreted from skeletal muscle following exercise and to exert several health-beneficial effects, although its role is far from being established. In contrast to the growing body of literature on the biological regulation and function of irisin, there is no evidence on potential associations with mental functions. Since physical activity has been reported to have favorable impact on mental functions, we investigated the association of irisin with depressiveness, perceived stress, and anxiety as well as eating disorder symptoms in obese women. We included 98 female obese inpatients (age: mean ± S.D. 43.9 ± 12.5 years; body mass index 49.2 ± 8.3 kg/m(2)) covering a broad spectrum of psychopathology. Depressiveness (PHQ-9), perceived stress (PSQ-20), anxiety (GAD-7), and eating disorder symptoms (EDI-2) were assessed psychometrically. Plasma irisin obtained at the same time was determined by ELISA. Irisin did not correlate with depressiveness (r = -0.03, P = 0.80), anxiety (r = 0.14, P = 0.17) and perceived stress (r = -0.14, P = 0.18) as well as eating disorder symptoms in general (r = -0.09, P = 0.39). No correlation of irisin was observed with any subscales of the PSQ-20 and EDI-2 (after Bonferroni correction). In conclusion, irisin is not associated with depressiveness, anxiety and perceived stress in female obese patients. These results do not support the assumption of irisin being involved in psychoendocrine pathways of the regulation of depression or other mental functions such as anxiety and perceived stress.

  18. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-04-27

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis.

  19. PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aragonès, Gemma; Auguet, Teresa; Armengol, Sandra; Berlanga, Alba; Guiu-Jurado, Esther; Aguilar, Carmen; Martínez, Salomé; Sabench, Fátima; Porras, José Antonio; Ruiz, Maikel Daniel; Hernández, Mercé; Sirvent, Joan Josep; Del Castillo, Daniel; Richart, Cristóbal

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest a role for the Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) in the pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lipid deposition in the liver seems to be a critical process in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the association between the liver PNPLA3 expression, key genes of lipid metabolism, and the presence of NAFLD in morbidly obese women. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to analyze the hepatic expression of PNPLA3 and lipid metabolism-related genes in 55 morbidly obese subjects with normal liver histology (NL, n = 18), simple steatosis (SS, n = 20), and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, n = 17). Liver biopsies were collected during bariatric surgery. We observed that liver PNPLA3 expression was increased in NAFLD than in NL. It was also upregulated in SS than in NL. Interestingly, we found that the expression of PNPLA3 was significantly higher in severe than mild SS group. In addition, the expression of the transcription factors LXRα, PPARα, and SREBP2 was positively correlated with PNPLA3 liver expression. Regarding rs738409 polymorphism, GG genotype was positive correlated with the presence of NASH. In conclusion, our results show that PNPLA3 could be related to lipid accumulation in liver, mainly in the development and progression of simple steatosis. PMID:27128907

  20. A 12-Week Exercise Program for Pregnant Women with Obesity to Improve Physical Activity Levels: An Open Randomised Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Alméras, Natalie; Dufresne, Sébastien S.; Robitaille, Julie; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Frenette, Jérôme; Tremblay, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a 12-week supervised exercise program promotes an active lifestyle throughout pregnancy in pregnant women with obesity. Methods In this preliminary randomised trial, pregnant women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2) were allocated to either standard care or supervised training, from 15 to 27 weeks of gestation. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry at 14, 28 and 36 weeks, while fitness (oxygen consumption (VO2) at the anaerobic threshold), nutrition (caloric intake and macronutrients percentage) and anthropometry were assessed at 14 and 28 weeks of gestation. Analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results A total of fifty (50) women were randomised, 25 in each group. There was no time-group interaction for time spent at moderate and vigorous activity (pinteraction = 0.064), but the exercise group’s levels were higher than controls’ at all times (pgroup effect = 0.014). A significant time-group interaction was found for daily physical activity (p = 0.023); similar at baseline ((22.0 ± 6.7 vs 21.8 ± 7.3) x 104 counts/day) the exercise group had higher levels than the control group following the intervention ((22.8 ± 8.3 vs 19.2 ± 4.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.020) and at 36 weeks of gestation ((19.2 ± 1.5 vs 14.9 ± 1.5) x 104 counts/day, p = 0.034). Exercisers also gained less weight than controls during the intervention period despite similar nutritional intakes (difference in weight change = -0.1 kg/week, 95% CI -0.2; -0.02, p = 0.016) and improved cardiorespiratory fitness (difference in fitness change = 8.1%, 95% CI 0.7; 9.5, p = 0.041). Conclusions Compared with standard care, a supervised exercise program allows pregnant women with obesity to maintain fitness, limit weight gain and attenuate the decrease in physical activity levels observed in late pregnancy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01610323 PMID:26375471

