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  1. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  2. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... In some cases, weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is an option. Weight-loss surgery limits the ... et al. Treatment of obesity: The impact of bariatric surgery. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & Endoscopy. 2nd ...

  3. Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...

  4. Erectile dysfunction and central obesity: an Italian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Filippi, Sandra; Vignozzi, Linda; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a frequent complication of obesity. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the framework of obesity and ED, dissecting the connections between the two pathological entities. Current clinical evidence shows that obesity, and in particular central obesity, is associated with both arteriogenic ED and reduced testosterone (T) levels. It is conceivable that obesity-associated hypogonadism and increased cardiovascular risk might partially justify the higher prevalence of ED in overweight and obese individuals. Conversely, the psychological disturbances related to obesity do not seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related ED. However, both clinical and preclinical data show that the association between ED and visceral fat accumulation is independent from known obesity-associated comorbidities. Therefore, how visceral fat could impair penile microcirculation still remains unknown. This point is particularly relevant since central obesity in ED subjects categorizes individuals at high cardiovascular risk, especially in the youngest ones. The presence of ED in obese subjects might help healthcare professionals in convincing them to initiate a virtuous cycle, where the correction of sexual dysfunction will be the reward for improved lifestyle behavior. Unsatisfying sexual activity represents a meaningful, straightforward motivation for consulting healthcare professionals, who, in turn, should take advantage of the opportunity to encourage obese patients to treat, besides ED, the underlying unfavorable conditions, thus not only restoring erectile function, but also overall health. PMID:24713832

  5. Prevalence, Distributions and Determinants of Obesity and Central Obesity in the Southern Cone of America

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Lydia; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Calandrelli, Matias; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Manfredi, Jose A.; Seron, Pamela; Mores, Nora; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Olivera, Hector; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a major determinant of cardiovascular disease in South America. However, population-based data are limited. Methods A total of 7,524 women and men, aged 35 to 74 years old, were randomly selected from 4 cities in the Southern Cone of Latin America between February 2010 and December 2011. Obesity clinical measurements and cardiovascular risk factors were measured using standard methodology. Results The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were 35.7% and 52.9%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and central obesity were higher in women, and even higher in women with lower education compared with women with higher education. In men and women obesity was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, odds ratio (OR) 2.38 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.86 to 3.05) and 3.01 (95%CI 2.42 to 3.74) respectively, hypertension (OR 2.79 (95%CI 2.32 to 3.36) and 2.40 (95%CI 2.05 to 2.80) respectively, dyslipidemia (OR 1.83 (95%CI 1.50 to 2.24) and 1.69 (95%CI 1.45 to 1.98), respectively, low physical activity (OR 1.38(95%CI 1.14 to 1.68) and 1.38 (95%CI 1.18 to 1.62) respectively and a lower prevalence of smoking (OR, 0.65 (95%CI 0.53 to 0.80) and 0.58(95%CI 0.48 to 0.70) respectively. Conclusions Obesity and central obesity are highly prevalent in the general population in the Southern Cone of Latin America and are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factor prevalence. These data suggest that efforts toward prevention, treatment, and control of obesity should be a public health priority in the Southern Cone of Latin America. PMID:27741247

  6. Android (centralized) obesity and somatotypes in men: association with mesomorphy.

    PubMed

    Mueller, W H; Joos, S K

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between body fat distribution patterns and somatotype among 824 men was sought from Sheldon, Dupertuis and MacDermott's Atlas of Men (1954). The men were classified photoscopically into obese, overweight and normal weight classes and then into android (central), intermediate and gynoid (generalized) classes of body fat patterning independently and blindly by two observers. Android fat men were found by both observers to be older and more often classed as obese than gynoid fat men. The android obese were significantly more mesomorphic and less endomorphic than the gynoid obese (P less than 0.01). Results suggest that android obesity involves more than an upper body distribution of subcutaneous fat: it is a deep body obesity involving excess lean body mass as well.

  7. Central and Peripheral Molecular Targets for Anti-Obesity Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Michael A.; Lin, Jieru E.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has emerged as one of the principle worldwide health concerns of the modern era, and there exists a tremendous unmet clinical need for safe and effective therapies to combat this global pandemic. The prevalence of obesity and its associated co-morbidities, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, has focused drug discovery and development on generating effective modalities for the treatment and prevention of obesity. Early efforts in the field of obesity pharmacotherapy centered on agents with indeterminate mechanisms of action producing treatment paradigms characterized by significant off-target effects. During the past two decades, new insights have been made into the physiologic regulation of energy balance and the subordinate central and peripheral circuits coordinating appetite, metabolism, and lipogenesis. These studies have revealed previously unrecognized molecular targets for controlling appetite and managing weight from which has emerged a new wave of targeted pharmacotherapies to prevent and control obesity. PMID:20445536

  8. [Multifactorial etiology of obesity: nutritional and central aspects].

    PubMed

    Sengier, A

    2005-09-01

    World-wide obesity and its effects are public health problems. Research on way of life and eating habits give some indications of etiological factors. Breast feeding and quantity of proteins intake in formulas are factors influencing the risks of obesity later on in life. Research undertaken by Rolland Cachera shows us the importance of the curve of BMI and how the obesity rebound can be predictive of obesity in later years allowing early decisions of weight control. Energy intake and energy expenditure are regulated by the central nervous system. It is a complex mechanism of afferent and efferent systems through the hypothalamus. The inverse effects of ghreline and of leptine on energy balance are more and more studied and cases of precocious obesity are explained by the identification of rare forms of monogenic obesity linked to the metabolism of leptine. The importance of inherited genes has a role and genetic predisposition is a reality. This new approach allows a clinical, etiological and, in the future, probably therapeutic attitude in case of severe precocious obesity.

  9. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Lustig, Robert H

    2005-12-01

    Rates of obesity and insulin resistance have climbed sharply over the past 30 years. These epidemics are temporally related to a dramatic rise in consumption of fast food; until recently, it was not known whether the fast food was driving the obesity, or vice versa. We review the unique properties of fast food that make it the ideal obesigenic foodstuff, and elucidate the mechanisms by which fast food intake contributes to obesity, emphasizing its effects on energy metabolism and on the central regulation of appetite. After examining the epidemiology of fast food consumption, obesity, and insulin resistance, we review insulin's role in the central nervous system's (CNS) regulation of energy balance, and demonstrate the role of CNS insulin resistance as a cause of leptin resistance and in the promotion of the pleasurable or "hedonic" responses to food. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of fast food, including high-energy density, high fat, high fructose, low fiber, and low dairy intake, which favor the development of CNS insulin resistance and obesity.

  10. Influence of central obesity in estimating maximal oxygen uptake

    PubMed Central

    de Souza e Silva, Christina Grüne; Franklin, Barry A.; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of central obesity on the magnitude of the error of estimate of maximal oxygen uptake in maximal cycling exercise testing. METHOD: A total of 1,715 adults (68% men) between 18-91 years of age underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a progressive protocol to volitional fatigue. Subjects were stratified by central obesity into three quartile ranges: Q1, Q2-3 and Q4. Maximal oxygen uptake [mL.(kg.min)-1] was estimated by the attained maximal workload and body weight using gender- and population-specific equations. The error of estimate [mL.(kg.min)-1] and percent error between measured and estimated maximal oxygen uptake values were compared among obesity quartile ranges. RESULTS: The error of estimate and percent error differed (mean ± SD) for men (Q1=1.3±3.7 and 2.0±10.4; Q2-3=0.5±3.1 and -0.5±13.0; and Q4=-0.3±2.8 and -4.5±15.8 (p<0.05)) and for women (Q1=1.6±3.3 and 3.6±10.2; Q2-3=0.4±2.7 and -0.4±11.8; and Q4=-0.9±2.3 and -10.0±22.7 (p<0.05)). CONCLUSION: Central obesity directly influences the magnitude of the error of estimate of maximal oxygen uptake and should be considered when direct expired gas analysis is unavailable. PMID:27982162

  11. Central Obesity and Disease Risk in Japanese Americans

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-08

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Obesity; Diabetes Mellitus, Non-insulin Dependent; Hyperinsulinism; Insulin Resistance; Coronary Arteriosclerosis; Diabetes Mellitus; Metabolic Syndrome X

  12. Obesity Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Yarah M.; Cosman, Bard C.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has progressed in a few decades from a public health footnote in developed countries to a top-priority international issue. Because obesity implies increased morbidity and mortality from chronic, debilitating disorders, it is a major burden on individuals and health systems in both developing and developed countries. Obesity is a complex disorder unequally affecting all age groups and socioeconomic classes. Of special concern is increasing childhood obesity. This review presents the extent of the obesity epidemic and its impact worldwide by way of introduction to a discussion of colon and rectal surgery in the obese patient. PMID:23204935

  13. [Nutritional status of preschool children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Programs (JUNJI): assessment of the agreement among anthropometric indicators of obesity and central obesity].

    PubMed

    Gutiérez-Gómez, Yareni; Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Galván, Marcos; Corvalán, Camila

    2009-03-01

    Historically, the anthropometric assessment of nutritional welfare programs has been targeted to assess nutritional deficiencies based on weight-to-age and height-to-age indicators. Recently, given the increase on childhood obesity, it has been also recommended the measurement of indicators of obesity (i.e., weight-to-height) and central obesity (i.e., waist circumference). However, the agreement of these indicators in preschool children is unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) assess the nutritional status of children attending the Chilean National Nursery Schools Council Program (JUNJI); (2) assess the agreement between general and central obesity anthropometric measurements in these children. In 574 girls and 580 boys, 3.0 to 5.9 years old, we measured: weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and five skinfolds. We used the WHO 2006 growth standards to estimate Z-scores. We defined general obesity as WHZ or BAZ= 2, and central obesity as waist circumference > or =90 percentile of NHANES III. The participants were on average slightly shorter but considerably heavier and obese than the reference populations. Prevalence of general obesity was close to 16% with both indicators while prevalence of central obesity reached 15%. There was good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators (Kappa = 0.6-0.7). In summary, we found a high prevalence of obesity and central obesity among Chilean preschool children beneficiaries of a welfare program. At this age, there was a good agreement among general obesity indicators and central obesity indicators. These results suggest that waist circumferences measurements should not be incorporated to the program.

  14. Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  15. Obesity management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...

  16. Traumatic brain injury and obesity induce persistent central insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Karelina, Kate; Sarac, Benjamin; Freeman, Lindsey M; Gaier, Kristopher R; Weil, Zachary M

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced impairments in cerebral energy metabolism impede tissue repair and contribute to delayed functional recovery. Moreover, the transient alteration in brain glucose utilization corresponds to a period of increased vulnerability to the negative effects of a subsequent TBI. In order to better understand the factors contributing to TBI-induced central metabolic dysfunction, we examined the effect of single and repeated TBIs on brain insulin signalling. Here we show that TBI induced acute brain insulin resistance, which resolved within 7 days following a single injury but persisted until 28 days following repeated injuries. Obesity, which causes brain insulin resistance and neuroinflammation, exacerbated the consequences of TBI. Obese mice that underwent a TBI exhibited a prolonged reduction of Akt (also known as protein kinase B) signalling, exacerbated neuroinflammation (microglial activation), learning and memory deficits, and anxiety-like behaviours. Taken together, the transient changes in brain insulin sensitivity following TBI suggest a reduced capacity of the injured brain to respond to the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of insulin and Akt signalling, and thus may be a contributing factor for the damaging neuroinflammation and long-lasting deficits that occur following TBI.

  17. Inflammatory Cytokines in General and Central Obesity and Modulating Effects of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Christian; Minkwitz, Juliane; Thormann, Julia; Chittka, Tobias; Mergl, Roland; Kirkby, Kenneth C.; Faßhauer, Mathias; Stumvoll, Michael; Holdt, Lesca M.; Teupser, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich; Himmerich, Hubertus

    2015-01-01

    Context Chronic systemic inflammation in obesity originates from local immune responses in visceral adipose tissue. However, assessment of a broad range of inflammation-mediating cytokines and their relationship to physical activity and adipometrics has scarcely been reported to date. Objective To characterize the profile of a broad range of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the impact of physical activity and energy expenditure in individuals with general obesity, central obesity, and non-obese subjects. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study comprising 117 obese patients (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30) and 83 non-obese community-based volunteers. Main Outcomes Measures Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured. Physical activity and energy expenditure (MET) were assessed with actigraphy. Adipometrics comprised BMI, weight, abdominal-, waist- and hip-circumference, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR). Results General obesity was associated with significantly elevated levels of IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-γ and TNF-α, central obesity with significantly elevated IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13 and IFN-γ-levels. In participants with general obesity, levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were significantly elevated in participants with low physical activity, even when controlled for BMI which was negatively associated with physical acitivity. Cytokines significantly correlated with adipometrics, particularly in obese participants. Conclusions Results confirm up-regulation of certain pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in obesity. In obese subjects, physical activity may lower levels and thus reduce pro-inflammatory effects of cytokines that may link obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. PMID:25781614

  18. Advanced glycation end products measured by skin autofluorescence in a population with central obesity.

    PubMed

    den Engelsen, Corine; van den Donk, Maureen; Gorter, Kees J; Salomé, Philippe L; Rutten, Guy E

    2012-01-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is enhanced by chronic hyperglycemia and oxidative stress and this process may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF), a measure of accumulation of AGEs in skin collagen, is associated with vascular disease in patients with diabetes.   Because central obesity enhances oxidative stress people with central obesity might already have increased accumulation of AGEs before diabetes or cardiovascular disease become manifest. To test this hypothesis, we compared the distribution of skin AF and its association with clinical and biochemical parameters in individuals with and without central obesity. Skin AF was measured by a validated AGE Reader in 816 persons with and 431 persons without central obesity, aged 20-70 y. Mean skin AF increased with age and smoking and was higher in centrally obese individuals compared with non-obese individuals (p = 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p = 0.13). Mean skin AF in the subgroups without central obesity and without other risk factors (n = 106), central obesity without other risk factors (n = 74) and central obesity with other risk factors (n = 742) was 1.63 ± 0.37, 1.74 ± 0.44 and 1.87 ± 0.43 AU, respectively (p for trend < 0.001, after adjustment for age and smoking p for trend = 0.12). In the group with central obesity age, current smoking, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, creatinine clearance and hs-CRP were independently associated with skin AF (R(2) = 29.4%). Waist circumference hardly contributed to the explained variance. The relationship between waist circumference and skin AF is not as obvious as we hypothesized.

  19. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  20. Obesity vaccines.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Mariana P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight.

  1. Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood overweight. Childhood overweight increases the risk for certain medical and psychological conditions. Encourage overweight children to expand high energy activity, minimize low energy activity (screen watching), and develop healthful eating habits. Breast feeding is protective against obesity. Diet restriction is not recommended in very young children. Children are to be watched for gain in height rather than reduction in weight. Weight reduction of less than 10% is a normal variation, not significant in obesity. PMID:21448410

  2. Should waist circumference be replaced by index of central obesity (ICO) in definition of metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Parikh, R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S

    2012-01-01

    Waist circumference has been widely used as the parameter of central obesity in defining metabolic syndrome. Global consensus definition of metabolic syndrome has suggested various race- and gender-specific cutoffs of waist circumference for quantifying central obesity. We have earlier proposed that using index of central obesity (ICO), the need for race- and gender-specific cutoffs may be obviated. We propose that waist circumference be supplanted with index of central obesity in all definitions of metabolic syndrome. Using index of central obesity a common cutoff of 0.5 applicable across races and genders might be obtained. Moreover, it will enhance the sensitivity of definition by diagnosing subjects who are shorter than general population. Among 258 male and 242 female diabetic patients, subjects with metabolic syndrome (defined as per gender-specific waist circumference cutoffs), were found to have a common lower range of index of central obesity suggesting that a common cutoff of waist circumference may be obtained. In another study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database, replacing index of central obesity with waist circumference was found to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of definition of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Central nervous system dysfunction in obesity-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Head, Geoffrey A; Lim, Kyungjoon; Barzel, Benjamin; Burke, Sandra L; Davern, Pamela J

    2014-09-01

    The activation of the sympathetic nervous system is a major mechanism underlying both human and experimental models of obesity-related hypertension. While insulin and the adipokine leptin have long been thought to contribute to obesity-related neurogenic mechanisms, the evidence is now very strong that they play a major role, shown particularly in animal studies using selective receptor antagonists. There is not just maintenance of leptin's sympatho-excitatory actions as previously suggested but considerable amplification particularly in renal sympathetic nervous activity. Importantly, these changes are not dependent on short-term elevation or reduction in plasma leptin or insulin, but require some weeks to develop indicating a slow "neural adaptivity" within hypothalamic signalling. These effects can be carried across generations even when offspring are raised on a normal diet. A better understanding of the underlying mechanism should be a high research priority given the prevalence of obesity not just in the current population but also for future generations.

  4. Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II Study.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Chandola, Tarani; Marmot, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Positive energy balance is the major cause of obesity, and chronic stress may be a contributory factor. The authors examined cumulative work stress, using the Job Strain Questionnaire on four occasions, as a predictor of obesity in a prospective 19-year study of 6,895 men and 3,413 women (aged 35-55 years) in the Whitehall II cohort in London, United Kingdom (baseline: 1985-1988). A dose-response relation was found between work stress and risk of general obesity (body mass index > or =30 kg/m(2)) and central obesity (waist circumference >102 cm in men, >88 cm in women) that was largely independent of covariates. The imputed odds ratios of body mass index obesity for one, two, and three or more reports of work stress adjusted for age, sex, and social position were 1.17, 1.24, and 1.73 (trend p < 0.01), respectively. For waist obesity, the corresponding findings were 1.17, 1.41, and 1.61 (trend p < 0.01). Work stress effect was modestly attenuated after exclusion of obese individuals at baseline and further adjustments for smoking; intakes of dietary fiber, fruits and vegetables, and alcohol; and levels of physical activity during follow-up. This study provides prospective, population-based evidence that chronic work stress predicts general and central obesity.

  5. Challenges in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity.

  6. CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical summary Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to disease risks, and limited evidence on the most effective components of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This article reviews the trends in childhood obesity, its genetic, nutritional and other risk factors, and preventative and treatment strategies. Particular emphasis is given to early-onset obesity in pre-school children, which, as a precursor to later childhood and adult obesity, provides insights into the developmental and genetic origins of obesity and also offers the potential for early preventative approaches with long-lasting benefits. PMID:23027812

  7. Obesity and respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-10-20

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.

  8. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Christopher; Liddicoat, Helen; Moonsie, Ian; Makker, Himender

    2010-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population. PMID:21116339

  9. Obesity: the worldwide epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, Philip T

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decade, the prevalence of obesity in Western and Westernizing countries has more than doubled. A standardized classification of overweight and obesity, based on the body mass index now allows a comparison of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In children, the International Obesity Taskforce age, sex, and BMI specific cut-off points are increasingly being used. BMI data are being evaluated as part of a new analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. Prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are very different in each region with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe and North American having higher prevalence rates. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting.

  10. Associations of Dispositional Mindfulness with Obesity and Central Adiposity: the New England Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Howe, Chanelle J.; Gutman, Roee; Gilman, Stephen E.; Brewer, Judson; Eaton, Charles B.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether dispositional mindfulness (defined as the ability to attend nonjudgmentally to one’s own physical and mental processes) is associated with obesity and central adiposity. Methods Study participants (n=394) were from the New England Family Study, a prospective birth cohort, with median age 47 years. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed using the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Central adiposity was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans with primary outcomes android fat mass and android/gynoid ratio. Obesity was defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Results Multivariable-adjusted regression analyses demonstrated that participants with low vs. high MAAS scores were more likely to be obese (prevalence ratio for obesity= 1.34 (95 % confidence limit (CL): 1.02, 1.77)), adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, birth weight, childhood socioeconomic status, and childhood intelligence. Furthermore, participants with low vs. high MAAS level had a 448 (95 % CL 39, 857) g higher android fat mass and a 0.056 (95 % CL 0.003, 0.110) greater android/gynoid fat mass ratio. Prospective analyses demonstrated that participants who were not obese in childhood and became obese in adulthood (n=154) had −0.21 (95 % CL −0.41, −0.01; p=0.04) lower MAAS scores than participants who were not obese in childhood or adulthood (n=203). Conclusions Dispositional mindfulness may be inversely associated with obesity and adiposity. Replication studies are needed to adequately establish whether low dispositional mindfulness is a risk factor for obesity and adiposity. PMID:26481650

  11. Hormones and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  12. Population-attributable fraction of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the Central Provinces of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Masoud; Mirzaei, Masoud

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Iran over the past decade. This study aimed to determine the population-attributable fraction (PAF) of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the central provinces of Iran. Prevalence of hypertension was extracted from the Iranian Ministry of Health Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor InfoBase 2009. Measure of association between obesity and hypertension was extracted from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, for males and females, in order to calculate the PAF of hypertension associated with obesity. Age standardization of the reported prevalence of obesity was done using the World Health Organization method. The PAF of hypertension associated with the joint effect of obesity and abdominal obesity in females was highest in Semnan Province: 22.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.2-35.6], followed by Qom 21.09 (95% CI: 3.7-33.1), and Yazd 20.3 (95% CI: 3.5-32.1). In males, the highest PAF was observed in Qom Province 31.07 (95% CI: 16.7-41.1), followed by Semnan 29.6 (95% CI: 15.9-39.3), Qazvin 25.9 (95% CI: 13.7-34.5), Tehran 24.2 (95% CI: 12.7-32.3), and Isfahan 20.4 (95% CI: 3.5-27.4). Prevalence of hypertension is higher in more developed provinces. PAFs suggest that a sizable share of hypertension in these provinces is associated with obesity. It is recommended that health promotion programs focus on obesity in the provinces with a higher share of hypertension due to obesity.

  13. Sociocultural and behavioural determinants of obesity among Inuit in the central Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Young, T K

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports on the sociocultural determinants of obesity among the Inuit people in the central Canadian Arctic, part of the Keewatin Health Assessment Study (KHAS), a comprehensive community health survey conducted during 1990/91 in eight Inuit communities in the Northwest Territories (n = 434 adults aged 18 yr +). On multivariate analysis, age is an independent predictor of obesity in both sexes. Among Inuit women, non-smoking status and a lower education is associated with various obesity indices. However, smoking is not a predictor in men, and the association with education is the reverse, i.e. the more highly educated are more likely to be obese. In addition, some obesity indices are associated with higher income, an admixed ethnic background, fluency in the Inuit language and less time spent on the land. In general Inuit men tend to show the pattern observed in developing societies, where obesity is more prevalent among those with higher SES status, whereas Inuit women are more characteristic of developed societies, where obesity is associated with a lower SES. The different sex roles in a rapidly modernizing population is most likely to be responsible for this phenomenon.

  14. [Obesity paradox].

    PubMed

    Aursulesei, Viviana; Cozma, A; Datcu, M D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with major cardiovascular diseases and reduced overall survival. This paper reviews the metabolic and vascular consequences of dysfunctional adipocytokines in obesity as well as the pathological effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese population with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis. There are potential explanations offered by literature for these puzzling data. For obese hypertensive patients the paradox is possibly linked to the lower systemic vascular resistance and plasma renin activity. In heart failure the excess body weight may confer some protective effects on mortality, due to a more metabolic reserve, higher levels of arterial pressure compatible with higher doses of cardioprotective medications, and a specific neuroendocrine profile with lower levels of circulating natriuretic atrial peptides, attenuated sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin responses. For coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease the mechanisms are still uncertain. There are discussed a lesser severity of coronary lesions and left ventricular dysfunction, or a reduced prevalence of moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients selected for surgery. On the other hand, the constellation of data which supports purposeful weight reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, induces a controversial position regarding this new concept.

  15. Depression Amplifies the Influence of Central Obesity on 10-Year Incidence of Diabetes: Findings from MIDUS

    PubMed Central

    Karlamangla, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Background Central obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes but many obese individuals never develop diabetes, suggesting the presence of important effect modifiers. Depression has emerged as a key risk factor for poor glycemic control, but to our knowledge, no previous work has investigated whether depression amplifies the effect of central obesity on glucoregulation. Methods and Findings We used a national sample of adults without prevalent diabetes (MIDUS; N = 919) to test for synergy between central obesity and depression in the development of diabetes 10 years later. We found that depression amplified the association of waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with incident diabetes adjusted for age, race, gender, education, physical activity, and sleep problems (p = 0.01 for test of interaction). The relative risk for incident diabetes per every 0.1 increment in WHR was 1.75 (95% CI: 1.31; 2.33) in those without depression and 3.78 in those with depression (95% CI: 2.14; 6.66). Conclusions These results confirm the role of depression as a robust risk factor for the development of diabetes and for the first time, demonstrate a synergy between depression and central obesity. Identifying and addressing depression could prove to be an effective approach to preventing diabetes in at risk individuals. Ultimately, elucidating the interplay among risk factors from different domains will be key to understanding multifactorial diseases such as diabetes and informing theory-based, patient-centered interventions aimed at reducing diabetes risk. PMID:27755576

  16. The Impact of Central Obesity on Storage Luts and Urinary Incontinence After Prostatic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gacci, Mauro; Sebastianelli, Arcangelo; Salvi, Matteo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Gravas, Stavros; Moncada, Ignacio; Serni, Sergio; Maggi, Mario; Vignozzi, Linda

    2016-09-01

    In the developed and developing countries, the overall prevalence of central obesity in the elderly men is growing. In addition, the progressive aging of male population increased the possibilities of coexisting morbidities associated with obesity such as lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) or to prostate cancer (PCa) needing primary treatment, including radical prostatectomy (RP), which can further adversely affect the quality of life. Simple and radical prostatectomy are the most common surgical procedures in urologic unit all over the world for BPE and PCa, respectively. After both interventions, patients can present bothering storage LUTS that can worsen all the other clinical outcomes. Preset study will review the role of central obesity as a risk factor for storage LUTS or urinary incontinence, after prostatic surgery for BPE or PCa.

  17. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and DNA methylation markers associated with central obesity and regulation of body weight.

    PubMed

    Goni, Leticia; Milagro, Fermín I; Cuervo, Marta; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2014-11-01

    Visceral fat is strongly associated with the development of specific obesity-related metabolic alterations. Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms seem to be involved in the development of obesity and visceral adiposity. The aims of this review are to identify the single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to central obesity and to summarize the main findings on DNA methylation and obesity. A search of the MEDLINE database was conducted to identify genome-wide association studies, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, and gene-diet interaction studies related to central obesity, and, in addition, studies that analyzed DNA methylation in relation to body weight regulation. A total of 8 genome-wide association studies and 9 meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies reported numerous single-nucleotide polymorphisms to be associated with central obesity. Ten studies analyzed gene-diet interactions and central obesity, while 2 epigenome-wide association studies analyzed DNA methylation patterns and obesity. Nine studies investigated the relationship between DNA methylation and weight loss, excess body weight, or adiposity outcomes. Given the development of new sequencing and omics technologies, significantly more knowledge on genomics and epigenomics of obesity and body fat distribution will emerge in the near future.

  18. Are there healthy obese?

    PubMed

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects.

  19. Current mapping of obesity.

    PubMed

    Pérez Rodrigo, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  20. Obesity & osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    King, Lauren K; March, Lyn; Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila

    2013-01-01

    The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.

  1. Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Adults in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xinguang; Liu, Zhitao; Varma, Deepthi S.; Wan, Rong; Wan, Qingqing; Zhao, Shiwen

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns represent a broader picture of food consumption, and are better correlated with a variety of health outcomes. However, few studies have been conducted to explore the associations between dietary patterns and obesity in Southwest China. Data from the 2010–2012 National Nutrition Survey in the province of Yunnan, Southwest China, were analyzed (n = 1604, aged 18–80 years). Dietary data were collected using the 24 h dietary recall over three consecutive days. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured following standard methods. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between dietary patterns and obesity. Three distinct dietary patterns were identified, which were labeled as traditional, modern, and tuber according to their key components. With potential confounders adjusted, adults in the highest quartile of the modern pattern were at higher risk of general and central obesity (odds ratio (OR) 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15–3.48; OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.37–2.93). In contrast, adults in the highest quartile of the tuber pattern were at lower risk of general and central obesity (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.61; OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.95) but at higher risk of underweight (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.20–6.45). No significant association was found between the traditional pattern and obesity. Moreover, dietary pattern differences occurred due to the differences in socio-demographic characteristics. In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern was positively, and the tuber pattern negatively, associated with general and central obesity among adults in Southwest China. PMID:27827895

  2. Evaluation of neck circumference as a predictor of central obesity and insulin resistance in Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhong; Zhang, Ning; Yu, Caiguo; Ji, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether neck circumference (NC) could be used as a valid and effective method for identifying obesity and insulin resistance (IR) in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 3307 adults aged 20-65 years were randomly recruited from two communities of Tongzhou, Beijing. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), neck circumference (NC), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), total cholesterol (TC), serum triglyceride (TG), High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and Urinary albumin (UAlb) were measured. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to explore the relationship between NC and other measurements. Furthermore, the best cutoff values of NC for central obesity identification were determined by applying the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results: NC correlated positively with BMI, SBP and WC In both sexes. Both WC and NC correlated significantly positively with IR. A positive correlation between NC and FPG as well as a negative correlation between NC and HDL were found in obese men. NC≥38.5 cm for men and ≥34.5 cm for women were determined to be the best cutoff levels for identifying subjects with central obesity, with 82.9% accuracy for men and 79.9% accuracy for women. Conclusions: NC correlated positively with BMI and WC in both genders, indicating that NC could be used as a valid marker for both overall obesity and central obesity. In addition, measuring NC was shown to be a useful test for IR identification. Large number of NC is suggested to be associated with high risk of developing metabolic disorders, such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:26770540

  3. Exploring stress-induced cognitive impairment in middle aged, centrally obese adults.

    PubMed

    Lasikiewicz, N; Hendrickx, H; Talbot, D; Dye, L

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has shown that psychosocial stress can induce cognitive impairment. However, few studies have explored impairment following acute stress exposure in individuals with central obesity. Central obesity co-occurs with glucocorticoid excess and can lead to elevated cortisol responses to stress. It is not clear whether centrally obese individuals exhibit greater cognitive impairment following acute stress. Cortisol responses to stress versus no-stress control were compared in 66 high- and low waist to hip ratio (WHR) middle-aged adults (mean age of 46 ± 7.17 years). Cognitive performance post exposure was assessed using Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery. It was hypothesised that high WHR would exhibit greater cortisol in response to stress exposure and would show poorer cognitive performance. Males, particularly of high WHR, tended to secrete greater cortisol during stress exposure. Exposure to stress and increasing WHR were specifically associated with poorer performance on declarative memory tasks (spatial recognition memory and paired associates learning). These data tentatively suggest a reduction in cognitive performance in those with central obesity following exposure to acute stress. Further research is needed to elucidate the effects of stress on cognition in this population.

  4. The Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program: Changing Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments in California's Heartland

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, Sarah E.; Capitman, John; Ruwe, Mathilda; Boyle, Maria; Flores, George

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the Central California Regional Obesity Prevention Program (CCROPP) are to promote safe places for physical activity, increase access to fresh fruits and vegetables, and support community and youth engagement in local and regional efforts to change nutrition and physical activity environments for obesity prevention. CCROPP has created a community-driven policy and environmental change model for obesity prevention with local and regional elements in low-income, disadvantaged ethnic and rural communities in a climate of poor resources and inadequate infrastructure. Evaluation data collected from 2005–2009 demonstrate that CCROPP has made progress in changing nutrition and physical activity environments by mobilizing community members, engaging and influencing policymakers, and forming organizational partnerships. PMID:20864732

  5. Central obesity in the elderly is related to late-onset Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, José A; Cheng, Derek; Tang, Ming Xin; Schupf, Nicole; Mayeux, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The evidence relating obesity measured with body mass index (BMI) in the elderly to late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is conflicting. Central obesity in middle age is related to a higher risk of LOAD, but data in the elderly are lacking. We explored whether measures of central obesity, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were better predictors of LOAD compared with BMI in the elderly. Participants were 1459 persons aged 65 years and older without dementia at baseline, with follow-up, and with anthropometric data from a longitudinal study of aging in New York City. Proportional hazards regression was used for multivariable analyses relating BMI, waist circumference, and WHR to LOAD. There were 145 cases of Alzheimer disease in 5734 person-years of follow-up. Only WHR was related to higher LOAD risk (hazard ratio of the fourth quartile compared with the first=2.5; 95% confidence interval=1.3, 4.7) after adjustment for age, sex, education, ethnic group, Apolipoprotein E-ε4, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and stroke. Our results support the notion that central obesity is related to a higher risk of LOAD.

  6. Prevalence of Central Obesity among Adults with Normal BMI and Its Association with Metabolic Diseases in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Jiang, Lingling; Lv, Xin; Song, Yuanyuan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of central obesity among adults with normal BMI and its association with metabolic diseases in Jilin Province, China. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 in Jilin Province of China. Information was collected by face to face interview. Descriptive data analysis and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of prevalence/frequency were conducted. Log-binomial regression analyses were used to find the independent factors associated with central obesity and to explore the adjusted association between central obesity and metabolic diseases among adults with normal BMI. Results Among the adult residents with normal BMI in Jilin Province, 55.6% of participants with central obesity self-assessed as normal weight and 27.0% thought their body weight were above normal. 12.7% of central obesity people took methods to lose weight, while 85.3% didn’t. Female, older people and non-manual worker had higher risk to be central obesity among adults with normal BMI. Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI, the PRs were 1.337 (1.224–1.461), 1.323 (1.193–1.456) and 1.261 (1.152–1.381) separately when adjusted for gender, age and BMI. Conclusions Hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with central obesity among adults with normal BMI in Jilin Province, China. The low rates of awareness and control of central obesity among adults with normal BMI should be improved by government and health department. PMID:27467819

  7. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families.

  8. High dairy fat intake related to less central obesity: A male cohort study with 12 years’ follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study associations between dairy fat intake and development of central obesity. Design A prospective population-based cohort study with two surveys 12 years apart. Setting Nine municipalities selected from different parts of Sweden representing the rural areas in the country. Subjects 1782 men (farmers and non-farmers) aged 40–60 years at baseline participated in a baseline survey (participation rate 76%) and 1589 men participated at the follow-up. 116 men with central obesity at baseline were excluded from the analyses. Main outcome measures Central obesity at follow-up defined as waist hip ratio ≥ 1. Results 197 men (15%) developed central obesity during follow-up. A low intake of dairy fat at baseline (no butter and low fat milk and seldom/never whipping cream) was associated with a higher risk of developing central obesity (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.05–2.24) and a high intake of dairy fat (butter as spread and high fat milk and whipping cream) was associated with a lower risk of central obesity (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33–0.83) as compared with medium intake (all other combinations of spread, milk, and cream) after adjustment for intake of fruit and vegetables, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, age, education, and profession. The associations between dairy fat intake and central obesity were consistent across body mass index categories at baseline. Conclusion A high intake of dairy fat was associated with a lower risk of central obesity and a low dairy fat intake was associated with a higher risk of central obesity. PMID:23320900

  9. Muscle Strength, Physical Activity, and Functional Limitations in Older Adults with Central Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Cassandra M.; Batsis, John A.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; McQuoid, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and muscle weakness are independently associated with increased risk of physical and functional impairment in older adults. It is unknown whether physical activity (PA) and muscle strength combined provide added protection against functional impairment. This study examines the association between muscle strength, PA, and functional outcomes in older adults with central obesity. Methods. Prevalence and odds of physical (PL), ADL, and IADL limitation were calculated for 6,388 community dwelling adults aged ≥ 60 with central obesity. Individuals were stratified by sex-specific hand grip tertiles and PA. Logistic models were adjusted for age, education, comorbidities, and body-mass index and weighted. Results. Overall prevalence of PL and ADL and IADL limitations were progressively lower by grip category. Within grip categories, prevalence was lower for individuals who were active than those who were inactive. Adjusted models showed significantly lower odds of PL OR 0.42 [0.31, 0.56]; ADL OR 0.60 [0.43, 0.84], and IADL OR 0.46 [0.35, 0.61] for those in the highest grip strength category as compared to those in the lowest grip category. Conclusion. Improving grip strength in obese elders who are not able to engage in traditional exercise is important for reducing odds of physical and functional impairment. PMID:27034833

  10. Central role for melanocortin-4 receptors in offspring hypertension arising from maternal obesity

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Anne-Maj S.; Mullier, Amandine; Maicas, Nuria; Oosterhuis, Nynke R.; Eun Bae, Sung; Novoselova, Tatiana V.; Chan, Li F.; Pombo, Joaquim M.; Taylor, Paul D.; Joles, Jaap A.; Coen, Clive W.; Balthasar, Nina; Poston, Lucilla

    2016-01-01

    Melanocortin-4 receptor (Mc4r)–expressing neurons in the autonomic nervous system, particularly in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH), play an essential role in blood pressure (BP) control. Mc4r-deficient (Mc4rKO) mice are severely obese but lack obesity-related hypertension; they also show a reduced pressor response to salt loading. We have previously reported that lean juvenile offspring born to diet-induced obese rats (OffOb) exhibit sympathetic-mediated hypertension, and we proposed a role for postnatally raised leptin in its etiology. Here, we test the hypothesis that neonatal hyperleptinemia due to maternal obesity induces persistent changes in the central melanocortin system, thereby contributing to offspring hypertension. Working on the OffOb paradigm in both sexes and using transgenic technology to restore Mc4r in the PVH of Mc4rKO (Mc4rPVH) mice, we have now shown that these mice develop higher BP than Mc4rKO or WT mice. We have also found that experimental hyperleptinemia induced in the neonatal period in Mc4rPVH and WT mice, but not in the Mc4rKO mice, leads to heightened BP and severe renal dysfunction. Thus, Mc4r in the PVH appears to be required for early-life programming of hypertension arising from either maternal obesity or neonatal hyperleptinemia. Early-life exposure of the PVH to maternal obesity through postnatal elevation of leptin may have long-term consequences for cardiovascular health. PMID:27791019

  11. Effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Central Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Indian Adults- A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Thillai, Manoj; Nain, Prabhdeep Singh; Ahuja, Ashish; Vayoth, Sudheer Othiyil; Khurana, Preetika

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Increasing incidence of obesity in Indian population has led to an exponential rise in the number of bariatric operations performed annually. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG) has been proposed to cause rapid remission of Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome in a weight loss independent manner. Aim To evaluate the effects of LSG on metabolic syndrome and central obesity in morbidly and severely obese Indian adults. Material and Methods: Study was conducted on 91 morbidly obese [Body Mass Index (BMI)>40 kg/m2] and severely obese (BMI>35 kg/m2) individuals who were suffering from diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia. The patients were followed up for six months and the trends of glycaemic control, mean blood pressure, lipid profile, weight loss parameters and changes in parameters of central obesity were studied. Results Weight loss was significant at three months postsurgery and was sustained through six months. There was significant improvement in glycaemic control leading to reduction in need for oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin in majority of them and even discontinuation of these medications in few patients. Hypertension and dyslipidemia also showed an improving trend through six months postsurgery. There was a significant impact on reduction of central obesity in these patients as marked by significant reduction in waist to hip ratio. Conclusion LSG produces sustainable weight loss with significant improvement in glycaemic status and control of metabolic syndrome in severe to morbidly obese patients. LSG is also efficacious in reducing central obesity in Indian population which is a major depressive ailment amongst obese individuals. PMID:28273998

  12. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  13. Mood, food, and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minati

    2014-01-01

    Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA) production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity. PMID:25225489

  14. [Obesity and cancer].

    PubMed

    Salaün, Hélène; Thariat, Juliette; Vignot, Marina; Merrouche, Yacine; Vignot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The proportion of people affected by obesity is increasing and this finding emphasizes several issues in oncology: obesity as a risk factor for cancer, prognostic value of obesity in cancer patients, nutritional assessment in overweight patients and impact of obesity on treatment management. It is important to remember the common underevaluation of malnutrition in overweight or obese patients. Every caregiver must be especially careful about the management of comorbidities in these patients.

  15. Predictive equations for central obesity via anthropometrics, stereovision imaging, and MRI in adults

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yao, Ming; Xu, Bugao

    2013-01-01

    Objective Abdominal visceral adiposity is related to risks for insulin resistance and metabolic perturbations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography are advanced instruments that quantify abdominal adiposity; yet field use is constrained by their bulkiness and costliness. The purpose of this study is to develop prediction equations for total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral adiposity via anthropometrics, stereovision body imaging (SBI), and MRI. Design and Methods Participants (67 men and 55 women) were measured for anthropometrics, and abdominal adiposity volumes evaluated by MRI umbilicus scans. Body circumferences and central obesity were obtained via SBI. Prediction models were developed via multiple linear regression analysis, utilizing body measurements and demographics as independent predictors, and abdominal adiposity as a dependent variable. Cross-validation was performed by the data-splitting method. Results The final total abdominal adiposity prediction equation was –470.28+7.10waist circumference–91.01gender+5.74sagittal diameter (R²=89.9%); subcutaneous adiposity was –172.37+8.57waist circumference–62.65gender–450.16stereovision waist-to-hip ratio (R²=90.4%); and visceral adiposity was –96.76+11.48central obesity depth–5.09 central obesity width+204.74stereovision waist-to-hip ratio–18.59gender (R²=71.7%). R² significantly improved for predicting visceral fat when SBI variables were included, but not for total abdominal or subcutaneous adiposity. Conclusions SBI is effective for predicting visceral adiposity and the prediction equations derived from SBI measurements can assess obesity. PMID:23613161

  16. The worldwide obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    James, P T; Leach, R; Kalamara, E; Shayeghi, M

    2001-11-01

    The recent World Health Organization (WHO) agreement on the standardized classification of overweight and obese, based on body mass index (BMI), allows a comparable analysis of prevalence rates worldwide for the first time. In Asia, however, there is a demand for a more limited range for normal BMIs (i.e., 18.5 to 22.9 kg/m(2) rather than 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)) because of the high prevalence of comorbidities, particularly diabetes and hypertension. In children, the International Obesity Task-Force age-, sex-, and BMI-specific cutoff points are increasingly being used. We are currently evaluating BMI data globally as part of a new millennium analysis of the Global Burden of Disease. WHO is analyzing data in terms of 20 or more principal risk factors contributing to the primary causes of disability and lost lives in the 191 countries within the WHO. The prevalence rates for overweight and obese people are different in each region, with the Middle East, Central and Eastern Europe, and North America having higher prevalence rates. In most countries, women show a greater BMI distribution with higher obesity rates than do men. Obesity is usually now associated with poverty, even in developing countries. Relatively new data suggest that abdominal obesity in adults, with its associated enhanced morbidity, occurs particularly in those who had lower birth weights and early childhood stunting. Waist measurements in nationally representative studies are scarce but will now be needed to estimate the full impact of the worldwide obesity epidemic.

  17. What is the prognosis for new centrally-acting anti-obesity drugs?

    PubMed

    Heal, David J; Gosden, Jane; Smith, Sharon L

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is predominantly caused by the increasing adoption of a low-cost, Westernised diet that is rich in fat and sugar and a more sedentary lifestyle. The costs of this epidemic are substantial increases in Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer that are certain to place a huge burden on individuals, healthcare providers and society. In this review, we provide an overview of the chequered history of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and an analysis of the regulatory and commercial challenges for developing new centrally-acting drugs in this metabolic indication. The efficacy and safety of the drug candidates that are currently at the pre-registration phase, i.e., lorcaserin, Qnexa and Contrave, are critically assessed. The main focus, however, is to provide a comprehensive review of the wide range of novel CNS compounds that are in the discovery phase or early clinical development. The profiles of various clinical candidates in animal models of obesity predict that several new CNS approaches in the clinic have the potential to deliver greater weight-loss than existing agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'.

