Looney, Shannon M.; Raynor, Hollie A.
This article provides an overview of research regarding adult behavioral lifestyle intervention for obesity treatment. We first describe two trials using a behavioral lifestyle intervention to induce weight loss in adults, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. We then review the three main components of a behavioral lifestyle intervention program: behavior therapy, an energy- and fat-restricted diet, and a moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity prescription. Research regarding the influence of dietary prescriptions focusing on macronutrient composition, meal replacements, and more novel dietary approaches (such as reducing dietary variety and energy density) on weight loss is examined. Methods to assist with meeting physical activity goals, such as shortening exercise bouts, using a pedometer, and having access to exercise equipment within the home, are reviewed. To assist with improving weight loss outcomes, broadening activity goals to include resistance training and a reduction in sedentary behavior are considered. To increase the accessibility of behavioral lifestyle interventions to treat obesity in the broader population, translation of efficacious interventions such as the DPP, must be undertaken. Translational studies have successfully altered the DPP to reduce treatment intensity and/or used alternative modalities to implement the DPP in primary care, worksite, and church settings; several examples are provided. The use of new methodologies or technologies that provide individualized treatment and real-time feedback, and which may further enhance weight loss in behavioral lifestyle interventions, is also discussed. PMID:25114557
Nguyen, B; Kornman, K P; Baur, L A
The objective of this systematic review is to provide a qualitative comparison of interactive electronic media interventions for the prevention or treatment of obesity and/or obesity-related behaviours in children and adolescents. Literature searches of 12 databases from the earliest publication date until March 2010 were conducted. Twenty-four studies in which children and/or adolescents interacted with electronic interventions delivered as adjunct or sole interventions for the prevention or treatment of obesity and/or obesity-related behaviours met the inclusion criteria. Fifteen focussed on obesity prevention and nine on treatment interventions. The average study quality design score was 45%. Most studies demonstrated some form of significant outcome (e.g. reported changes in dietary and/or physical activity behaviours) in participants receiving interactive electronic interventions, with 11 out of 15 studies leading to positive changes in measured or reported adiposity outcomes. In 87% of studies, the effects of interactive electronic interventions were not separately evaluated from other intervention components. These results should be viewed with caution because of the overall poor quality of the studies. Studies were mostly conducted in the USA, largely in minority populations, and the direct transferability of interventions to other populations is unclear. Further high quality research is needed in this area to accurately inform the evidence base.
Frerichs, Leah M; Araz, Ozgur M; Huang, Terry T-K
Research evidence indicates that obesity has spread through social networks, but lever points for interventions based on overlapping networks are not well studied. The objective of our research was to construct and parameterize a system dynamics model of the social transmission of behaviors through adult and youth influence in order to explore hypotheses and identify plausible lever points for future childhood obesity intervention research. Our objectives were: (1) to assess the sensitivity of childhood overweight and obesity prevalence to peer and adult social transmission rates, and (2) to test the effect of combinations of prevention and treatment interventions on the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity. To address the first objective, we conducted two-way sensitivity analyses of adult-to-child and child-to-child social transmission in relation to childhood overweight and obesity prevalence. For the second objective, alternative combinations of prevention and treatment interventions were tested by varying model parameters of social transmission and weight loss behavior rates. Our results indicated child overweight and obesity prevalence might be slightly more sensitive to the same relative change in the adult-to-child compared to the child-to-child social transmission rate. In our simulations, alternatives with treatment alone, compared to prevention alone, reduced the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity more after 10 years (1.2-1.8% and 0.2-1.0% greater reduction when targeted at children and adults respectively). Also, as the impact of adult interventions on children was increased, the rank of six alternatives that included adults became better (i.e., resulting in lower 10 year childhood overweight and obesity prevalence) than alternatives that only involved children. The findings imply that social transmission dynamics should be considered when designing both prevention and treatment intervention approaches. Finally, targeting adults may
Olson-Bullis, Barbara A.; Bredeson, Dani M.; Hayes, Marcia G.; Sherwood, Nancy E.
Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions targeting children and their families are needed to help curb the obesity epidemic. Pediatric primary care is a promising setting for these interventions, and a growing number of studies are set in this context. This review aims to identify randomized controlled trials of pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions. A literature search of 3 databases retrieved 2947 publications, of which 2899 publications were excluded after abstract (n=2722) and full-text review (n=177). Forty-eight publications, representing 31 studies, were included in the review. Eight studies demonstrated a significant intervention effect on child weight outcomes (e.g., BMI z-score, weight-for-length percentile). Effective interventions were mainly treatment interventions, and tended to focus on multiple behaviors, contain weight management components, and include monitoring of weight-related behaviors (e.g., dietary intake, physical activity, or sedentary behaviors). Overall, results demonstrate modest support for the efficacy of obesity treatment interventions set in primary care. PMID:26213643
Coughlin, Janelle W; Smith, Michael T
Rates of obesity and sleep disturbances are substantial in adults. A number of cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found that insufficient sleep and possibly longer sleep are associated with obesity and related eating patterns. Methodological discrepancies and limitations in the literature create ambiguity about the nature and potential mechanisms underlying these relationships. Insomnia and circadian patterns in eating and sleeping have also been examined in relation to weight. Although these studies are not as extensive as those examining sleep duration, the extant literature suggests possible associations between obesity and both insomnia (particularly when combined with short sleep duration) and circadian eating behaviours. However, research has only just begun to examine the benefits of combining sleep interventions with obesity treatment. The goal of the current review is to summarize research examining behavioural sleep patterns and disorders in relation to obesity, to discuss methodological considerations, and to provide an overview of studies examining whether addressing sleep disturbances can augment weight loss treatment effects. We conclude that future studies are needed that take into account sleep duration, sleep disorder co-morbidity, and chronobiology to explore the impact of sleep interventions on weight loss.
Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun
Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152
Burgess, E; Hassmén, P; Welvaert, M; Pumpa, K L
Poor adherence to lifestyle intervention remains a key factor hindering treatment effectiveness and health outcomes for adults with obesity. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine if behavioural treatment strategies (e.g. goal setting, motivational interviewing, relapse prevention, cognitive restructuring etc.) improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. Randomized controlled trials that investigated the use of behavioural treatment strategies in obesity management were identified by systematically reviewing the literature within Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science from their inception to August 2016. This meta-analysis shows that behavioural treatment interventions have a significant positive effect on session attendance (percentage) and physical activity (total min/week) in adults with obesity (M = 17.63 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.77, 24.50), z =5.0337, P < 0.0001 and M = 105.98 (95% CI = 58.64, 153.32), z =4.3878, P < 0.0001, respectively). This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials provides evidence that behavioural treatment strategies improve adherence to lifestyle intervention programmes in adults with obesity. These strategies should be routinely incorporated into lifestyle intervention, obesity management and weight loss programmes with the aim of improving engagement and adherence. If adherence were improved, treatment effectiveness, health outcomes and the ultimate burden of chronic disease could also be improved.
Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.
To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…
Jelalian, Elissa; Evans, E Whitney
Pediatric obesity is a worldwide health epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Mexico ranks second to the United States in rates of pediatric obesity. Obesity among youth has immediate and long-term consequences on physical and psychosocial development, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and health-related quality of life. Eventual amelioration of this epidemic will require change at the level of the family and community, along with policy initiatives to support healthier eating and activity habits. Evidence-based interventions for overweight/obese youth include family-based lifestyle programs that incorporate attention to diet quantity and quality, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and behavioral strategies to support change. While much of this research has been conducted in the United States, several recent studies suggest the efficacy of similar approaches for youth in Mexico.
Raynor, Hollie A; Champagne, Catherine M
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that successful treatment of overweight and obesity in adults requires adoption and maintenance of lifestyle behaviors contributing to both dietary intake and physical activity. These behaviors are influenced by many factors; therefore, interventions incorporating more than one level of the socioecological model and addressing several key factors in each level may be more successful than interventions targeting any one level and factor alone. Registered dietitian nutritionists, as part of a multidisciplinary team, need to be current and skilled in weight management to effectively assist and lead efforts that can reduce the obesity epidemic. Using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics' Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for the treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Evidence on intrapersonal influences, such as dietary approaches, lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and surgery, is provided. Factors related to treatment, such as intensity of treatment and technology, are reviewed. Community-level interventions that strengthen existing community assets and capacity and public policy to create environments that support healthy energy balance behaviors are also discussed.
Raaijmakers, Lieke C H; Pouwels, Sjaak; Berghuis, Kim A; Nienhuijs, Simon W
The prevalence of obesity increases worldwide. The use of technology-based interventions can be beneficial in weight loss interventions. This review aims to provide insight in the effectiveness of technology-based interventions on weight loss and quality of life for patients suffering overweight or obesity compared to standard care. Pubmed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, CINAHL and Embase were searched from the earliest date (of each database) up to February 2015. Interventions needed to be aimed at reducing or maintaining weight loss in persons with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2) and have a technology aspect. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used for rating the methodological quality. Twenty-seven trials met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies showed significant effects on weight loss compared to controls. Most interventions used a web-based approach (42%). Interventions were screened for five technical key components: self-monitoring, counsellor feedback and communication, group support, use of a structured program and use of an individually tailored program. All interventions that used a combination of all five or four components showed significant decreases in weight compared to controls. No significant results for quality of life were found. Outcomes on program adherence were reported in six studies. No significant results were found between weight loss and program adherence. Evidence is lacking about the optimal use of technology in weight loss interventions. However, when the optimal combination of technological components is found, technology-based interventions may be a valid tool for weight loss. Furthermore, more outcomes on quality of life and information about the effect of technology-based intervention after bariatric surgery are needed.
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kirk, Shelley; Ritchie, Lorrene; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity require systems-level approaches that include the skills of registered dietitians, as well as consistent and integrated messages and environmental support across all sectors of society to achieve sustained dietary and physical-activity behavior change. This position paper provides guidance and recommendations for levels of intervention targeting overweight and obesity prevention and treatment from preschool age through adolescence. Methods included a review of the literature from 2009 to April 2012, including the Academy's 2009 evidence analysis school-based reviews. Multicomponent interventions show the greatest impact for primary prevention; thus, early childhood and school-based interventions should integrate behavioral and environmental approaches that focus on dietary intake and physical activity using a systems-level approach targeting the multilevel structure of the socioecological model as well as interactions and relationships between levels. Secondary prevention and tertiary prevention/treatment should emphasize sustained family-based, developmentally appropriate approaches that include nutrition education, dietary counseling, parenting skills, behavioral strategies, and physical-activity promotion. For obese youth with concomitant serious comorbidities, structured dietary approaches and pharmacologic agents should be considered, and weight-loss surgery can be considered for severely obese adolescents. Policy and environmental interventions are recommended as feasible and sustainable ways to support healthful lifestyles for children and families. The Academy supports commitment of resources for interventions, policies, and research that promote healthful eating and physical-activity behaviors to ensure that all youth have the opportunity to achieve and maintain a weight that is optimal for health.
De Miguel-Etayo, Pilar; Bueno, Gloria; Garagorri, Jesús M; Moreno, Luis A
Childhood obesity remains an important public health concern and prevention programmes should be the priority in order to decrease the prevalence of obesity. The aim of this review is to summarize the most effective types of intervention for treating obesity in children and adolescents. A number of identified strategies used to treat childhood obesity range from lifestyle approaches, pharmacotherapy to surgical intervention. Dietary treatment of obese children and adolescents should aim to ensure adequate growth and development by reducing excessive fat mass accumulation, avoiding loss of lean body mass, improving well-being and self-esteem, and preventing cyclical weight regain. Management protocols involve behaviour modifications, family support, and lifestyle changes which are difficult to put into practice and may require multidisciplinary professional teams. The cornerstone of weight loss programmes is to achieve a negative energy balance. There is evidence that dietary interventions are more effective in achieving weight loss when combined with other strategies, such as increasing physical activity levels and/or psychological interventions to promote behavioural changes. Psychological interventions have been employed in an effort to achieve long-term maintenance of behavioural change. Childhood obesity treatments should involve a combination of lifestyle changes including strategies to reduce energy intake, increase physical activity, reduce sedentary activities, facilitate family involvement and change behaviours associated with eating and physical activity. However, drug therapy in obese children must not be used as isolated treatment but as complementary to the traditional treatments of diet, physical activity and lifestyle changes. Besides, surgical procedures have been used to treat severe morbid obesity in children and adolescents when more conservative treatments have proven to be inadequate.
Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sherwood, Nancy E
Weight loss outcomes in lifestyle interventions for obesity are primarily a function of sustained adherence to a reduced-energy diet, and most lapses in diet adherence are precipitated by temptation from palatable food. The high nonresponse and relapse rates of lifestyle interventions suggest that current temptation management approaches may be insufficient for most participants. In this conceptual review, we discuss three neurobehavioral processes (attentional bias, temporal discounting, and the cold-hot empathy gap) that emerge during temptation and contribute to lapses in diet adherence. Characterizing the neurobehavioral profile of temptation highlights an important distinction between temptation resistance strategies aimed at overcoming temptation while it is experienced, and temptation prevention strategies that seek to avoid or minimize exposure to tempting stimuli. Many temptation resistance and temptation prevention strategies heavily rely on executive functions mediated by prefrontal systems that are prone to disruption by common occurrences such as stress, insufficient sleep, and even exposure to tempting stimuli. In contrast, commitment strategies are a set of devices that enable individuals to manage temptation by constraining their future choices, without placing heavy demands on executive functions. These concepts are synthesized in a conceptual model that categorizes temptation management approaches based on their intended effects on reward processing and degree of reliance on executive functions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model for strengthening temptation management approaches in future lifestyle interventions, tailoring these approaches based on key individual difference variables, and suggesting high-priority topics for future research. PMID:26431681
Ard, Jamy D; Miller, Gary; Kahan, Scott
Obesity is a common disorder with complex causes. The epidemic has spurred significant advances in the understanding of nutritional approaches to treating obesity. Although the primary challenge is to introduce a dietary intake that creates an energy deficit, clinicians should also consider targeted risk factor modification with manipulation of the nutrient profile of the weight-reducing diet. These strategies produce significant weight loss and improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. Future research is needed to better understand how to personalize nutrient prescriptions further to promote optimal risk modification and maintenance of long-term energy balance in the weight-reduced state.
Aberle, Dwight; Charles, Hearns; Hodak, Steven; O’Neill, Daniel; Oklu, Rahmi; Deipolyi, Amy R.
With the rising epidemic of obesity, interventional radiologists are treating increasing numbers of obese patients, as comorbidities associated with obesity preclude more invasive treatments. These patients are at heightened risk of vascular and oncologic disease, both of which often require interventional radiology care. Obese patients pose unique challenges in imaging, technical feasibility, and periprocedural monitoring. This review describes the technical and clinical challenges posed by this population, with proposed methods to mitigate these challenges and optimize care. PMID:28082253
Burguera, Bartolomé; Jesús Tur, Juan; Escudero, Antonio Jorge; Alos, María; Pagán, Alberto; Cortés, Baltasar; González, Xavier Francesc; Soriano, Joan B.
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective therapy to induce weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Objective. This controlled, clinical trial with a two-year intervention was aimed at comparing the efficacy of two nonsurgical approaches versus bariatric surgery, on body weight changes and metabolic parameters in morbidly obese patients. Methods. Patients were randomized to an Intensive Lifestyle Intervention (ILI) (n = 60) or Conventional Obesity Therapy (COT) (n = 46). The ILI group received behavioral therapy and nutritional counseling. The COT group received standard medical treatment. They were compared with a third group, Surgical Obesity Group (SOG) (n = 37). Results. Patients who received ILI had a greater percentage of weight loss than patients receiving COT (−11.3% versus −1.6%; p < 0.0044). Interestingly 31.4% of patients included in the ILI group were no longer morbidly obese after just six months of intervention, increasing to 44.4% after 24 months of intervention. The percentage weight loss in SOG was −29.6% after that same period of time. Conclusions. ILI was associated with significant weight loss when compared to COT, in a group of patients with obesity. An ILI approach could be an alternative therapy to patients with obesity, who are not candidates to undergo bariatric surgery. This trial is registered with EudraCT 2009-013737-24. PMID:26257780
There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surgical treatment of morbid obesity is the only therapeutic form that has stood the test of time, it still remains a crisis-driven form of therapy in the UK. It is probable that a better understanding of the aetiology and physiology of obesity may lead to the development of an effective pharmacological treatment of obesity in the future. However, until then, surgical treatment of morbid obesity should be considered as an effective and efficient way of treatment in selected cases. Keywords: obesity PMID:10396579
Rader, Sonja; Dorner, Thomas Ernst; Schoberberger, Rudolf; Wolf, Hilde
Obesity is a chronic disease requiring long-term care. The purpose of the current study was the evaluation of a web-based intervention (WBI), subsequent to an initial face to face life style treatment. In a randomized trial, 84 women received an introduction phase (4 months) and a training phase (2 months) where one group was trained in using WBI whereas the other arm received a printed manual (PMI). During the self-monitoring phase (6 months) participants either used the WBI or the PMI for follow-up support. Anthropometric parameters could be significantly reduced and self-efficacy was significantly increased in the first 6 months. At 12 months, values of self-efficacy of the WBI were not superior compared to results of the PMI; however, feedback on acceptability of the intervention did show higher ratings of the WBI and also facilitated contact with the program supervisor. No significant differences regarding the engagement in follow-up tools could be found between the intervention groups. Subgroup analysis indicated a positive effect of involvement in both forms of self-monitoring aftercare.
Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.
The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…
Barnes, Emily R.; Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer
Rationale, aims and objectives Obesity is significantly underdiagnosed and undertreated in primary care settings. The purpose of this clinical practice change project was to increase provider adherence to national clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of obesity in adults. Methods Based upon the National Institutes of Health guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of obesity, a clinical change project was implemented. Guided by the theory of planned behaviour, the Provider and Healthcare team Adherence to Treatment Guidelines (PHAT-G) intervention includes education sessions, additional provider resources for patient education, a provider reminder system and provider feedback. Results Primary care providers did not significantly increase on documentation of diagnosis and planned management of obesity for patients with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 30. Medical assistants increased recording of height, weight and BMI in the patient record by 13%, which was significant. Conclusions Documentation of accurate BMI should lead to diagnosis of appropriate weight category and subsequent care planning. Future studies will examine barriers to adherence to clinical practice guidelines for obesity. Interventions are needed that include inter-professional team members and may be more successful if delivered separately from routine primary care visits. PMID:25558956
Lifestyle interventions are regarded as the therapy of choice in children with obesity. The efficiency of lifestyle intervention for childhood obesity has been proven by several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Even a stable weight in a growing child with obesity is associated with an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities of obesity. In particular, children aged 5-12 years and children with overweight rather than obesity profit from lifestyle interventions. However, in clinical practice, the degree of weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only moderate, and the success rate 2 years after onset of an intervention is low (<10% with a decrease in BMI SD score of <0.25). Nevertheless, the difficulty of a child with overweight or obesity to reduce their weight might be attributable to not only a lack of motivation but also genetic background and/or adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate, hunger and satiety hormones that occur with weight loss. We must accept that lifestyle interventions are successful only in a subgroup of children with obesity. Regardless, the techniques used and the education of therapists need to be improved. If lifestyle interventions do not result in weight loss in a child with obesity, drug treatment to reduce cardiovascular risk factors should be initiated but is currently seldom performed.
Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo
Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food. PMID:25834309
Roman, Sonia; Ojeda-Granados, Claudia; Ramos-Lopez, Omar; Panduro, Arturo
Obesity and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are increasing in westernized countries, regardless of their geographic location. In Latin America, most countries, including Mexico, have a heterogeneous admixture genome with Amerindian, European and African ancestries. However, certain high allelic frequencies of several nutrient-related polymorphisms may have been achieved by past gene-nutrient interactions. Such interactions may have promoted the positive selection of variants adapted to regional food sources. At present, the unbalanced diet composition of the Mexicans has led the country to a 70% prevalence rate of overweightness and obesity due to substantial changes in food habits, among other factors. International guidelines and intervention strategies may not be adequate for all populations worldwide because they do not consider disparities in genetic and environmental factors, and thus there is a need for differential prevention and management strategies. Here, we provide the rationale for an intervention strategy for the prevention and management of obesity-related diseases such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis based on a regionalized genome-based diet. The components required to design such a diet should focus on the specific ancestry of each population around the world and the convenience of consuming traditional ethnic food.
Hutchesson, M J; Rollo, M E; Krukowski, R; Ells, L; Harvey, J; Morgan, P J; Callister, R; Plotnikoff, R; Collins, C E
A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of eHealth interventions for the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. Eight databases were searched for studies published in English from 1995 to 17 September 2014. Eighty-four studies were included, with 183 intervention arms, of which 76% (n = 139) included an eHealth component. Sixty-one studies had the primary aim of weight loss, 10 weight loss maintenance, eight weight gain prevention, and five weight loss and maintenance. eHealth interventions were predominantly delivered using the Internet, but also email, text messages, monitoring devices, mobile applications, computer programs, podcasts and personal digital assistants. Forty percent (n = 55) of interventions used more than one type of technology, and 43.2% (n = 60) were delivered solely using eHealth technologies. Meta-analyses demonstrated significantly greater weight loss (kg) in eHealth weight loss interventions compared with control (MD -2.70 [-3.33,-2.08], P < 0.001) or minimal interventions (MD -1.40 [-1.98,-0.82], P < 0.001), and in eHealth weight loss interventions with extra components or technologies (MD 1.46 [0.80, 2.13], P < 0.001) compared with standard eHealth programmes. The findings support the use of eHealth interventions as a treatment option for obesity, but there is insufficient evidence for the effectiveness of eHealth interventions for weight loss maintenance or weight gain prevention.
Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with significant health consequences. Early and successful treatment of this public health issue is necessary. Although several intervention programs for children result in weight loss or stabilisation in the short term, preventing relapse after weight loss remains an important challenge. Weight loss maintenance approaches in childhood are thought to be promising, but a structured overview of these maintenance interventions is lacking. The aim of the systematic review described in this protocol is to provide an overview of reports published about maintenance interventions in childhood overweight and obesity following initial treatment, in order to guide future directions in the development of maintenance programs for childhood obesity. Methods/design The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Scopus, and SocINDEX will be searched for this review. Reference lists of eligible study reports will be scanned for relevant references. Article selection including risk of bias assessment will be performed independently in an unblinded standardised manner by three authors. All reports describing a maintenance intervention in overweight or obese children with a mean or median age of <18 years who have followed a treatment program, regardless of the type of intervention, will be included. Data extraction will be performed using a predesigned pilot-tested data extraction sheet that covers participant characteristics, details about the treatment preceding the maintenance intervention, and the maintenance intervention itself. Body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS or BMI-Z-score) will be used to compare studies. If possible, a meta-analysis will be performed using the inverse-variance random-effects method. Studies that are not included in the meta-analysis will be described in a narrative way in tables and/or in the text. Discussion This systematic review will
Gomis Barbará, R
The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.
Lobelo, Felipe; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Holub, Christina K.; Nagle, Brian J.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, Simon; Elder, John P.
Background: Rapidly rising childhood obesity rates constitute a public health priority in Latin America which makes it imperative to develop evidence-based strategies. Schools are a promising setting but to date it is unclear how many school-based obesity interventions have been documented in Latin America and what level of evidence can be…
Deusinger, Susan S
Obesity touches the lives of most Americans regardless of age. In adults, accrual of co-morbidities, including frank disability, impacts health in ways that mandate aggressive public health action. In children, the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity raises serious prospective concerns for life as these children enter adulthood. Action is imperative to provide medical interventions and preventive strategies to reduce the threat this condition poses to future generations. Obesity primarily results from an energy regulation imbalance within the body; understanding its origin and effects requires considering both the intake (via eating) and output (via moving) of energy. This article focuses on how exercise and physical activity (i.e., energy output) can influence the primary condition of obesity and its health sequelae. Components, strategies, and expected outcomes of exercise and lifestyle activity are addressed. Successful long-term participation in daily movement requires matching exercise regimens and physical activity outlets to individual preferences and environmental conditions. Activity habits of Americans must change at home and in the workplace, schools and the community to positively influence health. Although the goals of Healthy People 2010 to reduce sedentary behavior have not been met, success of other public health interventions (e.g., immunizations, use of bicycle helmets) suggests that social change to alter activity habits can be achieved. Failure to reach our public health goals should serve as a catalyst for broad-based action to help children, adolescents, and adults attain and maintain behaviors that reduce the risk of obesity and its health insults.
Staniford, Leanne Jane; Breckon, Jeff David; Copeland, Robert James; Hutchison, Andrew
Over the past three decades, there has been a dramatic global increase in childhood obesity. A better understanding of stakeholders' perceptions of intervention requirements could contribute to developing more effective interventions for childhood obesity. This study provides a qualitative, in-depth, analysis of stakeholders' (children, parents and health professionals) perspectives toward the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Twenty-six stakeholders were recruited using purposive sampling; semi-structured interviews were adopted to explore stakeholders' perceptions with data analysed using a framework approach. Stakeholders concurred that treatment should be family-based incorporating physical activity, nutrition and psychological components, and be delivered in familiar environments to recipients. However, incongruence existed between stakeholders towards the sustainability of obesity treatment interventions. Parents and children reported needing ongoing support to sustain behavioural changes made during treatment, while health professionals suggested interventions should aim to create autonomous individuals who exit treatment and independently sustain behaviour change. This study provides an insight into issues of stakeholder involvement in the obesity intervention design and delivery process. To promote long-term behaviour change, there needs to be increased congruence between the delivery and receipt of childhood obesity treatment interventions. Interventions need to incorporate strategies that promote autonomous and self-regulated motivation, to enhance families' confidence in sustaining behaviour change independent of health professional support.
Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774
Bumaschny, Viviana F; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S J; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J
Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity.
Background Obesity is mainly attributed to environmental factors. In developed countries, the time spent on physical activity tasks is decreasing, whereas sedentary behaviour patterns are increasing. The purpose of the intervention is to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive family-based behavioural multi-component intervention (Nereu programme) and compared it to counselling intervention such as a health centre intervention programme for the management of children’s obesity. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial using two types of interventions: Nereu and Counselling. The Nereu programme is an 8-month intensive family-based multi-component behavioural intervention. This programme is based on a multidisciplinary intervention consisting of 4 components: physical activity sessions for children, family theoretical and practical sessions for parents, behaviour strategy sessions involving both, parents and children, and lastly, weekend extra activities for all. Counselling is offered to the family in the form of a monthly physical health and eating habits session. Participants will be recruited according the following criteria: 6 to 12 year-old-children, referred from their paediatricians due to overweight or obesity according the International Obesity Task Force criteria and with a sedentary profile (less than 2 hours per week of physical activity), they must live in or near the municipality of Lleida (Spain) and their healthcare paediatric unit must have previously accepted to cooperate with this study. The following variables will be evaluated: a) cardiovascular risk factors (anthropometric parameters, blood test and blood pressure), b) sedentary and physical activity behaviour and dietary intake, c) psychological aspects d) health related quality of life (HRQOL), e) cost-effectiveness of the intervention in relation to HRQOL. These variables will be then be evaluated 4 times longitudinally: at baseline, at the
Bathrellou, Eirini; Yannakoulia, Mary; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Pervanidou, Panagiota; Kanaka-Gantenbein, Christina; Tsiantis, John; Chrousos, George P.; Sidossis, Labros S.
Along the lines of the evidence-based recommendations, we developed a multi-disciplinary intervention for overweight children 7- to 12-years-old, primarily aiming at helping children to adopt healthier eating habits and a physically active lifestyle. The program combined nutrition intervention, based on a non-dieting approach, with physical…
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the comorbid physical and psychological health problems highlight a pressing need to identify effective treatments that address this public health problem during the childhood years. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate a school-based pe...
Park, Jae Myung
The incidence of obesity is increasing, and more definitive treatment modalities are needed. Endoluminal procedures, including restrictive endoscopic procedures, endoscopic gastroplasty, and malabsorptive endoscopic procedures, can reduce weight in obese patients and control obesity-related comorbidities. Malabsorptive endoscopic interventions also offer the potential for an ambulatory procedure that may be safer and more cost-effective compared with laparoscopic surgery. Malabsorptive endoscopic intervention can induce weight reduction and improve obesity-related metabolic parameters, despite complications such as device migration, obstruction, and abdominal pain. Improvement in technique will follow the development of new devices. PMID:28147470
Boisvert, Jennifer A.; Harrell, W. Andrew
This article presents an integrative approach to the problem of pediatric obesity, which is a multifaceted medical condition that is epidemic in the United States and elsewhere in the world. In this article, definitions of pediatric obesity are provided, and its prevalence, etiological factors, medical complications, and comorbidities are reviewed. Psychological and spiritual factors associated with pediatric obesity are discussed, together with their importance to integrative treatment. This review suggests that the use of psychological interventions, such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), can be considered in conjunction with medical and educational interventions to treat pediatric obesity successfully. PMID:26770130
Cervoni, Cynthia; Bond, Dale S; Seng, Elizabeth K
Migraine and obesity are each prevalent disorders involving significant personal and societal burden. Epidemiologic research demonstrates a link between migraine and obesity that is further substantiated by putative behavioral, psychosocial, and physiological mechanisms. As obesity is considered a modifiable risk factor for exacerbation of migraine, weight loss may be a particularly useful treatment option for people with comorbid migraine and obesity. Behavioral weight loss interventions complement existing behavioral treatments for migraine and offer patients evidence-based effective strategies for achieving weight loss that could help reduce frequency, severity, and impact of migraine attacks.
Kunesová, M; Hainer, V; Parízková, J; Stich, V; Fried, M
A group of 318 obese patients followed-up at the Obesity Unit in Prague in 1995-1997 was included into a study. Their treatment was based on the standard combination of a weight reduction diet, physical activity and behavioural intervention. In patients with more severe degrees of óbesity VLCD in one daily portion, pharmacotherapy, in-patient regimen lasting 24 days, including VLCD (1,500 kJ/day), exercise and group psychotherapy; or bariatric surgery (mostly laparoscopic gastric banding) were used, if necessary. Patients were divided into two groups according to their compliance to the weight reducing regimen. Group A dropped out before 2 years of follow-up, group B was followed-up 2 years or more. The groups did not differ significantly in their mean age, initial body weight, initial BMI and fat content and in percentage of males and females. Weight, BMI, fat content, essential anthropometric indices (waist circumference, WHR, subscapular and triceps skinfolds) and blood pressure are presented in this study. The maximum weight loss was significantly higher in group B. We did not find any other significant differences between group A and group B. The most significant predictor of compliance expressed as duration of follow-up (evaluated by multiple regression with stepwise variable selection) was the maximum BMI decrease (p < 0.005). The most significant predictors of the weight loss at the end of the follow-up were maximum weight loss and maximum decrease of BMI (p < 0.001). Family history of obesity (obese one or both parents) was significantly more often in group B (p < 0.05). This trend was expressed predominantly in females (p < 0.01), where also family history of obesity in mother was significantly more often in group B (p < 0.05). The frequency of methods used in individual patients was estimated. Standard combination of diet, enhanced physical activity and behavioural intervention was used in all patients. All other methods were used significantly more
Shaya, Fadia T.; Flores, David; Gbarayor, Confidence M.; Wang, Jingshu
Background: Childhood obesity is an impending epidemic. This article is an overview of different interventions conducted in school settings so as to guide efforts for an effective management of obesity in children, thus minimizing the risk of adult obesity and related cardiovascular risk. Methods: PubMed and OVID Medline databases were searched…
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.
There is a significant need for an obesity treatment model suitable for the primary care environment. We examined the effectiveness of a brief counseling intervention alone, in combination with orlistat, and drug-alone in a 12-month randomized-clinical trial at a medical school obesity center. Parti...
Acosta, Michelle C.; Manubay, Jeanne; Levin, Frances R.
Rates of pediatric obesity have increased dramatically over the past decade. This trend is particularly alarming as obesity is associated with significant medical and psychosocial consequences. Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular, metabolic, and hepatic complications, as well as psychiatric difficulties. The development of obesity appears to be influenced by a complex array of genetic, metabolic, and neural frameworks, as well as behavior, eating habits, and physical activity. Numerous parallels exist between obesity and addictive behaviors, including genetic predisposition, personality, environmental risk factors, and common neurobiological pathways in the brain. Typical treatments for pediatric obesity include behavioral interventions targeting diet and/or exercise. Treatments focusing on diet and exercise have yielded mixed results, and typically have been examined in specialty clinic populations, limiting their generalizability. There are limited medication options for overweight children and adolescents, and no approved medical intervention in children younger than 16. Bariatric surgery may be an option for some adolescents, but due to the risks of surgery it is often seen as a last resort. The parallels between addiction and obesity aid in the development of novel interventions for pediatric obesity. Motivational enhancement and cognitive-behavioral strategies used in addiction treatment may serve to be beneficial. PMID:18415881
Bray, G A; Gray, D S
Conventional diets and increased exercise are the cornerstones of traditional therapy for obesity, but available data suggest that the most important component of any program is the associated behavior modification through which new ways of dealing with old problems can be learned and continually applied. This combined with very-low-calorie diets--less than 800 kcal per day--are in wide use, mostly under medical supervision. The currently available appetite-suppressing drugs are of limited efficacy, but many new ones are under active development and hold promise for the future. The most effective surgical intervention appears to be the gastric bypass operation, but this should be reserved for those who are at high risk from their obesity. Images PMID:3074556
Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S
The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity.
Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...
Sun, Nan-Nong; Wu, Tsung-Yen; Chau, Chi-Fai
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is on the rise around the world. Common comorbidities associated with obesity, particularly diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease have an impact on social and financial systems. Appropriate lifestyle and behavior interventions are still the crucial cornerstone to weight loss success, but maintaining such a healthy lifestyle is extremely challenging. Abundant natural materials have been explored for their obesity treatment potential and widely used to promote the development of anti-obesity products. The weight loss segment is one of the major contributors to the overall revenue of the dietary supplements market. In this review, the anti-obesity effects of different dietary or herbal products, and their active ingredients and mechanisms of action against obesity will be discussed.
Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun
Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166
Treatment of antipsychotic-associated obesity with a GLP-1 receptor agonist—protocol for an investigator-initiated prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention study: the TAO study protocol
Ishøy, Pelle L; Knop, Filip K; Broberg, Brian V; Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Niklas R; Andersen, Ulrik B; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Ebdrup, Bjørn H
Introduction Antipsychotic medication is widely associated with dysmetabolism including obesity and type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular-related diseases and early death. Obesity is considered the single most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Interventions against antipsychotic-associated obesity are limited and insufficient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but their bodyweight-lowering effects have also been recognised in patients with non-diabetes. The primary endpoint of this trial is weight loss after 3 months of treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide once weekly) in patients with non-diabetic schizophrenia with antipsychotic-associated obesity. Secondary endpoints include physiological and metabolic measurements, various psychopathological and cognitive measures, and structural and functional brain MRI. Methods and analysis 40 obese patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder treated with antipsychotic drugs will be randomised to subcutaneous injection of exenatide once weekly (2 mg) or placebo for 3 months, adjunctive to their antipsychotic treatment. Ethics and dissemination The trial has been approved by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority, the National Committee on Health Research Ethics and the Danish Data Protection Agency. Trial participation presupposes theoral and written patient informed consent. An external, independent monitoring committee (Good Clinical Practice Unit at Copenhagen University Hospital) will monitor the study according to the GCP Guidelines. Trial data, including positive, negative and inconclusive results, will be presented at national and international scientific meetings and conferences. Papers will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01794429; National Committee on Health Research Ethics project number: 36378; EudraCT nr: 2012-005404-17; The
Ickes, Melinda J.; McMullen, Jennifer; Haider, Taj; Sharma, Manoj
Background: The issue of childhood overweight and obesity has become a global public health crisis. School-based interventions have been developed and implemented to combat this growing concern. The purpose of this review is to compare and contrast U.S. and international school-based obesity prevention interventions and highlight efficacious strategies. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted utilizing five relevant databases. Inclusion criteria were: (1) primary research; (2) overweight or obesity prevention interventions; (3) school-based; (4) studies published between 1 January 2002 through 31 December 2013; (5) published in the English language; (6) child-based interventions, which could include parents; and (7) studies that reported outcome data. Results: A total of 20 interventions met the inclusion criteria. Ten interventions each were implemented in the U.S. and internationally. International interventions only targeted elementary-aged students, were less likely to target low-income populations, and were less likely to be implemented for two or more years in duration. However, they were more likely to integrate an environmental component when compared to U.S. interventions. Discussion: Interventions implemented in the U.S. and internationally resulted in successful outcomes, including positive changes in student BMI. Yet, varying approaches were used to achieve success, reinforcing the fact that a one-size-fits-all approach is not necessary to impact childhood obesity. However, building on successful interventions, future school-based obesity prevention interventions should integrate culturally specific intervention strategies, aim to incorporate an environmental component, and include parents whenever possible. Consideration should be given to the potential impact of long-term, frequent dosage interventions, and subsequent follow-up should be given attention to determine long-term efficacy. PMID:25170684
Fidelix, Yara Lucy; de Farias, José Cazuza; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Guerra, Ricardo Luís Fernandes; Cardel, Michelle; do Prado, Wagner Luiz
Objective To identify biological and psychosocial factors associated with dropout in a multidisciplinary behavioral intervention in obese adolescents. Methods A total of 183 adolescents (15.4±1.6 years), pubertal (Tanner stage 3 or 4) and obese (34.7±4.0kg/m2), were enrolled in a 12-week behavioral intervention, which included clinical consultations (monthly), nutritional and psychological counseling (once a week), and supervised aerobic training (three times/week). The studied variables were weight, height, body mass index, body composition (skinfold), cardiorespiratory fitness (direct gas analysis), blood lipids and self-reported symptoms of eating disorders (bulimia, anorexia and binge eating), anxiety, depression, body image dissatisfaction and quality of life. Statistical analysis included binary logistic regression and independent t-tests. Results Of the adolescents, 73.7% adhered to the program. The greatest chance for dropout was observed among adolescents older than 15 years (odds ratio of 0.40; 95%CI: 0.15-0.98), with more anorexia symptoms (odds ratio of 0.35; 95%CI: 0.14-0.86) and hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio of 0.40; 95%CI: 0.16-0.91) at baseline. Conclusion Older adolescents, with more symptoms of eating disorders and total cholesterol have less chance to adhere to multidisciplinary treatments. PMID:26466062
Carter, Rebeca; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Ray, Shuvra; Soeda, Junpei; Oben, Jude
The prevalence of obesity is rising worldwide, with the U.K. having the highest prevalence in Europe. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and has substantial healthcare implications, with current projections estimating that by 2030 obesity will cost the NHS approximately pounds 2 billion each year. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of anti-obesity treatment, but drugs can be introduced as adjuncts to assist and maintain weight loss. Some 1.45 million obesity-related prescriptions were dispensed in 2009, highlighting the high demand for obesity pharmacotherapy. At present, the lipase inhibitor orlistat (Xenical) is the only UK-approved long-term medical therapy for obesity. Double-blind clinical trials have shown that orlistat significantly increases weight loss compared to placebo, but the array of adverse side effects associated with orlistat limits its tolerability. The need for more effective and better-tolerated anti-obesity medications is clear and six therapies have reached phase-III trials.
Gilles, Allyson; Cassano, Michael; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Higgins, Diana; Hecker, Jeffrey E.; Nangle, Douglas W.
The current meta-analysis reviews research on the treatment of pediatric obesity focusing on studies that have been published since 1994. Eleven studies (22 comparisons, 115 effect sizes, N = 447) were included in the present meta-analysis. Results indicated that comprehensive behavioral interventions may be improved in at least two ways:…
Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.; Adams-Wynn, Alexis W.; DiSantis, Katherine I.; Kumanyika, Shiriki
Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African American girls aged 5–18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format, and behavior change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviors were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data do not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step. PMID:23057473
Calderon, Kristine S.; Yucha, Carolyn B.; Schaffer, Susan D.
The incidence of adolescent obesity is increasing dramatically in the United States with associated risks of hypertension, adverse lipid profiles, and Type II diabetes. Unless reversed, this trend predicts an epidemic of adult cardiovascular disease. Interventions at home, at school, and in the community are required to empower teens to increase physical activity and to modify eating habits. This article describes assessment for obesity-related health problems as well as scientific guidelines and research-based intervention strategies to decrease obesity in adolescents.
XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING
, and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, are known to affect body weight. These molecules serve as potential targets for the pharmacological manipulation of obesity. Sibutramine and orlistat are primariliy used for the treatment of adult obesity, which produces modest weight loss, of 3–8% compared to placebo. For children and obese adolescents, metformin is used in the case of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Octreotide is used for hypothalamic obesity. Bariatric surgery is performed for the treatment of severe childhood obesity. The causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity are described in the present review. PMID:26834850
Leeman, Jennifer; Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice
As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention.
Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.
Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…
Obesity is a disease that is defined as the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat and is associated with increased risk of serious illness, disability, and death. In clinical practice, obesity is best assessed by calculating body mass index and measuring waist circumference. Treatment options are determined based on the body mass index, waist circumference, and adverse health consequences the patient is experiencing or is at an increased risk for facing in the future. Today, overweight and obesity impacts the majority of patients we treat in our clinical practices. Although endocrinologists are uniquely positioned to treat one of the major consequences of our current obesity epidemic, type 2 diabetes, we also need to be positioned and prepared to effectively treat one of its major causes—obesity. Type 2 diabetes and obesity are very much intertwined. Treatment of each disease affects the other. For these reasons, endocrinologists need to be experts in the treatment of obesity as well as diabetes. They should keep up with advances in obesity treatment including lifestyle, pharmaceutical, and surgical strategies. These strategies offer opportunities for improving the overall treatment for our obese patients today and will continue to improve and expand over the next decade. PMID:23443815
Kain, Juliana; Concha, Fernando; Moreno, Lorena; Leyton, Bárbara
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8 y old low-income children (N = 1474). Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA). Effectiveness was determined by comparing Δ BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant). % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2) while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7%) in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24) and increased (1.22–1.35) in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P = 0.024). Interaction group ∗ time was significant for boys (P < 0.0001) and girls (P = 0.004). Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases. PMID:24872892
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the comorbid health problems highlight a pressing need to identify effective treatments that address this public health problem during the childhood years. The current study evaluated a school-based pediatric obesity program for middle-school childr...
Hadley, Alena M.; Hair, Elizabeth C.; Dreisbach, Nicole
Childhood obesity has become a major health problem. Approximately 17 percent of U.S. children six to 17 years of age are obese--that is, their sex-and-age-specific Body Mass Index (BMI) is at or above the 95th percentile. This proportion is two-and-a-half times higher than it was 25 years ago. Obesity during childhood often carries into…
Rates of severe obesity (BMI greater than or equal to 40 kg/m(2)) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed. We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diab...
OBJECTIVEdRates of severe obesity (BMI$40 kg/m2) are on the rise, and effective treatment options are needed.We examined the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) on weight loss, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and program adherence in participants with type 2 diabetes who were seve...
Gillis, David; Brauner, Michal; Granot, Esther
Childhood obesity, caused by reduced physical activity and increased food consumption, has reached epidemic proportions. We hypothesized that a single practitioner could enable a child to reduce BMI by educating towards a healthier lifestyle and then reinforcing the message in a structured manner. In this study, intervention group participants and their parents received a half-hour talk on exercise and diet, repeated after 3 months. They were instructed to fill weekly diaries and were called weekly by telephone. Controls received the initial instruction only. Twenty-seven (14 intervention) obese children were recruited. Anthropometric parameters, fitness and biochemical data were collected before intervention and after 6 months in both groups. Sustained but not statistically significant improvements in attitude, BMI SDS and LDL-cholesterol were noted in the intervention group. These promising results support a need for further work to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of our approach in the population at large.
Lamarque, Muriel; Orden, Alicia Bibiana
Programming and implementation of health policies for the prevention of overweight and obesity have traditionally focused on the dissemination of specific messages identifying healthy foods and pointing out the importance of physical activity. Despite recurrent efforts, the prevalence of obesity in both adult and children populations continues to rise. The configuration of preventive proposals seems to neglect the more complex reality of the eating phenomenon, whose nature goes beyond its biological basis. Behind the presence of overweight or obesity, there are factors that exceed individual behaviors, which are constituted as elements of social order. This premise is based on the contributions made from several fields such as anthropology, sociology, and social epidemiology, especially over the past thirty years. This study aims to analyze the traditional models of institutional intervention while making visible the importance of a socially-oriented perspective that takes into account context and network analysis to address the problem of childhood overweight and obesity, centered on the food component.
Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...
Yang, Yiting; Ma, Chung Wah; Yang, Yide; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Xiaoliang; Fu, Lianguo; Wang, Shuo; Yang, Zhongping; Wang, Zhenghe; Meng, Xiangkun; Ma, Dongmei; Ma, Rui
Overweight or obese adults aged 20~55 years and living in Beijing more than one year were randomly divided into different management groups. A one-year integrated health management intervention was applied in the health management groups. The physical indicators and metabolic indicators changed after one-year intervention on the overweight and obese adults. The annual reduction of the physical indicators was significant in all groups (p < 0.05) except the weight loss in the placebo + general management group. The health management and the dietary supplement have statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) effects on the annual reduction of these indicators and interactive effect between them was found on some of these indicators such as bodyweight, body mass index (BMI), body fat ratio (BFR), and hipline (p < 0.05). The dietary supplement + health management group had the best annual reduction effects for the indicators among the groups. Integrated health management interventions including both dietary supplements intervention and health management could improve metabolic indicators in overweight and obese adults together with the physical indicators, suggesting the intermediated role of metabolic indictors in controlling obesity. PMID:28115972
Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.
Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…
McGavigan, Anne K; Murphy, Kevin G
Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The treatment options are severely limited. The development of novel anti-obesity drugs is fraught with efficacy and safety issues. Consequently, several investigational anti-obesity drugs have failed to gain marketing approval in recent years. Anorectic gut hormones offer a potentially safe and viable option for the treatment of obesity. The prospective utility of gut hormones has improved drastically in recent years with the development of longer acting analogues. Additionally, specific combinations of gut hormones have been demonstrated to have additive anorectic effects. This article reviews the current stage of anti-obesity drugs in development, focusing on gut hormone-based therapies. PMID:22452339
VanBuskirk, Katherine A.; Potenza, Marc N.
Obesity and binge eating disorder are detrimental health conditions that are associated with lower qualities of life. Individuals with obesity often face societal discrimination and frequently experience related medical disorders such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Current research suggests neurobiological similarities between obesity, binge eating disorder, and substance dependence. In addition, behavioral similarities link the two conditions; obese and substance dependent individuals often report similar features such as loss of control towards food or substances, respectively, and cravings. Treatment options for obesity have begun to use this information to formulate pharmacological and therapeutic interventions that may provide greater results for weight loss and decreased binge frequency. Similarly, treatment approaches to substance addictions should consider aspects of weight management. Findings from research and treatment studies are presented with the aim of reviewing the current literature of obesity within the context of an addiction framework and providing information on empirically supported approaches to the treatment of co-occurring obesity and substance addiction. PMID:20228868
Sanborn, Margaret D.; Manske, Stephen R.; Schlegel, Ronald P.
Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss literature. PMID:21283350
Simonyi, Gábor; Pados, Gyula; Medvegy, Mihály; Bedros, J Róbert
Currently, obesity presents one of the biggest health problems. Management strategies for weight reduction in obese individuals include changes in life style such as exercise and diet, behavioral therapy, and pharmacological treatment, and in certain cases surgical intervention. Diet and exercise are best for both prevention and treatment, but both require much discipline and are difficult to maintain. Drug treatment of obesity offer a possible adjunct, but it may only have modest results, limited by side effects; furthermore, the weight lowering effects last only as long as the drug is being taken and, unfortunately, as soon as the administration is stopped, the weight is regained. These strategies should be used in a combination for higher efficacy. Drugs used to induce weight loss have various effects: they increase satiety, reduce the absorption of nutrients or make metabolism faster; but their effect is usually moderate. In the past, several drugs were used in the pharmacological therapy of weight reduction including thyroid hormone, dinitrophenol, amphetamines and their analogues, e.g. fenfluramine, At present, only orlistat is available in the long term treatment (≥ 24 weeks) of obesity as sibutramine and rimonabant were withdrawn form the market. Several new anti-obesity drugs are being tested at present, and liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue (incretin mimetic), is the most promising one.
