Science.gov

Sample records for objective accommodation measurements

  1. Maximum human objectively measured pharmacologically stimulated accommodative amplitude.

    PubMed

    Grzybowski, Andrzej; Schachar, Ronald A; Gaca-Wysocka, Magdalena; Schachar, Ira H; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2018-01-01

    To measure the maximum, objectively measured, accommodative amplitude, produced by pharmacologic stimulation. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were enrolled, with a mean age of 20.2±1.1 years, corrected visual acuity of 20/20, and mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER) =-0.83±1.60 diopters. For each subject, the right pupil was dilated with phenylephrine 10%. After 30 minutes, the pupil was measured, the left eye was patched, and the right eye was autorefracted. Pilocarpine 4% was then instilled in the right eye, followed by phenylephrine. At 45 minutes after the pilocarpine, autorefraction and pupil size were again measured. Mean pupil size pre- and postpilocarpine was 8.0±0.8 mm and 4.4±1.9 mm, respectively. Pre- and postpilocarpine, the mean SER was -0.83±1.60 and -10.55±4.26 diopters, respectively. The mean pilocarpine-induced accommodative amplitude was 9.73±3.64 diopters. Five subjects had accommodative amplitudes ≥14.00 diopters. Accommodative amplitude was not significantly related to baseline SER ( p -value =0.24), pre- or postpilocarpine pupil size ( p -values =0.13 and 0.74), or change in pupil size ( p -value =0.37). Iris color did not statistically significantly affect accommodative amplitude ( p -value =0.83). Following topically applied pilocarpine, the induced objectively measured accommodation in the young eye is greater than or equal to the reported subjectively measured voluntary maximum accommodative amplitude.

  2. Objective measurement of accommodative biometric changes using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To demonstrate that ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can be used for objective quantitative measurements of anterior segment accommodative changes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA. DESIGN Prospective cross-sectional study. METHODS Anterior segment biometric changes in response to 0 to 6.0 diopters (D) of accommodative stimuli in 1.0 D steps were measured in eyes of human subjects aged 21 to 36 years. Imaging was performed in the left eye using a 35 MHz UBM (Vumax) and an A-scan ultrasound (A-5500) while the right eye viewed the accommodative stimuli. An automated Matlab image-analysis program was developed to measure the biometry parameters from the UBM images. RESULTS The UBM-measured accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior lens radius of curvature, posterior lens radius of curvature, and anterior segment length were statistically significantly (P < .0001) linearly correlated with accommodative stimulus amplitudes. Standard deviations of the UBM-measured parameters were independent of the accommodative stimulus demands (ACD 0.0176 mm, lens thickness 0.0294 mm, anterior lens radius of curvature 0.3350 mm, posterior lens radius of curvature 0.1580 mm, and anterior segment length 0.0340 mm). The mean difference between the A-scan and UBM measurements was −0.070 mm for ACD and 0.166 mm for lens thickness. CONCLUSIONS Accommodating phakic eyes imaged using UBM allowed visualization of the accommodative response, and automated image analysis of the UBM images allowed reliable, objective, quantitative measurements of the accommodative intraocular biometric changes. PMID:25804579

  3. [Comparison study on subjective and objective measurements of the accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-jing; Xu, Dan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Jian; Lü, Fan

    2012-05-01

    To detect the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios measured respectively by objective and subjective methods. The differences and its relative factors were explored. Forty young volunteers were measured by eye tracker to get the amount of convergence when fixating at the target at 100 cm, 50 cm, 33 cm and 25 cm and were measured by infrared auto-refractor to get corresponding accommodative responses. AC/A ratio based on these two measurements were compared with the calculated and the gradient AC/A ratio from Von Graefe tests. Mean value of stimulated AC/A ratio measured by eye tracker was higher than the calculated and gradient AC/A ratio by Von Graefe method (P = 0.003, 0.001). There are statistic correlation (r = 0.871, P = 0.000) and difference (P = 0.000) between stimulated AC/A ratio and response AC/A ratios both measured by eye tracker, and the difference trends to be greater with the higher AC/A ratio. The objective AC/A ratio is usually higher than the clinical subjective measurement because of more proximal effect. The response AC/A ratio measured objectively may reveal realistically the mutual effect and relationship between accommodation and convergence and it seems to be more credible to be the monitor parameter on progression of myopia in clinics.