  18. Extracellular vesicles: Pharmacological modulators of the peripheral and central signals governing obesity.

    PubMed

    Milbank, Edward; Martinez, M Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its metabolic resultant dysfunctions such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension, grouped as the "metabolic syndrome", are chronic inflammatory disorders that represent one of the most severe epidemic health problems. The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, leading to an excess of body fat and an increase of cardiovascular and diabetes risks, is regulated by the interaction between central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral signals in order to regulate behavior and finally, the metabolism of peripheral organs. At present, pharmacological treatment of obesity comprises actions in both CNS and peripheral organs. In the last decades, the extracellular vesicles have emerged as participants in many pathophysiological regulation processes. Whether used as biomarkers, targets or even tools, extracellular vesicles provided some promising effects in the treatment of a large variety of diseases. Extracellular vesicles are released by cells from the plasma membrane (microvesicles) or from multivesicular bodies (exosomes) and contain lipids, proteins and nucleic acids, such as DNA, protein coding, and non-coding RNAs. Owing to their composition, extracellular vesicles can (i) activate receptors at the target cell and then, the subsequent intracellular pathway associated to the specific receptor; (ii) transfer molecules to the target cells and thereby change their phenotype and (iii) be used as shuttle of drugs and, thus, to carry specific molecules towards specific cells. Herein, we review the impact of extracellular vesicles in modulating the central and peripheral signals governing obesity.

  19. Association between central obesity and circadian parameters of blood pressure from the korean ambulatory blood pressure monitoring registry: Kor-ABP registry.

    PubMed

    Kang, In Sook; Pyun, Wook Bum; Shin, Jinho; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Soon Gil; Shin, Gil Ja

    2013-10-01

    Central obesity has been reported as a risk for atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome. The influence of central obesity on diurnal blood pressure (BP) has not been established. In this study, we investigated the influence of central obesity on the circadian parameters of BP by 24 hr ambulatory BP monitoring. Total 1,290 subjects were enrolled from the Korean Ambulatory BP registry. Central obesity was defined as having a waist circumference≥90 cm in males and ≥85 cm in females. The central-obese group had higher daytime systolic BP (SBP), nighttime SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) than the non-obese group (all, P<0.001). There were no differences in nocturnal dipping (ND) patterns between the groups. Female participants showed a higher BP mean difference (MD) than male participants with concerns of central obesity (daytime SBP MD 5.28 vs 4.27, nighttime SBP MD 6.48 vs 2.72) and wider pulse pressure (PP). Central obesity within the elderly (≥65 yr) also showed a higher BP MD than within the younger group (daytime SBP MD 8.23 vs 3.87, daytime DBP 4.10 vs 1.59). In conclusion, central obesity has no influence on nocturnal dipping patterns. However, higher SBP and wider PP are associated with central obesity, which is accentuated in women.

  20. Central Obesity: Association with Left Ventricular Dysfunction and Mortality in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Khawaja Afzal; Redfield, Margaret M.; Mahoney, Douglas W.; Johnson, Matthew; Jacobsen, Steven J; Rodeheffer, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We sought to measure the strength of association between two indices of obesity, waist hip ratio (WHR) and body mass index (BMI), with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and mortality in a community cohort. Background The distribution of body fat is thought to affect cardiovascular disease risk. The association of BMI (an index of overall obesity) and WHR (an index of central obesity) with LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction in a population-based cohort is unknown. Methods Results Anthropomorphic measurements and echocardiographic LV function were measured in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 2042 men and women >45 years old in the Olmsted County Heart Function Study. Five year prospective mortality was measured. Results Increased WHR had a stronger association than BMI with: 1) lower LV EF (r= -0.24, p<0.0001 versus r= -0.04, p=0.09), and 2) LV diastolic dysfunction (r = 0.18, p<0.0001 versus r = 0.05, p = 0.02). After adjustment for standard cardiovascular risk factors WHR continued to be significantly associated with diastolic dysfunction, but not with systolic dysfunction. WHR, but not BMI, was strongly predictive of all cause mortality independent of age and sex (HR 23.6, CI 4.0, 139.8; p = 0.0005). This relationship was attenuated on adjustment for diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions WHR is a stronger correlate of LV dysfunction and mortality than BMI. These cross-sectional data suggest that the increased risk of mortality from central obesity is mediated at least in part by LV dysfunction, especially diastolic dysfunction. PMID:19061715

  1. [Obesity in childhood].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, M Iu; Poriagina, G I; Kovaleva, E A

    2010-01-01

    In this article presented modern data on the definition of obesity in childhood and its prevalence. Were reflected the basic diagnostic criteria for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Were analyzed genetic changes, hormonal factors, influence lifestyle of modern man as the reasons of the obesity. Are also was considered data on the relation of obesity and its complications such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndromes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Was reflected the views of various specialists (cardiologists, endocrinologists, gastroenterologists, pediatricians) to the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Were presented modern data on the approaches to the treatment of obesity in children.

  2. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  3. The association of leptin with dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension and obesity in Kyrgyz (Central Asian nation) population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Leptin, an adipocytokine produced by adipose tissue, along with the traditional cardiometabolic risk factors, contributes to the development of cardiovascular complications. At the same time, ethnic features of adipocytokines have been insufficiently investigated, especially among Asians, who have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared with Europeans. Aim of study was to investigate the relationship between leptin levels and age, gender, anthropometric parameters, lipid parameters, arterial hypertension (AH), and obesity in the adult population of ethnic Kyrgyz people living in Central Asia. Results In total, 322 ethnic Kyrgyz (145 men, 177 women) aged ≥ 30 years were studied. Waist and hip circumference, body mass index, blood glucose, lipids, leptin, and homeostatic model assessment were measured. Patients in the upper quartile of leptin levels had high values of BMI, WC, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, and HOMA index compared with patients with lower leptin levels. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and AH increased with higher levels of leptin. Leptin positively correlated with BMI, WC, triglycerides, and glucose concentrations in patients of both sexes. According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, elevated leptin levels increased by 30 times the risk of obesity in men, regardless of the presence of type 2 diabetes, and 17.7 times in women. Conclusion Leptin is associated with general and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in Kyrgyz patients. PMID:24981337

  4. Obesity and central adiposity in Japanese immigrants: role of the Western dietary pattern.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sandra R G; Lerario, Daniel D G; Gimeno, Suely G A; Sanudo, Adriana; Franco, Laércio J

    2002-11-01

    We examined the association of nutritional factors with body fat deposition in a representative sample (n=530, aged 40-79 years) of first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilian population who was submitted to standardized questionnaires, including nutritional data, clinical examination and laboratory procedures. Dietary data were compared between groups of subjects defined by the presence of obesity or central adiposity. Associations of body mass index or waist circumference (dependent variables) with energy and nutrient intakes (main exposure of interest) were analyzed by multiple linear regression, with adjustment for gender, age, physical activity and generation. Groups of obese subjects and those with central adiposity consumed higher proportions of energy as fat and lower as carbohydrate than those without obesity and central adiposity (p<0.05). Stratifying by generation, second-generation was shown to take more energy as fat than the first-generation (p<0.05). In the regression models, protein intake was the only variable significantly associated with body mass index. Replacing body mass index by the waist circumference, male sex and protein intake were shown to be independent predictors of central adiposity. When second-generation was taken, total energy intake and all macronutrient intakes became significantly associated with body mass index (p<0.05) but only protein intake predicted waist circumference. We speculate that Japanese-Brazilians, genetically prone to insulin resistance, when exposed to unfavorable environment will express a number of metabolic disturbances. A deleterious dietary pattern may contribute to weight gain, was associated with abdominal fat deposition in particular a protein-rich diet, and reflected by their waist circumference. Intra-abdominal fat could be triggering insulin resistance, which would explain the increased prevalence rates of diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension seen in Japanese-Brazilians.

  5. [Epidemiology of obesity].

    PubMed

    Möhr, M

    1977-05-15

    In the GDR about 20% of the males and 40% of the females were estimated to be obese. In the country obesity is more spread than in the town. Increased disablement of obese persons leads to reduction of the national income. With higher expenses for nutrition the frequency of obestiy increases. Hypophages and hyperphages are differently distributed in persons with normal weight and obese ones, so that the average establishments do not reflect the differentiated situation in nutrition. Obesity correlates with the type of structure; with increasing obesity dominate pyknomorphous tendencies of growth. Also in normal weight pyknomorphous persons have a higher proportion of fat. We should speak of obesity in such a case, when, taking into consideration biological differentiations, the normal proportion of the fat in the body is increased by more than 1/3. For epidemiological serial examinations the degrees of relative weight basing on optimum weight are a favourable basis for the classification of obesity.

  6. Endocrine system and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients.

  7. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih-LA-shun) syndrome (OHS) is ... e-DE-mah), pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI-per-TEN-shun), cor pulmonale (pul-meh-NAL- ...

  8. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  9. Overweight and Obesity Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 percent were considered extremely obesese. Source: Ogden & Carroll, 2010; Flegal et al., 2012 **Data for 1960– ... clinical-guidelines-obesity-adults-evidence-report Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity ...

  10. Obesity and Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  11. Obesity and health (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  12. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000085.htm Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some ...

  13. Obesity Gene Atlas in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kunej, Tanja; Jevsinek Skok, Dasa; Zorc, Minja; Ogrinc, Ana; Michal, Jennifer J.; Kovac, Milena; Jiang, Zhihua

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in humans has increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades and has become one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, indicating an urgent need to develop a central database for helping the community understand the genetic complexity of obesity. In the present study, we collected a total of 1,736 obesity associated loci and created a freely available obesity database, including 1,515 protein-coding genes and 221 microRNAs (miRNAs) collected from four mammalian species: human, cattle, rat, and mouse. These loci were integrated as orthologs on comparative genomic views in human, cattle, and mouse. The database and genomic views are freely available online at: http://www.integratomics-time.com/fat_deposition. Bioinformatics analyses of the collected data revealed some potential novel obesity related molecular markers which represent focal points for testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments for further studies. We believe that this centralized database on obesity and adipogenesis will facilitate development of comparative systems biology approaches to address this important health issue in human and their potential applications in animals. PMID:25031655

  14. Obesity and Psychoanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S.; Stunkard, Albert J.

    This report describes a collaborative study undertaken by 72 psychoanalysts in an effort to (1) collect systematic data about obese patients in psychoanalysis and (2) assess the effect of psychoanalysis in the treatment of obesity. A total of 84 obese and 63 normal weight patients was studied. Each analyst completed a detailed questionnaire on his…

  15. The Complexity of Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  16. Childhood environment and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  17. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  18. Common Variations in Perilipin Gene, Central Obesity, and Risk of Type 2 diabetes in US Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: The variations in perilipin gene (PLIN) were previously associated with obesity and insulin sensitivity. We examined whether PLIN variability was associated with diabetes risk and whether obesity status modified such associations. Research Methods and Procedures: We conducted a nested cas...

  19. Metabolic imprinting in obesity.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, E L; Grove, K L

    2010-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that early metabolic programming contributes to escalating obesity rates in children and adults. Metabolic imprinting is involved in the establishment of set points for physiologic and metabolic responses in adulthood. Evidence from epidemiological studies and animal models indicates that maternal health and nutritional status during gestation and lactation have long-term effects on central and peripheral systems that regulate energy balance in the developing offspring. Perinatal nutrition also impacts susceptibility to developing metabolic disorders and plays a role in programming body weight set points. The states of maternal energy status and health that are implicated in predisposing offspring to increased risk of developing obesity include maternal overnutrition, diabetes, and undernutrition. This chapter discusses the evidence from epidemiologic studies and animal models that each of these states of maternal energy status results in metabolic imprinting of obesity in offspring. Also, the potential molecular mediators of metabolic imprinting of obesity by maternal energy status including glucose, insulin, leptin, inflammatory cytokines and epigenetic mechanisms are considered.

  20. Endothelial dysfunction in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Mauricio, Maria Dolores; Aldasoro, Martin; Ortega, Joaquin; Vila, José María

    2013-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic multifunctional disease characterized by an accumulation of fat. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Endothelial dysfunction, as defined by an imbalance between relaxing and contractile endothelial factors, plays a central role in the pathogenesis of these cardiometabolic diseases. Diminished bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to endothelial dysfunction and impairs endothelium- dependent vasodilatation. But this is not the only mechanism that drives to endothelial dysfunction. Obesity has been associated with a chronic inflammatory process, atherosclerosis, and oxidative stress. Moreover levels of asymmetrical dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), are elevated in obesity. On the other hand, increasing prostanoid-dependent vasoconstriction and decreasing vasodilator prostanoids also lead to endothelial dysfunction in obesity. Other mechanisms related to endothelin-1 (ET-1) or endothelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) have been proposed. Bariatric surgery (BS) is a safe and effective means to achieve significant weight loss, but its use is limited only to patients with severe obesity including morbid obesity. BS also proved efficient in endothelial dysfunction reduction improving cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities associated with morbid obesity such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. This review will provide a brief overview of the mechanisms that link obesity with endothelial dysfunction, and how weight loss is a cornerstone treatment for cardiovascular comorbidities obesity-related. A better understanding of the mechanisms of obesity-induced endothelial dysfunction may help develop new therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  1. Obesity Epidemiology Worldwide.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Mincey, Krista D

    2016-12-01

    Obesity continues to be a public health concern across the globe. Obesity has a demonstrated association with health behaviors and health outcomes, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer. Over the past 2 decades, obesity has increased worldwide and remains highest in the United States. It is critical to understand the definition of obesity, using body mass index appropriately, recent estimates, and risk factors as a framework within which clinicians should work to help reduce the burden of obesity. This framework, including the Healthy People 2020 place-based approach to social determinants of health, is described in this article.

  2. Obesity and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Zhong; Lu, Wen; Zong, Xue-Feng; Ruan, Hong-Yun; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Technically, obesity is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. The latter constitutes the maximal healthful value for an individual that is calculated based chiefly on the height, age, build and degree of muscular development. However, obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index. The National Institutes of Health have defined 30 kg/m2 as the limit over which an individual is qualified as obese. Accordingly, the prevalence of obesity in on the increase in children and adults worldwide, despite World Health Organization warnings. The growth of obesity and the scale of associated health issues induce serious consequences for individuals and governmental health systems. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, particularly hypertension and diabetes, are the main illnesses associated with obesity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension or other associated metabolic diseases remains to be adequately investigated. In the present review, we addressed the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly the biological mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. PMID:27703502

  3. Management of obesity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Patrick M

    2007-02-01

    Maternal pregravid obesity is a significant risk factor for adverse outcomes during pregnancy. In early pregnancy there is an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and congenital anomalies. In later gestation maternal metabolic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome, such as gestational hypertensive disorders and diabetes, become clinically recognized because of the increased insulin resistance in obese compared with nonobese women. In women with pregestational glucose intolerance, hypertension, central obesity, and lipid disorders, the physiologic changes in pregnancy increase the risk of problems previously not routinely encountered during pregnancy. These include chronic cardiac dysfunction, proteinuria, sleep apnea, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. At parturition the obese patient is at an increased risk of cesarean delivery and associated complications of anesthesia, wound disruption, infection, and deep venous thrombophlebitis. For the fetus there are short-term risks of fetal macrosomia, more specifically obesity, and long-term risks of adolescent components of the metabolic syndrome. Although preliminary results of bariatric surgery are encouraging, the procedure is expensive and not for all obese women, and we recognize that long-term follow-up data on offspring of obese women who have undergone bariatric surgery before pregnancy are lacking. In the interim, we need to encourage obese women to lose weight before conception, using lifestyle changes if possible. During pregnancy, weight gain should be limited to Institute of Medicine guidelines (currently under review) and encouragement given for physical activity.

  4. Obesity and ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Mary; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to increase globally, with figures exceeding 30% of some populations. Patients who are obese experience alterations in baseline pulmonary mechanics, including airflow obstruction, decreased lung volumes, and impaired gas exchange. These physiologic changes have implications in many diseases, including ARDS. The unique physiology of patients who are obese affects the presentation and pathophysiology of ARDS, and patients who are obese who have respiratory failure present specific management challenges. Although more study is forthcoming, ventilator strategies that focus on transpulmonary pressure as a measure of lung stress show promise in pilot studies. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and the variable effects of obesity on respiratory mechanics and ARDS pathophysiology, we recommend an individualized approach to the management of the obese patient with ARDS. PMID:22948584

  5. Treatment for morbid obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, A

    1999-01-01

    There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surgical treatment of morbid obesity is the only therapeutic form that has stood the test of time, it still remains a crisis-driven form of therapy in the UK. It is probable that a better understanding of the aetiology and physiology of obesity may lead to the development of an effective pharmacological treatment of obesity in the future. However, until then, surgical treatment of morbid obesity should be considered as an effective and efficient way of treatment in selected cases.


Keywords: obesity PMID:10396579

  6. Obesity, Asthma, and the Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngji

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for asthma, but standard asthma drugs have reduced efficacy in the obese. Obesity alters the gastrointestinal microbial community structure. This change in structure contributes to some obesity-related conditions and also could be contributing to obesity-related asthma. Although currently unexplored, obesity may also be altering lung microbiota. Understanding the role of microbiota in obesity-related asthma could lead to novel treatments for these patients. PMID:26889016

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project)

    PubMed Central

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents’ and adolescents’ demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12–18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents’ obesity. PMID:26712779

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents and Their Parents in Central Greece (FETA Project).

    PubMed

    Patsopoulou, Anna; Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Katsioulis, Antonios; Rachiotis, George; Malissiova, Eleni; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-12-26

    The increasing obesity trend in adolescence is a public health concern. The initial phase of Feeding Exercise Trial in Adolescents (FETA) aimed in investigating the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents and their parents and in identifying associated factors among parents' and adolescents' demographics, eating habits, and parental style. The sample consisted of 816 adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, and their parents from 17 middle and high schools in Larissa, central Greece. During school visits, anthropometric measurements were performed along with examination of blood pressure. The students completed the study tool that comprised of demographics and the modified versions of Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ), the Parent-Initiated Motivational Climate Questionnaire-2 (PIMCQ-2) and the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire (FEAHQ). Their parents completed a questionnaire with demographics, anthropometrics and FEAHQ. Normal Body Mass Index was found in 75.2% of the adolescents, 2.6% of the adolescents were underweight, 18% overweight and 4.2% obese. Regarding the parents, 76.3% of the fathers and 39.2% of the mothers were overweight or obese. The logistic regression analysis revealed that, overweight or obesity in adolescence was associated with gender (boy), maternal overweight or obesity, lower maternal educational level, eating without feeling hungry, eating in rooms other than kitchen and having a father that motivates by worrying about failing. A significant proportion of adolescents and their parents are overweight or obese. Future interventions should focus both on the parents and children, taking into account the role of parental authority style, in preventing adolescents' obesity.

  9. Altered functional connectivity within the central reward network in overweight and obese women

    PubMed Central

    Coveleskie, K; Gupta, A; Kilpatrick, L A; Mayer, E D; Ashe-McNalley, C; Stains, J; Labus, J S; Mayer, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity alterations within regions of the reward network. Subjects/Methods: Fifty healthy, premenopausal women, 19 overweight and obese (high BMI=26–38 kg m−2) and 31 lean (BMI=19–25 kg m−2) were selected from the University of California Los Angeles' Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress database. Structural and RS functional scans were collected. Group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) of the NAcc, oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity of the NAcc to regions within the reward network were examined. Results: GMV of the left NAcc was significantly greater in the high BMI group than in the lean group (P=0.031). Altered frequency distributions were observed in women with high BMI compared with lean group in the left NAcc (P=0.009) in a medium-frequency (MF) band, and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (P=0.014, <0.001) and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) (P=0.034, <0.001) in a high-frequency band. Subjects with high BMI had greater connectivity of the left NAcc with bilateral ACC (P=0.024) and right vmPFC (P=0.032) in a MF band and with the left ACC (P=0.03) in a high frequency band. Conclusions: Overweight and obese women in the absence of food-related stimuli show significant structural and functional alterations within regions of reward-related brain networks, which may have a role in altered ingestive behaviors. PMID:25599560

  10. School-level economic disadvantage and obesity in middle school children in central Texas, USA: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although children of lower socio-economic status (SES) in the United States have generally been found to be at greater risk for obesity, the SES-obesity association varies when stratified by racial/ethnic groups-with no consistent association found for African American and Hispanic children. Research on contextual and setting-related factors may provide further insights into ethnic and SES disparities in obesity. We examined whether obesity levels among central Texas 8th grade students (n=2682) vary by school-level economic disadvantage across individual-level family SES and racial/ethnicity groups. As a secondary aim, we compared the association of school-level economic disadvantage and obesity by language spoken with parents (English or Spanish) among Hispanic students. Methods Multilevel regression models stratified by family SES and ethnicity were run using cross-sectional baseline data from five school districts participating in the Central Texas CATCH Middle School project. For family SES, independent multi-level logistic regression models were run for total sample and by gender for each family SES stratum (poor/near poor/just getting by, living comfortably, and very well off), adjusting for age, ethnicity, and gender. Similarly, multi-level regression models were run by race/ethnic group (African American, Hispanic, and White), adjusting for age, family SES, and gender. Results Students attending highly economically disadvantaged (ED) schools were between 1.7 (95% CI: 1.1-2.6) and 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8) times more likely to be obese as students attending low ED schools across family SES groups (p<.05). African American (ORAdj =3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-11.4), Hispanic (ORAdj=1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) and White (ORAdj=3.8, 95% CI: 1.6-8.9) students attending high ED schools were more likely to be obese as counterparts at low ED schools (p<.05). Gender-stratified findings were similar to findings for total sample, although fewer results reached significance. While

  11. Diffusing obesity myths.

    PubMed

    Ramos Salas, X; Forhan, M; Sharma, A M

    2014-06-01

    Misinformation or myths about obesity can lead to weight bias and obesity stigma. Counteracting myths with facts and evidence has been shown to be effective educational tools to increase an individuals' knowledge about a certain condition and to reduce stigma.The purpose of this study was to identify common obesity myths within the healthcare and public domains and to develop evidence-based counterarguments to diffuse them. An online search of grey literature, media and public health information sources was conducted to identify common obesity myths. A list of 10 obesity myths was developed and reviewed by obesity experts and key opinion leaders. Counterarguments were developed using current research evidence and validated by obesity experts. A survey of obesity experts and health professionals was conducted to determine the usability and potential effectiveness of the myth-fact messages to reduce weight bias. A total of 754 individuals responded to the request to complete the survey. Of those who responded, 464 (61.5%) completed the survey. All 10 obesity myths were identified to be deeply pervasive within Canadian healthcare and public domains. Although the myth-fact messages were endorsed, respondents also indicated that they would likely not be sufficient to reduce weight bias. Diffusing deeply pervasive obesity myths will require multilevel approaches.

  12. The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Chen, Xiaoli; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42-22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43-5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity.

  13. The Relationship between High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea and General and Central Obesity: Findings from a Sample of Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Clarita; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence and extent to which high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with general obesity and central obesity among college students in Punta Arenas, Chile. Risk for OSA was assessed using the Berlin Questionnaire and trained research nurses measured anthropometric indices. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) of 25–29.9 kg/m2 and general obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Central obesity was defined as waist circumference ≥90 centimeters (cm) for males and ≥80 cm for females. Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to obtain adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Prevalence of high risk for OSA, general obesity, and central obesity were 7.8%, 12.8%, and 42.7%, respectively. Students at high risk for OSA had greater odds of general obesity (OR 9.96; 95% CI: 4.42–22.45) and central obesity (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.43–5.40). Findings support a strong positive association of high risk for OSA with obesity. PMID:24944841

  14. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    PubMed

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail.

  15. Obesity and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Rahul M; Zawada, Edward T

    2004-06-01

    There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity, and an increasing number of patients who are obese are presenting for solid-organ transplantation. Obesity increases the risk for delayed graft function and local wound complications after technically successful kidney transplantation. Obese patients are more likely to have comorbid factors leading to premature death with a functioning kidney transplant. We suggest the use of World Health Organization criteria when reporting the impact of obesity on recipients of solid-organ transplants. Prospective multicenter studies are indicated to evaluate long-term outcomes in obese patients who successfully receive a kidney transplant. Rigorous efforts should be made to optimize weight before and after solid-organ transplantation by a judicious combination of diet, exercise, minimization of steroid therapy, surgery, and psychological therapies.

  16. Obesity in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems.

  17. Female obesity and infertility.

    PubMed

    Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review.

  18. [Skin diseases and obesity].

    PubMed

    Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management.

  19. Virtual screening against obesity.

    PubMed

    Markt, P; Herdlinger, S; Schuster, D

    2011-01-01

    The development of novel drugs against obesity is one of the top priorities of worldwide drug research. In recent years, it has been facilitated by the application of virtual screening methods. In this review, we give a short introduction into obesity-related protein targets and computer-aided drug design techniques. Furthermore, we highlight the most successful virtual screening studies, outline their results, and provide suggestions for future anti-obesity drug development.

  20. Diagnostic imaging in obesity.

    PubMed

    Machann, Jürgen; Horstmann, Annette; Born, Mark; Hesse, Swen; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Magnetic resonance of the body offers different techniques for mapping fat deposits (MR Imaging) and analysis of organs with small amounts of lipids (MR Spectroscopy). Possible approaches for whole-body assessment of adipose tissue are presented and discussed and spectroscopic examinations in different organs are depicted. With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) it has been shown that obesity per se is not a marker for metabolic failure, but depends on regional variations of body composition and ectopic lipid accumulation. In addition MRI of the brain is a powerful research tool to understand the brain's role in the development and maintenance of obesity and the overconsumption of foods in obese individuals. Sonography has a low accuracy in estimating hepatic steatosis until now. New sonographic methods have been evaluated to detect hepatic steatosis by physical properties of fatty tissue as tissue stiffness, sound absorption or sound speed. Nuclear medicine and in particular Positron Emission Tomography (PET) methods are used to explore central pathophysiology, brown adipose tissue activity and alterations in homeostatic feedback and gut-brain communication.

  1. The economics of obesity.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Strombotne, Kiersten L

    2010-05-01

    The rise in obesity rates, both nationally and internationally, is a result of changes in the environment that have simultaneously lowered the cost of food production, lowered the time and monetary cost of food consumption, increased the real cost of being physically active at work and at home, and decreased the health consequences that result from obesity by bringing a host of new drugs and devices to the market to better manage the adverse health effects that obesity promotes. This changing environment is in response to consumers' demand for labor-saving technology and convenient, affordable food. To be successful, efforts to combat obesity therefore need to recognize and address these realities.

  2. [Obesity in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community.

  3. Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of the major public health concerns facing the society. Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are malignant tumors arising from cholangiocytes inside or outside of the liver. Although cholangiocarcinomas are relatively rare, they are highly lethal. The low survival rate associated with cholangiocarcinoma is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Prevention is therefore especially important in this cancer type. Some data suggest that the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the western world is on the rise. Increasing rate of obesity may be one of the factors responsible for this increase. Determining whether obesity is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma has significant clinical and societal implications as obesity is both prevalent and modifiable. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the current knowledge linking obesity and cholangiocarcinoma, and encourage further research on this topic. PMID:23382624

  4. Economic Impact of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Spieker, Elena A; Pyzocha, Natasha

    2016-03-01

    Parallel to rising obesity rates is an increase in costs associated with excess weight. Estimates of future direct (medical) and indirect (nonmedical) costs related to obesity suggest rising expenditures that will impose a significant economic burden to individuals and society as a whole. This article reviews research on direct and indirect medical costs and future economic trends associated with obesity and associated comorbidities. Cost disparities associated with subsets of the population experiencing higher than average rates of obesity are explored. Finally, potential solutions with the highest estimated impact are offered, and future directions are proposed.

  5. [Epigenetics and obesity].

    PubMed

    Casanello, Paola; Krause, Bernardo J; Castro-Rodríguez, José A; Uauy, Ricardo

    Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated. This contrasts with well-established associations found between obesity related DNA methylation patterns at birth and adult onset obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic markers may serve to screen indivuals at risk for obesity and assess the effects of interventions in early life that may delay or prevent obesity in early life. This might contribute to lower the obesity-related burden of death and disability at the population level. The available evidence indicates that epigenetic marks are in fact modifiable, based on modifications in the intrauterine environment and changes in food intake, physical activity and dietary patterns patterns during pregnancy and early years of adult life. This offers the opportunity to intervene before conception, during pregnancy, infancy, childhood, and also in later life. There must be documentation on the best preventive actions in terms of diet and physical activity that will modify or revert the adverse epigenetic markers, thus preventing obesity and diabetes in suceptible individuals and populations.

  6. DBS for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Ruth; Fonoff, Erich T.; Alvarenga, Pedro; Lopes, Antonio Carlos; Miguel, Euripides C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.; Damiani, Durval; Hamani, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic, progressive and prevalent disorder. Morbid obesity, in particular, is associated with numerous comorbidities and early mortality. In patients with morbid obesity, pharmacological and behavioral approaches often have limited results. Bariatric surgery is quite effective but is associated with operative failures and a non-negligible incidence of side effects. In the last decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been investigated as a neurosurgical modality to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. In this article we review the rationale for selecting different brain targets, surgical results and future perspectives for the use of DBS in medically refractory obesity. PMID:27438859

  7. Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...

  8. What Are Overweight and Obesity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Overweight and Obesity Español Also known as adiposity. Overweight and obesity ... more information. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  9. Normal Weight with Central Obesity, Physical Activity, and Functional Decline: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Batsis, John A.; Zbehlik, Alicia J.; Scherer, Emily A.; Barre, Laura K.; Bartels, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the risks of the combination of normal body mass index (BMI) and central obesity (normal weight and central obesity (NWCO)) on physical activity and function. DESIGN Longitudinal Osteoarthritis Initiative Study. SETTING Community based. PARTICIPANTS Adults aged 60 and older at risk of osteoarthritis (N= 2,210; mean age 68, range 67.1–69.0) were grouped according to BMI (normal 18.5–24.9 kg/m2, overweight 25.0–29.9 kg/m2, obese ≥30.0 kg/m2). High waist circumference (WC) was defined as greater than 88 cm for women and greater than 102 cm for men. Subjects were subcategorized according to WC (five categories). Subjects with normal BMI and a large WC were considered to have NWCO (n=280, 12.7%). MEASUREMENTS Six-year changes in the Physical Component Summary of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Survey (PCS), Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and Late-Life Function and Disability Index (LL-FDI) were examined. The association between BMI and WC over 6 years was assessed (reference normal BMI, normal WC). Stratified analyses were performed according to age (60–69; ≥70). RESULTS Physical component scores, PASE, and LL-FDI declined with time. Mean PASE scores at 6 years differed between the NWCO group and the group with normal BMI and WC (117.7 vs 141.5), but rate of change from baseline to 6 years was not significantly different (p=.35). In adjusted models, those with NWCO had greater decline in PCS over time, particularly those aged 70 and older than those with normal BMI and WC (time interaction β=–0.37, 95% confidence interval=–0.68 to –0.06). CONCLUSION NWCO in older adults at risk of osteoarthritis may be a risk factor for declining function and physical activity, particularly in those aged 70 and older, suggesting the value of targeting those with NWCO who would otherwise be labeled as low risk. PMID:26173812

  10. Diabetes mellitus and its association with central obesity and disability among older adults: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Koyanagi, Ai; Garin, Noe; Olaya, Beatriz; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Miret, Marta; Chatterji, Somnath; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between various factors and diabetes type II (DM) with a particular emphasis on indicators of central obesity, and to compare the effect of DM on disability among elder populations (≥ 50 years old) in nine countries. Data were available for 52,946 people aged ≥ 18 years who participated in the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health and the Collaborative Research on Ageing in Europe studies conducted between 2007 and 2012. DM was defined as self-report of physician diagnosis. Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Disability status was assessed with the WHODAS II questionnaire. The overall prevalence of DM was 7.9% and ranged from 3.8% (Ghana) to 17.6% (Mexico). A 10 cm increase in waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio of >0.5 were associated with a significant 1.26 (India) to 1.77 (Finland), and 1.68 (China, Spain) to 5.40 (Finland) times higher odds for DM respectively. No significant associations were observed in Mexico and South Africa. DM was associated with significantly higher disability status in all countries except Mexico in the model adjusted for demographics and smoking. The inclusion of chronic conditions associated with diabetes in the model attenuated the coefficients in varying degrees depending on the country. A considerable proportion of the studied older population had DM. Central obesity may be a key factor for the prevention of DM among older populations globally. Prevention of DM especially among the older population globally may contribute to reducing the burden of disability.

  11. Obesity induced by a high-fat diet is associated with increased immune cell entry into the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Buckman, Laura B; Hasty, Alyssa H; Flaherty, David K; Buckman, Christopher T; Thompson, Misty M; Matlock, Brittany K; Weller, Kevin; Ellacott, Kate L J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in peripheral tissues caused, in part, by the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes into adipose tissue. Studies in rodent models have also shown increased inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) during obesity. The goal of this study was to determine whether obesity is associated with recruitment of peripheral immune cells into the CNS. To do this we used a bone marrow chimerism model to track the entry of green-fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled peripheral immune cells into the CNS. Flow cytometry was used to quantify the number of GFP(+) immune cells recruited into the CNS of mice fed a high-fat diet compared to standard chow fed controls. High-fat feeding resulted in obesity associated with a 30% increase in the number of GFP(+) cells in the CNS compared to control mice. Greater than 80% of the GFP(+) cells recruited to the CNS were also CD45(+) CD11b(+) indicating that the GFP(+) cells displayed characteristics of microglia/macrophages. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed the increase in GFP(+) cells in the CNS of the high-fat fed group and also indicated that 93% of the recruited cells were found in the parenchyma and had a stellate morphology. These findings indicate that peripheral immune cells can be recruited to the CNS in obesity and may contribute to the inflammatory response.

  12. Obesity as the initial manifestation of central nervous system relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Dan; Li, Yan-Hong; Ke, Zhi-Yong; Huang, Li-Bin; Luo, Xue-Qun

    2012-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission experienced hyperphagia, obesity, and emotional disorders. Cytomorphologic examination of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and cranial MRI did not help in differentiating between central nervous system leukemia (CNSL) and other CNS diseases including tuberculosis in this boy. Flow cytometric CSF analysis on repeated lumber puncture detected lymphoblasts, while microscopic CSF examination did not definitively show relapse disease. The diagnosis of CNSL was thus made and confirmed by the response to leukemia treatment. Obesity can be the first manifestation of CNSL and the diagnosis can be challenging. A combination of CSF cytomorphology, CSF flow cytometry, and cranial MRI can be useful in the diagnosis of the disease. Two mechanisms of CNSL-related obesity are discussed based on the literature review.

  13. Blunted sympathoinhibitory responses in obesity-related hypertension are due to aberrant central but not peripheral signalling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    How, Jackie M Y; Wardak, Suhail A; Ameer, Shaik I; Davey, Rachel A; Sartor, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The gut hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) acts at subdiaphragmatic vagal afferents to induce renal and splanchnic sympathoinhibition and vasodilatation, via reflex inhibition of a subclass of cardiovascular-controlling neurons in the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). These sympathoinhibitory and vasodilator responses are blunted in obese, hypertensive rats and our aim in the present study was to determine whether this is attributable to (i) altered sensitivity of presympathetic vasomotor RVLM neurons, and (ii) aberrant peripheral or central signalling mechanisms. Using a diet-induced obesity model, male Sprague–Dawley rats exhibited either an obesity-prone (OP) or obesity-resistant (OR) phenotype when placed on a medium high fat diet for 13–15 weeks; control animals were placed on a low fat diet. OP animals had elevated resting arterial pressure compared to OR/control animals (P < 0.05). Barosensitivity of RVLM neurons was significantly attenuated in OP animals (P < 0.05), suggesting altered baroreflex gain. CCK induced inhibitory responses in RVLM neurons of OR/control animals but not OP animals. Subdiaphragmatic vagal nerve responsiveness to CCK and CCK1 receptor mRNA expression in nodose ganglia did not differ between the groups, but CCK induced significantly less Fos-like immunoreactivity in both the nucleus of the solitary tract and the caudal ventrolateral medulla of OP animals compared to controls (P < 0.05). These results suggest that blunted sympathoinhibitory and vasodilator responses in obesity-related hypertension are due to alterations in RVLM neuronal responses, resulting from aberrant central but not peripheral signalling mechanisms. In obesity, blunted sympathoinhibitory mechanisms may lead to increased regional vascular resistance and contribute to the development of hypertension. PMID:24492842

  14. Genetics of pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Manco, Melania; Dallapiccola, Bruno

    2012-07-01

    Onset of obesity has been anticipated at earlier ages, and prevalence has dramatically increased worldwide over the past decades. Epidemic obesity is mainly attributable to modern lifestyle, but family studies prove the significant role of genes in the individual's predisposition to obesity. Advances in genotyping technologies have raised great hope and expectations that genetic testing will pave the way to personalized medicine and that complex traits such as obesity will be prevented even before birth. In the presence of the pressing offer of direct-to-consumer genetic testing services from private companies to estimate the individual's risk for complex phenotypes including obesity, the present review offers pediatricians an update of the state of the art on genomics obesity in childhood. Discrepancies with respect to genomics of adult obesity are discussed. After an appraisal of findings from genome-wide association studies in pediatric populations, the rare variant-common disease hypothesis, the theoretical soil for next-generation sequencing techniques, is discussed as opposite to the common disease-common variant hypothesis. Next-generation sequencing techniques are expected to fill the gap of "missing heritability" of obesity, identifying rare variants associated with the trait and clarifying the role of epigenetics in its heritability. Pediatric obesity emerges as a complex phenotype, modulated by unique gene-environment interactions that occur in periods of life and are "permissive" for the programming of adult obesity. With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques and advances in the field of exposomics, sensitive and specific tools to predict the obesity risk as early as possible are the challenge for the next decade.

  15. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  16. Study of 11 BMI-Associated Loci Identified in GWAS for Associations with Central Obesity in the Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yue; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Hou, Dongqing; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Xingyu; Mi, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with body mass index (BMI)/generalized obesity. In this study, we aimed to examine the associations of identified SNPs with risk of central obesity in a child population from China. Methods We genotyped 11 SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265, FAIM2 rs7138803, NPC1 rs1805081, SEC16B rs10913469, SH2B1 rs4788102, PCSK1rs6235, KCTD15 rs29941, BAT2 rs2844479) in the Chinese children (N = 3502, age range 6–18 years) from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome (BCAMS). Based on the age- and sex- specific waist circumference (WC) standards generated in the BCAMS study, 1196 central obese cases and 2306 controls were identified. Results Of 11 studied SNPs, four SNPs and genetic risk score (GRS) based on them were statistically significantly associated with central obesity by WC criteria (FTO rs9939609: OR = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.10–1.50, p = 0.001; MC4R rs17782313: OR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.12–1.44, p = 1.32×10−4; GNPDA2 rs10938397: OR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.09–1.37, p = 4.09×10−4; BDNF rs6265: OR = 1.20, 95%CI = 1.08–1.34, p = 8.86×10−4; GRS: OR = 1.25, 95%CI 1.16–1.34, p = 2.58×10−9) after adjustment for sex, age, pubertal stage, physical activity and family history of obesity. Similar observations were made using weight-to-height ratio (WHtR) criterion. However, other SNPs were not associated with central obesity by WC as well as WHtR criterion. Conclusions Our study replicates the statistically significant association of four SNPs (FTO rs9939609, MC4R rs17782313, GNPDA2 rs10938397, BDNF rs6265) with risk of central obesity in the Chinese children. PMID:23424664

  17. Leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity: central and peripheral actions of leptin.

    PubMed

    Sáinz, Neira; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Moreno-Aliaga, María J; Martínez, José Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that represents one of the most serious global health burdens associated to an excess of body fat resulting from an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, which is regulated by environmental and genetic interactions. The adipose-derived hormone leptin acts via a specific receptor in the brain to regulate energy balance and body weight, although this protein can also elicit a myriad of actions in peripheral tissues. Obese individuals, rather than be leptin deficient, have in most cases, high levels of circulating leptin. The failure of these high levels to control body weight suggests the presence of a resistance process to the hormone that could be partly responsible of disturbances on body weight regulation. Furthermore, leptin resistance can impair physiological peripheral functions of leptin such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient intestinal utilization. The present document summarizes those findings regarding leptin resistance development and the role of this hormone in the development and maintenance of an obese state. Thus, we focused on the effect of the impaired leptin action on adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and intestinal function and the accompanying relationships with diet-induced obesity. The involvement of some inflammatory mediators implicated in the development of obesity and their roles in leptin resistance development are also discussed.

  18. Gender, Obesity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a health condition, but its consequences extend far beyond the realm of health. To illuminate an important route by which the experience of obesity can filter into the status attainment process, this study drew on nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test a social psychological…

  19. Battling the Obesity Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)

  20. How Bad Is Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ken

    2006-01-01

    A University of California at Los Angeles study in the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law suggests that the proportion of obese Americans has risen 20% since 1980, but the so-called obesity epidemic is at best a metaphor and not a very effective one at that. However, recent research finds no appreciable difference in mortality rates among…

  1. Effective Obesity Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  2. [Genetics of pediatric obesity].

    PubMed

    Peralta-Romero, José de Jesús; Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime Héctor; Estrada-Velasco, Bárbara; Karam-Araujo, Roberto; Cruz-López, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem around the globe. The statistics of overweight and obesity at early ages have reached alarming levels and placed our country in the first place in regard to childhood obesity. In the development of obesity two major factors take part, one genetic and the other one environmental. From the perspective of environmental changes both overweight and obesity result from the imbalance in the energy balance: people ingest more energy than they expend. Despite people live in the same obesogenic environment not all of them develop obesity; it requires genetic factors for this to happen. This review focuses on the description of the main methodologies to find genetic markers, as well as the main loci in candidate genes, whose single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with obesity and its comorbidities in children, highlighting the association of these genes in the Mexican population. Knowledge of the genetic markers associated with obesity will help to understand the molecular and physiological mechanisms, the genetic background and changes in body mass index in the Mexican population. This information is useful for the planning of new hypotheses in the search for new biomarkers that can be used in a predictive and preventive way, as well as for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  3. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  4. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  5. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  6. The Second Brain: Is the Gut Microbiota a Link Between Obesity and Central Nervous System Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2016-01-01

    The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional integrated system composed by immune, endocrine and neuronal components by which the gap between the gut microbiota and the brain is significantly impacted. An increasing number of different gut microbial species are now postulated to regulate brain function in health and disease. The westernized diet is hypothesized to be the cause of the current obesity levels in many countries, a major socio-economical health problem. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that the gut microbiota is responsible for significant immunologic, neuronal and endocrine changes that lead to obesity. We hypothesize that the gut microbiota, and changes associated with diet, affect the gut-brain axis and may possibly contribute to the development of mental illness. In this review, we discuss the links between diet, gut dysbiosis, obesity, and immunologic and neurologic diseases that impact brain function and behavior. PMID:26865085

  7. The Second Brain: Is the Gut Microbiota a Link Between Obesity and Central Nervous System Disorders?

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2016-03-01

    The gut-brain axis is a bi-directional integrated system composed by immune, endocrine, and neuronal components by which the gap between the gut microbiota and the brain is significantly impacted. An increasing number of different gut microbial species are now postulated to regulate brain function in health and disease. The westernized diet is hypothesized to be the cause of the current obesity levels in many countries, a major socio-economical health problem. Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggest that the gut microbiota is responsible for significant immunologic, neuronal, and endocrine changes that lead to obesity. We hypothesize that the gut microbiota, and changes associated with diet, affect the gut-brain axis and may possibly contribute to the development of mental illness. In this review, we discuss the links between diet, gut dysbiosis, obesity, and immunologic and neurologic diseases that impact brain function and behavior.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank

    PubMed Central

    Tayem, Yasin I.; Yaseen, Nagham A.; Khader, Wiam T.; Abu Rajab, Lama O.; Ramahi, Ahmad B.; Saleh, Mohammad H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. Materials and methods This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17–26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r s) and Chi-square tests. Results The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001) and physical activity in males (rs= − 0.162, p<0.005). No correlation was demonstrated between participants’ BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females) and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females). Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (rs=0.252, p<0.001) and smoking (p<0.05). No relationship was detected between students’ BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001). Conclusions We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community. PMID:23077467

  9. Association of free fatty acids with the insulin-resistant state but not with central obesity in individuals from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Campos, Gilberto; Fernández, Virginia; Fernández, Erika; Molero, Emperatriz; Morales, Luz Marina; Raleigh, Xiomara; Connell, Lissette; Ryder, Elena

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) usually have upper body obesity phenotype, often accompanied by an increase in plasma free fatty acids (FFA). Since the Venezuelan population has a high frequency of IR and central obesity, the purpose of this work was to determine FFA levels in 47 Venezuelan individuals, men and women, 24-58 years old, and analyze their relationship with central obesity and parameters of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Basal concentrations of TG, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C were measured, and FFA, glucose and insulin, at basal state and at different times after a glucose load. Eighteen individuals presented insulin resistance (HOMA-IR > 2.7) and 29 were non-insulin resistant (non-IR). Insulin resistant individuals (IR) had higher waist circumference, BMI and basal concentrations of FFA than the non-IR. No differences were observed in skin folds and other basal lipids studied. The increased FFA seemed to be related to the IR associated to BMI and not to central obesity, since the difference between IR and non-IR disappeared when they were matched for waist circumference. After a glucose load, FFA decreased in both groups, but remained significantly elevated in IR subjects. This effect disappeared after matching for BMI or waist circumference, inferring that it was independent of anthropometries. FFA were positively associated with HOMA-IR, glucose and TG levels; however, there was.no association with BMI or waist circumference. These findings, and the lack of elements to support the presence of hepatic IR, common to increased visceral lipolysis, might suggest that the IR present in the obese individuals studied, might be due to an increase in subcutaneous fat.