Rojas, Joselyn; Arraiz, Nailet; Aguirre, Miguel; Velasco, Manuel; Bermúdez, Valmore
Childhood obesity is a major worldwide health problem. Intervention programs to ameliorate the rate of obesity have been designed and implemented; yet the epidemic has no end near in sight. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has become one of the most important key elements in energy control, appetite regulation, myogenesis, adipocyte differentiation, and cellular stress management. Obesity is a multifactorial disease, which has a very strong genetic component, especially epigenetic factors. The intrauterine milieu has a determinant impact on adult life, since the measures taken for survival are kept throughout life thanks to epigenetic modification. Nutrigenomics studies the influence of certain food molecules on the metabolome profile, raising the question of an individualized obesity therapy according to metabolic (and probably) genetic features. Metformin, an insulin sensitizing agent, its known to lower insulin resistance and enhance metabolic profile, with an additional weight reduction capacity, via activation of AMPK. Exercise is coadjutant for lifestyle modifications, which also activates AMPK in several ways contributing to glucose and fat oxidation. The following review examines AMPK's role in obesity, applying its use as a tool for childhood and adolescent obesity. PMID:21318055
Sfera, Adonis; Osorio, Carolina; Inderias, Luzmin Acosta; Parker, Victoria; Price, Amy I; Cummings, Michael
Pathological impulsivity is encountered in a broad range of psychiatric conditions and is thought to be a risk factor for aggression directed against oneself or others. Recently, a strong association was found between impulsivity and obesity which may explain the high prevalence of metabolic disorders in individuals with mental illness even in the absence of exposure to psychotropic drugs. As the overlapping neurobiology of impulsivity and obesity is being unraveled, the question asked louder and louder is whether they should be treated concomitantly. The treatment of obesity and metabolic dysregulations in chronic psychiatric patients is currently underutilized and often initiated late, making correction more difficult to achieve. Addressing obesity and metabolic dysfunction in a preventive manner may not only lower morbidity and mortality but also the excessive impulsivity, decreasing the risk for aggression. In this review, we take a look beyond psychopharmacological interventions and discuss dietary and physical therapy approaches.
Herman, Lawrence; McGinnity, John G; Doll, Michael; Peterson, Eric D; Russell, Amanda; Largay, Joseph
Overweight and obesity compose a chronic disease process of epidemic proportions that presents on a continuum, likely affecting nearly two out of every three patients treated by physician assistants (PAs). However, meaningful and actionable definitions, including but not limited to anthropometric and clinical descriptors, are needed. The effective treatment of overweight and obesity requires an efficient and timely process of screening, diagnosis, evaluation of complications, staging, and clear algorithmic management. PAs are trained as primary care providers and can diagnose and treat overweight and obese patients regardless of practice setting and across the spectrum of the disease and patient's age.
Okorodudu, Daniel E.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Corsino, Leonor
The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades placing significant burdens on healthcare in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data shows promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions. PMID:25011006
Okorodudu, Daniel E; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor
The overweight and obesity trends have risen over the past few decades, placing significant burdens on health care in terms of increased morbidity and cost. Behavioral change therapy is an effective treatment strategy and includes goal setting, self-monitoring, problem solving, and reinforcement tactics. Traditionally, behavior change therapy has been delivered using face-to-face counseling along with paper and pen recording of dietary intake and physical activity. The current advances in technology provide opportunities to deliver interventions using cellphones, internet, and active video games. These new methods to deliver behavior change for the management and prevention of obesity are being developed in order to increase access, improve convenience, decrease cost, and increase participant engagement. In this review, we present new approaches to promote behavior changes in the management of obesity. Currently available data show promising results. However, future research is needed to address study limitations and implementation challenges of these innovative interventions.
Sweeting, Arianne N; Hocking, Samantha L; Markovic, Tania P
The recognition of the complex counter-regulatory hormonal, metabolic and neurochemical mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss and the conceptualisation of obesity as a chronic disease requiring long-term management has led to increasing focus on the role of adjunctive therapies for obesity, particularly pharmacotherapy. Currently available pharmacotherapy achieves a weight loss intermediate between that commonly attained by lifestyle intervention and bariatric surgery, however its accessibility, compared to bariatric surgery increases its appeal. Despite the poor history of obesity pharmacotherapy, novel agents that are in development appear to have several advantages over predecessors. They are generally more selective in their mechanism of action, thereby potentially minimising adverse sequelae and improving the risk-benefit ratio of pharmacotherapy. Another approach has been to use combined pharmacotherapy to better counteract the multiple counter-regulatory neuroendocrine mechanisms which promote weight regain, as well as allowing lower constituent doses of the combined monotherapy agents, which improves the safety and tolerability of these agents that are usually required long-term for chronic weight maintenance. This review will provide an overview of past, present and future pharmacotherapy for obesity. The efficacy and safety profile of currently available pharmacotherapy will be discussed in the setting of stringent regulatory review processes now in place given the fraught history of pharmacological interventions for obesity. Potential novel therapies that seek to better target the multiple complex counter-regulatory mechanisms promoting weight regain while improving the efficacy/safety profile, will also be examined.
Merry, Michael S; Voigt, Kristin
In this paper we aim to demonstrate the enormous ethical complexity that is prevalent in child obesity cases. This complexity, we argue, favors a cautious approach. Against those perhaps inclined to blame neglectful parents, we argue that laying the blame for child obesity at the feet of parents is simplistic once the broader context is taken into account. We also show that parents not only enjoy important relational prerogatives worth defending, but that children, too, are beneficiaries of that relationship in ways difficult to match elsewhere. Finally, against the backdrop of growing public concern and pressure to intervene earlier in the life cycle, we examine the perhaps unintended stigmatizing effects that labeling and intervention can have and consider a number of risks and potential harms occasioned by state interventions in these cases.
Martin, Luc J; Burke, Shauna M; Shapiro, Sheree; Carron, Albert V; Irwin, Jennifer D; Petrella, Robert; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, Kevin
Background Most research pertaining to childhood obesity has assessed the effectiveness of preventative interventions, while relatively little has been done to advance knowledge in the treatment of obesity. Thus, a 4-week family- and group-based intervention utilizing group dynamics strategies designed to increase cohesion was implemented to influence the lifestyles and physical activity levels of obese children. Methods/Design This paper provides an overview of the rationale for and implementation of the intervention for obese children and their families. Objectives of the intervention included the modification of health behaviors and cohesion levels through the use of group dynamics strategies. To date, a total of 15 children (7 boys and 8 girls, mean age = 10.5) and their families have completed the intervention (during the month of August 2008). Physiological and psychological outcomes were assessed throughout the 4-week intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up periods. Discussion It is believed that the information provided will help researchers and health professionals develop similar obesity treatment interventions through the use of evidence-based group dynamics strategies. There is also a need for continued research in this area, and it is our hope that the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.) will provide a strong base from which others may build. PMID:19646259
Fobi, M. A. L.
Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355
Batisky, Donald L
As the prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents increases within the context of the epidemic of obesity, it is important to recognize that while hypertension may be secondary to an underlying disorder, one must not overlook the impact that overweight and obesity have on the condition. While considering options for the overall management of hypertension in the context of overweight and obesity one should incorporate strategies that focus on therapeutic lifestyle changes, as discussed in the Fourth Report on Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The strategies that will be discussed in this article include weight loss, exercise and dietary interventions. These treatment strategies require a great deal of motivation on the part of the patient, the patient's family and the patient's care providers. Not all strategies will be effective for every individual, but to some extent all patients being treated for hypertension should incorporate elements of therapeutic lifestyle changes into their treatment regimen.
Unick, Jessica L.; Beavers, Daniel; Bond, Dale S.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Jakicic, John M.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Knowler, William C.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.
Objective Severe obesity (BMI≥40kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus non-surgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors among severely obese, compared to overweight (25≤BMI<30), class I (30≤BMI<35), and class II obese (35≤BMI<40) participants. Methods 5,145 individuals with type 2 diabetes (45–76 years, BMI≥25kg/m2) were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention or diabetes support and education. The lifestyle intervention received a behavioral weight loss program which included group and individuals meetings, a ≥10% weight loss goal, calorie restriction, and increased physical activity. Diabetes support and education received a less intense educational intervention. 4-year changes in body weight and cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed. Results Across BMI categories, 4-year changes in body weight were significantly greater in lifestyle participants compared to diabetes support and education (p’s<0.05). At year 4, severely obese lifestyle participants lost 4.9±8.5% which was similar to class I (4.8±7.2%) and class II obese (4.4±7.6%) and significantly greater than overweight (3.4±7.0%; p<0.05). 4-year changes in LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c, and blood glucose were similar across BMI categories in lifestyle participants; however the severely obese had less favorable improvements in HDL-cholesterol (3.1±0.4mg/dL) and systolic blood pressure (−1.4±0.7mmHg) compared to the less obese (p’s<0.05). Conclusion Lifestyle interventions can result in important long-term weight losses and improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors among a significant proportion of severely obese individuals. PMID:23410564
Simply put, there is no cure for obesity. Pharmaceuticals that induce weight loss of extent of at least 5% from baseline are applied and tested as the weight loosing drugs. Available guidelines include recommendations that pharmacologic treatment of obesity may be offered to patients with BMI > 30 kg/m2; or BMI >27 kg/m2 and obesity related comorbidity. Both categories cumulatively include essential boundary condition of failing to achieve clinically significant weight loss through diet and exercise alone. In despite the exceedingly growing number of investigations and approaches, overall achievements in pharmacological treatments of obesity are limited. Antiobesity drugs are typically burdened with issues concerning the sustainability of lost weight, besides limitations in short term efficiency. Another important problem lays in the fact that the drug induced weight loss could be annihilated or reversed if patient does not adhere to personal lifestyle changes. Later include adjustments in behaviour sphere, dietary habits and physical activity. Recently, focus of clinical interests came to prevention of obesity epidemic through optimization of chronic pharmacotherapies, especially ones associated with weight gain side-effect. This review presents the most important representatives of antiobesity drugs and essential principles that ought to be taken in to count in order to treat obesity more successfully.
Limbers, Christine A; Turner, Erlanger A; Varni, James W
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short- and long-term health consequences associated with obesity and the strong tracking of obesity from childhood to adulthood. Lifestyle plays an important role in the development and maintenance of obesity. Behavior modification programs targeting eating, exercise, and diet behaviors continue to be the mainstay for treating obese children. Although family-based behavioral weight management programs have resulted in significant improvements in weight status, maintaining improvements in weight status continues to be a challenge, with many interventions resulting in considerable relapse. Motivational interviewing is one innovative approach, used alone or in conjunction with standard behavioral modification programs, which has been proposed to have the potential to enhance motivation for change and therefore improve long-term treatment outcomes for obese children. A broad literature search using two electronic databases, Medline and PsycINFO, to identify studies that used an intervention with a motivational interviewing component to modify diet and/or physical activity in the prevention or treatment of childhood obesity identified two studies that targeted weight as a primary outcome. The studies reviewed indicate that, although initial findings are encouraging, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. Concerted efforts are clearly needed to elucidate the mechanisms for maintenance of initial treatment gains, as well as the ultimate achievement of more ideal weight once formal treatment ceases.
Montero, J C; Cúneo, A; Facchini, M; Bressan, J
Obesity is associated to chronic metabolic entities affecting the quality of life and life expectancy. An early treatment, if efficient, can overcome most of the problems. The normalisation of body composition, of energy reserves and their distribution, as well as the minimisation of weight dependent metabolic upsets and the establishment of therapeutic priorities, according to the repercussions of obesity, are important factors for the treatment of this disease. Prevention is important and its basis is teaching and the setting in healthy life style with modification of the food habits and the incorporation of physical work into everyday activities. Diet therapy, physical activity, pharmacotherapy, surgery education and psychology are the forms proposed for the treatment and prevention of obesity.
Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda; Sharp, Lisa K.; Singh, Vicky; Dyer, Alan
Obesity is a chronic condition that is prevalent in black women. The Obesity Reduction Black Intervention Trial (ORBIT) was a randomized controlled weight loss and weight loss maintenance trial. Participants (N = 213) were randomized to the intervention or control groups in August 2005 and September 2006. Follow-up data were collected 6 and 18 months after randomization. The main outcome was change in weight and body mass index from baseline to 18 months. The mean weight at baseline was 104.9 kg and the mean weight loss in the intervention group at 6 months was 3.0 kg and a gain of 0.2 kg in the control group (mean difference between groups in weight change at 6 months, adjusting for baseline weight and cohort, -3.27 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.50 to -2.05 kg; P < .001). Both groups gained weight between 6 and 18 months (mean 1.0 kg in the intervention group and 0.1 kg in the control group). However, intervention participants lost significantly more weight than control participants during the 18 month intervention (adjusted mean difference between groups at 18 months, -2.83 kg; 95% CI, -4.71 to -0.95; P = .003). At 18 months, intervention participants were more likely than control participants to have lost at least 5% of baseline weight (24% vs. 12%, P< .04). Our results indicate that the ORBIT program did promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. However, the results also clearly illustrate there is more to learn about what will contribute to meaningful weight loss and maintenance in this population. PMID:20300081
Background Previous studies of public perceptions of obesity interventions have been quantitative and based on general population surveys. This study aims to explore the opinions and attitudes of obese individuals towards population and individual interventions for obesity in Australia. Methods Qualitative methods using in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews with a community sample of obese adults (Body Mass Index ≥30). Theoretical, purposive and strategic recruitment techniques were used to ensure a broad sample of obese individuals with different types of experiences with their obesity. Participants were asked about their attitudes towards three population based interventions (regulation, media campaigns, and public health initiatives) and three individual interventions (tailored fitness programs, commercial dieting, and gastric banding surgery), and the effectiveness of these interventions. Results One hundred and forty two individuals (19-75 years) were interviewed. Participants strongly supported non-commercial interventions that were focused on encouraging individuals to make healthy lifestyle changes (regulation, physical activity programs, and public health initiatives). There was less support for interventions perceived to be invasive or high risk (gastric band surgery), stigmatising (media campaigns), or commercially motivated and promoting weight loss techniques (commercial diets and gastric banding surgery). Conclusion Obese adults support non-commercial, non-stigmatising interventions which are designed to improve lifestyles, rather than promote weight loss. PMID:20633250
Roth, Christian L.
Hypothalamic obesity (HO) occurs in patients with tumors and lesions in the medial hypothalamic region. Hypothalamic dysfunction can lead to hyperinsulinemia and leptin resistance. This review is focused on HO caused by craniopharyngiomas (CP), which are the most common childhood brain tumors of nonglial origin. Despite excellent overall survival rates, CP patients have substantially reduced quality of life because of significant long-term sequelae, notably severe obesity in about 50% of patients, leading to a high rate of cardiovascular mortality. Recent studies reported that both hyperphagia and decreased energy expenditure can contribute to severe obesity in HO patients. Recognized risk factors for severe obesity include large hypothalamic tumors or lesions affecting several medial and posterior hypothalamic nuclei that impact satiety signaling pathways. Structural damage in these nuclei often lead to hyperphagia, rapid weight gain, central insulin and leptin resistance, decreased sympathetic activity, low energy expenditure, and increased energy storage in adipose tissue. To date, most efforts to treat HO have shown disappointing long-term success rates. However, treatments based on the distinct pathophysiology of disturbed energy homeostasis related to CP may offer options for successful interventions in the future. PMID:26371051
Coles, Nicole; Birken, Catherine; Hamilton, Jill
Severe obesity in childhood is increasing in prevalence and is associated with considerable morbidity. Studies into pediatric obesity have focused largely on interventions that do not necessarily target the unique biologic or psychological underpinnings for the weight gain in the individual child or adolescent. Outcomes show modest improvement and are of questionable benefit for patients with severe obesity. Although weight is a commonly used outcome, other psychological and metabolic parameters including normalization of physical activity and eating behaviors should be primary outcome goals. The durability of weight loss is often limited by physiologic systems that are evolutionarily designed to promote weight gain. Drug therapies for children are limited, as is their effect on weight and metabolism. Existing drugs that are incidentally found to cause weight loss through off-target effects are being actively investigated for obesity indications. Bariatric surgery results in the most significant weight reduction, but it is associated with potential morbidity and long term data are not available for adolescents undergoing this procedure. As understanding of the biologic and psychosocial contributors to eating behaviors and body weight regulation increases, multifaceted and targeted behavioral, pharmacological, and surgical treatment algorithms should be developed and applied to target the underlying pathways involved for the individual child or adolescent with severe obesity.
The obesity epidemic and global warming are linked through energy use. A personal carbon trading scheme aimed at reducing fossil fuel usage could act as a "stealth intervention" for reducing obesity by increasing personal energy use. Such a scheme would complement a corporate "cap and trade" system for carbon emissions, which should increase the relative price of processed, energy-dense foods. The scheme would work by reducing global carbon emissions to a sustainable level (contraction), while offering potential for trade of emission rights between frugal and profligate users of non-renewable energy (convergence). A key goal would be changed attitudes to conspicuous (and obesogenic) consumption. Adoption of the scheme would make healthy choices the easy choice.
Glandt, Mariela; Raz, Itamar
Obesity now presents one of the biggest health problems of our times. Diet and exercise are best for both prevention and treatment; unfortunately, both require much discipline and are difficult to maintain. Medications offer a possible adjunct, but their effect is modest, they are limited by side effects, and the weight loss lasts only as long as the drug is being taken, since as soon as treatment is stopped, the weight is regained. Sibutramine, a sympathomimetic medication which was available for long-term treatment, is the most recent of the drugs to be withdrawn from the market due to side effects; in this case it was an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This paper reviews those medications which are available for treatment of obesity, including many of those recently taken off the market. It also discusses some of the newer treatments that are currently being investigated. PMID:21331293
Hanson, Mark; Barker, Mary; Dodd, Jodie M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Norris, Shane; Steegers, Eric; Stephenson, Judith; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Yang, Huixia
Prevention of obesity in women of reproductive age is widely recognised to be important both for their health and for that of their offspring. Weight-control interventions, including drug treatment, in pregnant women who are obese or overweight have not had sufficient impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes, which suggests that the focus for intervention should include preconception or post-partum periods. Further research is needed into the long-term effects of nutritional and lifestyle interventions before conception. To improve preconception health, an integrated approach, including pregnancy prevention, planning, and preparation is needed, involving more than the primary health-care sector and adopting an ecological approach to risk reduction that addresses personal, societal, and cultural influences. Raising awareness of the importance of good health in the period before pregnancy will require a new social movement: combining bottom-up mobilisation of individuals and communities with a top-down approach from policy initiatives. Interventions to reduce or prevent obesity before conception and during pregnancy could contribute substantially to achievement of the global Sustainable Development Goals, in terms of health, wellbeing, productivity, and equity in current and future generations.
Wieland, L. Susan; Falzon, Louise; Sciamanna, Chris N; Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Folse, Suzanne Brodney; Schwartz, Joseph E; Davidson, Karina W
Background The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of obese or overweight individuals worldwide will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Chronic diseases associated with overweight or obesity include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. Objectives To assess the effects of interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people. Search methods We searched several electronic databases, including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PsycINFO, through 25 May 2011. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify studies. We scanned reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. Selection criteria Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated interactive computer-based weight loss or weight maintenance programs in adults with overweight or obesity. We excluded trials if the duration of the intervention was less than four weeks or the loss to follow-up was greater than 20% overall. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Where interventions, control conditions, outcomes and time frames were similar between studies, we combined study data using meta-analysis. Main results We included 14 weight loss studies with a total of 2537 participants, and four weight maintenance studies with a total of 1603 participants. Treatment duration was between four weeks and 30 months. At six months, computer-based interventions led to greater weight loss than minimal interventions (mean difference (MD) −1.5 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.1 to −0.9; two trials) but less weight loss than in-person treatment (MD 2.1 kg; 95% CI 0.8 to 3.4; one trial). At six months, computer-based interventions were superior to a minimal control intervention in limiting weight regain (MD −0.7 kg; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.2; two trials), but not
Kushner, Robert F
Obesity is one of the most serious and prevalent non-communicable diseases of the 21st century. It is also a patient-centered condition in which affected individuals seek treatment through a variety of commercial, medical and surgical approaches. Considering obesity as a chronic medical disease state helps to frame the concept of using a three-stepped intensification of care approach to weight management. As a foundation, all patients should be counseled on evidence-based lifestyle approaches that include diet, physical activity and behavior change therapies. At the second tier, two new pharmacological agents, phentermine-topiramate and lorcaserin, were approved in 2012 as adjuncts to lifestyle modification. The third step, bariatric surgery, has been demonstrated to be the most effective and long-term treatment for individuals with severe obesity or moderate obesity complicated by comorbid conditions that is not responsive to non-surgical approaches. By using a medical model, clinicians can provide more proactive and effective treatments in assisting their patients with weight loss.
Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Zeller, Meg H.; Modi, Avani C.
Objective To document parenting stress in caregivers of treatment-seeking youth with obesity and examine whether parenting stress is a predictor of pediatric health indicators, including body mass index (BMI) and weight/obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Method Youth (5-18 years) and their caregivers presenting to a pediatric medical weight management program initial visit completed several self-report questionnaires assessing demographics, parenting stress, and weight/obesity-specific HRQOL. Youth height and weight were measured by trained clinic nurses and abstracted from patient medical records. Study staff measured caregiver height and weight. Results Participants included 120 caregivers and their youth (Mage = 11.0, 65.8% female, and 50% African-American). At treatment initiation, caregivers were primarily obese (MBMI = 35.8). One-fifth of caregivers of school-aged children (18%) had clinically elevated levels of parenting stress and 25% reported elevated spousal discord specific to parenting. Parenting stress did not significantly predict youth BMI. Parenting stress significantly predicted obesity-specific parent-proxy HRQOL for school-aged children, but not self-reported obesity-specific HRQOL. Conclusion Given that caregivers are critical components of pediatric weight management interventions, those with clinically elevated levels of parenting stress would likely benefit from brief problem-solving interventions and anticipatory guidance to address common obstacles when fostering healthier lifestyles for their youth. PMID:20081432
Baskin, M L; Ahluwalia, H K; Resnicow, K
Often, researchers and clinicians approach the African-American community from a deficit model with African Americans viewed as having less desirable health practices and higher disease risk; however, in developing interventions for African Americans, it is important to keep in mind positive aspects of black culture as they relate to obesity. For example, the cultural acceptance of a larger body type and less negative views toward overweight individuals need not be viewed as problematic or abnormal. In fact, it could be argued that majority culture has a dysfunctional view of body image and obesity. The fact that whites are less likely to be overweight than African Americans may stem from a value system that places undue emphasis on thinness, youth, and external beauty and a culture that imbues women with shame about how they look and what they eat. Thus, rather than holding whites and majority culture as the ideal, it may be important to incorporate the positive elements of black culture regarding body image and food rather than attempting to shift their values toward those of European Americans. How best to achieve a reduction in obesity and its medical consequences, without inducing undesirable shifts in body image and attitudes toward food, is a formidable but important challenge.
Hu, Ruofei; Cancela, Jorge; Cea, Gloria; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis-Athina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I.; Fico, Giuseppe
Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century’s most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children’s lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY. The system makes use of applied behavior analysis, affective computing technologies, as well as serious game and gamification techniques, to offer long term services in all care dimensions of the family-based behavioral intervention aiming to provide positive effects to the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:27602306
Hu, Ruofei; Cancela, Jorge; Arredondo Waldmeyer, Maria Teresa; Cea, Gloria; Vlachopapadopoulou, Elpis-Athina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Fico, Giuseppe
Childhood obesity is becoming one of the 21st century's most important public health problems. Nowadays, the main treatment of childhood obesity is behavior intervention that aims at improve children's lifestyle to arrest the disease. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have not been widely employed in this intervention, and most of existing ICTs systems are not having a long-term effect. The purpose of this paper is to define a system to support family-based intervention through a state-of-the-art analysis of family-based interventions and related technological solutions first, and then using the analytic hierarchy process to derive a childhood obesity family-based behavior intervention model, and finally to provide a prototype of a system called OB CITY. The system makes use of applied behavior analysis, affective computing technologies, as well as serious game and gamification techniques, to offer long term services in all care dimensions of the family-based behavioral intervention aiming to provide positive effects to the treatment of childhood obesity.
Pace, P W; Bolton, M P; Reeves, R S
Dietitians face both a responsibility and an opportunity to address the ethical issues of obesity treatment and to promote weight management strategies that are beneficial and effective. The Code of Ethics for the Profession of Dietetics, which was adopted in 1989 to provide guidance to dietetics practitioners in their professional practice and conduct, can serve as a guide in an evaluation of current obesity treatments. Dietitians must help clients be realistic about their weight loss goals and address emotional conflicts that may be undermining weight management efforts. Referrals to therapists may be indicated, and dietitians must be prepared to recognize the need and make the recommendations. Dietitians should take the lead in developing more ethical and beneficial treatments by collaborating with government and industry to protect the consumer from ineffective or potentially harmful practices.
Koning, Aafke M H; Mol, Ben Willem; Dondorp, Wybo J
Obesity can lead to anovulation and subfertility. Around the world fertility treatment is withheld from women above a certain BMI, ranging from 25 to 40 kg/m2. The proponents of this policy use three different arguments to justify their restrictions: risks to the woman, health and wellbeing of the future child, and importance for society. In this article we critically appraise these arguments. In conclusion, we think obese women should be informed about the consequences of their weight on fertility and pregnancy complications and encouraged to lose weight. If, however, a woman is unable to lose weight despite effort, we feel there is no argument to withhold treatment from her. This would be unjustified with respect to the treatment of other women with a high risk of complications.
Randomised controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 'Families for Health', a family-based childhood obesity treatment intervention delivered in a community setting for ages 6 to 11 years.
Robertson, Wendy; Fleming, Joanna; Kamal, Atiya; Hamborg, Thomas; Khan, Kamran A; Griffiths, Frances; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel; Petrou, Stavros; Simkiss, Douglas; Harrison, Elizabeth; Kim, Sung Wook; Thorogood, Margaret
BACKGROUND Effective programmes to help children manage their weight are required. 'Families for Health' focuses on a parenting approach, designed to help parents develop their parenting skills to support lifestyle change within the family. Families for Health version 1 showed sustained reductions in mean body mass index (BMI) z-score after 2 years in a pilot project. OBJECTIVE The aim was to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). DESIGN The trial was a multicentre, investigator-blind RCT, with a parallel economic and process evaluation, with follow-up at 3 and 12 months. Randomisation was by family unit, using a 1 : 1 allocation by telephone registration, stratified by three sites, with a target of 120 families. SETTING Three sites in the West Midlands, England, UK. PARTICIPANTS Children aged 6-11 years who were overweight (≥ 91st centile BMI) or obese (≥ 98th centile BMI), and their parents/carers. Recruitment was via referral or self-referral. INTERVENTIONS Families for Health version 2 is a 10-week, family-based community programme with parallel groups for parents and children, addressing parenting, lifestyle, social and emotional development. Usual care was the treatment for childhood obesity provided within each locality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Joint primary outcome measures were change in children's BMI z-score and incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained at 12 months' follow-up (QALYs were calculated using the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Youth version). Secondary outcome measures included changes in children's waist circumference, percentage body fat, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and quality of life. Parents' BMI and mental well-being, family eating/activity, parent-child relationships and parenting style were also assessed. The process evaluation documented recruitment, reach, dose delivered, dose received and fidelity, using mixed methods
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention…
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...
Sung-Chan, P; Sung, Y W; Zhao, X; Brownson, R C
Effective interventions are needed to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity. In the past 35 years, family-based approach has gradually developed as a preferred intervention. This review aimed to examine the methodological rigour and treatment effectiveness of family-based interventions according to intervention types and theoretical orientations. A total of 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of family-based lifestyle interventions for children and adolescents aged 2-19 years were included. The adapted Methodological Quality Rating Scales (MQRS) and a four-grade qualitative scoring scheme were adopted to evaluate the methodological rigour and the effectiveness of treatment, respectively. The average MQRS score was 7.93 out of 14 points. Ten of the 15 RCTs had well aligned their research questions with appropriate research methods. The overall short-term outcome of the15 RCTs were satisfactory with an average score of 3.1. Family-based interventions rooted in behaviour theory achieved better results than those theoretically connected to family systems theory in terms of treatment effectiveness. Results suggest future studies to improve the methodological design and continue to explore the potential of the family systems approach.
Haley, Andreana P.; Alosco, Michael L.; Gunstad, John
Objective The purpose of this article is to highlight what is currently known about the mechanisms of obesity-related cognitive impairment and weight-loss-related cognitive improvement, and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of available treatments. Methods The manuscript is based on a live debate, presenting the main advantages and disadvantages of exercise interventions and bariatric surgery as related to cognitive functioning. The live debate took place during a one-day conference on Diabetes, Obesity and the Brain, organized by the American Psychosomatic Society in October of 2013. Results While it is well established that bariatric surgery tends to lead to greater weight loss, better glycemic control, and cognitive improvement (effect sizes ranging between 0.61 to 0.78) during the first one to two years post intervention than non-surgical treatments, medical complications are possible, and follow-up data beyond five years is limited. In contrast, non-surgical therapies have been extensively studied in a variety of clinical settings and have proved that they can sustain positive health outcomes up to 10 years later, but their cognitive benefits tend to be more modest (effect sizes ranging from 0.18 to 0.69) and long-term regiment compliance, especially in obese individuals is uncertain. Conclusions Rather than focusing on debating whether surgical or no-surgical interventions for obesity are better, additional research is needed to identify the most efficient and practical combination of approaches to ensure sustained positive health outcomes for the largest number of patients possible. PMID:26163819
May, Jeanette; Buckman, Ellen
Nearly two thirds of the US population is overweight or obese and those numbers are climbing. Many organizations are beginning to recognize overweight and obesity as severe health threats and to acknowledge that treatment can serve as an important first step in addressing this epidemic. Through its Obesity with Co-morbidities Initiative, the Disease Management Association of America (DMAA) seeks to raise awareness and improve understanding of the role disease management (DM) can play in the treatment and management of obesity with comorbidities. Among the objectives of the Obesity with Co-morbidities Initiative was to develop standard definitions of obesity and obesity with comorbidities and to conduct qualitative research among key DM stakeholders. The first project undertaken and completed by the Obesity with Associated Co-morbidities Steering Committee and work group was to define the term "obesity" for consistent usage within the DM community for the purposes of population-based interventions. As part of this initiative, DMAA partnered with Synovate, a global market research firm, to conduct focus groups and in-depth interviews in order to collect qualitative data on attitudes and practices related to obesity treatment and coverage among key industry stakeholders, including health plans, disease management organizations, employers, and the business community. The findings indicated that obesity was widely recognized as a serious issue, but there remained varying opinions regarding responsibility, health and productivity costs, coverage, and best treatment methods among the participants. DMAA will continue this initiative through 2007 and will continue to develop a knowledge base of obesity guidelines and management practices, create valuable tools and resources including an online resource center, and facilitate partnerships with other organizations involved in the management and prevention of obesity.
Sreevatsava, Meghana; Narayan, K M Venkat; Cunningham, Solveig A
Childhood obesity is on the rise worldwide and its increasing prevalence in low and middle income countries is well-known. Obesity interventions have the potential to prevent adverse health outcomes; however, large gaps in research and knowledge about the efficacy and sustainability of such interventions remain. The objectives of this article were to review the evidence for interventions to prevent and control obesity among children and adolescents, evaluate their applicability in India, and discuss the challenges to sustain such interventions. The authors reviewed published research focusing on childhood obesity interventions, especially in India and other lower-resource countries. Nine observational and 10 interventional studies were reviewed. Most studies identified were from developed countries and took place at day-care settings, schools, and after school programs. Nineteen reported studies were grouped into categories: diet (2), physical activity (4), childcare programs (2), media-based programs (2), parental involvement (2), multi-component studies (1), and screen time (6). Most interventions were effective in reducing BMI, decreasing sedentary behaviors, and increasing physical activity. Sustainability of these interventions was not evaluated. While there is no one method or simple intervention to address obesity, multi-component approaches involving home and school environments are promising and warrant evaluation in India. Literature on obesity prevention and control in India and in lower-resource countries, however, is sparse. Existing gaps in knowledge about obesity should be addressed by conducting research in India and carrying out interventions to determine what strategies will be successful and sustainable locally.
Freire, Simone Cardoso; Fisberg, Mauro; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato
Obese people tend to have low zinc circulation levels; this is not always related to zinc intake but can reflect the distribution of zinc in relation to the proportion of body fat and factors related to the inflammatory processes that cause obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess zinc distribution in 15 obese adolescent girls before and after a nutritional orientation program. Participants ranged from 14 to 18 years old (postpubescent) and had a body fat percent (BF%) of >35 %. Zinc nutritional status and other zinc-dependent parameters, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and insulin levels, were assessed by biochemical analysis of plasma and erythrocytes, salivary sediment, and urine. Samples were collected before and after 4 months of dietary intervention. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to verify BF% both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Food consumption was assessed in ten individual food questionnaires throughout the study; food groups were separated on the questionnaires in the same way as suggested by some authors to develop the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) but with the addition of zinc. After 4 months of nutritional orientation, 78 % of the participants showed a decrease in BF%. Intraerythrocytic zinc increased over the study period, while salivary sediment zinc, SOD, insulin, and Zn urinary24 h/creatinine all decreased (p < 0.05). There was no difference in zinc intake throughout the study but participants did increase their consumption of fruits, dairy, and meats during the study (p < 0.05). There were inverse and statistically significant correlations between the increased levels of intraerythrocytic zinc and decreased levels of SOD. There was also a statistically significant correlation between BF% and Zn urinary 24h/creatinine, and SOD. All these parameters were diminished at the end of the study. The dietary intervention for obese adolescent girls is effective with decrease of BF that led to the
Our objective was to assess an intervention strategy - a 6-week obesity intervention program, Project KidFIT, at 3 Houston, TX, park centers - to address the obesity epidemic in minority children. Project KidFIT is a physical fitness and nutrition education program aimed at promoting the benefits of...
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A; McNaughton, Diane B; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention interventions targeting AA youth. A search of electronic databases, limited to multicomponent culturally adapted obesity prevention controlled trials from 2003 to 2013, was conducted for key terms. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria. We used the PEN-3 model to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of interventions as well as to identify cultural adaptation strategies. The PEN-3 model highlighted the value of designing joint parent-youth interventions, building a relationship between AA mentors and youth, and emphasizing healthful activities that the youth preferred. The PEN-3 model shows promise as an overarching framework to develop culturally adapted obesity interventions.
Clark, Mary Jo
Obesity disproportionately affects U.S. ethnic minority preschool children, placing them at risk for obesity related co-morbidities and premature death. Effective culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity in young high-risk minority children, while their behaviors are still developing. All known obesity intervention studies (e.g., diet and physical activity) since 2000 targeting U.S. ethnic minority preschool children were reviewed. Five electronic databases and eight published literature reviews were used to identify the studies. Intervention studies without identified ethnic minority participants were excluded. Ten obesity interventions studies met the review criteria. Published cultural adaptation guidelines were used to develop a mechanism to analyze, score, and rank the intervention adaptations. Cultural adaptations varied widely in rigor, depth, and breadth. Results indicated a relative absence of appropriately adapted obesity interventions for ethnic minority groups, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines when designing obesity interventions for diverse ethnicities. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance intervention relevance, effectiveness, and feasibility. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate 1) the type and extent of cultural adaptations strategies applied to the interventions, and 2) how these adaptations related to the study outcomes. PMID:24159268
Gesell, Sabina B.; Po’e, Eli K.; Escarfuller, Juan; Tempesti, Tommaso
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of a culturally tailored, family-centered, short-term behavioral intervention on BMI in Latino-American preschool-aged children. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 54 parent–child dyads were allocated to the intervention and 52 dyads were allocated to an alternative school-readiness program as the control condition. Parent–child dyads were eligible if the parent self-defined Latino, was at least 18 years old, had a 2- to 6-year-old child not currently enrolled in another healthy lifestyle program, had a valid telephone number, and planned on remaining in the city for the next 6 months. The Salud Con La Familia (Health with the Family) program consisted of 12 weekly 90-minute skills-building sessions designed to improve family nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Both programs were conducted in a community recreation center serving an urban neighborhood of mostly Spanish-speaking residents. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of participating preschool-aged children were overweight or obese. Controlling for child age, gender, and baseline BMI, the effect of the treatment condition on postintervention absolute BMI was B = –0.59 (P < .001). The intervention effect seemed to be strongest for obese children. CONCLUSIONS: A skills-building, culturally tailored intervention involving parent–child dyads changed short-term early growth patterns in these Latino-American preschool-aged children. Examining long-term effects would be a prudent next step. PMID:22869834
Lee, Hang Lak
It is well recognized that obesity is a big problem and it can induce large economic burden. Obesity affects about 40% people in the America alone and obesity also is the worldwide problem, with about 400 million obese adults. Moreover, another problem of obesity is the increasing prevalence of overweight children. Though bariatric surgery remains the gold treatment modality in the obesity treatment, endoluminal approaches may have the meaningful role for weight control. Endoscopists should have a role in the management of obesity because endoluminal therapies demonstrate their safety and efficacy over the coming years. Endoluminal therapies can be summarized by above methods: space occupying, malabsorption method, and reduction of gastric volume. In this review, we will introduce various restrictive endoscopic procedures in obesity treatment. PMID:28147476
Obesity is commonly encountered in veterinary patients. Although there are various published dietary approaches to achieving weight loss, successful long-term prevention of weight regain has proven elusive. Adding environmental and behavioral treatment strategies to a weight loss plan may help the veterinary team, the pet, and the pet owner maximize the effectiveness of the program. Because the owner directly affects the environment and behavior of the pet undergoing a weight loss plan, treatment strategies with an emphasis on owner involvement is the focus of this review. Veterinary use of the 5 A's behavioral counseling approach with the pet owner is discussed.
Nam, Soohyun; Stewart, Kerry J.; Dobrosielski, Devon A.
Little is known about the effect of different lifestyle interventions on sleep disturbances among sedentary obese or overweight persons. We randomized 35–65 year-old men and women, to 6-months of a weight loss diet (D); or D combined with supervised exercise training (D+E). Measurements were self-reported sleep disturbances; the Profile of Mood States questionnaire; BMI; total, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat by magnetic resonance imaging; and aerobic fitness expressed as VO2peak. The groups did not differ in changes for body weight, abdominal total fat, VO2peak, and sleep disturbances. The novel finding herein is that reduced abdominal subcutaneous fat and depressive symptoms with either D or D+E, were associated with less sleep disturbances. PMID:26375410
Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Leslie, Eva; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa
Background Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study) in Mainland China. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control) in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events) together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge. Results Overall, 1108 (93.7%) of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32±1.36 vs. -0.29±1.40, p = 0.09), although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87) by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02), decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84) and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95), change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40), and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors. Conclusions The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving
Kharma, Mohamed Y.; Aws, Ghassan; Tarakji, Bassel
The morbidity and mortality associated with being overweight or obese have been known to the medical profession to be related with an increased risk of associated diseases. This article provides an overview of obesity and addresses possible strategies for the management of this important public health concern. This narrative review sheds light on the problem of obesity and the necessity of professional oral health care to work in partnership with the medical team for managing obesity. In this regard, general dental practitioners should at least reinforce their knowledge regarding obesity and understand their potential role in the treatment and management of obese patients. PMID:27382531
Zeller, Meg H.; Ingerski, Lisa M.; Wilson, Lindsay; Modi, Avani C.
Objective To assess weight stigma, self-perception of weight status, and factors contributing to accurate self-perception of weight status in obese youth presenting for treatment at a hospital-based multidisciplinary weight management program. Methods Participants (N = 97; mean age = 8.56 ± 1.66 years) used a figural rating scale to assess weight stigma and their current and ideal body type, and Sizing Me Up, a measure of obesity-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Results The majority endorsed negative/stereotypical attributes toward an obese body type, chose an average or underweight figure as their ideal, and 39% misperceived their weight status. Older child age and greater HRQOL impairment were significant predictors (P < .01) of correct self-perception. Conclusion Pediatricians may find that talking with the elementary school–aged patient and family about whether weight/size affects their day-to-day life will prove to be a salient and neutral opening to discussing the child’s obesity and need for intervention. PMID:20075030
Maffeis, C; Maschio, M; Costanzi, S; Tommasi, M; Fasan, I; Morandi, A
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that diet composition reported by children before the beginning of an obesity treatment program could be a predicting factor of the clinical outcome. A sample of 138 obese 6-16-year-old children and adolescents were recruited. Anthropometry and dietary habits were recorded. Each patient participated in a multidimensional treatment program in an outpatient obesity public service clinic. Therapy was based on a 6-month educational program on nutrition, lifestyle and physical activity. Children with a lipid intake above 34.7% of total energy had a 2.5 times higher chance of reducing at least 1.5 units of BMI with treatment than children with lower lipid intake. These results suggest that the assessment of habitual diet, in particular diet composition before starting treatment, may help to identify obese children who are more sensitive to intervention and those who need more specific nutritional assistance.
... In some cases, weight-loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is an option. Weight-loss surgery limits the ... et al. Treatment of obesity: The impact of bariatric surgery. In: Current Diagnosis & Treatment: Gastroenterology, Hepatology, & Endoscopy. 2nd ...
Díaz-Hellín, P; Fontecha, J; Hervás, R; Bravo, J
Childhood Obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and constitutes an increased risk of premature syndromes, including diabetes or heart diseases. Its treatment seems to be complicated. So, in order to help parents we have developed a system that will try to make easier the process of choosing foodstuff for overweight and obese children at the supermarket. To interact with the system, Near Field Communication mobile phones and tags are used. Those tags would have nutritional information such as energy or fat contain of each product. When the interaction takes place, the system will generate an alert determining if the product is adequate for the user diet or not. Decision will be influenced by specific prescript diets, which would have been previously generated by the system based on user profile parameters. At the same time the diet is established, the shopping list would be generated automatically. Therefore, the user could download and print both things at home easily by the PC application. The system also takes into account physical activity of the user. Children mobile phone includes an accelerometer that will detect and collect user activities in order to modify calorical requirements and, if necessary, to change physical activity too. In the future, it would be possible to extend this project system for adults, managing diets not just for obese and overweight, but also to diabetic or celiac people.
Amini, Maryam; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Majdzadeh, Reza; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam
Background: Childhood obesity is a world-wide health problem and development of interventions to prevent or control it is a priority. Obesity is prevalent and on the increase among school-students in Iran, too. As the first step for development of an intervention, the current study was designed to complete our understanding of ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of primary school children in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Twenty-seven primary school-students (11 boys, 16 girls) in grade-five, most of whom were overweight or obese, participated in four focus-group discussions (FGDs). All FGD notes were analyzed to find the main themes. Results: Nine themes in three main categories emerged after analysis. The themes in the category of barriers of losing weight included environmental, psychological and physiological barriers. Category of intervention components included nutrition improvement, physical activity promotion, social support and education. Setting and deliverer of the intervention were included in the intervention conditions category. The children proposed a multi-component approach for development of an intervention. They mentioned nutrition and physical activity improvement, social support and education as the main elements of an effective intervention. Conclusions: The findings indicate that obese children need to be supported against different barriers of losing weight, mainly social barriers, especially humiliation by the community. PMID:25489443
Eaton, Charles B.; Hartman, Sheri J.; Perzanowski, Elizabeth; Pan, Guohui; Roberts, Mary B.; Risica, Patricia M.; Gans, Kim M.; Jakicic, John M.; Marcus, Bess H.
PURPOSE The aim of the study was to test a tailored lifestyle intervention for helping obese primary care patients achieve weight loss and increase physical activity. METHODS We conducted a 24-month randomized clinical trial in Rhode Island. Primary care physicians identified obese, sedentary patients motivated to lose weight and increase their moderate to vigorous physical activity. These patients were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups: enhanced intervention (EI) or standard intervention (SI). Both groups received 3 face-to-face weight loss meetings. The enhanced intervention group also received telephone counseling calls, individually tailored print materials, and DVDs focused on diet and physical activity. Active intervention occurred in year 1 with a tapered maintenance phase in year 2. RESULTS Two hundred eleven obese, sedentary patients were recruited from 24 primary care practices. Participants were 79% women and 16% minorities. They averaged 48.6 years of age, with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 37.8 kg/m2, and 21.2 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Significantly more EI participants lost 5% of their baseline weight than SI participants (group by visit, P <.001). The difference was significant during active treatment at 6 months (37.2% EI vs 12.9% SI) and 12 months (47.8% vs 11.6%), but was no longer significant during the maintenance phase at 18 months (31.4% vs 26.7%,) or 24 months (33.3% vs 24.6%). The EI group reported significantly more minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity over time than the SI group (group by visit, P = 0.04). The differences in minutes per week at 6 months was 95.7 for the EI group vs 68.3 minutes for the SI group; at 12 months, it was 126.1 vs 73.7; at 18 months, 103.7 vs 63.7, and at 24 months, 101.3 vs 75.4. Similar trends were found for absolute weight loss and the percentage reaching national guidelines for physical activity. CONCLUSION A home-based tailored lifestyle intervention in
Noordin, M. Hazim M.; Ahmad, Hartini; Baharin, Shamsuddin
Malaysia is ranked as a country with the most obese population in the Southeast Asia region, and placed sixth in the Asia Pacific. Obesity does not only influence the persons' mobility and quality of health, but could also link to medical leaves and absenteeism affecting the overall workforce productivity and efficiency. Routine physical activity is essential for good health and it is particularly important for those who are trying to lose weight or to maintain a healthy weight. However, it is disheartening to note that only 32.6 percent Malaysians above the age of 15 are involved in physical exercise or vigorous sports. There is an emergence of many types of hydrotherapy system, which are either active or passive and these can be at hospital settings, public places or in individual homes. Such hydrotherapy, if properly programmed can promote the physical activity amongst the obese in Malaysia. Current research on the use of active and passive hydrotherapy for obesity treatment was carried out. Subjects of both sexes and diverse age ranges, immersed themselves in a heated pool within hospital setting and in a bath tubs with high energy turbulent movement of medium temperature water. These hydrotherapy sessions provide a form of physical exercise in water as compared to on the land exercise. The findings of the hydrotherapy sessions have shown encouraging results. Quantitative data was analysed, with the help of descriptive statistics and paired sample t-test. Qualitative data was analysed manually with help of thematic analysis and specialised qualitative assessment software. This study reveals that hydrotherapy has improved patient's mobility, flexibility and exercise capability. Results reveal the reduction in the weight of subjects, with both quantitative and qualitative data results show that Hydrotherapy improved the quality of life in term of body pain reduction and general health improvement. Therefore, it can be concluded that the hydrotherapy can be seen
Background The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. Methods This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA): two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group), receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. Discussion By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213 PMID:20298557
Halbach, Susan M; Flynn, Joseph
The obesity epidemic has become a common concern among pediatricians, with an estimated 32 % of US children and adolescents classified as overweight and 18 % as obese. Along with the increase in obesity, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that chronic diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes, primary hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, once thought to be confined solely to adulthood, are commonly seen among the obese in childhood. Following a brief summary of the diagnosis and evaluation of hypertension in obese children and adolescents, this review will highlight recent research on the treatment of obesity-related hypertension. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment will be discussed. Additionally, current and emerging therapies for the primary treatment of obesity in children and adolescents, which have been gaining in popularity, will be reviewed.
Vitolins, Mara Z.; Crandall, Sonia; Miller, Davis; Ip, Eddie; Marion, Gail; Spangler, John G.
Objective Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This review examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Data Sources Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsychInfo, Cochrane and ERIC for relevant articles in English. References from articles identified were also reviewed to located additional articles. Review Methods We included all studies that incorporated processor outcome evaluations of obesity educational interventions for US medical students. Of an initial 168 citations, 40 abstracts were retrieved; 11 studies were found to be pertinent to medical student obesity education, but only 5 included intervention and evaluation elements. Quality criteria for inclusion consisted of explicit evaluation of the educational methods used. Data extraction identified participants (e.g., year of medical students), interventions, evaluations and results. Results These five studies successfully used a variety of teaching methods including hands on training, didactic lectures, role playing and standardized patient interaction to increase medical students’ knowledge, attitudes and skills regarding overweight and obesity intervention. Two studies addressed medical student bias towards overweight and obese patients. No studies addressed health disparities in the epidemiology and bias of obesity. Conclusions Despite the commonly cited “obesity epidemic,” there are very few published studies that report the effectiveness of medical school obesity educational programs. Gaps still exist within undergraduate medical education including specific training that addresses obesity and long-term studies showing that such training is retained. PMID:22775792
Lee, Jisan; Piao, Meihua; Byun, Ahjung; Kim, Jeongeun
We reviewed the effect sizes of pediatric obesity intervention studies using mobile technology. Ten databases (Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, PubMed/Medline, KoreaMED, KMBASE, KISS, NDSL, KSITI, and RISS) were reviewed, and four studies were included in a qualitative synthesis. To obtain significant change in obesity-related outcomes among elementary school students, including parents and utilizing text messages in interventions are recommended. Furthermore, devices such as accelerometers may aid obesity management. A meta-analysis of four studies indicated that the mobile intervention positively influenced dropout rates but was ineffective for outcomes of weight control, exercise, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake.