  4. Minus-Lens–Stimulated Accommodative Amplitude Decreases Sigmoidally with Age: A Study of Objectively Measured Accommodative Amplitudes from Age 3

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Heather A.; Hentz, Gloria; Glasser, Adrian; Stuebing, Karla K.; Manny, Ruth E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Guidelines for predicting accommodative amplitude by age are often based on subjective push-up test data that overestimate the accommodative response. Studies in which objective measurements were used have defined expected amplitudes for adults, but expected amplitudes for children remain unknown. In this study, objective methods were used to measure accommodative amplitude in a wide age range of individuals, to define the relationship of amplitude and age from age 3. Methods Accommodative responses were measured in 140 subjects aged 3 to 40 years. Measurements were taken with the Grand Seiko autorefractor (RyuSyo Industrial Co., Ltd., Kagawa, Japan) as the subjects viewed a high-contrast target at 33 cm through minus lenses of increasing power until the responses showed no further increase in accommodation. Results The maximum accommodative amplitude of each subject was plotted by age, and a curvilinear function fit to the data: y = 7.33 − 0.0035(age − 3)2 (P < 0.001). Tangent analysis of the fit indicated that the accommodative amplitude remained relatively stable until age 20. Data from this study were then pooled with objective amplitudes from previous studies of adults up to age 70. A sigmoidal function was fit to the data: y = 7.083/(1 + e[0.2031(age-36.2)−0.6109]) (P < 0.001). The sigmoidal function indicated relatively stable amplitudes below age 20 years, a rapid linear decline between 20 and 50 years, and a taper to 0 beyond 50 years. Conclusions These data indicate that accommodative amplitude decreases in a curvilinear manner from 3 to 40 years. When combined with data from previous studies, a sigmoidal function describes the overall trend throughout life with the biggest decrease occurring between 20 and 50 years. PMID:18326693

  5. Temporal accommodation response measured by photorefractive accommodation measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Byoungsub; Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul

    2017-02-01

    Although accommodation response plays an important role in the human vision system for perception of distance, some three-dimensional (3D) displays offer depth stimuli regardless of the accommodation response. The consequence is that most observers watching 3D displays have complained about visual fatigue. The measurement of the accommodation response is therefore necessary to develop human-friendly 3D displays. However, only few studies about accommodation measurement have been reported. Most of the investigations have been focused on the measurement and analysis of monocular accommodation responses only because the accommodation response works individually in each eye. Moreover, a main eye perceives dominantly the object distance. However, the binocular accommodation response should be examined because both eyes are used to watch the 3D display in natural conditions. The ophthalmic instrument that we developed enabled to measure changes in the accommodation response of the two eyes simultaneously. Two cameras acquired separately the infrared images reflected from each eyes after the reflected beams passed through a cylindrical lens. The changes in the accommodation response could then be estimated from the changes in the astigmatism ratio of the infrared images that were acquired in real time. In this paper, we compared the accommodation responses of main eye between the monocular and the binocular conditions. The two eyes were measured one by one, with only one eye opened, during measurement for monocular condition. Then the two eyes were examined simultaneously for binocular condition. The results showed similar tendencies for main eye accommodation response in both cases.

  6. [Objective accommodation parameters depending on accommodation task].

    PubMed

    Tarutta, E P; Tarasova, N A; Dolzhenko, O O

    2011-01-01

    62 myopic patients were examined to study objective accommodation parameters in different conditions of accommodation stimulus presenting (use of convex lenses). Objective accommodation response (OAR) was studied using binocular open-field autorefractometer in different conditions of stimulus presenting: complete myopia correction and adding of convex lenses with increasing power from +1.0 till +3.0 D. In 88,5% of children and adolescents showed significant decrease of OAR for 1,5-2,75D in 3.0D stimulus. Additional correction with convex lenses with increasing power leads to further reduce of accommodation response. As a result induced dynamic refraction in eye-lens system is lower than accommodation task. Only addition of +2,5D lense approximates it to required index of -3.0D.