  10. Genetics of obesity.

    PubMed

    Clement, Karine; Boutin, Philippe; Froguel, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a typical common multifactorial disease in which environmental and genetic factors interact. In rare cases of severe obesity with childhood onset, a single gene has a major effect in determining the occurrence of obesity, with the environment having only a permissive role in the severity of the phenotype. Exceptional mutations of the leptin gene and its receptor, pro-opiomelanocortine (POMC), prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and more frequently, mutations in the melanocortin receptor 4 (1 to 4% of very obese cases) have been described. All these obesity genes encode proteins that are strongly connected as part of the same loop of the regulation of food intake. They all involve the leptin axis and one of its hypothalamic targets; the melanocortin pathway. Pathways of bodyweight regulation involved in monogenic forms of obesity might represent targets for future drug development. Successful leptin protein replacement in a leptin-deficient child has contributed to the validation of the usefulness of gene screening in humans. However, the individual variability in response to leptin treatment might be related to genetic variability. The efficiency of leptin itself or of small-molecule agonists of the leptin receptor should be studied in relation with genetic variations in the leptin gene promoter. The most common forms of obesity are polygenic. Two general approaches have been used to date in the search for genes underlying common polygenic obesity in humans. The first approach focuses on selected genes having some plausible role in obesity on the basis of their known or presumed biological role. This approach yielded putative susceptibility genes with only small or uncertain effects. The second approach attempts to map genes purely by position and requires no presumptions on the function of genes. Genome-wide scans identify chromosomal regions showing linkage with obesity in large collections of nuclear families. Genome-wide scans in different ethnic

  11. Reactive oxygen species and the central nervous system in salt-sensitive hypertension: possible relationship with obesity-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Megumi

    2012-01-01

    1. There are multiple and complex mechanisms of salt-induced hypertension; however, central sympathoexcitation plays an important role. In addition, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is increased in salt-sensitive hypertensive humans and animals. Thus, we hypothesized that brain ROS overproduction may increase blood pressure (BP) by central sympathostimulation. 2. Recently, we demonstrated that ROS levels were elevated in the hypothalamus of salt-sensitive hypertensive animals. Moreover, intracerebroventricular anti-oxidants suppressed BP and renal sympathetic nerve activity more in salt-sensitive than non-salt-sensitive hypertensive rats. Thus, brain ROS overproduction increased BP through central sympathoexcitation in salt-sensitive hypertension. 3. Salt sensitivity of BP is enhanced in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Interestingly, it is also suggested that, in obesity-induced hypertension models, increases in BP are caused by brain ROS-induced central sympathoexcitation. 4. Recent studies suggest that increased ROS production in the brain and central sympathoexcitation may share a common pathway that increases BP in both salt- and obesity-induced hypertension.

  12. Central obesity and health-related factors among middle-aged men: a comparison among native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan.

    PubMed

    Schwingel, Andiara; Nakata, Yoshio; Ito, Lucy S; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Erb, Christopher T; Shigematsu, Ryosuke; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli M; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Shinjo, Samuel K; Uno, Miyuki; Marie, Suely K N; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different cultural environments on the development of obesity by examining the association of central obesity, lifestyle, and selected coronary risk factors among people with identical Japanese genetic backgrounds living in Japan and Brazil. One hundred and four native Japanese and 286 Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil and Japan aged 35 years or over were studied. Obesity, metabolic risk factors for coronary disease, and history of regular sports activity, daily physical activity, and eating habits were assessed. The results showed Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil with significantly higher waist circumference values, and greater prevalence of central obesity compared to native Japanese and Japanese-Brazilians residing in Japan. The risk of developing central obesity was found to be 2.8 times higher among Japanese-Brazilians residing in Brazil. However, this association was no longer found to be significant after adjusting for lifestyle factors in the logistic model. Additionally, waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with metabolic risk factors for coronary disease. These findings suggest substantial variation in measures of central obesity among the three groups of Japanese ancestry, and underscore the heterogeneity of risk factors among communities of Japanese ancestry living in different cultural environments. The results also suggest that immigrant men exposed to the Brazilian cultural environment are more susceptible to the development of central obesity, and it seems to be associated with various lifestyle items and metabolic risk factors for coronary disease.

  13. Epigenetics of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lopomo, A; Burgio, E; Migliore, L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a metabolic disease, which is becoming an epidemic health problem: it has been recently defined in terms of Global Pandemic. Over the years, the approaches through family, twins and adoption studies led to the identification of some causal genes in monogenic forms of obesity but the origins of the pandemic of obesity cannot be considered essentially due to genetic factors, because human genome is not likely to change in just a few years. Epigenetic studies have offered in recent years valuable tools for the understanding of the worldwide spread of the pandemic of obesity. The involvement of epigenetic modifications-DNA methylation, histone tails, and miRNAs modifications-in the development of obesity is more and more evident. In the epigenetic literature, there are evidences that the entire embryo-fetal and perinatal period of development plays a key role in the programming of all human organs and tissues. Therefore, the molecular mechanisms involved in the epigenetic programming require a new and general pathogenic paradigm, the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease theory, to explain the current epidemiological transition, that is, the worldwide increase of chronic, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Obesity and its related complications are more and more associated with environmental pollutants (obesogens), gut microbiota modifications and unbalanced food intake, which can induce, through epigenetic mechanisms, weight gain, and altered metabolic consequences.

  14. Obesity in children & adolescents.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken.

  15. Obesity and Economic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs: Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline of healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time, however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if we want to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, we need to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior towards healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could only close a part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the US and this may continue until the role of environment factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role to shape the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  16. Obesity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Pischon, Tobias; Nöthlings, Ute; Boeing, Heiner

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity, defined as a BMI of > or =30.0 kg/m2, has increased substantially over previous decades to about 20% in industrialized countries, and a further increase is expected in the future. Epidemiological studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor for: post-menopausal breast cancer; cancers of the endometrium, colon and kidney; malignant adenomas of the oesophagus. Obese subjects have an approximately 1.5-3.5-fold increased risk of developing these cancers compared with normal-weight subjects, and it has been estimated that between 15 and 45% of these cancers can be attributed to overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) and obesity in Europe. More recent studies suggest that obesity may also increase the risk of other types of cancer, including pancreatic, hepatic and gallbladder cancer. The underlying mechanisms for the increased cancer risk as a result of obesity are unclear and may vary by cancer site and also depend on the distribution of body fat. Thus, abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference or waist:hip ratio has been shown to be more strongly related to certain cancer types than obesity as defined by BMI. Possible mechanisms that relate obesity to cancer risk include insulin resistance and resultant chronic hyperinsulinaemia, increased production of insulin-like growth factors or increased bioavailability of steroid hormones. Recent research also suggests that adipose tissue-derived hormones and cytokines (adipokines), such as leptin, adiponectin and inflammatory markers, may reflect mechanisms linked to tumourigenesis.

  17. Obesity and the elderly.

    PubMed

    Mathus-Vliegen, Elisabeth M H

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising progressively, even among older age groups. By the year 2030 to 2035 over 20% of the adult US population and over 25% of the Europeans will be aged 65 years or older. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Americans, 60 years and older was 37% in 2010. The predicted prevalence of obesity in Europe in 2015 varies between 20% and 30% dependent on the model used. This means 20.9 million obese 60 years or older people in the United States in 2010 and 32 million obese elders in 2015 in EU. Although cutoff values of body mass index, waist circumference, and percentages of fat mass have not been defined for the elderly, it is clear from several meta-analyses that mortality and morbidity associated with overweight and obesity only increases at a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Thus, treatment should only be offered to patients who are obese rather than overweight and who have functional impairments, metabolic complications, or obesity-related diseases, that can benefit from weight loss. The weight loss therapy should minimize muscle and bone loss and vigilance as regards the development of sarcopenic obesity--a combination of an unhealthy excess of body fat with a detrimental loss of muscle and fat-free mass including bone--is important. Lifestyle intervention should be the first step and consists of a diet with a 500 kcal energy deficit and an adequate intake of protein of high biological quality, together with calcium and vitamin D, behavioral therapy, and multicomponent exercise. Multicomponent exercise includes flexibility training, balance training, aerobic exercise, and resistance training. The adherence rate in most studies is around 75%. Knowledge of constraints and modulators of physical inactivity should be of help to engage the elderly in physical activity. The role of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in the elderly is largely unknown as in most studies people aged 65 years and older were excluded.

  18. Waist circumference, waist/height ratio, and neck circumference as parameters of central obesity assessment in children☆

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Elma Izze da Silva; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze studies that assessed the anthropometric parameters waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and neck circumference (NC) as indicators of central obesity in children. Data sources: We searched PubMed and SciELO databases using the combined descriptors: "Waist circumference", "Waist-to-height ratio", "Neck circumference", "Children" and "Abdominal fat" in Portuguese, English and Spanish. Inclusion criteria were original articles with information about the WC, WHR and NC in the assessment of central obesity in children. We excluded review articles, short communications, letters and editorials. Data synthesis: 1,525 abstracts were obtained in the search, and 68 articles were selected for analysis. Of these, 49 articles were included in the review. The WC was the parameter more used in studies, followed by the WHR. Regarding NC, there are few studies in children. The predictive ability of WC and WHR to indicate central adiposity in children was controversial. The cutoff points suggested for the parameters varied among studies, and some differences may be related to ethnicity and lack of standardization of anatomical site used for measurement. Conclusions: More studies are needed to evaluate these parameters for determination of central obesity children. Scientific literature about NC is especially scarce, mainly in the pediatric population. There is a need to standardize site measures and establish comparable cutoff points between different populations. PMID:25479861

  19. Inflammasome is a central player in the induction of obesity and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Stienstra, Rinke; van Diepen, Janna A; Tack, Cees J; Zaki, Md Hasan; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Perera, Deshani; Neale, Geoffrey A; Hooiveld, Guido J; Hijmans, Anneke; Vroegrijk, Irene; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Romijn, Johannes; Rensen, Patrick C N; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2011-09-13

    Inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Chronic overfeeding leads to macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissue, resulting in proinflammatory cytokine production. Both microbial and endogenous danger signals trigger assembly of the intracellular innate immune sensor Nlrp3, resulting in caspase-1 activation and production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Here, we showed that mice deficient in Nlrp3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein, and caspase-1 were resistant to the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity, which correlated with protection from obesity-induced insulin resistance. Furthermore, hepatic triglyceride content, adipocyte size, and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue were all reduced in mice deficient in inflammasome components. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 is a key molecule that mediates macrophage infiltration. Indeed, defective inflammasome activation was associated with reduced MCP-1 production in adipose tissue. Furthermore, plasma leptin and resistin that affect energy use and insulin sensitivity were also changed by inflammasome-deficiency. Detailed metabolic and molecular phenotyping demonstrated that the inflammasome controls energy expenditure and adipogenic gene expression during chronic overfeeding. These findings reveal a critical function of the inflammasome in obesity and insulin resistance, and suggest inhibition of the inflammasome as a potential therapeutic strategy.

  20. Reinforcement pathology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence and addiction. In this review we discuss the application of reinforcement pathology to obesity, and implications of this approach for obesity treatment.

  1. Obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Riobó Serván, Pilar

    2013-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and relative impairment in insulin secretion and its possible long term complications. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but both genetic and environmental factors, such as obesity and aging, play a key role. "Diabesity" is a new term which refers to diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this article, we will discuss the epidemiology and impact of diabetes and obesity and will also outline the components of the metabolic syndrome and the studies that demonstrate that screening and prevention are possible in an attempt to control this epidemic.

  2. Obesity and cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached pandemic levels on a worldwide basis and are associated with increased risk and worse prognosis for many but not all malignancies. Pathophysiologic processes that affect this association are reviewed, with a focus on the relation of type 2 diabetes mellitus with cancer, lessons learned from the use of murine models to study the association, the impact of obesity on pancreatic cancer, the effect of dietary fats and cholesterol as cancer promoters, and the mechanisms by which the intestinal microbiome affects obesity and cancer. PMID:24725147

  3. Obesity in women.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss.

  4. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Are the Central Issues in Prevention of and Care for Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Govers, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    For a long time the assumption has been that, although weight reduction was necessary and desirable, comorbidities were far more important and needed treatment even if weight loss was not a treatment goal, preferably with medication. This controversy leads to postponement of treatment, and later on causes very intensive medical treatment, thus, raising the health care costs to unacceptable levels, leading to the medicalization of individuals, and a declining of the responsibility of patients for their health, leaving the question of when to regard their own weight as a problem that should be dealt with up to individuals. The central problem is insulin resistance, which leads to a cascade of health problems. This condition should be diagnosed in primary practice and obesity clinics to ensure a better, tailor-made treatment for patients. Treatment should start at the earliest stage possible, when comorbidities are still reversible and includes a personalized dietary advice and counseling, preferably by a dietitian, to tackle insulin resistance. An exercise program is part of the treatment. PMID:27417770

  5. Obesity and Insulin Resistance Are the Central Issues in Prevention of and Care for Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Govers, Elisabeth

    2015-06-04

    For a long time the assumption has been that, although weight reduction was necessary and desirable, comorbidities were far more important and needed treatment even if weight loss was not a treatment goal, preferably with medication. This controversy leads to postponement of treatment, and later on causes very intensive medical treatment, thus, raising the health care costs to unacceptable levels, leading to the medicalization of individuals, and a declining of the responsibility of patients for their health, leaving the question of when to regard their own weight as a problem that should be dealt with up to individuals. The central problem is insulin resistance, which leads to a cascade of health problems. This condition should be diagnosed in primary practice and obesity clinics to ensure a better, tailor-made treatment for patients. Treatment should start at the earliest stage possible, when comorbidities are still reversible and includes a personalized dietary advice and counseling, preferably by a dietitian, to tackle insulin resistance. An exercise program is part of the treatment.

  6. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2013. A comparison of the Slaughter skinfold-thickness equations and BMI in predicting body fatness and cardiovascular ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do ...

  7. Obesity in gulf countries.

    PubMed

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region.

  8. Adipokines in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Ángel; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide increase in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents during the past decades, in addition to mounting evidence indicating that obesity is associated with an increased incidence of comorbidities and the risk of premature death, resulting in a high economical impact, has stimulated obesity-focused research. These studies have highlightened the prominent endocrine activity of adipose tissue, which is exerted through the synthesis and secretion of a wide variety of peptides and cytokines, called adipokines. In the present review, we have summarized the current knowledge and most relevant studies of adipokine dynamics and actions in children, focusing on the control of energy homeostasis, metabolic regulation (particularly, carbohydrate metabolism), and inflammation. The particularities of adipose secretion and actions in healthy children, from birth to adolescence, and the modifications induced by early-onset obesity are highlighted.

  9. Worldwide epidemiology of obesity.

    PubMed

    VanItallie, T B

    1994-01-01

    Average body mass index values and prevalence data for overweight show complex patterns varying with sex, age, socioeconomic circumstances, race, geography, and over time. Differences in the predominant lifestyles and developmental status of nations and regions also influence weight patterns. Estimates of the prevalence of obesity in developed countries vary depending on the definitions used. For example, one recent survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity in the US is 15%, while another survey has found it to be 26%. It appears that overweight and obesity are becoming more prevalent worldwide, not only in developed nations, but also in the populations of developing countries, possibly as a result of urbanisation, migration, new eating habits and recent affluence. Since modernisation appears to be an inevitable process throughout the world, there is every reason to expect that the epidemic of overweight and obesity will extend globally in the future.

  10. Health risks of obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000348.htm Health risks of obesity To use the sharing features on ... also have an increased risk of these conditions. Risk Factors Having a risk factor does not mean ...

  11. Disability and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... of certain diseases and other health problems. Behavior, environment, and genetic factors can affect whether a person is overweight or obese. Healthy Weight Issue Briefs Download and print these issue ...

  12. Early determinants of obesity.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K

    2010-01-01

    High rates of overweight and obesity even in very young children argue the case for strategies to prevent overweight from very young ages. Historical studies, prospective birth cohorts, and more recently genetic studies all indicate that the rapid weight gain trajectory to later obesity starts in the first months of life, even from birth. Early puberty and age at menarche are consequences of rapid infant weight gain and childhood overweight, and in turn these adolescent traits are predictive for obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease events in later life. Understanding of the nutritional, parental and wider determinants of rapid infant weight gain are informing the development of obesity prevention strategies starting in early life. Such strategies could be further refined by future studies that address the specific regulation of infant adiposity, and also by studies that explore whether these life-course trajectories are modifiable during adolescence.

  13. Childhood Obesity Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... BMI-for-age growth charts . 1 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity ... Center for Health Statistics. 2015. 2 Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Lawman HG, Fryar CD, Kruszon-Moran D, ...

  14. Homeostatic theory of obesity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized ‘Circle of Discontent’, a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic. PMID:28070357

  15. Chronobiological Effects on Obesity.

    PubMed

    Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

    2012-03-01

    The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between natural cycles of light/dark and altered patterns of sleep/wake and eating behavior associated with our "24-hour" lifestyle. An extensive research literature has established clear links between increased risk for obesity and both sleep deprivation and shift work, and our understanding of the consequences of such dyssynchrony at the molecular level is beginning to emerge. Studies linking alterations in cellular circadian clocks to metabolic dysfunction point to the increasing importance of chronobiology in obesity etiology.

  16. Homeostatic theory of obesity.

    PubMed

    Marks, David F

    2015-01-01

    Health is regulated by homeostasis, a property of all living things. Homeostasis maintains equilibrium at set-points using feedback loops for optimum functioning of the organism. Imbalances in homeostasis causing overweight and obesity are evident in more than 1 billion people. In a new theory, homeostatic obesity imbalance is attributed to a hypothesized 'Circle of Discontent', a system of feedback loops linking weight gain, body dissatisfaction, negative affect and over-consumption. The Circle of Discontent theory is consistent with an extensive evidence base. A four-armed strategy to halt the obesity epidemic consists of (1) putting a stop to victim-blaming, stigma and discrimination; (2) devalorizing the thin-ideal; (3) reducing consumption of energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and drinks; and (4) improving access to plant-based diets. If fully implemented, interventions designed to restore homeostasis have the potential to halt the obesity epidemic.

  17. Obesity in Gulf Countries

    PubMed Central

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% and in adult males 1%–30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances – cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  18. The prevalence of obesity.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Holly R

    2003-06-01

    During the past several decades, obesity has increased substantially, making it a true epidemic and a public health crisis that both health care providers and the public are going to have to face. Currently, 61% of the US population is overweight or obese and therefore at increased risk for a number of diseases that are associated with increased body fat. Indeed, the obesity epidemic already is leading to dramatic increases in type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Almost a quarter of the population currently has metabolic syndrome, which places them at high risk for the development of coronary heart disease. The future of the general health of the US population depends on identifying and providing the best treatment and prevention strategies for obesity in the years ahead.

  19. Obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight loss drugs are not recommended for children. Bariatric surgery is currently being performed for some children, but ... et al. Best practice updates for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 May;17(5):901- ...

  20. Luteinizing Hormone Secretion during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Tests in Obese Girls with Central Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Sang; Yoon, Jong Seo; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Girls with precocious puberty have high luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and advanced bone age. Obese children enter puberty at earlier ages than do non-obese children. We analyzed the effects of obesity on LH secretion during gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) tests in girls with precocious puberty. Methods: A total of 981 subjects with idiopathic precocious puberty who had undergone a GnRH stimulation testing between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). Auxological data and gonadotropin levels after the GnRH stimulation test were compared. Results: In Tanner stage 2 girls, peak stimulated LH levels on GnRH test were 11.9±7.5, 10.4±6.4, and 9.1±6.1 IU/L among normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (p=0.035 for all comparisons). In Tanner stage 3 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were 14.9±10.9, 12.8±7.9, and 9.6±6.0 IU/L, respectively (p=0.022 for all comparisons). However, in Tanner stage 4 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were not significantly different among normal, overweight, and obese children. On multivariate analysis, BMI standard deviation score was significantly and negatively associated with peak LH (β=-1.178, p=0.001). Conclusion: In girls with central precocious puberty, increased BMI was associated with slightly lower peak stimulated LH levels at early pubertal stages (Tanner stages 2 and 3). This association was not valid in Tanner stage 4 girls. PMID:27215137

  1. Obesity: a growing problem.

    PubMed

    Seidell, J C

    1999-02-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more, is common in many parts of the world, especially in the established market economies, the former socialist economies of Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle Eastern Crescent. As many as 250 million people worldwide may be obese (7% of the adult population) and two to three times as many may be considered overweight. The prevalence of obesity seems to be increasing in most parts of the world, even where it used to be rare. Increased fatness, measured by a high BMI, a large waist circumference or a high waist/hip circumference ratio, is associated with many chronic diseases as well as with poor physical functioning. Assessments of the prevalence of obesity, and trends in this prevalence over time, are more difficult in children than adults, due to the lack of international criteria for classifying individuals as overweight or obese. The World Health Organization has now recommended the use of BMI-for-age percentiles, but the reference curves are still under development. France. The Netherlands, the UK and the USA are among the countries that have reported recent increases in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Although there are no accurate estimates of the components of energy balance and their changes over time, the available evidence suggests that the trends in obesity rates are related more to a reduction in energy expenditure than to an increase in caloric intake. Prevention of obesity through the promotion of a healthy lifestyle is among the important challenges for the new millennium, and should start in childhood.

  2. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  3. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  4. [The endocannabinoid system in obesity].

    PubMed

    Pataky, Zoltan; Bobbioni-Harsch, Elisabetta; Carpentier, Anne; Golay, Alain

    2013-03-27

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of energy balance and metabolism. Endocannabinoids have central effects with raising appetite and hunger. On the other hand, different components of the endocannabinoid system are also found in peripheral organs and tissues and they could impact the lipid and glucose metabolism. Obesity is associated with an overactivity of the endocannabinoid system with increased both plasmatic and visceral adipose tissue levels. The amount of the intra-abdominal fat mass is an indicator of the peripheral endocannabinoid system dysregulation. Endocannabinoids-like molecules with more pronounced peripheral effects on lipids and glucose metabolism could be a new target of obesity treatment.

  5. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  6. Pharmacotherapy for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mingfang; Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Pharmacotherapy for obesity should be considered in combination with lifestyle changes in obese patients, or overweight patients with other conditions that put them at risk of developing heart disease. Sibutramine and orlistat are the only two anti-obesity medications approved for long-term use. Sibutramine is a serotonergic and adrenergic drug that reduces food intake. Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor that interferes with fat absorption. However, it commonly causes flatulence and diarrhoea. Rimonabant is the first of a series of endocannabinoid receptor antagonists. It was approved by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) as an adjunct to diet and exercise in treating obesity in 2006. However, despite the extensive clinical trial data, EMEA announced in 2008 that it has recommended suspension of rimonabant because of its psychiatric side effects. Studies evaluating the long-term safety and efficacy of anti-obesity agents are needed. PMID:20002075

  7. [Contraception and obesity].

    PubMed

    Lobert, M; Pigeyre, M; Gronier, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Robin, G

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing massively over several decades in industrialized countries. Obese women are sexually active but they use fewer contraceptive methods and are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, obesity is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism events and arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). All of these data are to be considered in choosing a contraceptive method for obese women. Except depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, the progestin-only contraceptives (progestin only pills and etonogestrel subdermal implant) and the intra-uterine devices are the preferred contraceptive methods in obese women. The combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives (pill, patch and vaginal ring) may be proposed in very strict conditions (no other associated vascular risk factor). Obesity does not increase the risk of failure of most contraceptive methods. Bariatric surgery is a complex situation. It requires to program a possible pregnancy and contraception is needed for several months. Some bariatric surgical techniques such as by-pass can induce gastrointestinal malabsorption. In this situation, all oral contraceptives are not recommended because of a higher risk of failure.

  8. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-associated loss of muscle mass and decline in muscle strength; it is common in older adults and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Despite its prevalence, there is currently no universally adopted definition of sarcopenia. In addition to low muscle mass measurements, recent research has recognized the importance of muscle strength and physical performance. Aging induces changes in body composition, such as an increase in visceral fat and reduced muscle mass. Recently, the new concept of sarcopenic obesity has emerged, reflecting a combination of sarcopenia and obesity. The rapidly increasing prevalence and serious consequences of sarcopenic obesity are recognized as a critical public health risk in the aging society. Sarcopenia and obesity share several pathophysiological mechanisms, and they may potentiate each other. The present paper reviews the definitions and techniques used to measure sarcopenia, as well as the health outcomes of sarcopenic obesity. It also highlights the role of diminished muscle mass and strength in cardiometabolic disease mortality. Additional research may be needed to promote the identification and management of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in the elderly population. PMID:27809450

  9. [Inequality, poverty and obesity].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana

    2010-06-01

    National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity.

  10. OBESITY AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Phoebe A.; James, Milinda E.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most profound challenges facing public health and public health policy in Western society is the increased incidence and prevalence of both overweight and obesity. While this condition can have significant consequences for patient mortality and quality of life, it can be further exacerbated as overweight/obesity can be a powerful stimulus for the development of additional risk factors for a negative cardiovascular outcome, including increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. This manuscript will present the effects of systemic obesity on broad issues of vascular function in both afflicted human populations and in the most relevant animal models. Among the topics that will be covered are alterations to vascular reactivity (both dilator and constrictor responses), adaptations in microvascular network and vessel wall structure, and alterations to the patterns of tissue/organ perfusion as a result of the progression of the obese condition. Additionally, special attention will be paid to the contribution of chronic inflammation as a contributor to alterations in vascular function, as well as the role of perivascular adipose tissue in terms of impacting vessel behavior. When taken together, it is clearly apparent that the development of the obese condition can have profound, and frequently difficult to predict, impacts on integrated vascular function. Much of this complexity appears to have its basis in the extent to which other co-morbidities associated with obesity (e.g., insulin resistance) are present and exert contributing effects. PMID:18571908

  11. Obesity prevention in children.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children.

  12. Prebiotics in obesity.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L

    2014-06-01

    Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities?

  13. Obesity Drug Update: The Lost Decade?

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Fayi; MacKenzie, Robert George

    2010-01-01

    The growing worldwide obesity epidemic and obesity-related disorders present a huge unmet medical need for safe and effective anti-obesity medications. The discovery of leptin in 1994 was rapidly succeeded by a wave of related discoveries leading to the elaboration of a hypothalamic melanocortinergic neuronal circuit regulated by leptin and other central and peripheral signaling molecules to control energy homeostasis. The identification of specific neuronal subtypes along with their unique connections and expression products generated a rich target menu for anti-obesity drug discovery programs. Over the course of the last decade, several new chemical entities aimed at these targets have reached various stages or successfully completed the drug discovery/regulatory process only to be dropped or taken off the market. There are now in fact fewer options for anti-obesity drug therapies in late 2010 than were available in 2000. The challenge to discover safe and effective anti-obesity drugs is alive and well.

  14. Obesity-Induced Neuroinflammation: Beyond the Hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2017-03-16

    Obesity is now a worldwide health issue. Far from being limited to weight gain, obesity is generally associated with low-grade inflammation and with a cluster of disorders collectively known as the 'metabolic syndrome'. When considering obesity and the subsequent neuroinflammation, the focus was long set on the hypothalamus. More recently, obesity-derived neuroinflammation has been shown to affect other brain structures such as the hippocampus, cortex, brainstem, or amygdala. Furthermore, obesity has been associated with increased occurrence of central disorders such as depression and impaired cognitive function. We discuss here the effects and mechanisms of obesity-derived neuroinflammation, with a specific emphasis on extra-hypothalamic structures, as well as the repercussions of neuroinflammation for some cerebral functions.

  15. Genetic aspects of human obesity.

    PubMed

    Larder, Rachel; Lim, Chung Thong; Coll, Anthony P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and its related metabolic consequences represent a major public health problem. Huge changes within the environment have undoubtedly contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity but genetic factors are also critical in determining an individual's predisposition to gain weight. The last two decades have seen a huge increase in the understanding of the mechanisms controlling appetitive behavior, body composition, and energy expenditure. Many regions throughout the central nervous system play critical roles in these processes but the hypothalamus, in particular, receives and orchestrates a variety of signals to bring about coordinated changes in energy balance. Reviewing data from human genetic and model organism studies, we consider how disruptions of hypothalamic pathways evolved to maintain energy homeostasis and go on to cause obesity. We highlight ongoing technological developments which continue to lead to novel insights and discuss how this increased knowledge may lead to effective therapeutic interventions in the future.

  16. Hypertension and Obesity in Dakar, Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Macia, Enguerran; Gueye, Lamine; Duboz, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major public health problem in many sub-Saharan African countries, but data on the main cardiovascular risk factors–hypertension and obesity–are almost nonexistent in Senegal. The aims of this study were therefore (i) to report the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension among adults in Dakar, (ii) to assess the prevalence of general and central obesity, and (iii) to analyze the association between hypertension and general and central obesity. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2015 on a representative sample of 1000 dwellers of the Senegalese capital aged 20–90. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 24.7%. Among hypertensive respondents, 28.4% were aware of their condition; 16.0% were on antihypertensive medication; 4.9% had controlled blood pressure. The frequency of doctor visits was a significant predictor of awareness (OR = 2.16; p<0.05) and treatment (OR = 2.57; p<0.05) of hypertension. The prevalence of underweight, overweight and general obesity were 12.6%, 19.2% and 9.7% respectively. The prevalence of central obesity was 26% by WC and 39.8% by WHtR. General obesity and central obesity by WHtR significantly predicted HTN among men and women, but not central obesity by WC. Conclusions This study has demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertension in Dakar and a high prevalence of obesity among women–particularly among older women. The awareness, treatment, and effective control of hypertension are unacceptably low. The blood pressure of women with general obesity, and men with central obesity, in the community should be monitored regularly to limit the burden of cardiovascular disease in Senegal. PMID:27622534

  17. Central Adiposity is Negatively Associated with Hippocampal-Dependent Relational Memory among Overweight and Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naiman A.; Baym, Carol L.; Monti, Jim M.; Raine, Lauren B.; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Moore, R. Davis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.; Cohen, Neal J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between adiposity and hippocampal-dependent and hippocampal-independent memory forms among prepubertal children. Study design Prepubertal children (7–9-year-olds, n = 126), classified as non-overweight (<85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 73]) or overweight/obese (≥85th %tile BMI-for-age [n = 53]), completed relational (hippocampal-dependent) and item (hippocampal-independent) memory tasks, and performance was assessed with both direct (behavioral accuracy) and indirect (preferential disproportionate viewing [PDV]) measures. Adiposity (%whole body fat mass, subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and total abdominal adipose tissue) was assessed using DXA. Backward regressions identified significant (P <0.05) predictive models of memory performance. Covariates included age, sex, pubertal timing, socioeconomic status, IQ, oxygen consumption (VO2max), and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Results Among overweight/obese children, total abdominal adipose tissue was a significant negative predictor of relational memory behavioral accuracy, and pubertal timing together with socioeconomic status jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. In contrast, among non-overweight children, male sex predicted item memory behavioral accuracy, and a model consisting of socioeconomic status and BMI z-score jointly predicted the PDV measure of relational memory. Conclusions Regional, and not whole body, fat deposition was selectively and negatively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory among overweight/obese prepubertal children. PMID:25454939

  18. American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Obesity-Related CME American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Canadian Obesity Network Cleveland Clinic Obesity Summit Massachusetts ... Society Public Health American Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Foundation Global Obesity Prevention Center at Johns Hopkins ...

  19. Yerba mate extract (Ilex paraguariensis) attenuates both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Gustavo D; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa, José C; Caris, Aline V; Pinheiro, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-05-01

    To clarify the effects of natural dietary components on the metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of yerba mate extract Ilex paraguariensis on both central and peripheral inflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity and correlated the hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level with adipose depot weight. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: a control group (CTL) fed with chow diet, a second group fed with chow diet plus yerba mate extract (CTL+E), a third group fed with a high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids (HFD) and a fourth group fed with HFD plus yerba mate extract (HFD+E). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, colorimetric method and treatment by gavage were utilized as materials and methods. The HFD groups showed a significant increase in food intake (kcal), body weight, adipose tissue and leptin level in comparison to CTL and CTL+E. HFD leads to increase of both central and peripheral inflammatory effects, and deregulation of insulin pathway. In addition, yerba mate extract intake blunted the proinflammatory effects of diet-induced obesity in rats by reducing the phosphorylation of hypothalamic IKK and NFκBp65 expression and increasing the phosphorylation of IκBα, the expression of adiponectin receptor-1 and consequently the amount of IRS-2. Moreover, the increase in interleukin (IL)-6 levels in the liver and muscle and of the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in groups that received yerba mate extract showed the anti-inflammatory effects of this natural substance. Taken together, our data suggest that the use of yerba mate extract may be useful for reducing low-grade obesity-associated inflammation.

  20. Microbiota and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Isolauri, Erika

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is globally the most prevalent nutritional disorder. Multifaceted therapeutic approaches are called for to halt the cascade from neonatal adiposity/high birth weight to childhood excessive weight gain/adult obesity with comorbidities. Recent experimental and clinical data provide one new target for interventions aiming to close this vicious circle: the microbiota. An aberrant gut microbiota, dysbiosis, induces immune and metabolic disturbances both locally and, consequent upon impaired gut barrier function, also systemic low-grade inflammation, which is causally linked to insulin resistance. The gut microecology could thus fill the gap between energy intake and expenditure by processing nutrients and regulating their access to and storage in the body, producing chemicals of hormonal nature and controlling the secretion of proinflammatory mediators locally and systemically. Conversely, being highly sensitive to environmental impacts, particularly to early feeding, the compositional development of the gut microbiota may prove the target of choice in efforts to reduce the risk of obesity. It has been demonstrated that a lower number of bifidobacteria precedes the development of obesity, and a dearth of butyrate-producing bacteria and an overall richness of bacteria increase the risk of metabolic disease; moreover, recognition that practices known to disrupt the early gut microbiota, e.g., cesarean section delivery and antibiotic exposure, contribute to obesity, encourages to pursue this line of research.

  1. Exercise and obesity.

    PubMed

    McInnis, K J

    2000-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically during the past decade in the USA. This is despite an estimated 50 million Americans who try to lose weight each year. The increasing prevalence of obesity is particularly alarming due to the numerous health implications associated with this condition, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cancer, and various musculoskeletal conditions. The economic impact of treating illnesses associated with obesity has been estimated to be US$40 billion in the USA. Dieting is largely ineffective in maintaining initial weight loss as numerous studies suggest the majority of dieters regain all lost weight with 3-5 years. On, the other hand, regular exercise has been shown to be one of the best predictors of successful weight maintenance. Moreover, studies indicate that improved fitness through regular physical activity reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality for overweight individuals even if they remain overweight. Providing advice about exercise to overweight or obese individuals requires explicit information about the frequency, intensity, duration, and type of physical activity that should be performed. The ultimate goal for the exercising obese patient is to make a life-long commitment to achieving reasonable energy expenditure through routine physical activity.

  2. Obesity: epigenetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Prashant; Anderson, James T

    2016-06-01

    Epigenetics, defined as inheritable and reversible phenomena that affect gene expression without altering the underlying base pair sequence has been shown to play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity. Obesity is associated with extensive gene expression changes in tissues throughout the body. Epigenetics is emerging as perhaps the most important mechanism through which the lifestyle-choices we make can directly influence the genome. Considerable epidemiological, experimental and clinical data have been amassed showing that the risk of developing disease in later life is dependent on early life conditions, mainly operating within the normative range of developmental exposures. In addition to the 'maternal' interactions, there has been increasing interest in the epigenetic mechanisms through which 'paternal' influences on offspring development can be achieved. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. Overall, significant progress has been made in the field of epigenetics and obesity and the first potential epigenetic markers for obesity that could be detected at birth have been identified. Fortunately, epigenetic phenomena are dynamic and rather quickly reversible with intensive lifestyle changes. This is a very promising and sustainable resolution to the obesity pandemic.

  3. Personalized nutrition and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Lu

    2017-01-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other ‘omics’ studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals’ susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of ‘personalized nutrition’ has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders. PMID:24716734

  4. [Childhood obesity and dyslipidemia].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Díaz, Rita Angélica; Wacher-Rodarte, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    Screening and treatment of plasma lipid abnormalities secondary to obesity are among the interventions that should be implemented in children who are overweight or obese, in order to prevent a cardiovascular event. Dyslipidemias are a group of asymptomatic diseases that are commonly caused by abnormal levels of lipoproteins in blood; they are a comorbidity that is commonly related to obesity, without considering the age of the patient. Among dyslipidemias, hypertriglyceridemia has the highest prevalence. The etiology of the dyslipidemia should be identified; it allows the proper selection of therapy for the patients and their family. The goal is the prevention of cardiovascular complications. Reduced caloric intake and a structured physical activity plan should be considered for initial treatment for all the overweight and obese patients. For adherence to treatment to be successful, the participation of the primary care physician and a multidisciplinary team is required. With treatment, the risks and complications can be reduced. The participation of a specialist in handling the pediatric obese patient with dyslipidemia should be limited to severe cases or those at risk for having pancreatitis.

  5. TENDINOPATHY AND OBESITY

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Adham do Amaral e; SKARE, Thelma Larocca; NASSIF, Paulo Afonso Nunes; SAKUMA, Alexandre Kaue; BARROS, Wagner Haese

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Tendinopathies and tendon tears account for over 30% of all musculoskeletal consultations. Obesity, which is becoming one of the world´s most prevalent public health issues, may be associated with this condition. Objective: To review the literature about tendinopathies and obesity association. Methods: This is a descriptive exploratory study using the portal Medline. Literature in English language from 2006 to 2014 were reviewed. Results: The pathogenesis of tendinopathies includes inflammatory, regenerative and degenerative processes that happen simultaneously from early to late phases of the disease. Mechanical stress upon tendons seems to be one of the most important factors to initiate the inflammatory response, but it´s not the only one that can deflagrate it: there are other extrinsic, genetic and metabolic factors that may be involved. Therefore, tendinopathies in obese patients can be due to tendon overload because of the excess of weight, but also because of increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators related to fat tissue such as adipokines. This pro-inflammatory state that obese people can suffer is known as adiposopathy, or sick fat syndrome. Weight loss is associated with decrease in adipokines and improvement of musculoskeletal symptoms. Conclusion: The relation of obesity and tendinopathies is supported by evidences of recent studies, exemplified in this review of literature. PMID:27683789

  6. Energy Balance and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high level of energy intake and expenditure). In previous environments a high energy flux was achieved with a high level of physical activity but in today's sedentary environment it is increasingly achieved through weight gain. Matching energy intake to a high level of energy expenditure will likely be more a more feasible strategy for most people to maintain a healthy weight than restricting food intake to meet a low level of energy expenditure. Second, from an energy balance point of view we are likely to be more successful in preventing excessive weight gain than in treating obesity. This is because the energy balance system shows much stronger opposition to weight loss than to weight gain. While large behavior changes are needed to produce and maintain reductions in body weight, small behavior changes may be sufficient to prevent excessive weight gain. In conclusion, the concept of energy balance combined with an understanding of how the body achieves balance may be a useful framework in helping develop strategies to reduce obesity rates. PMID:22753534

  7. Intestinal microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Blaut, Michael; Klaus, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The human gut harbors a highly diverse microbial ecosystem of approximately 400 different species, which is characterized by a high interindividual variability. The intestinal microbiota has recently been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Transplantation of gut microbiota from obese mice to nonobese, germ-free mice resulted in transfer of metabolic syndrome-associated features from the donor to the recipient. Proposed mechanisms for the role of gut microbiota include the provision of additional energy by the conversion of dietary fiber to short-chain fatty acids, effects on gut-hormone production, and increased intestinal permeability causing elevated systemic levels of lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This metabolic endotoxemia is suggested to contribute to low-grade inflammation, a characteristic trait of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Finally, activation of the endocannabinoid system by LPS and/or high-fat diets is discussed as another causal factor. In conclusion, there is ample evidence for a role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity in rodents. However, the magnitude of its contribution to human obesity is still unknown.

  8. Childhood obesity for pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.

  9. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  10. OBESITY: OVERVIEW OF AN EPIDEMIC

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 15–20% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive energy balance. Substantial public health efforts are being directed toward addressing obesity, but there is not yet clear evidence of success. Because of the complexity of obesity, it is likely to be one of the most difficult public health issues our society has faced. PMID:22098799

  11. Causes of obesity.

    PubMed

    Wright, Suzanne M; Aronne, Louis J

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been rising steadily over the last several decades and is currently at unprecedented levels: more than 68% of US adults are considered overweight, and 35% are obese (Flegal et al., JAMA 303:235-241, 2010). This increase has occurred across every age, sex, race, and smoking status, and data indicate that segments of individuals in the highest weight categories (i.e., BMI > 40 kg/m(2)) have increased proportionately more than those in lower BMI categories (BMI < 35 kg/m(2)). The dramatic rise in obesity has also occurred in many other countries, and the causes of this increase are not fully understood (Hill and Melanson, Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:S515-S521, 1999).

  12. Sleep debt and obesity.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity.

  13. Bias, discrimination, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

    2001-12-01

    This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings.

  14. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The human intestine harbors a complex bacterial community called the gut microbiota. This microbiota is specific to each individual despite the existence of several bacterial species shared by the majority of adults. The influence of the gut microbiota in human health and disease has been revealed in the recent years. Particularly, the use of germ-free animals and microbiota transplant showed that the gut microbiota may play a causal role in the development of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, and lead to identification of several mechanisms. In humans, differences in microbiota composition, functional genes and metabolic activities are observed between obese and lean individuals suggesting a contribution of the gut microbiota to these phenotypes. Finally, the evidence linking gut bacteria to host metabolism could allow the development of new therapeutic strategies based on gut microbiota modulation to treat or prevent obesity.