  1. Hypertension and obesity and the risk of kidney cancer in 2 large cohorts of US men and women.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Kristen M; McTigue, Kathleen M; Fidler, Christian J; Neaton, James D; Chang, Yuefang; Fried, Linda F; Liu, Simin; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-05-01

    Kidney cancer incidence is increasing globally. Reasons for this rise are unclear but could relate to obesity and hypertension. We analyzed longitudinal relationships between hypertension and obesity and kidney cancer incidence in 156 774 participants of the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials and observational studies over 10.8 years. In addition, we examined the effect of blood pressure (BP) on kidney cancer deaths for over 25 years among the 353 340 men screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). In the Women's Health Initiative, systolic BP (SBP) was categorized in 6 groups from <120 to >160 mm Hg, and body mass index was categorized using standard criteria. In age-adjusted analyses, kidney cancer risk increased across SBP categories (P value for trend <0.0001) and body mass index categories (P value for trend <0.0001). In adjusted Cox proportional hazards models, both SBP levels and body mass index were predictors of kidney cancer. In the MRFIT sample, there were 906 deaths after an average of 25 years of follow-up attributed to kidney cancer among the 353 340 participants aged 35 to 57 years at screening. The risk of death from kidney cancer increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing SBP (hazard ratio, 1.87 for SBP>160 versus <120 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-2.53). Risk was increased among cigarette smokers. Further research is needed to determine the pathophysiologic basis of relationships between both higher BP and the risk of kidney cancer, and whether specific drug therapies for hypertension can reduce kidney cancer risk.

  2. High Aminopeptidase N/CD13 Levels Characterize Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Drive Their Increased Adipogenic Potential in Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Nardelli, Carmela; Raia, Maddalena; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Quaglia, Filomena; Labruna, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Valentina; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Pastore, Lucio; Di Noto, Rosa; Martinelli, Pasquale; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women, to identify alterations possibly predisposing the fetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM prepregnancy body mass index: 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively), and 32 not pregnant women. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry; several maternal and newborn clinical and biochemical parameters were also measured. The expression of membrane antigen CD13 was higher on Ob-hA-MSCs than on Co-hA-MSCs (P=0.005). Also, serum levels of CD13 at delivery were higher in Ob- versus Co-pregnant women and correlated with CD13 antigen expression on Ob-hA-MSCs (r2=0.84, P<0.0001). Adipogenesis induction experiments revealed that Ob-hA-MSCs had a higher adipogenic potential than Co-hA-MSCs as witnessed by higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and aP2 mRNA levels (P=0.05 and P=0.05, respectively), at postinduction day 14 associated with increased CD13 mRNA levels from baseline to day 4 postinduction (P<0.05). Adipogenesis was similar in the two sets of hA-MSCs after CD13 silencing, whereas it was increased in Co-hA-MSCs after CD13 overexpression. CD13 expression was high also in Ob-h-MSCs from umbilical cords or visceral adipose tissue of not pregnant women. In conclusion, antigen CD13, by influencing the adipogenic potential of hA-MSCs, could be an in utero risk factor for obesity. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that high levels of serum and MSC CD13 are obesity markers. PMID:23488598