Martin, L F; White, S; Lindstrom, W
Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) are only now beginning to be used by business, government, and policymakers to evaluate various medical treatments. The evolution of why CEAs are being demanded is reviewed. To date, a formal CEA of obesity treatments has not been published. This article outlines how a CEA is performed, reviews data relevant to setting up a formal CEA of medical and surgical obesity treatments, and lists published reports that demonstrate the effectiveness of surgical obesity treatments. The general level of discrimination that society allows the obese to suffer also allows medical insurance companies, businesses, and government to not provide many obese Americans with obesity treatments that have established a level of effectiveness far surpassing many other forms of medical therapy. CEAs of obesity treatments, by themselves, cannot be expected to reverse this discrimination. This type of data, however, provides individual obese patients and their physicians with evidence to challenge policymakers' decisions, especially when cost-effective obesity treatments are excluded or placed at a lower priority than treatments with less proven effectiveness.
Nam, Min-Ho; Lee, Seung-Wook; Na, Hyun-Young; Yoo, Jeong-Hwa; Paik, Sun-Ho; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Ahn, Young-Min; Ahn, Se-Young; Choi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Cheol
Obesity is the state of excessive body fat accumulation and is mainly caused by consuming more calories than are burned through physical activity. Herbal acupuncture (HA), also known as pharmacopuncture, has been increasingly used in clinics of Korean medical to alleviate obesity. This review analyzed four clinical studies and 16 animal studies on the effectiveness of HA as a treatment for obesity. Clinical evidence suggests that various kinds of HA might be beneficial for treating obesity; however, further investigations with well-designed, evidence-based, randomized clinical trials are needed. Animal studies support the idea that HA might be beneficial for the treatment of obesity and provide possible mechanisms, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, modulating lipid metabolism and so on, to explain the effect of HA on obesity. This review, based on the evidence collected, suggests that HA could have a beneficial effect for alleviating obesity by modulating inflammation, oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, leptin, and the insulin signal.
Watson, P. M.; Dugdill, L.; Murphy, R.; Knowles, Z.; Cable, N. T.
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious challenges of the 21st century and it is vital that evidence-based treatment approaches can be translated into practice to meet public health needs. Yet policy-makers cannot afford to wait for the results of lengthy trials before "probably efficacious" interventions are made available to the public, and…
Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess
Background: Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. Methods: We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Results: Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Interpretation: Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation. PMID:27398363
de Miguel-Etayo, Pilarnombe; Moreno, Luis A; Iglesia, Iris; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Mouratidou, Theodora; Garagorri, Jesús M
Nutrition, physical activity and behavior-modifying techniques are widely applied components of interventions treating obesity. Our aim was to review available information on the short and long term effects of intervention treatment on body fat composition of overweight and obese children and adolescents and, to obtain a further understanding on how different body composition techniques detect longitudinal changes. In total, thirteen papers were included; seven included a multidisciplinary intervention component, five applied a combined dietary and physical activity intervention and one a physical activity intervention. Body composition techniques used included anthropometric indices, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Percentage of fat mass change was calculated in when possible. Findings suggested, no changes were observed in fat free mass after 16 weeks of nutritional intervention and the lowest decrease on fat mass percentage was obtained. However, the highest fat mass percentage with parallel increase in fat free mass, both assess by DXA was observed in a multi-component intervention applied for 20 weeks. In conclusion, more studies are needed to determine the best field body composition method to monitor changes during overweight treatment in children and adolescents.
Jain, Anjali; Langwith, Casey
Background: Although studies have shown that school-based obesity interventions can be effective, little is known about how to translate and implement programs into real-world school settings. Methods: Semistructured interviews were conducted in spring 2012 with 19 key informants who participated in a multifaceted childhood obesity intervention…
Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L. Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric…
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. A…
Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee
Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…
Klish, William J; Karavias, Kellie E; White, Katie S; Balch, Angela J; Fraley, J Kennard; Mikhail, Carmen; Abrams, Stephanie H; Terrazas, Norma L; Smith, E O'Brian; Wong, William W
The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a school-initiated cognitive and behavioral program to reduce childhood obesity. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z scores were obtained at the beginning and end of the school year at an intervention school (n = 1022) and at a control school (n = 692). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% and 30.4% versus 19% and 30.2%, respectively, in the intervention and control schools. The incidence of overweight increased in the control school, but the incidence of obesity, weight, and BMI z scores increased significantly in the intervention school, suggesting that implementation of any school-based obesity intervention programs requires careful planning to achieve goals.
Most of the available non-invasive medical therapies for obesity are non-efficient in a long-term evaluation; therefore there is a constant need for new methods of treatment. Research on calorie restriction has led to the discovery of sirtuins (silent information regulators, SIRTs), enzymes regulating different cellular pathways that may constitute potential targets in the treatment of obesity. This review paper presents the role of SIRTs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in the differentiation of adipocytes. How disturbances of SIRTs' expression and activity may lead to the development of obesity and related complications is discussed. A special emphasis is placed on polymorphisms in genes encoding SIRTs and their possible association with susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications, as well as on data regarding altered expression of SIRTs in human obesity. Finally, the therapeutic potential of SIRTs-targeted strategies in the treatment of obesity and related disorders is discussed.
Most of the available non-invasive medical therapies for obesity are non-efficient in a long-term evaluation; therefore there is a constant need for new methods of treatment. Research on calorie restriction has led to the discovery of sirtuins (silent information regulators, SIRTs), enzymes regulating different cellular pathways that may constitute potential targets in the treatment of obesity. This review paper presents the role of SIRTs in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in the differentiation of adipocytes. How disturbances of SIRTs’ expression and activity may lead to the development of obesity and related complications is discussed. A special emphasis is placed on polymorphisms in genes encoding SIRTs and their possible association with susceptibility to obesity and metabolic complications, as well as on data regarding altered expression of SIRTs in human obesity. Finally, the therapeutic potential of SIRTs-targeted strategies in the treatment of obesity and related disorders is discussed. PMID:27104517
Aquino-Vivanco, Óscar; Aramburu, Adolfo; Munares-García, Óscar; Gómez-Guizado, Guillermo; García-Torres, Elizabeth; Donaires-Toscano, Fernando; Fiestas, Fabián
Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents represent a serious public health problem in Peru, with high costs for society that require the implementation of a set of public policies directed toward its control. Thus, interventions have been proposed as the regulation of advertising of unhealthy foods, self-regulation, the implementation of kiosks healthy and nutritional labeling. From the analysis of the problem of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Peru, this article is a narrative review of such interventions.
Foreyt, John P.
Summarizes recent developments in assessment and treatment of obesity. Reviews studies on genetics and weight cycling, which demonstrate the heterogeneous etiology of obesity and help explain difficulty in losing weight or maintaining weight loss. Describes the newer treatment programs which emphasize the development of exercise behaviors,…
Heal, D J; Gosden, J; Smith, S L
Obesity is an important causative factor in morbidity, disability and premature death. Increasing levels of obesity will impose enormous health, financial and social burdens on worldwide society unless effective interventions are implemented. For many obese individuals, diet and behavioural modification need to be supplemented by pharmacotherapy. Preclinical research has revealed a greater understanding of the complex nature of the hypothalamic regulation of food intake and has generated a wide range of new molecular targets for the development of drug candidates for obesity treatment. As shown by the clinical results that have been obtained with this next generation of therapies, some approaches, for example, fixed-dose drug combinations, have already demonstrated an ability to deliver levels of efficacy that are not achievable with the current antiobesity drug therapies. The regulatory and marketing landscape for development, registration and commercialisation of novel centrally acting drugs for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders has changed substantially in recent years. Now a much greater emphasis is placed on tolerability and safety, as well as efficacy. In this review we briefly describe the therapeutic approaches to tackle obesity that are in late-stage clinical development. We then discuss drugs in late-stage development for the treatment of obesity and also future directions.
Strub, Peg; Xiao, Lan; Lavori, Philip W.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Gardner, Christopher D.; Buist, A. Sonia; Haskell, William L.; Lv, Nan
Rationale: The effect of weight loss on asthma in obese adults warrants rigorous investigation. Objectives: To examine an evidence-based, practical, and comprehensive lifestyle intervention targeting modest weight loss and increased physical activity for asthma control. Methods: The trial randomized 330 obese adults with uncontrolled asthma to receive usual care enhanced with a pedometer, a weight scale, information about existing weight management services at the participating clinics, and an asthma education DVD, or with these tools plus the 12-month intervention. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome was change in Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores from baseline to 12 months. Participants (mean [SD] age, 47.6 [12.4] yr) were 70.6% women, 20.0% non-Hispanic black, 20.3% Hispanic/Latino, and 8.2% Asian/Pacific Islander. At baseline, they were obese (mean [SD] body mass index, 37.5 [5.9] kg/m2) and had uncontrolled asthma (Asthma Control Test score, 15.1 [3.8]). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants achieved significantly greater mean weight loss (±SE) (intervention, −4.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. control, −2.1 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.01) and increased leisure-time activity (intervention, 418.2 ± 110.6 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk vs. control, 178.8 ± 109.1 metabolic equivalent task–min/wk; P = 0.05) at 12 months. But between-treatment mean (±SE) differences were not significant for ACQ changes (intervention, –0.3 ± 0.1 vs. control, –0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.92) from baseline (mean [SD], 1.4 [0.8]), nor for any other clinical asthma outcomes (e.g., spirometric results and asthma exacerbations). Among all participants regardless of treatment assignment, weight loss of 10% or greater was associated with a Cohen d effect of 0.76 and with 3.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.72–8.31) times the odds of achieving clinically significant reductions (i.e., ≥0.5) on ACQ as stable weight (<3% loss or gain from
Mottalib, Adham; Sakr, Mahmoud; Shehabeldin, Mohamed; Hamdy, Osama
Partial or complete remission from type 2 diabetes was recently observed after bariatric surgeries. Limited data is available about the possibility of inducing diabetes remission through intensive weight reduction. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes remissions after one year of the Weight Achievement and Intensive Treatment (Why WAIT) program, a 12-week intensive program for diabetes weight management in real-world clinical practice. Among 120 obese patients with type 2 diabetes who completed the program, 88 patients returned for follow-up at one year. Nineteen patients (21.6%) had major improvement in their glycemic control, defined as achieving an A1C <6.5% after one year. Four patients (4.5%) achieved either partial or complete diabetes remission defined as A1C <6.5% and <5.7%, respectively, on no antihyperglycemic medications for one year; 2 achieved partial remission (2.3%) and 2 achieved complete remission (2.3%). At the time of intervention, patients who achieved diabetes remission had shorter diabetes duration (<5 years) and lower A1C (<8%) and were treated with fewer than 2 oral medications. They achieved a weight reduction of >7% after 12 weeks. These results indicate that a subset of obese patients with type 2 diabetes is appropriate for intensive lifestyle intervention with the aim of inducing diabetes remission. PMID:26114120
Miller, Alison L
Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States, but current childhood obesity prevention approaches have limited efficacy. Self-regulation processes organize behavior to achieve a goal and may shape health behaviors and health outcomes. Obesity prevention approaches that focus on the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that underlie self-regulation early in life may therefore lead to better outcomes. This article reviews the development of executive functioning (EF), identifies influences on EF development, discusses aspects of EF relating to increased risk for childhood obesity, and considers how EF-weight associations may change across development. Implications for intervention are discussed.
Saad, Farid; Aversa, Antonio; Isidori, Andrea M; Gooren, Louis J
Objective: Obesity negatively affects human health. Limiting food intake, while producing some weight loss, results in reduction of lean body mass. Combined with moderate exercise it produces significant weight loss, maintains lean body mass and improves insulin sensitivity, but appears difficult to adhere to. Bariatric surgery is clinically effective for severely obese individuals compared with non-surgical interventions, but has limitations. Clinical and pre-clinical studies have implicated a role for testosterone (T) in the patho-physiology of obesity. Methods: Evidence Acquisition and Synthesis: A literature search in PubMed on the role of T in counteracting obesity and its complications. Results: Obesity per se impairs testicular T biosynthesis. Furthermore, lower-than-normal T levels increase accumulation of fat depots, particularly abdominal (visceral) fat. This fat distribution is associated with development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its sequels, namely type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). T treatment reverses fat accumulation with significant improvement in lean body mass, insulin sensitivity and biochemical profiles of cardiovascular risk. The contribution of T to combating obesity in hypogonadal men remains largely unknown to medical professionals managing patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Many physicians associate T treatment in men with risks for prostate malignancy and CVD. These beliefs are not supported by recent insights. Conclusion: While overall treatment of obesity is unsuccessful, T treatment of hypogonadal men may be effective, also because it improves mood, energy, reduces fatigue and may motivate men to adhere to diet and exercise regimens designed to combat obesity. PMID:22268394
Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul
The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…
Anton, Stephen D; Karabetian, Christy; Naugle, Kelly; Buford, Thomas W
Obesity and diabetes are known risk factors for the development of physical disability among older adults. With the number of seniors with these conditions rising worldwide, the prevention and treatment of physical disability in these persons have become a major public health challenge. Sarcopenia, the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, has been identified as a common pathway associated with the initial onset and progression of physical disability among older adults. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity and diabetes accelerates the progression of sarcopenia, and subsequently functional decline in older adults. The focus of this brief review is on the contributions of obesity and diabetes in accelerating sarcopenia and functional decline among older adults. We also briefly discuss the underexplored interaction between obesity and diabetes that may further accelerate sarcopenia and place obese older adults with diabetes at particularly high risk of disability. Finally, we review findings from studies that have specifically tested the efficacy of lifestyle-based interventions in maintaining the functional status of older persons with obesity and/or diabetes.
Morgan, Philip J.; Jones, Rachel A.; Collins, Clare E.; Hesketh, Kylie D.; Young, Myles D.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Magarey, Anthea M.; Brown, Helen L.; Hinkley, Trina; Perry, Rebecca A.; Brennan, Leah; Spence, Alison C.; Campbell, Karen J.
Internationally, childhood obesity is a major public health concern. Given the established difficulties in treating obesity, designing and evaluating effective obesity prevention interventions are research priorities. As parents play a crucial role in establishing positive health behaviours in children, they are a key target for child obesity prevention programs. However, recruiting and engaging parents in such interventions can be a considerable challenge for researchers and practitioners. Members of the ‘Parenting, Child Behaviour and Well-being’ stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network (ACAORN) have considerable and varied expertise in conducting such interventions and can provide insights into addressing these challenges. This paper aims to highlight considerations regarding the design, implementation, and evaluation of obesity prevention interventions with families and provide practical insights and recommendations for researchers and practitioners conducting family-based research in this area. Case studies of three family-based interventions conducted by ACAORN members are highlighted to provide examples and contextualise the recommendations proposed. PMID:27834820
Berman, Margit I; Morton, Stephanie N; Hegel, Mark T
Depression and obesity frequently co-occur, but providing adequate treatment to depressed obese women is challenging because existing treatments for each problem in isolation are suboptimal, and treatments to address one problem may exacerbate the other. This study used an uncontrolled, pretreatment-to-posttreatment design, with 3-month follow-up, to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a novel, self-acceptance-based treatment for obese women with depression, "Accept Yourself!" Accept Yourself! is an 11-week manualized, group-based intervention that integrates Health At Every Size (an evidence-based paradigm to enhance physical health) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (an evidence-based psychotherapy often used to treat depression and eating-related concerns) to improve the physical and mental health of obese, depressed women without encouraging weight loss. Twenty-one obese women with Major Depressive Disorder received the intervention; 18 completed at least seven sessions, a minimal dose of the intervention. Depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, physical health outcomes (including physical activity and blood pressure), and obesity-related quality of life were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Weight was also monitored. Depression, blood pressure, and obesity-related quality of life significantly improved from pretreatment to posttreatment, and improvements were sustained over a 3-month follow-up. Participants did not gain significant weight during the intervention or at follow-up. These data, although preliminary and nonexperimental, suggest that Accept Yourself! could be a promising treatment for obese, depressed women, and support the value of larger randomized controlled trials. (PsycINFO Database Record
Kim, Seung Han; Chun, Hoon Jai; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae
Endoscopic bariatric therapy may be a useful alternative to pharmacological treatment for obesity, and it provides greater efficacy with lower risks than do conventional surgical procedures. Among the various endoscopic treatments for obesity, the intragastric balloon is associated with significant efficacy in body weight reduction and relief of comorbid disease symptoms. Anatomically, this treatment is based on gastric space-occupying effects that increase the feeling of satiety and may also affect gut neuroendocrine signaling. The simplicity of the intragastric balloon procedure may account for its widespread role in obesity treatment and its applicability to various degrees of obesity. However, advances in device properties and procedural techniques are still needed in order to improve its safety and cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, verification of the physiological outcomes of intragastric balloon treatment and the clinical predictive factors for treatment responses should be considered. In this article, we discuss the types, efficacy, safety, and future directions of intragastric balloon treatment. PMID:27350727
Zheng, Jiachen; Zhao, Ming; Li, Jiahui; Lou, Guoying; Yuan, Yanyan; Bu, Shizhong; Xi, Yang
The prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past few decades. Previous studies suggest that obesity is an oncogenic factor and that over 20% of all cancers are obesity-related. Among such cancers, digestive system malignancies (including esophageal adenocarcinomas, colorectal cancers, and cancers of the gastric cardia, liver, and pancreas) are reported most frequently. While the 5-year survival rates of cancers of the breast and prostate are 90%, that rate is only 45% for digestive cancers. In this review, the mechanisms of obesity-associated digestive cancers are discussed, with an emphasis on obesity-related gene mutations, insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, chronic inflammation, and altered adipokine levels. Evidence that these factors often function interdependently rather than independently in carcinogenesis is presented. Recommended interventions that may reduce the burden of obesity-associated digestive cancers, such as participation in physical activity, diet modulation, and calorie restriction, are also described.
Czajkowski, Susan M
Pediatric obesity increases the risk of later-life obesity and chronic diseases. Basic research to better understand factors associated with excessive weight gain in early life and studies translating research findings into preventive and therapeutic strategies are essential to our ability to better prevent and treat childhood obesity. This overview describes several National Institutes of Health efforts designed to stimulate basic and translational research in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. These examples demonstrate the value of research in early phase translational pediatric obesity research and highlight some promising directions for this important area of research.
Wofford, Marion R; Hall, John E
Excess weight gain accounts for as much as 65-75% of the risk for essential hypertension and also greatly increases the risk for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS), and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when visceral obesity is present. The mechanisms of SNS activation in obesity are still unclear but may be due, in part, to hyperleptinemia that stimulates the hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) pathway. With prolonged obesity, there may be a gradual loss of kidney function that worsens with time, exacerbates hypertension, and makes blood pressure more difficult to control. Lifestyle modifications, including weight reduction and increased physical activity, are essential first steps in the management of obesity hypertension and renal disease. Anti-obesity drugs offer potential pharmacotherapy for obesity hypertension, but current drugs are very limited and additional long-term studies are needed to test their safety and efficacy. Clinical trials are also needed to determine the most effective antihypertensive drugs for obese hypertensive patients. Special considerations for the obese patient, in addition to adequately controlling the blood pressure, include correcting the metabolic abnormalities and protecting the kidneys from further injury.
Lee, HakGweon; Kim, YoungHo
The current study investigated the effect of an obesity intervention incorporating physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention on BMI, physical activity levels, and psychological variables toward physical activity in male obese adolescents. Single group study without having a control group was carried out in Korea. Sixty-eight obese male adolescents who had BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) participated in the 16-week obesity intervention. During this period, the study participants' BMI, physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers were measured at the three time point (baseline, after week 8, and after week 16). Results indicated that obese adolescents' BMI significantly decreased (F = 3.51, p = .03) and physical activity (F = 4.01, p = .02) significantly increased over the 16-week obesity intervention. In addition, Exercise self-efficacy (F = 5.02) and perceived benefits toward physical activity (F = 5.34) significantly increased but perceived barriers of physical activity (F = 5.10) gradually decreased over the intervention. This study suggests that an obesity intervention combining physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention significantly contributed to decreased BMI, increased physical activity, and positively changed psychological variables related to physical activity. This first application has resulted in preliminary support for this intervention modality within non-western obese adolescents.
Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.
Background: In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles…
Economos, Christina D; Irish-Hauser, Sonya
Community-based interventions built on theory and informed by community members produce potent, sustainable change. This intervention model mobilizes inherent community assets and pinpoints specific needs. Advancing community-based research to address obesity will require training of future leaders in this methodology, funding to conduct rigorous trials, and scientific acceptance of this model.
Pbert, Lori; Druker, Susan; Gapinski, Mary A.; Gellar, Lauren; Magner, Robert; Reed, George; Schneider, Kristin; Osganian, Stavroula
Background: Models are needed for implementing weight management interventions for adolescents through readily accessible venues. This study evaluated the feasibility and ef?cacy of a school nurse-delivered intervention in improving diet and activity and reducing body mass index (BMI) among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: Six high…
Wolf, M. Chris; And Others
Examines three major types of intervention strategies that have been utilized in school-based weight-reduction programs. Discusses behavior modification, dietary control/nutrition education, and physical activities which have been successfully combined in multifaceted obesity interventions to produce modest weight loss. (Author/NRB)
Thibodeau, Paul H; Perko, Victoria L; Flusberg, Stephen J
In 2013, the American Medical Association made the controversial decision to classify obesity as a "disease" in the hopes of encouraging research, reducing stigma, and ultimately lowering the prevalence of the condition. Critics argued that the disease label would reduce feelings of personal responsibility among the obese and therefore discourage healthy self-regulation, a possibility that has received some recent support in the psychological literature. However, public health issues such as obesity are complex and depend not only on personal action, but also on wider societal trends such as social policy interventions. In the present study, we systematically investigated the relationship between four narrative classifications of obesity ("sin", "addiction", "disorder" and "environment") and support for a variety of policy interventions designed to address the issue. An initial norming study revealed that the obesity narratives differed reliably in how much they attributed blame for the condition to the individual versus the environment. A correlational study showed that participants who agreed with narratives that blamed the individual were more likely to support policy interventions that penalized people for being overweight while participants who agreed with narratives that blamed the environment were more likely to support policy interventions designed to protect people suffering from obesity. A follow-up experiment revealed that these narratives had causal power as well: participants exposed to just one of the narratives were more likely to support policy interventions consistent with the blame attribution of the narrative for both obesity as well as anorexia. Individual differences in political ideology and personal experience with weight issues also influenced agreement with the narratives and support for particular policy interventions across these studies. These findings suggest that public messaging campaigns that utilize extended narratives may be a
Appolinario, Jose C; Bueno, João R; Coutinho, Walmir
Obesity is a chronic and highly prevalent medical condition associated with increased risk for the development of numerous and sometimes fatal diseases. Despite its severity, there are few anti-obesity agents available on the market. Although psychotropic agents are not approved for the treatment of obesity, they have been used by clinicians as a therapeutic tool in daily clinical practice. The purpose of this article is to review the rationale, as well as the evidence, for the potential use of these agents in obesity treatment. Evidence for the efficacy of psychotropic agents in obesity treatment comes from different sources. The first type of evidence is weight loss observed with treatment in clinical trials of patients with neuropsychiatric syndromes (e.g. mood disorders, epilepsy). A recent example of such findings is the weight reduction reported in clinical trials involving obese patients with binge eating disorder. While randomised, controlled trials specifically designed to investigate the weight loss properties of psychotropic agents in obese patients are the most appropriate source of evidence of anti-obesity action, such trials remain scarce. The most studied psychotropic agents in obesity trials are drugs used in the treatment of mood disorders, i.e. mainly antidepressants and antiepileptics. SSRIs (e.g. fluoxetine, sertraline and fluvoxamine) were amongst the first psychotropic agents investigated in the treatment of obesity. Additional data have also been published for other antidepressants (e.g. venlafaxine, citalopram and bupropion) and antiepileptics (e.g. topiramate and zonisamide). Based on the available data for the efficacy of psychotropic agents in obesity and other related conditions, SSRIs may be considered for the management of certain subgroups of obese individuals with comorbid conditions such as depression, binge eating disorder and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, some newer agents, such as bupropion, topiramate and zonisamide
Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E
Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial species, rats and sheep, designed to prevent adverse offspring outcomes. Both interventions present exciting opportunities to at least in part prevent adverse metabolic and other outcomes in mother and offspring. PMID:24147928
Monteiro, Mariana P
Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight.
This study presents evidence of differential treatment in the hiring of obese individuals in the Swedish labor market. Fictitious applications were sent to real job openings. The applications were sent in pairs, where one facial photo of an otherwise identical applicant was manipulated to show the individual as obese. Applications sent with the…
Jurkowski, Janine M; Lawson, Hal A; Green Mills, Lisa L; Wilner, Paul G; Davison, Kirsten K
Parents influence children's obesity risk factors but are infrequently targeted for interventions. This study targeting low-income parents integrated a community-based participatory research approach with the Family Ecological Model and Empowerment Theory to develop a childhood obesity intervention. This article (1) examines pre- to postintervention changes in parents' empowerment; (2) determines the effects of intervention dose on empowerment, and (3) determines whether changes in parent empowerment mediate previous changes identified in food-, physical activity-, and screen-related parenting. The pre-post quasi-experimental design evaluation demonstrated positive changes in parent empowerment and empowerment predicted improvement in parenting practices. The integrated model applied in this study provides a means to enhance intervention relevance and guide translation to other childhood obesity and health disparities studies.
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L.; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the 9 control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and post-intervention. At post-intervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to vigorous physical activity than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means=7.46 min/day, p=.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (−27.8 min/day, p=.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852
Bennetzen, Marianne Faurholt
Obesity is a world wide epidemic; it is becoming more usual to be overweight or obese than to be normal weight. Obesity increases the risk of an extensive range of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, depression and some types of cancer. Adipose tissue is more than a storage organ for surplus energy - it is also a setting for complex metabolic processes and adipose tissue releases substances that interact with other parts of the body to influence several systems including food intake and energy metabolism. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the signalling systems that control feeding behaviour. The ECS is implicated in many functions, such as pain, memory, addiction, inflammation, and feeding, and could be considered a stress recovery system. It also seems to integrate nutrient intake, metabolism and storage maintaining homeostatic balance. The ECS is a recently discovered system, and research indicates hyperactivity in obesity. The aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the relationships of this widespread system and its elements in adipose tissue in obesity. Study I is a 4 weeks rat intervention study to investigate whether weight independent effect of Rimonabant treatment exists. We found that food intake-tolerance development could be circumvented by cyclic administration of Rimonabant and implications of weight independent effects of treatment. Study II is a cross-sectional study to establish the expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 from various adipose tissue depots of lean and obese persons. In this study we conclude, that the subcutaneous adipose tissue express more CBR1 than the visceral depot in lean, but comparable levels in obese. Study III is a 10 weeks human intervention study to asses the effects on the ECS of 10% weight loss. We found reduction in the ECS in obesity that normalised with weight loss. Our results clearly show the presence of all the components of the ECS in human adipose tissue, and
Lewis, Kristina H; Edwards-Hampton, Shenelle A; Ard, Jamy D
There are clear and persistent disparities in obesity prevalence within the USA. Some of these disparities fall along racial/ethnic lines; however, there are a number of other social and demographic constructs where obesity disparities are present. In addition to differing rates of obesity across groups, there is growing evidence that subgroups of patients both seek out and respond to obesity treatment differently. This review article explores the epidemiology of obesity disparities, as well as the existing evidence around how different groups may respond to behavioral, medical, and surgical therapies, and potential reasons for differential uptake and response, from culture, to access, to physiology. We find that the vast majority of evidence in this area has focused on the observation that African Americans tend to lose less weight in clinical trials compared to non-Hispanic whites and mainly pertains to behavioral interventions. Moving forward, there will be a need for studies that broaden the notion of health disparity beyond just comparing African Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Additionally, a more thorough examination of the potential for disparate outcomes after medical and surgical treatments of obesity is needed, coupled with the careful study of possible physiologic drivers of differential treatment response.
Wofford, Marion R; Smith, Grant; Minor, Deborah S
Hypertension causes a significant disease burden in all racial and ethnic groups and is directly attributable to excess weight in most cases. The relationship between increasing body mass index and hypertension prevalence has been recognized for decades. Epidemiologic studies clearly demonstrate the correlation between body weight and blood pressure in obese and lean populations. Most patients with hypertension are overweight or obese, and loss of excess weight lowers blood pressure. Although the epidemiologic relationship is clear, the understanding of mechanisms linking hypertension and weight gain is still evolving. Lifestyle modifications and specific pharmacologic agents address many of the known mechanisms; however, blood pressure remains difficult to control in obese hypertensive patients. This review highlights the association of obesity and hypertension, identifies potential mechanisms for this association, and describes nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic strategies that offer potential benefits for the obese patient with hypertension.
Wesnigk, Jenny; De Guchtenaere, Ann; Fischer, Tina; Schuler, Gerhard; Vrints, Christiaan J.
Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL) exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents (15 ± 1 years, BMI > 35 kg/m2) where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, n = 8; restricted diet and exercise) or to a usual care group (UC, n = 8). At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%), an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function. PMID:27965912
Baños, Rosa. M; Cebolla, Ausias; Botella, Cristina; García-Palacios, Azucena; Oliver, Elia; Zaragoza, Irene; Alcaniz, Mariano
Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in western culture. Sedentary lifestyles and an “obesogenic environment” are the main influences on children leading to an increase in obesity. The objective of this paper is to describe an e-health platform for the treatment and prevention of childhood obesity called ETIOBE. This e-health platform is an e-therapy system for the treatment of obesity, aimed at improving treatment adherence and promoting the mechanisms of self-control in patients, to obtain weight loss maintenance and to prevent relapse by establishing healthy lifestyle habits. ETIOBE is composed of three different applications, the Clinician Support System (CSS), the Home Support System (HSS) and the Mobile Support System (MSS). The use of new Information and Communication (ICT) technologies can help clinicians to improve the effectiveness of weight loss treatments, especially in the case of children, and to achieve designated treatment goals. PMID:21559232
Ciao, Anna C; Latner, Janet D
Obese individuals experience pervasive stigmatization. Interventions attempting to reduce obesity stigma by targeting its origins have yielded mixed results. This randomized, controlled study examined the effectiveness of two interventions to reduce obesity stigma: cognitive dissonance and social consensus. Participants were college undergraduate students (N = 64, 78% women, mean age = 21.2 years, mean BMI = 23.1 kg/m2) of diverse ethnicities. Obesity stigma (assessed with the Antifat Attitudes Test (AFAT)) was assessed at baseline (Visit 1) and 1 week later, immediately following the intervention (Visit 2). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups where they received standardized written feedback on their obesity stigma levels. Cognitive dissonance participants (N = 21) were told that their AFAT scores were discrepant from their values (high core values of kindness and equality and high stigma), social consensus participants (N = 22) were told their scores were discrepant from their peers' scores (stigma much higher than their peers), and control participants (N = 21) were told their scores were consistent with both their peers' scores and their own values. Following the intervention, omnibus analyses revealed significant group differences on the AFAT Physical/Romantic Unattractiveness subscale (PRU; F (2, 59) = 4.43, P < 0.05). Planned contrasts revealed that cognitive dissonance group means were significantly lower than control means for AFAT total, AFAT PRU subscale, and AFAT social/character disparagement subscale (all P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between social consensus and controls. Results from this study suggest that cognitive dissonance interventions may be a successful way to reduce obesity stigma, particularly by changing attitudes about the appearance and attractiveness of obese individuals.
Aylward, Brandon S.; Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Davis, Ann M.; Bovaird, James A.
Objective To examine the effectiveness of a family-based behavioral group intervention (Positively Fit; PF) for pediatric obesity relative to a brief family intervention (BFI) in a sample of treatment-seeking children and adolescents. Methods Families (n = 93) were randomized to treatment condition. Assessments were conducted at pre- and posttreatment and at 12-month follow-up. Outcome indices included standardized body mass index (BMI) and quality of life (QOL). Results Results indicated a significant reduction in zBMI at posttreatment and follow-up across both conditions. At follow-up, BFI and PF participants evidenced average reductions of .12 and .19 zBMI units, respectively. Children demonstrated better outcomes than adolescents across both conditions. Results indicated clinically significant improvements in parent-reported QOL at postintervention and in self-reported QOL at follow-up for PF participants. Conclusions Results suggest the effectiveness of family-based interventions for pediatric obesity in clinical settings among younger children. Neither intervention was effective in terms of reducing zBMI among adolescents. PMID:21852343
Altman, Myra; Wilfley, Denise E
Childhood obesity is associated with increased medical and psychosocial consequences and mortality and effective interventions are urgently needed. Effective interventions are urgently needed. This article reviews the evidence for psychological treatments of overweight and obesity in child and adolescent populations. Studies were identified through searches of online databases and reference sections of relevant review articles and meta-analyses. Treatment efficacy was assessed using established criteria, and treatments were categorized as well-established, probably efficacious, possibly efficacious, experimental, or of questionable efficacy. Well-established treatments included family-based behavioral treatment (FBT) and Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment for children. Possibly efficacious treatments include Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment for adolescents, FBT-Guided Self-Help for children, and Behavioral Weight Loss treatment with family involvement for toddlers, children, and adolescents. Appetite awareness training and regulation of cues treatments are considered experimental. No treatments are considered probably efficacious, or of questionable efficacy. All treatments considered efficacious are multicomponent interventions that include dietary and physical activity modifications and utilize behavioral strategies. Treatment is optimized if family members are specifically targeted in treatment. Research supports the use of multicomponent lifestyle interventions, with FBT and Parent-Only Behavioral Treatment being the most widely supported treatment types. Additional research is needed to test a stepped care model for treatment and to establish the ideal dosage (i.e., number and length of sessions), duration, and intensity of treatments for long-term sustainability of healthy weight management. To improve access to care, the optimal methods to enhance the scalability and implementability of treatments into community and clinical settings need to be established.
Yang, N; Ginsburg, G S; Simmons, L A
The prevalence of obesity in America has reached epidemic proportions, and obesity among women is particularly concerning. Severe obesity (body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) ) is more prevalent in women than men. Further, women have sex-specific risk factors that must be considered when developing preventive and therapeutic interventions. This review presents personalized medicine as a dynamic approach to obesity prevention, management and treatment for women. First, we review obesity as a complex health issue, with contributing sex-specific, demographic, psychosocial, behavioural, environmental, epigenetic and genetic/genomic risk factors. Second, we present personalized medicine as a rapidly advancing field of health care that seeks to quantify these complex risk factors to develop more targeted and effective strategies that can improve disease management and/or better minimize an individual's likelihood of developing obesity. Third, we discuss how personalized medicine can be applied in a clinical setting with current and emerging tools, including health risk assessments, personalized health plans, and strategies for increasing patient engagement. Finally, we discuss the need for additional research, training and policy that can enhance the practice of personalized medicine in women's obesity, including further advancements in the '-omics' sciences, physician training in personalized medicine, and additional development and standardization of innovative targeted therapies and clinical tools.
Regber, Susan; Berg-Kelly, Kristina; Mårild, Staffan
Professional caregivers have an important task in building a trusting relationship with parents and adolescents and in supporting parents in their parental roles. Our clinical experience of some 300 adolescents with obesity between 9 and 18 years of age and their parents has convinced us that consideration of parenting styles is fundamental in the treatment of children and adolescents with obesity. Typical case situations supporting the significance of parenting styles and illustrating the relationships between parents and adolescents with obesity can be identified. Group sessions with parents are the preferred mode for discussing typical parenting issues in the management of obese adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to describe different parenting styles, and to present a set of typical case situations and treatment strategies for nurses working with adolescents with obesity.
Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to
Awartani, Khalid A; Nahas, Samar; Al Hassan, Saad H; Al Deery, Mashael A; Coskun, Serdar
Background Obesity is a common disorder with a negative impact on IVF treatment outcome. It is not clear whether morbidly obese women (BMI >= 35 kg/m2) respond to treatment differently as compared to obese women (BMI = 30–34.9 kg/m2) in IVF. Our aim was to compare the outcome of IVF or ICSI treatments in obese patients to that in morbidly obese patients. Methods This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care centre. Patients inclusion criteria were as follows; BMI ≥ 30, age 20–40 years old, first cycle IVF/ICSI treatment with primary infertility and long follicular pituitary down regulation protocol. Results A total of 406 obese patients (group A) and 141 morbidly obese patients (group B) satisfied the inclusion criteria. Average BMI was 32.1 ± 1.38 kg/m2 for group A versus 37.7 ± 2.99 kg/m2 for group B. Patient age, cause of infertility, duration of stimulation, fertilization rate, and number of transferred embryos were similar in both groups. Compared to group A, group B had fewer medium size and mature follicles (14 vs. 16), fewer oocytes collected (7 vs. 9) and required higher doses of HMG (46.2 vs. 38.5 amps). There was also a higher cancellation rate in group B (28.3% vs. 19%) and lower clinical pregnancy rate per started cycle (19.9% vs. 28.6%). Conclusion In a homogenous infertile and obese patient population stratified according to their BMI, morbid obesity is associated with unfavorable IVF/ICSI cycle outcome as evidenced by lower pregnancy rates. It is recommended that morbidly obese patients undergo appropriate counseling before the initiation of this expensive and invasive therapy. PMID:19473499
Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Pagnini, Francesco; Corti, Stefania; Molinari, Enrico; Castelnuovo, Gianluca
The objective of this systematic review is to update a previous systematic review on the effectiveness of internet-based interventions for weight loss and weight loss maintenance in overweight and obese people with new or additional studies. A literature search from 2008 to March 2010 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if: participants were adults with a body mass index ≤ 25, at least one study arm involved an internet-based intervention and the primary aims were weight loss or maintenance. Eight additional studies over the eighteen included in the previous review met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted on sample characteristics, attrition, weight loss, duration of treatment and maintenance of weight loss. Effect sizes (Hedges g) and relative 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all two-way comparisons within each study. No attempt was made to pool the data in a meta-analysis because of the great heterogeneity of designs among studies. An examination of effect sizes show that the higher significant effects pertain studies that found a superiority of behavioral internet-based programs enhanced by features such as tailored feedback on self-monitoring of weight, eating and activity over education only internet-based interventions. However, control groups are very different among studies and this heterogeneity probably accounts for much of the variance in effect sizes. Hence, questions still remain as to the effectiveness of web-based interventions in achieving weight loss or maintenance. Implications for further research include using a "real" control group in order to make meta-analysis possible and developing multi-factorial design in order to separate components of interventions and identify which of them or patterns of them are keys to success.
Sim, K A; Dezarnaulds, G M; Denyer, G S; Skilton, M R; Caterson, I D
For women attempting pregnancy, obesity reduces fertility and is an independent risk factor for obstetric and neonatal complications. The aim of this evaluator-blinded, randomized controlled trial was to evaluate a weight loss intervention on pregnancy rates in obese women undertaking fertility treatment. Forty-nine obese women, aged ≤ 37 years, presenting for fertility treatment were randomized to either a 12-week intervention (n = 27) consisting of a very-low-energy diet for the initial 6 weeks followed by a hypocaloric diet, combined with a weekly group multidisciplinary programme; or a control group (n = 22) who received recommendations for weight loss and the same printed material as the intervention. Anthropometric and reproductive parameters were measured at baseline and at 12 weeks. The 22 women who completed the intervention had greater anthropometric changes (-6.6 ± 4.6 kg and -8.7 ± 5.6 cm vs. -1.6 ± 3.6 kg and -0.6 ± 6.3 cm) compared with the control group (n = 17; P < 0.001). The intervention group achieved a pregnancy rate of 48% compared with 14% (P = 0.007), took a mean two fertility treatment cycles to achieve each pregnancy compared with four in the control group (P = 0.002), and had a marked increase in the number of live births (44% vs. 14%; P = 0.02). A group weight loss programme, incorporating dietary, exercise and behavioural components, is associated with a significant improvement in pregnancy rates and live births in a group of obese women undergoing fertility treatment.
Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.
Importance Thirty-six percent of US adults are obese and many cannot lose sufficient weight to improve health with lifestyle interventions alone. Objective Conduct a systematic review of medications currently approved in the US for obesity treatment in adults. We also discuss off-label use of medications studied for obesity and provide considerations for obesity medication use in clinical practice. Evidence Acquisition A PubMed search from inception through September, 2013 was performed to find meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized, placebo-controlled trials for currently-approved obesity medications lasting ≥1y, that had a primary or secondary outcome of body weight, included ≥50 participants per group, reported ≥50% retention, and reported results on an intention-to-treat basis. Studies of medications approved for other purposes but tested for obesity treatment were also reviewed. Results Obesity medications approved for long-term use, when prescribed with lifestyle interventions, produce additional weight loss relative to placebo ranging from approximately 3% of initial weight for orlistat and lorcaserin to 9% for top-dose (15/92mg) phentermine/topiramate-ER at 1y. The proportion of patients achieving clinically-meaningful (≥5%) weight loss ranges from 37–47% for lorcaserin, 35–73% for orlistat, and 67–70% for top-dose phentermine/topiramate-ER. All three produce greater improvements in many cardiometabolic risk factors than placebo, but no obesity medication has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. Most prescriptions are for noradrenergic medications, despite their approval only for short-term use and limited data for their long-term safety and efficacy. Conclusions/Relevance Medications approved for long-term obesity treatment, when used as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention, lead to greater mean weight loss and an increased likelihood of achieving clinically-meaningful 1-year weight loss relative to placebo
Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen
This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:18617353
Solas, Maite; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez-Urbistondo, Diego; Ramirez, Maria J; Martínez, J Alfredo
Five pharmaceutical strategies are currently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of obesity: orlistat, lorcaserin, liraglutide, phentermine/topiramate, and bupropion/naltrexone. The most effective treatment seems to be the combined administration of phentermine/topiramate followed by lorcaserin and bupropion/naltrexone. In relation to the management of excessive weight, other aspects also need to be considered, including comorbidities accompanying obesity, drug interactions, and the risk of negative collateral effects, as well as individualized treatments based on the genetic make-up. This review aims to provide an overview of the approved anti-obesity drugs and newer molecules that could affect different targets in the central nervous system or peripheral tissues, the molecular mechanisms, emerging dietary treatments and phytogenic compounds, and pharmacogenetic/nutrigenetic approaches for personalized obesity management.
Carels, Robert A.; Young, Kathleen M.; Hinman, Nova; Gumble, Amanda; Koball, Afton; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Darby, Lynn
This investigation examined the effectiveness of a self-help (SH), stepped-care (SC) weight loss program. Based on a failure to achieve pre-assigned weight loss goals, participants were eligible to be stepped-up from a SH program to two levels of treatment intensity (weight loss group [WLG]; individual counseling [IC]) beyond SH. The primary outcome was change in body weight. Fifty-three overweight/obese adults (BMI≥27 kg/m2; mean BMI of 37.3, SD=6.6, 89% Caucasian, and 77% female) participated in an 18-week weight loss intervention. During several phases of the investigation, those stepped-up to more intensive treatment lost comparable weight to those who were not stepped-up. Nevertheless, by the end of treatment, individuals who remained in SH (M = 8.6%) lost a significantly greater percentage of weight than individuals who received SH+IC (M = 4.7%; p<.05) and individuals in SH+IC lost a significantly greater percentage of weight than individuals who received SH+WLG+IC (M = 1.6%; p<.05). While some individuals benefited from being stepped-up to greater intensity treatment, other individuals experienced little benefit. The application of SC principles to the treatment of obesity needs further study. PMID:22365792
Jones, Rachel A; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Morgan, Philip J; Lubans, David R; Magarey, Anthea
Pediatric overweight and obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat; therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. There is considerable evidence to suggest that obesity prevention initiatives can change children's behaviours and weight status over the short- or medium-term; however, there is far less evidence on which to judge the impact over the longer term. In response to the rise in short- and medium-term obesity prevention studies for children and adolescents over recent years, the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network highlight five points as to why the dearth of obesity prevention studies with long-term follow-up should be urgently addressed. Furthermore, recommendations to strengthen the evidence base and outline key implications for research design in this area and the support required for long-term follow-up studies are detailed.
Salem, Victoria; Bloom, Stephen R
Obesity is a global health crisis resulting in major morbidity and premature death. The need for safe and efficacious drug therapies is great, and presently unmet. The two drugs currently licensed in the USA for the long-term treatment of obesity, orlistat and sibutramine, provide only modest weight-loss benefits and are associated with high attrition rates owing to side effects. This review summarizes current concepts in the neuroendocrine control of energy homeostasis and major pharmacological treatments for obesity in the pipeline.
Tsai, Adam G; Felton, Sue; Hill, James O; Atherly, Adam J
Intensive obesity treatment is mandated by federal health care reform but is costly. A partial subsidy for obesity treatment could lower the cost of treatment, without reducing its efficacy. This study sought to test whether a partial subsidy for obesity treatment would be feasible, as compared to a fully subsidized intervention. The study was a pilot randomized trial. Participants (n = 50) were primary care patients with obesity and at least one comorbid condition (diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or obstructive sleep apnea). Each participant received eight weight loss counseling visits as well as portion-controlled foods for weight loss. Participants were randomized to full subsidy or partial subsidy (2 vs. 1 meal per day provided). The primary outcome was weight change after 4 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in blood pressure, waist circumference, and health-related quality of life. Participants in the full and partial subsidy groups lost 5.9 and 5.3 kg, equivalent to 5.3% and 5.1% of initial weight, respectively (P = 0.71). Changes in secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups. A partial subsidy was feasible and induced a clinically similar amount of weight loss, compared to a full subsidy. Large-scale testing of economic incentives for weight control is merited given the federal mandate to offer weight loss counseling to obese patients.
Martínez Vizcaíno, Vicente; Cañete García-Prieto, Jorge; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Sánchez-López, Mairena
Children obesity is considered a serious public health problem around the world. In Spain, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is reaching alarming figures, exceeding 35% of the children. Several hypotheses suggest that the energy balance model does not fit very well when analyzing the causes of the current obesity epidemic and, although genetics seems to explain up to 30% of the likelihood to become obese in infancy, has been suggested that genetics might be influenced by environment factors including vigorous physical activity (PA). Some recent systematic reviews indicate that there is enough evidence about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent obesity in children 6-12 years old; however, the heterogeneity of the effect, and the potential selection, information and publication biases that undermine the validity of these studies, thus their results should be interpreted with caution. In Spain, an extracurricular PA program of leisuretime (MOVI) has evidenced some effectiveness on reducing the adiposity and on improving the lipid profile in schoolchildren. To overcome some weakness of MOVI program, a second edition of this study was designed. The objectives of this review are twofold: 1) to analyze latest data of the obesity epidemic in Spain; and 2) to describe the main features of MOVI-2 program, and overall of the successful interventions to prevent children obesity.
Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Bustos, Nelly; Salazar, Gabriela; Lobos, Luz; Vio, Fernando
Obesity in Chilean children has increased markedly over the past decades. School-based obesity prevention interventions have been launched by the Ministry of Health and academic groups to tackle this condition. We summarize the main characteristics of the interventions that we have conducted and reflect on the lessons learned. Since 2002, we conducted 1 pilot study, a 2-y controlled intervention including 6- to 12–y-old children (Casablanca), another pilot study, and a 2-y controlled intervention including teachers and their 4- to 9–y-old students (Macul). Both interventions consisted of training teachers to deliver contents on healthy eating, increasing physical education classes, and, additionally in Macul, teachers participated in a wellness program. BMI Z-score and obesity prevalence were compared among children in intervention and control schools by year and among students of intervention and control teachers. In the Casablanca study, the impact was greatest on the younger children during the first school year when the study received the full funding that was required. In Macul, although intervention teachers exhibited improvements in anthropometry and blood measures, the impact on the children was not related to their results. The main lessons learned from these experiences are random allocation of schools, although methodologically desirable, is not always possible; participation of parents is very limited; obesity is not recognized as a problem; and increasing physical activity and implementing training programs for teachers is difficult due to an inflexible curriculum and lack of teachers’ time. Unless these barriers are overcome, obesity prevention programs will not produce positive and lasting outcomes. PMID:22798002
Blüher, Susann; Petroff, David; Keller, Alexandra; Wagner, Antje; Classen, Joseph; Baum, Petra
Childhood obesity may involve autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Whether it improves following weight loss remains unclear. Thirty-one obese children (body mass index standard deviation scores 2.33 ± 0.47; age 11.2 ± 2.0) completed a 1-year lifestyle intervention (KLAKS: Concept Leipzig: Adiposity Therapy for School-Aged Children). Anthropometric/biochemical parameters and autonomic nervous system function (heart rate variability, quantitative pupillography) were assessed at baseline and follow-up. A multivariate model for changes in body mass index standard deviation scores considered age, gender, and changes in autonomic nervous system function. Weight status (Δ body mass index standard deviation scores: 0.16 [0.05, 0.29], P = .008), glycemic control, and free fatty acids (all P < .05) improved after the intervention. Redilation velocity increased by 0.22 mm/s [0.06, 0.38] (P = .008), and changes tended to be negatively associated with Δ body mass index standard deviation scores (P = .08 [-0.61, 0.03]). Relative reflex amplitude (23.4 vs 26.3, P = .004) and constriction velocity (4.97 mm/s vs 5.47 mm/s, P < .001) also improved. Our data provide preliminary evidence that lifestyle-intervention induced improvement of weight status/metabolic risk factors may ameliorate some parameters of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in childhood obesity.
Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie
The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…
Altman, Myra; Coppock, Jackson H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Goldschmidt, Andrea B.
Background There is limited research on optimal treatment formats for childhood obesity. Group-based interventions are popular, but it is unclear whether outcomes can be obtained without an additional individual component. Aim To examine statistically and clinically significant outcomes of recent group-based and mixed-format (group + Individual) pediatric obesity interventions. Methods Effect sizes and magnitudes of weight change were calculated for studies published between January 2013 and September 2014. Results Approximately half of the group-based studies reviewed produced significant results compared to control, and effect sizes were small. Mixed-format studies were less likely to include a control group, but those that did evidenced medium to large effects. Magnitudes of weight change post-intervention were generally greater in mixed-format studies than group-only studies. Conclusions Recent studies in pediatric obesity interventions suggest including an individual component in a group-based intervention produces optimal outcomes. Future research should directly compare group-only and mixed formats to confirm this observation. PMID:25866596
Biswas, Asit B; Vahabzadeh, Arshya; Hobbs, Tracy; Healy, James M
Obesity is more prevalent in people with learning disabilities than the general population, contributing towards health inequalities and higher risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. This article discusses possible causes of this higher prevalence and examines interventions to reduce obesity and associated risks. It also outlines key points to consider when dealing with adults with learning disabilities, such as assessing mental capacity to consent to specific interventions. The importance of multidisciplinary team working with a range of professionals and specialists, and ensuring a consistent approach are also stressed.
Ingram, D H
This paper is an attempt to clarify some of the issues which face the psychiatrist in his efforts at treating the obese patient through analytic means. A thoroughgoing bias in Western culture impairs the psychiatric and non-psychiatric medical care of the obese person. Inconclusive evidence concerning the causal relation between obesity and chronic disease does not deter this cultural bias from exaggerating the role that obesity is thought to play in disease process. Whatever contribution it makes to physical illness, obesity remains a substantial social disability that is frequently associated with self-hate and feelings of ineffectiveness. Scientific investigations indicate that adiposity is determined by interactions of genetic and environmental influences acting at different levels of complexity within the organism. Hence, the adipocyte itself may influence existing fatness and retard weight reduction. Constitutional factors affecting the hypothalamus may contribute to obesity in certain individuals. Also, cortical effects determine maladaptive eating behavior and excessive adiposity. Poor eating habits which are associated with emotional conflict seem to strongly affect the development and continuance of obesity in most fat persons. The interaction among adipocyte, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex remains unclear. The various treatments of obesity have been shown to be of little impact in helping overweight persons to sustain weight loss. Diet control, exercise, group psychotherapy, and behavior modification show slight benefit. Recent controlled studies dispute earlier claims that behavior modification is effective in achieving meaningful and lasting weight loss. Claims that intestinal bypass procedures are a useful treatment also require further supporting evidence. Psychoanalytic or intensive sustained psychotherapeutic treatment of the obese person emphasizes exploration of the entire personality. As long-neglected constructive forces are stregthened
Frerichs, L; Ataga, O; Corbie-Smith, G; Tessler Lindau, S
A growing number of childhood obesity interventions involve children and youth in participatory roles, but these types of interventions have not been systematically reviewed. We aimed to identify child and youth participatory interventions in the peer-reviewed literature in order to characterize the approaches and examine their impact on obesity and obesity-related lifestyle behaviours. We searched PubMed/Medline, psychINFO and ERIC for quasi-experimental and randomized trials conducted from date of database initiation through May 2015 that engaged children or youth in implementing healthy eating, physical activity or weight management strategies. Eighteen studies met our eligibility criteria. Most (n = 14) trained youth to implement pre-defined strategies targeting their peers. A few (n = 4) assisted youth to plan and implement interventions that addressed environmental changes. Thirteen studies reported at least one statistically significant weight, physical activity or dietary change outcome. Participatory approaches have potential, but variation in strategies and outcomes leave questions unanswered about the mechanisms through which child and youth engagement impact childhood obesity. Future research should compare child-delivered or youth-delivered to adult-delivered health promotion interventions and more rigorously evaluate natural experiments that engage youth to implement environmental changes. With careful attention to theoretical frameworks, process and outcome measures, these studies could strengthen the effectiveness of child and youth participatory approaches.
Kong, Alberta S.; Farnsworth, Seth; Canaca, Jose A.; Harris, Amanda; Palley, Gabriel; Sussman, Andrew L.
BACKGROUND In the emerging debate around obesity intervention in schools, recent calls have been made for researchers to include local community opinions in the design of interventions. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an effective approach for forming community partnerships and integrating local opinions. We used CBPR principles to conduct formative research in identifying acceptable and potentially sustainable obesity intervention strategies in 8 New Mexico school communities. METHODS We collected formative data from 8 high schools on areas of community interest for school health improvement through collaboration with local School Health Advisory Councils (SHACs) and interviews with students and parents. A survey based on formative results was created to assess acceptability of specific intervention strategies and was provided to SHACs. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were evaluated using an iterative analytic process for thematic identification. RESULTS Key themes identified through the formative process included lack of healthy food options, infrequent curricular/extracurricular physical activity opportunities, and inadequate exposure to health/nutritional information. Key strategies identified as most acceptable by SHAC members included healthier food options and preparation, a healthy foods marketing campaign, yearly taste tests, an after-school noncompetitive physical activity program, and community linkages to physical activity opportunities. CONCLUSION An adaptive CBPR approach for formative assessment can be used to identify obesity intervention strategies that address community school health concerns. Eight high school SHACs identified 6 school-based strategies to address parental and student concerns related to obesity. PMID:22320339
Approximately two out of three adult Americans are overweight or obese. Despite widespread recognition of this disorder, there has been little progress in the past 20 years in finding effective noninvasive treatments for weight loss. The consequences of obesity are increasingly well recognized and include increases in blood pressure, plasma lipids, the onset of type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, asthma, osteoarthritis and a variety of cancers. Obesity can increase the rate of pregnancy complications and fetal malformations in normoglycemic women. Current medical approaches to obesity, including intensive lifestyle interventions and drug therapies, have been successful in achieving modest weight loss of 4-7%, less than the 1998 NIH Guidelines target of 10%. Surgical approaches, including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical banded gastroplasty and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are much more successful, achieving weight loss of 15-50%. A treatment gap therefore exists in the management of obese and overweight patients, because many patients desire and would receive great health benefits by achieving weight loss of 7-15%. This review will discuss the dilemma of the treatment gap and explore possible ways by which it may be filled in the future by the use of innovative approaches.
Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G
Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight.
Fryling, Mitch J.; Wallace, Michele D.; Yassine, Jordan N.
Treatment integrity has cogent implications for intervention effectiveness. Understanding these implications is an important, but often neglected, undertaking in behavior analysis. This paper reviews current research on treatment integrity in applied behavior analysis. Specifically, we review research evaluating the relation between integrity…
Kell, Brandy L.; Kress, Victoria E.
This article examines the behavioral treatment of Trichotillomania. A brief overview of the diagnosis and assessment of Trichotillomania is provided. Guidelines for a structured clinical evaluation when working with people diagnosed with Trichotillomania are supplied. The most effective behavioral interventions and treatments for working with…
Our objective was to develop a measure of person-centered communication (PCC) and demonstrate feasibility for use in primary care child obesity interventions. Helping Healthy Activity and Nutrition Directions was a primary care intervention for families of overweight or obese 5- to 8-year-old childr...
Idelevich, Evgeny; Kirch, Wilhelm; Schindler, Christoph
Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges of the twenty-first century. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that in 2005 approximately 1.6 billion adults were overweight and at least 400 million adults were obese. The prevalence of obesity is still continuing to increase dramatically. Overweight and obese people carry a higher risk for a variety of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral occlusive artery disease. Weight loss is considered to be the initial step which helps to prevent or to control the clinical consequences of obesity. In a great number of patients who are not able to reduce weight by means of non-pharmacological measures, drug therapy can assist in reaching the weight management targets. Drug treatment should only be considered as part of a systematic weight management program including dietary and lifestyle changes. This review summarizes current pharmacotherapeutic concepts for the treatment of obesity in adults focusing on efficacy and safety of anti-obesity drugs.
Suwa, Akira; Kurama, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Teruhiko
The escalating prevalence of obesity is one of the most pressing health concerns of the modern era, yet existing medicines to combat this global pandemic are disappointingly limited in terms of safety and effectiveness. The inadequacy of currently available therapies for obesity has made new drug development crucial. In the past several decades, however, major progress has been achieved in understanding adipocyte hyperplasia associated with the pathogenesis of obesity, and consequently new potential targets for the medical treatment of obesity have been identified. We primarily review recent progress in the regulation of adipocyte hyperplasia as a novel emerging nontraditional approach. In this minireview, we focus on recQ-mediated genome instability 1 (RMI1), a recently identified novel molecular target for obesity treatment. RMI1-deficient mice have been found to be resistant to high-fat diet- and genetics-related obesity. Expression of this protein is regulated by E2F transcription factors, and recent studies have suggested that RMI1 plays an important role in the control of energy homeostasis during the development of obesity, with a mode of action based on the regulation of adipocyte hyperplasia.
Gisondi, Paolo; Del Giglio, Micol; Girolomoni, Giampiero
Psoriasis is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease frequently associated with metabolic disorders, including diabetes, dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, a growing number of studies confirm the association between psoriasis and obesity. It has been found that obesity, as measured by body mass index >30 kg/m(2), can double the risk of incident psoriasis. A positive correlation between different measures of adiposity and the severity of psoriasis has also been reported. Epidemiologic studies have also provided robust evidence confirming the association between obesity and psoriatic arthritis. Genetic, metabolic and environmental factors are all likely to contribute to these associations. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine and paracrine organ that has a key role in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fat tissue is traditionally distributed into two main compartments with different metabolic characteristics, i.e. the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Particular attention has been devoted to visceral adiposity because of its contribution to inflammation and atherosclerosis. The association between psoriasis and obesity should be properly considered when choosing a systemic treatment, because it could exert negative effects on metabolic parameters, including liver enzymes, serum lipids and renal function. Obesity may increase the risk of liver and renal toxicity from methotrexate and cyclosporine. Moreover, obesity can compromise the effectiveness of systemic treatments for psoriasis (conventional and biological therapies). Dermatologists are also expected to promote a healthy lifestyle and weight loss for obese patients because they could improve metabolic parameters and responsiveness to psoriasis therapies.
Vrablík, M; Dobiášová, M; Zlatohlávek, L; Urbanová, Z; Češka, R
Obesity is a strong cardiometabolic (CM) risk factor in children. We tested potential CM risk in obese/overweight children and the effect of an intensive lifestyle intervention using newer CM markers: atherogenic index of plasma AIP [Log(TG/HDL-C)], apoB/apoAI ratio and a marker of insulin resistance HOMA-IR. The participants (194 girls, 115 boys, average age 13) were enrolled in an intensive, one-month, inpatient weight reduction program. The program consisted of individualised dietary changes and the exercise program comprised aerobic and resistance training. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters in plasma and CM risk biomarkers - (AIP, apoB/apoAI ratio and HOMA-IR) were examined before and after the intervention. AIP and HOMA-IR significantly correlated with BMI while apoB/apoAI ratio did not. Only AIP and HOMA-IR showed systematic increases according to the level of obesity by BMI quartiles. Lifestyle intervention significantly improved anthropometrical and biochemical values and the biomarkers too. The response of lipid parameters to the intervention was considerably higher in boys than in girls. The children were stratified into three risk categories according to AIP, where 13.8 % of boys and 5.3 % of girls fell into high risk category. The monitored biomarkers may complement each other in the prognosis of CM risk. AIP was strongly related to obesity and to lipid and glycid metabolism, while the relationship of the apoB/apoAI ratio to obesity and glycid metabolism was not significant. The obese children benefited from the intensive lifestyle intervention which improved the anthropometrical and biochemical parameters and CM risk biomarkers.
Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Dahiya, Neha
Obesity is a growing epidemic and a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Obesity strains the healthcare systems and has profound economic and psychosocial consequences. Historically, pharmacotherapy for obesity has witnessed the rise and fall of several promising drug candidates that had to be eventually withdrawn due to unacceptable safety concerns. Currently four drugs are approved for chronic weight management in obese adults: orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate extended release and naltrexone/bupropion extended release. While lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate were approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012, after a gap of 13 years following the licensing of orlistat, naltrexone/bupropion has been recently approved in 2014. This review provides a brief overview of these current therapeutic interventions available for management of obesity along with the evidence of their safety and efficacy. Additionally, several novel monotherapies as well as combination products are undergoing evaluation in various stages of clinical development. These therapies if proven successful will strengthen the existing armamentarium of antiobesity drugs and will be critical to combat the global public health crisis of obesity and its associated co-morbidities.
Jones, Rachel A; Okely, Anthony D
Background Effective broad-reach interventions to reduce childhood obesity are needed, but there is currently little consensus on the most effective approach. Parental involvement in interventions appears to be important. The use of eHealth modalities in interventions also seems to be promising. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reviews that have specifically investigated the effectiveness of parent-focused eHealth obesity interventions, a gap that this systematic review and meta-analysis intends to address. Objective The objective of this study was to review the evidence for body mass index (BMI)/BMI z-score improvements in eHealth overweight and obesity randomized controlled trials for children and adolescents, where parents or carers were an agent of change. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted, which conforms to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Seven databases were searched for the period January 1995 to April 2015. Primary outcome measures were BMI and/or BMI z-score at baseline and post-intervention. Secondary outcomes included diet, physical activity, and screen time. Interventions were included if they targeted parents of children and adolescents aged 0-18 years of age and used an eHealth medium such as the Internet, interactive voice response (IVR), email, social media, telemedicine, or e-learning. Results Eight studies were included, involving 1487 parent and child or adolescent dyads. A total of 3 studies were obesity prevention trials, and 5 were obesity treatment trials. None of the studies found a statistically significant difference in BMI or BMI z-score between the intervention and control groups at post-intervention, and a meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the effects of parent-focused eHealth obesity interventions compared with a control on BMI/BMI z-score (Standardized Mean Difference −0.15, 95% CI −0.45 to 0.16, Z=0.94, P=.35
Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Gareth; Goldman, Roberta E.; Cunningham, Courtney; Marshall, Richard; Taveras, Elsie M
Objective To explore outcomes and measures of success that matter most to 'positive outlier' children who improved their body mass index (BMI) despite living in obesogenic neighborhoods. Methods We collected residential address and longitudinal height/weight data from electronic health records of 22,657 children ages 6–12 years in Massachusetts. We defined obesity “hotspots” as zip codes where >15% of children had a BMI ≥95th percentile. Using linear mixed effects models, we generated a BMI z-score slope for each child with a history of obesity. We recruited 10–12 year-olds with negative slopes living in hotspots for focus groups. We analyzed group transcripts and discussed emerging themes in iterative meetings using an immersion/crystallization approach. Results We reached thematic saturation after 4 focus groups with 21 children. Children identified bullying and negative peer comparisons related to physical appearance, clothing size, and athletic ability as motivating them to achieve a healthier weight, and they measured success as improvement in these domains. Positive relationships with friends and family facilitated both behavior change initiation and maintenance. Conclusions The perspectives of positive outlier children can provide insight into children’s motivations leading to successful obesity management. Practice implications: Child/family engagement should guide the development of patient-centered obesity interventions. PMID:26166630
Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas
Obesity is a significant health problem worldwide and is associated with a number of co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and cardiovascular disease. A number of different pathophysiologic mechanisms including increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance have been associated with initiation and progression of atherosclerotic disease in obese individuals. Lifestyle modifications have provided modest results in weight reduction and the focus of interest has now shifted towards drug development to treat severely obese individuals with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m(2) or those with a BMI >27 kg/m(2) who have additional co-morbidities. Different regimens focusing on dietary absorption or acting centrally to control hunger and food intake have been developed. However, their weight loss effect is, in most cases, modest and this effect is lost once the medication is discontinued. In addition, long-term use of these drugs is limited by significant side effects and lack of long-term safety and efficacy data. Orlistat is the only US FDA-approved medication for long-term use. A number of new medications are currently under investigation in phase III trials with promising preliminary results. This review comments on available anti-obesity pharmacologic regimens, their weight-loss benefit, and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors.
Baker, Phillip; Gill, Timothy; Friel, Sharon; Carey, Gemma; Kay, Adrian
Effective obesity prevention requires a synergistic mix of population-level interventions including a strong role for government and the regulation of the marketing, labelling, content and pricing of energy-dense foods and beverages. In this paper we adopt the agenda of the Australian Federal Government (AFG) as a case study to understand the factors generating or hindering political priority for such 'regulatory interventions' between 1990 and 2011. Using a theoretically-guided process tracing method we undertook documentary analysis and conducted 27 interviews with a diversity of actors involved in obesity politics. The analysis was structured by a theoretical framework comprising four dimensions: the power of actors involved; the ideas the actors deploy to interpret and portray the issue; the institutional and political context; and issue characteristics. Despite two periods of sustained political attention, political priority for regulatory interventions did not emerge and was hindered by factors from all four dimensions. Within the public health community, limited cohesion among experts and advocacy groups hampered technical responses and collective action efforts. An initial focus on children (child obesity), framing the determinants of obesity as 'obesogenic environments', and the deployment of 'protecting kids', 'industry demonization' and 'economic costs' frames generated political attention. Institutional norms within government effectively selected out regulatory interventions from consideration. The 'productive power' and activities of the food and advertising industries presented formidable barriers, buttressed by a libertarian/neolibertarian rhetoric emphasizing individual responsibility, a negative view of freedom (as free from 'nanny-state' intervention) and the idea that regulation imposes an unacceptable cost on business. Issue complexity, the absence of a supportive evidence base and a strict 'evidence-based' policy-making approach were used as
Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM). The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i) reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii) increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii) reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity
Harvey, Jean R; Ogden, Doris E
Obesity is now the second leading cause of death and disease in the United States leading to health care expenditures exceeding $147 billion dollars. The socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority groups are at significantly increased risk for obesity. Despite this, low income and minority individuals are underrepresented in the current obesity treatment literature. Additionally, weight loss outcomes for these high risk groups are well below what is typically produced in standard, well-controlled behavioral interventions and reach and access to treatment is often limited. The use of telecommunications technology may provide a solution to this dilemma by expanding dissemination and allowing for dynamic tailoring. Further gains may be achieved with the use of material incentives to enhance uptake of new behaviors. Regardless of what novel strategies are deployed, the need for further research to improve the health disparities associated with obesity in disadvantaged groups is critical. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the weight loss intervention literature that has targeted socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial/ethnic minority populations with an eye toward understanding outcomes, current limitations, areas for improvement and need for further research.
Knowlden, A P; Sharma, M
The family and home environment is a highly influential psychosocial antecedent of paediatric obesity. The purpose of this investigation was to systematically analyze family and home-based randomized control trials aimed at treating overweight and obesity in children ages 2-7 years. In gathering materials for this review, a search of Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, MEDLINE, Education Resources Information Center, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection and CENTRAL databases was conducted for the time frame of January 2001 to August 2011. The data extraction spanned three phases resulting in a total of nine interventions that met the specified inclusion criteria. Among the identified studies, eight produced significant outcomes. The majority of the programmes incorporated educational sessions targeting parents as the primary modality for intervention delivery. Less than one-quarter of the interventions included home visitations; however, all of the interventions included home-based activities to reinforce behaviour modification. Only three of the interventions applied social and behavioural theory, and only two interventions employed process evaluation. Additional research is needed to gauge the efficacy of the home and family milieu for treating paediatric obesity.
Bhat, Vinod H
Introduction Childhood obesity and overweight is a global epidemics and has been increasing in the developing countries. Childhood obesity is linked with increased mortality and morbidity independent of adult obesity. Declining physical activity, access to junk food and parenting style are the major determinants of overweight in children. Thus, there is a need for increasing the physical activity of children, educating the parents as well as the children on lifestyle modification. This can be achieved through implementation of multicomponent intervention. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of multicomponent intervention on improving the lifestyle practices, reducing the body fat and improving the self esteem of obese children from selected schools of Udupi District, South India. Materials and Methods A sample of 120 obese children were enrolled for multicomponent intervention. The components of multicomponent intervention were: education provided to the obese children on lifestyle modification, education of the parents and increasing the physical education activity of these children in the form of aerobics under the supervision of physical education teacher. There was an attrition of 25% in the intervention group. Thus the final sample in the intervention group was 90. Total sample of 131 overweight/ obese children enrolled as controls. There was an attrition of 20.61% in the control group. Thus, the final sample in the control group was 104. Intervention group received the multicomponent intervention for six month. Results Mixed Method Repeated measures Ananlysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied for analysis of data. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in reducing the Body Mass Index (BMI), triceps, biceps, subscapular skin fold thickness of obese children. The intervention was also effective in improving the lifestyle practices and self-esteem of obese children. Conclusion Overweight/obese children need to control diet and perform vigorous
Serra-Paya, Noemi; Ensenyat, Assumpta; Castro-Viñuales, Iván; Real, Jordi; Sinfreu-Bergués, Xènia; Zapata, Amalia; Mur, Jose María; Galindo-Ortego, Gisela; Solé-Mir, Eduard; Teixido, Concepció
Introduction Treatment of childhood obesity is a complex challenge for primary health care professionals. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of the Nereu Program in improving anthropometric parameters, physical activity and sedentary behaviours, and dietary intake. Methods Randomized, controlled, multicentre clinical trial comparing Nereu Program and usual counselling group interventions in primary care settings. The 8-month study recruited 113 children aged 6 to 12 years with overweight/obesity. Before recruitment, eligible participants were randomly allocated to an intensive, family-based multi-component behavioural intervention (Nereu Program group) or usual advice from their paediatrician on healthy eating and physical activity. Anthropometric parameters, objectively measured sedentary and physical activity behaviours, and dietary intake were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Results At the end of the study period, both groups achieved a similar decrease in body mass index (BMIsd) compared to baseline. Nereu Program participants (n = 54) showed greater increases in moderate-intense physical activity (+6.27% vs. -0.61%, p<0.001) and daily fruit servings (+0.62 vs. +0.13, p<0.026), and decreased daily soft drinks consumption (-0.26 vs. -0.02, p<0.047), respectively, compared to the counselling group (n = 59). Conclusions At the end of the 8-month intervention, participants in the Nereu Program group showed improvement in physical activity and dietary behaviours, compared to the counselling group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01878994 PMID:26658988
Johnson, Teresa; Weed, L Diane; Touger-Decker, Riva
The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in the United States has resulted in a number of school-based health interventions. This article provides a review of research that addressed childhood overweight and obesity in minority, U.S. elementary schools. All studies reported some benefits in health behaviors and/or anthropometric measures. Effectiveness was greater when program objectives were specific, implemented across the school environments, extended into the community, and were culturally relevant. Because minority school children are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity and poor health behaviors, and since schools may be the primary setting to address childhood overweight and obesity in communities, school nurses can be an advocate for school-based programs and facilitate success.
Bean, Melanie K; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen
To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity remains relatively understudied. MI Values was developed to implement within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program for obese, ethnically diverse adolescents, the T.E.E.N.S. Program (Teaching, Encouragement, Exercise, Nutrition, Support). T.E.E.N.S. participants who consent to MI Values are randomized to either MI or an education control condition. At weeks 1 and 10 of T.E.E.N.S. participation, the subset of participants assigned to the MI condition engages in individual MI sessions and control participants view health education videos. All MI sessions are audiotaped and coded to monitor treatment fidelity, which has been satisfactory thus far. Participants complete comprehensive assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. We hypothesize that MI participants will demonstrate greater reductions in Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile, improved diet and physical activity behaviors, better compliance with T.E.E.N.S., and lower attrition than participants in the control group. We present study design and methods for MI Values as well as data on feasibility of recruitment methods and treatment integrity. At study completion, findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI in the treatment of pediatric obesity.
Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.
This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit television…
The goal of this article is to provide insight into the development of a school-based pediatric obesity intervention for urban, low-income, minority students. This program has demonstrated significant improvements in weight-based outcomes that were maintained long-term. First, an overview of the rat...
Kroese, Floor M.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; De Ridder, Denise T. D.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to compare obese and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients at baseline and after participating in an existing self-management intervention (i.e., "Beyond Good Intentions") on cognitive, self-care, and behavioral measures to examine whether both groups are equally prepared and able to adopt…
Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Price, Sarah N; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth; Gillman, Matthew W; Mitchell, Kathleen; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horan, Christine M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M
Motivational interviewing (MI) shows promise for pediatric obesity prevention, but few studies address parental perceptions of MI. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of parental perceptions of helpfulness of and satisfaction with a MI-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention. We studied 253 children 2 to 6 years of age in the intervention arm of High Five for Kids, a primary care-based randomized controlled trial. In multivariable models, parents born outside the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44, 31.8), with lower household income (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.03, 12.55), and with higher BMI (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.65) were more likely to perceive MI-based visits as helpful in improving children's obesity-related behaviors after the first year of the intervention. Parents of female (vs male), black (vs white), and Latino (vs white) children had lower intervention satisfaction. Our findings underscore the importance of tailoring pediatric obesity prevention efforts to target populations.
Anderson, John D.; Newby, Rachel; Kehm, Rebecca; Barland, Patricia; Hearst, Mary O.
Objectives: Successful childhood obesity intervention models that build sustainable behavioral change are needed, particularly in low-income, ethnic minority communities disparately affected by this problem. Method: Families were referred to Taking Steps Together (TST) by their primary care provider if at least one child had a body mass index…
The primary care setting offers the opportunity to reach children and parents to encourage healthy lifestyle behaviours, and improve weight status among children. Our objective was to test the feasibility of Helping HAND (Healthy Activity and Nutrition Directions), an obesity intervention for 5- to...
Christel, Deborah A.
The purpose of this work was to explore the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at reducing weight bias. Senior fashion students (n = 11) enrolled in a 16 week special topics course, "plus-size swimwear design," completed assignments of selected obesity related educational readings and guided critical reflection. Student…
The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a school-initiated cognitive and behavioral program to reduce childhood obesity. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z scores were obtained at the beginning and end of the school year at an intervention school (n=1022)and at a con...
Giuca, Maria Rita; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto
Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients. PMID:25945093
Giuca, Maria Rita; Pasini, Marco; Caruso, Silvia; Tecco, Simona; Necozione, Stefano; Gatto, Roberto
Aim. This case-control retrospective study is aimed at assessing if obese adolescents need more orthodontic treatment in comparison with normal-weight patients of the same age. Methods. The test group included 100 obese subjects (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.09 ± 1.19 years old) and the control group included 100 normal-weight patients matched for age and sex (50 males and 50 females; average age: 13.07 ± 1.26 years old). Clinical examinations were conducted on dental casts to assess the need of orthodontic treatment, by using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) (DHC, dental health component; AC, aesthetic components). Results. No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between the two groups with regard to AC. Obese females showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of DHC 3 (32%) in comparison to the normal-weight girls (22%); for the other grades of DHC and for the single kind of malocclusion, no significant difference was found. Conclusions. Obese adolescents showed a similar need for orthodontic treatment compared to normal-weight patients of the same age. However, in obese females, a slightly greater need for orthodontic treatment was observed, compared to normal-weight patients.
Ratner G, Rinat; Durán A, Samuel; Garrido L, María Jesús; Balmaceda H, Sebastián; Jadue H, Liliana; Atalah S, Eduardo
In Chile childhood obesity is a growing public health problem. Intervention programs within schools have shown variable results, with better impacts when multiple aspects are involved and included the entire educational community. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect on the nutritional status of children in intervention schools within 2 years of duration (Healthy Living Program). The sample included 2,527 students first through fourth grade of 3 counties of Santiago. The students were intervened and followed for a period of two years in their food and nutrition habits, physical activity and self-care practices, by a team of nutritionists and physical education teachers. Weight and height were measured at start of program, end of the first and second years of intervention, under standardized conditions and calculated the Z score of BMI and nutritional status according to the WHO reference 2007. At the end of the second year 1,453 children were reassessed. There was a significant decrease in BMI Z score in obese children (-0.3 SD) and obesity decreased from 21.8% to 18.4% at the end of the intervention. 75% of schoolchildren obese and 60.5% overweight decreased their BMI Z score, reduction that was greater in men and students in the upper grades. 51.9% of normal weight children increased their BMI Z-score age, although most less than 0.5 SD. The intervention in education, nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren in three communes of Greater Santiago was effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity (-3.4 percentage points). The big challenge is to find mechanisms to give continuity to the program and evaluate long-term effects.
Pucci, Andrea; Finer, Nicholas
The management of obesity remains a major challenge. Dietary therapy often fails, whereas bariatric surgery, although successful, is demanding and applicable to a limited number of patients. Drug therapy has had many setbacks over the past 20 years because of serious adverse effects; however, several new drugs for the treatment of obesity are either licensed in some parts of the world, submitted for registration, or completing phase III trials. These include combinations (at low dose) of existing drugs, e.g., bupropion + naltrexone (Contrave), phentermine + topiramate (Qsymia), higher doses of existing drugs licensed for other indications (liraglutide, 3 mg), and new entities (lorcaserin). We discuss the challenges and opportunities for obesity pharmacotherapy and review in detail the efficacy of the new drugs regarding weight loss and both desirable and potential undesirable cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic risk factors. Substantial barriers remain, even if the drugs are approved, in successfully integrating these agents into weight management practice, largely related to cost, patient acceptability, and clinician willingness to be engaged in obesity treatment. Although hard clinical outcome benefit (at least for CV outcomes) has yet to be established, obesity pharmacotherapy may soon address many of the challenges in the clinical management of obesity, although newer and better drug combinations and more evidence of benefit from appropriately designed outcome trials is needed.
Turner, T; Spruijt-Metz, D; Wen, C K F; Hingle, M D
Mobile health (mHealth) is a relatively nascent field, with a variety of technologies being explored and developed. Because of the explosive growth in this field, it is of interest to examine the design, development and efficacy of various interventions as research becomes available. This systematic review examines current use of mHealth technologies in the prevention or treatment of pediatric obesity to catalogue the types of technologies utilized and the impact of mHealth to improve obesity-related outcomes in youth. Of the 4021 articles that were identified, 41 articles met inclusion criteria. Seventeen intervention studies incorporated mHealth as the primary or supplementary treatment. The remaining articles were in the beginning stages of research development and most often described moderate-to-high usability, feasibility and acceptability. Although few effects were observed on outcomes such as body mass index, increases in physical activity, self-reported breakfast and fruit and vegetable consumption, adherence to treatment, and self-monitoring were observed. Findings from this review suggest that mHealth approaches are feasible and acceptable tools in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. The large heterogeneity in research designs highlights the need for more agile scientific processes that can keep up with the speed of technology development.
Background: Maternal obesity is a growing public health concern in Belgium as well as in other European countries and is now becoming the most common risk factor associated with pregnancy complications with impact on the health of the women and her offspring. At this moment, there is no specific management strategy for obese pregnant women and mothers, focusing on physical health and psychological well-being. Objectives: We aimed (1) to study the influence of socio-demographic and obstetrical correlates on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) in different regions of Flanders, Belgium, (2) to review the literature on the onset and progression of labour in normal weight and obese pregnant women, (3) to compare levels and evolution of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy between obese women and normal-weight women, (4) to examine whether a prenatal lifestyle intervention programme, based on principles of motivational interviewing, in obese pregnant women reduces GWG and lowers levels of anxiety and depressed mood during pregnancy, (5) to examine associations between inter-pregnancy weight change from the first to the second pregnancy and the risk for adverse perinatal outcomes during the second pregnancy and finally (6) to study predictors of postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in obese mothers at six months after delivery in order to provide clues for the design of interventions aimed at preventing weight retention related to childbearing. Methods: We performed an epidemiological study, an intervention study during pregnancy with postpartum follow up and a literature review. Results: One in three Flemish women start pregnancy being overweight or obese and this prevalence has slowly been rising since 2009 in the Flanders. We identified women at risk for a high pre-pregnancy BMI and excessive GWG, both being important predictors for increased pregnancy and birth related complications. In a literature review, we showed that the
Brody, Janet L.; Staples, Julie K.; Sedillo, Donna
Abstract Background: Currently, over 30% of US youth are overweight and 1 in 6 have metabolic syndrome, making youth obesity one of the major global health challenges of the 21st century. Few enduring treatment strategies have been identified in youth populations, and the majority of standard weight loss programs fail to adequately address the impact of psychological factors on eating behavior and the beneficial contribution of parental involvement in youth behavior change. Methods: A critical need exists to expand treatment development efforts beyond traditional education and cognitive-behavioral programs and explore alternative treatment models for youth obesity. Meditation-based mindful eating programs represent a unique and novel scientific approach to the current youth obesity epidemic given that they address key psychological variables affecting weight. Results: The recent expansion of mindfulness programs to include family relationships shows the immense potential for broadening the customarily individual focus of this intervention to include contextual factors thought to influence youth health outcomes. Conclusions: This article provides an overview of how both mindful eating and family systems theory fits within a conceptual framework in order to guide development of a comprehensive family-based mindful eating program for overweight youth. PMID:26325143
Rodino, Iolanda S; Byrne, Susan; Sanders, Katherine A
Obesity negatively affects reproductive functioning and psychological wellbeing. Distress experienced by infertile women with elevated body mass index (BMI) was investigated. Infertile women (n = 403) were stratified according to World Health Organization (2000) BMI categories (normal, overweight and obese) and infertility category (polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] or non-PCOS). Participants anonymously completed a Demographics Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, Fertility Problem Inventory, Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Women in the obese BMI group were no more psychologically vulnerable to general mood (depression, anxiety and stress) or fertility-specific distress than normal or overweight BMI women. Independent of their PCOS status, obese women reported more frequent episodes of binge eating, shape concerns and low self-esteem symptoms associated with disordered eating. Women with PCOS had elevated shape concerns and anxiety independent of their BMI category compared with women who did not have PCOS. Obese infertile women presenting with the characteristics of binge eating, low self-esteem and body shape concerns may represent a vulnerable subgroup that could benefit from accessing targeted psychological interventions as do women with PCOS who have body shape concerns.
Wyatt, Frank B.; Kilgore, Lon
Background. A systematised review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to reduce childhood obesity. Methods. Multiple databases were searched for randomised and nonrandomised interventions from 2007 to 2016 in full-time elementary schools, which were delivered to the whole class, included dietary and physical activity components, involved both sexes, were written in English, and used body mass index (BMI) as an outcome. Results. The database search produced 8,866 titles from which 78 were deemed relevant and assessed for inclusion resulting in 15 studies meeting all inclusion criteria. From these 15 studies, 9 yielded a reduction or stabilisation in BMI or BMI z-score in the entire intervention group and/or subgroups. Programmes lasting between 6 and 12 months that involve multiple environmental, educational, and physical strategies appear to be most likely to result in BMI or BMI z-score improvement. Moderators most likely influencing an improvement in BMI included increased physical activity, decreased sugar sweetened beverages intake, and increased fruit intake. Conclusions. School-based interventions may be an effective means for child obesity prevention. The identification of consistent elements used in school-based interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness may aid in preventing child obesity. PMID:27668254
Hill, Briony; McPhie, Skye; Moran, Lisa J; Harrison, Paul; Huang, Terry T-K; Teede, Helena; Skouteris, Helen
Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are significant contributors to the global obesity epidemic. However, isolated lifestyle interventions to address this in pregnancy appear to have only modest benefit and responses can be variable. This paper aims to address the question of why the success of lifestyle interventions to prevent excessive GWG is suboptimal and variable. We suggest that there are inherent barriers to lifestyle change within pregnancy as a life stage, including the short window available for habit formation; the choice for women not to prioritise their weight; competing demands including physiological, financial, relationship, and social situations; and lack of self-efficacy among healthcare professionals on this topic. In order to address this problem, we propose that just like all successful public health approaches seeking to change behaviour, individual lifestyle interventions must be provided in the context of a supportive environment that enables, incentivises and rewards healthy changes. Future research should focus on a systems approach that integrates the needs of individuals with the context within which they exist. Borrowing from the social marketing principle of 'audience segmentation', we also need to truly understand the needs of individuals to design appropriately tailored interventions. This approach should also be applied to the preconception period for comprehensive prevention approaches. Additionally, relevant policy needs to reflect the changing evidence-based climate. Interventions in the clinical setting need to be integrally linked to multipronged obesity prevention efforts in the community, so that healthy weight goals are reinforced throughout the system.
Stark, Lori J.; Spear, Stephanie; Boles, Richard; Kuhl, Elizabeth; Ratcliff, Megan; Scharf, Cindy; Bolling, Christopher; Rausch, Joseph
We evaluated the efficacy of a 6-month clinic and home-based behavioral intervention (Learning about Activity and Understanding Nutrition for Child Health; LAUNCH) to reduce obesity in preschool children ≥95th BMI percentile compared to enhanced standard of care (Pediatrician Counseling; PC). LAUNCH was a family-based behavioral intervention that taught parents to use child behavior management strategies to increase healthy eating and activity for their children and themselves. PC presented the same diet and activity recommendations, but was delivered in a one-time PC session. Eighteen children aged 2–5 years (mean 4.71 ± 1.01) with an average BMI percentile of 98 (±1.60) and an overweight parent were randomized to LAUNCH or PC. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of LAUNCH treatment) and 12 months (6 months following LAUNCH treatment). LAUNCH showed a significantly greater decrease on the primary outcomes of child at month 6 (post-treatment) BMI z (−0.59 ± 0.17), BMI percentile (−2.4 ± 1.0), and weight gain (−2.7 kg ± 1.2) than PC and this difference was maintained at follow-up (month 12). LAUNCH parents also had a significantly greater weight loss (−5.5 kg ± 0.9) at month 6 and 12 (−8.0 kg ± 3.5) than PC parents. Based on the data from this small sample, an intensive intervention that includes child behavior management strategies to improve healthy eating and activity appears more promising in reducing preschool obesity than a low intensity intervention that is typical of treatment that could be delivered in primary care. PMID:20395948
Jansen, Anita; Houben, Katrijn; Roefs, Anne
Change your lifestyle: decrease your energy intake and increase your energy expenditure, is what obesity experts tell people who need to lose weight. Though the advice might be correct, it appears to be extremely difficult to change one’s lifestyle. Unhealthy habits usually are ingrained and hard to change, especially for people with an “obese cognitive profile.” Knowledge of the cognitive mechanisms that maintain unhealthy eating habits is necessary for the development of interventions that can change behavior effectively. This paper discusses some cognitive processes that might maintain unhealthy eating habits and make healthier eating difficult, like increased food cue reactivity, weak executive skills and attention bias. An effort is also done to translate these basic scientific findings into new interventions which aim to tackle the sabotaging cognitive processes. Preliminary studies into the effectiveness of these interventions, if available, are presented. PMID:26640451
Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew
Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.
Hendriks, Anna-Marie; Gubbels, Jessica S.; De Vries, Nanne K.; Seidell, Jaap C.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Jansen, Maria W. J.
Experts stress the need to bring the childhood obesity epidemic under control by means of an integrated approach. The implementation of such an approach requires the development of integrated enabling policies on public health by local governments. A prerequisite for developing such integrated public health policies is intersectoral collaboration. Since the development of integrated policies is still in its early stages, this study aimed to answer the following research question: “What interventions can promote intersectoral collaboration and the development of integrated health policies for the prevention of childhood obesity?” Data were collected through a literature search and observations of and interviews with stakeholders. Based on a theoretical framework, we categorized potential interventions that could optimize an integrated approach regarding children's physical activity and diet. The intervention categories included education, persuasion, incentivization, coercion, training, restriction, environmental restructuring, modeling, and enablement. PMID:22792120
Warin, Megan; Zivkovic, Tanya; Moore, Vivienne; Ward, Paul R; Jones, Michelle
This paper examines the spatio-temporal disjuncture between 'the future' in public health obesity initiatives and the embodied reality of eating. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork in a disadvantaged community in South Australia (August 2012-July 2014), we argue that the future oriented discourses of managing risk employed in obesity prevention programs have limited relevance to the immediacy of poverty, contingencies and survival that mark people's day to day lives. Extending Bourdieu's position that temporality is a central feature of practice, we develop the concept of short horizons to offer a theoretical framework to articulate the tensions between public health imperatives of healthy eating, and local 'tastes of necessity'. Research undertaken at the time of Australia's largest obesity prevention program (OPAL) demonstrates that pre-emptive and risk-based approaches to health can fail to resonate when the future is not within easy reach. Considering the lack of evidence for success of obesity prevention programs, over-reliance on appeals to 'the future' may be a major challenge to the design, operationalisation and success of interventions. Attention to local rather than future horizons reveals a range of innovative strategies around everyday food and eating practices, and these capabilities need to be understood and supported in the delivery of obesity interventions. We argue, therefore, that public health initiatives should be located in the dynamics of a living present, tailored to the particular, localised spatio-temporal perspectives and material circumstances in which people live.
Hirota, Shozo; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Shinichi; Motohara, Tomofumi; Fukuda, Tetsuya; Yoshikawa, Takeshi
Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of interventional radiological treatment for idiopathic portal hypertension. Methods: Between 1995 and 1998, we performed an interventional radiological treatment in five patients with idiopathic portal hypertension, four of whom had refused surgery and one of whom had undergone surgery. Three patients with gastroesophageal varices (GEV) were treated by partial splenic embolization (PSE), one patient with esophageal varices (EV) and massive ascites by transjugular intrahepatic portosytemic shunt (TIPS) and PSE, and one patient with GEV by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration (PTO). Midterm results were analyzed in terms of the effect on esophageal and/or gastric varices. Results: In one woman with severe GEV who underwent three sessions of PSE, there was endoscopic confirmation that the GEV had disappeared. In one man his EV shrunk markedly after two sessions of PSE. In two patients slight reduction of the EV was obtained with one application of PSE combined with endoscopic variceal ligation therapy. PTO for GV in one patient resulted in good control of the varices. All patients have survived for 16-42 months since the first interventional treatment, and varices are well controlled. Conclusion: Interventional radiological treatment is effective for patients with idiopathic portal hypertension, whether or not they have undergone surgery.
Douketis, J D; Feightner, J W; Attia, J; Feldman, W F
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of methods to prevent and treat obesity, and (2) to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults aged 18 to 65 years and for the measurement of the body mass index (BMI) as part of a periodic health examination. OPTIONS: In adults with obesity (BMI greater than 27) management options include weight reduction, prevention of further weight gain or no intervention. OUTCOMES: The long-term (more than 2 years) effectiveness of (a) methods to prevent obesity and (b) methods to treat obesity. EVIDENCE: MEDLINE was searched for articles published from 1966 to April 1998 that related to the prevention and treatment of obesity; additional articles were identified from the bibliographies of review articles and the listings of Current Contents. Selection criteria were used to limit the analysis to prospective studies with at least 2 years' follow-up. BENEFITS, HARM AND COSTS: Health benefits of weight reduction were evaluated in terms of alleviation of symptoms, improved management of obesity-related diseases and a reduction in major clinical outcomes. The health risk of weight-reduction methods were briefly evaluated in terms of increased mortality and morbidity. VALUES: The recommendations of this report reflect the commitment of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care to provide a structured, evidence-based appraisal of whether a manoeuvre should be part of a periodic health examination. RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) Prevention: There is insufficient evidence to recommend in favour of or against community-based obesity prevention programs; however, because of considerable health risks associated with obesity and the limited long-term effectiveness of weight-reduction methods, the prevention of obesity should be a high priority for health care providers (grade C recommendation). (2) Treatment: (a) For obese adults without obesity-related diseases, there is insufficient
Wickins-Drazilova, D; Williams, G
The methodology of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study raises a number of important ethical questions. Many of these are already well recognised in ethical guidelines that uphold principles of individual and parental consent, confidentiality and scientific review. There are, however, wider issues that require ethical reflection. In this paper, we focus on a set of problems surrounding the evaluation of complex social interventions, and argue that comprehensive and objective evaluation is a much more ethically charged aim than it may first appear. In particular, we contend that standard scientific measures-of body size and biomarkers-convey only part of the story. This is partly because, when we intervene in communities, we are also concerned with complex social effects. These effects are made even more complex by contemporary social anxieties about fat and physical appearance, as well as about the safety and security of children. Such anxieties increase the risk of undesirable side effects that are themselves difficult to gauge. In the face of these and other complexities, we argue that the evaluation of interventions should involve a strong ethical dimension. First, it must include-as does the IDEFICS study-consideration of the opinions of the people affected, who are subjected to interventions in ways that necessarily go beyond individual consent. Second, we suggest that interventions might also be assessed by how much they empower people-and especially those persons, such as children, who are otherwise often disempowered.
Stefater, Margaret A; Kohli, Rohit; Inge, Thomas H
Due to the rapidly expanding prevalence of obesity, bariatric surgery is becoming an increasingly popular treatment option. Bariatric surgeries including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) produce long-term weight loss and metabolic improvement, reducing mortality. This review discusses the important benefits and risks of RYGB and VSG, highlighting hypothesized mechanisms for these effects. We present data suggesting that VSG, albeit a newer procedure, may be as effective as RYGB with fewer adverse effects including less surgical risk, reduced nutritional deficiency, and less incidence of dumping syndrome. This may position VSG as an increasingly important procedure, particularly for the treatment of pediatric obesity.
Lopresti, Adrian L; Drummond, Peter D
Rates of obesity are higher than normal across a range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. While the problem of obesity is generally acknowledged in mental health research and treatment, an understanding of their bi-directional relationship is still developing. In this review the association between obesity and psychiatric disorders is summarised, with a specific emphasis on similarities in their disturbed biological pathways; namely neurotransmitter imbalances, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis disturbances, dysregulated inflammatory pathways, increased oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial disturbances, and neuroprogression. The applicability and effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in psychiatric populations are reviewed along with their potential efficacy in ameliorating disturbed biological pathways, particularly those mediating inflammation and oxidative stress. It is proposed that weight loss may not only be an effective intervention to enhance physical health but may also improve mental health outcomes and slow the rate of neuroprogressive disturbances in psychiatric disorders. Areas of future research to help expand our understanding of the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders are also outlined.
Sim, K A; Partridge, S R; Sainsbury, A
This systematic review assessed the effect of weight loss in overweight and/or obese women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) on their subsequent pregnancy outcome. Weight losses achieved by diet and lifestyle changes, very-low-energy diets, non-surgical medical interventions and bariatric surgery translated into significantly increased pregnancy rates and/or live birth in overweight and/or obese women undergoing ART in 8 of the 11 studies reviewed. In addition, regularization of the menstrual pattern, a decrease in cancellation rates, an increase in the number of embryos available for transfer, a reduction in the number of ART cycles required to achieve pregnancy and a decrease in miscarriage rates were reported. There were also a number of natural conceptions in five of the six studies that reported this outcome. Non-surgical medical weight loss procedures and bariatric surgery induced the greatest weight losses, but their use, as well as that of very-low-energy diets, for weight loss prior to ART requires careful consideration. While the overall quality of the studies included in this review was poor, these results support the clinical recommendation of advising overweight and/or obese women to lose weight prior to ART. Prospective randomized controlled trials are required to establish efficacious evidence-based guidelines for weight loss interventions in overweight and/or obese women prior to ART treatment.