  15. Muscle development and obesity

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728

  16. Obesity and fertility.

    PubMed

    Best, Damian; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of reproductive age has increased over the past 30 years. Infertility affects 1 in 7 couples, and female obesity is associated with anovulation. The mechanisms by which excessive fat delays time to pregnancy (TTP) appear rooted in ovulatory problems and direct effects on oocytes, causing poorer embryo development, as well as in effects on the endometrium. Weight loss in women has been shown to improve conception, but not necessarily live birth rates following fertility treatment, and further research in this area is needed. The obesity epidemic has been accompanied by a potential rise in male infertility, which has been attributed to hormonal disturbances and compromised semen parameters.

  17. [Obesity and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor; Kollár, Réka

    2013-11-03

    The frequency of hypertension and obesity is gradually growing in Hungary. At present 68.5% of men and 78% of women are obese. Hypertension and obesity are the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relationship between increased sympathetic activity and hypertension is well known. Waist circumference and body fat mass correlate significantly with sympathetic activity, in which hyperlipidemia plays also a role. The increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system via its vascular and renal effects also contributes to an increase of blood pressure. Increased sympathetic activity with decreasing vagal tone accompanying the imbalance of the autonomous nervous system is independent and significant risk factor of cardiovascular events including sudden cardiac death.

  18. Epigenetics and obesity.

    PubMed

    Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermin; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of obesity is multifactorial, involving complex interactions among the genetic makeup, neuroendocrine status, fetal programming, and different unhealthy environmental factors, such as sedentarism or inadequate dietary habits. Among the different mechanisms causing obesity, epigenetics, defined as the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in the DNA sequence, has emerged as a very important determinant. Experimental evidence concerning dietary factors influencing obesity development through epigenetic mechanisms has been described. Thus, identification of those individuals who present with changes in DNA methylation profiles, certain histone modifications, or other epigenetically related processes could help to predict their susceptibility to gain or lose weight. Indeed, research concerning epigenetic mechanisms affecting weight homeostasis may play a role in the prevention of excessive fat deposition, the prediction of the most appropriate weight reduction plan, and the implementation of newer therapeutic approaches.

  19. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Al Dabal, Laila; Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.

  20. Obesity and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Fombonne, Eric

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity are increasingly prevalent in the general pediatric population. Evidence suggests that children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) may be at elevated risk for unhealthy weight. We identify the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a multisite clinical sample of children with ASDs and explore concurrent associations with variables identified as risk factors for unhealthy weight in the general population. METHODS: Participants were 5053 children with confirmed diagnosis of ASD in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network. Measured values for weight and height were used to calculate BMI percentiles; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for BMI for gender and age were used to define overweight and obesity (≥85th and ≥95th percentiles, respectively). RESULTS: In children age 2 to 17 years, 33.6% were overweight and 18% were obese. Compared with a general US population sample, rates of unhealthy weight were significantly higher among children with ASDs ages 2 to 5 years and among those of non-Hispanic white origin. Multivariate analyses revealed that older age, Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, lower parent education levels, and sleep and affective problems were all significant predictors of obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the prevalence of unhealthy weight is significantly greater among children with ASD compared with the general population, with differences present as early as ages 2 to 5 years. Because obesity is more prevalent among older children in the general population, these findings raise the question of whether there are different trajectories of weight gain among children with ASDs, possibly beginning in early childhood. PMID:26527551

  1. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  2. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  3. The Medical Aspects of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichold, Samuel

    Obesity is one of the leading public health problems in the United States. It is associated with drug abuse and increased mortality. In seeking to differentiate between overweight and obese individuals, it may be said that obesity exists in those individuals who are 40% or more above normal weight as determined on commonly used height and weight…

  4. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  5. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  6. Obesity and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Armstrong, John; Hurton, Scott; Molinari, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese patients (OPs) waiting for a liver transplant continues to increase. Despite the significant advances occurred in bariatric medicine, obesity is still considered a relative contraindication to liver transplantation (LT). The main aim of this review is to appraise the literature on the outcomes of OPs undergoing LT, treatments that might reduce their weight before, during or after surgery, and discuss some of the controversies and limitations of the current knowledge with the intent of highlighting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26421262

  7. Nutrition Interventions for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Ard, Jamy D; Miller, Gary; Kahan, Scott

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state.

  8. Obesity and renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gati, Asma; Kouidhi, Soumaya; Marrakchi, Raja; El Gaaied, Amel; Kourda, Nadia; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed; Caignard, Anne; Perier, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies link obesity, as measured by increased body mass index (BMI) to the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as well as to the cancer-related mortality of RCC patients. RCC is the third cancer most robustly associated with increased BMI. Understanding the role of the adipose tissue in renal carcinogenesis is therefore of major importance for the development of novel paradigms of RCC prevention and treatment. Here, we discuss the current knowledge on the impact of obesity on the development and progression of RCC as well as the role of adipose tissue-derived hormones (adipokines) in the conflict between growing tumors and the immune system. PMID:24804162

  9. [Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Dong, H; Weng, M

    1996-01-01

    5 cases with obesity-hypoventilaion syndrome were reported. The clinical manifestations were obesity, palpitation, dyspnea, lethargy, cyanosis, distention of cervical vein, edema, enlargement of liver and hypertension. All of them were initially diagnosed as chronic bronchitis or heart diseases. Pulmonary function test showed restrictive ventilative defect and hypercapnia with hypoxemia. Mouth oclusion pressure at 0.1 second was higher than the normal value. The response to CO2 was decreased. Hypertrophy of right heart was shown in ECG and X-ray film improvement in symptoms and blood gases analyses were found to be associated with body weight decrease in a follow up period of one year.

  10. Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in the Morbidly Obese Patient.

    PubMed

    Duke, Meredith C; Farrell, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has mirrored the increase in obesity, and GERD is now recognized as an obesity-related comorbidity. There is growing evidence that obesity, specifically central obesity, is associated with the complications of chronic reflux, including erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. While fundoplication is effective in creating a competent gastroesophageal junction and controlling reflux in most patients, it is less effective in morbidly obese patients. In these patients a bariatric operation has the ability to correct both the obesity and the abnormal reflux. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the preferred procedure.

  11. Central Obesity and H. pylori Infection Influence Risk of Barrett’s Esophagus in an Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Cheng; Hsu, Yao-Chun; Lee, Ching-Tai; Hsu, Chia-Chang; Tai, Chi-Ming; Wang, Wen-Lun; Tseng, Cheng-Hao; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Lin, Jaw-Town

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim The prevalence rates of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in western countries are higher than Asian ones, but little is known about their difference among risk factors of BE. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of various risk factors including central obesity, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome and H. pylori infection, with BE. Methods A total of 161 subjects with BE were enrolled and compared to age- and gender-matched controls randomly sampled (1:4) from check-up center in same hospital. Central obesity was defined by waist circumference (female>80cm; male>90cm), metabolic syndrome by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria in Taiwan. Independent risk factors for BE were identified by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results The mean age for BE was 53.8±13.7 years and 75.8% was male. H. pylori infection status was detected by the rapid urease test with the prevalence of 28.4% and 44.4% in the BE patients and controls, respectively. The univariate logistic regression analyses showed the risk was associated with higher waist circumference (odds ratio [OR], 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78–3.60), metabolic syndrome (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.38–2.96) and negative H. pylori infection (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.74). However, multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that BE associated with higher waist circumference (adjusted OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.89–4.12) and negative H. pylori infection (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30–0.70). Conclusions Central obesity is associated with a higher risk of BE whereas H. pylori infection with a lower risk in an ethnic Chinese population. PMID:27936223

  12. Dynamic Model Predicting Overweight, Obesity, and Extreme Obesity Prevalence Trends

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Diana M.; Weedermann, Marion; Fuemmeler, Bernard F.; Martin, Corby K.; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V.; Bredlau, Carl; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Ravussin, Eric; Bouchard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity prevalence in the United States (US) appears to be leveling, but the reasons behind the plateau remain unknown. Mechanistic insights can be provided from a mathematical model. The objective of this study is to model known multiple population parameters associated with changes in body mass index (BMI) classes and to establish conditions under which obesity prevalence will plateau. Design and Methods A differential equation system was developed that predicts population-wide obesity prevalence trends. The model considers both social and non-social influences on weight gain, incorporates other known parameters affecting obesity trends, and allows for country specific population growth. Results The dynamic model predicts that: obesity prevalence is a function of birth rate and the probability of being born in an obesogenic environment; obesity prevalence will plateau independent of current prevention strategies; and the US prevalence of obesity, overweight, and extreme obesity will plateau by about 2030 at 28%, 32%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions The US prevalence of obesity is stabilizing and will plateau, independent of current preventative strategies. This trend has important implications in accurately evaluating the impact of various anti-obesity strategies aimed at reducing obesity prevalence. PMID:23804487

  13. Diet-induced obesity causes peripheral and central ghrelin resistance by promoting inflammation.

    PubMed

    Naznin, Farhana; Toshinai, Koji; Waise, T M Zaved; NamKoong, Cherl; Md Moin, Abu Saleh; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2015-07-01

    Ghrelin, a stomach-derived orexigenic peptide, transmits starvation signals to the hypothalamus via the vagus afferent nerve. Peripheral administration of ghrelin does not induce food intake in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. We investigated whether this ghrelin resistance was caused by dysfunction of the vagus afferent pathway. Administration (s.c.) of ghrelin did not induce food intake, suppression of oxygen consumption, electrical activity of the vagal afferent nerve, phosphorylation of ERK2 and AMP-activated protein kinase alpha in the nodose ganglion, or Fos expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks. Administration of anti-ghrelin IgG did not induce suppression of food intake in HFD-fed mice. Expression levels of ghrelin receptor mRNA in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice were reduced. Inflammatory responses, including upregulation of macrophage/microglia markers and inflammatory cytokines, occurred in the nodose ganglion and hypothalamus of HFD-fed mice. A HFD blunted ghrelin signaling in the nodose ganglion via a mechanism involving in situ activation of inflammation. These results indicate that ghrelin resistance in the obese state may be caused by dysregulation of ghrelin signaling via the vagal afferent.

  14. The Future of Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Jeff; Emerick, Jill; Saxena, Harshita

    2016-03-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment.

  15. Multi-Caused Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Headlines recently were full of studies about the obesity problem of America's children and young people, as if kids became overweight without anyone noticing. An accumulation of both school and family habits, however, have been contributing to the fact that at least 13% of children ages 7 to 11 are overweight, double those of the 1970s (and…

  16. [Inflammation and obesity (lipoinflammation)].

    PubMed

    Izaola, Olatz; de Luis, Daniel; Sajoux, Ignacio; Domingo, Joan Carles; Vidal, Montse

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with multiple origins. It is a widespread global phenomenon carrying potentially serious complications which requires a multidisciplinary approach due to the significant clinical repercussions and elevated health costs associated with the disease. The most recent evidence indicates that it shares a common characteristic with other prevalent, difficult-to-treat pathologies: chronic, low-grade inflammation which perpetuates the disease and is associated with multiple complications. The current interest in lipoinflammation or chronic inflammation associated with obesity derives from an understanding of the alterations and remodelling that occurs in the adipose tissue, with the participation of multiple factors and elements throughout the process. Recent research highlights the importance of some of these molecules, called pro-resolving mediators, as possible therapeutic targets in the treatment of obesity. This article reviews the evidence published on the mechanisms that regulate the adipose tissue remodelling process and lipoinflammation both in obesity and in the mediators that are directly involved in the appearance and resolution of the inflammatory process.

  17. Liver in obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, A; Capron, J P; Hervé, M A; Degott, C; Quenum, C

    1985-01-01

    We report on clinical, nutritional, and hepatic histological findings in 50 non-selected obese subjects (mean overweight +74%; range +21-138%). The pathogenesis of the liver damage was assessed with the help of multidimensional analysis of a number of clinical variables. According to the severity of the hepatic lesions, the patients have been ranged in five groups: O (normal liver) 10%; I (fatty liver) 48%; II (fatty hepatitis) 26%; III (fatty fibrosis) 8%; IV (fatty cirrhosis) 8%. The more severe changes (groups III and IV) were constantly associated with excessive alcohol intake. The multidimensional analysis was unable to find a relationship between obesity and the development of fibrosis and cirrhosis whereas it showed that: (a) there was a highly significant correlation between the daily ethanol intake and the degree of overweight, (b) severe fatty metamorphosis was significantly associated with the degree of overweight, the existence of diabetes mellitus, and the amount of alcohol and fat intake, (c) nutritional factors, in particular deficient protein intake, have only an accessory effect in the development of mild inflammation and fibrosis, (d) the consumption of potentially hepatotoxic drugs, very high in the obese (about five drugs per day) could have a role in the development of cirrhosis. In conclusion in our study, there was no evidence that obesity per se could result in severe liver damage. PMID:3967830

  18. [Obesity and cancer].

    PubMed

    Ungefroren, H; Gieseler, F; Lehnert, H

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of obesity in the western world has increased dramatically during recent decades. Epidemiological data suggest that obesity is associated with an increased risk of several but not all types of cancers, with clear sex-specific differences. The underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. This review focuses on the potential factors linking obesity to cancer. Current experimental evidence suggests that insulin resistance and a chronic, subclinical inflammation in the visceral fat are the major metabolic events causing alterations in the levels of insulin, glucose, free fatty acids, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and 2, adipose tissue-derived proinflammatory cytokines and other bioactive molecules, such as adipokines (e.g. leptin and adiponectin), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), sex hormones, gut microbiota and secondary bile acids. All these factors may act directly or indirectly on the tumor microenvironment to drive tumor progression via stimulation of cell survival/antiapoptosis, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis of the cancer cells. Therapeutic strategies that target dysfunctional or inflamed fat and have been shown to benefit patients include bariatric surgery, while other cell or hormone-directed interventions, such as conversion of visceral fat macrophages to an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype or the pharmacological modulation of serum adipokine levels are still theoretical and need to be clinically evaluated for their ability to successfully treat or prevent obesity-related cancers.

  19. Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin [IL]-4, IL-6, and others). Adipose tissue is also implicated in the development of chronic metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Obesity is thus an underlying condition for inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Diet or dietary patterns play critical roles in obesity and other pathophysiological conditions. A healthy diet and some nutrients are generally considered beneficial; however, some dietary nutrients are still considered controversial. In this article, dietary factors that influence inflammation associated with obesity are discussed. PMID:24224147

  20. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    PubMed

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  1. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  2. Behavioral management of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The behavioral management of obesity is an approach designed to provide individuals with a set of skills that promote a healthier weight. A number of strategies are used to assist individuals in making gradual changes that can realistically be incorporated into their lives. Evidence is promising f...

  3. The psychology of obesity.

    PubMed

    Swencionis, Charles; Rendell, Sarah Litman

    2012-10-01

    G. Stanley Hall, the first person to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States, did research on eating behaviors in the nineteenth century (Lepore in The New Yorker, 2011). Research on psychological aspects of obesity accelerated in the 1950s and there has been a great deal done at this point. We review areas of considerable activity and relevance.

  4. Chronobiology and obesity.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación

    2013-09-01

    Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD). It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.

  5. Games and childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  6. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  7. Dietary polyphenols and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progresses often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural b...

  8. Obesity and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Nimptsch, Katharina; Pischon, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    This review outlines the association of obesity with risk of colorectal cancer and the potential underlying mechanisms from an epidemiological perspective. Current research indicates that there is a moderate but consistently reported association between general obesity (as determined by BMI) and colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. The relative risk associated with obesity is higher for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum and it is higher in men than in women. By contrast, abdominal adiposity (as determined by waist circumference or waist-to-hip ratio) is similarly strongly associated with colon cancer in men and women, suggesting that abdominal adiposity is a more important risk factor for colon cancer than general adiposity, at least in women. Putative mechanisms that may account for the link between adiposity and colorectal cancer risk include hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, inflammation, altered immune response, oxidative stress, as well as disturbances in insulin-like growth factors, adipokines, and sex steroids. Understanding the link between obesity and colorectal cancer may pave the way for targeted prevention of colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality.

  9. Central inflammation and leptin resistance are attenuated by ginsenoside Rb1 treatment in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yizhen; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    A low-grade pro-inflammatory state is at the pathogenic core of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We tested the hypothesis that the plant terpenoid compound ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), known to exert anti-inflammatory effects, would ameliorate obesity, obesity-associated inflammation and glucose intolerance in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Furthermore, we examined the effect of Rb1 treatment on central leptin sensitivity and the leptin signaling pathway in the hypothalamus. We found that intraperitoneal injections of Rb1 (14 mg/kg, daily) for 21 days significantly reduced body weight gain, fat mass accumulation, and improved glucose tolerance in obese mice on a HF diet compared to vehicle treatment. Importantly, Rb1 treatment also reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and/or IL-1β) and NF-κB pathway molecules (p-IKK and p-IκBα) in adipose tissue and liver. In the hypothalamus, Rb1 treatment decreased the expression of inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-1β and p-IKK) and negative regulators of leptin signaling (SOCS3 and PTP1B). Furthermore, Rb1 treatment also restored the anorexic effect of leptin in high-fat fed mice as well as leptin pSTAT3 signaling in the hypothalamus. Ginsenoside Rb1 has potential for use as an anti-obesity therapeutic agent that modulates obesity-induced inflammation and improves central leptin sensitivity in HF diet-induced obesity.

  10. Dermatological complications of obesity.

    PubMed

    García Hidalgo, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a health problem of considerable magnitude in the Western world. Dermatological changes have been reported in patients with obesity, including: acanthosis nigricans and skin tags (due to insulin resistance); hyperandrogenism; striae due to over extension; stasis pigmentation due to peripheral vascular disease; lymphedema; pathologies associated with augmented folds; morphologic changes in the foot anatomy due to excess load; and complications that may arise from hospitalization. Acanthosis nigricans plaques can be managed by improved control of hyperinsulinemia; the vitamin D3 analog calcipitriol has also been shown to be effective. Skin tags can be removed by snipping with curved scissors, by cryotherapy or by electrodesiccation. Hyperandrogenism, a result of increased production of endogenous androgens due to increased volumes of adipose tissue (which synthesizes testosterone) and hyperinsulinemia (which increases the production of ovarian androgens) needs to be carefully assessed to ensure disorders such as virilizing tumors and congenital adrenal hyperplasia are treated appropriately. Treatment of hyperandrogenism should be centred on controlling insulin levels; weight loss, oral contraceptive and antiandrogenic therapies are also possible treatment options. The etiology of striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, is yet to be defined and treatment options are unsatisfactory at present; striae rubra and alba have been treated with a pulsed dye laser with marginal success. The relationship between obesity and varicose veins is controversial; symptoms are best prevented by the use of elastic stockings. Itching and inflammation associated with stasis pigmentation, the result of red blood cells escaping into the tissues, can be treated with corticosteroids. Lymphedema is associated with dilatation of tissue channels, reduced tissue oxygenation and provides a culture medium for bacterial growth. Lymphedema treatment is directed towards reducing the

  11. Obesity and infection: reciprocal causality.

    PubMed

    Hainer, V; Zamrazilová, H; Kunešová, M; Bendlová, B; Aldhoon-Hainerová, I

    2015-01-01

    Associations between different infectious agents and obesity have been reported in humans for over thirty years. In many cases, as in nosocomial infections, this relationship reflects the greater susceptibility of obese individuals to infection due to impaired immunity. In such cases, the infection is not related to obesity as a causal factor but represents a complication of obesity. In contrast, several infections have been suggested as potential causal factors in human obesity. However, evidence of a causal linkage to human obesity has only been provided for adenovirus 36 (Adv36). This virus activates lipogenic and proinflammatory pathways in adipose tissue, improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and hepatic steatosis. The E4orf1 gene of Adv36 exerts insulin senzitizing effects, but is devoid of its pro-inflammatory modalities. The development of a vaccine to prevent Adv36-induced obesity or the use of E4orf1 as a ligand for novel antidiabetic drugs could open new horizons in the prophylaxis and treatment of obesity and diabetes. More experimental and clinical studies are needed to elucidate the mutual relations between infection and obesity, identify additional infectious agents causing human obesity, as well as define the conditions that predispose obese individuals to specific infections.

  12. Intergenerational and socioeconomic gradients of child obesity.

    PubMed

    Costa-Font, Joan; Gil, Joan

    2013-09-01

    Can the rise in obesity among children be attributed to the intergenerational transmission of parental influences? Does this trend affect the influence of parent's socioeconomic status on obesity? This paper documents evidence of an emerging social gradient of obesity in pre-school children resulting from a combination of both socio-economic status and less intensive childcare associated with maternal employment, when different forms of intergenerational transmission are controlled for. We also estimate and decompose income related inequalities in child obesity. We take advantage of a uniquely constructed dataset from Spain that contains records form 13,358 individuals for a time period (years 2003-2006) in which a significant spike in the growth of child obesity was observed. Our results suggest robust evidence of both socioeconomic and intergenerational gradients. Results are suggestive of a high income effect in child obesity, alongside evidence that income inequalities have doubled in just three years with a pure income effect accounting for as much as 72-66% of these income inequality estimates, even when intergenerational transmission is accounted for. Although, intergenerational transmission does not appear to be gender specific, when accounted for, mother's labour market participation only explains obesity among boys but not among girls. Hence, it appears income and parental influences are the central determinants of obesity among children.

  13. Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, J. M.; Kitahara, C. M.; Bernstein, L.; Berrington de Gonzalez, A.; Brotzman, M.; Elena, J. W.; Giles, G. G.; Hartge, P.; Singh, P. N.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z.; Weiderpass, E.; Adami, H.-O.; Anderson, K. E.; Beane-Freeman, L. E.; Buring, J. E.; Fraser, G. E.; Fuchs, C. S.; Gapstur, S. M.; Gaziano, J. M.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Lacey, J. V.; Linet, M. S.; Liu, J. J.; Park, Y.; Peters, U.; Purdue, M. P.; Robien, K.; Schairer, C.; Sesso, H. D.; Visvanathan, K.; White, E.; Wolk, A.; Wolpin, B. M.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Jacobs, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity typically assessed in middle age or later, is known to be positively associated with pancreatic cancer. However, little evidence exists regarding the influence of central adiposity, a high BMI during early adulthood, and weight gain after early adulthood on pancreatic cancer risk. Design We conducted a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 20 prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute BMI and Mortality Cohort Consortium to examine the association of pancreatic cancer mortality with measures of central adiposity (e.g. waist circumference; n = 647 478; 1947 pancreatic cancer deaths), BMI during early adulthood (ages 18–21 years) and BMI change between early adulthood and cohort enrollment, mostly in middle age or later (n = 1 096 492; 3223 pancreatic cancer deaths). Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Higher waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17 per 0.1 increment) and waist circumference (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00–1.14 per 10 cm) were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality, even when adjusted for BMI at baseline. BMI during early adulthood was associated with increased pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11–1.25 per 5 kg/m2), with increased risk observed in both overweight and obese individuals (compared with BMI of 21.0 to <23 kg/m2, HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.55 for BMI 25.0 < 27.5 kg/m2, HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20–1.84 for BMI 27.5 to <30 kg/m2, HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11–1.85 for BMI ≥30 kg/m2). BMI gain after early adulthood, adjusted for early adult BMI, was less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10 per 5 kg/m2). Conclusions Our results support an association between pancreatic cancer mortality and central obesity, independent of BMI, and also suggest that being overweight or obese

  14. The Estrogen Hypothesis of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, James P.; Henneberg, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The explanation of obesity as a simple result of positive energy balance fails to account for the scope of variable responses to diets and lifestyles. It is postulated that individual physiological and anatomical variation may be responsible for developing obesity. Girls in poor families develop greater adiposity than their male siblings, a trend not present in richer environments. This indicates strong influence of estrogen on fat accumulation irrespective of poor socioeconomic conditions. Obesity rates in males and females of developed nations are similar, while in poorer nations obesity is much more prevalent in females. Female to male ratio of obesity correlates inversely with gross domestic product. Therefore, the parity of male and female obesity in developed countries may result from male exposure to environmental estrogen-like substances associated with affluence. These hormonally driven mechanisms may be equally active within both sexes in more developed areas, thereby increasing overall obesity. PMID:24915457

  15. From obesity genetics to the future of personalized obesity therapy.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S; Froguel, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is a disorder characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat resulting from a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure. Incidence of obesity has increased dramatically in the past few years, almost certainly fuelled by a shift in dietary habits owing to the widespread availability of low-cost, hypercaloric foods. However, clear differences exist in obesity susceptibility among individuals exposed to the same obesogenic environment, implicating genetic risk factors. Numerous genes have been shown to be involved in the development of monofactorial forms of obesity. In genome-wide association studies, a large number of common variants have been associated with adiposity levels, each accounting for only a small proportion of the predicted heritability. Although the small effect sizes of obesity variants identified in genome-wide association studies currently preclude their utility in clinical settings, screening for a number of monogenic obesity variants is now possible. Such regular screening will provide more informed prognoses and help in the identification of at-risk individuals who could benefit from early intervention, in evaluation of the outcomes of current obesity treatments, and in personalization of the clinical management of obesity. This Review summarizes current advances in obesity genetics and discusses the future of research in this field and the potential relevance to personalized obesity therapy.

  16. [Prevalence of overweight and obesity, and associated factors in adolescents, at the central west area of the state São Paulo (SP, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Goya, Suzana; Sant'Anna, Rute Moreira de Freitas; Silva, Henrique Mendes; Sales-Peres, André de Carvalho; Silva, Ricardo Pianta Rodrigues da; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira; Bastos, José Roberto de Magalhães

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the Body Mass Index (BMI) and the DMFT index, in 207 adolescents aged 12 years old, from 8 public and private schools of the central west area of São Paulo State. From a sample of 380 12 year-old adolescents, both genders, 207 were examined. We used the index DMFT, CBI for weight, measured of stature and applied a questionnaire about alimentary habits, characteristic anthropometrics and physical activity. Regarding body weight, 55.93% was normal, 35.59% had low weight, and 8.47% were pre-obese in private schools. In the public schools, 52.03% had normal weight, 41.22% had low weight, 4.73% were pre-obese and 2.03% were obese, without significant difference (p=0.45). The DMFT of public schools was 2.16, compared to 0.23 in private schools (p<0.05), with 39.2% of caries-free individuals in public schools and 88.1% in private schools. There was no correlation between the increase in BMI and the increase in DMFT. There was negative correlation between socioeconomic conditions and dental caries. It was concluded that, even though the pre-obese and obese groups presented a higher frequency of food ingestion, obesity was not correlated with the increase in dental caries. However, the socioeconomic conditions were determinant for this occurrence.

  17. The concept of normal weight obesity.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Estefania; Somers, Virend K; Sochor, Ondrej; Goel, Kashish; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with normal body weight by body mass index (BMI) and high body fat percentage show a high degree of metabolic dysregulation. This phenomenon, defined as normal weight obesity, is associated with a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome, cardiometabolic dysfunction and with higher mortality. Recently, we have also shown that coronary artery disease patients with normal BMI and central obesity have the highest mortality risk as compared to other adiposity patterns. Therefore, it is important to recognize these high-risk groups for better adiposity-based risk stratification. There is a need for an updated definition of obesity based on adiposity, not on body weight.

  18. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  19. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  20. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  1. Normal Weight Obesity: A Hidden Health Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Obesity Can you be considered obese if you have a normal body weight? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L. ... considered obese — a condition known as normal weight obesity. Normal weight obesity means you may have the ...

  2. Endocannabinoids and obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoxun; Pang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    A safe and effective antiobesity drug is needed to combat the global obesity epidemic. The discovery of cannabinoids from medicinal herbs has revealed the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in animals and humans, which regulates various physiological activities such as feeding, thermogenesis, and body weight (BW). Although cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) antagonists have shown antiobesity efficacies in animal models and in the clinic, they failed to establish as a treatment due to their psychological side effects. Recent studies indicate that CB1 in various peripheral tissues may mediate some of the therapeutic effects of CB1 antagonists, such as improved lipid and glucose homeostasis. It rationalizes the development of compounds with limited brain penetration, for minimizing the side effects while retaining the therapeutic efficacies. A survey of the literature has revealed some controversies about how the ECS affects obesity. This review summarizes the research progresses and discusses some future perspectives.

  3. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  4. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  5. Obesity: An Immunometabolic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Indrani; Mahata, Sushil K.; De, Rajat K.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, characterized by chronic activation of inflammatory pathways, is a critical factor contributing to insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Free fatty acids (FFAs) are increased in obesity and are implicated as proximate causes of IR and induction of inflammatory signaling in adipose, liver, muscle, and pancreas. Cells of the innate immune system produce cytokines, and other factors that affect insulin signaling and result in the development of IR. In the lean state, adipose tissue is populated by adipose tissue macrophage of the anti-inflammatory M2 type (ATM2) and natural killer (NK) cells; this maintains the insulin-sensitive phenotype because ATM2 cells secrete IL10. In contrast, obesity induces lipolysis and release of pro-inflammatory FFAs and factors, such as chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which recruit blood monocytes in adipose tissue, where they are converted to macrophages of the highly pro-inflammatory M1-type (ATM1). Activated ATM1 produce large amounts of pro-inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β, IL-6, leukotriene B4, nitric oxide (NO), and resistin that work in a paracrine fashion and cause IR in adipose tissue. In the liver, both pro-inflammatory Kupffer cells (M1-KCs) and recruited hepatic macrophages (Ly6Chigh) contribute to decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity. The present mini-review will update the bidirectional interaction between the immune system and obesity-induced changes in metabolism in adipose tissue and liver and the metabolic consequences thereof. PMID:28018292

  6. [The energetics of obesity].

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Blanc, Stéphane

    2006-01-01

    Although there is little argument about the state of energy imbalance that produces weight gain, there is considerable argument about the respective role of genetics, diet and physical activity in achieving obesity. In the USA, obesity has increased in the last decades despite a concomitant decrease in total energy and fat intake suggesting that there has been a dramatic drop in total energy expenditure. In this review, we investigated the respective role of resting metabolic rate, post-prandial thermogenesis, and activity energy expenditure in this lower energy output, and provided evidence that physical inactivity is the major contributor. Based on Jean Mayer original observation (Mayer et al., 1954), we hypothesize that there is a level of physical activity below which mechanisms of body mass regulation are impaired. The increasing prevalence of obesity may reflect the fact the majority of the population has fallen below such a level of physical activity. However, a causal relation between physical inactivity and obesity is still difficult to prove, probably because of the lack of longitudinal models to investigate the physiological consequences of inactivity and because the deleterious consequences of sedentary behaviors are essentially deduced from the benefits of exercise training. By using long term strict bed rest as a unique model of inactivity, we provide evidence that inactivity per se indeed disrupts fuel homeostasis and partitions post-absorptive and post-prandial fat use towards storage, thus promoting weight gain in the long term. More research is needed to investigate mechanisms and to determine the minimal physical activity our body has been engineered for by evolution.

  7. [Carbohydrate sweeteners and obesity].

    PubMed

    Wystrychowski, Grzegorz; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Wystrychowski, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. prevalence of obesity increases since the mid-70s of the 20th century. Around that time high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)--mixture of fructose and glucose was introduced as a sweetener replacing sucrose in the food production. HFCS containing 55% fructose and 42-45% glucose (HFCS55) has dominated the American soft drink industry and HFCS has recently become commonly used in Poland. The coincidence of HFCS introduction and obesity epidemic raised widely publicized suspicions of a causal relationship between the two. As a possible mechanism, a higher content of fructose in the HFCS55, as compared with sucrose was suggested -fructose is known to increase serum uric acid level, induce hepatic lipogenesis and not stimulate postprandial hyperinsulinemia, a main activator of leptin release. Few comparative studies of HFCS and sucrose have largely failed to reveal any different impacts on the metabolic parameters, yet they were mainly short-term. It has been recently shown that obesity is linked with changes in the intenstinal flora. Among the causes of allegedly different effects of sucrose and HFCS on metabolism, their influence on the gut microbiome has not been examined. Some bacterial types do not hydrolyze sucrose which may determine different compositions of gut flora with the use of both sweeteners. Studies involving quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA in the stool, both in animals and in humans, shall shed light on the issue that has recently so much absorbed the U.S. public opinion.

  8. Pediatric obesity. An introduction ☆

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children’s health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children’s environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  9. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    PubMed

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.

  10. Obesity and pelvic floor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Kalaivani; Monga, Ash

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of pelvic floor disorders. Patients with obesity present with a range of urinary, bowel and sexual dysfunction problems as well as uterovaginal prolapse. Urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and sexual dysfunction are more prevalent in patients with obesity. Uterovaginal prolapse is also more common than in the non-obese population. Weight loss by surgical and non-surgical methods plays a major role in the improvement of these symptoms in such patients. The treatment of symptoms leads to an improvement in their quality of life. However, surgical treatment of these symptoms may be accompanied by an increased risk of complications in obese patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of obesity-associated pelvic floor dysfunction is essential.

  11. Pharmacotherapy for obesity: novel agents and paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Sean; Pucci, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Public health initiatives focused on obesity prevention and lifestyle intervention programmes for patients with obesity have struggled to contain the obesity epidemic to date. In recent years, antiobesity drug therapies have had a limited role in clinical treatment algorithms for patients with obesity. Indeed, a number of high-profile antiobesity drug suspensions have markedly impacted upon the landscape of obesity pharmacotherapy. In this review, we discuss the advent of an increasing array of pharmacotherapeutic agents, which are effective both in inducing weight loss and in maintaining weight loss achieved by lifestyle measures. The development of these drugs as antiobesity agents has followed varying paths, ranging from lorcaserin, a selective serotonin agent, exploiting the beneficial central actions of fenfluramine but without the associated systemic side effects, to liraglutide, a gut hormone already used as a glucose-lowering drug but with appetite-suppressant properties, or the novel drug combination of phentermine/topiramate, two ‘old’ drugs used in lower doses than with previous therapeutic uses, resulting in an additive effect on weight loss and fewer side effects. We summarize the key findings from recent randomized controlled trials of these three drugs. Although these agents lead to clinically important weight loss when used as monotherapy, the use of antiobesity drugs as adjunctive therapy post intensive lifestyle intervention could prove to be the most successful strategy. Moreover, a progressive approach to obesity pharmacotherapy perhaps offers the best opportunity to finally address the obesity crisis on a mass scale. PMID:24790728

  12. A case of pantaloon obesity.

    PubMed

    Leonidas, J R; Hyppolite, N

    1983-06-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented with an unusual form of obesity limited to the lower half of the body from the waistline down but sparing the lower legs and feet. The patient was massive (360 lbs) and symmetrical. The superior half of the body was normal with no morbid obesity or lipoatrophy. These findings do not correspond to any classic form of lipodystrophy. The fat distribution is reminiscent of a pair of knickers and qualifies for the name "pantaloon obesity."

  13. Obesity: A National Security Concern

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-28

    live shorter lives than their parents.”6 The study also included an ironic conclusion that one of the contributing factors to childhood obesity is a...accessed September 10, 2010). 7 Christenson, Too Fat to Fight, 1. 8 Nikhil Swaminathan, “Is School Lunch Contributing to Childhood Obesity ?,” March...18, 2010, http://www.good.is/post/is-school-lunch-contributing-to- childhood - obesity /r (accessed January 17, 2011). 9 Katherine M. Flegal

  14. Central obesity as a precursor to the metabolic syndrome in the AusDiab study and Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Boyko, Edward J; Sicree, Richard A; Zimmet, Paul Z; Söderberg, Stefan; Alberti, K George M M; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Chitson, Pierrot; Shaw, Jonathan E

    2008-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiologic studies that central obesity precedes future metabolic change and does not occur concurrently with the appearance of the blood pressure, glucose, and lipid abnormalities that characterize the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been lacking. Longitudinal surveys were conducted in Mauritius in 1987, 1992, and 1998, and in Australia in 2000 and 2005 (AusDiab). This analysis included men and women (aged > or = 25 years) in three cohorts: AusDiab 2000-2005 (n = 5,039), Mauritius 1987-1992 (n = 2,849), and Mauritius 1987-1998 (n = 1,999). MetS components included waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting and 2-h postload plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) (representing insulin sensitivity). Linear regression was used to determine which baseline components predicted deterioration in other MetS components over 5 years in AusDiab and 5 and 11 years in Mauritius, adjusted for age, sex, and ethnic group. Baseline waist circumference predicted deterioration (P < 0.01) in four of the other six MetS variables tested in AusDiab, five of six in Mauritius 1987-1992, and four of six in Mauritius 1987-1998. In contrast, an increase in waist circumference between baseline and follow-up was only predicted by insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) at baseline, and only in one of the three cohorts. These results suggest that central obesity plays a central role in the development of the MetS and appears to precede the appearance of the other MetS components.

  15. Everything in Moderation - Dietary Diversity and Quality, Central Obesity and Risk of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Padhye, Nikhil S.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Jacobs, David R.; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Diet guidelines recommend increasing dietary diversity. Yet, metrics for dietary diversity have neither been well-defined nor evaluated for impact on metabolic health. Also, whether diversity has effects independent of diet quality is unknown. We characterized and evaluated associations of diet diversity and quality with abdominal obesity and type II diabetes (T2D) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. At baseline (2000–02), diet was assessed among 5,160 Whites, Hispanic, Blacks, and Chinese age 45–84 y and free of T2D, using a validated questionnaire. Three different aspects of diet diversity were characterized including count (number of different food items eaten more than once/week, a broad measure of diversity), evenness (Berry index, a measure of the spread of the diversity), and dissimilarity (Jaccard distance, a measure of the diversity of the attributes of the foods consumed). Diet quality was characterized using aHEI, DASH, and a priori pattern. Count and evenness were weakly positively correlated with diet quality (r with AHEI: 0.20, 0.04), while dissimilarity was moderately inversely correlated (r = -0.34). In multivariate models, neither count nor evenness was associated with change in waist circumference (WC) or incident T2D. Greater food dissimilarity was associated with higher gain in WC (p-trend<0.01), with 120% higher gain in participants in the highest quintile of dissimilarity scores. Diet diversity was not associated with incident T2D. Also, none of the diversity metrics were associated with change in WC or incident T2D when restricted to only healthier or less healthy foods. Higher diet quality was associated with lower risk of T2D. Our findings provide little evidence for benefits of diet diversity for either abdominal obesity or diabetes. Greater dissimilarity among foods was actually associated with gain in WC. These results do not support the notion that “eating everything in moderation” leads to greater diet quality or

  16. Obesity: A Perspective from Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Susic, Dinko; Varagic, Jasmina

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity-related hypertension is high worldwide and has become a major health issue. The mechanisms by which obesity relates to hypertensive disease are still under intense research scrutiny, and include altered hemodynamics, impaired sodium homeostasis, renal dysfunction, autonomic nervous system imbalance, endocrine alterations, oxidative stress and inflammation, and vascular injury. Most of these contributing factors interact with each other at multiple levels. Thus, as a multifactorial and complex disease, obesity-related hypertension should be recognized as a distinctive form of hypertension, and specific considerations should apply in planning therapeutic approaches to treat obese individuals with high blood pressure.

  17. Pregnancy and Obesity: Know the Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy week by week Concerned about pregnancy and obesity? Understand the risks of obesity during pregnancy — plus steps to promote a healthy ... you can do to promote a healthy pregnancy. Obesity is defined as having an excessive amount of ...

  18. Dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity and central adiposity in Lebanese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-03-10

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6-19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study's findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents.

  19. Dietary, Lifestyle and Socio-Economic Correlates of Overweight, Obesity and Central Adiposity in Lebanese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Naja, Farah; Akl, Christelle; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Karam, Sabine; Sibai, Abla-Mehio; Hwalla, Nahla

    2014-01-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region is characterized by one of the highest burdens of paediatric obesity worldwide. This study aims at examining dietary, lifestyle, and socio-economic correlates of overweight, obesity, and abdominal adiposity amongst children and adolescents in Lebanon, a country of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted on 6–19-year-old subjects (n = 868). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data (weight, height, waist circumference) were collected. Overweight and obesity were defined based on BMI z-scores. Elevated waist circumference (WC) and elevated waist to height ratio (WHtR) were used as indices of abdominal obesity. Of the study sample, 34.8% were overweight, 13.2% were obese, 14.0% had elevated WC, and 21.3% had elevated WHtR. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that male gender, maternal employment, residence in the capital Beirut, sedentarity, and higher consumption of fast food and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with increased risk of obesity, overweight, and abdominal adiposity, while regular breakfast consumption, higher intakes of milk/dairies and added fats/oils were amongst the factors associated with decreased risk. The study’s findings call for culture-specific intervention strategies for the promotion of physical activity, healthy lifestyle, and dietary practices amongst Lebanese children and adolescents. PMID:24618510

  20. ["Food addiction" as a possible risk factor for obesity].

    PubMed

    Frey, Letizia; Riva, Martina; Grosshans, Martin; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-03-30

    The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are, internationally as well as in Switzerland, increasing in recent years. The neurobiology tries to explore an improved understanding of the central nervous causes of obesity. Findings from addiction research seem very useful because there are certain similarities between addiction and obesity in terms of neurobiological causes. An improved understanding of the disease of obesity could help to develop more effective therapies for obese patients in the future. Further research, e. g. in the field of stress regulation, is thus urgently needed.

  1. Obesity and psoriasis: inflammatory nature of obesity, relationship between psoriasis and obesity, and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Carrascosa, J M; Rocamora, V; Fernandez-Torres, R M; Jimenez-Puya, R; Moreno, J C; Coll-Puigserver, N; Fonseca, E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, is currently considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory condition that plays an active role in the development of the pathophysiologic phenomena responsible for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease through the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines and cytokines. In recent years clear genetic, pathogenic, and epidemiologic links have been established between psoriasis and obesity, with important implications for health. The relationship between the 2 conditions is probably bidirectional, with obesity predisposing to psoriasis and psoriasis favoring obesity. Obesity also has important implications in the treatment of psoriasis, such as a greater risk of adverse effects with conventional systemic drugs and reduced efficacy and/or increased cost with biologic agents, for which dosage should be adjusted to the patient's weight.

  2. Decomposing trends in adult body mass index, obesity, and morbid obesity, 1971-2012.

    PubMed

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell; Wagmiller, Robert L

    2016-10-01

    Trends in adult obesity have been used to motivate key public health policies in the United States. While these analyses provide important insights into the broad historical contours of the obesity epidemic in the U.S., they shed less light on the proximate mechanisms that have generated these changes and that will ultimately determine the long-term course and pace of change in obesity rates. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), Glenn Firebaugh's linear decomposition technique, and Kitagawa's algebraic decomposition method to decompose change in body mass index (BMI), obesity, and morbid obesity from 1971 through 2012 for adults aged 20+. We partitioned change into that attributable to (1) older, fitter cohorts in the population being replaced by newer, less fit cohorts (intercohort change), and (2) cohort members becoming less fit over time (intracohort change). We found that the rise in mean BMI and rates of obesity and morbid obesity was primarily a consequence of intracohort change driven by variation in the demographic and socioeconomic composition and in the diet of the population over time. Obesity and BMI in the population rose largely because of individual increases in weight status that were broadly distributed across age and cohort groups. Cohort replacement reinforced and amplified intracohort change over the study period, leading to rapid increases in mean BMI and obesity. Because intracohort change has been the central force in the increase in BMI and obesity, successful social, dietary, medical, or policy interventions have the potential to quickly slow or reverse the upward trend in weight status. Our results also imply that policy efforts and health interventions should be broadly targeted at all age groups and birth cohorts because increases in obesity have been widely distributed across all ages and generations.

  3. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  4. The effect of obesity surgery on obesity comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, Marshall J; Ross, Leigh Ann; Sumrall, Caryl D; Loustalot, Fleetwood V; Low, Annette K; Land, Kelly K

    2006-04-01

    Obesity is epidemic in the modern world. It is becoming increasingly clear that obesity is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and renal disease, as well as a host of other comorbidities. There are at present no generally effective long-term medical therapies for obesity. Surgical therapy for morbid obesity is not only effective in producing long-term weight loss but is also effective in ameliorating or resolving several of the most significant complications of obesity, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease, degenerative joint disease, venous stasis, pseudotumor cerebri, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, urinary incontinence, fertility problems, and others. The degree of benefit and the rates of morbidity and mortality of the various surgical procedures vary according to the procedure.