  3. High aminopeptidase N/CD13 levels characterize human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells and drive their increased adipogenic potential in obese women.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Laura; Nardelli, Carmela; Raia, Maddalena; Mariotti, Elisabetta; Ferrigno, Maddalena; Quaglia, Filomena; Labruna, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Valentina; Capone, Angela; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Pastore, Lucio; Di Noto, Rosa; Martinelli, Pasquale; Sacchetti, Lucia; Del Vecchio, Luigi

    2013-08-15

    Maternal obesity is associated to increased fetal risk of obesity and other metabolic diseases. Human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs) have not been characterized in obese women. The aim of this study was to isolate and compare hA-MSC immunophenotypes from obese (Ob-) and normal weight control (Co-) women, to identify alterations possibly predisposing the fetus to obesity. We enrolled 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women at delivery (mean/SEM prepregnancy body mass index: 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively), and 32 not pregnant women. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry; several maternal and newborn clinical and biochemical parameters were also measured. The expression of membrane antigen CD13 was higher on Ob-hA-MSCs than on Co-hA-MSCs (P = 0.005). Also, serum levels of CD13 at delivery were higher in Ob- versus Co-pregnant women and correlated with CD13 antigen expression on Ob-hA-MSCs (r2 = 0.84, P < 0.0001). Adipogenesis induction experiments revealed that Ob-hA-MSCs had a higher adipogenic potential than Co-hA-MSCs as witnessed by higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and aP2 mRNA levels (P = 0.05 and P = 0.05, respectively), at postinduction day 14 associated with increased CD13 mRNA levels from baseline to day 4 postinduction (P < 0.05). Adipogenesis was similar in the two sets of hA-MSCs after CD13 silencing, whereas it was increased in Co-hA-MSCs after CD13 overexpression. CD13 expression was high also in Ob-h-MSCs from umbilical cords or visceral adipose tissue of not pregnant women. In conclusion, antigen CD13, by influencing the adipogenic potential of hA-MSCs, could be an in utero risk factor for obesity. Our data strengthen the hypothesis that high levels of serum and MSC CD13 are obesity markers.

  4. Urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in dystimic/depressed, adult obese women: what correlations to hepatic steatosis?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Savastano, S; Colao, A; Polichetti, G; Capone, D

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of serotonin at CNS level is influenced by diet. Moreover, insulin resistance is associated with lower serotonin levels. Visceral obesity, strictly linked to hepatic steatosis is specifically associated with mild to severe somatic affective-depressive symptom clusters. Previous data support the view that depression involves serotonergic systems, reflecting low levels of urinary 5- hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was evaluated in 76 dystimic/depressed, obese/overweight females, divided into two groups, i.e., on a hyper-caloric diet, associated with a life style characterized by leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB, 35 women), or on a normo-caloric diet, assisted by program-based strategies aimed at promoting physical activity participation (PAP, 41 women). Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was carried out to score the severity of dystimia/depression. Anthropometric measures, metabolic indices, severity of hepatic steatosis at sonography and HOMA were studied. Urinary levels of 5-HIAA in controls and PAP groups were comparable with a great overlap, while in the LTSB group the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA was significantly reduced in respect to that of the PAP group and obviously compared to that of the control group, 3.4±1.4 mg/L versus 6.2±2.7 mg/L and 6.4±2.6 mg/L, respectively, ANOVA test, P= 0.001. Among metabolic indices, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid were not able to predict urinary concentrations of 5-HIAA, which were not associated with hepatic steatosis; vice versa, ferritin levels, and mainly HOMA values, were independent predictors of the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (β=0.235 and 0.45, respectively). Dystimia/depression severity was negatively predicted by urinary 5-HIAA levels in the sense that the highest BDI values were forecast by the lowest values of urinary 5-HIAA (β= -0.72).The importance of measuring the 24-h urinary excretion of 5-HIAA in follow-ups could rely

  5. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women.