Hu, Jia; Zhu, Chao; Huang, Mao
Being a great threaten for human health, obesity has become a pandemic chronic disease. There have been several therapeutic treatments for this social health issue, including diet and exercise therapy, medication and surgery, among which the diet is still the most common way. However, none of these therapeutic measures available is ideal, making it necessary to find an effective medical treatment. The endocannabinoid system, which is well known for its contributions in certain mental processes such as relaxation, amelioration of pain and anxiety, and sedation initiation, has been recently reported to play an essential role in regulating appetite and metabolism to maintain energy balance, leading to the belief that endocannabinoid system is closely related to obesity. This new discovery deepens our understanding of obesity, and provides us with a new direction for clinical obesity treatment. Rimonabant is an antagonist for CB1, and has entered the market in some countries. However, although effective as an anti-obesity drug, rimonabant also causes obviously adverse side-effects, thus is being doubted and denied for medical usage.
Khan, Abraham; Kim, Aram; Sanossian, Cassandra; Francois, Fritz
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a frequently encountered disorder. Obesity is an important risk factor for GERD, and there are several pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the two conditions. For obese patients with GERD, much of the treatment effort is focused on weight loss and its consistent benefit to symptoms, while there is a relative lack of evidence regarding outcomes after novel or even standard medical therapy is offered to this population. Physicians are hesitant to recommend operative anti-reflux therapy to obese patients due to the potentially higher risks and decreased efficacy, and these patients instead are often considered for bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgical approaches are broadening, and each technique has emerging evidence regarding its effect on both the risk and outcome of GERD. Furthermore, combined anti-reflux and bariatric options are now being offered to obese patients with GERD. However, currently Roux-en-Y gastric bypass remains the most effective surgical treatment option in this population, due to its consistent benefits in both weight loss and GERD itself. This article aims to review the impact of both conservative and aggressive approaches of obesity treatment on GERD.
Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants.
Boutelle, Kerri N.; Liang, June; Knatz, Stephanie; Matheson, Brittany; Risborough, Victoria; Strong, David; Rhee, Kyung E.; Craske, Michelle G.; Zucker, Nancy; Bouton, Mark E.
Obesity and its health sequelae affect a significant portion of children in the United States. Yet, the current gold-standard family-based behavioral weight-loss treatments are only effective for one-third of children long-term. Therefore, we developed iROC (Intervention for Regulation of Cues) to specifically target a method to decrease overeating in overweight children, based on learning theory, to inform and enhance interventions targeting diet and obesity in youth. This study will rigorously test extinction processes as a method of decreasing physiological and psychological responses to food cues in overweight and obese children. Through exposing children to their highly craved foods, and ‘training the brain and body’ to decrease overeating, we are hoping to produce longer-lasting weight loss or weight-gain prevention over time. PMID:25461494
Boutelle, Kerri N; Liang, June; Knatz, Stephanie; Matheson, Brittany; Risbrough, Victoria; Strong, David; Rhee, Kyung E; Craske, Michelle G; Zucker, Nancy; Bouton, Mark E
Obesity and its health sequelae affect a significant portion of children in the United States. Yet, the current gold-standard family-based behavioral weight-loss treatments are only effective for one-third of children long-term. Therefore, we developed iROC (Intervention for Regulation of Cues) to specifically target a method to decrease overeating in overweight children, based on learning theory, to inform and enhance interventions targeting diet and obesity in youth. This study will rigorously test extinction processes as a method of decreasing physiological and psychological responses to food cues in overweight and obese children. Through exposing children to their highly craved foods, and 'training the brain and body' to decrease overeating, we are hoping to produce longer-lasting weight loss or weight-gain prevention over time.
Makoundou, V; Golay, A
CBI endocannabinoid system receptors localized in the hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens are known to regulate hunger. Hyperstimulation of the CBI receptors lead to an increase of food intake, but also to an increase of lipogenesis, decrease of adiponectin and increase of insulin resistance. Rimonabant is the first CBI central and peripheral blocker, tested in international trials (RIO-lipids, RIO-Europe and RIO-North America). Significant results on weight reduction, increased adiponectin and improved metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated. Rimonabant is a new pharmacological therapy and very interesting for tackling obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Croker, H; Cooke, L; Wardle, J
Associations between appetite and adiposity have not been examined in clinical samples of obese children. The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to compare appetite in community (n=406) and clinical (n=66) samples. Clear graded patterns were seen for food responsiveness and emotional overeating; levels increased with increasing BMI SDS and the clinical sample scored highest. The reverse was seen for satiety responsiveness/slowness in eating. Differences were not solely explained by weight differences, suggesting that the clinical sample had more pronounced 'obesogenic' appetitive traits. This could make adherence to dietary guidance difficult.
Bazerbachi, Fateh; Vargas Valls, Eric J.; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K.
Despite advances in lifestyle interventions, anti-obesity medications, and metabolic surgery, the issue of health burden due to obesity continues to evolve. Interest in endoscopic bariatric techniques has increased over the years, as they have been shown to be efficacious, reversible, relatively safe, and cost effective. Further, these techniques offer a therapeutic window for some patients who may otherwise be unable to undergo bariatric surgery. This article aims to review the literature on the safety and efficacy of currently offered endoscopic bariatric techniques, as well as those that are in the pipeline of end-development and regulatory approval. PMID:28147472
Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Day, Wesley W; Finer, Nick
Weight loss can reduce the increased cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Pharmacotherapy is a recognized weight loss treatment option; however, cardiovascular safety issues with some previous weight loss drugs raise concerns for newly approved pharmacotherapies. Phentermine is approved for short-term obesity treatment in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, but is commonly used chronically. Topiramate, approved for treating epilepsy and preventing migraines, also induces weight loss. A single-dose combination of low-dose phentermine and topiramate extended-release was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination. Cardiovascular data associated with long-term use of phentermine and topiramate extended-release indicate that this combination may be a safe and effective option for reducing weight in overweight/obese patients at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk.
Fang, Sijia; Wang, Miao; Zheng, Yiyuan; Zhou, Shigao; Ji, Guang
Obesity is an epidemic health hazard associated with many medical conditions. Lifestyle interventions are foundational to the successful management of obesity. However, the body's adaptive biological responses counteract patients' desire to restrict food and energy intake, leading to weight regain. As a complementary and alternative medical approach, acupuncture therapy is widely used for weight control. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of acupuncture treatment alone and in combination with lifestyle modification. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and Chinese Biomedical Literature Databases for relevant publications available as of 24 October 2015 without language restriction. Eligible studies consisted of randomized controlled trials for acupuncture with comparative controls. A total of 23 studies were included with 1808 individuals. We performed meta-analyses of weighted mean differences based on a random effect model. Acupuncture exhibited a mean difference of body mass index reduction of 1.742[Formula: see text]kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [Formula: see text]) and 1.904[Formula: see text]kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval [Formula: see text]) when compared with untreated or placebo control groups and when lifestyle interventions including basic therapy of both treatment and control groups. Adverse events reported were mild, and no patients withdrew because of adverse effects. Overall, our results indicate that acupuncture is an effective treatment for obesity both alone and together with lifestyle modification.
Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071
Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity.
Gesell, Sabina B; Bess, Kimberly D; Barkin, Shari L
Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.
Kleinman, Ken; Melly, Steven J.; Sharifi, Mona; Marshall, Richard; Block, Jason; Cheng, Erika R.; Taveras, Elsie M.
Objectives. To determine whether proximity to a supermarket modified the effects of an obesity intervention. Methods. We examined 498 children aged 6 to 12 years with a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile participating in an obesity trial in Massachusetts in 2011 to 2013. The practice-based interventions included computerized clinician decision support plus family self-guided behavior change or health coaching. Outcomes were 1-year change in BMI z-score, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and fruit and vegetable intake. We examined distance to the closest supermarket as an effect modifier. Results. Distance to supermarkets was an effect modifier of 1-year change in BMI z-score and fruit and vegetable intake but not sugar-sweetened beverage intake. With each 1-mile shorter distance to a supermarket, intervention participants increased their fruit and vegetable intake by 0.29 servings per day and decreased their BMI z-score by −0.04 units relative to controls. Conclusions. Living closer to a supermarket is associated with greater improvements in fruit and vegetable intake and weight status in an obesity intervention. PMID:26794159
Nuffer, Wesley A; Trujillo, Jennifer M
Obesity continues to pose a major public health risk to the United States and across the world, with an estimated one-third of adult Americans being defined as obese. Obesity treatment guidelines recommend the use of pharmacologic therapy in adults who have a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m(2) or higher or in patients with a BMI of 27 kg/m(2) or higher who have at least one weight-related comorbid condition (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus). Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist that has been successfully used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes for several years. Weight loss has been well described as an additional benefit with liraglutide therapy, which prompted the manufacturer to evaluate and develop a higher dose formulation specifically for the treatment of obesity. Liraglutide 3 mg/day was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication in December 2014. We performed a search of the Medline database to identify relevant literature focused on liraglutide's role specifically in treating obesity. Five clinical trials with this primary end point were identified. Data demonstrated that liraglutide can successfully achieve weight-loss benchmarks of 5% or more and 10% or more loss from baseline. The most common adverse effects were gastrointestinal and mild to moderate in intensity. The cost of therapy is high, averaging over $1000/month for out-of-pocket expenses if insurance coverage is not available. Liraglutide is also available for delivery only by subcutaneous injection, which may represent a barrier for patients. Liraglutide 3 mg/day represents another pharmacologic option for the treatment of obesity.
Wooley, S C; Wooley, O W; Dyrenforth, S R
Although showing superior maintenance, behavioral treatments of obesity typically produce small weight losses at a decelerating rate. Rather than reflecting poor compliance with treatment, these findings are consistent with known compensatory metabolic changes that operate to slow weight loss and promote regain. Other problems associated with dieting include failure of caloric regulation, hyper-responsivity to food palatability, and hunger, which is greater under conditions of moderate restriction and unpredictability of access to food. The inevitability of treatment failure in many instances must be faced and efforts made to prevent further worsening of the obese patient's self-esteem. Prognosis and treatment planning may be aided by consideration of the historical difficulties of weight loss, the degree of hunger experienced on diets, which may reflect important physiological differences among individuals, and the use of food to optimize arousal level. Full involvement of the patient in setting goals and planning treatment is recommended. PMID:468747
Hartigan, Kevin J.; And Others
Examined whether obese subjects' causal attributions of their weight problems to ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck affect how much weight they lose as a function of treatment. Results indicated the most powerful predictor of positive weight status was subjects' perception that they had the ability to lose weight. (Author)
Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] greater than or equal to 40 kg/m**2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus, nonsurgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive ...
Objective. Severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] =40 kg/m2) is a serious public health concern. Although bariatric surgery is an efficacious treatment approach, it is limited in reach; thus, nonsurgical treatment alternatives are needed. We examined the 4-year effects of an intensive lifestyle inter...
Ryan, Mandy; Yi, Deokhee; Avenell, Alison; Douglas, Flora; Aucott, Lorna; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Vale, Luke
While there is evidence that weight-loss interventions reduce morbidity, indications of their acceptability are limited. Understanding preferences for lifestyle interventions will help policymakers design interventions. We used a discrete choice experiment to investigate preferences for lifestyle interventions to reduce adult obesity. Attributes focused on: the components of the programme; weight change; short-term and longer-term health gains; time spent on the intervention and financial costs incurred. Data were collected through a web-based questionnaire, with 504 UK adults responding. Despite evidence that dietary interventions are the most effective way to lose weight, respondents preferred lifestyle interventions involving physical activity. While the evidence suggests that behaviour change support improves effectiveness of interventions, its value to participants was limited. A general preference to maintain current lifestyles, together with the sensitivity of take up to financial costs, suggests financial incentives could be used to help maximise uptake of healthy lifestyle interventions. An important target group for change, men, required more compensation to take up healthier lifestyles. Those of normal weight, who will increase in weight over time if they do not change their lifestyle, required the highest compensation. Policymakers face challenges in inducing people to change their behaviour and adopt healthy lifestyles.
van der Kruk, J J; Kortekaas, F; Lucas, C; Jager-Wittenaar, H
In Europe, about 20% of children are overweight. Focus on parental responsibility is an effective method in weight control interventions in children. In this systematic review we describe the intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change aimed at parents in long-term European childhood weight control interventions. We include European Union studies targeting parents in order to improve children's weight status in multi-component (parental, behaviour change and nutrition) health promotion or lifestyle interventions. The included studies have at least one objectively measured anthropometric outcome in the weight status of the child. Parental involvement was described and categorized based on the intensity of parental involvement and coded using a validated behaviour change taxonomy specific to childhood obesity. Twenty-four studies were analysed. In effective long-term treatment studies, medium and high intensity parental involvement were identified most frequently; whereas in prevention studies low intensity parental involvement was identified most frequently. Parenting skills, generic and specific to lifestyle behaviour, scored frequently in effective weight control interventions. To list parental skills in generic and specific to lifestyle, descriptions of the included studies were summarized. We conclude that intensity of parental involvement and behaviour change techniques are important issues in the effectiveness of long-term childhood weight control interventions.
Sangachin, Mahboobeh Ghesmaty; Samadi, Mohammadreza; Cavuoto, Lora A
With the growing prevalence of obesity and the public health implications, it is critical to develop and evaluate potential interventions. One approach is to investigate the spread of positive health outcomes through a social network. We employ the ground concepts of spread maximization problem and adapt it to best reflect the dynamics of a weight loss intervention. A diffusion model is then employed for the propagation of weight loss effect throughout the network of obese and overweight individuals. This diffusion model integrates both personal attributes and network-related attributes of an individual while engaged in a weight loss program. Simulation findings suggest that choosing initial agents based on individual attributes, including ability to lose weight, body mass index, and threshold, produced the highest total weight loss in the network. Greedy algorithm was also applied to choose the most effective subset of initial seeds.
Alexy, Ute; Schaefer, Anke; Sailer, Oliver; Busch-Stockfisch, Mechthild; Reinehr, Thomas; Kunert, Joachim; Kersting, Mathilde
Sensory preferences and discrimination ability were assessed before and after participating in a long-term outpatient obesity lifestyle intervention for obese children and adolescents ('Obeldicks'). Each subject (N=72; 7-16 years) performed 9 experimental sensory tests (5 paired-comparison preference tests, 4 paired-comparison sensitivity tests). For the examination of the taste categories sweet, salty and sour, sugar, table salt or citric acid were added to suitable customary foods. Fatty foods were included in the tests using cheese and sausage (salami) in the preference tests and milk with different fat content in the sensitivity tests. All tests were conducted at the start of the intervention program, after three and twelve months. For both preference and sensitivity tests, there was no significant difference in experimental test decisions between the three time points.
Moleres, Adriana; Campión, Javier; Milagro, Fermín I; Marcos, Ascensión; Campoy, Cristina; Garagorri, Jesús M; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Martínez, J Alfredo; Azcona-Sanjulián, M Cristina; Martí, Amelia
In recent years, epigenetic markers emerged as a new tool to understand the influence of lifestyle factors on obesity phenotypes. Adolescence is considered an important epigenetic window over a human's lifetime. The objective of this work was to explore baseline changes in DNA methylation that could be associated with a better weight loss response after a multidisciplinary intervention program in Spanish obese or overweight adolescents. Overweight or obese adolescents (n=107) undergoing 10 wk of a multidisciplinary intervention for weight loss were assigned as high or low responders to the treatment. A methylation microarray was performed to search for baseline epigenetic differences between the 2 groups (12 subjects/group), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to validate (n=107) relevant CpG sites and surrounding regions. After validation, 5 regions located in or near AQP9, DUSP22, HIPK3, TNNT1, and TNNI3 genes showed differential methylation levels between high and low responders to the multidisciplinary weight loss intervention. Moreover, a calculated methylation score was significantly associated with changes in weight, BMI-SDS, and body fat mass loss after the treatment. In summary, we have identified 5 DNA regions that are differentially methylated depending on weight loss response. These methylation changes may help to better understand the weight loss response in obese adolescents.
Zambrano, E; Martínez-Samayoa, P M; Rodríguez-González, G L; Nathanielsz, P W
Obesity involving women of reproductive years is increasing dramatically in both developing and developed nations. Maternal obesity and accompanying high energy obesogenic dietary (MO) intake prior to and throughout pregnancy and lactation program offspring physiological systems predisposing to altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Whether maternal obesity-induced programming outcomes are reversible by altered dietary intake commencing before conception remains an unanswered question of physiological and clinical importance. We induced pre-pregnancy maternal obesity by feeding female rats with a high fat diet from weaning to breeding 90 days later and through pregnancy and lactation. A dietary intervention group (DINT) of MO females was transferred to normal chow 1 month before mating. Controls received normal chow throughout. Male offspring were studied. Offspring birth weights were similar. At postnatal day 21 fat mass, serum triglycerides, leptin and insulin were elevated in MO offspring and were normalized by DINT. At postnatal day 120 serum glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) were increased in MO offspring; glucose was restored, and HOMA partially reversed to normal by DINT. At postnatal day 150 fat mass was increased in MO and partially reversed in DINT. At postnatal day 150, fat cell size was increased by MO. DINT partially reversed these differences in fat cell size. We believe this is the first study showing reversibility of adverse metabolic effects of maternal obesity on offspring metabolic phenotype, and that outcomes and reversibility vary by tissue affected. PMID:20351043
Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were
Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung
Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…
Smibert, Asa; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hogan, Anna; Leong, Gary
Epidemiological data on childhood obesity has prompted a significant response from both governments and academics seeking to recommend solutions to the reported "crisis". The "Kinder Overweight Active Living Action" (KOALA) healthy lifestyle programme is a randomized obesity prevention and intervention study designed to provide an understanding of…
Walker, Renee E; Gordon, Melanie
The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of the literature to identify lifestyle and behavioral modification obesity intervention studies for Black women. We included articles published between February 1992 and January 2013. This search identified 28 articles from the PsycInfo, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and SPORTDiscus databases. Results of these studies were summarized primarily into six categories. The importance of modest improvements in health outcomes that result from adapting healthier behaviors was highlighted. Future research is required for identifying the most salient intervention component or combination of components that lead to the best outcomes for ensuring intervention success and minimizing weight regain postintervention.
Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.
Many frail older adults are thin, weak, and undernourished; this component of frailty remains a critical concern in the geriatric field. However, there is also strong evidence that excessive adiposity contributes to frailty by reducing the ability of older adults to perform physical activities and increasing metabolic instability. Our scoping review explores the impact of being obese on physical frailty in older adults by summarizing the state of the science for both clinical markers of physical function and biomarkers for potential underlying causes of obesity-related decline. We used the five-stage methodological framework of Arksey and O’Malley to conduct a scoping review of randomized trials of weight loss and/or exercise interventions for obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) in older adults (aged > 60 yrs), examining the outcomes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipid accumulation in muscle, as well as direct measures of physical function. Our initial search yielded 212 articles; exclusion of cross-sectional and observational studies, cell culture and animal studies, disease-specific interventions, and articles published before 2001 led to a final result of 21 articles. Findings of these trials included the following major points: The literature consistently confirmed benefits of lifestyle interventions to physical function assessed at the clinical level. Generally speaking, weight loss alone produced a greater effect than exercise alone and the best outcomes were achieved with a combination of weight loss and exercise, especially exercise programs that combined aerobic, resistance, and flexibility training. Weight loss interventions tended to reduce markers of inflammation and/or oxidative damage when more robust weight reduction was achieved and maintained over time, whereas exercise did not change markers of inflammation. However, participation in a chronic exercise program did reduce the oxidative stress induced by an acute bout of exercise. Weight loss
... Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Diseases: How To Estimate and Reward True Patient... ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and... medical devices for the treatment of morbid obesity and other metabolic diseases and evolving...
Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Jung, Mary; Eves, Neil; Sigal, Ron
A poor understanding of behaviour change mechanisms has hindered the development of effective physical activity interventions. The aim of this study was to identify potential mediators of change in a home-based resistance training (RT) program for obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Obese individuals with type 2 diabetes (N = 48) were randomly allocated to either an RT intervention (n = 27) or a control group (n = 21) for the 16-week study period. The study sample included 16 men and 32 women and the mean age of participants was 54.4 (±11.7) years. Participants in the RT group received a multi-gym and dumbbells and home supervision from a certified personal trainer. RT behaviour was measured using a modified Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire. Social-cognitive constructs were measured and tested in a mediating variable framework using a product-of-coefficients test. The intervention had a significant effect on RT behaviour (p < 0.001) and muscular strength (p < 0.001). The intervention had a significant effect on RT planning strategies (p < 0.01), which mediated the effect of the intervention on RT behaviour. The home-based RT program successfully targeted participants' RT planning strategies which contributed to their exercise adherence.
Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Kilanowski, Colleen K; Collins, R Lorraine
Background The bias toward immediate gratification is associated with maladaptive eating behaviors and has been cross-sectionally and prospectively related to obesity. Engaging in episodic future thinking, which involves mental self-projection to pre-experience future events, reduces this bias and energy intake in overweight/obese adults and children. To examine how episodic future thinking can be incorporated into clinical interventions, a Web-based system was created to provide training for adults and children in their everyday lives. Objective Our study examined the technical feasibility, usability, and acceptability of a Web-based system that is accessible by mobile devices and adapts episodic future thinking for delivery in family-based obesity interventions. Methods We recruited 20 parent-child dyads (N=40) from the surrounding community and randomized to episodic future thinking versus a nutritional information thinking control to test the feasibility of a 4-week Web-based intervention. Parents were 44.1 (SD 7.8) years of age with BMI of 34.2 (SD 6.8) kg/m2. Children were 11.0 (SD 1.3) years of age with BMI percentile of 96.0 (SD 1.8). Families met weekly with a case manager for 4 weeks and used the system daily. Adherence was collected through the Web-based system, and perceived acceptance of the Web-based system was assessed postintervention. Measurements of body composition and dietary intake were collected at baseline and after the 4 weeks of intervention. Results All 20 families completed the intervention and attended all sessions. Results showed parents and children had high adherence to the Web-based system and perceived it to be easy to use, useful, and helpful. No differences between conditions were found in adherence for parents (P=.65) or children (P=.27). In addition, results suggest that basic nutrition information along with episodic future thinking delivered through our Web-based system may reduce energy intake and weight. Conclusions We
Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee
BACKGROUND Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS CHILE uses a socio-ecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS Lessons learned from CHILE include: the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards. PMID:23343323
Mohammed Nawi, AZMAWATI; Che Jamaludin, FARRAH ILYANI
Background: Co-morbidities in adulthood is a significant problem and is associated with obesity during adolescent. Methods: This 3-months randomised controlled trial was aimed at determining the effectiveness of having internet-based intervention (obeseGO!) toward obesity among adolescents in Kuala Lumpur. Forty seven students were assigned randomly to the obeseGO! (intervention) group for internet-based intervention i.e., information on healthy lifestyle and diet were provided via the internet. Fifty students were assigned to the control group, where pamphlets containing health education were provided to these students. The measurement of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and the body fat percentage was taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results: The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) analysis found that obeseGO! had a small effect in reducing BMI, waist circumference and body fat percentage. Conclusion: The internet-based obesity intervention program may be an effective medium for promoting healthy diet and physical activity among the obese adolescents. PMID:26715908
Keller, U; van der Werf, H; Stohler, R
Obesity continues as before to be a widespread condition. Obesity is defined as a body weight of over 120% of the ideal weight, corresponding roughly to the 85th percentile of the weight distribution. According to the "Build Study" (1979), the ideal weight is assumed to be rather higher than formerly; in men it is 8%, in women 6% less than the so-called normal weight. The latter corresponds roughly to the average weight and is defined as: height (cm) minus 100 in kg. In obese subjects both somatic and psychological complications arise; these are related exponentially to the degree of overweight. More recent findings in the Framingham Study show that obesity leads to coronary heart disease and premature death independently of the classical risk factors. Evaluation of the patient should include a personal and familial history of the obesity, together with individual eating habits and the degree of physical activity indulged in. As assessment should be made of the body fat distribution (android or gynoid obesity); android obesity carries a relatively high risk. Complications should be looked for, together with other risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and on the motivation. In general, it should consist of a moderate reduction in the caloric value of the food intake together with advice on eating habits and an increase in bodily activity. Group therapy often gives good results on account of the dynamic interactions within groups. Patients with morbid obesity will profit from a very hypocaloric, "ketogenic" diet (ca. 600-700 kcal/day). One of the author's own studies showed that a very hypocaloric diet resulted in mood elevation and a reduction in the need for sleep. Conservative measures such dietary weight reduction, changes in eating habits and encouragement of bodily activity are to be preferred to surgical treatment (eg, gastric stapling). Weight reductions in hospital do not lead to a change in eating habits and
Azevedo, Kathryn J.; Mendoza, Sonia; Fernández, María; Haydel, K. Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C.; Robinson, Thomas N.
Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 7–11 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 months of enrollment in the ECHALE trial. The Spradley ethnographic method and NVivo 8.0 were used to code and analyze narrative data. Three domains emerged for understanding participation: 1) family cohesiveness; 2) perceived gains; and 3) culturally relevant program structure. Two domains emerged for non-participation: program requirements and perceived discomforts. Non-parametric, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships with participant attendance data. Sustained participation was most strongly influenced by the domain perceived gains when parents reported better self-esteem, confidence, improved attitude, improved grades, etc. (Spearman r=.45, P=.003). Alternatively, under the domain, perceived discomforts, with subthemes such as child bullying, participation in the combined intervention was inversely associated with attendance (Spearman r=.38, P=.02). Family-centered, school-based, community obesity prevention programs that focus on tangible short-term gains for girls may generate greater participation rates, enhance social capital, and promote community empowerment. These factors can be emphasized in future obesity prevention program design and implementation. (Ethn Dis. 2013; 23:452–461) PMID:24392608
Gorin, Amy; Phelan, Suzanne; Tate, Deborah; Sherwood, Nancy; Jeffery, Robert; Wing, Rena
In this study, the authors examined whether the number or success of weight loss partners influences participants' outcomes in behavioral weight loss treatment. Overweight participants (n=109) assigned to an exercise intensive group in a larger trial were encouraged to invite up to 3 partners to attend treatment. Weight losses at 6, 12, and 18…
Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…
Skelton, J A; Buehler, C; Irby, M B; Grzywacz, J G
Family-based approaches to pediatric obesity treatment are considered the 'gold-standard,' and are recommended for facilitating behavior change to improve child weight status and health. If family-based approaches are to be truly rooted in the family, clinicians and researchers must consider family process and function in designing effective interventions. To bring a better understanding of family complexities to family-based treatment, two relevant reviews were conducted and are presented: (1) a review of prominent and established theories of the family that may provide a more comprehensive and in-depth approach for addressing pediatric obesity; and (2) a systematic review of the literature to identify the use of prominent family theories in pediatric obesity research, which found little use of theories in intervention studies. Overlapping concepts across theories include: families are a system, with interdependence of units; the idea that families are goal-directed and seek balance; and the physical and social environment imposes demands on families. Family-focused theories provide valuable insight into the complexities of families. Increased use of these theories in both research and practice may identify key leverage points in family process and function to prevent the development of or more effectively treat obesity. The field of family studies provides an innovative approach to the difficult problem of pediatric obesity, building on the long-established approach of family-based treatment.
Skelton, JA; Buehler, C; Irby, MB; Grzywacz, JG
Family-based approaches to pediatric obesity treatment are considered the ‘gold-standard,’ and are recommended for facilitating behavior change to improve child weight status and health. If family-based approaches are to be truly rooted in the family, clinicians and researchers must consider family process and function in designing effective interventions. To bring a better understanding of family complexities to family-based treatment, two relevant reviews were conducted and are presented: (1) a review of prominent and established theories of the family that may provide a more comprehensive and in-depth approach for addressing pediatric obesity; and (2) a systematic review of the literature to identify the use of prominent family theories in pediatric obesity research, which found little use of theories in intervention studies. Overlapping concepts across theories include: families are a system, with interdependence of units; the idea that families are goal-directed and seek balance; and the physical and social environment imposes demands on families. Family-focused theories provide valuable insight into the complexities of families. Increased use of these theories in both research and practice may identify key leverage points in family process and function to prevent the development of or more effectively treat obesity. The field of family studies provides an innovative approach to the difficult problem of pediatric obesity, building on the long-established approach of family-based treatment. PMID:22531090
White, Sara L.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Briley, Annette L.; Nelson, Scott M.; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T.; Welsh, Paul; Whitworth, Melissa; Poston, Lucilla; Pasupathy, Dharmintra
All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM) whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0–18+6 weeks’ gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention. Twenty one candidate biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and a targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolome were measured. Prediction models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression. Twenty six percent of women (n = 337) developed GDM (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria). A model based on clinical and anthropometric variables (age, previous GDM, family history of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfold thicknesses, waist:height and neck:thigh ratios) provided an area under the curve of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68–0.74). This increased to 0.77 (95%CI 0.73–0.80) with addition of candidate biomarkers (random glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin, triglycerides), but was not improved by addition of NMR metabolites (0.77; 95%CI 0.74–0.81). Clinically translatable models for GDM prediction including readily measurable variables e.g. mid-arm circumference, age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and adiponectin are described. Using a ≥35% risk threshold, all models identified a group of high risk obese women of whom approximately 50% (positive predictive value) later developed GDM, with a negative predictive value of 80%. Tools for early pregnancy identification of obese women at risk of GDM are described
Aronne, Louis J; Pagotto, Uberto; Foster, Gary D; Davis, Stephen N
Overweight and obesity are major factors contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition to the many physical and metabolic consequences of obesity, there are also mental health consequences, in particular, the risk for depression. Depression can lead to poor self-care, poor treatment compliance, and possible increased morbidity and mortality from such illnesses as type 2 DM and CVD. Lifestyle modification for the treatment of overweight and obesity is rarely successful over the long term, and use of surgery is limited by eligibility criteria; therefore, researchers and clinicians continue to explore pharmacotherapy, with intense efforts being directed toward the development of agents that, optimally, will reduce weight and simultaneously reduce or eliminate modifiable cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Among the promising new agents are the CB(1) receptor antagonists. These agents target receptors of the endocannabinoid system, a neuromodulatory system recently found to influence energy balance, eating behavior, and metabolic homeostasis via central and peripheral mechanisms. In animal and clinical studies, antagonism of CB(1) receptors has resulted in meaningful weight loss and improvement of lipid and glycemic profiles. Thus, these agents may provide a rational and effective approach for the management of not only overweight and obesity but also their metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae.
Butter, Eric M; Wynn, Jacqueline; Mulick, James A
It is still not universally accepted within the scientific community that the habilitation of autistic children is possible, or that their ability to function without supports in regular education by third, fourth, or fifth grade happens as a direct result of EIBI. However, using the outcome studies that have been reported, the rate of children reaching a best-outcome status appears to be between about 10% and 47%. There is a more global way to look at the effects of EIBI or behavioral intervention. Even if the child retains many characteristics of autism, the usual outcome of treatment is that the child learns useful skills. Behavioral intervention results in effective and efficient learning, which is precisely what it aims to accomplish and what behavioral techniques have been developed to do. Children and families have been able to achieve much more than many would ever have believed before EIBI became a realistic possibility.
Sliwa, Sarah; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Clark, Valerie; Collins, Jessica; Edwards, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond R; Junot, Bridgid; Nahar, Elizabeth; Nelson, Miriam E; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D
To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on childhood obesity prevention, furthering a replication study of a successful intervention. Using the CRM protocol, we conducted interviews with 4 stakeholders in each of 10 communities of similar size, socioeconomic status, and perceived readiness to implement a community-wide obesity prevention intervention. Communities were in California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. The 4 stakeholders were the mayor or city manager, the school superintendent, the school food service director, and a community coalition representative. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Pairs of trained reviewers scored the transcriptions according to CRM protocol. The CRM assesses 9 stages of readiness for 6 dimensions: existing community efforts to prevent childhood obesity, community knowledge about the efforts, leadership, community climate, knowledge about the issue, and resources. We calculated an overall readiness score for each community from the dimension scores. Overall readiness scores ranged from 2.97 to 5.36 on the 9-point scale. The mean readiness score, 4.28 (SD, 0.68), corresponds with a "preplanning" level of readiness. Of the 6 dimensions, community climate varied the least (mean score, 3.11; SD, 0.64); leadership varied the most (mean score, 4.79; SD, 1.13). The CRM quantified a subjective concept, allowing for comparison among 10 communities. Dimension scores and qualitative data from interviews helped in the selection of 6 communities for a replication study.
Introduction Data are sparse as to whether obesity influences the risk of death in critically ill patients with septic shock. We sought to examine the possible impact of obesity, as assessed by body mass index (BMI), on hospital mortality in septic shock patients. Methods We performed a nested cohort study within a retrospective database of patients with septic shock conducted in 28 medical centers in Canada, United States and Saudi Arabia between 1996 and 2008. Patients were classified according to the World Health Organization criteria for BMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between obesity and hospital mortality. Results Of the 8,670 patients with septic shock, 2,882 (33.2%) had height and weight data recorded at ICU admission and constituted the study group. Obese patients were more likely to have skin and soft tissue infections and less likely to have pneumonia with predominantly Gram-positive microorganisms. Crystalloid and colloid resuscitation fluids in the first six hours were given at significantly lower volumes per kg in the obese and very obese patients compared to underweight and normal weight patients (for crystalloids: 55.0 ± 40.1 ml/kg for underweight, 43.2 ± 33.4 for normal BMI, 37.1 ± 30.8 for obese and 27.7 ± 22.0 for very obese). Antimicrobial doses per kg were also different among BMI groups. Crude analysis showed that obese and very obese patients had lower hospital mortality compared to normal weight patients (odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 0.97 for obese and OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85 for very obese patients). After adjusting for baseline characteristics and sepsis interventions, the association became non-significant (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.02 for obese and OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.04 for very obese). Conclusions The obesity paradox (lower mortality in the obese) documented in other populations is also observed in septic shock. This may be related in
Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Morrison, Katherine; Warren, Rachel; Usman Ali, Muhammad; Raina, Parminder
Background Childhood obesity is a public health concern. One-third of North American children and youth are overweight or obese. We reviewed the evidence of behavioural and pharmacological weight-management interventions on body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score and the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and youth. Methods We updated the search of a previous review. We searched 4 databases up to August 2013. We included randomized trials of primary care–relevant behavioural (diet, exercise, lifestyle) and pharmacological (orlistat) interventions for treating overweight and obesity in children and youth aged 2–18 years if 6-month post-baseline data were provided for BMI, BMI z-score or prevalence of overweight and obesity. In addition, we examined secondary health outcomes such as lipid and glucose levels, blood pressure, quality of life and physical fitness. We included any study reporting harms. We performed meta-analyses when possible, and we examined the features of interventions that showed benefits. Results Thirty-one studies (29 behavioural, 2 pharmacological and behavioural) were included. Both intervention types showed a significant effect on BMI or BMI z-score in favour of treatment (behavioural: standardized mean difference [SMD] –0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] –0.73 to –0.36; orlistat plus behavioural: SMD –0.43, 95% CI –0.60 to –0.25). Studies reported no significant difference between groups in the likelihood of reduced prevalence of overweight or overweight and obesity. Pooled estimates for blood pressure and quality of life showed significant benefits in favour of treatment (systolic blood pressure mean difference [MD] –3.42, 95% CI –6.65 to –0.29; diastolic blood pressure MD –3.39, 95% CI –5.17 to –1.60; quality of life MD 2.10, 95% CI 0.60 to 3.60). Gastrointestinal difficulties were more common in youth taking orlistat than in the control group (risk ratio 3.77, 95% CI 2.56 to 5.55). We saw much
Moran, James P
The Healthy Kids Act (H.R. 4053) legislation does three things: (1) establishes an office of Childhood Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Treatment within the Department of Health and Human Services to provide information and promote action on healthy eating, (2) institutes a three-tier system for labeling foods, and (3) enables regulatory action to curb food commercials targeting children.
Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Westling, Erika; Lew, Ann-Marie; Samuels, Barbra; Chatman, Jason
The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity.…
Ely, Andrea Charbonneau; Greiner, K. Allen; Born, Wendi; Hall, Sandra; Rhode, Paula C.; James, Aimee S.; Nollen, Nicole; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Context: Although clinical guidelines recommend routine screening and treatment for obesity in primary care, lack of agreement between physicians and patients about the need for obesity treatment in the primary care setting may be an unexplored factor contributing to the obesity epidemic. Purpose and Methods: To better understand this dynamic, we…
Jorsal, T; Rungby, J; Knop, F K; Vilsbøll, T
For decades, extensive research has aimed to clarify the role of pancreas and gut-derived peptide hormones in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and feeding behavior. Among these are the beta-cell hormone amylin and the intestinal L cell hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). They exhibit distinct and yet several similar physiological actions including suppression of food intake, postprandial glucagon secretion, and gastric emptying-altogether lowering plasma glucose and body weight. These actions have been clinically exploited by the development of amylin and GLP-1 hormone analogs now used for treatment of diabetes and obesity. This review will outline the physiology and pharmacological potential of amylin and GLP-1, respectively, and focus on innovative peptide drug development leading to drugs acting on two or more distinct receptors, such as an amylin and GLP-1 peptide hybrid, potentially producing a more effective treatment strategy to combat the rapidly increasing global obesity.
Taverno Ross, S. E.; Lang, W.; Jakicic, J. M.
Summary Background The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss, physical activity, fitness and diet changes in response to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adults with self‐reported juvenile onset (n = 61) or adult onset (n = 116) obesity. Methods Participants (n = 177; 43.0 ± 8.6 years; body mass index [BMI] = 33.0 ± 3.4 kg m−2) engaged in an 18‐month standard behavioral weight loss intervention. Participants were randomized into three different intervention groups as part of the larger parent trial. BMI, physical activity, fitness and diet were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Separate adjusted mixed models were constructed using SAS version 9.4 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Results There was significant weight loss, increased physical activity, improved fitness and reduced caloric intake over time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in these outcome variables by obesity onset group. However, there was a significant group by time interaction for fitness (p = 0.001), with the adult onset making significantly greater gains in fitness from baseline to 6 months (p < 0.001); however, this difference was no longer present at 12 or 18 months. Conclusions With the exception of fitness at 6 months, weight loss, physical activity and diet did not differ between juvenile onset and adult onset participants, suggesting that those with juvenile onset obesity are equally responsive to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention in adulthood. PMID:27708841
Rock, Cheryl L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Byers, Tim E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Ganz, Patricia A.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Elias, Anthony; Krontiras, Helen; Liu, Jingxia; Naughton, Michael; Pakiz, Bilgé; Parker, Barbara A.; Sedjo, Rebecca L.; Wyatt, Holly
Purpose Obesity increases risk for all-cause and breast cancer mortality and comorbidities in women who have been diagnosed and treated for breast cancer. The Exercise and Nutrition to Enhance Recovery and Good Health for You (ENERGY) study is the largest weight loss intervention trial among survivors of breast cancer to date. Methods In this multicenter trial, 692 overweight/obese women who were, on average, 2 years since primary treatment for early-stage breast cancer were randomly assigned to either a group-based behavioral intervention, supplemented with telephone counseling and tailored newsletters, to support weight loss or a less intensive control intervention and observed for 2 years. Weight and blood pressure were measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Longitudinal mixed models were used to analyze change over time. Results At 12 months, mean weight loss was 6.0% of initial weight in the intervention group and 1.5% in the control group (P < .001). At 24 months, mean weight loss in the intervention and control groups was 3.7% and 1.3%, respectively (P < .001). Favorable effects of the intervention on physical activity and blood pressure were observed. The weight loss intervention was more effective among women older than 55 years than among younger women. Conclusion A behavioral weight loss intervention can lead to clinically meaningful weight loss in overweight/obese survivors of breast cancer. These findings support the need to conduct additional studies to test methods that support sustained weight loss and to examine the potential benefit of intentional weight loss on breast cancer recurrence and survival. PMID:26282657
Read, Anna; Ramwell, Helen; Storer, Helen; Webber, Jonathan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing problem, with its associated morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. Treatment options and the availability of resources are limited and inconsistent. AIM: To implement and evaluate a primary care dietitian-run weight management programme. DESIGN OF STUDY: Pilot intervention study. SETTING: Three health centres in the north locality of Nottingham City Primary Care Trust. METHOD: Two hundred and sixteen individuals, with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and coronary heart disease risk factors, were recruited to attend education and support groups. Changes in BMI, waist circumference, percentage body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids, glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and assessment of psychological wellbeing using the "short form" (SF-36) general health questionnaire, were conducted at 0, 3, and 12 months. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty patients completed the 3-month phase, and 75 completed the follow-up 9-month phase. Four per cent of patients entering the programme achieved a 10% weight loss, and 13% achieved a weight loss between 5 and 10%. Those continuing to attend achieved a mean weight loss of 2.9% (mean = 3.1 kg, ranging from a loss of 23.6 kg to a gain of 3.8 kg, P < 0.001) at 3 months, which was maintained at 12 months. Waist circumference, percentage body fat, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HbA(1c) (in those with diabetes) (P < 0.001), and triglycerides (P = 0.004) showed reduction. Psychological wellbeing improved in seven of the nine categories of the SF-36. CONCLUSION: Those who continued to attend the programme showed significant reduction in weight and other clinical parameters at 3 months, and this was maintained at 1 year with less intensive support. An attrition rate of approximately 66% by 12 months demonstrated that, in spite of intensive dietetic resources, patient retention and follow-up of progress was difficult. PMID:15113494
Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S
The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and
Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Alexander, Tiffany M; Nadkarni, Anish; Feldman, Steven R
Background Adherence to acne medication is poor and is a major reason why treatment plans are ineffective. Recognizing solutions to nonadherence is critical. Objective The purpose of this study is to describe the hurdles associated with acne nonadherence and to provide mechanisms on how to ameliorate them. Methods PubMed database was searched. Of the 419 search results, 29 articles were reviewed to identify hurdles to adherence and corresponding solutions. Results Hurdles to primary nonadherence where the medication is not even started, include lack of knowledge, confusion about usage, weak physician–patient relationship, fear of adverse reactions, and cost. Secondary nonadherence hurdles where the medication is started but is not taken as directed include lack of results, complex regimens, side effects, busy lifestyle, forgetfulness, inconvenience, and psychiatric comorbidity. Solutions to these hurdles include treatment simplification, technology, and dynamic education. Limitations Adherence is affected by numerous factors, but available literature analyzing acne adherence and interventions to improve adherence to treatment is limited. Conclusion There are several hurdles in adhering to acne treatment. Recognition of these hurdles and finding appropriate solutions may be as important to treatment outcomes as choosing the right medication to prescribe. PMID:27784999
Gu, Yunjuan; Yu, Haoyong; Li, Yuehua; Ma, Xiaojing; Lu, Junxi; Yu, Weihui; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping
Aim. To investigate the effects of weight loss during an 8-week very low carbohydrate diet (VLCD) on improvement of metabolic parameters, adipose distribution and body composition, and insulin resistance and sensitivity in Chinese obese subjects. Methods. Fifty-three healthy obese volunteers were given an 8-week VLCD. The outcomes were changes in anthropometry, body composition, metabolic profile, abdominal fat distribution, liver fat percent (LFP), and insulin resistance and sensitivity. Results. A total of 46 (86.8%) obese subjects completed the study. The VLCD caused a weight loss of −8.7 ± 0.6 kg (mean ± standard error (SE), P < 0.0001) combined with a significant improvement of metabolic profile. In both male and female, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) significantly decreased (−166.2 ± 47.6 μmol/L, P = 0.001) and β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHA) increased (0.15 ± 0.06 mmol/L, P = 0.004) after eight weeks of VLCD intervention. The significant reductions in subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and LFP were −66.5 ± 7.9 cm2, −35.3 ± 3.9 cm2, and −16.4 ± 2.4%, respectively (all P values P < 0.0001). HOMA IR and HOMA β significantly decreased while whole body insulin sensitivity index (WBISI) increased (all P values P < 0.001). Conclusion. Eight weeks of VLCD was an effective intervention in obese subjects. These beneficial effects may be associated with enhanced hepatic and whole-body lipolysis and oxidation. PMID:23573151
Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos
The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism.
Cochran, Jill; Baus, Adam
Childhood obesity and the resulting co-morbid conditions have become a massive burden for primary caregivers in West Virginia and across the United States. Building culturally sensitive clinical interventions to meet population health needs presents a multi-factorial challenge. Historically it has been is difficult to accurately assess the demographic characteristics of clinic populations. Fortunately, the use of electronic health records (EHR) has created a major shift in clinical documentation and ability to routinely collect essential demographic and clinical data. While data for Meaningful Use under the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services is increasingly used to evaluate clinical care and outcomes, use of EHR data outside of the Meaningful Use umbrella has not received sufficient attention. This study explores use of EHR data beyond Meaningful Use to obtain demographic characteristics of an obese and overweight pediatric population in a rural primary care center for the purpose of informing appropriate, locally relevant intervention strategies. We find that the breadth and depth of information recorded on each patient can collectively provide valuable information to describe and evaluate the clinic population, identify priority areas to address, and measure change over time. Application of EHR data to understand the demographic characteristics of this particular patient population highlights the ability to identify target patient populations, uncover critical patient-level and population-level outcomes, inform intervention development and implementation, and add value to efforts in quality improvement systems transformation. Use of EHR data outside of the Meaningful Use umbrella needs increased attention in primary care. PMID:26843807
Bacigalupo, R; Cudd, P; Littlewood, C; Bissell, P; Hawley, M S; Buckley Woods, H
Summary Obesity is a global epidemic with major healthcare implications and costs. Mobile technologies are potential interventions to promote weight loss. An early systematic review of this rapidly growing area of research was conducted. Electronic databases were searched for articles published between January 1998 and October 2011. Data sources included Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Ongoing research was searched for using clinical trials databases and registers. Out of 174 articles retrieved, 21 met the inclusion criteria of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on mobile technology interventions facilitating weight loss in overweight and obese adults with any other comparator. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Seven articles were included and appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool: four presented a low risk of bias and three presented a high risk of bias. There is consistent strong evidence across the included multiple high-quality RCTs that weight loss occurs in the short-term because of mobile technology interventions, with moderate evidence for the medium-term. Recommendations for improving the reporting and quality of future trials are made including reporting weight loss in percent to meet clinical standards, and including features such as long-term follow-up, cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability. PMID:23167478
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...
De Miguel-Etayo, P; Muro, C; Santabárbara, J; López-Antón, R; Morandé, G; Martín-Matillas, M; Azcona-San Julián, M C; Martí, A; Campoy, C; Marcos, A; Moreno, L A; Garagorri, J M
The aims of this study were to identify the cognitive and behavioral predictors of dropping out and to estimate the attrition rate during different phases of an intervention program to treat overweight and obesity in adolescents. Overweight/obese adolescents (n=156, aged: 13-16 years; 71 male and 85 female subjects) were included in a multicomponent (diet, physical activity and psychological support) family-based group treatment program. At baseline and after 2 months (intensive phase) and 13 months (extensive phase) of follow-up, we measured adolescents' cognitive and behavioral dimensions, together with the parents' perception of their child's behavior. Of the 156 adolescents selected, 112 completed the full program (drop-out rate of 28.2%). The risk of dropping out during the extensive phase increased by 20% for each unit increase in the adolescent's social insecurity score (odds ratio=1.20, 95% confidence interval=1.07-1.34, P=0.002). The adolescents who had a high interoceptive awareness showed a significant decrease of 13.0% in the probability of dropping out (odds ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval=0.77-0.99, P=0.040). Adolescents' social insecurity was the main predictor of drop-out in a multicomponent family-group-based obesity treatment program. To reduce attrition rates in these programs, the individual's social insecurity level needs to be reduced, whereas the family's awareness of eating-related behavior needs adjustment.
Constantin, V; Socea, B; Moculescu, C; Sireţeanu, G; Ciofoaia, V; Popa, F
An aggressive array of new treatments and improvements of existing approaches for addressing morbid obesity were developed during the last two decades in response to the recognition that a new pandemic affects humanity, i.e. obesity. Initially used as a temporizing solution for other specific interventions used for obesity treatment, the endoscopic placement of an intragastric balloons has currently became in certain cases a complete therapeutic solution. Multiple studies emphasize the efficiency of this new therapeutic method, in some cases resulting in a 45 kg weight loss at the end of the monitoring period. The intragastric balloon, after endoscopic placement can be kept into position for an average period of 4-6 months. After this period, balloon extraction is recommended because of the complications that can occur with prolonged intragastric placement. This paper presents a case of pyloric obstruction by an intragastric balloon kept for 14 months. In this case, the initial approach was endoscopic, but the surgical approach offered the definitive therapeutic solution.
Reilly, John J.
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005
Halpern, Bruno; Oliveira, Eduardo S. L.; Faria, André M.; Halpern, Alfredo; de Melo, Maria Edna; Cercato, Cintia; Mancini, Marcio C.