  5. Neuropeptides and obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, B

    2000-10-01

    This review focuses on the expression, content, and release of neuropeptides and on their role in the development of obesity in animal models with single-gene mutations. The balance between neuropeptides that contribute to the control of feeding behavior is profoundly and variously altered in these models, supporting the concept of the existence of several types of obesity. The hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) systems are the networks most studied in relation to energy intake. Both receive information about the nutritional status and the level of energy storage through insulin and leptin signaling mediated by specific receptors located on POMC and NPY neurons present predominantly in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). When leptin signaling is defective, through a defect in either the receptor (Zucker fa/fa rat, cp/cp rat, and db/db mouse) or in the peptide itself (ob/ob mouse), the NPY system is upregulated as shown by mRNA overexpression and increased peptide release, whereas the content and/or release of some inhibitory peptides (neurotensin, cholecystokinin) are diminished. For the POMC system, there is a complex interaction between the tonic inhibition of food intake exerted by alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and the Agouti-related protein at the level of the type 4 melanocortin receptor. The latter peptide is coexpressed with NPY in the ARC. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is the link between food intake and environmental factors. It not only inhibits food intake and prevents weight gain, likely through hypothalamic effects, but also activates the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and therefore contributes to energy storage in adipose tissue. The factors that prod the CRF system toward the hypothalamic or hypothalamo-pituitary axis system remain to be more clearly defined (comodulators, connections between limbic system and ARC, cellular location, and type of receptors, etc. ). The pathways used by all of these

  6. Methylglyoxal, obesity, and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Matafome, Paulo; Sena, Cristina; Seiça, Raquel

    2013-06-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is a highly reactive compound derived mainly from glucose and fructose metabolism. This metabolite has been implicated in diabetic complications as it is a strong AGE precursor. Furthermore, recent studies suggested a role for MG in insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Although several drugs have been developed in the recent years to scavenge MG and inhibit AGE formation, we are still far from having an effective strategy to prevent MG-induced mechanisms. This review summarizes the mechanisms of MG formation, detoxification, and action. Furthermore, we review the current knowledge about its implication on the pathophysiology and complications of obesity and diabetes.

  7. [Obesity, migration and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise

    2012-06-13

    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  8. The Educational Aspects of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufmann, David A.

    A traditional discussion of obesity considers the number of pounds over what is considered average for one's age, height, and sex, and is based on the assumption that the average weight for a given group of people of the same age, height, and sex is the healthiest status for that group. There is a physiological and biochemical basis for obesity.…

  9. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  10. Overweight and Obesity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    In this world of receiving immediate gratification, being over scheduled, and having access to a myriad of technology, poor nutrition and lack of daily physical activity are two of the results. "Obesity is a silent epidemic," former U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher stated in 2002 (Healthy schools summit weighs in on obesity). Due to the demands…

  11. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  12. Obesity, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Iantorno, M; Campia, U; Di Daniele, N; Nistico, S; Forleo, G B; Cardillo, C; Tesauro, M

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in obese individuals. Obesity dramatically increases the risk of development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to originate from disruption in adipose tissue function leading to a chronic inflammatory state and to dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors. These, in turn, impair vascular homeostasis and lead to endothelial dysfunction. An altered endothelial cell phenotype and endothelial dysfunction are common among all obesity-related complications. A crucial aspect of endothelial dysfunction is reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A systemic pro-inflammatory state in combination with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and activation of the renin angiotensin system are systemic disturbances in obese individuals that contribute independently and synergistically to decreasing NO bioavailability. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines are locally produced by perivascular fat and act through a paracrine mechanism to independently contribute to endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in obese individuals. The promising discovery that obesity-induced vascular dysfunction is, at least in part, reversible, with weight loss strategies and drugs that promote vascular health, has not been sufficiently proved to prevent the cardiovascular complication of obesity on a large scale. In this review we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying inflammation and vascular damage in obese patients.

  13. [Obesity: stigmatization, discrimination, body image].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is a heterogeneous condition with multifactorial genesis (genetic predisposition, life-style, psychosocial situation), but there is a relatively homogeneous negative stereotype of obese individuals, because overweight and obesity are seen as self-inflicted disorders caused by physical inactivity and disorderd eating behavior. Obese individuals are confronted with far-reaching stigmatization and discrimination. Typical stereotypes are laziness, unattractiveness, work refusal. This negative image by the environment contributes to negative self-awareness and self-stigmatization, accompanied by a poor self-esteem and feelings of poor self-control and reduced self-efficacy, resulting in poor constructive coping strategies for overweight reduction. In addition, a disturbed body image combined with deep dissatisfaction with their own body is often found in many obese individuals. There is not always a close connection between body weight and body dissatisfaction. Young women and individuals with a binge eating disorder often show an increased body dissatisfaction as well.

  14. The Genetics of Pediatric Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chesi, Alessandra; Grant, Struan F. A.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity among children and adults has notably escalated over recent decades and represents a global major health problem. We now know that both genetics and environmental factors contribute to its complex etiology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed compelling genetic signals influencing obesity risk in adults. Recent reports for childhood obesity revealed that many adult loci also play a role in the pediatric setting. Childhood GWAS have uncovered novel loci below the detection range in adult studies, suggesting that obesity genes may be more easily uncovered in the pediatric setting. Shedding light on the genetic architecture of childhood obesity will facilitate prevention and treatment of pediatric cases and will have fundamental implications for diseases that present later in life. PMID:26439977

  15. Maternal obesity and prenatal programming.

    PubMed

    Elshenawy, Summer; Simmons, Rebecca

    2016-11-05

    Obesity is a significant and increasing public health concern in the United States and worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological evidence clearly shows that genetic and environmental factors contribute to the increased susceptibility of humans to obesity and its associated comorbidities; the interplay of these factors is explained by the concept of epigenetics. The impact of maternal obesity goes beyond the newborn period; fetal programming during the critical window of pregnancy, can have long term detrimental effects on the offspring as well as future generations. Emerging evidence is uncovering a link between the clinical and molecular findings in the offspring with epigenetic changes in the setting of maternal obesity. Research targeted towards reducing the transgenerational propagation and developmental programming of obesity is vital in reducing the increasing rates of disease.

  16. Endoprosthesis and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Grubor, Predrag; Manojlovic, Slavko; Manojlovic, Nemanja; Grubor, Milan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity represents a significant risk factor in the pathophysiology of degenerative changes in coxarthrosis. Objective: The study aims to investigate obesity as a risk factor in the examined sample comprising 136 patients who underwent hip endoprothesis implantation. Material and methods: The series comprised 136 patients with a hip endoprosthesis implanted, where the patients’ BMI, amount of blood used, duration of surgery, number of assistants, and type of anaesthesia were observed. Wounds and late post-operative complications, infections, haemorrhage, vein thrombosis, endoprosthesis dislocations, length of inpatient stay, start of physical therapy and full weight-bearing were also observed. The observation period lasted six months on average. Discussion: In simple terms, the three greatest factors when implanting a hip endoprosthesis are as follows: properties of the endoprosthesis, the orthopaedic surgeon’s skill and experience, and individual characteristics of the patient, i.e. age, sex, health condition, body weight, BMI, adequate physical therapy. Conclusion: We believe that the implantation of a hip endoprosthesis should be postponed for patients with a BMI exceeding 29.99. Such patients should receive endocrine treatment, they should undergo a weight loss programme in order to reduce their body weight and in order to reduce their BMI to under 29.99. PMID:25568519

  17. Val1483Ile in FASN gene is linked to central obesity and insulin sensitivity in adult white men.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Navarrete, José M; Botas, Patricia; Valdés, Sergio; Ortega, Francisco J; Delgado, Elías; Vázquez-Martín, Alejandro; Bassols, Judit; Pardo, Gerard; Ricart, Wifredo; Menéndez, Javier A; Fernández-Real, José M

    2009-09-01

    The Val1483Ile polymorphism in the human fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene is located within the interdomain region of the FASN close to the two dynamic active centers of the FASN enzyme and putatively affects FASN action. We aimed to evaluate the association of this polymorphism with obesity phenotypes, insulin sensitivity, and adipose tissue FASN activity in adult white subjects. The polymorphism was evaluated in association with metabolic variables in two independent studies: in a case-control study of 457 men (229 with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 228 with altered glucose tolerance (AGT)); and in 600 population-based NGT subjects (274 men and 326 women). Adipose tissue FASN activity was analyzed using the method of Nepokroeff. The Ile variant was associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and a lower increase in weight over a 7-year period in NGT men. In a subset of 147 men, carriers of the Ile variant showed significantly increased insulin sensitivity. BMI (P < 0.001), WHR (P = 0.03), and Val1483Ile (P = 0.03), contributed independently to 37% of insulin sensitivity variance. In men from the population-based study, the Ile variant was associated with a lower BMI, WHR, fasting glucose, and systolic blood pressure compared with carriers of the Val variant. In agreement with these results, the adipose tissue FASN activity was significantly lower in subjects with the Ile variant (P = 0.01). In summary, adult white men with the Ile 1483 variant of the FASN gene seem protected from developing central obesity through decreased adipose tissue FASN activity.

  18. Obesity: Current and potential pharmacotherapeutics and targets.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed.

  19. Relationship of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle with obesity and obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses.

    PubMed

    Banse, Heidi E; Frank, Nicholas; Kwong, Grace P S; McFarlane, Dianne

    2015-10-01

    In horses, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (insulin dysregulation) are associated with the development of laminitis. Although obesity is associated with insulin dysregulation, the mechanism of obesity-associated insulin dysregulation remains to be established. We hypothesized that oxidative stress in skeletal muscle is associated with obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses. Thirty-five light breed horses with body condition scores (BCS) of 3/9 to 9/9 were studied, including 7 obese, normoinsulinemic (BCS ≥ 7, resting serum insulin < 30 μIU/mL) and 6 obese, hyperinsulinemic (resting serum insulin ≥ 30 μIU/mL) horses. Markers of oxidative stress (oxidative damage, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant capacity) were evaluated in skeletal muscle biopsies. A Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between markers of oxidative stress and BCS. Furthermore, to assess the role of oxidative stress in obesity-related hyperinsulinemia, markers of antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage were compared among lean, normoinsulinemic (L-NI); obese, normoinsulinemic (O-NI); and obese, hyperinsulinemic (O-HI) horses. Increasing BCS was associated with an increase in gene expression of a mitochondrial protein responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis (estrogen-related receptor alpha, ERRα) and with increased antioxidant enzyme total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD) activity. When groups (L-NI, O-NI, and O-HI) were compared, TotSOD activity was increased and protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative damage, decreased in the O-HI compared to the L-NI horses. These findings suggest that a protective antioxidant response occurred in the muscle of obese animals and that obesity-associated oxidative damage in skeletal muscle is not central to the pathogenesis of equine hyperinsulinemia.

  20. Relationship of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle with obesity and obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses

    PubMed Central

    Banse, Heidi E.; Frank, Nicholas; Kwong, Grace P.S.; McFarlane, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    In horses, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance (insulin dysregulation) are associated with the development of laminitis. Although obesity is associated with insulin dysregulation, the mechanism of obesity-associated insulin dysregulation remains to be established. We hypothesized that oxidative stress in skeletal muscle is associated with obesity-associated hyperinsulinemia in horses. Thirty-five light breed horses with body condition scores (BCS) of 3/9 to 9/9 were studied, including 7 obese, normoinsulinemic (BCS ≥ 7, resting serum insulin < 30 μIU/mL) and 6 obese, hyperinsulinemic (resting serum insulin ≥ 30 μIU/mL) horses. Markers of oxidative stress (oxidative damage, mitochondrial function, and antioxidant capacity) were evaluated in skeletal muscle biopsies. A Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between markers of oxidative stress and BCS. Furthermore, to assess the role of oxidative stress in obesity-related hyperinsulinemia, markers of antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage were compared among lean, normoinsulinemic (L-NI); obese, normoinsulinemic (O-NI); and obese, hyperinsulinemic (O-HI) horses. Increasing BCS was associated with an increase in gene expression of a mitochondrial protein responsible for mitochondrial biogenesis (estrogen-related receptor alpha, ERRα) and with increased antioxidant enzyme total superoxide dismutase (TotSOD) activity. When groups (L-NI, O-NI, and O-HI) were compared, TotSOD activity was increased and protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative damage, decreased in the O-HI compared to the L-NI horses. These findings suggest that a protective antioxidant response occurred in the muscle of obese animals and that obesity-associated oxidative damage in skeletal muscle is not central to the pathogenesis of equine hyperinsulinemia. PMID:26424915

  1. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klimentidis, Yann C.; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10−5 in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors. PMID:27313598

  2. The association between obesity factor and esophageal caner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Zhuang, Hengguo; Liu, Yanhui

    2012-09-01

    Accumulating epidemiological studies have supported the link between increased body mass index, central obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma. This association appears stronger than that for other types of obesity-related cancers. Central obesity or visceral fat, more often observed in men, is much more strongly associated with adenocarcinoma than body mass index alone, possibly contributing to the imbalance of disease occurrence between the sexes. Potential mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma have been recently identified, including the insulin-like growth factor pathway, adipokines and sex hormone disturbances. These findings are summarized in this review; however, more research is warranted before these mechanisms are conclusively established.

  3. Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprio, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    With American children on course to grow into the most obese generation of adults in history, Sonia Caprio argues that it is critical to develop more effective strategies for preventing childhood obesity and treating serious obesity-related health complications. She notes that although pediatricians are concerned about the obesity problem, most…

  4. Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Soren; Guo, ZengKui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obesity phenotypes, taken together with healthy, lean women (n = 12) and men (n = 12), were studied. Systemic, splanchnic, and leg FFA kinetics were measured. The results showed that plasma FFA concentrations were approximately 20% greater in obese men and obese women. The contribution of splanchnic lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery ranged from less than 10% to almost 50% and increased as a function of visceral fat in women (r = 0.49, P = 0.002) and in men (r = 0.52, P = 0.002); the slope of the relationship was greater in women than in men (P < 0.05). Leg and splanchnic tissues contributed a greater portion of systemic FFA release in obese men and women than in lean men and women. We conclude that the contribution of visceral adipose tissue lipolysis to hepatic FFA delivery increases with increasing visceral fat in humans and that this effect is greater in women than in men. PMID:15173884

  5. Deep Brain Stimulation for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Eric S; Zhang, Michael; Pendharkar, Arjun V; Azagury, Dan E; Bohon, Cara; Halpern, Casey H

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is now the third leading cause of preventable death in the US, accounting for 216,000 deaths annually and nearly 100 billion dollars in health care costs. Despite advancements in bariatric surgery, substantial weight regain and recurrence of the associated metabolic syndrome still occurs in almost 20-35% of patients over the long-term, necessitating the development of novel therapies. Our continually expanding knowledge of the neuroanatomic and neuropsychiatric underpinnings of obesity has led to increased interest in neuromodulation as a new treatment for obesity refractory to current medical, behavioral, and surgical therapies. Recent clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in chronic cluster headache, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of targeting the hypothalamus and reward circuitry of the brain with electrical stimulation, and thus provide the basis for a neuromodulatory approach to treatment-refractory obesity. In this study, we review the literature implicating these targets for DBS in the neural circuitry of obesity. We will also briefly review ethical considerations for such an intervention, and discuss genetic secondary-obesity syndromes that may also benefit from DBS. In short, we hope to provide the scientific foundation to justify trials of DBS for the treatment of obesity targeting these specific regions of the brain. PMID:26180683

  6. Maternal Obesity and Neck Circumference.

    PubMed

    Anglim, B; O'Higgins, A; Daly, N; Farren, M; Turner, M J

    2015-06-01

    Obese women are more likely to require general anaesthesia for an obstetric intervention than non-obese. Difficult tracheal intubation and oxygen desaturation is more common in pregnancy. Failed tracheal intubation has been associated with an increase in neck circumference (NC). We studied the relationship between maternal obesity and NC as pregnancy advanced in women attending a standard antenatal clinic. Of the 96 women recruited, 13.5% were obese. The mean NC was 36.8cm (SD 1.9) in the obese women compared with 31.5cm (SD 1.6) in women with a normal BMI (p < 0.001) at 18-22 weeks gestation. In the obese women it increased on average by 1.5cm by 36-40 weeks compared with an increase of 1.6 cm in women with a normal BMI. The antenatal measurement of NC is a simple, inexpensive tool that is potentially useful for screening obese women who may benefit from an antenatal anaesthetic assessment.

  7. Preclinical models for obesity research.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Perry; Mercer, Julian G; Morgan, Peter J

    2016-11-01

    A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene-environment interactions. Here, we review the traditional monogenic models of obesity, their contemporary optogenetic and chemogenetic successors, and the use of dietary manipulations and meal-feeding regimes to recapitulate the complexity of human obesity. We critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these different models to explore the underlying mechanisms, including the neural circuits that drive behaviours such as appetite control. We also discuss the use of these models for testing and screening anti-obesity drugs, beneficial bio-actives, and nutritional strategies, with the goal of ultimately translating these findings for the treatment of human obesity.

  8. Preclinical models for obesity research

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Perry; Morgan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene–environment interactions. Here, we review the traditional monogenic models of obesity, their contemporary optogenetic and chemogenetic successors, and the use of dietary manipulations and meal-feeding regimes to recapitulate the complexity of human obesity. We critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these different models to explore the underlying mechanisms, including the neural circuits that drive behaviours such as appetite control. We also discuss the use of these models for testing and screening anti-obesity drugs, beneficial bio-actives, and nutritional strategies, with the goal of ultimately translating these findings for the treatment of human obesity. PMID:27821603

  9. Prevalence of obesity in Malta

    PubMed Central

    Vassallo, J.; Calleja, N.; Camilleri, R.; Borg, A.; Bonnici, G.; Zhang, Y.; Pace, N.; Mamo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Obesity is a global epidemic with the Mediterranean island of Malta being no exception. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified Malta as one of the European countries with the highest obesity prevalence. Method A cross‐sectional study was conducted (2014–2016) under the auspices of the University of Malta. The prevalence of overweight‐obesity in Malta was calculated and then age stratified for comparisons with previous studies. Results The study identified 69.75% (95% CI: 68.32–71.18) of the Maltese population to be either overweight or obese. The men overweight/obese prevalence (76.28% 95% CI: 74.41–78.14) was statistically higher than that for women (63.06% 95% CI: 60.92–65.20) (p = 0.0001). Age stratification revealed that both genders had the highest overweight prevalence rates between 55 and 64 years (Men = 23.25% 95% CI: 20.43–26.33; Women = 24.68% 95% CI: 21.44–28.22). Men obesity prevalence rates were highest in the 35 to 44 years group (22.52% 95% CI: 19.65–25.68) while for women it was highest in the 55 to 64 years group (28.90%, 95% CI: 25.44–30.63). Conclusion Over a 35‐year period, an overall decrease in the normal and overweight BMI categories occurred with an increase in the prevalence of obesity. An exception was observed in the women, where the prevalence of normal BMI increased over this time period. Also, it appears that while the total population obesity prevalence increased (for 2016), a percentage of the women have shifted from an obese to an overweight status. PMID:28090352

  10. Obesity: genetic, molecular, and environmental aspects.

    PubMed

    Barness, Lewis A; Opitz, John M; Gilbert-Barness, Enid

    2007-12-15

    Obesity has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. Obese children tend to become obese adults. The dramatic rise in pediatric obesity closely parallels the rapid increase in the prevalence of adult obesity. As overweight children become adults they face the multitude of health problems associated with obesity at younger ages. The morbidity and mortality associated with obesity continue to increase. Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable death. Complications of obesity include cardiovascular risks, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance, acanthosis nigricans, hepatic steatosis, premature puberty, hypogonadism and polycystic ovary syndrome, obstructive sleep disorder, orthopedic complications, cholelithiasis and pseudotumor cerebri. Genetic and molecular and environmental factors play an important role in the assessment and management of obesity.

  11. Stable isotopes in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Dolnikowski, Gregory G; Marsh, Julian B; Das, Sai Krupa; Welty, Francine K

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is recognized as a major public health problem. Obesity is a multifactorial disease and is often associated with a wide range of comorbidities including hypertension, non-insulin dependent (Type II) diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, all of which contribute to morbidity and mortality. This review deals with stable isotope mass spectrometric methods and the application of stable isotopes to metabolic studies of obesity. Body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) can be measured by mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled water, and the metabolism of protein, lipid, and carbohydrate can be measured using appropriate labeled tracer molecules.

  12. An integrative view of obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation. Although informative studies have been performed with cultured adipocytes, an integrative approach to the regulation of abdominal adipose tissue involves feedback from autocrine and paracrine effectors secreted by adipocytes, the immune system, and blood flow through adipose tissue. Numerous adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines feed back to other bodily systems to regulate both energy balance and immune function. Studies of the interactions of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, as well as psychophysiological considerations of reward circuitry in the central nervous system, have shown a general adaptation to starvation that is opposed to those strategies being proposed for the prevention and treatment of obesity, ie, food restriction and increased physical activity. The obesogenic environment of highly palatable foods with hidden fats and sugars can promote metabolic syndrome and obesity, whereas fruit and vegetables with antiinflammatory phytochemicals can counteract metabolic syndrome. Therefore, a plant-based diet and the seamless integration of increased physical activity and social support to alter modern diets and lifestyles hold out the greatest hope for the solution of the obesity epidemic. Both public health and medical nutrition approaches can benefit from this integrative view of obesity. PMID:19923373

  13. Obesity, paternalism and fairness.

    PubMed

    Kniess, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so.

  14. [Nutrition--obesity].

    PubMed

    Giusti, V; Clarisse, M; Di Vetta, V

    2005-01-05

    The gastric pacemaker is a new obesity treatment, which pleases by its simplicity and obvious lack of complications on the nutritional level. Its long-term efficacy is however to be confirmed and the criterions of the patients' selection to be defined. The rimonabant is a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid CBI receptor, able to reduce the quantity of the total food intake, and especially the greasy one. The first results on the short term look promising. The multiplication of food pyramids is the consequence of the scientific knowledge development in the nutritional field. On this basis, new pyramids are adapted, depending on the therapeutic objectives (weight loss, cardiovascular risk) and allowing either quantity or quality food. The taking charge of patients in group and according to the therapeutic education criterions makes easy a relation between the medical team and patients and allows these latters a better awareness of their disease and its long term treatment.

  15. Predicting adult obesity from childhood obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, M; Llewellyn, A; Owen, C G; Woolacott, N

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the ability of simple measures of childhood obesity such as body mass index (BMI) to predict future obesity in adolescence and adulthood. Large cohort studies, which measured obesity both in childhood and in later adolescence or adulthood, using any recognized measure of obesity were sought. Study quality was assessed. Studies were pooled using diagnostic meta-analysis methods. Fifteen prospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. BMI was the only measure of obesity reported in any study, with 200,777 participants followed up. Obese children and adolescents were around five times more likely to be obese in adulthood than those who were not obese. Around 55% of obese children go on to be obese in adolescence, around 80% of obese adolescents will still be obese in adulthood and around 70% will be obese over age 30. Therefore, action to reduce and prevent obesity in these adolescents is needed. However, 70% of obese adults were not obese in childhood or adolescence, so targeting obesity reduction solely at obese or overweight children needs to be considered carefully as this may not substantially reduce the overall burden of adult obesity.

  16. Childhood Obesity Associates Haemodynamic and Vascular Changes That Result in Increased Central Aortic Pressure with Augmented Incident and Reflected Wave Components, without Changes in Peripheral Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Juan M.; García-Espinosa, Victoria; Curcio, Santiago; Arana, Maite; Chiesa, Pedro; Giachetto, Gustavo; Zócalo, Yanina; Bia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The aims were to determine if childhood obesity is associated with increased central aortic blood pressure (BP) and to characterize haemodynamic and vascular changes associated with BP changes in obese children and adolescents by means of analyzing changes in cardiac output (stroke volume, SV), arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), peripheral vascular resistances (PVR), and net and relative contributions of reflected waves to the aortic pulse wave amplitude. We included 117 subjects (mean/range age: 10 (5–15) years, 49 females), who were obese (OB) or had normal weight (NW). Peripheral and central aortic BP, PWV, and pulse wave-derived parameters (augmentation index, amplitude of forward and backward components) were measured with tonometry (SphygmoCor) and oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph). With independence of the presence of dyslipidemia, hypertension, or sedentarism, the aortic systolic and pulse BP were higher in OB than in NW subjects. The increase in central BP could not be explained by the elevation in the relative contribution of reflections to the aortic pressure wave and higher PVR or by an augmented peripheral reflection coefficient. Instead, the rise in central BP could be explained by an increase in the amplitude of both incident and reflect wave components associated to augmented SV and/or PWV. PMID:26881081

  17. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  18. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    PubMed

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation.

  19. [The social stigma of obesity].

    PubMed

    De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José

    2014-01-01

    People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition.

  20. What Causes Overweight and Obesity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the endocrine system can cause overweight and obesity. Hypothyroidism . People with this condition have low levels of ... even when food intake is reduced. People with hypothyroidism also produce less body heat, have a lower ...

  1. The Gut Microbiome and Obesity.

    PubMed

    John, George Kunnackal; Mullin, Gerard E

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome consists of trillions of bacteria which play an important role in human metabolism. Animal and human studies have implicated distortion of the normal microbial balance in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Bacteria causing weight gain are thought to induce the expression of genes related to lipid and carbohydrate metabolism thereby leading to greater energy harvest from the diet. There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alteration in the proportion of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes leads to the development of obesity, but this has been recently challenged. It is likely that the influence of gut microbiome on obesity is much more complex than simply an imbalance in the proportion of these phyla of bacteria. Modulation of the gut microbiome through diet, pre- and probiotics, antibiotics, surgery, and fecal transplantation has the potential to majorly impact the obesity epidemic.

  2. Pharmacotherapies for Overeating and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Yarnell, S; Oscar-Berman, M; Avena, NM; Blum, K; Gold, MS

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become pandemic, and the annual cost in related illnesses and loss of productivity is already over $100 billion and rising. Research has shown that obesity can and does cause changes in behavior and in the brain itself that are very similar to changes caused by drugs of abuse. While food addiction is not the causal agent of all obesity, it is clear that many people no longer eat to survive, but instead survive to eat. This review considers the importance of the brain’s reward system in food intake. The review also examines research developments and current treatments for obesity, including diet and exercise, psychotherapy, surgical interventions, and pharmacotherapies. Finally we discuss alterations in American society that are necessary for change to occur, and the diffculties therein. PMID:23826512

  3. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  4. Recurrent pregnancy loss and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sugiura-Ogasawara, Mayumi

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) was defined as two or more miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, and parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocation and abnormal embryonic karyotype, are identifiable causes of RPL. Obesity may increase the risk of sporadic miscarriage in pregnancies conceived spontaneously. Obesity with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2 is an independent risk factor for further miscarriage with odds ratio 1.7-3.5 in patients with early RPL. Obesity is associated with euploid miscarriage. Unexplained RPL with euploid embryo might be a common disease caused by both polymorphisms of multiple susceptibility genes and lifestyle factors such as women's age, obesity, and smoking. Patients with a history of RPL were found to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, celiac disease, gastric ulcer, gastritis, and atopic dermatitis. No study has examined the effect of weight loss on the prevention of further miscarriage in patients with RPL.

  5. Pharmacogenetics of obesity drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Guzman, A K; Ding, M; Xie, Y; Martin, K A

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence and severity of obesity and its complications have risen significantly in worldwide populations, behavioral interventions alone have been inconsistent in promoting sufficient, sustained weight loss. Consequently, there has been intense interest in the development of anti-obesity medications as treatment strategies. When coupled with structured lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy can enhance weight loss. While less efficacious than bariatric surgery, drug therapy may be an alternative to surgery for some obese patients, and is an emerging strategy for weight maintenance. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to help identify patients who will benefit most from drug therapies while minimizing the risk of adverse effects. In this review, we summarize the pharmacogenetic literature on obesity drugs of the past (sibutramine, rimonabant), present (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, topiramate), and future (buprioprion/naltrexone).

  6. Obesity in the ageing man.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, K; Goulis, D G; Vazaiou, A; Mintziori, G; Polymeris, A; Abrahamian-Michalakis, A

    2013-10-01

    As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men.

  7. Overweight and Obesity (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Portions Under Control Metabolic Syndrome Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) Encouraging a Healthy Body Image Healthy Drinks for ... BMI) About Overweight and Obesity Who Can Get Weight Loss Surgery? Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  8. The neuropathology of obesity: insights from human disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edward B; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a pathologic state defined by excess adipose tissue, is a significant public health problem as it affects a large proportion of individuals and is linked with increased risk for numerous chronic diseases. Obesity is the result of fundamental changes associated with modern society including overnutrition and sedentary lifestyles. Proper energy homeostasis is dependent on normal brain function as the master metabolic regulator, which integrates peripheral signals, modulates autonomic outflow and controls feeding behavior. Therefore, many human brain diseases are associated with obesity. This review explores the neuropathology of obesity by examining brain diseases which either cause or are influenced by obesity. First, several genetic and acquired brain diseases are discussed as a means to understand the central regulation of peripheral metabolism. These diseases range from monogenetic causes of obesity (leptin deficiency, MC4R deficiency, Bardet-Biedl syndrome and others) to complex neurodevelopmental disorders (Prader-Willi syndrome and Sim1 deficiency) and neurodegenerative conditions (frontotemporal dementia and Gourmand's syndrome) and serve to highlight the central regulatory mechanisms which have evolved to maintain energy homeostasis. Next, to examine the effect of obesity on the brain, chronic neuropathologic conditions (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease) are discussed as examples of obesity leading to maladaptive processes which exacerbate chronic disease. Thus, obesity is associated with multiple pathways including abnormal metabolism, altered hormonal signaling and increased inflammation which act in concert to promote downstream neuropathology. Finally, the effect of anti-obesity interventions is discussed in terms of brain structure and function. Together, understanding human diseases and anti-obesity interventions leads to insights into the bidirectional interaction between peripheral metabolism and central brain function

  9. The Neuropathology of Obesity: Insights from Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward B.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity, a pathologic state defined by excess adipose tissue, is a significant public health problem as it affects a large proportion of individuals and is linked with increased risk for numerous chronic diseases. Obesity is the result of fundamental changes associated with modern society including overnutrition and sedentary lifestyles. Proper energy homeostasis is dependent on normal brain function as the master metabolic regulator which integrates peripheral signals, modulates autonomic outflow and controls feeding behavior. Therefore, many human brain diseases are associated with obesity. This review explores the neuropathology of obesity by examining brain diseases which either cause or are influenced by obesity. First, several genetic and acquired brain diseases are discussed as a means to understand the central regulation of peripheral metabolism. These diseases range from monogenetic causes of obesity (leptin deficiency, MC4R deficiency, Bardet-Biedl syndrome and others) to complex neurodevelopmental disorders (Prader-Willi syndrome and Sim1 deficiency) and neurodegenerative conditions (frontotemporal dementia and Gourmand’s syndrome) and serve to highlight the central regulatory mechanisms which have evolved to maintain energy homeostasis. Next, to examine the effect of obesity on the brain, chronic neuropathologic conditions (epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease) are discussed as examples of obesity leading to maladaptive processes which exacerbate chronic disease. Thus obesity is associated with multiple pathways including abnormal metabolism, altered hormonal signaling and increased inflammation which act in concert to promote downstream neuropathology. Finally, the effect of anti-obesity interventions is discussed in terms of brain structure and function. Together, understanding human diseases and anti-obesity interventions leads to insights into the bidirectional interaction between peripheral metabolism and central brain function

  10. Are Pediatricians Diagnosing Obese Children?

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Katharine; Urrego, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder in American children. The detrimental social, psychological, and physiological effects of obesity call for pediatricians to address this health concern. The literature demonstrates that clinicians are underreporting the diagnosis of obesity in the pediatric setting. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if pediatricians at one pediatrics clinic in the Ochsner Health System are documenting the presence of an overweight or obese body mass index (BMI) as a diagnosis in the medical record. A secondary purpose of this study was to determine the demographics of all pediatric patients in the Ochsner Health System to be used for program development. Methods: A retrospective medical record review was conducted. Records from April 1, 2012 to April 1, 2016, were reviewed for the presence of the diagnosis of BMI classified as obese or overweight. Results: We analyzed a total of 175,066 records in this study. Of these records, 1.32% documented a diagnosis of obesity, and 0.5% documented a BMI score indicating overweight. The percentages of patient visits that met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria to be classified as obese or overweight were 28.66% and 30.41%, respectively. The majority of our pediatric patients were male (51.76%), white (43.31%), and 5-12 years old (43.80%). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that pediatricians at Ochsner Health Center for Children are not diagnosing patients who have unhealthy BMI scores as overweight or obese. Interventions are needed to increase the identification of children who may benefit from receiving resources that encourage a healthy lifestyle and optimal weight maintenance. PMID:28331453

  11. Obesity pharmacotherapy: What is next?

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Valentino, Michael A.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in obesity in the Unites States and around the world in the last decade is overwhelming. The number of overweight adults in the world surpassed 1 billion in 2008. Health hazards associated with obesity are serious and include heart disease, sleep apnea, diabetes, and cancer. Although lifestyle modifications are the most straightforward way to control weight, a large portion of the population may not be able to rely on this modality alone. Thus, the development of anti-obesity therapeutics represents a major unmet medical need. Historically, anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been unsafe and minimally efficacious. A better understanding of the biology of appetite and metabolism provides an opportunity to develop drugs that may offer safer and more effective alternatives for weight management. This review discusses drugs that are currently on the market and in development as anti-obesity therapeutics based on their target and mechanism of action. It should serve as a roadmap to establish expectations for the near future for anti-obesity drug development. PMID:23103610

  12. Determinants and Consequences of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Adela; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qi, Lu; Malik, Vasanti S.; Rimm, Eric B.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS and NHS II) in addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for and consequences of obesity. Methods. Narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Long-term NHS research has shown that weight gain and being overweight or obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancers, and premature death. The cohorts have elucidated the role of dietary and lifestyle factors in obesity, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, poor diet quality, physical inactivity, prolonged screen time, short sleep duration or shift work, and built environment characteristics. Genome-wide association and gene–lifestyle interaction studies have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to obesity but that such susceptibility can be attenuated by healthy lifestyle choices. This research has contributed to evolving clinical and public health guidelines on the importance of limiting weight gain through healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have contributed to our understanding of the risk factors for and consequences of obesity and made a lasting impact on clinical and public health guidelines on obesity prevention. PMID:27459460

  13. [Obesity - principles of surgical therapy].

    PubMed

    Weiner, R A

    2008-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity and the number of surgeries for morbid obesity are increasing worldwide. Conservative therapy is largely ineffective in producing maintenance of weight loss in morbidly obese patients, and surgery is therefore increasingly considered as the only available option for these patients. Until approximately 15 years ago, many patients and physicians regarded bariatric surgery as dangerous because it required a large laparotomy and was associated with a relatively high risk of complications. Since laparoscopic techniques have become available, however, the number of patients referred for surgery has been increasing steadily. The principles of standard procedures are independent of access, whether open or laparoscopic. The pathophysiologic mechanisms are restriction, malabsorption, or a combination of both. New findings in the field of endocrine and humoral regulations have shown that surgical procedures can induce complex changes in the regulation of enterohormones. These mechanisms are the basis for metabolic effects, especially in cases of diabetes mellitus type 2. Obesity surgery is known to be the most effective and longest-lasting treatment for morbid obesity and many related conditions, but mounting evidence now suggests that it may also be among the most effective treatments for metabolic diseases and conditions such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Surgery for severe obesity goes far beyond weight loss; benefits include improved quality of life and extended life expectancy.

  14. Does Metabolically Healthy Obesity Exist?

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Cornejo-Pareja, Isabel; Tinahones, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and other metabolic diseases have been deeply studied. However, there are clinical inconsistencies, exceptions to the paradigm of “more fat means more metabolic disease”, and the subjects in this condition are referred to as metabolically healthy obese (MHO).They have long-standing obesity and morbid obesity but can be considered healthy despite their high degree of obesity. We describe the variable definitions of MHO, the underlying mechanisms that can explain the existence of this phenotype caused by greater adipose tissue inflammation or the different capacity for adipose tissue expansion and functionality apart from other unknown mechanisms. We analyze whether these subjects improve after an intervention (traditional lifestyle recommendations or bariatric surgery) or if they stay healthy as the years pass. MHO is common among the obese population and constitutes a unique subset of characteristics that reduce metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors despite the presence of excessive fat mass. The protective factors that grant a healthier profile to individuals with MHO are being elucidated. PMID:27258304

  15. Obesity and stroke: Can we translate from rodents to patients?

    PubMed

    Haley, Michael J; Lawrence, Catherine B

    2016-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and is consequently one of the most common co-morbidities found in patients. There is therefore an identified need to model co-morbidities preclinically to allow better translation from bench to bedside. In preclinical studies, both diet-induced and genetically obese rodents have worse stroke outcome, characterised by increased ischaemic damage and an altered inflammatory response. However, clinical studies have reported an 'obesity paradox' in stroke, characterised by reduced mortality and morbidity in obese patients. We discuss the potential reasons why the preclinical and clinical studies may not agree, and review the mechanisms identified in preclinical studies through which obesity may affects stroke outcome. We suggest inflammation plays a central role in this relationship, as obesity features increases in inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, and chronic inflammation has been linked to worse stroke risk and outcome.

  16. Obesity and stroke: Can we translate from rodents to patients?

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for stroke and is consequently one of the most common co-morbidities found in patients. There is therefore an identified need to model co-morbidities preclinically to allow better translation from bench to bedside. In preclinical studies, both diet-induced and genetically obese rodents have worse stroke outcome, characterised by increased ischaemic damage and an altered inflammatory response. However, clinical studies have reported an ‘obesity paradox’ in stroke, characterised by reduced mortality and morbidity in obese patients. We discuss the potential reasons why the preclinical and clinical studies may not agree, and review the mechanisms identified in preclinical studies through which obesity may affects stroke outcome. We suggest inflammation plays a central role in this relationship, as obesity features increases in inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, and chronic inflammation has been linked to worse stroke risk and outcome. PMID:27655337

  17. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped that this will be remedied in the final report through the adoption of a child-centered approach inspired by the rights to health and play, and the general principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). PMID:27781014

  18. Mechanism linking diabetes mellitus and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Goblan, Abdullah S; Al-Alfi, Mohammed A; Khan, Muhammad Z

    2014-01-01

    Body mass index has a strong relationship to diabetes and insulin resistance. In obese individuals, the amount of nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, hormones, cytokines, proinflammatory markers, and other substances that are involved in the development of insulin resistance, is increased. The pathogenesis in the development of diabetes is based on the fact that the β-islet cells of the pancreas are impaired, causing a lack of control of blood glucose. The development of diabetes becomes more inevitable if the failure of β-islet cells of the pancreas is accompanied by insulin resistance. Weight gain and body mass are central to the formation and rising incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This literature review will demonstrate the facts that link obesity with insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. In conclusion, new approaches in managing and preventing diabetes in obese individuals must be studied and investigated based on the facts. PMID:25506234

  19. Dyshomeostasis, obesity, addiction and chronic stress

    PubMed Central

    Marks, David F

    2016-01-01

    When eating control is overridden by hedonic reward, a condition of obesity dyshomeostasis occurs. Appetitive hedonic reward is a natural response to an obesogenic environment containing endemic stress and easily accessible and palatable high-energy foods and beverages. Obesity dyshomeostasis is mediated by the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. The ghrelin axis provides the perfect signalling system for feeding dyshomeostasis, affect control and hedonic reward. Dyshomeostasis plays a central role in obesity causation, the addictions and chronic conditions and in persons with diverse bodies. Prevention and treatment efforts that target sources of dyshomeostasis provide ways of reducing adiposity, ameliorating the health impacts of addiction and raising the quality of life in people suffering from chronic stress. PMID:28070396

  20. Cannabinoids in eating disorders and obesity.

    PubMed

    Arias Horcajadas, Francisco

    2007-08-01

    Cannabinoid system is a crucial mechanism in regulating food intake and energy metabolism. It is involved in central and peripheral mechanisms regulating such behavior, interacting with many other signaling systems with a role in metabolic regulation. Cannabinoid agonists promote food intake, and soon a cannabinoid antagonist, rimonabant, will be marketed for the treatment of obesity. It not only causes weight loss, but also alleviates metabolic syndrome. We present a review of current knowledge on this subject, along with data from our own research: genetic studies on this system in eating disorders and obesity and studies locating cannabinoid receptors in areas related to food intake. Such studies suggest cannabinoid hyperactivity in obesity, and this excessive activity may have prognostic implications.

  1. Maternal obesity is associated with a lipotoxic placental environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maternal obesity is associated with placental lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation, where MAPK activity may play a central role. Accordingly, we have previously shown that placenta from obese women have increased activation of MAPK-JNK. Here, we performed RNA-sequencing on term placenta ...

  2. "Obesity" and "Clinical Obesity" Men's understandings of obesity and its relation to the risk of diabetes: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Nicola F; Hayes, Louise; Unwin, Nigel C; Murtagh, Madeleine J

    2008-01-01

    Background The 2007 Wanless report highlights the ever increasing problem of obesity and the consequent health problems. Obesity is a significant cause of diabetes. An increasing evidence base suggests that in terms of reducing diabetes and CVD risk, it is better to be "fit and fat" than unfit and of normal weight. There has been very little previous research into the understandings that men in the general population hold about the issues of weight, exercise and health; we therefore undertook this study in order to inform the process of health promotion and diabetes prevention in this group. Methods A qualitative study in North East England General Practice using a purposive sample of men aged 25 and 45 years (selection process designed to include 'normal', 'overweight' and 'obese' men). One to one audio-recorded semi structured interviews focused on: overweight and obesity, diet, physical activity and diabetes. Transcripts were initially analysed using framework analysis. Emerging themes interlinked. Results The men in this study (n = 17) understand the word obesity differently from the clinical definition; "obesity" was used as a description of those with fat in a central distribution, and understandings of the term commonly take into account fitness as well as weight. Men in their late 30s and early 40s described becoming more aware of health issues. Knowledge of what constitutes a 'healthy lifestyle' was generally good, but men described difficulty acting upon this knowledge for various reasons e.g. increasing responsibilities at home and at work. Knowledge of diabetes and the link between obesity and diabetes was poor. Conclusion Men in this study had a complex understanding of the interlinked importance of weight and fitness in relation to health. Obesity is understood as a description of people with centrally distributed fat, in association with low fitness levels. There is a need to increase understanding of the causes and consequences of diabetes

  3. Obesity and kidney disease: Beyond the hyperfiltration.

    PubMed

    Mascali, A; Franzese, O; Nisticò, S; Campia, U; Lauro, D; Cardillo, C; Di Daniele, N; Tesauro, M

    2016-09-01

    In industrialized countries, overweight and obesity account for approximately 13.8% and 24.9% of the kidney disease observed in men and women, respectively. Moreover, obesity-associated glomerulopathy is now considered as "an emerging epidemic." Kidney function can be negatively impacted by obesity through several mechanisms, either direct or indirect. While it is well established that obesity represents the leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, awareness that obesity is associated with direct kidney damage independently of hypertension and diabetes is still not widespread. In this paper we will discuss the emerging role of adipose tissue, particularly in the visceral depot, in obesity-induced chronic kidney damage.