    PubMed

    Prather, Aric A; Gurfein, Blake; Moran, Patricia; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Acree, Michael; Bacchetti, Peter; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Hecht, Frederick M; Epel, Elissa S

    2015-07-01

    Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration are associated with increased incidence and progression of a number of chronic health conditions observed at greater frequency among the obese and those experiencing high levels of stress. Accelerated cellular aging, as indexed by telomere attrition in immune cells, is a plausible pathway linking sleep and disease risk. Prior studies linking sleep and telomere length are mixed. One factor may be reliance on leukocytes, which are composed of varied immune cell types, as the sole measure of telomere length. To better clarify these associations, we investigated the relationships of global sleep quality, measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and diary-reported sleep duration with telomere length in different immune cell subsets, including granulocytes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes in a sample of 87 obese men and women (BMI mean=35.4, SD=3.6; 81.6% women; 62.8% Caucasian). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, gender, race, education, BMI, sleep apnea risk, and perceived stress. Poorer PSQI global sleep quality was associated with statistically significantly shorter telomere length in lymphocytes but not granulocytes and in particular CD8+ T cells (b=-56.8 base pairs per one point increase in PSQI, SE=20.4, p=0.007) and CD4+ T cells (b=-37.2, SE=15.9, p=0.022). Among separate aspects of global sleep quality, low perceived sleep quality and decrements in daytime function were most related to shorter telomeres. In addition, perceived stress moderated the sleep-CD8+ telomere association. Poorer global sleep quality predicted shorter telomere length in CD8+ T cells among those with high perceived stress but not in low stress participants. These findings provide preliminary evidence that poorer global sleep quality is related to telomere length in several immune cell types, which may serve as a pathway linking sleep and

  6. She stands alone: Pakistani woman film director, Shireen Pasha.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the activities of film director Shireen Pasha in promoting truth in the mass media in Pakistan. Pasha is described as one who finds it inexcusable in a state-subsidized system that national problems of poverty are not aired openly. Pasha has pursued the goal of exposing the real lives of Pakistanis on film in contrast to the publicly aired segments of "pretty girls in nice drawing rooms." Foreign channels available through satellite communications technology are viewed by Pasha as inappropriate with regard to people's needs and uncreative. Pakistan began with one channel, PTV, which recently refused to air her documentary on living conditions in Pakistan's rural areas "The Travelogue Pakistan." "The Walled City of Lahore" was her film about life in the old city. Both films poetically depicted the honor of humans and their struggle to stay alive. Some of her documentaries are made to show the value of indigenous skills, centuries old know-how, and traditions, regardless of the poverty. Pasha is described as fighting with PTV management over use of resources. Pasha desires to invest in training people to do documentaries or be more field-oriented rather than investing in equipment. Pasha joined PTV in 1975 and left in 1990. Pasha is recognized for her isolation as a woman in the business world, her commitment to exposing remote cultures and truth, and the odds she must confront in attaining her goals. Pasha is committed to doing extensive research, usually conducted during the summer months, in order to construct a credible story line that is produced usually during the winter months. One model of film story line is defined as one where women are portrayed as starting from an indigenous skill or knowledge and shifting to a greater position of power and control over their lives. Pasha believes that people who make films have the responsibility to evoke a reaction in people and to offer solutions. Two acclaimed films, which were supported by

  7. Missing the target: including perspectives of women with overweight and obesity to inform stigma‐reduction strategies

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, M. S.; Gorin, A. A.; Suh, Y. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective Pervasive weight stigma and discrimination have led to ongoing calls for efforts to reduce this bias. Despite increasing research on stigma‐reduction strategies, perspectives of individuals who have experienced weight stigma have rarely been included to inform this research. The present study conducted a systematic examination of women with high body weight to assess their perspectives about a broad range of strategies to reduce weight‐based stigma. Methods Women with overweight or obesity (N = 461) completed an online survey in which they evaluated the importance, feasibility and potential impact of 35 stigma‐reduction strategies in diverse settings. Participants (91.5% who reported experiencing weight stigma) also completed self‐report measures assessing experienced and internalized weight stigma. Results Most participants assigned high importance to all stigma‐reduction strategies, with school‐based and healthcare approaches accruing the highest ratings. Adding weight stigma to existing anti‐harassment workplace training was rated as the most impactful and feasible strategy. The family environment was viewed as an important intervention target, regardless of participants' experienced or internalized stigma. Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of including people with stigmatized identities in stigma‐reduction research; their insights provide a necessary and valuable contribution that can inform ways to reduce weight‐based inequities and prioritize such efforts. PMID:28392929

  8. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Whatnall, Megan C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Hutchesson, Melinda J

    2016-08-19

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0-5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18-35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m². The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = -0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = -0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = -0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health.