Obesity is a chronic disease associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Clinical treatment, however, currently offers disappointing results, with very high rates of weight loss failure or weight regain cycles, and only two drugs (orlistat and sibutramine) approved for long-term use. Drugs combinations can be an option for its treatment but, although widely used in clinical practice, very few data are available in literature for its validation. Our review focuses on the rationale for their use, with advantages and disadvantages; on combinations often used, with or without studies; and on new perspectives of combinations being studied mainly by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27713360
Lobos Fernández, Luz Lorena; Leyton Dinamarca, Bárbara; Kain Bercovich, Juliana; Vio del Río, Fernando
The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.001). We conclude that although there was an improvement in nutrition knowledge and physical fitness of children, there was a stabilization of BMI Z score in the period of the study. New educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools.
Halford, J C
expressed behaviourally as changes in meal patterns, snacking behaviour and food choice. Within the next 20 years it is certain that clinicians will have a new range of anti-obesity compounds available to choose from. Such novel compounds may act on a single component of the appetite system or target a combination of these components detailed in this review. Such compounds used in combination with life style changes and dietary intervention may be critical in dealing with the rising world epidemic of obesity.
Background Socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and associated risk factors for obesity are widening throughout developed countries worldwide. Tackling obesity is high on the public health agenda both in the United Kingdom and internationally. However, what works in terms of interventions that are able to reduce inequalities in obesity is lacking. Methods/Design The review will examine public health interventions at the individual, community and societal level that might reduce inequalities in obesity among adults aged 18 years and over, in any setting and in any country. The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS, Sociological Abstracts, and the NHS Economic Evaluation Database. Database searches will be supplemented with website and gray literature searches. No studies will be excluded based on language, country or publication date. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with/without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with/without control groups) that have a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and have examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation, poverty) or where the intervention has been targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups or deprived areas will be included. Study inclusion, data extraction and quality appraisal will be conducted by two reviewers. Meta-analysis and narrative synthesis will be conducted. The main analysis will examine the effects of 1) individual, 2) community and 3) societal level public health interventions on socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity. Interventions will be characterized by their level of action and their approach to tackling inequalities. Contextual information on how such public health interventions are organized, implemented and delivered will also
Mahoney, B. K.; And Others
Data are from a large scale experimental study which was designed to evaluate a multimethod problem solving approach to obesity. Obese adult volunteers (N=90) were randomly assigned to three groups: maximal treatment, minimal treatment, and no treatment control. In the two treatment groups, subjects were exposed to bibliographic material and…
Ho, Josephine; Pedersen, Sue D.; Virtanen, Heidi; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Huang, Carol
Nutritional counseling for children with obesity is an important component of management. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare change in body mass index (BMI) z score after 6 months. Children 8 to 16 years with a BMI greater than the 85th percentile were randomized to standard of care nutrition counseling versus intervention with standard nutrition counseling including portion control tool training for the family. Measures were completed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Fifty-one children were randomized to control and 48 to intervention. Mean age was 11 years (SD = 2.2). Mean BMI z score was 2.7 (SD = 0.4). Forty-five percent were male (n = 45). Follow-up at 6 months was 73.7% (73/99). Although no differences were seen between the groups, there was a significant decrease in BMI z score between baseline and 6 months within each group. PMID:27699184
Pearson, Erin S; Irwin, Jennifer D; Burke, Shauna M
To date, there is a paucity of qualitative research examining the influence of community-based interventions for childhood obesity on the participants themselves. This study explored the experiences of children who participated in the Children's Health and Activity Modification Program (C.H.A.M.P.), a four-week day camp for children with obesity aged 8-14, in order to uncover key program elements for positive behavior change. Following the intervention, children (n = 36) participated in focus groups where they were asked about their experiences pertaining to physical activity and nutrition, what it was like to be part of a team, and how they felt about themselves. Findings revealed that participants perceived C.H.A.M.P. as helpful (e.g. in making healthier food choices, being more active, and feeling more confident and self-aware). This pilot study offers unique insights into the perspectives of children with obesity. Results are discussed with respect to future program development and research for childhood obesity treatment.
Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane
Childhood obesity has multiple causes, most of them capable of explaining only one part of the problem. The population-wide impact of sedentary lifestyles and availability of energy-dense food is undeniable, but substantial individual differences in body weight persist, suggesting that individuals respond differently to the 'obesogenic' environment. One plausible mechanism for this variation is the early expression of appetitive traits, including low responsiveness to internal satiety signals, high responsiveness to external food cues, high subjective reward experienced when eating liked foods and preferences for energy-dense foods. Case-control studies support the existence of abnormalities in these traits among obese children compared with normal-weight children, and correlations between psychometric measures of child appetite and child weight suggest that appetitive trait profiles may not only promote obesity but also protect against it. The origins of appetitive traits are as yet uncharted, but will include both genetic and environmental influences. Parental feeding style may affect the development of appetite but the exact nature of the relevant behaviours is unclear and many studies are cross-sectional or begin late in childhood, obscuring causal relationships. Future research should explore determinants and biological mechanisms by using prospective designs beginning early in life, measuring relevant biomarkers such as gut hormones and incorporating neuroimaging and genotyping technologies. Potential clinical applications include the identification of 'at risk' children early in life and interventions to modify appetitive traits or ameliorate their impact on intake and weight.
Abraham, Anisha A.; Chow, Wing-Chi; So, Hung-Kwan; Yip, Benjamin Hon-Kei; Li, Albert M.; Kumta, Shekhar M.; Woo, Jean; Chan, Suk-Mei; Lau, Esther Yuet-Ying; Nelson, E. Anthony S.
Objectives Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens. Design and Methods This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT) group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions. Results The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups. Conclusion An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624 PMID:25946465
As the available therapies for diabetes and obesity are not effective enough, diabetologists and educators search for new methods to collaborate with patients in order to support their health behaviors. The aim of this review is to discuss perspectives for the development of new empowerment-type therapies in the treatment of diabetes/obesity. Empowerment is a process whereby patients gain the necessary knowledge to influence their own behavior to improve the quality of their lives. It is carried out in five stages: (1) identify the problem, (2) explain the feelings and meanings, (3) build a plan, (4) act, and (5) experience and assess the execution. Although many years have passed since the advent and popularization of the concept of empowerment, the area remains controversial, mainly with regard to the methodology of therapy. Some previous studies have confirmed the positive effect of empowerment on body weight, metabolic control, and quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes; however, few studies have been conducted in patients with type 1 diabetes. There is still a need to confirm the effectiveness of empowerment in accordance with Evidence Based Medicine by performing long-term observational studies in a large group of patients. In future, empowerment may become part of the standard of care for patients with diabetes and/or obesity. PMID:28090541
Campbell, Kristin L; Van Patten, Cheri L; Neil, Sarah E; Kirkham, Amy A; Gotay, Carolyn C; Gelmon, Karen A; McKenzie, Donald C
Physical inactivity and being overweight or obese are lifestyle factors that put breast cancer survivors at a higher risk for a cancer recurrence and/or development of other chronic diseases. Despite this, there is limited research that has identified effective lifestyle interventions aimed specifically at weight loss in breast cancer survivors. This pilot study is a single-arm experimental pre-post test design, conducted from November 2009 to July 2010, that tested the efficacy of a 24-week group-based lifestyle intervention modeled on the Diabetes Prevention Program in early stage breast cancer survivors (N=14). The intervention included 16 diet sessions led by a registered dietitian and 150 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous exercise. Study outcome measures were completed at baseline, 24, and 36 weeks (nonintervention follow-up). The primary outcome was change in body weight, and secondary outcomes were change in body composition, aerobic fitness, dietary intake, and blood biomarkers. Overall, participants were postmenopausal women aged 54.6±8.3 years with obesity (body mass index 30.1±3.6), and had completed adjuvant cancer treatment 2 years prior. Results showed an average weight loss of 3.8±5.0 kg and a decrease in body mass index, percent body fat, and waist and hip circumferences at 24 weeks and an additional mean weight loss of 0.8±1.2 kg at 36 weeks. In exploratory analysis, participants who lost >7% body weight were older and attended a greater percentage of diet and supervised exercise sessions. There were no significant changes in any of the blood biomarkers at 24 and 36 weeks; however, the results provide a measure of expected effect size for future research studies. This pilot study demonstrated the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program in early stage breast cancer survivors and represents an innovative clinical intervention for dietetics practitioners to address the unmet need for programs.
Adams, Melanie M; Davis, Paul G; Gill, Diane L
Sedentary behavior (SB) has emerged as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. While exercise is known to reduce these risks, reducing SB through increases in non-structured PA and breaks from sitting may appeal to obese women who have lower self-efficacy for PA. This study examined effects of a combined face-to-face and online intervention to reduce SB in overweight and obese women. A two-group quasi-experimental study was used with measures taken pre and post. Female volunteers (M age = 58.5, SD = 12.5 years) were enrolled in the intervention (n = 40) or waitlisted (n = 24). The intervention, based on the Social Cognitive Theory, combined group sessions with email messages over 6 weeks. Individualized feedback to support mastery and peer models of active behaviors were included in the emails. Participants self-monitored PA with a pedometer. Baseline and post measures of PA and SB were assessed by accelerometer and self-report. Standard measures of height, weight, and waist circumference were conducted. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for analyses. Self-reported SB and light PA in the intervention group (I) changed significantly over time [SB, F(1, 2) = 3.81, p = 0.03, light PA, F(1, 2) = 3.39, p = 0.04]. Significant Group × Time interactions were found for light PA, F(1, 63) = 5.22, p = 0.03, moderate PA, F(1, 63) = 3.90, p = 0.05, and for waist circumference, F(1, 63) = 16.0, p = 0.001. The intervention group decreased significantly while the comparison group was unchanged. Hybrid computer interventions to reduce SB may provide a non-exercise alternative for increasing daily PA and potentially reduce waist circumference, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Consumer-grade accelerometers may aide improvements to PA and SB and should be tested as part of future interventions.
Boles, Richard E.; Scharf, Cynthia; Stark, Lori J.
We developed and tested the feasibility of a behavioral intervention that utilizes clinic and home visitations to reduce overweight in preschool children above the 95th BMI percentile. Five families of preschool children ages 2 to 5 years with a BMI above the 95th percentile and one overweight parent were enrolled in a 24-week behavioral weight management program. Phase I, Intensive Treatment included 12 weekly sessions, alternating group-based clinic sessions and home settings. Phase II, Maintenance included 6 bi-weekly sessions alternating between the clinic and home setting. Treatment focused on teaching parents to use behavioral child management strategies to systematically implement dietary changes across beverages and snacks, meals, and to increase physical activity. Home visits focused on modifying the home food environment and in vivo use of child behavior management skills. Treatment targeted either weight maintenance or a small weight loss. Outcome measures were obtained at baseline (week 0), end of treatment (week 24), and at 6 month follow up after treatment ended (week 52). Three participants completed 24 weeks of treatment and were compared to two participants who did not complete treatment. Treatment completers showed reductions in zBMI and percent overweight while two noncompleting families increased their percent overweight and maintained their zBMI at 6 month follow up. These results suggest initial support for development of a behavior-based weight management intervention for obese preschool children and their families. Intervention targets appear to be enhanced by the inclusion of home visitations, in which food environments are changed to facilitate treatment goals. PMID:20174613
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of fat and obesity; 4) psychosocial correlates of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 5) the three major obesity-related behaviors, i.e. dietary intake, physical activity and sleep; 6) genes components of childhood and adolescent obesity; 7) environment and childhood and adolescent obesity; and 8) progress in interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity. The article concludes with recommendations for future research, including the need for large-scale, high dose and long-term interventions that take into account the complex nature of the problem. PMID:21625328
Rizo, Mercedes; Cortés-Castell, Ernesto
Objective. To explore anthropometric changes in normal-weight, overweight and obese subjects who did not dropout or fail a weight loss program over the 16 treatment weeks to improve patient motivation and treatment adherence. Methods. A clinical intervention study was conducted among 271 (including 100 dropouts and/or failures) obese and overweight patients who consulted a nutrition clinic in Barranquilla (Colombia) for the purpose of nutritional assessment. They were subject to a personalized weekly follow-up consultation over the course of 16 weeks in which initial and the final Body Mass Index (BMI, kg/m2), photographs, food consumption patterns, percentage weight loss, waist and hip circumference were registered and grouped according to BMI, measuring treatment response. Data’s nonparametric statistical comparison was made. Results. In 62 patients from the BMI < 25 group, there is weight loss of 2.6% (3.1 SD), 5.5% (3.3 SD) in waist circumference and 3.0% (2.5 SD) in hip circumference. In 67 patients from the 25 ≥ BMI < 30 group, there is weight loss of 3.8% (4.1 SD), 5.7% (4.5 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.7% (3.0 SD) in hip circumference loss. In 42 patients from the BMI > 30 group, there is weight loss of 4.8% (3.7 SD), 7.0% (3.6 SD) in waist circumference loss and 3.9% (2.4 SD) in hip circumference loss. Monitoring is done every 4 weeks by the Friedman test, with significant differences between the three groups (p < 0.001). Patients do not drop out of treatment because they start to see physical results in waist decrease. When comparing final values of initial waist/hip circumference ratios and waist/height ratios, a clear decrease in the three BMI groups was observed (p < 0.001). Conclusion. After three weeks of continuous treatment patients improved in all overweight and obesity parameter indicators; there were not statistically significant differences in hip circumference (HC) and waist loss (WC) (%) among the three BMI groups (normal
Cooper, Lesley; Ryan, Cormac; Ells, Louisa Jane; Hamilton, Sharon; Atkinson, Greg; Cooper, Kay; Johnson, Mark I.; Kirwan, John P.; Martin, Denis
Review question/objective The objective of this mixed methods review is to develop an aggregated synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data on weight-loss interventions for overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain in an attempt to derive conclusions and recommendations useful for clinical practice and policy decision making. The objective of the quantitative component of this review is to quantify the effectiveness of weight-loss interventions on weight, pain and physical and/or psychosocial function in overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The objectives of the qualitative component of this review are to explore the perceptions and experiences of overweight/obese adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain of the link between their weight and pain, and the effectiveness and appropriateness of weight-loss interventions and sustainability of weight-loss efforts. PMID:27532463
Background At present, scientific consensus exists on the multifactorial etiopatogenia of obesity. Both professionals and researchers agree that treatment must also have a multifactorial approach, including diet, physical activity, pharmacology and/or surgical treatment. These two last ones should be reserved for those cases of morbid obesities or in case of failure of the previous ones. The aim of the PRONAF study is to determine what type of exercise combined with caloric restriction is the most appropriate to be included in overweigth and obesity intervention programs, and the aim of this paper is to describe the design and the evaluation methods used to carry out the PRONAF study. Methods/design One-hundred nineteen overweight (46 males) and 120 obese (61 males) subjects aged 18–50 years were randomly assigned to a strength training group, an endurance training group, a combined strength + endurance training group or a diet and physical activity recommendations group. The intervention period was 22 weeks (in all cases 3 times/wk of training for 22 weeks and 2 weeks for pre and post evaluation). All subjects followed a hypocaloric diet (25-30% less energy intake than the daily energy expenditure estimated by accelerometry). 29–34% of the total energy intake came from fat, 14–20% from protein, and 50–55% from carbohydrates. The mayor outcome variables assesed were, biochemical and inflamatory markers, body composition, energy balance, physical fitness, nutritional habits, genetic profile and quality of life. 180 (75.3%) subjects finished the study, with a dropout rate of 24.7%. Dropout reasons included: personal reasons 17 (28.8%), low adherence to exercise 3 (5.1%), low adherence to diet 6 (10.2%), job change 6 (10.2%), and lost interest 27 (45.8%). Discussion Feasibility of the study has been proven, with a low dropout rate which corresponds to the estimated sample size. Transfer of knowledge is foreseen as a spin-off, in order that overweight and
Apovian, Caroline M
Contrave(®) is a combination of naltrexone hydrochloride extended release and bupropion hydrochloride extended release for the treatment of obesity, and is used with lifestyle modification. Its safety and efficacy were assessed in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 56-week Phase III clinical trials in 4536 adult subjects: COR-1, COR-II, COR-BMOD and COR-DM. All four studies demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful weight loss following up to 52 weeks of treatment with naltrexone/bupropion compared with placebo. The average weight loss from baseline across the four studies was approximately 11-22 lbs (5-9 kg). Results show the efficacy of Contrave for weight loss, as well as significant improvements in cardiometabolic markers. This review focuses on the four studies, their outcomes and the mechanism of action of Contrave.
Johansen, Anders; Holm, Jens-Christian; Pearson, Seija; Kjærsgaard, Mimi; Larsen, Lone Marie; Højgaard, Birgitte; Cortes, Dina
Overweight children are at an increased risk of becoming obese adults, which may lead to shorter life expectancies in the current generation of children as compared to their parents. Furthermore, being an overweight child has a negative psycho-social impact. We consider obesity in children and adolescents a chronic illness, which is in line with the American Medical Society. We summarize the evidence for the efficacy of a combination of diet, physical activity and behavior-focused interventions in a family-based setting. The present guidelines propose a multidisciplinary service implemented as a "chronic care model" based on "best clinical practice" inspired by an American expert committee and the daily practice of The Children's Obesity Clinic at Copenhagen University Hospital Holbaek. Children and adolescents should be referred for examination and treatment in a pediatric setting when BMI corresponds to an isoBMI of minimum 30 or BMI corresponds to an isoBMI of 25 and complex obesity is suspected. Obtaining a thorough medical history is pivotal. We propose a structured interview to ensure collection of all relevant information. We recommend physical examination focused on BMI, waist circumference, growth, pubertal stage, blood pressure, neurology and skin and provide comprehensive paraclinical investigations for obesity and obesity related conditions. Treatment of obesity in children and adolescents is fully dependent on the combined effort of the entire family. This cannot be overemphasized! The main principle of the treatment is developing an individual detailed plan for every patient to reduce caloric intake whilst increasing physical activity, leaving no ambiguity with the recommendations.
Franz, Marion J; Boucher, Jackie L; Rutten-Ramos, Stephanie; VanWormer, Jeffrey J
The majority of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, and weight loss is a recommended treatment strategy. A systematic review and meta-analysis was undertaken to answer the following primary question: In overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, what are the outcomes on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? Secondary questions are: What are the lipid (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides) and blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) outcomes from lifestyle weight-loss interventions resulting in weight losses greater than or less than 5% at 12 months? And, what are the weight and metabolic outcomes from differing amounts of macronutrients in weight-loss interventions? Inclusion criteria included randomized clinical trial implementing weight-loss interventions in overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes, minimum 12-month study duration, a 70% completion rate, and an HbA1c value reported at 12 months. Eleven trials (eight compared two weight-loss interventions and three compared a weight-loss intervention group with a usual care/control group) with 6,754 participants met study criteria. At 12 months, 17 study groups (8 categories of weight-loss intervention) reported weight loss <5% of initial weight (-3.2 kg [95% CI: -5.9, -0.6]). A meta-analysis of the weight-loss interventions reported nonsignificant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, or blood pressure. Two study groups reported a weight loss of ≥5%: a Mediterranean-style diet implemented in newly diagnosed adults with type 2 diabetes and an intensive lifestyle intervention implemented in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial. Both included regular physical activity and frequent contact with health professionals and reported significant beneficial effects on HbA1c, lipids, and blood pressure. Five
Montero, D; Walther, G; Perez-Martin, A; Roche, E; Vinet, A
With an increasing prevalence, pediatric obesity is often a prelude to adulthood obesity, and represents a major public health issue. Comorbidities are very common and severe in obese adults, justifying the search for earlier markers or risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in obese children. Endothelial dysfunction has been found to be present in the early stages of atherosclerosis, and can be non-invasively assessed with widely accepted and well-standardized techniques at the macrocirculation level. Endothelial dysfunction at the microcirculation level is less documented in obese children. Obesity in children has been repeatedly and independently correlated to endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress markers, although the relationship between these factors remains to be investigated. However, this would not only allow substantial improvements in risk stratification, but also provide essential data regarding the evolution of endothelial dysfunction in childhood obesity, especially during puberty when pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative changes, with relative insulin resistance, occur. Therapeutic strategies such as lifestyle interventions in early childhood obesity appear all the more necessary, optimally including both exercise and diet because of their known effects on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, potentially reversing endothelial dysfunction.
Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James
In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and The American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.
Landsberg, Lewis; Aronne, Louis J; Beilin, Lawrence J; Burke, Valerie; Igel, Leon I; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Sowers, James
In light of the worldwide epidemic of obesity, and in recognition of hypertension as a major factor in the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity, The Obesity Society and the American Society of Hypertension agreed to jointly sponsor a position paper on obesity-related hypertension to be published jointly in the journals of each society. The purpose is to inform the members of both societies, as well as practicing clinicians, with a timely review of the association between obesity and high blood pressure, the risk that this association entails, and the options for rational, evidenced-based treatment. The position paper is divided into six sections plus a summary as follows: pathophysiology, epidemiology and cardiovascular risk, the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle management in prevention and treatment, pharmacologic treatment of hypertension in the obese, and the medical and surgical treatment of obesity in obese hypertensive patients.
Decker, Anna L; Hubbard, Alan; Crespi, Catherine M; Seto, Edmund Y W; Wang, May C
While child and adolescent obesity is a serious public health concern, few studies have utilized parameters based on the causal inference literature to examine the potential impacts of early intervention. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the causal effects of early interventions to improve physical activity and diet during adolescence on body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, using improved techniques. The most widespread statistical method in studies of child and adolescent obesity is multi-variable regression, with the parameter of interest being the coefficient on the variable of interest. This approach does not appropriately adjust for time-dependent confounding, and the modeling assumptions may not always be met. An alternative parameter to estimate is one motivated by the causal inference literature, which can be interpreted as the mean change in the outcome under interventions to set the exposure of interest. The underlying data-generating distribution, upon which the estimator is based, can be estimated via a parametric or semi-parametric approach. Using data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study, a 10-year prospective cohort study of adolescent girls, we estimated the longitudinal impact of physical activity and diet interventions on 10-year BMI z-scores via a parameter motivated by the causal inference literature, using both parametric and semi-parametric estimation approaches. The parameters of interest were estimated with a recently released R package, ltmle, for estimating means based upon general longitudinal treatment regimes. We found that early, sustained intervention on total calories had a greater impact than a physical activity intervention or non-sustained interventions. Multivariable linear regression yielded inflated effect estimates compared to estimates based on targeted maximum-likelihood estimation and data-adaptive super learning. Our analysis demonstrates that sophisticated
Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.; Coster, Daniel C.
Objective: A school-based nutrition education minimal intervention (MI) was evaluated. Design: The design was experimental, with random assignment at the school level. Setting: Seven schools were randomly assigned as experimental, and 7 as delayed-treatment. Participants: The experimental group included 551 teens, and the delayed treatment group…
Cunningham, Phillippe B.; Ellis, Deborah A.; Naar-King, Sylvie
Overweight and obesity are increasing dramatically in the United States of America, especially among children. Effective treatment of the multiple risk factors that promote youth obesity requires treatment approaches that are flexible and comprehensive enough to address each of these factors. One such treatment approach is Multisystemic Therapy…
Goode, Rachel W; Styn, Mindi A; Mendez, Dara D; Gary-Webb, Tiffany L
African Americans (AAs) bear a disproportionate burden of the obesity epidemic, yet have historically been underrepresented in weight loss research. We conducted a narrative review of large ( N > 75) randomized prospective clinical trials of standard behavioral treatment for weight loss that reported results in the past 15 years (2001-2015) to (a) determine the rates of inclusion and reported results for AAs and (b) further identify strategies that may result in improved outcomes. Of the 23 trials reviewed, 69.6% of the studies met or exceeded population estimates for AAs in the United States. However, only 10 reported outcomes and/or considered race in the analytic approach. At 6 months, AA participants consistently lost less weight than White participants. The use of culturally tailored intervention materials and monthly personal telephone calls were reported as factors that may have enhanced treatment response. Future behavioral weight loss trials should also increase reporting of outcomes by race.
Presents summary of a panel discussion at the Conference of the North American Association for the Study of Obesity (1992) on the health risks of treating obesity. The panel focused on selectivity in accepting patients, obesity and mortality, genetic individuality, weight loss mode and outcome, weight loss and longevity, and weight maintenance.…
Staiano, Amanda E.; Marker, Arwen M.; Comeaux, James; Frelier, Johannah M.; Hsia, Daniel S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.
Background: Family-based behavioral treatments are effective ways to promote children's weight management through healthy eating and exercise. However, programs typically have high attrition and low attendance. The aim of this study was to obtain in-depth caregiver input on barriers and facilitators to participate in a family-based, behavioral childhood obesity treatment program. Methods: Three focus groups were facilitated among 21 parents/guardians at 2 school-based health centers and 1 federally qualified health center. Audio recordings were transcribed and uploaded into NVivo software to assist in thematic coding. Results: Focus group participants were females aged 18-57 years, of whom 71% were black, and 81% were not married. Participants listed numerous barriers: lack of time, frustration from prior unsuccessful weight-loss attempts, and the perceived cost of healthy foods and exercise options. Facilitators included a convenient location, a supportive weight-loss program leader, and rewards for the child's progress. Conclusion: Future interventions should incorporate caregivers' perspectives to develop sustainable, feasible strategies for the treatment of childhood obesity. PMID:28331454
Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial problems. Additionally, the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones, responsible for appetite and food intake, is impaired in obese subjects. Weight reduction through lifestyle changes in order to change health risks is, until now, suggested as the preferred treatment for childhood obesity. The objective of this study is the effect evaluation of a family-based cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment. The intervention aims to establish long-term weight reduction and stabilization, reduction of obesity-related health consequences and improvement of self-image by change of lifestyle and learning cognitive behavioral techniques. Study design/Methods In this randomized clinical trial newly presented children with obesity (8-17 years old) are divided, by randomization, in an intervention and control group, both consisting of 40 obese children. The intervention is carried out in groups of 8-11 children, and consists of respectively 7 and 5 separate group meetings for the children and their parents and 1 joint group meeting of 2 ½ hours. Main topics are education on nutrition, self-control techniques, social skills, physical activity and improvement of self-esteem. The control group is given advice on physical activity and nutrition. For normal data comparison, data were collected of 40 normal-weight children, 8-17 years old. Discussion Because of the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the
Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.
Clinical summary Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to disease risks, and limited evidence on the most effective components of interventions to prevent childhood obesity. This article reviews the trends in childhood obesity, its genetic, nutritional and other risk factors, and preventative and treatment strategies. Particular emphasis is given to early-onset obesity in pre-school children, which, as a precursor to later childhood and adult obesity, provides insights into the developmental and genetic origins of obesity and also offers the potential for early preventative approaches with long-lasting benefits. PMID:23027812
Stice, Eric; Lawrence, Natalia S; Kemps, Eva; Veling, Harm
The present review first summarizes results from prospective brain imaging studies focused on identifying neural vulnerability factors that predict excessive weight gain. Next, findings from cognitive psychology experiments evaluating various interventions involving food response inhibition training or food response facilitation training are reviewed that appear to target these neural vulnerability factors and that have produced encouraging weight loss effects. Findings from both of these reviewed research fields suggest that interventions that reduce reward and attention region responses to high calorie food cues and increase inhibitory region responses to high calorie food cues could prove useful in the treatment of obesity. Based on this review, a new conceptual model is presented to describe how different cognitive training procedures may contribute to modifying eating behavior and important directions for future research are offered. It is concluded that there is a need for evaluating the effectiveness of more intensive food response training interventions and testing whether adding such training to extant weight loss interventions increases their efficacy.
Rutherford, Jesse Jayne
Obesity is becoming increasingly common, with at least 400 million obese adults worldwide and the World Health Organization (WHO) projecting that this statistic will reach 700 million in another five years. Ironically, despite the fact that a majority of adults in developed nations are overweight or obese, society stigmatizes the obese severely. Still, obese people have more than just social motivations for losing weight; obesity commonly goes hand in hand with life-threatening comorbidities like cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and some forms of cancer. It severely threatens quality of life, limiting the ability to move and work, navigate public places, and provide care for others and is a factor in musculoskeletal disorders like osteoarthritis. Both obesity and its comorbidities lead obese patients to hospitals at greater rates than patients of normal weight, and these factors, along with social pressures, motivate patients and their physicians to pursue solutions for obesity, its comorbidities, or both.
van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; Chin A. Paw, Mai J. M.
Background: The school-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is an evidence-based obesity prevention program. In preparation for dissemination throughout the Netherlands, this study aimed to adapt the initial program and to develop an implementation strategy and materials. Methods: We revisited the Intervention Mapping (IM)…
Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.
Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.
Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188
Background There is growing evidence of the impact of overweight and obesity on short- and long-term functioning, health and well-being. Internationally, childhood obesity rates continue to rise in some countries (for example, Mexico, India, China and Canada), although there is emerging evidence of a slowing of this increase or a plateauing in some age groups. In most European countries, the United States and Australia, however, socioeconomic inequalities in relation to obesity and risk factors for obesity are widening. Addressing inequalities in obesity, therefore, has a very high profile on the public health and health services agendas. However, there is a lack of accessible policy-ready evidence on what works in terms of interventions to reduce inequalities in obesity. Methods and design This article describes the protocol for a National Health Service Trust (NHS) National Institute for Health Research-funded systematic review of public health interventions at the individual, community and societal levels which might reduce socioeconomic inequalities in relation to obesity amongst children ages 0 to 18 years. The studies will be selected only if (1) they included a primary outcome that is a proxy for body fatness and (2) examined differential effects with regard to socioeconomic status (education, income, occupation, social class, deprivation and poverty) or the intervention was targeted specifically at disadvantaged groups (for example, children of the unemployed, lone parents, low income and so on) or at people who live in deprived areas. A rigorous and inclusive international literature search will be conducted for randomised and nonrandomised controlled trials, prospective and retrospective cohort studies (with and/or without control groups) and prospective repeat cross-sectional studies (with and/or without control groups). The following electronic databases will be searched: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Science Citation Index, ASSIA, IBSS
Soltani, Hora; Duxbury, Alexandra M. S.; Arden, Madelynne A.; Dearden, Andy; Furness, Penny J.; Garland, Carolyn
Background. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) are on the rise with negative impact on pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research into managing GWG using accessible technology is limited. The maternal obesity management using mobile technology (MOMTech) study aimed at evaluating the feasibility of text messaging based complex intervention designed to support obese women (BMI ≥ 30) with healthier lifestyles and limit GWG. Methods. Participants received two daily text messages, supported by four appointments with healthy lifestyle midwife, diet and activity goal setting, and self-monitoring diaries. The comparison group were obese mothers who declined to participate but consented for their routinely collected data to be used for comparison. Postnatal interviews and focus groups with participants and the comparison group explored the intervention's acceptability and suggested improvements. Results. Fourteen women completed the study which did not allow statistical analyses. However, participants had lower mean GWG than the comparison group (6.65 kg versus 9.74 kg) and few (28% versus 50%) exceeded the Institute of Medicine's upper limit of 9 kg GWG for obese women. Conclusions. MOMTech was feasible within clinical setting and acceptable intervention to support women to limit GWG. Before further trials, slight modifications are planned to recruitment, text messages, and the logistics of consultation visits. PMID:25960889
Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.
Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055
Myers, Mark G.; Prochaska, Judith J.
Although tobacco use is reported by the majority of substance use disordered (SUD) youth, little work has examined tobacco focused interventions with this population. The present study is an initial investigation of the effect of a tobacco use intervention on adolescent SUD treatment outcomes. Participants were adolescents in SUD treatment taking…
Villarreal, Victor; Ponce, Christopher; Gutierrez, Heveli
Treatment acceptability (TA) is critical when selecting and implementing an intervention, as TA is associated with treatment outcomes. The significance of TA is reflected in school psychology models for services that state that school psychologists should address TA during development, implementation, and evaluation of interventions. However, the…
Eds.) (1985). Handbook of psychotherapy for anorexia 66 Eating Patterns nervosa and bulimia . New York: Guilford. Garner, D.M., Garfinkel, P.E...Handbook of eating disorders: Physiology, psychology, and treatment of obesity, anorexia, and bulimia (pp. 99- 121). New York: Basic Books
Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae
[Purpose] The aim of the reported research was to investigate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and oxidative DNA damage in obese, elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen class I obese, elderly females, according to World Health Organization criteria, were randomly and equally assigned to a control group (n=8) or an exercise group (n=8). The exercise group participated in exercise sessions of 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week, for a period of 8 weeks. [Results] After aerobic exercise intervention, weight, body mass index, body fat, waist circumference, and DNA damage (Tail moment) were significantly decreased, compared with baseline values. In contrast, serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels were not significantly different among any groups or time-points. [Conclusion] Regular aerobic exercise may be effective for reducing obesity-induced high DNA damage levels in obese females, without causing the deformation or degradation of lower extremity articular cartilage. PMID:27390441
Chen, Susan E; Florax, Raymond J G M
Several states and local communities have started to experiment with policy initiatives that affect the built-up environment in an attempt to decrease the prevalence of obesity. The focus of these policy measures has generally been to eliminate geographical disparities in access to food. Recent policy proposals include the use of zoning laws to create a healthier food environment by providing incentives for chain grocers to open stores in disadvantaged, underserved areas and providing incentives for existing food retailers to offer healthier products. The economic feasibility of implementing these types of interventions depends on the policymaker's ability to identify communities most at need. We use computer simulations, based on introducing new chain grocers in targeted areas, to map the effects on BMI of this modification in the food environment. In this study, we show that targeting economically disadvantaged communities with high prevalence of obesity-related diseases can provide an effective means of identifying areas where policy implementation will be most beneficial for improvements in health outcomes such as BMI.
Gittelsohn, Joel; Mui, Yeeli; Adam, Atif; Lin, Sen; Kharmats, Anna; Igusa, Takeru; Lee, Bruce Y
Systems modeling represents an innovative approach for addressing the obesity epidemic at the community level. We developed an agent-based model of the Baltimore City food environment that permits us to assess the relative impact of different programs and policies, alone and in combination, and potential unexpected consequences. Based on this experience, and a review of literature, we have identified a set of principles, potential benefits, and challenges. Some of the key principles include the importance of early and multilevel engagement with the community prior to initiating model development and continued engagement and testing with community stakeholders. Important benefits include improving community stakeholder understanding of the system, testing of interventions before implementation, and identification of unexpected consequences. Challenges in these models include deciding on the most important, yet parsimonious factors to consider, how to model food source and food selection behavior in a realistic yet transferable manner, and identifying the appropriate outcomes and limitations of the model.
Meng, Liping; Xu, Haiquan; Liu, Ailing; van Raaij, Joop; Bemelmans, Wanda; Hu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Qian; Du, Songming; Fang, Hongyun; Ma, Jun; Xu, Guifa; Li, Ying; Guo, Hongwei; Du, Lin; Ma, Guansheng
Background The dramatic rise of overweight and obesity among Chinese children has greatly affected the social economic development. However, no information on the cost-effectiveness of interventions in China is available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the cost and the cost-effectiveness of a comprehensive intervention program for childhood obesity. We hypothesized the integrated intervention which combined nutrition education and physical activity (PA) is more cost-effective than the same intensity of single intervention. Methods And Findings: A multi-center randomized controlled trial conducted in six large cities during 2009-2010. A total of 8301 primary school students were categorized into five groups and followed one academic year. Nutrition intervention, PA intervention and their shared common control group were located in Beijing. The combined intervention and its’ control group were located in other 5 cities. In nutrition education group, ‘nutrition and health classes’ were given 6 times for the students, 2 times for the parents and 4 times for the teachers and health workers. "Happy 10" was carried out twice per day in PA group. The comprehensive intervention was a combination of nutrition and PA interventions. BMI and BAZ increment was 0.65 kg/m2 (SE 0.09) and 0.01 (SE 0.11) in the combined intervention, respectively, significantly lower than that in its’ control group (0.82±0.09 for BMI, 0.10±0.11 for BAZ). No significant difference were found neither in BMI nor in BAZ change between the PA intervention and its’ control, which is the same case in the nutrition intervention. The single intervention has a relative lower intervention costs compared with the combined intervention. Labor costs in Guangzhou, Shanghai and Jinan was higher compared to other cities. The cost-effectiveness ratio was $120.3 for BMI and $249.3 for BAZ in combined intervention, respectively. Conclusions The school-based integrated obesity intervention program
de Souza, Rebecca; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Goei, Ryan; LaCaille, Lara; Kotowski, Michael R.; Schultz, Jennifer Feenstra; LaCaille, Rick; Versnik Nowak, Amy L.
Background: Obesity prevention efforts typically involve changing eating and exercise behaviors as well as the physical and social environment in which those behaviors occur. Due to existing social networks, worksites are a logical choice for implementing such interventions. Purpose: This article describes the development and implementation of a…
Alexander, Andrew G.; Lyons, Paul E.
Background: Body mass index (BMI) increases when students are away on summer vacation. Evaluation of serial BMI measurements on year-round students allows new insight into the reasons children gain weight seasonally. Methods: The 206 first and second graders of 2-year-round elementary schools with obesity intervention programs were weighed and…
Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
This meta-analytic review summarizes obesity prevention programs and their effects and investigates participant, intervention, delivery, and design features associated with larger effects. A literature search identified 64 prevention programs seeking to produce weight gain prevention effects, of which 21% produced significant prevention effects…
Davison, Kirsten K; Lawson, Hal A; Coatsworth, J Douglas
Parents play a fundamental role in shaping children's development, including their dietary and physical activity behaviors. Yet family-centered interventions are rarely used in obesity prevention research. Less than half of childhood obesity prevention programs include parents, and those that do include parents or a family component seldom focus on sustainable change at the level of the family. The general absence of a family-centered approach may be explained by persistent challenges in engaging parents and families and the absence of an intervention framework explicitly designed to foster family-centered programs. The Family-centered Action Model of Intervention Layout and Implementation, or FAMILI, was developed to address these needs. FAMILI draws on theories of family development to frame research and intervention design, uses a mixed-methods approach to conduct ecologically valid research, and positions family members as active participants in the development, implementation, and evaluation of family-centered obesity prevention programs. FAMILI is intended to facilitate the development of culturally responsive and sustainable prevention programs with the potential to improve outcomes. Although childhood obesity was used to illustrate the application of FAMILI, this model can be used to address a range of child health problems.
Lifestyle interventions causing weight loss or improved physical fitness in obese individuals may lead to improved physical function. This study involved participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial who reported knee pain at baseline (n = 2,203). The purposes of this study we...
Lifestyle interventions have resulted in weight loss or improved physical fitness among individuals with obesity, which may lead to improved physical function. This prospective investigation involved participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial who reported knee pain at basel...
Wright, J. A.; Phillips, B.D.; Watson, B.L.; Newby, P.K.; Norman, G. J.; Adams, W.G.
Objective To evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a scalable obesity treatment program integrated with pediatric primary care and delivered using interactive voice technology (IVR) to families from underserved populations. Design and Methods Fifty parent-child dyads (child 9–12 yrs, BMI >95th percentile) were recruited from a pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to either an IVR or a wait-list control (WLC) group. The majority were lower-income, African-American (72%) families. Dyads received IVR calls for 12 weeks. Call content was informed by two evidenced-based interventions. Anthropometric and behavioral variables were assessed at baseline and 3 mo follow-up. Results Forty-three dyads completed the study. IVR parents ate 1 cup more fruit than WLC (p < .05). No other groups differences were found. Children classified as high users of the IVR decreased weight, BMI and BMI z-score compared to low users (p<.05). Mean number of calls for parents and children were 9.1 (5.2 SD) and 9.0 (5.7 SD), respectively. Of those who made calls, >75% agreed that the calls were useful, made for people like them, credible, and helped them eat healthy foods. Conclusion An obesity treatment program delivered via IVR may be an acceptable and feasible resource for families from underserved populations. PMID:23512915
Martínez-Ortega, Antonio Jesús; Aliaga-Verdugo, Alberto; Pereira-Cunill, José Luis; Jiménez-Varo, Ignacio; Romero-Lluch, Ana R; Sobrino-Rodríguez, Salvador; Belda-Laguna, Ovidio; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo
Few effective therapeutic tools are currently available to fight the increasing prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities. Bariatric surgery is the only treatment with proven long-term effectiveness, but is associated to a high surgical risk and significant economic costs because of its technical complexity and the characteristics of patients. This is leading to development of new endoscopic procedures with less clinical risks and economic costs, while maintaining the benefits in terms of morbidity and mortality, which could even serve as a bridging element before surgery in cases where this is unavoidable, allowing for preoperative weight loss and control of comorbidities in order to improve anesthetic risks and possible complications. The purpose of this review was to analyze the most relevant and promising endoscopic techniques currently available.
Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. Results HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother’s diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. Conclusion We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility
Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Godard, Béatrice
The goal of nutrigenomics is to develop nutritional interventions targeted to individual genetic make-up. Obesity is a prime candidate for nutrigenomics research. Personalized approaches to prevention of diseases associated with obesity may be available in the near future. Nevertheless, in the context of limited resources, access to a nutrigenomics personalized health service raises questions around equity. Using focus groups, the present qualitative research study provides empirical data on ethical concerns and values surrounding the nutrigenomics-guided personalized nutrition for obesity prevention. Eight focus groups were convened including 27 healthy individuals and 21 individuals who self-identified as obese or at risk of obesity. The transcripts of the focus group were analyzed according to the qualitative method of grounded theory. Responsibility, reciprocity, and solidarity emerged as the key ethical criteria perceived by the respondents to be significant in terms of how health professionals should determine access to personalized nutrition services. Still, exclusion of individuals from specific nutrigenomic services is likely to conflict with the imperatives of medical deontology and contemporary social consensus. The representation of equity in this paper is novel: it considers the intersection of nutrigenomics and personalized nutritional interventions specifically in the context of limited public resources for health services.
Kovács, E; Siani, A; Konstabel, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; de Bourdeaudhuij, I; Eiben, G; Lissner, L; Gwozdz, W; Reisch, L; Pala, V; Moreno, L A; Pigeot, I; Pohlabeln, H; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D
Background/objectives: To address behaviours associated with childhood obesity, certain target values are recommended that should be met to improve children's health. In the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS) study such lifestyle recommendations were conveyed as six key messages. Here, we investigate the adherence of European children to these messages. Methods: The IDEFICS intervention was based on the intervention mapping approach with the following six targets: increase water consumption (to replace sugar-containing beverages), increase fruit/vegetable consumption, reduce daily screen time, increase daily physical activity, improve the quality of family life and ensure adequate sleep duration. Internationally recommended target values were applied to determine the prevalence of children meeting these targets. Results: In a cohort of 18 745 children participating in the IDEFICS baseline survey or newly recruited during follow-up, data on the above lifestyle behaviours were collected for a varying number of 8302 to 17 212 children. Information on all six behaviours was available for 5140 children. Although 52.5% of the cohort was classified in the highest category of water consumption, only 8.8% met the target of an intake of fruits/vegetables five times a day. The prevalence of children adhering to the recommendation regarding total screen time—below 1 h for pre-school children and 2 h for school children—was 51.1%. The recommended amount of at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day was fulfilled by 15.2%. Family life of the child measured by various indicators was considered as satisfactory in 22.8%. Nocturnal sleep duration of 11 (10) hours or more in pre-school (school) children was achieved by 37.9%. In general, children in northern countries and younger children showed better adherence to the recommendations. Only 1.1% of the children adhered
Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young
Despite decades of research documenting consistent stigma and discrimination against individuals with obesity, weight stigma is rarely considered in obesity prevention and treatment efforts. In recent years, evidence has examined weight stigmatization as a unique contributor to negative health outcomes and behaviors that can promote and exacerbate obesity. This review summarizes findings from published studies within the past 4 years examining the relationship between weight stigma and maladaptive eating behaviors (binge eating and increased food consumption), physical activity, weight status (weight gain and loss and development of obesity), and physiological stress responses. Research evaluating the effects of weight stigma present in obesity-related public health campaigns is also highlighted. Evidence collectively demonstrates negative implications of stigmatization for weight-related health correlates and behaviors and suggests that addressing weight stigma in obesity prevention and treatment is warranted. Key questions for future research to further delineate the health effects of weight stigmatization are summarized.
Background There is an urgent need for innovative and developmentally appropriate lifestyle interventions to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors and to prevent the early onset of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in obese Latino adolescents. Guided imagery offers promise to reduce stress and promote lifestyle behavior change to reduce disease risk in obese adolescents. Our objectives were: 1) To pilot test a new 12-wk lifestyle intervention using a randomized trial design in obese Latino adolescents, in order to determine the effects of the mind-body modality of Interactive Guided ImagerySM (IGI), over and above those of a didactic lifestyle education, on insulin resistance, eating and physical activity behaviors, stress and stress biomarkers; and 2) To explore the role of intervention-related changes in stress and stress biomarkers on changes in metabolic outcomes, particularly insulin resistance. Methods Obese (BMI > 95th percentile), Latino adolescents (n = 35, age 14-17) were randomized to receive either 12 weekly sessions of a lifestyle education plus guided imagery program (GI), or lifestyle education plus a digital storytelling computer program (DS). Between-group differences in behavioral, biological, and psychological outcomes were assessed using unpaired T-tests and ANCOVA in the 29 subjects who completed the intervention. Results The GI group demonstrated significant reductions in leisure sedentary behavior (p < .05) and increases in moderate physical activity (p < .05) compared to DS group, and a trend toward reduced caloric intake in GI vs DS (p = .09). Salivary cortisol was acutely reduced by stress-reduction guided imagery (p < .01). There were no group differences in adiposity, insulin resistance, perceived stress, or stress biomarkers across the 12-week intervention, though decrease in serum cortisol over the course of the intervention was associated with improved insulin sensitivity (p = .03) independent
Travier, N; Fonseca-Nunes, A; Javierre, C; Guillamo, E; Arribas, L; Peiró, I; Buckland, G; Moreno, F; Urruticoechea, A; Oviedo, G R; Roca, A; Hurtós, L; Ortega, V; Muñoz, M; Garrigós, L; Cirauqui, B; Del Barco, S; Arcusa, A; Seguí, M A; Borràs, J M; Gonzalez, C A; Agudo, A
Energy restriction from a low-calorie diet and increased energy expenditure induced by physical activity (PA) could promote weight loss/maintenance and be important determinants of breast cancer (BC) prognosis. The aim of this study was to assess participation and adherence of overweight and obese BC survivors to a lifestyle intervention and to demonstrate the capacity of this intervention to induce weight loss and nutritional changes. This single-arm pre-post study, which involved one-hourly weekly diet sessions delivered by a dietician and 75-min bi-weekly PA sessions of moderate-to-high intensity led by PA monitors, was offered to overweight and obese BC survivors shortly after treatment. Before and after the intervention, anthropometry, dietary information, quality of life (QoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) were collected. A total of 112 BC survivors were invited to participate: 42 of them started the intervention and 37 completed it. Participants attended more than 90 % of the sessions offered and showed a significant weight loss of 5.6 ± 2.0 kg, as well as significant decreases in body mass index, fat mass and waist circumference. Significant decreases in total energy (-25 %), fat (-35 %), saturated fat (-37 %) and carbohydrate (-21 %) intakes were observed while QoL and CRF showed significant increases. This feasibility study demonstrated the success of a short-term diet and PA intervention to induce weight loss and promote healthful changes in BC survivors. Assessing the long-term effects of these changes, and in particular their possible impact of BC prognosis, and designing interventions reaching a wider number of BC survivors are still issues to be addressed.
Nanavati, Sujal M
Since the 1960s, interventional radiology has played a role in the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. What began primarily as a diagnostic modality has evolved into much more of a therapeutic tool. And although the frequency of gastrointestinal bleeding has diminished thanks to management by pharmacologic and endoscopic methods, the need for additional invasive interventions still exists. Transcatheter angiography and intervention is a fundamental step in the algorithm for the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Family, Community and Clinic Collaboration to Treat Overweight and Obese Children: Stanford GOALS -- a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Three-Year, Multi-Component, Multi-Level, Multi-Setting Intervention
Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna; Desai, Manisha; Wilson, Darrell M.; Weintraub, Dana L.; Haskell, William L.; McClain, Arianna; McClure, Samuel; Banda, Jorge; Sanders, Lee M.; Haydel, K. Farish; Killen, Joel D.