  4. [Obesity and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Tron'ko, N D; Zak, K P

    2013-12-01

    New literature data and the results of own researches concerning the role of excessive body weight and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in humans are presented in the analytical review. Inaccordance with current insights, obesity and type 2 diabetes are considered diseases of inflammatory nature, characterized by systemic chronic low-grade inflammation, where different kinds of cytokines are cardinally involved. Unfavourable life style, i.e. excessive, high-energy, and irrational nutrition--an excessive consumption of animal fats and foods containing the high amount of glucose and starch with an insufficient use of high fiber vegetables, fish and vitamin D, and also sedentary, inactive life style leads to adipocyte hypertrophy and migration of M1 macrophages into the adipose tissue (AT). As a result, there is a low-grade inflammation accompanied by an increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), adipokines (leptin, resistin, visfatin etc.) and chemokines (CCL2, CCL5, CCL26 and CX3C). Under the influence of these cytokines, on the one hand, IR "is emerged", and on the other--there is apoptosis of the β-cells, that should be followed by the occurrence of clinically diagnosed type 2 diabetes. However, there is also the opposite system in humans, protecting the organism from the development of type 2 diabetes, and including an increase in the formation of M2 macrophages and the increased formation of secretion of antidiabetic cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, etc.) and adiponectin.

  5. [Dyslipidemia and obesity 2011. Similarities and differences].

    PubMed

    Ceska, R; Vrablík, M; Sucharda, P

    2011-03-01

    We shall open our overview of issues related to obesity and hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) or dyslipidemia with a notoriously known truth (that some are still reluctant to accept): HLP/DLP is not obesity. It is certainly not possible to put an equal sign between subcutaneous fat and the level of plasma lipids and lipoproteins. On the other hand, it is obvious that there is a number of connecting links between HLP/DLP and obesity. These associations on one side and differences on the other are the focus of this review paper. (1) HLP/DLP as well as obesity represent a group of high incidence metabolic diseases (gradually evolving from epidemic to pandemic) that affect several tens of percent of inhabitants. (2) Both HLP/DLP and obesity often occur concurrently, often as a result of unhealthy lifestyle. However, genetic factors are also been studies and it is possible that mutual predispositions for the development of both diseases will be identified. At present, it is only possible to conclude that obesity worsens lipid metabolism in genetically-determined HLP. (3) Both these metabolic diseases represent a risk factor for other pathologies, cardiovascular diseases are the most important common complication of both conditions (central type of obesity only). Concurrent presence of HDL/DLP and obesity is often linked to other diagnoses, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2T), hypertension, pro-coagulation or pro-inflammatory states; all as part of so called metabolic syndrome. (4) Patients with metabolic syndrome and, mainly, central obesity usually have typical dyslipidemia with reduced HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and sometimes hypertriglyceridaemia. Current treatment of HDL/DLP aims to first impact on the primary aim, i.e. LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), and than influence HDL-C. (5) It seems that the therapeutic efforts in HLP/DLP and obesity will go in the same direction. I will skip the trivial (and difficult to accept by patients) dietary changes. Pharmacotherapy, however

  6. Age-related consequences of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Megan M; Zaepfel, Alysia; Bjornstad, Petter; Nadeau, Kristen J

    2014-01-01

    The severity and frequency of childhood obesity has increased significantly over the past three to four decades. The health effects of increased body mass index as a child may significantly impact obese youth as they age. However, many of the long-term outcomes of childhood obesity have yet to be studied. This article examines the currently available longitudinal data evaluating the effects of childhood obesity on adult outcomes. Consequences of obesity include an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and its associated retinal and renal complications, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, asthma, orthopedic complications, psychiatric disease, and increased rates of cancer, among others. These disorders can start as early as childhood, and such early onset increases the likelihood of early morbidity and mortality. Being obese as a child also increases the likelihood of being obese as an adult, and obesity in adulthood also leads to obesity-related complications. This review outlines the evidence for childhood obesity as a predictor of adult obesity and obesity-related disorders, thereby emphasizing the importance of early intervention to prevent the onset of obesity in childhood.

  7. Antimicrobial Dose in Obese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kassab, Sawsan; Syed Sulaiman, Syed Azhar; Abdul Aziz, Noorizan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a chronic disease that has become one of major public health issue in Malaysia because of its association with other disease states including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Despite continuous efforts to educate the public about the health risks associated with obesity, prevalence of the disease continues to increase. Dosing of many medications are based on weight, limited data are available on how antimicrobial agents should be dosed in obesity. The aim of this case presentation is to discuss dose of antibiotic in obese patient. Case report: Patient: GMN, Malay, Female, 45 year old, 150kg, transferred from medical ward to ICU with problems of fever, orthopnea, sepsis secondary to nosocomial pneumonia. She was admitted to hospital a week ago for SOB on exertion, cyanosis, mildly dyspneic, somasthenia, bilateral ankle swelling. There was no fever, cough, chest pain, clubbing, flapping tremor. Her grand father has pre-morbid history of obesity, HPT, DM and asthma. She was non alcoholic, smoker, and not on diet control. The diagnosis Pickwickian syndrome was made. Patient was treated with IV Dopamine 11mcg/kg/min, IV Morphine 4mg/h. IV GTN 15mcg/min, IV Ca gluconate 10g/24h for 3/7, IV Zantac 50mg tds, IV Augmentin 1.2g tds, IV Lasix 40mg od, IV Plasil 10mg tds, S.c heparin 5000IU bd. patient become stable and moved to medical ward to continue her treatment. Discussion: The altered physiologic function seen in obese patients is a concern in patients receiving antimicrobial agents because therapeutic outcomes depend on achieving a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The therapeutic effect of any drug can be altered when any of the 4 pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolism, or elimination) are altered. Decreased blood flow rates and increased renal clearance in obese patients can affect drug distribution and elimination. Changes in serum protein levels can change the metabolism and distribution of drugs that are

  8. Migraine and Obesity: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Peterlin, B. Lee; Rapoport, Alan M.; Kurth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a dynamic neuroendocrine organ that is involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, and when excessive, results in obesity. Clinical and population-based data suggest that migraine and chronic daily headache are associated with obesity, as estimated by anthropometric indices. In addition, translational and basic science research shows multiple areas of overlap between migraine pathophysiology and the central and peripheral pathways regulating feeding. Specifically, neurotransmittors such as serotonin, peptides such as orexin, and adipocytokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been suggested to have roles in both feeding and migraine. In this article, we first review the definition and ascertainment of obesity. This is followed by a review of the clinical and population-based studies evaluating the associations between obesity and chronic daily headache and migraine. We then discuss the central and peripheral pathways involved in the regulation of feeding, where it overlaps with migraine pathophysiology, and where future research may be headed in light of these data. PMID:19845784

  9. The genetics of human obesity.

    PubMed

    Waalen, Jill

    2014-10-01

    The heritability of obesity has long been appreciated and the genetics of obesity has been the focus of intensive study for decades. Early studies elucidating genetic factors involved in rare monogenic and syndromic forms of extreme obesity focused attention on dysfunction of hypothalamic leptin-related pathways in the control of food intake as a major contributor. Subsequent genome-wide association studies of common genetic variants identified novel loci that are involved in more common forms of obesity across populations of diverse ethnicities and ages. The subsequent search for factors contributing to the heritability of obesity not explained by these 2 approaches ("missing heritability") has revealed additional rare variants, copy number variants, and epigenetic changes that contribute. Although clinical applications of these findings have been limited to date, the increasing understanding of the interplay of these genetic factors with environmental conditions, such as the increased availability of high calorie foods and decreased energy expenditure of sedentary lifestyles, promises to accelerate the translation of genetic findings into more successful preventive and therapeutic interventions.

  10. Low Back Pain and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahimi-Kaçuri, Dafina; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rrecaj, Shkurta; Martinaj, Merita; Haxhiu, Bekim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain poses a significant problem in clinics and public health. It presents one of the main problems with adults, since 70-80% of adults experience it at least once in their lifetime. Causes of the low back pain are numerous and often unknown. Objectives: The aim of the study is to find the most prevalent age group, pain localisation, and the frequency of physical therapy sessions in obese and non-obese subjects with LBP. Materials and Methods: The study has been conducted by the Physical Rehabilitation Service of the Occupational Medicine Institute, during one year period. The total number of patients studied was 101 and all were Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEC) employees. The study was retrospective. Results: Looking at the body weight index, out of 101 patients, 69.3% are classified as non-obese and 30.7% as obese. Using T-Test we have found a difference of high statistical significance between the average number of the physical therapy sessions applied in relation to the examined groups (T-Test=2.78, P=0.0065, so, P<0.01). Conclusion: Obesity and age have no direct influence in back pain, but they could prolong healing. Professional occupation and binding position are factors that affect back pain. Physical workload can cause the manifestation of sciatica; whereas psycho-social factors can prolong the overall healing process. PMID:26005262

  11. Kidney transplantation in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Minh-Ha; Foster, Clarence E; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Ichii, Hirohito

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that in 2014, over 600 million people met criteria for obesity. In 2011, over 30% of individuals undergoing kidney transplant had a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m2 or greater. A number of recent studies have confirmed the relationship between overweight/obesity and important comorbidities in kidney transplant patients. As with non-transplant surgeries, the rate of wound and soft tissue complications are increased following transplant as is the incidence of delayed graft function. These two issues appear to contribute to longer length of stay compared to normal BMI. New onset diabetes after transplant and cardiac outcomes also appear to be increased in the obese population. The impact of obesity on patient survival after kidney transplantation remains controversial, but appears to mirror the impact of extremes of BMI in non-transplant populations. Early experience with (open and laparoscopic) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy support excellent weight loss (in the range of 50%-60% excess weight lost at 1 year), but experts have recommended the need for further studies. Long term nutrient deficiencies remain a concern but in general, these procedures do not appear to adversely impact absorption of immunosuppressive medications. In this study, we review the literature to arrive at a better understanding of the risks related to renal transplantation among individuals with obesity. PMID:27011911

  12. Obesity, inflammation and the immune system.

    PubMed

    de Heredia, Fátima Pérez; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2012-05-01

    Obesity shares with most chronic diseases the presence of an inflammatory component, which accounts for the development of metabolic disease and other associated health alterations. This inflammatory state is reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, and it occurs not only in adults but also in adolescents and children. The chronic inflammatory response has its origin in the links existing between the adipose tissue and the immune system. Obesity, like other states of malnutrition, is known to impair the immune function, altering leucocyte counts as well as cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, evidence has arisen that an altered immune function contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. This review attempts to briefly comment on the various plausible explanations that have been proposed for the phenomenon: (1) the obesity-associated increase in the production of leptin (pro-inflammatory) and the reduction in adiponectin (anti-inflammatory) seem to affect the activation of immune cells; (2) NEFA can induce inflammation through various mechanisms (such as modulation of adipokine production or activation of Toll-like receptors); (3) nutrient excess and adipocyte expansion trigger endoplasmic reticulum stress; and (4) hypoxia occurring in hypertrophied adipose tissue stimulates the expression of inflammatory genes and activates immune cells. Interestingly, data suggest a greater impact of visceral adipose tissue and central obesity, rather than total body fat, on the inflammatory process. In summary, there is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.

  13. Maternal obesity impairs specific regulatory pathways in human myometrial arteries.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Christina E; Cowley, Elizabeth J; Mills, Tracey A; Sibley, Colin P; Wareing, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Obese women (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) are at greater risk than normal weight women of pregnancy complications associated with maternal and infant morbidity, particularly the development of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders in later life; why this occurs is unknown. Nonpregnant, obese individuals exhibit systemic vascular endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that obese pregnant women have altered myometrial arterial function compared to pregnant women of normal (18-24 kg/m(2)) and overweight (25-29 kg/m(2)) body mass index. Responses to vasoconstrictors, U46619 (thromboxane mimetic) and arginine vasopressin, and vasodilators, bradykinin and the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, were assessed by wire myography in myometrial arteries from normal weight (n = 18), overweight (n = 18), and obese (n = 20) women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Thromboxane-prostanoid receptor expression was assessed using immunostaining in myometrial arteries of normal weight and obese women. Vasoconstriction and vasodilatation were impaired in myometrial arteries from obese women with otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies. Disparate agonist responses suggest that vascular function in obese women is not globally dysregulated but may be specific to thromboxane and nitric oxide pathways. Because obesity rates are escalating, it is important to identify the mechanisms underlying impaired vascular function and establish why some obese women compensate for vascular dysfunction and some do not. Future studies are needed to determine whether central adiposity results in an altered endocrine milieu that may promote vascular dysfunction by altering the function of perivascular adipose tissue.

  14. There's Something about Obesity: Culture, Contagion, Rationality, and Children's Responses to Drinks "Created" by Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaczynski, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis…

  15. Defining overweight and obesity in children

    MedlinePlus

    ... body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means weighing too much. Obesity is becoming ... different age. To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children ...

  16. Behavioral management of the obese patient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite countless diets, exercise regimens, drugs, and behavior modification strategies, the prevalence of obesity continues its relentless increase in both developed and developing nations. Although many necessary components to treat obesity have been identified, behavior modification remains the b...

  17. Recent advancements in drug treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebeca; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Ray, Shuvra; Soeda, Junpei; Oben, Jude

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising worldwide, with the U.K. having the highest prevalence in Europe. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and has substantial healthcare implications, with current projections estimating that by 2030 obesity will cost the NHS approximately pounds 2 billion each year. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of anti-obesity treatment, but drugs can be introduced as adjuncts to assist and maintain weight loss. Some 1.45 million obesity-related prescriptions were dispensed in 2009, highlighting the high demand for obesity pharmacotherapy. At present, the lipase inhibitor orlistat (Xenical) is the only UK-approved long-term medical therapy for obesity. Double-blind clinical trials have shown that orlistat significantly increases weight loss compared to placebo, but the array of adverse side effects associated with orlistat limits its tolerability. The need for more effective and better-tolerated anti-obesity medications is clear and six therapies have reached phase-III trials.

  18. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 41MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines Language: English Español ( ... are more likely to be obese later in childhood and adolescence. In these older children and adolescents, ...

  19. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  20. Obesity May Not Compromise Knee Surgery Success

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164282.html Obesity May Not Compromise Knee Surgery Success Results similar ... over 35, so it's unclear if more severe obesity might increase the risk of meniscal repair failure, ...

  1. How Are Obesity and Overweight Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications How are obesity & overweight diagnosed? Skip sharing on social media links ... and Blood Institute. (2012). How are overweight and obesity diagnosed? Retrieved August 8, 2012, from http://www. ...

  2. Central obesity and insulin resistance in the cardiometabolic syndrome: pathways to preclinical cardiovascular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Johanna R; Hurwitz, Barry E; Llabre, Maria M; Skyler, Jay S; Goldberg, Ronald B; Marks, Jennifer B; Bilsker, Martin S; Schneiderman, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) has been an organizing conceptual framework for subclinical cardiovascular pathophysiology. Using cross-sectional data from 338 healthy men and women aged 18 to 55 years, the study examined the role of central adiposity and insulin sensitivity and assessed potential relationships with other metabolic indices (insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, fibrinolysis, lipidemia, endothelial function, and inflammation) and measures of cardiac structure and function (cardiac mass, compliance and contractility, myocardial oxygen demand, and blood pressure). Structural equation modeling analyses, which controlled for sex, age, and race, demonstrated good fit to the data. The derived relationships provided a physiologically consistent model of CMS, with an initiating role for central adiposity and insulin resistance. The model accounted for 30% and 82% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure and myocardial oxygen demand, respectively. The findings suggest predominant pathways through which subclinical metabolic processes may exert pathogenic impact on the heart and vasculature.

  3. Obesity. Part I--Pathogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, G A; Gray, D S

    1988-01-01

    Obesity--defined by a body mass index above 30 kg per m2--is a major problem for affluent nations. Its prevalence is higher in North America than in Europe--between 9% and 12% of the population. Reduced energy expenditure from exercise or metabolism or both may be an important contributory factor in the development of obesity because of a failure to reduce food intake sufficiently to maintain energy balance. A high ratio of abdominal circumference relative to gluteal circumference carries a twofold or greater risk of heart attack, stroke, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, and death. The effect of increased quantities of abdominal fat is greater than that of a similar increase in total body fat on the risks of ill health associated with obesity. Genetic factors appear to contribute about 25% to its etiology. Images PMID:3067447

  4. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; McAuley, Paul A; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2014-04-15

    Obesity has been increasing in epidemic proportions, with a disproportionately higher increase in morbid or class III obesity, and obesity adversely affects cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics, structure, and function, as well as increases the prevalence of most CV diseases. Progressive declines in physical activity over 5 decades have occurred and have primarily caused the obesity epidemic. Despite the potential adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent epidemiological data have demonstrated an association of mild obesity and, particularly, overweight on improved survival. We review in detail the obesity paradox in CV diseases where overweight and at least mildly obese patients with most CV diseases seem to have a better prognosis than do their leaner counterparts. The implications of cardiorespiratory fitness with prognosis are discussed, along with the joint impact of fitness and adiposity on the obesity paradox. Finally, in light of the obesity paradox, the potential value of purposeful weight loss and increased physical activity to affect levels of fitness is reviewed.

  5. [Association of obesity and depression].

    PubMed

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Purebl, György; Faludi, Gábor; Halmy, László

    2008-10-01

    It has been long known that the frequency of overweight and obese people is higher among depressed and bipolar patients than in the general population. The marked alteration of body weight (and appetite) is one of the most frequent of the 9 symptoms of major depressive episode, and these symptoms occur during recurrent episodes of depression with a remarkably high consequence. According to studies with representative adult population samples, in case of obesity (BMI over 30) unipolar or bipolar depression is significantly more frequently (20-45%) observable. Since in case of depressed patients appetite and body weight reduction is observable during the acute phase, the more frequent obesity in case of depressed patients is related (primarily) not only to depressive episodes, but rather to lifestyle factors, to diabetes mellitus also more frequently occurring in depressed patients, to comorbid bulimia, and probably to genetic-biological factors (as well as to pharmacotherapy in case of medicated patients). At the same time, according to certain studies, circadian symptoms of depression give rise to such metabolic processes in the body which eventually lead to obesity and insulin resistance. According to studies in unipolar and bipolar patients, 57-68% of patients is overweight or obese, and the rate of metabolic syndrome was found to be between 25-49% in bipolar patients. The rate of metabolic syndrome is further increased by pharmacotherapy. Low total and HDL cholesterol level increases the risk for depression and suicide and recent studies suggest that omega-3-fatty acids possess antidepressive efficacy. Certain lifestyle factors relevant to healthy metabolism (calorie reduction in food intake, regular exercise) may be protective factors related to depression as well. The depression- and possibly suicide-provoking effect of sibutramine and rimonabant used in the pharmacotherapy of obesity is one of the greatest recent challenges for professionals and patients

  6. Metabolically healthy obesity: origins and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When humans eat more and exercise less, they tend to become obese and unhealthy. The molecular pathways that link obesity to serious diseases like Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have become a subject of intensive scientific investigation because the exploding prevalence of obesity worldw...

  7. Adenovirus 36 and Obesity: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Ponterio, Eleonora; Gnessi, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    There is an epidemic of obesity starting about 1980 in both developed and undeveloped countries definitely associated with multiple etiologies. About 670 million people worldwide are obese. The incidence of obesity has increased in all age groups, including children. Obesity causes numerous diseases and the interaction between genetic, metabolic, social, cultural and environmental factors are possible cofactors for the development of obesity. Evidence emerging over the last 20 years supports the hypothesis that viral infections may be associated with obesity in animals and humans. The most widely studied infectious agent possibly linked to obesity is adenovirus 36 (Adv36). Adv36 causes obesity in animals. In humans, Adv36 associates with obesity both in adults and children and the prevalence of Adv36 increases in relation to the body mass index. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that the viral E4orf1 protein (early region 4 open reading frame 1, Adv) mediates the Adv36 effect including its adipogenic potential. The Adv36 infection should therefore be considered as a possible risk factor for obesity and could be a potential new therapeutic target in addition to an original way to understand the worldwide rise of the epidemic of obesity. Here, the data indicating a possible link between viral infection and obesity with a particular emphasis to the Adv36 will be reviewed. PMID:26184280

  8. Perspectives on Obesity: The Unknown Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.; Childs, Ronald E.

    1984-01-01

    This review focuses on a classification of the concept of obesity, childhood growth patterns, current diagnostic procedures, physiological and psychological implications, etiology, environmental influences, and the special needs of the obese child. Obesity is viewed as a medical condition requiring medical and educational interventions. (Author/RH)

  9. Psychological Theory Seeks to Define Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgard, Debby

    1993-01-01

    Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…

  10. Obesity and Poverty: A Growing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Dianne Yow; Queen, J. Allen; Schumacher, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This research study addresses the childhood obesity epidemic, which has seen the number of overweight children from the ages of 6 to 11 triple since the mid-1970s. The authors note that there are more than twice as many poor and obese adolescents compared with more affluent youths, and examine a number of factors linking obesity and poverty.…

  11. Might video games help remedy childhood obesity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...

  12. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  13. Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

  14. The Consequences of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the…

  15. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  16. Childhood obesity and the media.

    PubMed

    Hingle, Melanie; Kunkel, Dale

    2012-06-01

    This article assesses the role played by media in contributing to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. Electronic media use, often referred to as screen time, is significantly correlated with child adiposity. Although the causal mechanism that accounts for this relationship is unclear, it is well established that reducing screen time improves weight status. Media advertising for unhealthy foods contributes to obesity by influencing children's food preferences, requests, and diet. Industry efforts have failed to improve the nutritional quality of foods marketed on television to children, leading public health advocates to recommend government restrictions on child-targeted advertisements for unhealthy foods.

  17. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C; Højlund, K; Hatunic, M; Balkau, B; Nilsson, P M; Ferrannini, E

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions characterized by body size-dependent increase in stroke volume (SV) and blood pressure (BP). Subjects/Methods: Common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter (LD), IMT and CWS were measured in three different populations in order to study: (A) cross-sectional associations between SV, BP, anthropometric parameters and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24–159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). Results: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile was significantly higher (28±3 μm) as compared with those in the lower quartiles (8±3, 16±4 and 16±3 μm, P=0.001, P<0.05 and P=0.01, respectively). In addition, CCA CWS decreased during the observational period in the highest LD quartile (from 54.2±8.6 to 51.6±7.4 kPa, P<0.0001). As compared with gender- and age-matched lean individuals, obese subjects had highly increased CCA LD and BP (P<0.0001 for both), but only slightly higher CWS (P=0.05) due to a significant increase in IMT (P=0.005 after adjustment for confounders). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in obese subjects, the CCA wall thickens to compensate the luminal enlargement caused by body size-induced increase in SV, and therefore, to normalize the wall stress. CCA diameter in obesity could

  18. [Mechanisms of hypertension in obesity].

    PubMed

    López de Fez, C M; Gaztelu, M T; Rubio, T; Castaño, A

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, considered to be an important risk factor in the development of coronary disease, hypertension, renal insufficiency and failure. Obesity contributes to hypertension by mechanisms such as: insulinic resistance and hyperinsulinaemia, increase of adrenergic activity and of concentrations of aldosterone, retention of sodium and water and increase of cardiac wear, alteration of the endothelial function, through molecules such as leptin and adiponectin and genetic factors. Many paths of research remain open. The angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and/or the angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA II) are first choice medicines because of their beneficial effect on insulinic resistance and sympathetic activity.

  19. Obesity and the lung: 3 · Obesity, respiration and intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, A; Hillman, D

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major problem from a public health perspective and a difficult practical matter for intensivists. The obesity pandemic has required treating clinicians to develop an appreciation of the substantial pathophysiological effects of obesity on the various organ systems. The important physiological concepts are illustrated by focusing on obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, abdominal compartment syndrome and ventilatory management of the obese patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:18820119

  20. Postpartum Obesity: The Root Problem of Childhood Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keen, Valencia Browning; Potts, Claudia Sealey

    2011-01-01

    Remedying childhood obesity cannot take place without first identifying relevant issues commonly influencing gatekeepers of food for children as well as the role modeling for encouraging or discouraging daily activities. Children cannot drive to the store, form grocery lists or complete menu management tasks without adult assistance. Excessive…

  1. Obesity Metaphors: How Beliefs about the Causes of Obesity Affect Support for Public Policy

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; Brescoll, Victoria L; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies. Methods: This article used the Yale Rudd Center Public Opinion on Obesity Survey, a nationally representative web sample surveyed from the Knowledge Networks panel in 2006/07 (N = 1,009). The study examines how respondents' demographic and health characteristics, political attitudes, and agreement with seven obesity metaphors affect support for sixteen policies to reduce obesity rates. Findings: Including obesity metaphors in regression models helps explain public support for policies to curb obesity beyond levels attributable solely to demographic, health, and political characteristics. The metaphors that people use to understand rising obesity rates are strong predictors of support for public policy, and their influence varies across different types of policy interventions. Conclusions: Over the last five years, the United States has begun to grapple with the implications of dramatically escalating rates of obesity. Individuals use metaphors to better understand increasing rates of obesity, and obesity metaphors are independent and powerful predictors of support for public policies to curb obesity. Metaphorical reasoning also offers a potential framework for using strategic issue framing to shift support for obesity policies. PMID:19298414

  2. Muscle loss and obesity: the health implications of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity.

    PubMed

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Atkins, Janice L

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the health implications of obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity on CVD and mortality in older adults and discusses the obesity paradox seen in patients with CVD. Obesity is a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide. It is an established risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult populations. However, there is controversy surrounding the effects of obesity as measured by BMI in older people, and overweight and obesity (BMI ⩾ 25 kg/m2) are apparently associated with increased survival in those with CVD (obesity paradox). Ageing is associated with an increase in visceral fat and a progressive loss of muscle mass which have opposing effects on mortality. Thus BMI is not a good indicator of obesity in older adults. Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a major concern in ageing populations and has been associated with metabolic impairment, CVD risk factors, physical disability and mortality. Sarcopenia often coexists with obesity. Sarcopenic obesity is a new category of obesity in older adults who have high adiposity coupled with low muscle mass. To fully understand the effect of obesity on mortality in the elderly it is important to take muscle mass into account. The evidence suggests that sarcopenia with obesity may be associated with higher levels of metabolic disorders and an increased risk of mortality than obesity or sarcopenia alone. Efforts to promote healthy ageing should focus on both preventing obesity and maintaining or increasing muscle mass.

  3. Obesity, Fitness, and Brain Integrity in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Naima; Yau, Po Lai; Convit, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective We set out to ascertain the relationship between insulin resistance, fitness, and brain structure and function in adolescents. Design and Methods We studied 79 obese and 51 non-obese participants who were recruited from the community, all without type 2 diabetes mellitus. All participants received medical, endocrine, neuropsychological, and MRI evaluations as well as a 6-minute walk test that was used to estimate fitness (maximal oxygen consumption). Results Obese adolescents had significantly thinner orbitofrontal cortices and performed significantly worse on Visual Working Memory tasks and the Digit Vigilance task. Insulin sensitivity and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) were both highly correlated with central obesity and orbitofrontal cortical thickness, although insulin sensitivity was the stronger predictor for orbitofrontal cortical thickness. We also found that VO2 max was the only significant physiological variable related to visual working memory. Conclusions This is the first study to report positive associations between insulin resistance, VO2 max, and frontal lobe brain integrity in adolescents. Given the importance of brain health for learning and school performance, we conclude that schools should also emphasize physical fitness in order to maintain structural and functional brain integrity and facilitate academic achievement. PMID:25843937

  4. Drug treatment of obesity in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem worldwide and is associated with a number of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease. A number of different pathophysiologic mechanisms including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance have been associated with initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease in obese individuals. Lifestyle modifications have provided modest results in weight reduction and the focus of interest has now shifted towards drug development to treat severely obese individuals with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) or those with a BMI >27 kg/m(2) who have additional co-morbidities. Different regimens focusing on dietary absorption or acting centrally to control hunger and food intake have been developed. However, their weight loss effect is, in most cases, modest and this effect is lost once the medication is discontinued. In addition, long-term use of these drugs is limited by significant side effects and lack of long-term safety and efficacy data. Orlistat is the only US FDA-approved medication for long-term use. A number of new medications are currently under investigation in phase III trials with promising preliminary results. This review comments on available anti-obesity pharmacologic regimens, their weight-loss benefit, and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Central obesity and not age increases skeletal muscle lipids, without influencing lean body mass and strength.

    PubMed

    de la Maza, María Pía; Hirsch, Sandra; Jara, Natalia; Leiva, Laura; Barrera, Gladys; Silva, Claudio; Pañella, Loreto; Henríquez, Sandra; Bunout, Daniel

    2014-09-12

    Introducción/Objetivos: medir la infiltracion grasa en el musculo esqueletico, su asociacion con resistencia a la insulina (RI) y con masa y funcion muscular, en hombres chilenos de diferente edad y composicion corporal. Nuestra hipotesis era que habria mas acumulacion de grasa en el tejido muscular entre las personas de mayor edad y peso, lo cual deterioraria la sensibilidad a la insulina (SI) y afectaria negativamente la masa y la funcion muscular, ambas caracteristicas del proceso de envejecimiento. Métodos: se estudiaron hombres sanos (38 < 55 anos y 18 > 65 anos), que fueron sometidos a mediciones antropometricas, evaluacion de la composicion corporal mediante densitometria radiologica (DEXA), espectroscopia de resonancia nuclear magnetica en el musculo tibial anterior para medir lipidos intra (LIM) y extramiocelulares (LEM), fuerza de mano y cuadriceps, test de 12 minutos y bioquimica serica (glicemia, hemoglobina, lipoproteinas, creatinina y proteina C reactiva ultrasensible en ayunas, ademas de glucosa e insulina post carga de glucosa para evaluar SI). La actividad fisica se estimo mediante actigrafia. Resultados: 23 hombres eran eutroficos, 26 tenian sobrepeso y 7 eran obesos, todos eran sedentarios segun el registro actigrafico, independiente de la edad. Tanto LIM como LEM resultaron mas altos entre los hombres con sobrepeso / obesidad. La grasa abdominal se asocio negativamente con la SI y se correlaciono positivamente con la acumulacion de grasa en el musculo (tanto LIM como LEM), pero no con la edad. Como era de esperar, las personas mayores tenian menor masa magra y fuerza, pero no mas tejido adiposo ni lipidos intramiocelulares, aunque eran mas intolerantes a la glucosa. Conclusiones: La obesidad central se asocio con infiltracion de grasa intramuscular y con RI. Esta distribucion adiposa no se relaciono con edad ni con sarcopenia asociada al envejecimiento. Las personas mayores resultaron mas intolerantes a la glucosa, explicable por una

  6. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Danish Lean and Obese Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Maria; Ohrt, Johanne Dam; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Kloppenborg, Julie Tonsgaard; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid abnormalities are common in obese children. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and to determine how circulating thyroid hormone concentrations correlate with anthropometrics in Danish lean and obese children and adolescents. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 3006 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, from the Registry of the Danish Childhood Obesity Biobank. The overweight/obese group (n=1796) consisted of study participants with a body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) ≥1.28. The control group (n=1210) comprised lean children with a BMI SDS <1.28. All participants were characterized by anthropometrics (weight, height, and waist circumference) and fasting serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine (fT4) at baseline. Results: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese compared to lean study participants (10.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.0001). In the overweight/obese group, fasting serum TSH concentrations were associated positively with BMI SDS (p<0.0001) and waist-height ratio (WHtR) (p<0.0001) independent of age, sex, and pubertal developmental stage, whereas fasting serum fT4 concentrations were associated positively only with WHtR. The odds ratio of exhibiting SH was 1.8 when being overweight/obese compared with lean (p=0.0007) and 1.8 when presenting with a WHtR >0.5 (p=0.0003). Conclusion: The prevalence of SH was higher among overweight/obese study participants. The positive correlations of circulating TSH and fT4 with WHtR suggest that central obesity, independent of the overall degree of obesity, augments the risk of concurrent thyroid abnormalities in children and adolescents with obesity. PMID:27611730

  7. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21–24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16–18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Obesity in children is a major health concern of the developed world. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey has reported that the prevalence of obesity is on the increase in all the pediatric age groups, in males and females, and in various ethnic and racial groups. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism, and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and underexercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke, and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of convenience foods, genetic, and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules including leptin, hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptor

  8. Obesity, insulin resistance and breast cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity is associated with poor outcomes in early stage breast cancer. This paper addresses four current areas of focus: 1. Is obesity associated with poor outcomes in all biologic subtypes of breast cancer? 2. Does obesity effect AI efficacy or estrogen suppression in the adjuvant setting? 3. What are the potential biologic underpinnings of the obesity-breast cancer association? 4. Are intervention studies warranted? If so, which interventions in which populations? Research is needed to resolve these questions; intervention trials involving lifestyle interventions or targeting the biology postulated to link obesity and cancer are recommended.

  9. From fat fruitfly to human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Wanli W.; Thomas, Joseph; Liu, Jingnan; Li, Tianxia; Moran, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disease that has become a global problem. Although a tremendous amount of effort has been spent to prevent and treat obesity, its etiology is still largely unknown and there are not yet sufficient strategies to control obesity. Recently, the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a useful model for studying metabolic homeostasis and obesity related disorders. The goal of this mini-review is to summarize the recent achievements of Drosophila models and to highlight the experimental protocols used in studying feeding behavior and energy homeostasis in the fly. The Drosophila models provide useful tools to understand obesity pathogenesis and to develop novel therapeutics. PMID:24508822

  10. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women.

  11. Childhood Obesity: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Staveren, Tonia; Dale, Darren

    2004-01-01

    Schools and homes both play a role in contributing to the rising numbers of obese children. School teachers and administrators must do all they can to create a school environment that is conducive to children maintaining a healthy weight. Legislation designed to add quality physical education time to the school curriculum is imperative. Changes to…

  12. Childhood Obesity Demands New Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satter, Ellyn

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…

  13. Rimonabant, Gastrointestinal Motility and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Chen, Jiande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity and overweight affect more than half of the US population and are associated with a number of diseases. Rimonabant, a cannabinoid receptor 1 blocker in the endocannabinoid (EC) system, was indicated in Europe for the treatment of obesity and overweight patients with associated risk factors but withdrawn on Jan, 2009 because of side effects. Many studies have reported the effects of rimonabant on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and food intake. The aims of this review are: to review the relationship of EC system with GI motility and food intake;to review the studies of rimonabant on GI motility, food intake and obesity;and to report the tolerance and side effects of rimonabant. Methods: the literature (Pubmed database) was searched using keywords: rimonabant, obesity and GI motility. Results: GI motility is related with appetite, food intake and nutrients absorption. The EC system inhibits GI motility, reduces emesis and increases food intake; Rimonabant accelerates gastric emptying and intestinal transition but decreases energy metabolism and food intake. There is rapid onset of tolerance to the prokinetic effect of rimonabant. The main side effects of rimonabant are depression and GI symptoms. Conclusions: Rimonabant has significant effects on energy metabolism and food intake, probably mediated via its effects on GI motility. PMID:23449551

  14. Burns in Morbidly Obese Patients,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    tract infection and one episode C obesity. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed in of sinusitis. Two patients had documented bacteremias...veloped pneumonia and two developed tracheobronchitis. 0 Research, seven of whom clearly fulfilled the criteria for morbid There were one urinary

  15. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  16. Childhood Obesity: A Heavy Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costley, Kevin C.; Leggett, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    The youth of today are faced with a big problem; they are becoming more obese every day. The time of children playing outside all day and being extremely active has been overtaken by the television and video games. The days of sitting down as a family and eating a good healthy meal has been replaced by the rush to the nearest fast food…

  17. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your provider can help you assess your risk. Culture A person's culture may also affect weight: Some cultures have foods with a lot of fat or ... less attractive. Also, because some people in our culture may view a person with obesity as lacking ...

  18. Fighting Student Obesity in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The biggest risk to children's health is one which happens incrementally as students move through the school grades and into adulthood. Obesity has reached such proportions that today's children could end up living two to five years less than they might otherwise, according to a 2005 study in the New England Journal of Medicine. According to the…

  19. Impact of obesity-related genes in Spanish population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective was to investigate the association between BMI and single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified of obesity-related genes in two Spanish populations. Forty SNPs in 23 obesity-related genes were evaluated in a rural population characterized by a high prevalence of obesity (869 subjects, mean age 46 yr, 62% women, 36% obese) and in an urban population (1425 subjects, mean age 54 yr, 50% women, 19% obese). Genotyping was assessed by using SNPlex and PLINK for the association analysis. Results Polymorphisms of the FTO were significantly associated with BMI, in the rural population (beta 0.87, p-value <0.001). None of the other SNPs showed significant association after Bonferroni correction in the two populations or in the pooled analysis. A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using the risk alleles of the Tag-SNPs with a positive Beta parameter in both populations. From the first to the fifth quintile of the score, the BMI increased 0.45 kg/m2 in Hortega and 2.0 kg/m2 in Pizarra. Overall, the obesity predictive value was low (less than 1%). Conclusion The risk associated with polymorphisms is low and the overall effect on BMI or obesity prediction is minimal. A weighted genetic risk score based on genes mainly acting through central nervous system mechanisms was associated with BMI but it yields minimal clinical prediction for the obesity risk in the general population. PMID:24267414

  20. Association between obesity and prescribed medication use in England.

    PubMed

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Morris, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the association between obesity and use of prescribed medications in England. Data were taken from fourteen rounds of the Health Survey for England (1999-2012), which has measures of current prescribed medication use based on therapeutic classifications in the British National Formulary, and nurse-measured height and weight. We find that obesity has a statistically significant and positive association with use of a range of medicines for managing diseases associated with obesity. The mean probability of using any type of medication is 0.40 in those of normal weight, 0.44 in the overweight, 0.52 in obesity class I and 0.60 in obesity class II/III. Significant positive associations were found between obesity and the use of medication for diseases of the cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, and central nervous system, as well as for infections, endocrine system disorders, gynaecological/urinary disorders and musculoskeletal and joint disorders. Use of anti-obesity medication is low, even among those with class II/III obesity.

  1. Economic causes and consequences of obesity.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Ruhm, Christopher J; Kosa, Katherine M

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is not only a health but also an economic phenomenon. This chapter (a) examines underlying economic causes, such as technological advancements, behind the obesity epidemic; (b) describes economic consequences of obesity, including increasing obesity-related medical expenditures; and (c) discusses the role of government in combating the obesity epidemic. Because of the high costs of obesity, and the fact that the majority of these costs are financed by taxpayers, there is a clear motivation for government to try to reduce these costs. However, because obesity may result from poor information and addictive behavior and/or as a result of living in an increasingly obesogenic environment, interventions will need to be multifaceted to ensure the best chance of success.

  2. Obesity, Nutrition and Liver Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Ariel E.; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US and many other parts of the world. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes and metabolic complications. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several aspects of childhood obesity from epidemiology and associated metabolic complications, to management strategies and therapy with particular attention to the impact of obesity on the liver resulting in non-alcoholic or metabolic fatty liver disease. The deleterious effects of obesity on the liver and health overall can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting pharmacologic, behavioral and dietary interventions for the management of obesity and fatty liver disease in children. PMID:24274876

  3. Predictors of obesity in Michigan Operating Engineers.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Sonia A; Cohen, Kathleen A; Choi, Seung Hee; McCullagh, Marjorie C; Noonan, Devon

    2012-06-01

    Blue collar workers are at risk for obesity. Little is known about obesity in Operating Engineers, a group of blue collar workers, who operate heavy earth-moving equipment in road building and construction. Therefore, 498 Operating Engineers in Michigan were recruited to participate in a cross-sectional survey to determine variables related to obesity in this group. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine personal, psychological, and behavioral factors predicting obesity. Approximately 45% of the Operating Engineers screened positive for obesity, and another 40% were overweight. Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age, male sex, higher numbers of self-reported co-morbidities, not smoking, and low physical activity levels were significantly associated with obesity among Operating Engineers. Operating Engineers are significantly at risk for obesity, and workplace interventions are needed to address this problem.

  4. Fetal and perinatal consequences of maternal obesity.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Chakrapani; Renfrew, Mary; McGuire, William

    2011-09-01

    In many industrialised countries, one in five women booking for antenatal care is obese. As well as affecting maternal health, maternal obesity may have important adverse consequences for fetal, neonatal and long-term health and well-being. Maternal obesity is associated with a higher risk of stillbirth, elective preterm birth and perinatal mortality. The incidence of severe birth defects, particularly neural tube and structural cardiac defects, appears to be higher in infants of obese mothers. Fetal macrosomia associated with maternal obesity and gestational diabetes predisposes infants to birth injuries, perinatal asphyxia and transitional problems such as neonatal respiratory distress and metabolic instability. Maternal obesity may also result in long-term health problems for offspring secondary to perinatal problems and to intrauterine and postnatal programming effects. Currently, the available interventions to prevent and treat maternal obesity are of limited proven utility and further research is needed to define the effects of maternal weight management interventions on fetal and neonatal outcomes.

  5. The worldwide epidemic of female obesity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sheona; Shaw, Dorothy

    2015-04-01

    The rapidly rising number of individuals who are overweight and obese has been called a worldwide epidemic of obesity with >35% of adults today considered to be overweight or obese. Women are more likely to be overweight and obese than their male counterparts, which has far-reaching effects on reproductive health and specifically pregnancy, with obese women facing an increased risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, operative delivery, fetal macrosomia, and neonatal morbidity. The etiology of obesity is highly complex encompassing genetic, environmental, physiologic, cultural, political, and socioeconomic factors, making it challenging to develop effective interventions on both a local and global scale. This article describes the extent and the cost of the obesity epidemic, which, although historically seen as a disease of high-income countries, is now clearly a global epidemic that impacts low- and middle-income countries and indigenous groups who bear an ever-increasing burden of this disease.

  6. Obesity and related consequences to ageing.

    PubMed

    Jura, Magdalena; Kozak, Leslie P

    2016-02-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem. Given the current increase in life expectancy, the prevalence of obesity also raises steadily among older age groups. The increase in life expectancy is often accompanied with additional years of susceptibility to chronic ill health associated with obesity in the elderly. Both obesity and ageing are conditions leading to serious health problems and increased risk for disease and death. Ageing is associated with an increase in abdominal obesity, a major contributor to insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Obesity in the elderly is thus a serious concern and comprehension of the key mechanisms of ageing and age-related diseases has become a necessary matter. Here, we aimed to identify similarities underlying mechanisms related to both obesity and ageing. We bring together evidence that age-related changes in body fat distribution and metabolism might be key factors of a vicious cycle that can accelerate the ageing process and onset of age-related diseases.

  7. Obesity-related asthma in adults.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Nikunj A; Lazarus, Angeline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity as a risk factor for asthma has been identified in previous studies. Additionally, a disproportionate number of patients with severe or difficult-to-control asthma are obese. Patients with obesity-related asthma tend to have worse asthma control and quality of life disproportionate to their pulmonary function tests, are less responsive to corticosteroid therapy, and are more likely to have obesity-related comorbidities such as obstructive sleep apnea and gastroesophageal disease that complicate asthma treatment. With the increasing prevalence of obesity, the prevalence of asthma is anticipated to grow proportionally. Addressing weight loss and encouraging activity is essential in the management of obesity-related asthma. This article briefly overviews the epidemiology, unique distinguishing features, potential mechanisms, and approach to management of patients with obesity-related asthma in adults.

  8. Preventing Obesity and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Golden, Neville H; Schneider, Marcie; Wood, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and eating disorders (EDs) are both prevalent in adolescents. There are concerns that obesity prevention efforts may lead to the development of an ED. Most adolescents who develop an ED did not have obesity previously, but some teenagers, in an attempt to lose weight, may develop an ED. This clinical report addresses the interaction between obesity prevention and EDs in teenagers, provides the pediatrician with evidence-informed tools to identify behaviors that predispose to both obesity and EDs, and provides guidance about obesity and ED prevention messages. The focus should be on a healthy lifestyle rather than on weight. Evidence suggests that obesity prevention and treatment, if conducted correctly, do not predispose to EDs.