  9. Associations between Unhealthy Diet and Lifestyle Behaviours and Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Young Overweight and Obese Women

    PubMed Central

    Whatnall, Megan C.; Collins, Clare E.; Callister, Robin; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are known modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This cross-sectional analysis aimed to describe lifestyle behaviours and CVD risk markers in young overweight and obese Australian women and explore associations between individual and combined lifestyle behaviours with CVD risk markers. Lifestyle behaviours assessed were diet quality, alcohol intake, physical activity, sitting time and smoking status, and were combined to generate a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) (0–5). Objectively measured CVD risk markers were body mass index (BMI), %body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Analysis included 49 women aged 18–35 years, with BMI 25.0 to 34.9 kg/m2. The mean ± SD Australian Recommended Food Score was 33.5 ± 9.3 points, alcohol 3.3 ± 2.4 standard drinks/day, physical activity 207 ± 225 min/week and sitting time 578 ± 213 min/day. All participants were non-smokers. The proportion of participants outside normal reference ranges was 83.7% for waist circumference (n = 41), blood pressure 0% (n = 0), total cholesterol 26.2% (n = 11), HDL cholesterol 38.6% (n = 17), LDL cholesterol 22.7% (n = 10), and triglycerides 4.2% (n = 2). Physical activity was inversely associated with body fat (β = −0.011%, p = 0.005), diastolic blood pressure (β = −0.010 mmHg, p = 0.031) and waist circumference (β = −0.013 cm, p = 0.029). Most participants (59.2%, n = 29) had a HLS ≤ 2. No significant associations were found between HLS and CVD risk markers. Insufficient physical activity was the primary lifestyle factor associated with increased CVD risk markers, which suggests interventions targeting physical activity in young women may potentially improve cardiovascular health. PMID:27548243

  10. Women's Perspectives of Peace: Unheard Voices from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, Zehra

    2013-01-01

    Pakistan is currently impacted by rampant terrorism and is simultaneously grappling with intrastate ethnic and sectarian violence. The focus of this dissertation was on examining grassroots Pakistani women's perspectives on peace and women's contributions to peace in Pakistan. The study was centered on grassroots women because their voices remain…

  11. Motivations to eat are related to diet quality and food intake in overweight and obese, low-income women in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Jodi M; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Shah, Bijal S; Lu, Hongxing

    2010-10-01

    Healthful dietary practices and a return to prepregnancy weight are of significant importance in the prevention of obesity for women. The Eating Stimulus Index (ESI) was used to determine the relationship between motivations to eat and diet quality and food intake in 115 overweight/obese, low-income women in early postpartum. In this cross-sectional design, participants completed the ESI and food frequency questionnaire. Diet quality was assessed using the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index. Diet quality was related to greater fruit and vegetable availability, convenience eating resistance, and vegetable taste preference. Women with high fruit and vegetable availability consumed more vegetables, as compared to those with low availability. High convenience eating resistance was associated with lower discretionary energy intakes. High taste preference for vegetables was related to greater intakes of these foods. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that convenience eating resistance was the strongest predictor of diet quality followed by vegetable taste preference, and fruit and vegetable availability. Convenience eating resistance was also the strongest predictor of discretionary energy intake. In conclusion, women who were less vulnerable to environmental eating cues, had greater fruit and vegetable availability, and preferred the taste of vegetables consumed a more healthful diet. Thus, the ESI may be a useful screening tool for the design of personalized weight loss messages in the treatment of obesity.