Objective To test the effects of a three-year, community-based, multi-component, multi-level, multi-setting (MMM) approach for treating overweight and obese children. Design Two-arm, parallel group, randomized controlled trial with measures at baseline, 12, 24, and 36 months after randomization. Participants Seven through eleven year old, overweight and obese children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) and their parents/caregivers recruited from community locations in low-income, primarily Latino neighborhoods in Northern California. Interventions Families are randomized to the MMM intervention versus a community health education active-placebo comparison intervention. Interventions last for three years for each participant. The MMM intervention includes a community-based after school team sports program designed specifically for overweight and obese children, a home-based family intervention to reduce screen time, alter the home food/eating environment, and promote self-regulatory skills for eating and activity behavior change, and a primary care behavioral counseling intervention linked to the community and home interventions. The active-placebo comparison intervention includes semi-annual health education home visits, monthly health education newsletters for children and for parents/guardians, and a series of community-based health education events for families. Main Outcome Measure Body mass index trajectory over the three-year study. Secondary outcome measures include waist circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, accelerometer-measured physical activity, 24-hour dietary recalls, screen time and other sedentary behaviors, blood pressure, fasting lipids, glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and psychosocial measures. Conclusions The Stanford GOALS trial is testing the efficacy of a novel community-based multi-component, multi-level, multi-setting treatment for childhood overweight and obesity in low-income, Latino families
Abstract—Atherothrombotic vascular disease is the major cause of death and disability in obese and diabetic subjects with insulin resistance...Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease , an Imminent Military Epidemic PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ira Tabas, M.D., Ph.D...Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease , an Imminent Military Epidemic 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06
Monsen, Karen A.; Attleson, Ingrid S.; Erickson, Kristin J.; Neely, Claire; Oftedahl, Gary; Thorson, Diane R.
Objective The purpose of the study was to investigate the perceptions of administrators and clinicians regarding a public health facilitated collaborative supporting the translation into practice of the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI) Adult Obesity Guideline. Design and Sample This qualitative study was conducted with ten healthcare organizations participating in a voluntary, interprofessional obesity management collaborative. A purposive sample of 39 participants included two to three clinicians and an administrator from each organization. Interview analysis focused on how the intervention affected participants and their practices. Results Four themes described participant experiences of obesity guideline translation: 1) a shift from powerlessness to positive motivation, 2) heightened awareness coupled with improved capacity to respond, 3) personal ownership and use of creativity, and 4) a sense of the importance of increased interprofessional collaboration. Conclusions The investigation of interprofessional perspectives illuminates the feelings and perceptions of clinician and administrator participants regarding obesity practice guideline translation. These themes suggest that positive motivation, improved capacity, personal creative ownership, and interprofessional collaboration may be conducive to successful evidence-based obesity guideline implementation. Further research is needed to evaluate these findings relative to translating the ICSI obesity guideline and other guidelines into practice in diverse clinical settings. PMID:25040771
Hart, Chantelle N; Hawley, Nicola L; Wing, Rena R
Despite being the focus of widespread public health efforts, childhood obesity remains an epidemic worldwide. Given the now well-documented consequences of obesity for childhood health and psychosocial functioning, as well as associated morbidity in adulthood, identifying novel, modifiable behaviors that can be targeted to improve weight control is imperative. Enhancing children's sleep may show promise in assisting with weight regulation. The present paper describes the development of a brief behavioral sleep intervention for school-aged children, including preliminary findings of this work as well as areas for future study.
Stavrou, Stavroula; Nicolaides, Nicolas C.; Papageorgiou, Ifigenia; Papadopoulou, Pinelopi; Terzioglou, Elena; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina; Charmandari, Evangelia
Background Obesity in childhood and adolescence represents a major health problem of our century, and accounts for a significant increase in morbidity and mortality in adulthood. In addition to the increased consumption of calories and lack of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that childhood obesity is strongly associated with prolonged and excessive activation of the stress system. Aim The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of a stress-management intervention program, which included progressive muscle relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, guided imagery and cognitive restructuring, in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods Forty-nine children and adolescents (mean age ± SEM: 11.15 ± 1.48 years) were prospectively recruited to participate in this randomized controlled study. Of those, 23 participants were assigned into the intervention group, while 26 participants represented the control group. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at the beginning and at the end of the study, and participants were asked to complete the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (S.C.A.R.E.D.), the Child Depression Inventory (C.D.I.), the Child Behavior Checklist (C.B.C.L.) and the Youth Self Report (Y.S.R.). Results The applied stress-management methods resulted in a significant reduction in the body mass index (BMI) in the intervention group compared with the control group [ΔBMI=1.18 vs 0.10 kg/m2 (p<0.001)]. In addition to BMI, these methods ameliorated depression and anxiety, and reduced the internalizing and externalizing problems in the intervention group. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that the application of an 8-week stress management program could facilitate weight loss in Greek overweight and obese children and adolescents. Further larger studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of stress-management methods in overweight and obese subjects. PMID:27570747
Yang, Hye Jung; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kim, Ok Hyun; Choi, Mona; Oh, Myungju; Nam, Jihyun; Sung, Eunju
Background: Childhood obesity is a critical health issue, both currently and for the foreseeable future. To prevent obesity, behavior changes are essential. Smartphones can be a good tool, as the number of child smartphone users is rapidly increasing. We have developed a mobile platform system named “HAPPY ME,” which is a smartphone application coupled with a wearable device, designed to improve healthy behaviors to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of obesity prevention among children 10–12 years of age using HAPPY ME. Methods: A total of 1000 participants, all fifth and sixth graders from four schools, were assigned to either control or intervention groups by school. Students in the intervention group used HAPPY ME. The study comprises a safety test, a 12-week efficacy test, and a six-month follow-up test to determine the long-term effects of preventive intervention via the integrated service platform. The integrated service platform aims to facilitate child-parent-school participation, involving the child-parent mobile application, a child-teacher mobile web, and a school website. Primary outcome measures are behavioral changes, including healthy eating, increased physical activity, and fitness. Secondary outcome measures are changes in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass index z-score, and waist circumference), body mass index (BMI) percentiles (obesity rate), and psychological perceptions among participants. Conclusions: The results of this study will offer evidence of the effectiveness of a mobile platform service with a multi-component intervention program based on a comprehensive approach. PMID:28208839
Introduction The long-term success of non-surgical weight loss treatment in adults with obesity is limited by substantial relapse, and only a few evidence-based weight loss maintenance treatments exist. This clinical trial investigates the feasibility and efficacy of a social facilitation maintenance programme for weight loss maintenance, tailored to meet the needs of obese adults who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention. Methods and analysis In a single-centre, open feasibility trial, 72 adults currently or previously obese or overweight who have undergone a lifestyle weight loss intervention are centrally randomised to 4 months of social facilitation maintenance treatment or treatment as a usual control condition. In 16 outpatient group sessions, the social facilitation maintenance treatment, based on a socioecological model and on evidence supporting social facilitation as a key process in maintaining weight loss, focuses on promoting interpersonal relationships to build up a healthy lifestyle for long-term weight loss maintenance. Primary outcome is the amount of weight regain at 6-month follow-up, compared with pre-treatment weight, derived from measured body weight. Secondary outcomes address feasibility, including recruitment, attrition, assessment non-completion, compliance and patients' programme evaluation; and in comparison with pre-weight loss maintenance, social and interpersonal functioning, eating behaviour and physical activity, psychological and physical symptoms, body composition and risk of comorbidity, and quality of life at post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Ethical Committee at the University of Leipzig (165-13-15072013). The study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number DRKS00005182. PMID:27580827
Wood, Brenna K.; Umbreit, John; Liaupsin, Carl J.; Gresham, Frank M.
This study examined whether direct, interval-by-interval measures of treatment integrity would make it possible to distinguish whether equivocal intervention results could be attributed to the intervention itself, or to poor implementation. Josh, an eight-year-old 3rd grader, performed at or slightly above his peers' academically, yet engaged in…
Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Leardo, Michele; Aneja, Siddhartha; Elbel, Brian
IMPORTANCE Decreasing the amount of caloric beverages consumed and simultaneously increasing water consumption is important to promoting child health and decreasing the prevalence of childhood obesity. OBJECTIVE To estimate the impact of water jets (electrically cooled, large clear jugs with a push lever for fast dispensing) on standardized body mass index, overweight, and obesity in elementary school and middle school students. Milk purchases were explored as a potential mechanism for weight outcomes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This quasi-experimental study used a school-level database of cafeteria equipment deliveries between the 2008-2009 and 2012-2013 and included a sample of 1227 New York, New York, public elementary schools and middle schools and the 1 065 562 students within those schools. INTERVENTION Installation of water jets in schools. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Individual body mass index (BMI) was calculated for all students in the sample using annual student-level height and weight measurements collected as part of New York’s FITNESSGRAM initiative. Age- and sex-specific growth charts produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to categorize students as overweight and obese. The hypothesis that water jets would be associated with decreased standardized BMI, overweight, and obesity was tested using a difference-in-difference strategy, comparing outcomes for treated and nontreated students before and after the introduction of a water jet. RESULTS This study included 1 065 562 students within New York City public elementary schools and middle schools. There was a significant effect of water jets on standardized BMI, such that the adoption of water jets was associated with a 0.025 (95% CI, −0.038 to −0.011) reduction of standardized BMI for boys and a 0.022 (95% CI, −0.035 to −0.008) reduction of standardized BMI for girls (P < .01). There was also a significant effect on being overweight. Water jets were
Buttar, Harpal S; Li, Timao; Ravi, Nivedita
Hypertension, myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease, coagulopathies and stroke, collectively known as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), contribute greatly to the mortality, morbidity and economic burden of illness in Canada and in other countries. It has been estimated that over four million Canadians have high blood pressure, a comorbid condition that doubles or triples the risk of CVD. According to the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, CVDs caused 36% of deaths in 2001 and were responsible for 18% of the total hospital costs in Canada. The majority of Canadians exhibit at least one CVD-related risk factor, such as tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes, obesity, hypertension, a lack of daily fruit and vegetable consumption, and psychosocial factors, making these people more prone to developing a serious CVD-related illness in the future. It is therefore important that CVD-related causes and concerns be addressed. Given the scope and prevalence of CVDs, it is obvious that a population health approach – ‘prevention is better than cure’ – would be the most appropriate model to adopt to deal with this ubiquitous health problem and to reduce the costs of hospitalization, long-term medication and rehabilitation. The focus of the present review is to evaluate and compare the results of epidemiological, experimental and clinical studies, reporting on the influence of physical activity, dietary intervention, obesity and cigarette smoking on cardiovascular health and the prevention of CVDs. The prophylactic measures must be dealt with collectively because there is overwhelming evidence that the occurrence of CVDs can be reduced by approximately 80% by making lifestyle modifications. The preventive strategies against CVDs must be targeted at a primary health promotion level before some of the important underlying causes of CVD seriously afflict a person or a population at large. Such preventive approaches would
Gingerich, Susan L.; Bellack, Alan S.
Well-controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy of a number of family-based psychosocial interventions for the treatment of schizophrenia. Reviews seven studies with long term follow-up. (Author)
Sykes, Catherine R
This commentary provides some reactions to the rehabilitation treatment taxonomy project in relation to work already underway to develop an International Classification of Health Interventions. This commentary also includes some comments in response to questions posed by the authors.
Background Accumulation of excess body fat increases breast cancer risk after menopause. Whether the localized breast is differently influenced by adipose tissue compared to the rest of the body, has not been well studied. Our purpose was to demonstrate feasibility and preliminarily evaluate serum-based and localized breast biomarker changes resulting from a weight loss intervention among obese postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a 12-week pilot controlled dietary and exercise intervention among healthy obese postmenopausal women, collected serum and breast ductal fluid before and after the intervention, and estimated the association with systemic and localized biomarker changes. We recruited 7 obese (mean body mass index = 33.6 kg/m2) postmenopausal women. We collected samples at baseline and the 12th week for: anthropometry; phlebotomy; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (lean and fat mass); exercise fitness (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2Max); 1-repetition strength maximum); and breast ductal lavage. Results Changes from baseline occurred in body composition and exercise performance including fat mass loss (14% average drop), VO2Max (+36% increase) and strength improvement (+26%). Breast ductal fluid markers declined from baseline with estradiol showing a 24% reduction and IL-6 a 20% reduction. We also observed serum biomarker reductions from baseline including leptin (36% decline), estrone sulfate (−10%), estradiol (−25%), and Il-6 (−33%). Conclusions Conduct of the diet and exercise intervention, collection of ductal fluid, and measurement of hormones and cytokines contained in the ductal fluid were all feasible. We preliminarily demonstrated estradiol and IL-6 reductions from baseline in both serum and breast ductal fluid among obese postmenopausal women who participated in the 12-week weight loss diet and exercise intervention. PMID:23217221
Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls; Evenson, Kelly R.; Neelon, Brian; Martinie, Annie; Bennett, Gary
Abstract Background: Community-based interventions are promising approaches to obesity prevention, but few studies have prospectively evaluated them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural experiment—a community intervention designed to promote active living and decrease obesity within a small southern town. Methods: In 2011, community leaders implemented the Mebane on the Move intervention—a community-wide effort to promote physical activity (PA) and decrease obesity among residents of Mebane, North Carolina. We measured child PA and BMI before and after the intervention, using a nearby town not implementing an intervention as the comparison. In total, we assessed 64 children from Mebane and 40 from the comparison community 6 months before, as well as 34 and 18 children 6 months after the intervention. We assessed PA with accelerometers worn for 7 days and calculated BMI z-scores using children's height and weight. We conducted multivariable linear regressions examining pre- to postintervention change in minutes of PA and BMI z-score, adjusting for confounders. Results: At follow-up, children in Mebane modestly increased their moderate-to-vigorous PA (1.3 minutes per hour; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 2.3; p=0.03) and vigorous activity (0.8 minutes per hour; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.5; p=0.04) more than comparison children. In intervention children, BMI z-scores decreased 0.5 units (kg/m2; 95% CI: −0.9, −0.02; p=0.045), compared to children in the comparison community. Conclusions: We observed positive effects on PA level and weight status of children in Mebane, despite high rates of attrition, suggesting that the community-based intervention may have been successful. PMID:25938983
... little free time may have less time to exercise. The term eating disorder means a group of medical conditions that have an unhealthy focus on eating, dieting, losing or gaining weight, and body image. A person may be obese, follow an unhealthy ...
O’Brien, Kimberly H. McManama; Singer, Jonathan B.; LeCloux, Mary; Duarté-Vélez, Yovanska; Spirito, Anthony
Despite the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among adolescents, there is limited knowledge of effective interventions to use with this population. This paper reviews the findings of studies on behavioral interventions for adolescents who are at acute suicide risk, as well as outpatient treatment and risk management strategies with suicidal adolescents. The importance of addressing comorbid behaviors and enhancing protective factors are discussed. Cultural considerations in working with suicidal adolescents and strategies for conducting culturally competent treatment are explored. PMID:26279646
Pětrošová, Helena; Eshghi, Azad; Anjum, Zoha; Zlotnikov, Nataliya; Cameron, Caroline E.; Moriarty, Tara J.
Obese individuals more frequently suffer from infections, as a result of increased susceptibility to a number of bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, obesity can alter antibiotic treatment efficacy due to changes in drug pharmacokinetics which can result in under-dosing. However, studies on the treatment of bacterial infections in the context of obesity are scarce. To address this research gap, we assessed efficacy of antibiotic treatment in diet-induced obese mice infected with the Lyme disease pathogen, Borrelia burgdorferi. Diet-induced obese C3H/HeN mice and normal-weight controls were infected with B. burgdorferi, and treated during the acute phase of infection with two doses of tigecycline, adjusted to the weights of diet-induced obese and normal-weight mice. Antibiotic treatment efficacy was assessed 1 month after the treatment by cultivating bacteria from tissues, measuring severity of Lyme carditis, and quantifying bacterial DNA clearance in ten tissues. In addition, B. burgdorferi-specific IgG production was monitored throughout the experiment. Tigecycline treatment was ineffective in reducing B. burgdorferi DNA copies in brain. However, diet-induced obesity did not affect antibiotic-dependent bacterial DNA clearance in any tissues, regardless of the tigecycline dose used for treatment. Production of B. burgdorferi-specific IgGs was delayed and attenuated in mock-treated diet-induced obese mice compared to mock-treated normal-weight animals, but did not differ among experimental groups following antibiotic treatment. No carditis or cultivatable B. burgdorferi were detected in any antibiotic-treated group. In conclusion, obesity was associated with attenuated and delayed humoral immune responses to B. burgdorferi, but did not affect efficacy of antibiotic treatment. PMID:28286500
Wing, Rena R.; And Others
Assigned 49 obese diabetic patients with obese spouses (diabetic or nondiabetic) to an alone or together (with spouses) treatment condition of behavioral weight control program. Found no significant differences in weight losses of patients at posttreatment or one-year followup, but did find that women did better when treated with their spouses,…
syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The major cause of death in people with insulin resistance syndromes is atherothrombotic vascular disease , including...Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease , an Imminent Military Epidemic PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ira Tabas, M.D., Ph.D...CONTRACT NUMBER Molecular Mechanisms and Treatment Strategies for Obesity-Associated Coronary Artery Disease , an Imminent Military Epidemic 5b
Douglas, Ian J; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Batterham, Rachel L; Smeeth, Liam
Aims Drug treatments for obesity have proven efficacy from randomized trials, but their effectiveness in routine clinical practice is unknown. We assessed the effects on weight and body mass index (BMI) of orlistat and sibutramine when delivered in routine primary care. Methods We used United Kingdom data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the effects of orlistat or sibutramine on weight and BMI over 3 years following treatment initiation. For comparison, we matched each patient with up to five obese patients receiving neither drug. Mixed effects linear regression with splines was used to model change in weight and BMI. Mean change with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated. Results We identified 100 701 patients receiving orlistat, 15 355 receiving sibutramine and 508 140 non-intervention patients, with body mass index of 37.2, 36.6 and 33.2 kg m−2, respectively. Patients receiving orlistat lost, on average, 0.94 kg month−1 (0.93 to 0.95) over the first 4 months. Weight gain then occurred, although weight remained slightly below baseline at 3 years. Patients receiving sibutramine lost, 1.28 kg month−1 (1.26 to 1.30) over the first 4 months, but by 3 years had exceeded baseline weight. Non-intervention patients had slight increases in weight throughout the 3 year period, with gains ranging between 0.01 and 0.06 kg month−1. Conclusions Orlistat and sibutramine had early effects on weight loss, not sustained over 3 years. As new treatments for obesity are approved, their effectiveness should be measured in routine clinical practice, as effectiveness may be considerably less than seen in randomized trials. PMID:25641659
Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Sutherland, Brian G; Robson, Debra L; Arya, Rigya; Kelly, Karen; Jacobs, René L; Borradaile, Nica M
Eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A1 is induced by oxidative and ER stress, and contributes to subsequent cell death in many cell types, including hepatocytes. We recently showed that blocking the protein synthesis activity of EEF1A1 with the peptide inhibitor, didemnin B, decreases saturated fatty acid overload-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. In light of this and other recent work suggesting that limiting protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating ER stress-related disease, we hypothesized that acute intervention with didemnin B would decrease hepatic ER stress and lipotoxicity in obese mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hyperphagic male ob/ob mice were fed semipurified diet for 4 weeks, and during week 5 received i.p. injections of didemnin B or vehicle on days 1, 4, and 7. Interestingly, we observed that administration of this compound modestly decreased food intake without evidence of illness or distress, and thus included an additional control group matched for food consumption with didemnin B-treated animals. Treatment with didemnin B improved several characteristics of hepatic lipotoxicity to a greater extent than the effects of caloric restriction alone, including hepatic steatosis, and some hepatic markers of ER stress and inflammation (GRP78, Xbp1s, and Mcp1). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles and histopathological measures of NAFLD, including lobular inflammation, and total NAFLD activity score were also improved by didemnin B. These data indicate that acute intervention with the EEF1A inhibitor, didemnin B, improves hepatic lipotoxicity in obese mice with NAFLD through mechanisms not entirely dependent on decreased food intake, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for this ER stress-related disease.
Doughty, Kimberly N.; Njike, Valentine Yanchou
Abstract Background: Comprehensive, residential treatment for severe obesity in adolescents may be an alternative to bariatric surgery and more efficacious than outpatient treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a long-term cognitive-behavioral therapy–based immersion obesity treatment program for adolescents. Methods: Twelve obese adolescents with BMIs above the 95th percentile completed a 14- to 18-week multicomponent intervention. Results: We observed significant improvements in BMI z-score, waist circumference, mile run time, and blood lipids. Conclusion: This study suggests that the tested program may be effective, at least in the short term; a randomized, controlled trial to further assess this model is warranted. PMID:25647345
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Ravn, Pernille
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg versus 7.3 kg, difference p = 0.01, 3.3 kg/m(2) versus 2.6 kg/m(2), difference p = 0.02). The mean period of intervention was comparable in the two groups, 7.9 month and 7.3 month, respectively, (difference non significant: NS). The study indicates that motivational interviewing may be a valuable tool in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment.
Westerveld, Donevan; Yang, Dennis
More than one-third of the adults in the United States are obese. This complex metabolic disorder is associated with multiple comorbidities and increased all-cause mortality. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be more effective than medical therapy and has been associated with weight loss maintenance and decreased mortality. In spite of these well-established benefits, less than 1% of candidates undergo surgery due to multiple factors, such as patient and physician perceptions and attitudes, patient-physician interaction, lack of resources, and cost burden. Furthermore, even in patients who do undergo bariatric surgery and/or alternate weight loss interventions, long-term weight control is associated with high-risk failure and weight regain. In this review, we highlight some of the current barriers to bariatric surgery and long-term weight loss maintenance and underscore the importance of an individualized multidisciplinary longitudinal strategy for the treatment of obesity. PMID:27314062
Stock, Carol M.; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh
Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. Methods: A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %overBMI measured at four time points. Secondary outcomes were participants' self-ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and the degree they turned to food when stressed. User satisfaction data were collected with an online questionnaire. Latent growth modeling techniques were used to identify independent variables and possible mediating treatment process variables associated with weight change. Results: Mean age of participants was 16 years (range, 10–21), 65% girls, and 84% Caucasian. Twenty-seven (63%) completed the program. There was a significant decrease in %overBMI over time of 7.1. There were significant improvements in participant ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and a reduction in turning to food when stressed. Males, younger participants, and participants with higher levels of program compliance achieved better weight loss. Participants who reported that calling obesity an addiction made their guilt worse experienced poorer weight loss. Females were more likely than males to report “addiction guilt,” and this partly mediated the overall gender effect. Conclusions: The staged, incremental food withdrawal approach was feasible to implement and was useful in helping reduce excessive weight, particularly among boys. PMID:25760813
Livingood, William C; Monticalvo, David; Bernhardt, Jay M; Wells, Kelli T; Harris, Todd; Kee, Kadra; Hayes, Johnathan; George, Donald; Woodhouse, Lynn D
Background The complexity of the childhood obesity epidemic requires the application of community-based participatory research (CBPR) in a manner that can transcend multiple communities of stakeholders, including youth, the broader community, and the community of health care providers. Aim To (a) describe participatory processes for engaging youth within context of CBPR and broader community, (b) share youth-engaged research findings related to the use of digital communication and implications for adolescent obesity intervention research, and (c) describe and discuss lessons learned from participatory approaches. Method CBPR principles and qualitative methods were synergistically applied in a predominantly African American part of the city that experiences major obesity-related issues. A Youth Research Advisory Board was developed to deeply engage youth in research that was integrated with other community-based efforts, including an academic-community partnership, a city-wide obesity coalition, and a primary care practice research network. Volunteers from the youth board were trained to apply qualitative methods, including facilitating focus group interviews and analyzing and interpreting data with the goal of informing a primary care provider-based obesity reduction intervention. Results The primary results of these efforts were the development of critical insights about adolescent use of digital communication and the potential importance of messaging, mobile and computer apps, gaming, wearable technology, and rapid changes in youth communication and use of digital technology in developing adolescent nutrition and physical activity health promotion. Conclusions The youth led work helped identify key elements for a digital communication intervention that was sensitive and responsive to urban youth. Many valuable lessons were also learned from 3 years of partnerships and collaborations, providing important insights on applying CBPR with minority youth populations.
Bogart, W A
This article explores the effectiveness of legal interventions to promote healthier eating/drinking and exercise in responding to obesity. Undue emphasis on weight loss and prevention of excess gain have largely been failures and have fueled prejudice against fat people. A major challenge lies in shifting norms: away from stigmatization of the obese and towards more nutritious eating/drinking and increased activity with acceptance of bodies in all shapes and sizes. Part of the enormity of this challenge lies in the complex effects of law and its relationship with norms, including unintended consequences of regulation. To illustrate such complications, the paper examines two interventions and the actual effects that they have produced (or could under differing conditions): junk food taxes, particularly on SSBs (sugar sweetened beverages), and restriction of advertising to children, especially the ban in Quebec.
Janicke, David M.; Sallinen, Bethany J.; Perri, Michael G.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Silverstein, Janet H.; Brumback, Babette
Purpose: To compare the costs of parent-only and family-based group interventions for childhood obesity delivered through Cooperative Extension Services in rural communities. Methods: Ninety-three overweight or obese children (aged 8 to 14 years) and their parent(s) participated in this randomized controlled trial, which included a 4-month…
Zmolikova, Jana; Pichlerova, Dita; Bob, Petr; Schückova, Denisa; Herlesova, Jitka; Weiss, Petr
Background Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30), obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48), and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24). The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants. Results The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Conclusion These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. PMID:27703353
Boughton, C K; Murphy, K G
Obesity is a major worldwide public health issue. The physiological systems that regulate body weight are thus of great interest as targets for anti-obesity agents. Peptidergic systems are critical to the regulation of energy homeostasis by key regions in the hypothalamus and brainstem. A number of neuropeptide systems have therefore been investigated as potential treatments for obesity. Blocking orexigenic peptide signals such as neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone, orexins, relaxin-3 and galanin-like peptide or stimulating anorectic signalling pathways used by peptides such as the melanocortins, ciliary neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, are approaches that have shown some promise, but which have also highlighted possible concerns. Manipulation of central peptidergic systems poses a number of therapeutic problems, including brain access and side effects. Given that the homeostatic defence of body weight may limit the effectiveness of any single-target therapy developed, a combination therapy approach may offer the best hope for the effective prevention and treatment of obesity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Neuropeptides. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-7 PMID:23121386
... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity...
... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity...
... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity...
Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Petersen, Christiane; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike
Background The negative impact of overweight (including obesity) and related treatment on children's and adolescents' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been shown in few specific samples thus far. We examined HRQoL and emotional well-being in overweight children from an outpatient treatment sample as well as changes of these parameters during treatment. Methods In a cross-sectional design, self-reported HRQoL of 125 overweight (including obese) children who contacted a treatment facility, but had not yet receive treatment, were compared to 172 children from randomly selected schools using independent two-sample t-tests. Additionally, in a longitudinal design, the overweight children were retested by administering the same questionnaire at the end of the intervention (after one year). It included measures such as the body mass index (BMI), the general health item (GHI), the KINDLR, and the Child Dynamic Health Assessment Scale (ChildDynHA). Comparisons were based on dependent t-tests and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results Overweight children showed statistically significant impairment in the GHI (Cohen's d = 0.59) and emotional well-being (ChildDynha) (d = 0.33) compared to the school children. With respect to HRQoL, the friends dimension of the KINDLR was significantly impaired in the overweight group (d = 0.33). However, no impairment was found for the total HRQoL score or other KINDLR subdimensions. Regarding the longitudinal part of our study, most of the children improved their BMI, but the majority (87.5%) remained overweight. Nevertheless, the participants' perceived health, emotional well-being, and generic as well as disease-specific HRQoL improved during intervention. Conclusion The findings emphasize the importance of patient-reported outcomes such as HRQoL. Even though overweight and obesity might accompany most of the children throughout their lifetime, the impairment associated with this chronic condition can be considerably reduced
Ulian, Mariana D; Gualano, Bruno; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia L; Roble, Odilon J; Modesto, Bruno T; Brito, Bruna C; Murakawa, Karina A; Torre, Mariana D; Tritto, Aline CC; Unsain, Ramiro F; de M Sato, Priscila; Scagliusi, Fernanda B
The present study analyzed obese women’s experiences following a nonprescriptive nutritional intervention, implemented through a 1-year program based on the Health at Every Size® philosophy. We employed an action research method and conducted three focus groups during the intervention. We identified five interpretative axes across the focus groups, as follows: conflicts and perceptions; gaining motivation, perspective, and positioning; becoming autonomous eaters; acquiring tools; and the meetings between the nutritional therapist and participant. Our findings revealed varying levels of readiness among participants in adapting to the intervention and varying valuations of achievements related to eating and health, independent of body-weight changes. Participants reported benefiting from and expressed approval of the intervention. Participants reported positive behavioral and attitudinal changes to their diet and improvements to diet quality, diet structure, and consumption. Finally, participants seemed to show increased autonomy concerning diet and indicated increased confidence, comfort, flexibility, and positivity of attitude regarding eating. PMID:26417206
Liu, Fangchao; Kong, Xiaomu; Cao, Jie; Chen, Shufeng; Li, Changwei; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng; Kelly, Tanika N
We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to examine the association of mobile phone intervention with net change in weight-related measures among overweight and obese adults. We searched electronic databases and conducted a bibliography review to identify articles published between the inception date of each database and March 27, 2014. Fourteen trials (including 1,337 participants in total) that met the eligibility criteria were included. Two investigators independently abstracted information on study characteristics and study outcomes. Net change estimates comparing the intervention group with the control group were pooled across trials using random-effects models. Compared with the control group, mobile phone intervention was associated with significant changes in body weight and body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of -1.44 kg (95% confidence interval (CI): -2.12, -0.76) and -0.24 units (95% CI: -0.40, -0.08), respectively. Subgroup analyses revealed that the associations were consistent across study-duration and intervention-type subgroups. For example, net body weight changes were -0.92 kg (95% CI: -1.58, -0.25) and -1.85 kg (95% CI: -2.99, -0.71) in trials of shorter (<6 months) and longer (≥6 months) duration, respectively. These findings provide evidence that mobile phone intervention may be a useful tool for promoting weight loss among overweight and obese adults.
Objective The Lifestyle Interventions for Expectant Moms (LIFE-Moms) Consortium is designed to determine, in pregnant women with overweight or obesity, whether various behavioral and lifestyle interventions reduce excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and subsequent adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and obesity in offspring. The design and planning process of the LIFE-Moms Consortium is described. Design and Methods The LIFE-Moms Consortium is a collaboration among seven clinical centers, a Research Coordinating Unit, and the NIH designed to support each clinical center’s conduct of a separate trial of a unique intervention. Specific common measures, procedures, and eligibility criteria are consistent across the 7 trials allowing data to be combined in exploratory analyses and/or compared readily. Results Numerous committees and working groups were created to define common measures and outcomes during pregnancy and through 1 year postpartum, develop Consortium policies and oversee progress of the trials. The primary outcome for the Consortium is excessive GWG. Secondary outcomes include maternal, neonatal and infant anthropometric measures, physical activity, sleep, and complications of pregnancy and delivery. Conclusion A multi-center consortium of independent, lifestyle interventions with common measures and outcomes may enhance the ability to identify promising interventions for improving outcomes in pregnant women and their offspring. PMID:26708836
McNarry, Melitta A; Lambrick, Danielle; Westrupp, Nicole; Faulkner, James
The pulmonary oxygen uptake response is deleteriously influenced by obesity in prepubertal children, as evidenced by a slower phase II response. To date, no studies have investigated the ability of an exercise intervention to ameliorate this. The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a 6-week, high-intensity, games-orientated intervention on the oxygen uptake kinetic response of prepubertal obese and normal-weight children during heavy-intensity exercise. Thirteen normal-weight and 15 obese children participated in a twice-weekly exercise intervention involving repeated bouts of 6-min high-intensity, games-orientated exercises followed by 2 min of recovery. Sixteen normal-weight and 11 obese children served as a control group. At baseline and post-intervention, each participant completed a graded-exercise test to volitional exhaustion and constant work-rate, heavy-intensity exercise. Post-intervention, obese children demonstrated a reduced phase II τ (pre-intervention: 30 ± 8 cf. post-intervention: 24 ± 7 s), mean response time (pre-intervention: 50 ± 10 cf. post-intervention: 38 ± 9 s) and phase II amplitude (pre-intervention: 1.51 ± 0.30 cf. post-intervention: 1.34 ± 0.27 L·min(-1)). No changes were evident in the normal-weight children. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrate that a 6-week, high-intensity intervention can have a significant positive impact on the dynamic oxygen uptake response of obese prepubertal children.
Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin
Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population.
Kolkert, J L; Meerwaldt, R; Lefrandt, J D; Geelkerken, R H; Zeebregts, C J
Medical treatment has a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with occlusive carotid artery disease. Large trials have provided the justification for operative treatment besides medical treatment in patients with recent significant carotid artery stenosis two decades ago. Since then, medical therapy has evolved tremendously. Next to aspirin, antiplatelet regimens acting on a different level in the modulation of platelet aggregation have made their entry. Moreover, statin therapy has been introduced. These changes among others in secondary stroke prevention, along with better understanding in life-style adjustments and perioperative medical management, have led to a decrease in stroke recurrence. Secondary prevention is therefore now the most important pillar of medical therapy. It consists of antiplatelet therapy, statins and blood pressure lowering agents in all patients. Small adjustments are recommended for those patients referred for invasive treatment. Moreover, long-term medical treatment is imperative. In this article, we summarize current evidence in literature regarding medical management in patients with previous stroke or TIA.
Qiu, Shuwei; Jiang, Zhongli
Objective To develop a new polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) rat model suitable for exercise intervention. Method Thirty six rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: PCOS rats with high-fat diet (PF, n = 24), PCOS rats with ordinary diet (PO, n = 6), and control rats with ordinary diet (CO, n = 6). Two kinds of PCOS rat model were made by adjustment diet structure and testosterone injection for 28 days. After a successful animal model, PF model rats were randomly assigned to three groups: exercise with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-EF, n = 6), sedentary with a continuation of high-fat diet (PF-SF, n = 6), exercise with an ordinary diet (PF-EO, n = 6). Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin (FINS), estrogen (E2), progesterone (P), and testosterone (T) in serum were determined by RIA, and ovarian morphology was evaluated by Image-Pro plus 6.0. Results Body weight, Lee index, FINS increased significantly in PF rat model. Serum levels of E2 and T were significantly higher in PF and PO than in CO. Ovary organ index and ovarian areas were significant lower in PF than in CO. After intervention for 2 weeks, the levels of 1 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG1), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (PBG2), FINS and the serum levels of T decreased significantly in PF-EF rats and PF-EO rats. The ratio of FBG/FINS was significant higher in PF-EO rats than in PF-SF rats. Ovarian morphology showed that the numbers of preantral follicles and atretic follicles decreased significantly, and the numbers of antral follicles and corpora lutea increased significantly in the rats of PF-EF and PF-EO. Conclusion By combination of high-fat diet and testosterone injection, the obese PCOS rat model is conformable with the lifestyle habits of fatty foods and insufficient exercise, and has metabolic and reproductive characteristics of human PCOS. This model can be applied to study exercise intervention. PMID:24905232
Shultz, Sarah P.; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M.; Lane, Andrew M.
In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m-2 vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m-2). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese adolescent
Shultz, Sarah P; Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Lane, Andrew M
In New Zealand, obese Māori and Pasifika adolescents are at risk of numerous cardio-metabolic conditions with raising physical activity levels being proposed as a useful intervention. The present study used a mixed method design to explore the effects of a non-contact boxing-oriented training programme designed in terms of improvements to cardio-metabolic variables. Traditional recruitment strategies (media, referrals) were employed, with limited success leading to 3 adolescent boys (14-15 y) participating in the pilot intervention. Exercise sessions included 30 minutes of non-contact boxing training, followed by 30 minutes of progressive resistance training. Participants attended three 1h training sessions each week, for a total of 12 weeks. Physiological variables included anthropometric indices, visceral fat thickness, central blood pressures, central arterial stiffness (augmentation index: AIx), and carotid arterial stiffness (β). Results revealed that there was no trend for change in body weight (125.5 ± 12.1 kg vs. 126.5 ± 11.0 kg) or BMI (39.3 ± 4.1 kg·m(-2) vs. 39.0 ± 4.6 kg·m(-2)). However, there was a moderate decrease in visceral fat thickness (4.34 ± 2.51 cm vs 3.65 ± 1.11 cm, d = 0.36). There was no change in central pulse pressure (38.7 ± 7.3 mmHg vs. 38.3 ± 5.0 mmHg), however, there was a small improvement in β (3.01 ± 0.73 vs. 2.87 ± 0.84, d = 0.18). Focus group interview data with participants and their parents were used to explore issues related to motivation to participation. Results revealed participants commented on how the programme has led to new friendships, changes to their physical appearance, and increased physical fitness. Parents commented on increased self-confidence, better performance in school, and a willingness to take part in new activities. In conclusion, it appears participating in the boxing oriented training programme was motivating to participants who engaged and had some physiological benefits in obese
The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration project (TX CORD) uses a systems-oriented approach to address obesity that includes individual and family interventions, community-level action, as well as environmental and policy initiatives. Given that randomization is seldom possible in communit...
Stern, Francine Martin; Gorga, Delia
Use of neurodevelopmental treatment, also known as the Bobath method, is discussed, including its history, philosophy, goals, and treatment emphasis with infants and children with movement disorders. Examples of children before and after therapeutic intervention illustrate use of the technique, and controversies in measuring therapy efficacy are…
Browning, Matthew G.; Bean, Melanie K.; Wickham, Edmond P.; Stern, Marilyn; Evans, Ronald K.
Objective To evaluate the quality of weight change (change in fat mass vs. fat-free mass [FFM]), changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and frequencies of metabolic risk factors in adolescent females with obesity that either lost weight or gained weight following lifestyle treatment. Study design Fifty-eight girls (mean age = 13.0 ± 1.6 yrs; 77% black; mean body mass index (BMI) = 36.5 ± 4.5 kg/m2) completed a 6-month lifestyle intervention combining dietary and behavioral counseling with aerobic and resistance exercise training. We examined baseline to 6-month differences in weight (kg), body composition, CRF, and frequencies of metabolic risk factors between weight loss and weight gain groups. Results In the weight loss group, body weight (-4.50 ± 3.53 kg, p < 0.001), fat mass (-4.50 ± 2.20 kg, p < 0.001), and body fat percentage ([BF%] -2.97% ± 1.45%, p < 0.001) decreased, and FFM was unchanged at 6 months. In the weight gain group, body weight (4.50 ± 2.20 kg, p < 0.001), fat mass (1.52 ± 3.16 kg, p < 0.024), and FFM (2.99 ± 2.45 kg, p < 0.001) increased, and BF% was unchanged. Both groups improved CRF (p < 0.05). Frequencies of metabolic risk factors were reduced across all participants after the 6-month treatment. Conclusion Participation in a weight management program might elicit health improvements in obese adolescent females who increase weight and fat mass, provided that FFM gains are sufficient to negate increases in body fat percentage. PMID:25890676
Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Avila-Jiménez, Laura; Cano-Pérez, Evaluz; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio; Parrilla-Ortiz, Juan Ismael; Ramos-Hernández, Rosa Isela; Sosa-Caballero, Alejandro; Sosa-Ruiz, María del Rosario; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Judith
Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, due to its size, speed of growth and the negative effect on health. Currently, Mexico and United States have the highest prevalence of obesity in the adult population (30 %), which is nearly ten times higher than that of Japan or Korea (4 %). In our country, the trends of overweight and obesity in different national surveys show steady increase in prevalence over time. According to the results of the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012 (ENSANUT, according to its initials in Spanish), the combined prevalence of overweight or obese (BMI = 25 kg/m(2)) in the population over 20 years is higher in women (73.0 %) than men (69.4 %), while the prevalence of obesity (BMI = 30 kg/m(2)) is almost higher in females than in males. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight requires formulating and coordinating comprehensive and efficient multilevel strategies for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual, family and community behavior. It is unlikely that a single intervention can modify the incidence or natural history of overweight and obesity.
Gable, Kelly N; Stunson, Mary Janet
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is a community-based treatment approach intended to help in the recovery and rehabilitation of clients with severe and persistent mental illnesses. A clinical pharmacist is not routinely a member of an ACT team. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of a pharmacist by reviewing recommendations and interventions made by a clinical pharmacist on an ACT team. Information was gathered through a chart review of clients at Community Alternatives in St. Louis, Missouri. All recommendations and interventions performed by the clinical pharmacist between February 1, 2008 and July 31, 2008 were recorded. A total of 341 interventions and recommendations for 29 clients were completed by the pharmacist. Medication management, medication adjustment recommendations, and mental health assessments were the most frequent interventions. This study suggests a clinical pharmacist can be beneficial to an ACT team and provide diverse services to both clients and other team members.
Osofsky, Joy D., Ed.
Recent years have seen significant advances in knowledge about the effects of exposure to psychological trauma on young children from birth to age 5. This volume brings together leading experts to address practical considerations in working with traumatized young children and their caregivers. State-of-the-art assessment and treatment approaches…
Phillips, Catherine M
Obesity is a heterogeneous condition; thus, metabolic abnormalities and cardiometabolic risk vary among obese individuals, with a significant proportion considered to be metabolically healthy. However, whether these individuals are truly healthy remains controversial and, therefore, a better understanding of such phenotypes may offer opportunities to improve current obesity diagnosis, intervention, and treatment.
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
Oestreich, Julie H; Dobesh, Paul P
Dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin and a P2Y12-receptor antagonist is important for preventing major adverse cardiovascular events in patients managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The current P2Y12-receptor antagonists are only available for oral administration and exhibit a delayed onset of action. Furthermore, several days are required for platelet function to return to normal following cessation of therapy. Cangrelor is an intravenous ATP analog that directly, selectively and reversibly inhibits P2Y12 receptors on platelets. A 30-μg/kg bolus dose followed by a 4-μg/kg per minute continuous infusion of cangrelor achieves peak concentration and maximal platelet inhibition within minutes of administration. Cangrelor also demonstrates a fast offset as normal platelet function is restored 1-2 h after cessation of the infusion. Three large, double-blind, randomized trials - CHAMPION PLATFORM, CHAMPION PCI and CHAMPION PHOENIX - assessed the efficacy and safety of cangrelor compared with clopidogrel (during or immediately after PCI) or placebo in the setting of PCI. In the most recent CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, cangrelor was superior to clopidogrel for preventing adverse cardiovascular events with no significant increase in major bleeding. Based on the clinical trial results combined with unique properties such as intravenous administration and fast onset and offset, cangrelor may provide benefit in certain patients undergoing PCI.
Borroni, Giacomo; Lavazza, Matteo; Liu, Xiaoli; Kim, Hoon Yub; Liu, Renbin; Anuwong, Angkoon; Rausei, Stefano; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo
Background Obesity continues to be a growing epidemic worldwide. Obese patients have severe comorbidities that make risky and technically demanding the execution of bariatric surgery from both surgical and anesthetic point of view; therefore, the focus of bariatric surgeons is increasingly moving towards minimally invasive, endoscopic techniques. Methods The present review presents and discusses recent endoscopic techniques employed in obesity treatment, their features and results. Results Endoscopic treatment can be primary or revisional; we can mainly divide the endoscopic devices into five categories: space-occupying devices, restrictive procedures, bypass liner, aspiration therapy and endoscopic revision of gastric bypass for dilated gastric pouch. Conclusions Endoscopic treatments for obesity are promising techniques for selected patients but each procedure should be tailored on the patient in a multimodal approach. PMID:27867859
Background The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. Methods/design Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2249 children aged 8 to 10 years ( 4th and 5th grade of elementary school) from 4 Spanish towns. The THAO-Child Health Program, a community based intervention, were implemented in 2 towns. Body weight, height, and waist circumferences were measured. Children recorded their dietary intake on a computer-based 24h recall. All children also completed validated computer based questionnaires to estimate physical activity, diet quality, eating behaviors, and quality of life and sleep. Additionally, parental diet quality and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Discussion This study will provide insight in the efficacy of the THAO-Child Health Program to promote a healthy lifestyle. Additionally it will evaluate if lifestyle changes are accompanied by favorable weight management. Trial registration Trial Registration Number ISRCTN68403446 PMID:25174356
Rausch, John Conrad; Perito, Emily Rothbaum; Hametz, Patricia
This study surveyed pediatric primary care providers at a major academic center regarding their attitudes and practices of obesity screening, prevention, and treatment. The authors compared the care providers' reported practices to the 2007 American Medical Association and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Expert Committee Recommendations to evaluate their adherence to the guidelines and differences based on level of training and specialty. Of 96 providers surveyed, less than half used the currently recommended criteria for identifying children who are overweight (24.7%) and obese (34.4%), with attendings more likely to use the correct criteria than residents (P < .05). Although most providers felt comfortable counseling patients and families about the prevention of overweight and obesity, the majority felt their counseling was not effective. There was considerable variability in reported practices of lab screening and referral patterns of overweight and obese children. More efforts are needed to standardize providers' approach to overweight and obese children.
Chai, Nu Cindy; Bond, Dale S.; Moghekar, Abhay; Scher, Ann I.; Peterlin, B. Lee
Obesity and headache are both associated with a substantial personal and societal impact, and epidemiologic studies have consistently identified a positive association between obesity and headache in general, as well as obesity and migraine specifically (see part I). In the current manuscript, we will discuss the potential mechanisms for the migraine–obesity association, with a focus on the central and peripheral pathophysiological pathways which overlap between migraine and those modulating the drive to feed. We then discuss surgical, behavioral, and pharmacological treatment considerations for overweight and obese migraineurs as well as for those with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. We close by briefly discussing where future research may be headed in light of this data. PMID:24511882
Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS) is a community-partnered randomized controlled trial designed to prevent obesity beginning at birth in AI children. PTOTS was developed to test the effectiveness of a multi-component intervention designed to: promote breastfeeding, reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, appropriately time the introduction of healthy solid foods, and counsel parents to reduce sedentary lifestyles in their children. A birth cohort of 577 children from five AI tribes is randomized by tribe to either the intervention (three tribes) or the comparison condition (two tribes). The strengths and weaknesses of PTOTS include a focus on a critical growth phase, placement in the community, and intervention at many levels, using a variety of approaches. PMID:23001689
Nobili, Valerio; Vajro, Pietro; Dezsofi, Antal; Fischler, Bjorn; Hadzic, Nedim; Jahnel, Joerg; Lamireau, Thierry; McKiernan, Patrick; McLin, Valerie; Socha, Piotr; Tizzard, Sarah; Baumann, Ulrich
Morbid obesity is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide. The present best treatment for NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is weight reduction through lifestyle modification. Because of frustrating inefficiency of such a therapeutic approach, bariatric surgery is increasingly performed in adolescents as an alternative option for weight reduction. Standards of care and consensus for indications are, however, scarce. We explore the indications and limitations of bariatric surgery in children with severe obesity with and without NASH and aim to provide guidance for the exceptional indications for adolescents with extreme obesity with major comorbidity that may benefit from these controversial interventions. Present evidence suggests that bariatric surgery can decrease the grade of steatosis, hepatic inflammation, and fibrosis in NASH. Uncomplicated NAFLD is not an indication for bariatric surgery. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is considered a safe and effective option for adolescents with extreme obesity, as long as an appropriate long-term follow-up is provided. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding has not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in adolescents and therefore should be considered investigational. Finally, sleeve gastrectomy and other types of weight loss surgery that have grown increasingly common in adults, still need to be considered investigational. Temporary devices may be increasingly being used in pediatrics; however, future studies, including a long-term risk analysis of patients who undergo surgery, are much needed to clarify the exact indications for bariatric surgery in adolescents.
Papandonatos, George D.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Peter, Inga; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; Erar, Bahar; Allred, Nicholette D.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bowden, Donald W.; Brautbar, Ariel; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Huggins, Gordon S.
Overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes have low adiponectin levels, which may improve with lifestyle changes. We investigated whether genetic variants associated with adiponectin levels in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) would also be related with adiponectin changes in response to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), potentially through mechanisms altering the adipose microenvironment via weight loss and/or improved cardiorespiratory fitness. Look AHEAD was a randomized trial comparing the cardiovascular benefits of ILI-induced weight loss and physical activity compared with diabetes support and education among overweight/obese individuals with Type 2 diabetes. In a subsample of Look AHEAD with adiponectin data and genetic consent (n = 1,351), we evaluated the effects of 24 genetic variants, demonstrated by GWAS to be cross-sectionally associated with adiponectin, on adiponectin change 1-yr postintervention. We explored via mediational analyses whether any differential effects by treatment arm were occurring through weight loss and/or improved fitness. A variant, rs222857, in the CLDN7 locus, potentially associated with epithelial barrier integrity and tight junction physiology, and a putative cis expression quantitative trail locus for elongator acetyltransferase complex subunit 5 (ELP5), predicted adiponectin increases within ILI (log-adiponectin in overall sample per copy: β ± SE = 0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.008; in non-Hispanic whites: 0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.009). The favorable effects of rs222857 (minor allele frequency 45.5%) appeared to be mediated by mechanisms associated with improved fitness, and not weight loss. This is the first study to identify a genetic variant that modifies adiponectin response to lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese diabetic individuals. PMID:25759378
Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret
Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…
Stegelin, Dolores A.
Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…
The commonly performed spinal procedures, such as epidural injections, spinal nerve blocks, zygapophysial joint (z-joint) interventions, and discography, are reported to be safe. However, diagnostic and therapeutic spinal interventions can lead to serious complications, although their incidence seems to be low. Knowledge of potential complications is still required to minimize risks. This article describes the risks associated with the most commonly performed procedures, precautions that can be taken to minimize these risks, and treatment options available once complications have occurred. This article describes the risks associated with the most commonly performed procedures, precautions that can be taken to minimize these risks, and treatment options available once complications have occurred.
Teoh, Seong Lin; Das, Srijit
Obesity continues to be a major global problem. Various cancers are related to obesity and proper understanding of their aetiology, especially their molecular tumour biology is important for early diagnosis and better treatment. Genes play an important role in the development of obesity. Few genes such as leptin, leptin receptor encoded by the db (diabetes), pro-opiomelanocortin, AgRP and NPY and melanocortin-4 receptors and insulin-induced gene 2 were linked to obesity. MicroRNAs control gene expression via mRNA degradation and protein translation inhibition and influence cell differentiation, cell growth and cell death. Overexpression of miR-143 inhibits tumour growth by suppressing B cell lymphoma 2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 activities and KRAS oncogene. Cancers of the breast, uterus, renal, thyroid and liver are also related to obesity. Any disturbance in the production of sex hormones and insulin, leads to distortion in the balance between cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The possible mechanism linking obesity to cancer involves alteration in the level of adipokines and sex hormones. These mediators act as biomarkers for cancer progression and act as targets for cancer therapy and prevention. Interestingly, many anti-cancerous drugs are also beneficial in treating obesity and vice versa. We also reviewed the possible link in the mechanism of few drugs which act both on cancer and obesity. The present review may be important for molecular biologists, oncologists and clinicians treating cancers and also pave the way for better therapeutic options.
Steinman, Jeremy; DeBoer, Mark Daniel
Cachexia is a condition typified by wasting of fat and LBM caused by anorexia and further endocrinological modulation of energy stores. Diseases known to cause cachectic symptoms include cancer, chronic kidney disease, and chronic heart failure; these conditions are associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and increased resting energy expenditure. Early studies have suggested the central melanocortin system as one of the main mediators of the symptoms of cachexia. Pharmacological and genetic antagonism of these pathways attenuates cachectic symptoms in laboratory models; effects have yet to be studied in humans. In addition, ghrelin, an endogenous orexigenic hormone with receptors on melanocortinergic neurons, has been shown to ameliorate symptoms of cachexia, at least in part, by an increase in appetite via melanocortin modulation, in addition to its anticatabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. These effects of ghrelin have been confirmed in multiple types of cachexia in both laboratory and human studies, suggesting a positive future for cachexia treatments.
Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Delaney, Colleen; Koenings, Mallory; Alleman, Gayle; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles) with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith’s Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251) and content (n = 261) occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial. PMID:26266419
Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Spaccarotella, Kim; Delaney, Colleen; Koenings, Mallory; Alleman, Gayle; Hongu, Nobuko; Worobey, John; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
Home environment is key to the development of obesity-preventing behaviors during childhood, yet few resources help preschool parents address factors at home associated with obesity risk. This paper describes creation of materials for an in-home intervention (HomeStyles) with this population. An advisory group of stakeholders and target audience members determined salient factors affecting childhood obesity to address in-home and developed program materials. The Social Cognitive Theory, Faith's Core Behavior Change Strategies to Treat Childhood Obesity, Adult Learning Theory and motivational interviewing techniques guided development of 12 guides targeting strategies parents can use to shape the home environment. Interviews were conducted to determine effectiveness of the guides. Cognitive testing of guide design (n = 251) and content (n = 261) occurred in English and Spanish in New Jersey and Arizona with parents and home visitation staff who would present the guides. Interviews investigated perceptions of content usefulness and parent comprehension. Findings were also examined in light of theoretical underpinnings. Both home visitation staff and parents felt the guides were very readable and useful. Parents appreciated use of motivational interviewing techniques and Adult Learning Theory. Current research is testing these guides through an in-home, randomized control trial.
Montalcini, Tiziana; Lamprinoudi, Theodora; Gorgone, Gaetano; Ferro, Yvelise; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo
Subclinical organ damage precedes the occurrence of cardiovascular events in individuals with obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fuel utilization and subclinical cardiovascular damage in overweight/obese individuals free of established cardiovascular disease receiving the same diet and pharmacological intervention. In this retrospective study a total of 35 subjects following a balanced diet were enrolled. They underwent a complete nutritional and cardiovascular assessment. Echocardiography and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries was performed. The respiratory quotient (fuel utilization index) was assessed by indirect calorimetry. A total of 18 had left ventricular concentric remodeling, 17 were normal. Between these two groups, a significant difference of intima-media thickness was showed (p = 0.015). Also a difference of respiratory quotient was shown with the highest value in those with remodeling (p = 0.038). At univariate and multivariate analysis, cardiac remodeling was associated with respiratory quotient (RQ) (p = 0.04; beta = 0.38; SE = 0.021; B = 0.044). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for respiratory quotient to predict remodeling was 0.72 (SE = 0.093; p = 0.031; RQ = 0.87; 72% sensitivity, 84% specificity). The respiratory quotient is significantly different between those participants with and without cardiac remodeling. Its measurement may help for interpreting the (patho)physiological mechanisms in the nutrients utilization of obese people with different response to dietary or pharmacological interventions.
Montalcini, Tiziana; Lamprinoudi, Theodora; Gorgone, Gaetano; Ferro, Yvelise; Romeo, Stefano; Pujia, Arturo
Subclinical organ damage precedes the occurrence of cardiovascular events in individuals with obesity and hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between fuel utilization and subclinical cardiovascular damage in overweight/obese individuals free of established cardiovascular disease receiving the same diet and pharmacological intervention. In this retrospective study a total of 35 subjects following a balanced diet were enrolled. They underwent a complete nutritional and cardiovascular assessment. Echocardiography and ultrasonography of the carotid arteries was performed. The respiratory quotient (fuel utilization index) was assessed by indirect calorimetry. A total of 18 had left ventricular concentric remodeling, 17 were normal. Between these two groups, a significant difference of intima-media thickness was showed (p = 0.015). Also a difference of respiratory quotient was shown with the highest value in those with remodeling (p = 0.038). At univariate and multivariate analysis, cardiac remodeling was associated with respiratory quotient (RQ) (p = 0.04; beta = 0.38; SE = 0.021; B = 0.044). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for respiratory quotient to predict remodeling was 0.72 (SE = 0.093; p = 0.031; RQ = 0.87; 72% sensitivity, 84% specificity). The respiratory quotient is significantly different between those participants with and without cardiac remodeling. Its measurement may help for interpreting the (patho)physiological mechanisms in the nutrients utilization of obese people with different response to dietary or pharmacological interventions. PMID:25470378
Adom, Theodosia; Puoane, Thandi; De Villiers, Anniza; Kengne, André Pascal
Introduction The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight in childhood in developing countries is a public health concern to many governments. Schools play a significant role in the obesity epidemic as well as provide favourable environments for change in behaviours in childhood which can be carried on into adulthood. There is dearth of information on intervention studies in poor-resource settings. This review will summarise the available evidence on school-based interventions that focused on promoting healthy eating and physical activity among learners aged 6–15 years in Africa and to identify factors that lead to successful interventions or potential barriers to success of these programmes within the African context. Methods and analysis This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRIMSA-P 2015. Relevant search terms and keywords generated from the subject headings and the African search filter will be used to conduct a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (PubMed), MEDLINE (EbscoHost), CINAHL (EbscoHost), Register Academic Search Complete (EbscoHost) and ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index) for published literature on school-based interventions to prevent and control obesity in learners in Africa. Grey literature will be also be obtained. The searches will cover 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2016. No language limitations will be applied. Full-text articles of eligible studies will be screened. Risk of bias and quality of reporting will be assessed. Data will be extracted, synthesised and presented by country and major regional groupings. Meta-analysis will be conducted for identical variables across studies, where data allow. This protocol is developed following the guidelines of PRISMA-P 2015. Ethics and dissemination No primary data will be collected hence ethics is not a requirement. The findings will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals, in conferences and in policy documents for decision-making, where needed. PMID
Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (SSD) are a special target of many obesity-prevention strategies, yet critical reviews tend to be more cautious regarding the aetiological role of SSD in promoting excess body weight. Since ongoing evaluation of this issue is important, the present systematic review re-examined the evidence from epidemiological studies and interventions, up to July 2008. Database searches of Medline, Cochrane reviews, Google scholar and a hand search of cross-references identified forty-four original studies (twenty-three cross-sectional, seventeen prospective and four intervention) in adults and children, as well as six reviews. These were critically examined for methodology, results and interpretation. Approximately half the cross-sectional and prospective studies found a statistically significant association between SSD consumption and BMI, weight, adiposity or weight gain in at least one subgroup. The totality of evidence is dominated by American studies where SSD consumption tends to be higher and formulations different. Most studies suggest that the effect of SSD is small except in susceptible individuals or at high levels of intake. Methodological weaknesses mean that many studies cannot detect whether soft drinks or other aspects of diet and lifestyle have contributed to excess body weight. Progress in reaching a definitive conclusion on the role of SSD in obesity is hampered by the paucity of good-quality interventions which reliably monitor diet and lifestyle and adequately report effect sizes. Of the three long-term (>6 months) interventions, one reported a decrease in obesity prevalence but no change in mean BMI and two found a significant impact only among children already overweight at baseline. Of the six reviews, two concluded that the evidence was strong, one that an association was probable, while three described it as inconclusive, equivocal or near zero. Reasons for some discrepancies are presented.
Slocum, Nikki; Durrant, Jessica R; Bailey, David; Yoon, Lawrence; Jordan, Holly; Barton, Joanna; Brown, Roger H; Clifton, Lisa; Milliken, Tula; Harrington, Wallace; Kimbrough, Carie; Faber, Catherine A; Cariello, Neal; Elangbam, Chandikumar S
Drug-induced weight loss in humans has been associated with undesirable side effects not present in weight loss from lifestyle interventions (caloric restriction or exercise). To investigate the mechanistic differences of weight loss by drug-induced and lifestyle interventions, we examined the gene expression (mRNA) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and conducted histopathologic assessments in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice given ephedrine (18 mg/kg/day orally), treadmill exercise (10 m/min, 1-h/day), and dietary restriction (DR: 26% dietary restriction) for 7 days. Exercise and DR mice lost more body weight than controls and both ephedrine and exercise reduced percent body fat. All treatments reduced BAT and liver lipid accumulation (i.e., cytoplasmic lipids in brown adipocytes and hepatocytes) and increased oxygen consumption (VO2 ml/kg/h) compared with controls. Mitochondrial biogenesis/function-related genes (TFAM, NRF1 and GABPA) were up-regulated in the BAT of all groups. UCP-1 was up-regulated in exercise and ephedrine groups, whereas MFSD2A was up-regulated in ephedrine and DR groups. PGC-1α up-regulation was observed in exercise and DR groups but not in ephedrine group. In all experimental groups, except for ephedrine, fatty acid transport and metabolism genes were up-regulated, but the magnitude of change was higher in the DR group. PRKAA1 was up-regulated in all groups but not significantly in the ephedrine group. ADRß3 was slightly up-regulated in the DR group only, whereas ESRRA remained unchanged in all groups. Although our data suggest a common pathway of BAT activation elicited by ephedrine treatment, exercise or DR, mRNA changes were indicative of additional nutrient-sensing pathways in exercise and DR.
Skelton, Joseph A; Irby, Megan Bennett; Geiger, Ann M
Pediatric obesity treatment programs report high attrition rates, but it is unknown if family experience and satisfaction contributes. This review surveys the literature regarding satisfaction in pediatric obesity and questions used in measurement. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsychINFO, and CINAHL. Studies of satisfaction in pediatric weight management were reviewed, and related studies of obesity were included. Satisfaction survey questions were obtained from the articles or from the authors. Eighteen studies were included; 14 quantitative and 4 qualitative. Only one study linked satisfaction to attrition, and none investigated the association of satisfaction and weight outcomes. Most investigations included satisfaction as a secondary aim or used single-item questions of overall satisfaction; only one assessed satisfaction in noncompleters. Overall, participants expressed high levels of satisfaction with obesity treatment or prevention programs. Surveys focused predominantly on overall satisfaction or specific components of the program. Few in-depth studies of satisfaction with pediatric obesity treatment have been conducted. Increased focus on family satisfaction with obesity treatment may provide an avenue to lower attrition rates and improve outcomes. Enhancing measurement of satisfaction to yield actionable responses could positively influence outcomes, and a framework, via patient-centered care principles, is provided.
Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Zeller, Meg H.
Objective To document and identify predictors of caregiver health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a sample of youth seeking obesity treatment and examine whether it moderates the relation between parent proxy and youth self-report HRQOL. Methods Youth (5–18 years) and their caregivers (N = 120) presenting to a pediatric medical weight management program completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ and caregivers completed the Short-Form 36. Results Caregivers were predominantly overweight/obese (90%) and half were African-American. Caregiver HRQOL was lower than “healthy” adults, similar to nontreatment-seeking adults with obesity, and better than treatment-seeking adults with obesity. Caregiver body mass index and socioeconomic status predicted caregiver physical HRQOL. Caregiver age predicted caregiver mental HRQOL. A moderation effect was not detected. Conclusions Given the significant degree of overweight and HRQOL impairment in caregivers of youth seeking obesity treatment, further examination of caregiver functioning in the context of pediatric obesity treatment outcomes is warranted. PMID:18641083
Sato, Priscila M.; Steeves, Elizabeth A.; Carnell, Susan; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Trude, Angela C.; Shipley, Cara; Mejía Ruiz, M. J.; Gittelsohn, Joel
B'More Healthy Community for Kids (BHCK) is an ongoing multi-level intervention to prevent childhood obesity in African-American low-income neighborhoods in Baltimore city, MD. Although previous nutrition interventions involving peer mentoring of youth have been successful, there is a lack of studies evaluating the influence of cross-age peers…
Eisenmann, Joey C; Gentile, Douglas A; Welk, Gregory J; Callahan, Randi; Strickland, Sarah; Walsh, Monica; Walsh, David A
Background Although several previous projects have attempted to address the issue of child obesity through school-based interventions, the overall effectiveness of school-based programs on health-related outcomes in youth has been poor. Thus, it has been suggested that multi-level interventions that aim to influence healthy lifestyle behaviors at the community, school and family levels may prove more successful in the prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design This paper describes the rationale, design, and implementation of a community-, school-, and family-based intervention aimed at modifying key behaviors (physical activity, screen time (Internet, television, video games), and nutrition) related to childhood obesity among third through fifth graders in two mid-western cities. The intervention involves a randomized study of 10 schools (5 intervention and 5 control schools). The intervention is being conducted during the duration of the academic year – approximately 9 months – and includes baseline and post-intervention measurements of physical activity, dietary intake, screen time and body composition. Discussion We hope this report will be useful to researchers, public health professionals, and school administrators and health professionals (nurses and physical/health educators) seeking to develop similar prevention programs. It is obvious that more collaborative, inter-disciplinary, multi-level work is needed before a proven, effective intervention package to modify behaviors related to childhood obesity can be generally recommended. It is our hope that SWITCH is a step in that direction. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00685555 PMID:18588706
Yamakawa, Jun-Ichi; Moriya, Junji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Nakatou, Mio; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Junji
The cause of obesity includes genetic and environmental factors, including cytokines derived from adipocytes (adipo-cytokines). Although drug therapy is available for obesity, it is highly risky. Our main focus in this review is on the traditional form of Japanese medicine, Kampo, in the treated of obesity. Two Kampo formulas, that is, bofutsushosan () and boiogito (), are covered by the national health insurance in Japan for the treatment of obesity. Various issues related to their action mechanisms remain unsolved. Considering these, we described the results of basic experiments and presented clinical evidence and case reports on osteoarthritis as examples of clinical application of their two Kampo medicine. Traditional medicine is used not only for treatment but also for prevention. In clinical practice, it is of great importance to prove the efficacy of combinations of traditional medicine and Western medicine and the utility of traditional medicine in the attenuation of adverse effects of Western medicine.
de Lartigue, Guillaume
This review highlights evidence for a role of the vagus nerve in the development of obesity and how targeting the vagus nerve with neuromodulation or pharmacology can be used as a therapeutic treatment of obesity. The vagus nerve innervating the gut plays an important role in controlling metabolism. It communicates peripheral information about the volume and type of nutrients between the gut and the brain. Depending on the nutritional status, vagal afferent neurons express two different neurochemical phenotypes that can inhibit or stimulate food intake. Chronic ingestion of calorie-rich diets reduces sensitivity of vagal afferent neurons to peripheral signals and their constitutive expression of orexigenic receptors and neuropeptides. This disruption of vagal afferent signalling is sufficient to drive hyperphagia and obesity. Furthermore neuromodulation of the vagus nerve can be used in the treatment of obesity. Although the mechanisms are poorly understood, vagal nerve stimulation prevents weight gain in response to a high-fat diet. In small clinical studies, in patients with depression or epilepsy, vagal nerve stimulation has been demonstrated to promote weight loss. Vagal blockade, which inhibits the vagus nerve, results in significant weight loss. Vagal blockade is proposed to inhibit aberrant orexigenic signals arising in obesity as a putative mechanism of vagal blockade-induced weight loss. Approaches and molecular targets to develop future pharmacotherapy targeted to the vagus nerve for the treatment of obesity are proposed. In conclusion there is strong evidence that the vagus nerve is involved in the development of obesity and it is proving to be an attractive target for the treatment of obesity.
Laron, Z; Silbergeld, A; Lilos, P; Blum, F W
Fifteen patients with primary GH resistance (Laron syndrome, LS) were studied before and during 6 months of daily replacement treatment with IGF-I. The main findings were that patients with LS and normal or high serum GH binding protein (GHBP) were less obese than those with a negative GHBP, and that serum leptin levels varied with body mass as in other types of obesity.
Kasalický, M; Fried, M; Pesková, M
Approximately 16% of male and 20% of female of the age from 20 to 65 years are obese in the Czech Republic. The restrictive bariatric procedure of stomach--gastric banding (GB) is one of possibilities to cure the morbid obese patients after failure of conservative therapy. The ratio of complications (5-18%) after GB presenting in various papers is comparable with the ratio of complications (4-23%) in others bariatric procedures. From 1993 to 1999, 517 morbid obese patients (mean BMI 51.1) underwent laparoscopic nonadjustable gastric banding (LNGB) at 1st Surgical Department, Charles University Teaching Faculty Hospital in Prague. As the early complications (during hospitalization) offered swelling of the gastric mucous in the place of GB in 5.6% (n = 29), the oesophagitis, the gastritis or the gastric ulcer in 1.5% (n = 9) and perforation of the stomach wall in 0.6% (n = 3). As the late complications offered the bleeding from peptic ulcer in 0.4% (n = 2), sequential migration of gastric band through the stomach wall inside in 0.6% (n = 3) and the slippage of anterior stomach wall or the dilatation of the pouch above gastric bandage in 5.1% (n = 26). The serious complications in 6.3% (n = 32) claimed surgical procedures. Other complications in 7.5% (n = 39) have been treated conservatively. The 86% (n = 446) of obese patients after LNGB were without complications.
Wilson, A Justine; Jung, Mary E; Cramp, Anita; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Prapavessis, Harry; Clarson, Cheril
This feasibility study assessed the effects of an exercise plus group-based self-regulatory skills intervention on obese youths' physical activity, social cognitions, body composition and strength. Forty-three obese youth (male = 13, BMI > 95th percentile; 10-16 yrs) completed this 12-week intervention. Assessments were taken at baseline, week 6, 13 and 12 weeks post-intervention (week 24). Although no attention control group (i.e. exercise only) was included in this study, participants engaged in significantly more self-reported physical activity at weeks 13 and 24 as compared to baseline. Social cognitions, body composition and strength were also positively impacted suggesting this intervention technique may be feasible for treating obese adolescents.
Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.
This guide provides assessment, education, and treatment strategies for children with Asperger syndrome. It discusses assessment, and provides guidelines for securing and implementing services and determines appropriate placement. The following recommendations are also provided for general intervention strategies: (1) skills, concept, appropriate…
Koh, Seong A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the similarity of outcomes from three different treatment integrity (TI) methods, and to identify the method which best corresponded to the assessment of a child's behavior. Six raters were recruited through individual contact via snowball sampling. A modified intervention component list and 19 video clips…
Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Barre, Laura K; Mueser, Kim T; Kinney, Allison; Bartels, Stephen J
Effective and scalable interventions are needed to reach a greater proportion of individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) who experience alarmingly high rates of obesity. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of translating an evidenced-based professional health coach model (In SHAPE) to peer health coaching for overweight and obese individuals with SMI. Key stakeholders collaborated to modify In SHAPE to include a transition from professional health coaching to individual and group-based peer health coaching enhanced by mobile health technology. Ten individuals with SMI were recruited from a public mental health agency to participate in a 6-month feasibility pilot study of the new model. There was no overall significant change in mean weight; however, over half (56 %) of participants lost weight by the end of the intervention with mean weight loss 2.7 ± 2.1 kg. Participants reported high satisfaction and perceived benefits from the program. Qualitative interviews with key stakeholders indicated that the intervention was implemented as planned. This formative research showed that peer health coaching for individuals with SMI is feasible. Further research is needed to evaluate its effectiveness.
Nambi-Joseph, Pushpa; Stanton-Hicks, Michael; Sferra, James J
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) applies to a variety of conditions in which symptoms such as allodynia and hyperalgesia predominate along with hyperpathia and vasomotor/sudomotor disturbances. The incidence of CRPS in the chronic pain population varies and is difficult to determine, though it appears to affect women more than men. Treatment is multidisciplinary, and recovery of function and the reduction of pain are the main goals of treatment;this article addresses some of the interventional modalities that are used.
The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults
Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S
Background Walking is a widely accepted and frequently targeted health promotion approach to increase physical activity (PA). Interventions to increase PA have produced only small improvements. Stronger and more potent behavioral intervention components are needed to increase time spent in PA, improve cardiometabolic risk markers, and optimize health. Objective Our aim is to present the rationale and methods from the WalkIT Trial, a 4-month factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) in inactive, overweight/obese adults. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate whether intensive adaptive components result in greater improvements to adults’ PA compared to the static intervention components. Methods Participants enrolled in a 2x2 factorial RCT and were assigned to one of four semi-automated, text message–based walking interventions. Experimental components included adaptive versus static steps/day goals, and immediate versus delayed reinforcement. Principles of percentile shaping and behavioral economics were used to operationalize experimental components. A Fitbit Zip measured the main outcome: participants’ daily physical activity (steps and cadence) over the 4-month duration of the study. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, psychosocial outcomes, aerobic fitness, and cardiorespiratory risk factors assessed pre/post in a laboratory setting. Participants were recruited through email listservs and websites affiliated with the university campus, community businesses and local government, social groups, and social media advertising. Results This study has completed data collection as of December 2014, but data cleaning and preliminary analyses are still in progress. We expect to complete analysis of the main outcomes in late 2015 to early 2016. Conclusions The Walking Interventions through Texting (WalkIT) Trial will further the understanding of theory-based intervention components to increase the PA of men and women who are healthy, insufficiently
Izadpanah, Ali; Angadi, Siddhartha S.; Barnard, R. James
Lifestyle intervention programs currently emphasize weight loss secondary to obesity as the primary determinant of phenotypic changes. We examined whether the effects of a short-term lifestyle intervention program differ in normal-weight versus overweight/obese children. Nineteen overweight/obese (O; BMI = 33.6 ± 1.9 kg/m2) and 14 normal-weight (N; BMI = 19.9 ± 1.5 kg/m2) children participated in a 2-wk program consisting of an ad libitum high-fiber, low-fat diet and daily exercise (2–2.5 h). Fasting serum samples were taken pre- and postintervention for determination of lipids, glucose homeostasis, inflammatory cytokines, and adipokines. Only the O group lost weight (3.9%) but remained overweight/obese (32.3 ± 1.9 kg/m2). Both groups exhibited significant intervention-induced decreases (P < 0.05) in serum insulin (N: 52.5% vs. O: 28.1%; between groups, P = 0.38), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (N: 53.1% vs. O: 28.4%, P = 0.43), leptin (N: 69.3% vs. O: 44.1%, P = 0.10), amylin (N: 28.7% vs. O: 26.1%, P = 0.80), resistin (N: 40.0% vs. O: 35.1%, P = 0.99), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (N: 30.8% vs. O: 25.6%, P = 0.59), IL-6 (N: 58.8% vs. O: 48.5%, P = 0.78), IL-8 (N: 46.0% vs. O: 42.2%, P = 0.49), and TNFα (N: 45.8% vs. O: 40.8%, P = 0.99). No associations between indices of weight change and phenotypic changes were noted. A short-term, intensive lifestyle modification program is effective in ameliorating metabolic risk factors in N and O children. These results suggest that obesity per se was not the primary driver of the phenotypes noted and that dietary intake and physical inactivity induce the phenotypic abnormalities. These data may have implications for the weight loss-independent management of cardiometabolic risk in pediatric populations. PMID:23883675
Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V
Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥18) after weight loss of ≥5% body weight with long term (≥12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of −1.56 kg (95% confidence interval −2.27 to −0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a −1.80 kg (−2.54 to −1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (−2.34 kg, −3.03 to −1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (−0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval −1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural
Leombruni, Paolo; Lavagnino, Luca; Fassino, Secondo
Topiramate is an anticonvulsant drug used for the treatment of epilepsy and prophylaxis of migraine. Some authors have proposed its use as a mood stabilizer and have reported its efficacy in reducing impulsiveness and improving mood regulation, possibly via its antagonism to glutamatergic transmission in the lateral hypothalamus, although this indication is still controversial. Weight loss is a side effect consistently reported in the medical literature in patients treated with topiramate. Given its potential role in stabilizing mood and reducing impulse control problems and weight, topiramate has been proposed as a treatment for obese patients with binge eating disorder (BED). The aim of this paper is to review published data on the efficacy and safety of topiramate for the treatment of obese subjects with BED. Although the evidence is preliminary, topiramate appears to be a relatively safe and effective treatment for obese subjects with BED. Limitations of the studies and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:19649212
van der Sande, M. A.; Walraven, G. E.; Milligan, P. J.; Banya, W. A.; Ceesay, S. M.; Nyan, O. A.; McAdam, K. P.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a family history of high-risk groups for major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was a significant risk factor for these conditions among family members in a study population in the Gambia, where strong community and family coherence are important determinants that have to be taken into consideration in promoting lifestyle changes. METHODS: We questioned 5389 adults as to any first-degree family history of major noncommunicable diseases (hypertension, obesity, diabetes and stroke), and measured their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI). Total blood cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, and creatinine concentrations were measured in a stratified subsample, as well as blood glucose (2 hours after ingesting 75 g glucose) in persons aged > or = 35 years. FINDINGS: A significant number of subjects reported a family history of hypertension (8.0%), obesity (5.4%), diabetes (3.3%) and stroke (1.4%), with 14.6% of participants reporting any of these NCDs. Subjects with a family history of hypertension had a higher diastolic BP and BMI, higher cholesterol and uric acid concentrations, and an increased risk of obesity. Those with a family history of obesity had a higher BMI and were at increased risk of obesity. Individuals with a family history of diabetes had a higher BMI and higher concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid, and their risk of obesity and diabetes was increased. Subjects with a family history of stroke had a higher BMI, as well as higher cholesterol, triglyceride and uric acid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A family history of hypertension, obesity, diabetes, or stroke was a significant risk factor for obesity and hyperlipidaemia. With increase of age, more pathological manifestations can develop in this high-risk group. Health professionals should therefore utilize every opportunity to include direct family members in health education. PMID:11357211
Kominiarek, Michelle A.; Gay, Franklin; Peacock, Nadine
Objective To investigate perceptions of minority pregnant women and providers about obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG), and to explore strategies to improve management of obesity in pregnancy with an emphasis on group prenatal care. Methods Sixteen primarily non-Hispanic black pregnant women with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and 19 prenatal care providers participated in focus groups. Discussion topics included GWG goals, body image, health behaviors, and group prenatal care with additional emphasis on provider training needs. Results Women frequently stated a GWG goal >20lbs. Women described a body image not in line with clinical recommendations (“200 pounds is not that big.”). They avoided the term “obese.” They were interested in learning about nutrition and culturally-acceptable healthy cooking. Women would enjoy massage and exercise in group settings, though definitions of “exercise” varied. Family members could help, but generational differences posed challenges. Most had to “encourage myself” and “do this for me and the baby.” Providers expressed discomfort discussing GWG and difficulty finding the right words for obesity, which was partially attributed to their own weight. They noted the challenges they faced during prenatal care including time constraints, cultural myths, and system issues. Providers considered a group setting with social support an ideal environment to address health behaviors in obese women. Conclusions Culturally-tailored programs that use acceptable terms for obesity, provide education regarding healthy eating and safe exercise, and encourage support from social networks may be effective in addressing GWG in obese minority women. Provider training in communication skills is necessary to address obesity in pregnancy. PMID:25652058
McGuire, Kevin J; Khaleel, Mohammed A; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Lurie, Jon D; Zhao, Wenyan; Weinstein, James N
Study Design/Setting SPORT subgroup analysis Objective To evaluate the effect of extreme obesity on management of lumbar spinal stenosis (SpS), degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS), and intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) Summary of Background Data Prior SPORT analyses compared nonobese and obese. This study compares nonobese to class I obesity and class II/III extreme obesity. Methods For SpS, 250/634 nonobese, 104/167 obese, and 59/94 extremely obese patients underwent surgery. For DS, 233/376 nonobese, 90/129 obese, and 66/96 extremely obese patients had surgery. For IDH, 542/854 nonobese, 151/207 obese, 94/129 extremely obese patients had surgery. Outcomes included SF-36, Oswestry Disability Index, Stenosis/Sciatica Bothersomeness Index, Low Back Pain Bothersomeness Index, operative events, complications, and reoperations. Results Extremely obese patients had increased comorbidities. Baseline SF-36 physical function scores were lower for obese; lowest for extremely obese. For SpS, surgical treatment effect and operative events among groups were not significantly different. For DS, 4-year SF-36 physical function scores had greatest treatment effect in extremely obese. This observation was found in most primary outcome measures, and is attributable to the significantly poorer nonoperative outcomes. Operative times and wound infection rates were greatest for the extremely obese. Additional surgery at 3 and 4 years was higher in both obese cohorts. For IDH, extremely obese experienced less improvement post-op than obese and nonobese; however, nonoperative treatment for extremely obese patients was worse, resulting in treatment effect still greater in almost all measures. Operative time was greatest for extremely obese. Blood loss and length of stay was greater for both obese cohorts compared to non-obese. Conclusions Extremely obese with DS experienced longer operative times and increased infection. Operative time was greatest for extremely obese with IDH. DS and
Davis, Sally M.; Myers, Orrin B.; Cruz, Theresa H.; Morshed, Alexandra B.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Keane, Patricia C.; O'Donald, Elena R.
Objective We examined the outcomes of the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study, a group randomized controlled trial to design, implement, and test the efficacy of a trans-community intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in Head Start centers in rural American Indian and Hispanic communities in New Mexico. Methods CHILE was a 5-year evidence-based intervention that used a socioecological approach to improving dietary intake and increasing physical activity of 1898 children. The intervention included a classroom curriculum, teacher and food service training, family engagement, grocery store participation, and healthcare provider support. Height and weight measurements were obtained four times (fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009, and spring of 2010), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in the intervention and comparison groups were compared. Results At baseline, demographic characteristics in the comparison and intervention groups were similar, and 33% of all the children assessed were obese or overweight. At the end of the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BMI z-scores. Conclusions Obesity prevention research among Hispanic and AI preschool children in rural communities is challenging and complex. Although the CHILE intervention was implemented successfully, changes in overweight and obesity may take longer than 2 years to achieve. PMID:27222162
Iezzi, Roberto; la Torre, Michele Fabio; Santoro, Marco; Dattesi, Roberta; Nestola, Massimiliano; Posa, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Jacopo; Citterio, Franco; Bonomo, Lorenzo
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic renal failure, which produces a dramatic improvement in the quality of life and survival rates, in comparison to long-term dialysis. Nowadays, new imaging modalities allow early diagnosis of complications, and thanks to the recent developments of interventional techniques, surgery may be avoided in most cases. Knowledge in the types of renal transplant complications is fundamental for a correct pre-operative planning. In this article, we described the most common or clinically relevant renal transplant complications and explained their interventional management.
la Torre, Michele Fabio; Santoro, Marco; Dattesi, Roberta; Nestola, Massimiliano; Posa, Alessandro; Romagnoli, Jacopo; Citterio, Franco; Bonomo, Lorenzo
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic renal failure, which produces a dramatic improvement in the quality of life and survival rates, in comparison to long-term dialysis. Nowadays, new imaging modalities allow early diagnosis of complications, and thanks to the recent developments of interventional techniques, surgery may be avoided in most cases. Knowledge in the types of renal transplant complications is fundamental for a correct pre-operative planning. In this article, we described the most common or clinically relevant renal transplant complications and explained their interventional management. PMID:25995689
Singh, A S; Chinapaw, M J M; Brug, J; van Mechelen, W
Health promotion programs benefit from an accompanying process evaluation since it can provide more insight in the strengths and weaknesses of a program. A process evaluation was conducted to assess the reach, implementation, satisfaction and maintenance of a school-based program aimed at the prevention of excessive weight gain among Dutch adolescents [Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT)]. Our process evaluation involved data collections by means of questionnaires among students, teachers, school board and site staff. The results indicated immense difficulties in the recruitment phase and therefore a low reach at school level. However, among adolescents of the schools that participated, the reach was high (84%). Furthermore, the classroom intervention was implemented successfully based on the number of lessons taught. Most teachers rated the DOiT-intervention positively; students rated the intervention 6.6 on a scale of 1-10. The majority of the teachers planned to implement the DOiT-intervention program in the future, as they perceived DOiT feasible for pre-vocational education students.
Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Warren, Zachary
Neuropsychiatric disorders vary substantially in age of onset but are best understood within the context of neurodevelopment. Here, we review opportunities for intervention at critical points in developmental trajectories. We begin by discussing potential opportunities to prevent neuropsychiatric disorders. Once symptoms begin to emerge, a number of interventions have been studied either before a diagnosis can be made or shortly after diagnosis. Although some of these interventions are helpful, few are based upon an understanding of pathophysiology, and most ameliorate rather than resolve symptoms. As such, in the next portion of the review, we turn our discussion to genetic syndromes that are rare phenocopies of common diagnoses such as autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia. Cellular or animal models of these syndromes point to specific regulatory or signaling pathways. As examples, findings from the mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes point to potential treatments now being tested in randomized clinical trials. Paralleling oncology, we can hope that our treatments will move from nonspecific, like chemotherapies thrown at a wide range of tumor types, to specific, like the protein kinase inhibitors that target molecularly defined tumors. Some of these targeted treatments later show benefit for a broader, yet specific, array of cancers. We can hope that medications developed within rare neurodevelopmental syndromes will similarly help subgroups of patients with disruptions in overlapping signaling pathways. The insights gleaned from treatment development in rare phenocopy syndromes may also teach us how to test treatments based upon emerging common genetic or environmental risk factors. PMID:25182180
Background There is a pressing need to develop effective and broadly accessible interventions to address pediatric obesity. An important dimension in translating interventions to community settings is evaluating the fidelity with which the intended treatment is delivered and the level of facilitator needed to deliver the intervention with efficacy. Purpose The primary objectives of this study were to: 1) provide descriptive information regarding adherence to protocol and non-specific facilitator characteristics (e.g. interpersonal characteristics, group management skills) within the context of a community based pediatric weight control intervention delivered by paraprofessionals; and 2) examine the relationships among facilitator adherence and characteristics and rate of change in percent overweight demonstrated by youth over the course of the 24-week intervention. Methods The intervention was conducted between February and September of 2011. Children (6–16 years) and parents completed primary outcome measures at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks (i.e. end of treatment). A 2-part rating form was developed to assess facilitator adherence to weekly content and general provider characteristics at two different time points during the intervention. Results Youth participating in this study were on average 11.3 years old (SD = 2.8), with most being under the age of 13 years (74.2%). Over half were female (54.8%) and over two-thirds were White (68.4%). On average, facilitators adhered to 96.0% (SD = 5.2%) of the session content at Time 1 and 92.6% (SD = 6.8%) at Time 2. Higher Content Adherence at Time 1 and Time 2 were associated with greater loss in percent overweight. Conclusions Our data suggest that paraprofessionals without prior expertise in pediatric weight control can be trained to successfully deliver an intervention that is evidence based and incorporates behavioral and educational components. These findings need to be considered in light of some
Lin, C; Andersen, J R; Våge, V; Rajalahti, T; Mjøs, S A; Kvalheim, O M
Serum fatty acid (FA) levels were monitored in women with severe obesity during intensive lifestyle intervention. At baseline, total FA levels and most individual FAs were elevated compared to a matching cohort of normal and overweight women (healthy controls). After 3 weeks of intensive lifestyle intervention, total level was only 11-12% higher than in the healthy controls and with almost all FAs being significantly lower than at baseline, but with levels of omega-3 being similar to the healthy controls. This is contrary to observations for patients subjected to bariatric surgery where omega-3 levels dropped to levels significantly lower than in the lifestyle patients and healthy controls. During the next 3 weeks of treatment, the FA levels in lifestyle patients were unchanged, while the weight loss continued at almost the same rate as in the first 3 weeks. Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and change of serum FA patterns were unrelated outcomes of the intervention for lifestyle patients. For bariatric patients, these processes were associated probably due to reduced dietary input and increased input from the patients' own fat deposits, causing a higher rate of weight loss and simultaneous reduction of the ratio of serum eicosapentaenoic to arachidonic acid.
Kitzmann, Katherine M.; Dalton, William T., III; Buscemi, Joanna
Many family-based treatments for pediatric obesity teach specific parenting practices related to weight management. Although youth in these programs show increases in positive health behaviors and reductions in the extent to which they are overweight, most remain overweight after treatment. A recent trend is to create tailored programs for…
And Others; Brownell, Kelly D.
Obese females were assigned to a standard behavioral treatment (SBT) group, a group receiving weight control manuals via mail (MMC), or a waiting list control condition. Results revealed superiority of both treatments over control condition. SBT subjects did better than MMC subjects. Weight loss for MMC subjects was minimal. (Author/BEF)
The need for effective treatments for pediatric overweight is well known. We evaluated the applicability of an evidence-based treatment in an applied clinic setting that includes children with severe obesity and comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. Forty-eight overweight children and their fa...
Popovic, Miroslav D.; Banicevic, Arnela Ceric; Popovic, Biljana; Ceric, Amela; Banicevic, Andrija; Popadic, Danijela
ABSTRACT Our 60-year-old patient menarche in 13-year, two delivery, last menstruation in 53-year, without uterine bleeding or any kind of symptomatology. The gynecological transvaginal ultrasound examination showed hyperplasio endometrii (20mm). After curettage, pathological examination was diagnostic polypus carcinomatoides. The patient with HTA and obesity was admitted to and operated on at the Gynecological Department due to endometrial carcinoma (FIGO stage IA1). Because of her giant obesity, BMI – 71.50 kg/m2, weight 219 kg and height 175cm, surgery by the abdominal approach was very difficult to perform, so vaginal hysterectomy was carried out. The procedure was completed within 127 minutes without any intraoperative complications. Blood loss was less than 100ml. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 7. The patient was followed up for 6 months after surgery. No complications or recurrence were reported during the 6-month follow up. PMID:24783920
Pagotto, Uberto; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato
The endocannabinoids are endogenous lipids capable of binding to both cannabinoid receptors (CB) CB1 and CB2. These receptors belong to the G protein-coupled family receptors and they were discovered while investigating the mode of action of ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, a component of Cannabis sativa, to which they bind with high affinity. Among many other brain sites, CB1 is present in the hypothalamic nuclei involved in the control of energy balance and body weight, as well as in neurons of the mesolimbic system which is believed to mediate the incentive value of food. At central nervous system level, CB1 activation is necessary to induce food intake after a short period of food deprivation, and when CB1 is activated by endocannabinoids produced in situ, a stimulation of the ingestion of palatable food has been described. CB1 stimulation leads to modulation of the release of some hypothalamic anorexigenic and orexigenic mediators, as well as of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens shell. Recent evidence has proved that CB1 is also present in the peripheral organs, such as the adipose tissue and gastrointestinal system, key organs in the regulation of energy metabolism. Animal models have provided solid evidence that genetically induced obesity leads to long-lasting overstimulation of endocannabinoid system synthesis resulting in permanent overactivation of CB1, which may then contribute to the maintenance of this disease. Importantly, at peripheral level, CB1 activation has been shown to stimulate lipogenesis in adipocytes. CB1 blockers increase adiponectin production in adipocytes, which leads to increased fatty acid oxidation and free fatty acid clearance. Moreover, CB1 has been shown to be up-regulated in adipocytes derived from obese rodents. These results support the role of endocannabinoids in the development and maintenance of obesity, paving the way for the development of a new class of drugs such as the CB1 blockers as a therapy for tackling obesity and the
Katzmarzyk, P T; Barlow, S; Bouchard, C; Catalano, P M; Hsia, D S; Inge, T H; Lovelady, C; Raynor, H; Redman, L M; Staiano, A E; Spruijt-Metz, D; Symonds, M E; Vickers, M; Wilfley, D; Yanovski, J A
The 2013 Pennington Biomedical Research Center's Scientific Symposium focused on the treatment and management of pediatric obesity and was designed to (i) review recent scientific advances in the prevention, clinical treatment and management of pediatric obesity, (ii) integrate the latest published and unpublished findings and (iii) explore how these advances can be integrated into clinical and public health approaches. The symposium provided an overview of important new advances in the field, which led to several recommendations for incorporating the scientific evidence into practice. The science presented covered a range of topics related to pediatric obesity, including the role of genetic differences, epigenetic events influenced by in utero development, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity status, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain on developmental programming of adiposity in offspring. Finally, the relative merits of a range of various behavioral approaches targeted at pediatric obesity were covered, together with the specific roles of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in pediatric populations. In summary, pediatric obesity is a very challenging problem that is unprecedented in evolutionary terms; one which has the capacity to negate many of the health benefits that have contributed to the increased longevity observed in the developed world.
Joharapurkar, Amit A; Dhanesha, Nirav A; Jain, Mukul R
Worldwide prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. Obesity is the result of interactions among the environmental factors, genetic predisposition, and human behavior. Even modest weight reduction in obese patients provides beneficial health outcomes. For effective weight reduction, a drug should either increase energy expenditure or decrease energy intake without causing serious adverse effects. To overcome lack of efficacy and central nervous system related side effects, exploitation of the peripheral mechanism of anti-obesity action is needed. Inhibition of pathological angiogenesis in adipose tissue is one such peripheral mechanism that has attracted the attention of researchers in this area. Although originally developed as anti-cancer agents, methionine aminopeptidase (MetAP2) inhibitors induce significant and sustained weight reduction. Here, we review preclinical and clinical pharmacology of MetAP2 inhibitors. Beloranib is a prototype MetAP2 inhibitor, and currently in advanced clinical trials for the treatment of obesity. Clinical data of beloranib indicate that MetAP2 inhibitors could be a future treatment option for weight reduction without serious adverse effects. Further clinical data from Phase III trials will add to our growing knowledge of MetAP2 inhibitor potential for anti-obesity therapy. PMID:24611021
Katzmarzyk, PT; Barlow, S; Bouchard, C; Catalano, PM; Hsia, DS; Inge, TH; Lovelady, C; Raynor, H; Redman, LM; Staiano, AE; Spruijt-Metz, D; Symonds, ME; Vickers, M; Wilfley, D; Yanovski, JA
The 2013 Pennington Biomedical Research Center’s Scientific Symposium focused on the treatment and management of pediatric obesity and was designed to (i) review recent scientific advances in the prevention, clinical treatment and management of pediatric obesity, (ii) integrate the latest published and unpublished findings and (iii) explore how these advances can be integrated into clinical and public health approaches. The symposium provided an overview of important new advances in the field, which led to several recommendations for incorporating the scientific evidence into practice. The science presented covered a range of topics related to pediatric obesity, including the role of genetic differences, epigenetic events influenced by in utero development, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity status, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain on developmental programming of adiposity in offspring. Finally, the relative merits of a range of various behavioral approaches targeted at pediatric obesity were covered, together with the specific roles of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in pediatric populations. In summary, pediatric obesity is a very challenging problem that is unprecedented in evolutionary terms; one which has the capacity to negate many of the health benefits that have contributed to the increased longevity observed in the developed world. PMID:24662696
Roujeau, Clara; Jockers, Ralf; Dam, Julie
After its discovery in 1994, leptin became the great hope as an anti-obesity treatment based on its ability to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure. However, treating obese people with exogenous leptin was unsuccessful in most cases since most of them present already high circulating leptin levels to which they do not respond anymore defining the so-called state of “leptin resistance.” Indeed, leptin therapy is unsuccessful to lower body weight in commonly obese people but effective in people with rare single gene mutations of the leptin gene. Consequently, treatment of obese people with leptin was given less attention and the focus of obesity research shifted toward the prevention and reversal of the state of leptin resistance. Many of these new promising approaches aim to restore or sensitize the impaired function of the leptin receptor by pharmacological means. The current review will focus on the different emerging therapeutic strategies in obesity research that are related to leptin and its receptor. PMID:25352831
Musella, Mario; Milone, Marco; Bellini, Marcello; Fernandez, Miguel Emilio Sosa; Fernandez, Loredana Maria Sosa; Leongito, Maddalena; Milone, Francesco
The prevalence of people who are overweight or obese has increased dramatically in high-income countries over the past 20 years. There is a strong association between obesity and infertility, and weight loss can result in increased fecundity in obese women. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the potential role of intragastric balloon in the treatment of obese-related infertility. This is a retrospective study. A chart review of 27 obese women seen between September 2003 and July 2008 was performed. They all presented with the diagnosis of infertility and had undergone endoscopic intragastric balloon positioning. Among these women who tried unsuccessfully to become pregnant before weight loss, 15 became pregnant afterward. The pregnancies proceeded without complications and ended with live births. An improvement in the fertility status after weight loss has been described, although data on fertility after weight loss following bariatric surgery are still limited. The results obtained in our experience are not different from data reported in literature for bariatric surgery. Therefore, balloon treatment might be effective in young infertile obese women who wish to become pregnant.
The mortality rate for respiratory failure resulting from obesity hypoventilation syndrome is high if it requires ventilator management. We describe a case of severe acute respiratory failure resulting from obesity hypoventilation syndrome (BMI, 60.2 kg/m2) successfully treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO). During ECMO management, a mucus plug was removed by bronchoscopy daily and 18 L of water was removed using diuretics, resulting in weight loss of 24 kg. The patient was weaned from ECMO on day 5, extubated on day 16, and discharged on day 21. The fundamental treatment for obesity hypoventilation syndrome in morbidly obese patients is weight loss. VV-ECMO can be used for respiratory support until weight loss has been achieved. PMID:28326202
Pandey, Shilpi; Pandey, Suruchi; Maheshwari, Abha; Bhattacharya, Siladitya
The rising prevalence of obesity has had a profound impact on female reproductive health. Increased body mass index (BMI) is associated with ovulatory subfertility and anovulatory infertility. Overweight and obese women have poorer outcomes following fertility treatment. They respond poorly to clomiphene induction of ovulation and require higher doses of gonadotrophins for ovulation induction and superovulation. Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction produces fewer follicles resulting in the harvest of fewer oocytes. Fertilization rates are poorer and the embryo quality is impaired in younger women who are obese. Pregnancy rate in some studies is lower and there is an increased risk of early pregnancy loss. Weight loss regularizes menstrual cycles and increases the chance of spontaneous ovulation and conception in anovulatory overweight and obese women. Gradual sustained weight loss is beneficial whereas crash dieting is detrimental.