  9. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoff for Overweight and Central Obesity among Adults in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    An, Yom; Yi, Siyan; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gupta, Vinay; Prak, Piseth Raingsey; Oum, Sophal; LoGerfo, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786) were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229) were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years) and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years) for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001) when BMI of 23.0 kg/m2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001) when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥94.0 cm in men). Conclusion Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years. PMID:24205019

  10. Can Raising Awareness about the Psychological Causes of Obesity Reduce Obesity Stigma?

    PubMed

    Khan, Sammyh S; Tarrant, Mark; Weston, Dale; Shah, Pooja; Farrow, Claire

    2017-02-19

    Obesity stigma largely remains a socially acceptable bias with harmful outcomes for its victims. While many accounts have been put forward to explain the bias, the role of obesity etiology beliefs has received little scrutiny. The research examined the effect that beliefs about the psychological etiology of obesity have on the expression of obesity stigma and the mechanisms underpinning this effect. Participants (N = 463) were asked to evaluate a target person with obesity after reading one of three possible etiologies: psychological, genetic, or behavioral. The presentation of a psychological etiology of obesity elicited less prejudice compared to behavioral causes but greater prejudice compared to genetic causes; observed differences were found to be a function of the agency ascribed to the target's obesity and empathy expressed for the target. The findings highlight the impact that communicating obesity in terms of psychological causes can have for the expression of obesity stigma.

  11. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  12. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:20948927

  13. Prevalence of obesity and correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors in Chinese men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Ah; Wen, Wanqing; Xu, Wang Hong; Zheng, Wei; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2008-01-01

    Objective To estimate the age-adjusted prevalence of general and centralized obesity among Chinese men living in urban Shanghai. Research Methods and Procedures A cross-sectional study was conducted in 61,582 Chinese men aged 40 to 75. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was used to measure overweight (23≤BMI<27.5) and obesity (BMI≥27.5) based on the WHO recommended criteria for Asians. Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was used to measure moderate (75th≤WHR<90th percentile) and severe (WHR≥90th percentile) centralized obesity. Results The average BMI and WHR were 23.7 kg/m2 and 0.90, respectively. The prevalence of overweight was 48.6% and obesity, 10.5%. The prevalence of general and centralized obesity was higher in men with high income or who were unemployed, tea drinkers, or non-ginseng users than their counterparts. Men with high education had a higher prevalence of overweight and centralized obesity, but had a lower prevalence of obesity and severe centralized obesity compared to those with lower education. Current smokers or alcohol drinkers had a lower prevalence of general obesity but higher prevalence of centralized obesity than non-smokers or non-alcohol drinkers. Ex-smokers and ex-alcohol drinkers had a higher prevalence of general and centralized obesity compared to non-smokers and non-alcohol drinkers. Prevalence of obesity was associated with high energy intake and low daily physical activity. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity in Chinese men in urban Shanghai was lower than that observed in Western countries but higher than that in other Asian countries, and the prevalence of general and centralized obesity differed by demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. PMID:18356829

  14. Intergenerational impact of maternal obesity and postnatal feeding practices on pediatric obesity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The postnatal feeding practices of obese and overweight mothers may place their children at particular risk for the development of obesity through shared biology and family environments. This paper reviews the feeding practices of obese mothers, describes potential mechanisms linking maternal feeding behaviors to child obesity risk, and highlights potential avenues for intervention. This review documents that supporting breastfeeding, improving the food choices of obese women, and encouraging the development of feeding styles that are responsive to hunger and satiety cues are important for improving the quality of the eating environment and preventing the intergenerational transmission of obesity. PMID:24147925

  15. Leptin, a mediator of cardiac damage associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, E; Jurado-López, R; Cervantes-Escalera, P; Cachofeiro, V; Miana, M

    2014-04-01

    Obesity and excess of adipose tissue are associated with the development of cardiovascular risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. At the cardiac level, various morphological adaptations in cardiac structure and function occur in obese individuals. Different mechanisms linking obesity to these modifications have been postulated. Adipose tissue and epicardial fat releases a large number of cytokines and bioactive mediators such as leptin. Leptin circulates in proportion to body fat mass, thus serving as a satiety signal and informing central metabolic control centers as to the status of peripheral energy stores. It participates in numerous other functions both peripherally and centrally, as indicated by the wide distribution of leptin and the different isoforms of its receptor in different tissues including the heart. This hormone has distinct effects on the reproductive, cardiovascular, and immune systems; however, its role in the heart could mediate wide physiological effects observed in obese individuals. Oxidative stress is associated with obesity and may be considered to be a unifying mechanism in the development of obesity-related comorbidities. It has been reported that obesity may induce systemic oxidative stress; in turn, oxidative stress is associated with an irregular production of adipokines. We herein review the current knowledge of cardiac effects of leptin and the possible mechanisms that are involved, including oxidative stress that plays a major role in the development of cardiovascular damage.

  16. Lipotoxic heart disease in obese rats: Implications for human obesity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ting; Grayburn, Paul; Karim, Asad; Shimabukuro, Michio; Higa, Moritake; Baetens, Dany; Orci, Lelio; Unger, Roger H.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of the cardiac dilatation and reduced contractility of obese Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats, myocardial triacylglycerol (TG) was assayed chemically and morphologically. TG was high because of underexpression of fatty acid oxidative enzymes and their transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α. Levels of ceramide, a mediator of apoptosis, were 2–3 times those of controls and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels were 4 times greater than normal. Myocardial DNA laddering, an index of apoptosis, reached 20 times the normal level. Troglitazone therapy lowered myocardial TG and ceramide and completely prevented DNA laddering and loss of cardiac function. In this paper, we conclude that cardiac dysfunction in obesity is caused by lipoapoptosis and is prevented by reducing cardiac lipids. PMID:10677535

  17. Obesity in the intensive care unit: risks and complications.

    PubMed

    Selim, Bernardo J; Ramar, Kannan; Surani, Salim

    2016-08-01

    The steady growing prevalence of critically ill obese patients is posing diagnostic and management challenges across medical and surgical intensive care units. The impact of obesity in the critically ill patients may vary by type of critical illness, obesity severity (obesity distribution) and obesity-associated co-morbidities. Based on pathophysiological changes associated with obesity, predominately in pulmonary reserve and cardiac function, critically ill obese patients may be at higher risk for acute cardiovascular, pulmonary and renal complications in comparison to non-obese patients. Obesity also represents a dilemma in the management of other critical care areas such as invasive mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilation liberation, hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacokinetics dose adjustments. However, despite higher morbidity associated with obesity in the intensive care unit (ICU), a paradoxical lower ICU mortality ("obesity paradox") is demonstrated in comparison to non-obese ICU patients. This review article will focus on the unique pathophysiology, challenges in management, and outcomes associated with obesity in the ICU.

  18. The Critical Care Obesity Paradox and Implications for Nutrition Support.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayshil J; Rosenthal, Martin D; Miller, Keith R; Codner, Panna; Kiraly, Laszlo; Martindale, Robert G

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a leading cause of preventable death worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has been increasing and is associated with an increased risk for other co-morbidities. In the critical care setting, nearly one third of patients are obese. Obese critically ill patients pose significant physical and on-physical challenges to providers, including optimization of nutrition therapy. Intuitively, obese patients would have worse critical care-related outcome. On the contrary, emerging data suggests that critically ill obese patients have improved outcomes, and this phenomenon has been coined "the obesity paradox." The purposes of this review will be to outline the historical views and pathophysiology of obesity and epidemiology of obesity, describe the challenges associated with obesity in the intensive care unit setting, review critical care outcomes in the obese, define the obesity-critical care paradox, and identify the challenges and role of nutrition support in the critically ill obese patient.

  19. The hunger-obesity paradox: obesity in the homeless.

    PubMed

    Koh, Katherine A; Hoy, Jessica S; O'Connell, James J; Montgomery, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Despite stereotypes of the homeless population as underweight, the literature lacks a rigorous analysis of weight status in homeless adults. The purpose of this study is to present the body mass index (BMI) distribution in a large adult homeless population and to compare this distribution to the non-homeless population in the United States. Demographic, BMI, and socioeconomic variables from patients seen in 2007-2008 were collected from the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program (BHCHP). This population was compared to non-homeless adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Among 5,632 homeless adults, the mean BMI was 28.4 kg/m(2) and the prevalence of obesity was 32.3 %. Only 1.6 % of homeless adults were underweight. Compared to mean BMI in NHANES (28.6 kg/m(2)), the difference was not significant in unadjusted analysis (p = 0.14). Adjusted analyses predicting BMI or likelihood of obesity also showed that the homeless had a weight distribution not statistically different from the general population. Although underweight has been traditionally associated with homelessness, this study suggests that obesity may be the new malnutrition of the homeless in the United States.

  20. The emergence of obesity among indigenous Siberians.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, J Josh; Leonard, William R; Sorensen, Mark V; Tarskaia, Larissa A; Alekseev, Vasili P; Krivoshapkin, Vadim

    2006-01-01

    Once considered a disease of affluence and confined to industrialized nations, obesity is currently emerging as a major health concern in nearly every country in the world. Available data suggest that the prevalence rate of obesity has reached unprecedented levels in most developing countries, and is increasing at a rate that far outpaces that of developed nations. This increase in obesity has also been documented among North American circumpolar populations and is associated with lifestyle changes related to economic development. While obesity has not been well studied among indigenous Siberians, recent anthropological studies indicate that obesity and its associated comorbidities are important health problems.The present study examines recent adult body composition data from four indigenous Siberian populations (Evenki, Ket, Buriat, and Yakut) with two main objectives: 1) to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among these groups, and 2) to assess the influence of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors on the development of excess body fat. The results of this study indicate that obesity has emerged as an important health issue among indigenous Siberians, and especially for women, whose obesity rates are considerably higher than those of men (12% vs. 7%). The present study investigated the association between lifestyle and body composition among the Yakut, and documented substantial sex differences in lifestyle correlates of obesity. Yakut men with higher incomes and who owned more luxury consumer goods were more likely to have excess body fat while, among Yakut women, affluence was not strongly associated with overweight and obesity.

  1. Blood spotlight on leukocytes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello; Qiu, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The rise of obesity and its attendant pathological sequelae, including type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, constitute an ongoing public health catastrophe in both the developed and, more recently, the developing world. Although the underlying pathophysiology is complex, chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a central driver of both primary metabolic dysfunction and subsequent tissue failure. Importantly, this inflammation has been shown to arise as a consequence of both the disruption of homeostatic tissue resident leukocytes and the recruitment of antagonistic effector cells from the circulation. In this review, we discuss the roles of visceral adipose tissue’s salient leukocyte lineages in the transition to obesity and highlight key points at which this emerging immune axis may be manipulated for therapeutic effect. PMID:24065242

  2. The sympathetic nervous system in obesity hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lohmeier, Thomas E; Iliescu, Radu

    2013-08-01

    Abundant evidence supports a role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of obesity-related hypertension. However, the nature and temporal progression of mechanisms underlying this sympathetically mediated hypertension are incompletely understood. Recent technological advances allowing direct recordings of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in conscious animals, together with direct suppression of RSNA by renal denervation and reflex-mediated global sympathetic inhibition in experimental animals and human subjects have been especially valuable in elucidating these mechanisms. These studies strongly support the concept that increased RSNA is the critical mechanism by which increased central sympathetic outflow initiates and maintains reductions in renal excretory function, causing obesity hypertension. Potential determinants of renal sympathoexcitation and the differential mechanisms mediating the effects of renal-specific versus reflex-mediated, global sympathetic inhibition on renal hemodynamics and cardiac autonomic function are discussed. These differential mechanisms may impact the efficacy of current device-based approaches for hypertension therapy.

  3. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2006-01-01

    Researchers are only gradually becoming aware of the gravity of the risk that overweight and obesity pose for children's health. In this article Stephen Daniels documents the heavy toll that the obesity epidemic is taking on the health of the nation's children. He discusses both the immediate risks associated with childhood obesity and the longer-term risk that obese children and adolescents will become obese adults and suffer other health problems as a result. Daniels notes that many obesity-related health conditions once thought applicable only to adults are now being seen in children and with increasing frequency. Examples include high blood pressure, early symptoms of hardening of the arteries, type 2 diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary disorder, and disordered breathing during sleep. He systematically surveys the body's systems, showing how obesity in adulthood can damage each and how childhood obesity exacerbates the damage. He explains that obesity can harm the cardiovascular system and that being overweight during childhood can accelerate the development of heart disease. The processes that lead to a heart attack or stroke start in childhood and often take decades to progress to the point of overt disease. Obesity in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood may accelerate these processes. Daniels shows how much the same generalization applies to other obesity-related disorders-metabolic, digestive, respiratory, skeletal, and psychosocial-that are appearing in children either for the first time or with greater severity or prevalence. Daniels notes that the possibility has even been raised that the increasing prevalence and severity of childhood obesity may reverse the modern era's steady increase in life expectancy, with today's youth on average living less healthy and ultimately shorter lives than their parents-the first such reversal in lifespan in modern history. Such a possibility, he concludes, makes obesity in children an

  4. Resveratrol Attenuates Obesity-Associated Peripheral and Central Inflammation and Improves Memory Deficit in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Byeong Tak; Jeong, Eun Ae; Shin, Hyun Joo; Lee, Younghyurk; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Hyun Joon; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Choi, Wan Sung; Roh, Gu Seob

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-induced diabetes is associated with chronic inflammation and is considered a risk factor for neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that an AMP-activated protein kinase activator, resveratrol (RES), which is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects, would attenuate peripheral and central inflammation and improve memory deficit in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD or an HFD supplemented with RES for 20 weeks. Metabolic parameters in serum were evaluated, and Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry in peripheral organs and brain were completed. We used the Morris water maze test to study the role of RES on memory function in HFD-treated mice. RES treatment reduced hepatic steatosis, macrophage infiltration, and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. In the hippocampus of HFD-fed mice, the protein levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and Iba-1 expression were reduced by RES treatment. Choline acetyltransferase was increased, and the phosphorylation of tau was decreased in the hippocampus of HFD-fed mice upon RES treatment. In particular, we found that RES significantly improved memory deficit in HFD-fed mice. These findings indicate that RES reverses obesity-related peripheral and central inflammation and metabolic derangements and improves memory deficit in HFD-fed diabetic mice. PMID:22362175

  5. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention.

  6. Brain RNA expression in obese vs lean mice after LPS-induced systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scott, L Keith; Vachharajani, Vidula; Mynatt, Randall L; Minagar, Alireza; Conrad, Steven A

    2004-09-01

    Mortality of obese patients with severe sepsis is higher than non-obese patients. Thus far, a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been identified that explains this higher mortality. The central nervous system is now becoming increasingly recognized as a target organ in sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and may hold clues to the deleterious affects of obesity in patients with sepsis syndrome. In this study, obese and non-obese mice were given LPS IP and the brains were harvested 2 hours after injection. The brains were processed and mRNA isolated and hybridized to a microarray chip and processed. Analysis of gene expression demonstrated distinct expression difference between the lean and obese animals. Ontology data supports clear differences between the lean and obese groups in the coagulation system, neuro-endocrine system, lipid transport and insulin receptors. Approximately eighty genes were identified to show 10-fold differential expression between the obese and lean mice.

  7. Long-term treatment of obesity in the obesity unit.

    PubMed

    Kunesová, M; Hainer, V; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Fried, M

    1998-01-01

    A group of 318 obese patients followed-up at the Obesity Unit in Prague in 1995-1997 was included into a study. Their treatment was based on the standard combination of a weight reduction diet, physical activity and behavioural intervention. In patients with more severe degrees of óbesity VLCD in one daily portion, pharmacotherapy, in-patient regimen lasting 24 days, including VLCD (1,500 kJ/day), exercise and group psychotherapy; or bariatric surgery (mostly laparoscopic gastric banding) were used, if necessary. Patients were divided into two groups according to their compliance to the weight reducing regimen. Group A dropped out before 2 years of follow-up, group B was followed-up 2 years or more. The groups did not differ significantly in their mean age, initial body weight, initial BMI and fat content and in percentage of males and females. Weight, BMI, fat content, essential anthropometric indices (waist circumference, WHR, subscapular and triceps skinfolds) and blood pressure are presented in this study. The maximum weight loss was significantly higher in group B. We did not find any other significant differences between group A and group B. The most significant predictor of compliance expressed as duration of follow-up (evaluated by multiple regression with stepwise variable selection) was the maximum BMI decrease (p < 0.005). The most significant predictors of the weight loss at the end of the follow-up were maximum weight loss and maximum decrease of BMI (p < 0.001). Family history of obesity (obese one or both parents) was significantly more often in group B (p < 0.05). This trend was expressed predominantly in females (p < 0.01), where also family history of obesity in mother was significantly more often in group B (p < 0.05). The frequency of methods used in individual patients was estimated. Standard combination of diet, enhanced physical activity and behavioural intervention was used in all patients. All other methods were used significantly more

  8. Pediatric obesity & type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dea, Tara L

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on (a) identifying obesity and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, (b) differentiating between pediatric type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and (c) treating pediatric type 2 diabetes. Obesity has significant implications on a child's health, including an increased risk for insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in children, characterized by insulin resistance and relative pancreatic b-cell failure due to the increased demand for insulin production, has now reached epidemic proportions. Longitudinal research on pediatric type 2 diabetes, however, is lacking because this epidemic is relatively new. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children is focused on lifestyle modification with weight management/increased physical activity, and pharmacological management through oral medication or insulin therapy. Because children with type 2 diabetes are at risk for developing diabetes-related complications earlier in life, they need to be closely monitored for comorbidities.

  9. Obesity in single gene disorders.

    PubMed

    Beales, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s, the heritability of obesity has been calculated to be around 0.80, implying a significant genetic origin and sparking a worldwide "gold-rush" for causative genes. Since the discovery of leptin and the body weight homeostasis pathway it regulates, we have come to a greater understanding of the factors that now control it. Nevertheless, we are still some way off reaching the goal of effectively managing the consequences of dysregulation: obesity, a disease-related state that threatens the well-being of mankind. An unprecedented plethora of data has informed our understanding of obesogenic processes; this chapter examines the evidence, focusing on the substantial role of monogenic diseases.

  10. Obesity. Part II--Treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, G A; Gray, D S

    1988-01-01

    Conventional diets and increased exercise are the cornerstones of traditional therapy for obesity, but available data suggest that the most important component of any program is the associated behavior modification through which new ways of dealing with old problems can be learned and continually applied. This combined with very-low-calorie diets--less than 800 kcal per day--are in wide use, mostly under medical supervision. The currently available appetite-suppressing drugs are of limited efficacy, but many new ones are under active development and hold promise for the future. The most effective surgical intervention appears to be the gastric bypass operation, but this should be reserved for those who are at high risk from their obesity. Images PMID:3074556

  11. [Sexuality in overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    The association between obesity and sexual dysfunction has been described in many studies. Neurobiological, hormonal, vascular and mental disturbances are the main reasons in male and in female gender. Sexual interest and desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, painful intercourse and premature ejaculation can be involved. Data for prevalence of sexual function disturbances in obese people are scarce and most studies were small. For screening of sexual function we recommend the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Score, which contains 15 Items for males and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which contains 19 items for females. Treatment of sexual function disturbances include lifestyle changes with an increase of physical activity, weight control, healthy eating and smoking cessation. Testosterone substitution in cases of real hypogonadism and treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors are well documented treatment options in male individuals. New treatment options for female patients with variable effectiveness are fibanserin, testosterone, bupropione and oxytocin.

  12. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  13. Childhood obesity in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-03

    New Zealand has an unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity at 11 percent of children. The cause is due to an over consumption of food particularly in the form of junk food. To reverse this serious problem an all-of-society approach with leadership from the government is going to be required. The consequence of ignoring the problem will threaten the future viability of the health service.

  14. Markets and childhood obesity policy.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In particular, energy-dense foods, such as those containing fats and sugars, became relatively cheaper than less energy-dense foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables. Second, rising wages increased the "opportunity costs" of food preparation for college graduates, encouraging them to spend less time preparing meals. Third, technological changes created incentives to use prepackaged food rather than to prepare foods. Several economic rationales justify government intervention in markets to address these problems. First, because free markets generally under-provide information, the government may intervene to provide consumers with nutrition information they need. Second, because society bears the soaring costs of obesity, the government may intervene to lower the costs to taxpayers. Third, because children are not what economists call "rational consumers"--they cannot evaluate information critically and weigh the future consequences of their actions-the government may step in to help them make better choices. The government can easily disseminate information to consumers directly, but formulating policies to address the other two rationales is more difficult. In the absence of ideal policies to combat obesity, the government must turn to "second-best" policies. For example, it could protect children from advertisements for "junk food." It could implement taxes and subsidies that discourage the consumption of unhealthful foods or encourage physical activity. It could require schools to remove vending machines for soda and candy. From the economic perspective, policymakers should evaluate these options on the basis of cost

  15. Obesity management: what brings success?

    PubMed

    Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Rössner, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The upward trend in obesity prevalence across regions and continents is a worldwide concern. Today a majority of the world's population live in a country where being overweight or obese causes more deaths than being underweight. Only a portion of those qualifying for treatment will get the health care they need. Still, a minor weight loss of 5-10% seems to be sufficient to provide a clinically significant health benefit in terms of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diet, exercise and behavior modifications remain the current cornerstones of obesity treatment. Weight-loss drugs play a minor role. Drugs which were available and reasonably effective have been withdrawn because of side effects. The fact that the 'old' well known, but pretty unexciting tools remain the basic armamentarium causes understandable concern and disappointment among both patients and therapists. Hence, bariatric surgery has increasingly been recognized and developed, as it offers substantial weight loss and prolonged weight control. The present review highlights the conventional tools to counter obesity, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery, including some of the barriers to successful weight loss: (1) unrealistic expectations of success; (2) high attrition rates; (3) cultural norms of self-acceptance in terms of weight and beliefs of fat being healthy; (4) neighborhood attributes such as a lack of well-stocked supermarkets and rather the presence of convenience stores with low-quality foods; and (5) the perception of the neighborhood as less safe and with low walkability. Prevention is the obvious key. Cost-effective societal interventions such as a tax on unhealthy food and beverages, front-of-pack traffic light nutrition labeling and prohibition of advertising of junk food and beverages to children are also discussed.

  16. Obesity management: what brings success?

    PubMed Central

    Rössner, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The upward trend in obesity prevalence across regions and continents is a worldwide concern. Today a majority of the world’s population live in a country where being overweight or obese causes more deaths than being underweight. Only a portion of those qualifying for treatment will get the health care they need. Still, a minor weight loss of 5–10% seems to be sufficient to provide a clinically significant health benefit in terms of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Diet, exercise and behavior modifications remain the current cornerstones of obesity treatment. Weight-loss drugs play a minor role. Drugs which were available and reasonably effective have been withdrawn because of side effects. The fact that the ‘old’ well known, but pretty unexciting tools remain the basic armamentarium causes understandable concern and disappointment among both patients and therapists. Hence, bariatric surgery has increasingly been recognized and developed, as it offers substantial weight loss and prolonged weight control. The present review highlights the conventional tools to counter obesity, lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery, including some of the barriers to successful weight loss: (1) unrealistic expectations of success; (2) high attrition rates; (3) cultural norms of self-acceptance in terms of weight and beliefs of fat being healthy; (4) neighborhood attributes such as a lack of well-stocked supermarkets and rather the presence of convenience stores with low-quality foods; and (5) the perception of the neighborhood as less safe and with low walkability. Prevention is the obvious key. Cost-effective societal interventions such as a tax on unhealthy food and beverages, front-of-pack traffic light nutrition labeling and prohibition of advertising of junk food and beverages to children are also discussed. PMID:23320052

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality.

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J.; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11–18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers’ occupation of being employed and their households’ high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality. PMID:27043619

  19. Impact of Obesity on Heart and Lung Transplantation: Does Pre-Transplant Obesity Affect Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bozso, S J; Nagendran, Je; Gill, R S; Freed, D H; Nagendran, Ja

    2017-03-01

    Increasing prevalence of obesity has led to a rise in the number of prospective obese heart and lung transplant recipients. The optimal management strategy of obese patients with end-stage heart and lung failure remains controversial. This review article discusses and provides a summary of the literature surrounding the impact of obesity on outcomes in heart and lung transplantation. Studies on transplant obesity demonstrate controversy in terms of morbidity and mortality outcomes and obesity pre-transplantation. However, the impact of obesity on outcomes seems to be more consistently demonstrated in lung rather than heart transplantation. The ultimate goal in heart and lung transplantation in the obese patient is to identify those at highest risk of complication that may warrant therapies to mitigate risk by addressing comorbid conditions.

  20. Eating behaviours are different in youth with obesity and severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Gross, A C; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Foy, A M H; Kelly, A S

    2016-02-01

    The study purposes were to: (i) Investigate eating behaviours among patients in a paediatric weight management clinical practice and (ii) Compare eating behaviour phenotypes between children with severe obesity and obesity. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using data collected during clinical encounters. Participants were included if they were 2-12 years old, had a body mass index ≥95th percentile and if a parent or guardian completed the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ). Participants (n = 149) were children with severe obesity (n = 108) and obesity (n = 41). The mean Satiety Responsiveness score was significantly lower for children with severe obesity than for children with obesity. Girls with severe obesity had significantly higher Enjoyment of Food and significantly lower Satiety Responsiveness and Slowness in Eating than girls with obesity. The findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of the CEBQ for informing tailored treatment strategies through identifying eating behaviour phenotypes.

  1. Bariatric surgery to treat obesity.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Hermann J; Settmacher, Utz

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become a global health problem that contributes to numerous life-threatening and disabling diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease. The long-term results of traditional weight loss therapies, including diet, exercise, and medications, are relatively poor. Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment of morbidly obese patients to allow substantial, sustained weight loss and to improve or resolve obesity-associated comorbidities, thereby reducing mortality. According to US practice guidelines, patients qualify for bariatric surgery with a body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) and associated comorbidities, or a body mass index of 40 kg/m(2), after failure of conservative weight loss measures. Currently, the established procedures in the United States are the laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. The surgeries vary substantially in their postoperative amount of weight loss, resolution of comorbidities, nutritional requirements, and nature and severity of complications. There is no perfect bariatric surgery, an informed risk and benefit assessment should be made by each patient. The procedures are safe, with a mortality rate of 0.3%. Sustained weight loss depends finally on patient re-education in terms of diet, need for regular exercise, and careful bariatric follow-up evaluation.

  2. [Obesity and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Toplak, Hermann; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Wascher, Thomas C; Schindler, Karin; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are nowadays summarized as "diabesity". That is due to the fact that obesity is frequently preceding and the most important risk factor in the increase of Type 2 Diabetes. The body mass index (BMI) is a crude measure of body fatness. Even normal weight persons can have lack in muscles (sarcopenia), which leads to the recommendation to measure waist und body fatness (e.g. BIA). Lifestyle management including nutrition and physical activity are important for diabetes prevention. In the therapy of Type 2 Diabetes body weight is increasingly used as secondary target. Also the choice of the anti-diabetic medication and concomitant medications is increasingly influenced by body weight. The significance of anti-obesity medications in the therapy of type 2 diabetes will have to be clarified by future studies. Bariatric surgery is at present indicated with a BMI above BMI > 35 kg/m(2) and can lead at least to partial diabetes remission but has to be part of a lifelong care concept.

  3. Relationship between bread and obesity.

    PubMed

    Serra-Majem, Luis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that promoting the Mediterranean diet pattern as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of overweight/obesity. Bread consumption, which has been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet, has continued to decline in Spain and in the rest of the world, because the opinion of the general public is that bread fattens. The present study was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, both in the population at large or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The results of the present review indicate that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread, consumption within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat. It appears that the different composition between whole-grain bread and white bread varies in its effect on body weight and abdominal fat. However, the term 'whole-grain bread' needs to be defined for use in epidemiological studies. Finally, additional studies employing traditional ways of bread production should analyse this effect on body-weight and metabolic regulation.

  4. The addictive dimensionality of obesity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D

    2013-05-01

    Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek immediate rewards. Thus, it is not surprising that many people overeat, which in some can result in obesity, whereas others take drugs, which in some can result in addiction. Though food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, when highly palatable food is available, the ability to resist the urge to eat hinges on self-control. There is no homeostatic regulator to check the intake of drugs (including alcohol); thus, regulation of drug consumption is mostly driven by self-control or unwanted effects (i.e., sedation for alcohol). Disruption in both the neurobiological processes that underlie sensitivity to reward and those that underlie inhibitory control can lead to compulsive food intake in some individuals and compulsive drug intake in others. There is increasing evidence that disruption of energy homeostasis can affect the reward circuitry and that overconsumption of rewarding food can lead to changes in the reward circuitry that result in compulsive food intake akin to the phenotype seen with addiction. Addiction research has produced new evidence that hints at significant commonalities between the neural substrates underlying the disease of addiction and at least some forms of obesity. This recognition has spurred a healthy debate to try and ascertain the extent to which these complex and dimensional disorders overlap and whether or not a deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the homeostatic and reward systems will usher in unique opportunities for prevention and treatment of both obesity and drug addiction.

  5. Screening for sarcopenia in obesity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammarco, R.; Marra, M.; Montagnese, C.; De Rosa, E.; Onufrio, M.; Amato, V.; Santarpia, L.; De Caprio, C.; Contaldo, F.; Pasanisi, F.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 - 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2 fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m2) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m2). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.

  6. Obesity: Interactions of Genome and Nutrients Intake

    PubMed Central

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become one of the major public health problems all over the world. Recent novel eras of research are opening for the effective management of obesity though gene and nutrient intake interactions because the causes of obesity are complex and multifactorial. Through GWASs (genome-wide association studies) and genetic variations (SNPs, single nucleotide polymorphisms), as the genetic factors are likely to determine individuals’ obesity predisposition. The understanding of genetic approaches in nutritional sciences is referred as “nutrigenomics”. Nutrigenomics explores the interaction between genetic factors and dietary nutrient intake on various disease phenotypes such as obesity. Therefore, this novel approach might suggest a solution for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity through individual genetic profiles and help improve health conditions. PMID:25866743

  7. [Role of probiotics in obesity management].

    PubMed

    Prados-Bo, Andreu; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Nova, Esther; Marcos, Ascensión

    2015-02-07

    Obesity is a major public health issue as it is related to several chronic disorders, including type-2 diabetes, high blood pressure, dyslipemia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, among others. Novel research shows that the gut microbiota is involved in obesity and metabolic disorders, revealing that obese animal and human subjects have alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota compared to their lean counterparts. Moreover, it has been observed in germ-free mice that transplantation of the microbiota of either obese or lean mice influences body weight, suggesting that the gut ecosystem is a relevant target for weight management. Certain strains of probiotics may regulate body weight by influencing the host's metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune functions. Taken together, our knowledge about the influence of gut microbiota on obesity is progressing. Therefore, modulation of its composition through probiotics may provide new opportunities to manage overweight and obesity.

  8. Obesity in China: what are the causes?

    PubMed

    von Deneen, Karen M; Wei, Qin; Tian, Jie; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    To address the causes for obesity in all of China is not feasible in a single article. There are hundreds of ethnic groups over a vast number of provinces. The diet and lifestyle of each is different based upon cultural/ethnic traditions and the environment. Several studies mentioned in this review have been done in particular areas and/or on specific population groups with regards to obesity and health risks associated with being overweight. Obesity is a multifactorial disease that is associated with genetic, physiological, environmental, and cultural/traditional perspectives in order to provide a broadened view on this epidemic in China. In this review, we will assess specific obesity gene and environment interactions, childhood obesity etiology, metabolic syndrome, and dietary and behavioral causes. We attempt to discuss obesity issues particularly in the Han Chinese population ranging from children, adolescents, adults to geriatrics.

  9. Cancer and Obesity in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Pršić, Elizabeth; Gandhi, Meeka; Rizk, Sophia; Bishop, Kenneth; Santos, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that obesity increases the risk of certain cancers and cancer mortality. As obesity rates are projected to rise over the next decade, associated cancer morbidity and mortality present a significant public health concern. This is particularly striking in the state of Rhode Island, where nearly a third of the population is obese. Interventions such as taxation of obesity-associated foods or insurance incentive programs promoting positive health behaviors could decrease obesity-associated cancer incidence and mortality over time. Public health programs could be deployed at both the local and national levels. We provide a background on obesity-related cancer, discuss existing evidence to support these ideas, and make recommendations regarding individual and societal factors when considering public policy, health-care delivery, taxation structure, and insurance.

  10. Thiamin Deficiency in People with Obesity12

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Jennifer C; Arundel, Cherinne; Chawla, Lakhmir S

    2015-01-01

    Although obesity has been viewed traditionally as a disease of excess nutrition, evidence suggests that it may also be a disease of malnutrition. Specifically, thiamin deficiency was found in 15.5–29% of obese patients seeking bariatric surgery. It can present with vague signs and symptoms and is often overlooked in patients without alcohol use disorders. This review explores the relatively new discovery of high rates of thiamin deficiency in certain populations of people with obesity, including the effects of thiamin deficiency and potential underlying mechanisms of deficiency in people with obesity. The 2 observational studies that examined the prevalence in preoperative bariatric surgery patients and gaps in our current knowledge (including the prevalence of thiamin deficiency in the general obese population and whether the current RDA for thiamin meets the metabolic needs of overweight or obese adults) are reviewed. Suggestions for future areas of research are included. PMID:25770253

  11. Work, obesity, and occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Paul A; Wagner, Gregory R; Ostry, Aleck; Blanciforti, Laura A; Cutlip, Robert G; Krajnak, Kristine M; Luster, Michael; Munson, Albert E; O'Callaghan, James P; Parks, Christine G; Simeonova, Petia P; Miller, Diane B

    2007-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that obesity and overweight may be related, in part, to adverse work conditions. In particular, the risk of obesity may increase in high-demand, low-control work environments, and for those who work long hours. In addition, obesity may modify the risk for vibration-induced injury and certain occupational musculoskeletal disorders. We hypothesized that obesity may also be a co-risk factor for the development of occupational asthma and cardiovascular disease that and it may modify the worker's response to occupational stress, immune response to chemical exposures, and risk of disease from occupational neurotoxins. We developed 5 conceptual models of the interrelationship of work, obesity, and occupational safety and health and highlighted the ethical, legal, and social issues related to fuller consideration of obesity's role in occupational health and safety.

  12. Obesity, Diabetes and Cancer: A Mechanistic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cifarelli, V; Hursting, SD

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 35% of adults and 20% of children in the United States are obese, defined as having a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2. Obesity is an established risk factor for many cancers, and obesity-associated metabolic perturbations often manifest in Type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or the metabolic syndrome. As part of the growth-promoting, proinflammatory microenvironment of the obese and/or diabetic state, crosstalk between macrophages, adipocytes, and epithelial cells occurs via metabolically-regulated hormones, cytokines, and other mediators to enhance cancer risk and/or progression. This review synthesizes the evidence on key biological mechanisms underlying the associations between obesity, diabetes and cancer, with particular emphasis on enhancements in growth factor signaling, inflammation, and vascular integrity processes. These interrelated pathways represent mechanistic targets for disrupting the obesity-diabetes-cancer link, and several diabetes drugs, such as metformin and rosiglitazone, are being intensely studied for repurposing as cancer chemopreventive agents.

  13. Searching for obesity genes: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Xiao, Peng; Xiong, Dong Hai; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2005-05-01

    Obesity is a condition of excess body fat that causes or exacerbates several major public health problems. Remarkable progress has been made in the molecular elucidation of monogenic forms of obesity both in rodents and in humans. The most common form of obesity, however, is considered to be a polygenic disorder arising from the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Identification and characterization of susceptibility genes underlying obesity will contribute to a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of obesity and ultimately will assist in the development of better strategies for prevention and therapeutic intervention. In this article, we discuss the current status and future perspectives for the genetic dissection of obesity, with a focus on the most striking or representative findings.

  14. Perplexity analysis of obesity news coverage.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Delano J; Elhadad, Noémie; Kukafka, Rita

    2009-11-14

    An important task performed during the analysis of health news coverage is the identification of news articles that are related to a specific health topic (e.g. obesity). This is often done using a combination of keyword searching and manual encoding of news content. Statistical language models and their evaluation metric, perplexity, may help to automate this task. A perplexity study of obesity news was performed to evaluate perplexity as a measure of the similarity of news corpora to obesity news content. The results of this study showed that perplexity increased as news coverage became more general relative to obesity news (obesity news approximately 187, general health news approximately 278, general news approximately 378, general news across multiple publishers approximately 382). This indicates that language model perplexity can measure the similarity news content to obesity news coverage, and could be used as the basis for an automated health news classifier.

  15. Circadian Rhythms and Obesity in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Froy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious public health problem and a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension. Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating the circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding (RF), calorie restriction (CR), and intermittent fasting (IF), provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and lead to better health. In contrast, high-fat (HF) diet leads to disrupted circadian expression of metabolic factors and obesity. This paper focuses on circadian rhythms and their link to obesity. PMID:24527263

  16. Impact of obesity on infertility in women.

    PubMed

    Dağ, Zeynep Özcan; Dilbaz, Berna

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and overweight are increasing and have become an epidemic worldwide. Obesity has detrimental influences on all systems, including reproductive health. The prevalence of obesity in infertile women is high, and it is well known that there is an association between obesity and infertility. The relationship between obesity and reproductive functions is still being explored. Overweight women have a higher incidence of menstrual dysfunction and anovulation. Overweight and obese women are at a high risk for reproductive health. The risk of subfecundity and infertility, conception rates, miscarriage rates, and pregnancy complications are increased in these women. They have poor reproductive outcomes in natural as well as assisted conception. These poor reproductive outcomes include assisted reproduction such as ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI), and ovum donation cycles. Weight loss has beneficial effects on the reproductive outcomes in these patients.

  17. Obesity and lung function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Luciana Costa; da Silva, Maria Alayde Mendonça; Calles, Ana Carolina do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a chronic disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat that is harmful to the individuals. Respiratory disorders are among the comorbidities associated with obesity. This study had the objective of investigating the alterations in respiratory function that affect obese individuals. A systematic review was performed, by selecting publications in the science databases MEDLINE and LILACS, using PubMed and SciELO. The articles that assessed pulmonary function by plethysmography and/or spirometry in obese individuals aged under 18 years were included. The results demonstrated that the obese individuals presented with a reduction in lung volume and capacity as compared to healthy individuals. Reduction of total lung capacity and reduction of forced vital capacity, accompanied by reduction of the forced expiratory volume after one second were the most representative findings in the samples. The articles analyzed proved the presence of a restrictive respiratory pattern associated with obesity. PMID:24728258

  18. Prevalence and Perception of Childhood Obesity in California's Farmworker Communities.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Banafsheh; Schaefer, Sara; Tseregounis, Iraklis Erik; Aguilera, Alberto L; Martinez, Lisa; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa; Shaikh, Ulfat; Gomez, Mayra Munoz; Whent, Linda; de la Torre, Adela

    2017-04-01

    In California's central valley, childhood obesity rates are above the national average. The majority of families living in the rural, agricultural communities of this region are immigrant of Mexican heritage, and face numerous social and environmental challenges. Demographic and anthropometric data were collected from a population of Mexican-heritage children 3-8 years (N = 609) and families (N = 466) living in two central valley communities. Overall, 45 % of children and 82 % of mothers were classified as overweight or obese. Multivariable analyses indicated that mother's BMI and acculturation level were positively associated with child BMI z-score. Most children classified as overweight or obese (92 % and 53 %, respectively) were perceived as having 'normal' weight by their mothers. Childhood obesity remains a major public health issue in Mexican-heritage, central valley communities. Our model indicates that mother's BMI is predictor of child obesity, and parents tend to underestimate their child's weight status. These findings highlight a need for family-targeted and culturally-tailored approaches to address relevant perceptions of obesity and risk factors in these communities.

  19. [Gender Obesity Report--Influence of obesity on Reproduction and Pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Harreiter, Jürgen; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Obesity influences reproduction in men and women at all ages. The increasing prevalence of obesity is associated with rising numbers of reproductive disorders in both sexes. Obesity influences menstrual cycle and ovulation irregularities, increases pregnancy complications and complication rates in assisted reproductive technologies in women and in men obesity is associated with lower semen parameters. Weight loss through lifestyle changes or bariatric surgery has positive effects on hormonal parameters and fertility in both men and women.

  20. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

  1. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention.

    PubMed

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J

    2012-11-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity.

  2. Unconventional wisdom about the obesity epidemic.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Andrew R

    2010-12-01

    Diet and sedentary lifestyle, interacting with "thrifty" genes, are widely accepted as the principal cause of the current global obesity epidemic. However, a number of alternative etiologies for obesity have been proposed, including "drifty" genes, viruses, bacteria, environmental toxins, social network effects, maternal imprinting, sleep deprivation, and others. These Grand Rounds reviews the background of some of these unconventional ideas and evidence for or against their roles in the obesity epidemic.

  3. Scoping review report: obesity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Decaria, J E; Sharp, C; Petrella, R J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk for early death, heart disease and stroke, disability and several other comorbidities. Although there is concern about the potential burden on health-care services with the aging demographic and the increasing trend of obesity prevalence in older adults, evidence on which to base management strategies is conflicting for various reasons. The analytic framework for this review is based on a scoping review methodology, and was conducted to examine what is known about the diagnosis, treatment and management of obesity in older adults. A total of 492 relevant research articles were identified using PubMed, Scirus, EBSCO, Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane Reviews and Google Scholar. The findings of this review indicate that the current WHO (World Health Organization)-recommended body mass index, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio obesity thresholds for the general adult population may not be appropriate for older adults. Alternatively, weight change or physical fitness may be more useful measures of mortality and health risk in obese older adults. Furthermore, although obesity in older adults is associated with several disorders that increase functional disability, epidemiological evidence suggests that obesity is protective against mortality in seniors. Consequently, the trend toward increasing prevalence of obesity in older adults will lead to an increase in unhealthy life years and health-care costs. The findings from this review also suggest that treatment strategies for obese older adults should focus on maintaining body weight and improving physical fitness and function rather than weight loss, and that a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise appears to be the most effective strategy. In conclusion, this review demonstrates the need for more research to clarify the definition of obesity in older adults, to establish criteria for evaluating when to treat older adults for obesity, and to develop effective

  4. Obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Shrivastava, Usha

    2013-07-16

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at "ectopic" sites, namely the liver and skeletal muscles. All these features lead to higher magnitude of insulin resistance, and its concomitant metabolic disorders (the metabolic syndrome) including atherogenic dyslipidemia. Because of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and other cardiovascular morbidities at a lower range of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), it is proposed that cut-offs for both measures of obesity should be lower (BMI 23-24.9 kg/m(2) for overweight and ≥ 25 kg/m(2) for obesity, WC ≥ 80 cm for women and ≥ 90 cm for men for abdominal obesity) for South Asians, and a consensus guideline for these revised measures has been developed for Asian Indians. Increasing obesity and dyslipidemia in South Asians is primarily driven by nutrition, lifestyle and demographic transitions, increasingly faulty diets and physical inactivity, in the background of genetic predisposition. Dietary guidelines for prevention of obesity and diabetes, and physical activity guidelines for Asian Indians are now available. Intervention programs with emphasis on improving knowledge, attitude and practices regarding healthy nutrition, physical activity and stress management need to be implemented. Evidence for successful intervention program for prevention of childhood obesity and for prevention of diabetes is available for Asian Indians, and could be applied to all South Asian countries with similar cultural and lifestyle profiles. Finally, more research on

  5. Behavioral Modification for the Management of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Claire P; Sbrocco, Geena; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2016-03-01

    This article provides behavioral strategies for working with obese patients and families within a primary care context. A multifactorial model for the etiology of obesity from which to adopt treatment strategies is provided. Optimal views to set up effective patient encounters and specific recommendations to motivate and support patients are discussed. Multicomponent programs include a combination of nutritional, physical activity, and cognitive behavioral approaches to target overweight/obesity. The focus is on behavioral approaches and practical applications, such as motivational interviewing techniques.