  12. Effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Vasconcelos, Karina S. S.; Dias, João M. D.; Araújo, Marília C.; Pinheiro, Ana C.; Moreira, Bruno S.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. Objective To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Method Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. Results The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. Conclusion In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. PMID:27410162

  13. A 12 to 24 weeks pilot study of sertraline treatment in obese women binge eaters.

    PubMed

    Leombruni, Paolo; Pierò, Andrea; Brustolin, Annalisa; Mondelli, Valeria; Levi, Maura; Campisi, Stefania; Marozio, Susanna; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies tested the efficacy of sertraline in Binge Eating Disorder (BED) over a period of 6 weeks. The present open study assesses the efficacy of sertraline over a period of 24 weeks in obese persons with binge eating behaviour (with or without the full criteria for BED) confirmed by high scores on the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Thirty-two obese outpatients (14 with BED and 18 without full criteria for BED), without co-occurring psychiatric comorbidities, were treated with sertraline (dose range 100-200 mg/d). Subjects were assessed at baseline and at 8, 12 and 24 weeks of treatment for number of binges, weight and psychopathology. After 8 weeks of treatment a significant improvement in the BES score and a significant weight loss emerged. These results were maintained over 24 weeks. A moderate drop out rate was detected, but no significant association with the severity of side effects was found. Further studies are needed to confirm the usefulness of sertraline in the treatment of patients with BED and also in binge eaters with a less severe eating psychopathology.

  14. [Peculiarities of vitamin status in men and women with cardiovascular disease and obesity].

    PubMed

    Baturin, A K; Pogozheva, A V; Akol'zina, S E; Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G

    2012-01-01

    We explored the characteristics of the vitamin status in 471 patients with cardiovascular diseases, according to sex, and BMI values. All patients underwent examination of the system Nutritest-IP: studying their actual meals at home, determined anthropometric measurement, body composition, using biochemical methods evaluated the state of the protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, the functional state of liver and biliary tract, hemostasis, vitamin provision. The results suggest a lack of availability of patients with vitamins C and B group. The number of patients with deficient serum beta-carotene increased proportional to body mass index. The concentration of beta-carotene decreased and vitamin E - increased in blood serum proportionally to increase the degree of obesity. Thus the availability of vitamins in the blood serum depends from sex and body mass index values of the patients. These data suggest that the rate of supply of vitamins are reliable markers to assess the adequacy of the diet consumed by the content of vitamins in people with normal body weight. Appraisingly the content of beta-carotene and vitamin E in the serum of patients it should be taken into account that they have overweight or obese, and abnormality of lipid spectrum of blood serum.

  15. Women who are motivated to eat and discount the future are more obese

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Jankowiak, Noelle; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Carr, Katelyn A.; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Raynor, Hollie; Finkelstein, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Food reinforcement and delay discounting (DD) predict Body Mass Index (BMI), but there is no research studying whether these variables interact to improve prediction of BMI. Design and Methods BMI, the relative reinforcing value of high (PMAXHED) and low (PMAXLED) energy dense food, and DD for $10 and $100 future rewards (DD10, DD100) were measured in 199 adult females. Results PMAXHED (p = 0.017), DD10 (p = 0.003) and DD100 (p = 0.003) were independent predictors of BMI. The interaction of PMAXLED X DD10 (p = 0.033) and DD100 (p = 0.039), and PMAXHED X DD10 (p = 0.041) and DD100 (p = 0.045) increased the variance accounted for predicting BMI beyond the base model controlling for age, education, minority status, disinhibition and dietary restraint. Based on the regression model, BMI differed by about 2 BMI units for low versus high food reinforcement, by about 3 BMI units for low versus high DD, and by about 4 BMI units for those high in PMAXHED but low in DD versus high in PMAXHED and high in DD. Conclusions Reducing DD may help prevent obesity and improve treatment of obesity in those who are high in food reinforcement. PMID:24311480

  16. Effects of an antenatal dietary intervention on maternal anthropometric measures in pregnant women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kannieappan, Lavern M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Deussen, Andrea R.; Moran, Lisa J.; Yelland, Lisa N.; Owens, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The effect of providing antenatal dietary and lifestyle advice on secondary measures of maternal anthropometry was evaluated and their correlation with both gestational weight gain and infant birth weight was assessed. Methods In a multicenter, randomized controlled trial, pregnant women with BMI of ≥25 kg/m2 received either Lifestyle Advice or Standard Care. Maternal anthropometric outcomes included arm circumference, biceps, triceps, and subscapular skinfold thickness measurements (SFTM), percentage body fat (BF), gestational weight gain, and infant birth weight. The intention to treat principles were utilized by the analyses. Results The measurements were obtained from 807 (74.7%) women in the Lifestyle Advice Group and 775 (72.3%) women in the Standard Care Group. There were no statistically significant differences identified between the treatment groups with regards to arm circumference, biceps, triceps, and subscapular SFTM, or percentage BF at 36‐week gestation. Maternal anthropometric measurements were not significantly correlated with either gestational weight gain or infant birth weight. Conclusions Among pregnant women with a BMI of ≥25 kg/m2, maternal SFTM were not modified by an antenatal dietary and lifestyle intervention. Furthermore, maternal SFTM correlate poorly with both gestational weight gain and infant birth weight. PMID:26175260

  17. Toward Reducing Risk for Eating Disorders and Obesity in Latina College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franko, Debra L.; Jenkins, Amy; Rodgers, Rachel F.

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of 2 computer-based programs was tested with Latina college women (N = 64). Compared with participants in the control group, intervention participants improved their motivation to eat fruits and vegetables (F&V; p = 0.042) and to participate in physical activity (p = 0.023) and significantly increased their F&V intake (pre- to…

  18. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  19. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L. ); DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J. ); Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M. )

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m[sup 3] internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h[sup [minus]1] was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO[sub 2], and NO[sub x]. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

  20. Comparative study of combustion product emissions of Pakistani coal briquettes and traditional Pakistani domestic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, E.A.; Gammage, R.B.; Haas, J.W. III; Wilson, D.L.; DePriest, J.C.; Wade, J.; Ahmad, N.; Sibtain, F.; Zahid Raza, M.

    1992-10-01

    A comparative emissions study was conducted on combustion products of various solid domestic cooking fuels; the objective was to compare relative levels of organic and inorganic toxic emissions from traditional Pakistani fuels (wood, wood charcoal, and dried animal dung) with manufactured low-rank coal briquettes (Lakhra and Sor- Range coals) under conditions simulating domestic cooking. A small combustion shed 12 m{sup 3} internal volume, air exchange rate 14 h{sup {minus}1} was used to simulate south Asian cooking rooms. 200-g charges of the various fuels were ignited in an Angethi stove located inside the shed, then combusted to completion; effluents from this combustion were monitored as a function of time. Measurements were made of respirable particulates, volatile and semi-volatile organics, CO, SO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x}. Overall it appears that emissions from coal briquettes containing combustion amendments (slaked lime, clay, and potassium nitrate oxidizer) are no greater than emissions from traditional fuels, and in some cases are significantly lower; generally, emissions are highest for all fuels in the early stages of combustion.

  1. Effects of metformin on the expression of GLUT4 in endometrium of obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jun; Liu, Chun-xi; Tian, Zuo-rong; Jiang, Qiu-hui; Sun, Ying-pu

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to explore the effects of metformin on the expression of endometrial glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and analyze the related factors of GLUT4 in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study included 20 obese patients with PCOS (PCOS group) and 20 obese patients who had infertility caused by oviducal or pelvic factors but had no PCOS (control group). Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol-2 (E(2)), testosterone (T), fasting serum glucose (FSG), fasting insulin serum (FINS), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and endometrial GLUT4 expression were determined in the two groups. In PCOS group, patients were given 500 mg of metformin three times per day for 3 mo, and then the parameters above were determined again and compared with that before metformin treatment. The parameters above also were compared between PCOS and control groups. The correlation of GLUT4 with its related factors was analyzed. The levels of T, FINS, and HOMA-IR were higher in PCOS group than in the control group (P < 0.01). The levels of protein and mRNA of endometrial GLUT4 were lower in the PCOS group than in the control group (P < 0.001). The expression of protein and mRNA of endometrial GLUT4 increased after metformin treatment (P < 0.001). HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with GLUT4 expression (P = 0.027). In patients with PCOS, the levels of protein and mRNA of endometrial GLUT4 were lower compared with that in non-PCOS women, and HOMA-IR was strongly associated with endometrial GLUT4 expression. Metformin may up-regulate endometrial GLUT4 expression to improve endometrial IR.