  6. Structural renal changes in obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amann, Kerstin; Benz, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Overweight, obesity, and associated diseases represent an emerging problem, not only in Western countries but also in the developing world. They are now characterized as epidemic diseases. Obesity is particularly serious because its incidence in children and adolescents increased dramatically: it is estimated that in the United States every eighth adolescent suffers from obesity, which in the long run may reduce life expectancy in the population. Apart from cardiovascular disease (ie, blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease), kidney diseases also have been shown to be associated with obesity. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that obesity can be a risk factor of chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence or absence of diabetes, arterial hypertension, and other comorbidities. More evidence is accumulated on the link between chronic kidney disease in obesity and abnormalities in adipokine secretion (hyperleptinemia, lack of adiponectin), activation of the renin-angiotensin system, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, lipid accumulation, impaired renal hemodynamics, and diminished nephron number related to body mass. In general, obesity is known to aggravate the course of many primary renal diseases such as glomerulonephritides, but also impairs renal function after kidney transplantation. Microalbuminuria, proteinuria, hyperfiltration, and impaired renal function are associated with obesity. Histologically, secondary focal segmental sclerosis has been shown to be caused particularly by obesity. Of practical purpose for clinical nephrology, loss of body weight either by lifestyle modification or bariatric surgery improves albuminuria and hyperfiltration in obese patients, making renal disease in obesity accessible for prevention programs. This review specifically addresses the pathogenesis and morphology of renal functional and particularly structural changes in obesity and associated renal disease such as diabetic nephropathy.

  7. Obesity: thermodynamic principles in perspective.

    PubMed

    Rampone, A J; Reynolds, P J

    1988-01-01

    The energy balance equation applicable to all living organisms was used as a framework on which to construct a critical review of some of the more controversial aspects of the obesity problem. The equation matches energy intake against all the known forms of work that the body does in utilizing that energy, including external and internal work and the work of adipose tissue synthesis (stored energy). Equations representing everyday living conditions, resting, fasting and basal conditions were constructed. The equation applicable to everyday living (working, non-fasting) was used to develop a set of model paradigms to illustrate some of the devices that can be invoked to decrease expenditure and conserve energy. These served as models of how obesity can arise in the absence of calorie overconsumption. The same equation was then used to create a set of opposite paradigms showing how obesity can be prevented by increasing expenditure to waste energy and stabilize body weight when challenged by hyperphagia. In order to see caloric intake and the various work terms in their proper quantitative relationships it was necessary to assign numerical values to the equation. These were selected from published reports of caloric values representative of a non-obese adult of average size engaged in a typical white collar occupation. It was then easy to adjust these assigned values commensurate with the objectives described in the preceding paragraph. Since obesity research is hampered by a confusing array of metabolic interactions it was essential to alter only one of the energy terms at a time, excluding all metabolic interactions except for those unavoidable ones dictated by the laws of thermodynamics. Only in this way could we see the body's multiple energy forms in clear perspective with regard to their real quantitative significance in the energy balance sheet and their potential impact on body weight. Creating these models gave us the added advantage of enabling us better

  8. Economic Differences in Risk Factors for Obesity among Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hee Soon; Ham, Ok Kyung; Jang, Mi Na; Yun, Hyun Jung; Park, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the economic differences in familial, physiological, psychological, and lifestyle characteristics associated with overweight and obese children in South Korea. A total of 407 overweight and obese children participated in the study. The obesity rate was 69.0% and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was…

  9. To Treat or Not to Treat? Health Risks of Obesity and Obesity Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersmarck, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Presents summary of a panel discussion at the Conference of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity (1992) on the health risks of treating obesity. The panel focused on selectivity in accepting patients, obesity and mortality, genetic individuality, weight loss mode and outcome, weight loss and longevity, and weight maintenance.…

  10. Fuzzy obesity index (MAFOI) for obesity evaluation and bariatric surgery indication

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Miyahira-Araujo Fuzzy Obesity Index (MAFOI) for being used as an alternative in bariatric surgery indication (BSI) is validated in this paper. The search for a more accurate method to evaluate obesity and to indicate a better treatment is important in the world health context. Body mass index (BMI) is considered the main criteria for obesity treatment and BSI. Nevertheless, the fat excess related to the percentage of Body Fat (%BF) is actually the principal harmful factor in obesity disease that is usually neglected. The aim of this research is to validate a previous fuzzy mechanism by associating BMI with %BF that yields the Miyahira-Araujo Fuzzy Obesity Index (MAFOI) for obesity evaluation, classification, analysis, treatment, as well for better indication of surgical treatment. Methods Seventy-two patients were evaluated for both BMI and %BF. The BMI and %BF classes are aggregated yielding a new index (MAFOI). The input linguistic variables are the BMI and %BF, and the output linguistic variable is employed an obesity classification with entirely new types of obesity in the fuzzy context, being used for BSI, as well. Results There is gradual and smooth obesity classification and BSI criteria when using the Miyahira-Araujo Fuzzy Obesity Index (MAFOI), mainly if compared to BMI or %BF alone for dealing with obesity assessment, analysis, and treatment. Conclusion The resulting fuzzy decision support system (MAFOI) becomes a feasible alternative for obesity classification and bariatric surgery indication. PMID:21838928

  11. Socioeconomic differences in obesity among Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    ULLMANN, S. HEIDI; BUTTENHEIM, ALISON M.; GOLDMAN, NOREEN; PEBLEY, ANNE R.; WONG, REBECA

    2012-01-01

    Objective We investigate socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity in Mexico. Three questions are addressed. First, what is the social patterning of obesity among Mexican adolescents? Second, what are the separate and joint associations of maternal and paternal education with adolescent obesity net of household wealth? Third, are there differences in socioeconomic status (SES) gradients among Mexican boys and girls, rural residents and non-rural residents? Methods Using data from the Mexican National Health Survey 2000 we examined the slope and direction of the association between SES and adolescent obesity. We also estimated models for sub-populations to examine differences in the social gradients in obesity by sex and non-rural residence. Results We find that household economic status (asset ownership and housing quality) is positively associated with adolescent obesity. High paternal education is related to lower obesity risk, whereas the association between maternal education and obesity is positive, but not always significant. Conclusion The household wealth components of SES appear to predispose Mexican adolescents to higher obesity risk. The effects of parental education are more complex. These findings have important policy implications in Mexico and the United States. PMID:20883181

  12. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Consequences, and Management.

    PubMed

    Gurnani, Muskaan; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill

    2015-08-01

    One-third of North American children are overweight or obese. Pathologic obesity accounts for only a small percentage of these cases. The vast majority are the result of a complex interaction of genetic and hormonal, nutritional, physical activity, and physical and social environmental factors. Obesity increases the risk for various cardiometabolic, pulmonary, and psychosocial complications for children, which often continues into adulthood. Multidisciplinary care, focusing on family-centered behavior change, is an evidence-based, essential part of the treatment, along with pharmacologic and surgical options for more complex cases. Prevention and early intervention strategies are key to reversing the obesity epidemic.

  13. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  14. Caloric intake and expenditure of obese boys.

    PubMed

    Waxman, M; Stunkard, A J

    1980-02-01

    Caloric intake and expenditure of children in four families were assessed by nonparticipant observations of family dinners and school lunches. In each family there were one obese boy and one nonobese brother whose ages were within two years of each other. For family dinners the nonobese brother served as a control; for school lunches, a nonobese peer served as a control. The obese boys consumed more calories (766 +/- 290) than did their nonobese brothers at dinner (504 +/- 183) and far more (907 +/- 217) than their nonobese peers at lunch (500 +/- 386). The obese boys also ate faster (65.7 +/- 37.0 kcal/minute) than their brothers at dinner (31.7 +/- 13.8 kcal/minute) and far faster (103.5 +/- 40.9 kcal/minute) than their nonobese peers at lunch (46.2 +/- 22.5 kcal/minute). Time-sampled activity assessments showed the obese boys far less active than their controls inside the home, slightly less active outside the home, and equally active at school. When these activity values were converted into energy expenditure by measurement of oxygen consumption, obese boys expended more calories in moving than did their controls; as a result, there was no difference in energy expenditure between obese and nonobese boys at home and greater energy expenditure outside the home and at school. Increased intake, thus, and not decreased caloric output maintained the obesity of these four boys. In this respect, obesity in childhood may differ from obesity in adult life.

  15. Predictors of metabolic risk in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Anita; Maffeis, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Most of the complications of juvenile obesity are due to metabolic disturbances induced by an excessive accumulation of fat which leads to chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Finding effective ways of identifying obese paediatric patients who are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular and metabolic complications has been recognised to be a promising strategy to improve prevention of complications of early obesity. Moreover, correctly identifying obese children who are already affected by metabolic co-morbidities should be a clinical priority. According to the state of the art summarised in this review, traditional metabolic variables included in the definitions of metabolic syndrome (MS), pre-diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis and, in obese girls, the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome are the best available longitudinal predictors of CVD and T2DM among obese children and adolescents. In clinical practice, traditional metabolic variables included in the definitions of MS should be assessed in all obese children and adolescents; fasting metabolic variables have been proposed to identify obese patients likely to be affected by impaired glucose tolerance or T2DM, and ultrasound has proved to be a valid surrogate for biopsy in the diagnosis of NAFLD. Further large longitudinal and cross-sectional studies are needed to improve our chances of identifying obese youth at the highest metabolic risk.

  16. Obesity, nutrition, and liver disease in children.

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Ariel E; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2014-02-01

    In this article, several aspects of childhood obesity are discussed, including epidemiology, associated metabolic complications, management strategies, and therapy with particular attention to the impact of obesity on the liver, resulting in nonalcoholic or metabolic fatty liver disease. The deleterious effects of obesity on the liver and health overall can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. The current evidence is summarized supporting pharmacologic, behavioral, and dietary interventions for the management of obesity and fatty liver disease in children.

  17. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Piątek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  18. Update on Treatment Strategies for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a disease that is defined as the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat and is associated with increased risk of serious illness, disability, and death. In clinical practice, obesity is best assessed by calculating body mass index and measuring waist circumference. Treatment options are determined based on the body mass index, waist circumference, and adverse health consequences the patient is experiencing or is at an increased risk for facing in the future. Today, overweight and obesity impacts the majority of patients we treat in our clinical practices. Although endocrinologists are uniquely positioned to treat one of the major consequences of our current obesity epidemic, type 2 diabetes, we also need to be positioned and prepared to effectively treat one of its major causes—obesity. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are very much intertwined. Treatment of each disease affects the other. For these reasons, endocrinologists need to be experts in the treatment of obesity as well as diabetes. They should keep up with advances in obesity treatment including lifestyle, pharmaceutical, and surgical strategies. These strategies offer opportunities for improving the overall treatment for our obese patients today and will continue to improve and expand over the next decade. PMID:23443815

  19. The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Garaulet, M; Ordovás, JM; Madrid, JA

    2015-01-01

    The effect of CD on human health is an emerging issue. Many records link CD with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, cognitive impairment and obesity, all of them conducive to premature aging. The amount of sleep has declined by 1.5 h over the past century, accompanied by an important increase in obesity. Shift work, sleep deprivation and exposure to bright light at night increase the prevalence of adiposity. Animal models have shown that mice with Clock gene disruption are prone to developing obesity and MetS. This review summarizes the latest developments with regard to chronobiology and obesity, considering (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and the specific role of the adipocyte; (2) CD and its causes and pathological consequences; (3) the epidemiological evidence of obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (4) theories of circadian disruption and obesity. Energy intake and expenditure, relevance of sleep, fat intake from a circadian perspective and psychological and genetic aspects of obesity are examined. Finally, ideas about the use of chronobiology in the treatment of obesity are discussed. Such knowledge has the potential to become a valuable tool in the understanding of the relationship between the chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity. PMID:20567242

  20. Pathophysiology and treatment of obesity hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Marion R; Hall, John E

    2004-01-01

    Excess weight gain accounts for as much as 65-75% of the risk for essential hypertension and also greatly increases the risk for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when visceral obesity is present. The mechanisms of SNS activation in obesity are still unclear but may be due, in part, to hyperleptinemia that stimulates the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) pathway. With prolonged obesity, there may be a gradual loss of kidney function that worsens with time, exacerbates hypertension, and makes blood pressure more difficult to control. Lifestyle modifications, including weight reduction and increased physical activity, are essential first steps in the management of obesity hypertension and renal disease. Anti-obesity drugs offer potential pharmacotherapy for obesity hypertension, but current drugs are very limited and additional long-term studies are needed to test their safety and efficacy. Clinical trials are also needed to determine the most effective antihypertensive drugs for obese hypertensive patients. Special considerations for the obese patient, in addition to adequately controlling the blood pressure, include correcting the metabolic abnormalities and protecting the kidneys from further injury.

  1. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  2. Genetic & epigenetic approach to human obesity.

    PubMed

    Rao, K Rajender; Lal, Nirupama; Giridharan, N V

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is an important clinical and public health challenge, epitomized by excess adipose tissue accumulation resulting from an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure. It is a forerunner for a variety of other diseases such as type-2-diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular diseases, some types of cancer, stroke, hyperlipidaemia and can be fatal leading to premature death. Obesity is highly heritable and arises from the interplay of multiple genes and environmental factors. Recent advancements in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown important steps towards identifying genetic risks and identification of genetic markers for lifestyle diseases, especially for a metabolic disorder like obesity. According to the 12th Update of Human Obesity Gene Map there are 253 quantity trait loci (QTL) for obesity related phenotypes from 61 genome wide scan studies. Contribution of genetic propensity of individual ethnic and racial variations in obesity is an active area of research. Further, understanding its complexity as to how these variations could influence ones susceptibility to become or remain obese will lead us to a greater understanding of how obesity occurs and hopefully, how to prevent and treat this condition. In this review, various strategies adapted for such an analysis based on the recent advances in genome wide and functional variations in human obesity are discussed.

  3. Intrapartum Management of the Obese Gravida.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Jeanette R

    2016-03-01

    Obese women are at increased risk for multiple labor abnormalities, including postdates pregnancy, failed induction of labor, prolonged labor, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Prolonged labor among obese women is confined to the first stage of labor. In the setting of reassuring fetal and maternal status, increased time to progress in the first stage of labor should be allowed. Uterine atony occurs more frequently in obese women and vigilance in the prevention of PPH is critical. There is a lack of high-quality data to guide the management of induction, labor, and PPH prevention among obese women.

  4. Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery for Obesity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Josep; Corcelles, Ricard; Jiménez, Amanda; Flores, Lílliam; Lacy, Antonio M

    2017-02-10

    Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) leads to weight loss in obese individuals and reduces comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. MBS is superior to medical therapy in reducing hyperglycemia in persons with type 2 diabetes, and has been associated with reduced mortality and incidences of cardiovascular events and cancer in obese individuals. New guidelines have been proposed for the use of MBS in persons with type 2 diabetes. We review the use of MBS as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related conditions and, based on recent evidence, propose health care systems make the appropriate changes to increase accessibility for eligible patients.

  5. The chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity.

    PubMed

    Garaulet, M; Ordovás, J M; Madrid, J A

    2010-12-01

    The effect of CD on human health is an emerging issue. Many records link CD with diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular, cognitive impairment and obesity, all of them conducive to premature aging. The amount of sleep has declined by 1.5 h over the past century, accompanied by an important increase in obesity. Shift work, sleep deprivation and exposure to bright light at night increase the prevalence of adiposity. Animal models have shown that mice with Clock gene disruption are prone to developing obesity and MetS. This review summarizes the latest developments with regard to chronobiology and obesity, considering (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and the specific role of the adipocyte; (2) CD and its causes and pathological consequences; (3) the epidemiological evidence of obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (4) theories of circadian disruption and obesity. Energy intake and expenditure, relevance of sleep, fat intake from a circadian perspective and psychological and genetic aspects of obesity are examined. Finally, ideas about the use of chronobiology in the treatment of obesity are discussed. Such knowledge has the potential to become a valuable tool in the understanding of the relationship between the chronobiology, etiology and pathophysiology of obesity.

  6. Obesity and female stress urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Osborn, David James; Strain, Matthew; Gomelsky, Alex; Rothschild, Jennifer; Dmochowski, Roger

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment options for stress urinary incontinence in the obese female patient and draw conclusions regarding the optimal treatment of this condition in this unique patient population. Obesity results in increased intra-abdominal pressure and this leads to weakening of the pelvic floor innervation and musculature. Weight loss through lifestyle modification and bariatric surgery improves stress urinary incontinence. Success of stress urinary incontinence surgery in obese women is similar to nonobese patients. Obese women should not be excluded from potentially curative surgery based on their body mass index (BMI) alone.

  7. Overweight and Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncuoğlu Güngör, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia, fatty liver disease and psychosocial complications. It is also a major contributor to increasing healthcare expenditures. For all these reasons, it is important to prevent childhood obesity as well as to identify overweight and obese children at an early stage so they can begin treatment and attain and maintain a healthy weight. At present, pharmacotherapy options for treatment of pediatric obesity are very limited. Therefore, establishing a comprehensive management program that emphasizes appropriate nutrition, exercise and behavioral modification is crucial. The physician’s role should expand beyond the clinical setting to the community to serve as a role model and to advocate for prevention and early treatment of obesity. PMID:25241606

  8. Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity.

    PubMed

    García, Olga P; Long, Kurt Z; Rosado, Jorge L

    2009-10-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies have been found in obese individuals across age groups worldwide. While the effects of micronutrient deficiencies on human functions have been studied widely in different populations, there is limited information on how these micronutrient deficiencies affect obese populations. An examination of the available literature suggests associations exist between micronutrient deficiencies and obesity in different populations. These associations and possible mechanisms of the deficiencies' metabolic effects, such as their influence on leptin and insulin metabolism, are discussed here. Further studies are needed to clarify the roles of the different micronutrient deficiencies with respect to obesity and its comorbid conditions.

  9. Obesity in Arabic-Speaking Countries

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions throughout the globe, and this has also impacted people of the Arabic-speaking countries, especially those in higher-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. There is a significant increase in the incidence of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% in adult females and 1%–30% in adult males. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and multiple pregnancies may be important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity engulfing the Arabic-speaking countries. PMID:22175002

  10. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity.

  11. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  12. Global metabolomic profiling targeting childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolomics may unravel important biological pathways involved in the pathophysiology of childhood obesity. We aimed to 1) identify metabolites that differ significantly between nonobese and obese Hispanic children; 2) collapse metabolites into principal components (PCs) associated with obesity and...

  13. Metabolic Impact Of Sex Hormones On Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lynda M.; Gent, Lana; Davis, Kathryn; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and its associated health disorders and costs are increasing. Men and postmenopausal women have greater risk of developing complications of obesity than younger women. Within the brain, the hypothalamus is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. Two of its sub-areas, the ventrolateral portion of the ventral medial nucleus (VL VMN) and the arcuate (ARC) respond to hormones and other signals to control energy intake and expenditure. When large lesions are made in the hypothalamus which includes both the VL VMN and the ARC, animals eat more, have reduced energy expenditure, and become obese. The ARC and the VL VMN, in addition to other regions in the hypothalamus, have been demonstrated to contain estrogen receptors. There are two estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). We and others have previously demonstrated that activation of ERα by estrogens reduces food intake and increases body weight. This review focuses on the relative contribution of activation of ERα by estrogens in the ARC and the VL VMN in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Additionally, estrogen receptors have been found in many peripheral tissues including adipose tissue. Estrogens are thought to have direct effects on adipose tissue and estrogens may provide anti-inflammatory properties both in the periphery and the in the central nervous system (CNS) which may protect women from diseases associated with inflammation. Understanding the mechanisms by which estrogens regulate body weight and inflammation will assist in determining potential therapeutic agents for menopausal women to decrease the propensity of diseases associated with obesity. PMID:20441773

  14. Smart food policies for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Corinna; Smith, Trenton G; Jewell, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Hammond, Ross A; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Kain, Juliana

    2015-06-13

    Prevention of obesity requires policies that work. In this Series paper, we propose a new way to understand how food policies could be made to work more effectively for obesity prevention. Our approach draws on evidence from a range of disciplines (psychology, economics, and public health nutrition) to develop a theory of change to understand how food policies work. We focus on one of the key determinants of obesity: diet. The evidence we review suggests that the interaction between human food preferences and the environment in which those preferences are learned, expressed, and reassessed has a central role. We identify four mechanisms through which food policies can affect diet: providing an enabling environment for learning of healthy preferences, overcoming barriers to the expression of healthy preferences, encouraging people to reassess existing unhealthy preferences at the point-of-purchase, and stimulating a food-systems response. We explore how actions in three specific policy areas (school settings, economic instruments, and nutrition labelling) work through these mechanisms, and draw implications for more effective policy design. We find that effective food-policy actions are those that lead to positive changes to food, social, and information environments and the systems that underpin them. Effective food-policy actions are tailored to the preference, behavioural, socioeconomic, and demographic characteristics of the people they seek to support, are designed to work through the mechanisms through which they have greatest effect, and are implemented as part of a combination of mutually reinforcing actions. Moving forward, priorities should include comprehensive policy actions that create an enabling environment for infants and children to learn healthy food preferences and targeted actions that enable disadvantaged populations to overcome barriers to meeting healthy preferences. Policy assessments should be carefully designed on the basis of a theory of

  15. Altered Resting and Exercise Respiratory Physiology in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Akshay

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Obesity, particularly severe obesity, affects both resting and exercise-related respiratory physiology. Severe obesity classically produces a restrictive ventilatory abnormality, characterized by reduced expiratory reserve volume. However, obstructive ventilatory abnormality may also be associated with abdominal obesity. Decreased peak work rates are usually seen among obese subjects in a setting of normal or decreased ventilatory reserve and normal cardiovascular response to exercise. Weight loss may reverse many adverse physiological consequences of severe obesity on the respiratory system. PMID:19700043

  16. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reverses the effects of diet-induced obesity to inhibit the responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Fortna, Samuel R; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to alter the biophysical properties and pharmacological responsiveness of vagal afferent neurones and fibres, although the effects of DIO on central vagal neurones or vagal efferent functions have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate whether high-fat diet-induced DIO also affects the properties of vagal efferent motoneurones, and to investigate whether these effects were reversed following weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones in thin brainstem slices. The DMV neurones from rats exposed to high-fat diet for 12-14 weeks were less excitable, with a decreased membrane input resistance and decreased ability to fire action potentials in response to direct current pulse injection. The DMV neurones were also less responsive to superfusion with the satiety neuropeptides cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversed all of these DIO-induced effects. Diet-induced obesity also affected the morphological properties of DMV neurones, increasing their size and dendritic arborization; RYGB did not reverse these morphological alterations. Remarkably, independent of diet, RYGB also reversed age-related changes of membrane properties and occurrence of charybdotoxin-sensitive (BK) calcium-dependent potassium current. These results demonstrate that DIO also affects the properties of central autonomic neurones by decreasing the membrane excitability and pharmacological responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones and that these changes were reversed following RYGB. In contrast, DIO-induced changes in morphological properties of DMV neurones were not reversed following gastric bypass surgery, suggesting that they may be due to diet, rather than obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence for the plausible effect of RYGB to improve vagal

  17. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reverses the effects of diet-induced obesity to inhibit the responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Fortna, Samuel R; Hajnal, Andras

    2013-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity (DIO) has been shown to alter the biophysical properties and pharmacological responsiveness of vagal afferent neurones and fibres, although the effects of DIO on central vagal neurones or vagal efferent functions have never been investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate whether high-fat diet-induced DIO also affects the properties of vagal efferent motoneurones, and to investigate whether these effects were reversed following weight loss induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones in thin brainstem slices. The DMV neurones from rats exposed to high-fat diet for 12–14 weeks were less excitable, with a decreased membrane input resistance and decreased ability to fire action potentials in response to direct current pulse injection. The DMV neurones were also less responsive to superfusion with the satiety neuropeptides cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide 1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass reversed all of these DIO-induced effects. Diet-induced obesity also affected the morphological properties of DMV neurones, increasing their size and dendritic arborization; RYGB did not reverse these morphological alterations. Remarkably, independent of diet, RYGB also reversed age-related changes of membrane properties and occurrence of charybdotoxin-sensitive (BK) calcium-dependent potassium current. These results demonstrate that DIO also affects the properties of central autonomic neurones by decreasing the membrane excitability and pharmacological responsiveness of central vagal motoneurones and that these changes were reversed following RYGB. In contrast, DIO-induced changes in morphological properties of DMV neurones were not reversed following gastric bypass surgery, suggesting that they may be due to diet, rather than obesity. These findings represent the first direct evidence for the plausible effect of RYGB to improve vagal

  18. Precision Obesity Treatments Including Pharmacogenetic and Nutrigenetic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Ramirez, Maria J; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved anti-obesity drugs and newer molecules that could affect different targets in the central nervous system or peripheral tissues, the molecular mechanisms, emerging dietary treatments and phytogenic compounds, and pharmacogenetic/nutrigenetic approaches for personalized obesity management.

  19. Mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in obesity-associated hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, N.S.; Filgueira, F.P.; Akamine, E.H.; Tostes, R.C.; Carvalho, M.H.C.; Fortes, Z.B.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. These conditions synergistically increase the risk of cardiovascular events. A number of central and peripheral abnormalities can explain the development or maintenance of high blood pressure in obesity. Of great interest is endothelial dysfunction, considered to be a primary risk factor in the development of hypertension. Additional mechanisms also related to endothelial dysfunction have been proposed to mediate the development of hypertension in obese individuals. These include: increase in both peripheral vasoconstriction and renal tubular sodium reabsorption, increased sympathetic activity and overactivation of both the renin-angiotensin system and the endocannabinoid system and insulin resistance. The discovery of new mechanisms regulating metabolic and vascular function and a better understanding of how vascular function can be influenced by these systems would facilitate the development of new therapies for treatment of obesity-associated hypertension. PMID:22488221

  20. Activation of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Engeli, Stefan; Böhnke, Jana; Feldpausch, Mareike; Gorzelniak, Kerstin; Janke, Jürgen; Bátkai, Sándor; Pacher, Pál; Harvey-White, Judy; Luft, Friedrich C; Sharma, Arya M; Jordan, Jens

    2005-10-01

    Obesity is the main risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Activation of the central endocannabinoid system increases food intake and promotes weight gain. Blockade of the cannabinoid type 1 (CB-1) receptor reduces body weight in animals by central and peripheral actions; the role of the peripheral endocannabinoid system in human obesity is now being extensively investigated. We measured circulating endocannabinoid concentrations and studied the expression of CB-1 and the main degrading enzyme, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), in adipose tissue of lean (n = 20) and obese (n = 20) women and after a 5% weight loss in a second group of women (n = 17). Circulating levels of anandamide and 1/2-arachidonoylglycerol were increased by 35 and 52% in obese compared with lean women (P < 0.05). Adipose tissue mRNA levels were reduced by -34% for CB-1 and -59% for FAAH in obese subjects (P < 0.05). A strong negative correlation was found between FAAH expression in adipose tissue and circulating endocannabinoids. Circulating endocannabinoids and CB-1 or FAAH expression were not affected by 5% weight loss. The expression of CB-1 and FAAH was increased in mature human adipocytes compared with in preadipocytes and was found in several human tissues. Our findings support the presence of a peripheral endocannabinoid system that is upregulated in human obesity.

  1. An EASO position statement on multidisciplinary obesity management in adults.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan; Frühbeck, Gema; Oppert, Jean Michel; Woodward, Euan; Toplak, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has proven to be a gateway to ill health. It has already reached epidemic proportions becoming one of the leading causes of death and disability in Europe and world-wide. Obesity plays a central role in the development of a number of risk factors and chronic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidaemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus inducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore weight management plays a central role in controlling the respective risk factors and their consequences. Obesity is a complex condition of multifactorial origin. Biological but also psychological and social factors interfere to lead to excess body weight and its deleterious outcomes. Obesity management cannot focus any more only on weight (and BMI) reduction. More attention is to be paid to waist circumference (or waist-to-hip ratio, especially in females), the improvement in body composition (measured with body composition tracking systems like BOD POD, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis) which is focusing on ameliorating or maintaining fat-free mass and decreasing fat mass. Management of co-morbidities, improving quality of life and well-being of obese patients are also included in treatment aims. This statement emphasises the importance of a comprehensive approach to obesity management.

  2. Gene-environment interactions in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Cecil, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global and growing problem. The detrimental health consequences of obesity are significant and include co-morbidities such as diabetes, cancer and coronary heart disease. The marked rise in obesity observed over the last three decades suggests that behavioural and environmental factors underpin the chronic mismatch between energy intake and energy expenditure. However, not all individuals become obese, suggesting that there is considerable variation in responsiveness to 'obesogenic' environments. Some individuals defend easily against a propensity to accumulate fat mass and become overweight whilst others are predisposed to gain weight, possibly as a function of genotype. The genetic contribution to obesity is well established. Common obesity is polygenic, involving complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and it is these interactions that produce the multi-factorial obese phenotypes. Candidate gene variants for polygenic obesity appear to disrupt pathways involved in the regulation of energy intake and expenditure and include adrenergic receptors, uncoupling proteins, PPARG, POMC, MC4R and a set of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO locus. Notably, the FTO gene is the most robust gene for common obesity characterised to date, and recent data shows that the FTO locus seems to confer risk of obesity through increasing energy intake and reduced satiety. Gene variants involved in pathways regulating addiction and reward behaviours may also play a role in predisposition to obesity. Understanding the routes through which the genotype is expressed will ultimately provide opportunities for developing strategies to intervene, as the interaction between genotype and environment is potentially modifiable through behaviour change.

  3. Ghrelin in obesity, physiological and pharmacological considerations.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Pena, Lara; Cordido, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the physiological and pharmacological aspects of ghrelin. Obesity can be defined as an excess of body fat and is associated with significant disturbances in metabolic and endocrine function. Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic. In obesity there is a decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion, and the altered somatotroph secretion in obesity is functional. Ghrelin is a peptide that has a unique structure with 28 amino-acids and an n-octanoyl ester at its third serine residue, which is essential for its potent stimulatory activity on somatotroph secretion. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for GH hyposecretion in obesity is probably multifactorial, and there is probably a defect in ghrelin secretion. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be reduced in obese humans. Ghrelin levels in blood decrease during periods of feeding. Due to its orexigenic and metabolic effects, ghrelin has a potential benefit in antagonizing protein breakdown and weight loss in catabolic conditions such as cancer cachexia, renal and cardiac disease, and age-related frailty. Theoretically ghrelin receptor antagonists could be employed as anti-obesity drugs, blocking the orexigenic signal. By blocking the constitutive receptor activity, inverse agonists of the ghrelin receptor may lower the set-point for hunger, and could be used for the treatment of obesity. In summary, ghrelin secretion is reduced in obesity, and could be partly responsible for GH hyposecretion in obesity, ghrelin antagonist or partial inverse agonists should be considered for the treatment of obesity.

  4. Metabolic Setup and Risks in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Kocova, Mirjana; Sukarova-Angelovska, Elena; Tanaskoska, Milica; Palcevska-Kocevska, Snezana; Krstevska, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In the past decades, the obesity epidemic in children of all ages has been an important research field for detecting the metabolic causes and consequences of obesity, the major focus being on insulin and adipocytokine levels. Metabolic work-up in obese children is recommended in the age group as young as 2–6 years. There is evidence that birth weight can be a factor causing obesity later in life accompanied by metabolic complications. Methods Insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were analyzed in 269 obese children and 60 controls, as well as 110 newborn children with different birth weight and different length of gestation, using standard methods. Results In 53.6% of the obese children, complications of obesity such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart attack or stroke were found in family members. The peak insulinemia on OGTT was significantly higher in the pubertal compared to the prepubertal group (110.5± 75.9 μU/mL versus 72.2±62.7 μU/mL) (p<0.005). Glucose intolerance was confirmed in 24%. The leptin level was significantly higher and the adiponectin level was lower in pubertal obese children compared to the prepubertal children and controls (p<0.05). In newborns the leptin and adiponectin levels were in correlation with anthropometric parameters: body weight (BW), body length (BL), BW/BL, BMI, and the pondered index (p<0.05). Conclusion Obese children have high insulinemia in all ages, reaching its peak towards puberty. The leptin and adiponectin levels might be indicators of the metabolic syndrome. Our findings in newborns might influence the nutritional approach in the future in order to prevent complications of obesity. PMID:28356821

  5. Autonomic dysfunction: a possible pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity in children at-risk for obesity.

    PubMed

    Jarrin, Denise C; McGrath, Jennifer J; Poirier, Paul; Quality Cohort Collaborative Group

    2015-02-01

    While mounting evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the etiology of obesity, the underlying pathogenic pathways are complex and unresolved. Experimental sleep deprivation studies demonstrate sympathovagal imbalance, indicative of diminished parasympathetic activity and/or heightened sympathetic activity, is consequent to poor sleep. Further, obese children exhibit sympathovagal imbalance, particularly during the night, compared to non-obese children. The question remains whether sympathovagal imbalance is one potential pathophysiological pathway underlying the association between sleep and obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sympathovagal imbalance contributed to the association between sleep and obesity in children. Participants included 564 children aged 10 to 12 years (M = 11.67, SD = 0.95; 43.5% girls) from the QUALITY Cohort, a longitudinal study of children at-risk for the development of obesity. While children were at-risk due to confirmed parental obesity status, 57.7% of children were of normal body mass index (5-85th percentile). Sleep duration, sleep timing, and sleep disturbances were based on child- and parent-report. Anthropometrics were measured for central adiposity (waist circumference) and body composition (body mass index, fat mass index). Sympathovagal imbalance was derived from heart rate variability spectral analyses. Estimated path coefficients revealed that sympathovagal imbalance partially contributed to the association between poor sleep (later bedtimes, sleep-disordered breathing) and obesity. These findings highlight the importance of better understanding sympathovagal imbalance and its role in the etiology and maintenance of obesity. Future research should consider investigating nocturnal sympathovagal balance in youth.

  6. Monoclonal Antibody Targeting of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1c Ameliorates Obesity and Glucose Intolerance via Central Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lelliott, Christopher J.; Ahnmark, Andrea; Admyre, Therese; Ahlstedt, Ingela; Irving, Lorraine; Keyes, Feenagh; Patterson, Laurel; Mumphrey, Michael B.; Bjursell, Mikael; Gorman, Tracy; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Buchanan, Andrew; Harrison, Paula; Vaughan, Tristan; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Lindén, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We have generated a novel monoclonal antibody targeting human FGFR1c (R1c mAb) that caused profound body weight and body fat loss in diet-induced obese mice due to decreased food intake (with energy expenditure unaltered), in turn improving glucose control. R1c mAb also caused weight loss in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, leptin receptor-mutant db/db mice, and in mice lacking either the melanocortin 4 receptor or the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1. In addition, R1c mAb did not change hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of Agrp, Cart, Pomc, Npy, Crh, Mch, or Orexin, suggesting that R1c mAb could cause food intake inhibition and body weight loss via other mechanisms in the brain. Interestingly, peripherally administered R1c mAb accumulated in the median eminence, adjacent arcuate nucleus and in the circumventricular organs where it activated the early response gene c-Fos. As a plausible mechanism and coinciding with the initiation of food intake suppression, R1c mAb induced hypothalamic expression levels of the cytokines Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and 3 and ERK1/2 and p70 S6 kinase 1 activation. PMID:25427253

  7. [New obesity and metabolic syndrome treatment: rimonabant].

    PubMed

    Makoundou, V; Golay, A

    2006-01-04

    CBI endocannabinoid system receptors localized in the hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens are known to regulate hunger. Hyperstimulation of the CBI receptors lead to an increase of food intake, but also to an increase of lipogenesis, decrease of adiponectin and increase of insulin resistance. Rimonabant is the first CBI central and peripheral blocker, tested in international trials (RIO-lipids, RIO-Europe and RIO-North America). Significant results on weight reduction, increased adiponectin and improved metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated. Rimonabant is a new pharmacological therapy and very interesting for tackling obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  8. Response to Vitamin D3 Supplementation in Obese and Non-obese Caucasian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Roxana Aguirre; Nader, Nicole; Weaver, Amy; Singh, Ravinder; Kumar, Seema

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in obese children. Obese children tend to respond poorly to vitamin D supplementation. The objective of the study was to compare the response to vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IU once daily for 12 weeks) between obese and non- obese Caucasian adolescents. Methods The study design was open label non-randomized. It was carried out at a single center. Eighteen obese adolescents (age 12-18 years) and the same number of age, gender and season matched non-obese adolescents received Vitamin D3 (2000 IU/day) orally for 12 weeks. Total serum 25(OH) D, PTH, calcium and phosphorus were measured at baseline and at the end of the 12 week period. Results The mean baseline 25 (OH)D level was higher in the non-obese subjects compared to the obese subjects (mean, 28.9 vs. 25.2 ng/mL, p=0.029). The increment in 25(OH) D levels following vitamin D supplementation was significantly lower in the obese adolescents (mean change, 5.8 vs. 9.8 ng/mL, p=0.019). Conclusions Higher doses of vitamin D are required to treat vitamin D deficiency in obese adolescents than in their non-obese peers. PMID:23128469

  9. Causal inference in obesity research.

    PubMed

    Franks, P W; Atabaki-Pasdar, N

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a plethora of severe morbidities and premature death. Most supporting evidence comes from observational studies that are prone to chance, bias and confounding. Even data on the protective effects of weight loss from randomized controlled trials will be susceptible to confounding and bias if treatment assignment cannot be masked, which is usually the case with lifestyle and surgical interventions. Thus, whilst obesity is widely considered the major modifiable risk factor for many chronic diseases, its causes and consequences are often difficult to determine. Addressing this is important, as the prevention and treatment of any disease requires that interventions focus on causal risk factors. Disease prediction, although not dependent on knowing the causes, is nevertheless enhanced by such knowledge. Here, we provide an overview of some of the barriers to causal inference in obesity research and discuss analytical approaches, such as Mendelian randomization, that can help to overcome these obstacles. In a systematic review of the literature in this field, we found: (i) probable causal relationships between adiposity and bone health/disease, cancers (colorectal, lung and kidney cancers), cardiometabolic traits (blood pressure, fasting insulin, inflammatory markers and lipids), uric acid concentrations, coronary heart disease and venous thrombosis (in the presence of pulmonary embolism), (ii) possible causal relationships between adiposity and gray matter volume, depression and common mental disorders, oesophageal cancer, macroalbuminuria, end-stage renal disease, diabetic kidney disease, nuclear cataract and gall stone disease, and (iii) no evidence for causal relationships between adiposity and Alzheimer's disease, pancreatic cancer, venous thrombosis (in the absence of pulmonary embolism), liver function and periodontitis.

  10. Drugs in the pipeline for the obesity market.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Greenway, Frank

    2008-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. For many obese patients, diet and exercise are an inadequate treatment and bariatric surgery may be too extreme of a treatment. As with many other chronic diseases, pharmacologic treatment may be an attractive option for selected obese patients. Antiobesity drugs may potentially work through one of three mechanisms: (1) appetite suppression, (2) interference with absorption of nutrients, and (3) increased metabolism of nutrients. The three most widely prescribed drugs approved to treat obesity are phentermine, sibutramine, and orlistat. Drugs approved for treating obesity usually result in an additional weight loss of approximately 2-5 kg in addition to placebo. For pharmacologic therapy in obesity to be widely utilized, greater effectiveness and safety will be needed. Four types of single-agent drugs are in late stage development, including (1) selective central cannabinoid-1 receptor blockers, (2) selective central 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C serotonin receptor agonists, (3) an intestinal lipase blocker, and (4) central-acting incretin mimetic drugs. Four combination agent compounds in late stage development include (1) Contrave, which combines long-acting versions of naltrexone and bupropion; (2) Empatic, which combines long-acting bupropion and long-acting zonisamide; (3) Qnexa, which combines phentermine with controlled release topiramate; and (4) an injectable combination of leptin and pramlintide. Peptide YY and melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 antagonists are centrally acting agents in early stage development. It is expected that several new drug products for obesity will become available over the next few years. Their role in managing this disease remains to be determined.

  11. 7th to 9th grade obese adolescents' perceptions about obesity in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    de la Luz Martínez-Aguilar, Ma; Flores-Peña, Yolanda; de las Mercedes Rizo-Baeza, Ma; Aguilar-Hernández, Rosa Ma; Vázquez-Galindo, Laura; Gutiérres-Sánchez, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to explore obese adolescents perceptions about obesity among students in the seventh to ninth grade of a public school in Tamaulipas, Mexico. This is a qualitative study. Participants were 24 adolescents with a body mass index equal to or greater than the 95th percentile. Semistructured interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached and the meaning was understood. The adolescents defined obesity according to standards of measurement. They identified the hereditary factor as the main obesity cause, tended to underestimate obesity and had low self-esteem. They reported problems to do physical exercise and get clothes in order to improve their image, and feel rejected by their peers in school. It was identified that these adolescents have psychological defense mechanisms against obesity and that some of them are making efforts to lose weight. Obesity entails social and psychological health implications for persons suffering from this problem. Interventions should be put in practice.

  12. Obesity in the new media: a content analysis of obesity videos on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jina H; Kim, Junghyun

    2012-01-01

    This study examines (1) how the topics of obesity are framed and (2) how obese persons are portrayed on YouTube video clips. The analysis of 417 obesity videos revealed that a newer medium like YouTube, similar to traditional media, appeared to assign responsibility and solutions for obesity mainly to individuals and their behaviors, although there was a tendency that some video categories have started to show other causal claims or solutions. However, due to the prevailing emphasis on personal causes and solutions, numerous YouTube videos had a theme of weight-based teasing, or showed obese persons engaging in stereotypical eating behaviors. We discuss a potential impact of YouTube videos on shaping viewers' perceptions about obesity and further reinforcing stigmatization of obese persons.

  13. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable.

  14. Obesity changes the human gut mycobiome.

    PubMed

    Mar Rodríguez, M; Pérez, Daniel; Javier Chaves, Felipe; Esteve, Eduardo; Marin-Garcia, Pablo; Xifra, Gemma; Vendrell, Joan; Jové, Mariona; Pamplona, Reinald; Ricart, Wifredo; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Chacón, Matilde R; Fernández Real, José Manuel

    2015-10-12

    The human intestine is home to a diverse range of bacterial and fungal species, forming an ecological community that contributes to normal physiology and disease susceptibility. Here, the fungal microbiota (mycobiome) in obese and non-obese subjects was characterized using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS)-based sequencing. The results demonstrate that obese patients could be discriminated by their specific fungal composition, which also distinguished metabolically "healthy" from "unhealthy" obesity. Clusters according to genus abundance co-segregated with body fatness, fasting triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. A preliminary link to metabolites such as hexadecanedioic acid, caproic acid and N-acetyl-L-glutamic acid was also found. Mucor racemosus and M. fuscus were the species more represented in non-obese subjects compared to obese counterparts. Interestingly, the decreased relative abundance of the Mucor genus in obese subjects was reversible upon weight loss. Collectively, these findings suggest that manipulation of gut mycobiome communities might be a novel target in the treatment of obesity.

  15. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  16. Glutathionyl systems and metabolic dysfunction in obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress is associated with obesity. However, glutathione (GSH), one of the body’s most abundant antioxidants, plays dual and seemingly contradictory roles in the development of obesity and its co-morbidities. While GSH is needed for prevention of oxidative damage, depletion of GSH increase...

  17. The Role of Schools in Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that U.S. schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies by providing more nutritious food, offering greater opportunities for physical activity, and providing obesity-related health services. Meals at school are available both through the U.S. Department of…

  18. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  19. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133

  20. Obesity and Student Performance at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William

    2005-01-01

    To review the state of research on the association between obesity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating obesity, school performance, and rates of student absenteeism. A table with brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes is included. Research demonstrates…