  2. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  3. Onset of exercise and diet program in obese women: metabolic and anorexigenic responses related to weight loss and physical capacities.

    PubMed

    Desgorces, F D; Le Page, C; Police, C; Neveux, N; Cottart, C H; Blanc, M C; Raison, J; Toussaint, J F; Noirez, P

    2015-06-01

    Perturbations of energy balance induce compensatory processes that may alter expected weight loss. In obese patients, our aim was to investigate the relationships that occurred between fasting plasma concentrations of anorexigenic peptides and metabolic parameters, appetite, physical capacity, and weight loss in the 5 first days of a program associating exercise and caloric reduction. Thirteen obese women were monitored from day 1 to day 5 with 2 exercise sessions in day 2 and day 4. We measured, in a fasted state, changes in body weight, hunger ratings, and plasma concentrations of fatty acids, triglycerides, leptin, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and insulin-resistance index. Physical performance was assessed by a 6-min walking test. The program resulted in significantly reduced body weight (0.75±0.4 kg; p=0.001), of plasma concentrations of triglycerides, insulin, amylin, peptide YY, and the insulin-resistance index, and also increased fatty acids (p<0.05). Hunger ratings were increased (p<0.05). Program-induced changes in fatty acids, leptin, and insulin concentrations were related to physical performance (r(2)=0.45, 0.59, and 0.52; p<0.05, respectively) and to weight loss (r(2)=0.65, 0.57, 0.55; p<0.05, respectively). Five days of diet and exercise induced weight loss, improved lipid profile, and decreased insulin resistance while hunger ratings increased. Subjects with higher physical capacity lost more weight, presented higher increases in fatty acids and lower changes of leptin and insulin concentrations suggesting a better metabolic flexibility. To reduce the compensatory responses that can occur with energy imbalances, our study supports to account for individual activity level before prescribing weight-loss program associating diet and exercise.

  4. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  5. Understanding the Influence of the Pakistani Government in South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    Bangladesh. 5 state in the world.9 The man who would eventually make this partition a reality was Mohammed Ali Jinnah . His vision was “one nation, one...Constructing Pakistan. He quotes Mohammad Ali Jinnah , the man 3 Dennis Kux, The United States...Balochis, and the myriad of refugees flooding into the state from India…To argue after Partition , as Jinnah did, that Pakistanis were neither Muslim nor

  6. Short-term weight loss in overweight/obese low-income women improves plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    PubMed

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Klohe, Deborah M; Jordan, Kristine C; Lane, Michelle A; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders involving obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Obesity is the most crucial risk factor of metabolic syndrome, because it is known to precede other risk factors. Obesity is also associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the trace mineral, zinc. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term weight loss on plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors. An 8-week weight loss intervention study was conducted with 90 low-income overweight/obese mothers, whose youngest child was 1-3 years old. Plasma levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured and compared at weeks 0 and 8 of the weight loss program. At pre-study, plasma zinc was low in 39% and, within normal values in 46%, of obese/overweight mothers. By the end of intervention, plasma zinc rose by 22% and only 5% of the mothers continued to exhibit low plasma zinc. At post-study, the metabolic syndrome risk factors of waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05) showed significant improvements. Plasma zinc increased by a greater margin (67%) in women with low zinc, as compared to those with normal zinc (18%); weight reduction was similar in both the groups. Finally, changes in % body fat were related negatively with changes in plasma zinc (r=- 0.28, p<0.05). The circulating levels of zinc, as well as the metabolic syndrome components, showed significant improvements in overweight/obese low-income women after weight loss.

  7. The impact of parental educational trajectories on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity status: a study of three generations of Swedish men and women.

    PubMed

    Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality

  8. Soy compared to casein meal replacement shakes with energy-restricte