  7. Subjective vs Objective Accommodative Amplitude: Preschool to Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Heather A.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study compared subjective and objective accommodative amplitudes to characterize changes from preschool to presbyopia. Methods Monocular accommodative amplitude was measured with three techniques in random order (subjective push-up, objective minus lens stimulated, and objective proximal stimulated) on 236 subjects 3–64 years using a 1.5mm letter. Subjective push-up amplitudes were the dioptric distance at which the target first blurred along a near-point rod. Objective minus lens stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at 33cm through increasing minus lens powers. Objective proximal stimulated amplitudes were the greatest accommodative response obtained by Grand Seiko autorefraction as subjects viewed the stimulus at increasing proximity from 40cm up to 3.33cm. Results In comparison with subjective push-up amplitudes, objective amplitudes were lower at all ages, with the most dramatic difference occurring in the 3–5 year group (subjective push-up = 16.00 ± 4.98D versus objective proximal stimulated = 7.94 ± 2.37D and objective lens stimulated = 6.20 ± 1.99D). Objective proximal and lens stimulated amplitudes were largest in the 6–10 year group (8.81 ± 1.24D and 8.05 ± 1.82D, respectively) and gradually decreased until the fourth decade of life when a rapid decline to presbyopia occurred. There was a significant linear relationship between objective techniques (y = 0.74 + 0.96x, R2 = 0.85, p<0.001) with greater amplitudes measured for the proximal stimulated technique (mean difference = 0.55D). Conclusions Objective measurements of accommodation demonstrate that accommodative amplitude is substantially less than that measured by the subjective push-up technique, particularly in young children. These findings have important clinical implications for the management of uncorrected hyperopia. PMID:25602235

  8. Accommodation modulates the individual difference between objective and subjective measures of the final convergence step response.

    PubMed

    Jainta, S; Hoormann, J; Jaschinski, W

    2009-03-01

    Measuring vergence eye movements with dichoptic nonius lines (subjectively) usually leads to an overestimation of the vergence state after a step response: a subjective vergence overestimation (SVO). We tried to reduce this SVO by presenting a vergence stimulus that decoupled vergence and accommodation during the step response, i.e. reduced the degree of 'forced vergence'. In a mirror-stereoscope, we estimated convergence step responses with nonius lines presented at 1000 ms after a disparity step-stimulus and compared it to objective recordings (EyeLink II; n = 6). We presented a vertical line, a cross/rectangle stimulus and a difference-of-gaussians (DOG) pattern. For 180 min arc step stimuli, the subjective measures revealed a larger final vergence response than the objective measure; for the vertical line this SVO was 20 min arc, while it was significantly smaller for the DOG (12 min arc). For 60 min arc step-responses, no overestimation was observed. Additionally, we measured accommodation, which changed more for the DOG-pattern compared with the line-stimulus; this relative increase correlated with the corresponding relative change of SVO (r = 0.77). Both findings (i.e. no overestimation for small steps and a weaker one for the DOG-pattern) reflect lesser conflicting demand on accommodation and vergence under 'forced-vergence' viewing; consequently, sensory compensation is reduced and subjective and objective measures of vergence step responses tend to agree.

  9. Objective Amplitude of Accommodation Computed from Optical Quality Metrics Applied to Wavefront Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, Norberto; Fernández-Sánchez, Vicente; Thibos, Larry N.; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We studied the accuracy and precision of 32 objective wavefront methods for finding the amplitude of accommodation obtained in 180 eyes. Methods Ocular accommodation was stimulated with 0.5 D steps in target vergence spanning the full range of accommodation for each subject. Subjective monocular amplitude of accommodation was measured using two clinical methods, using negative lenses and with a custom Badal optometer. Results Both subjective methods gave similar results. Results obtained from the Badal optometer where used to test the accuracy of the objective methods. All objective methods showed lower amplitude of accommodation that the subjective ones by an amount that varied from 0.2 to 1.1 D depending on the method. The precision in this prediction also varied between subjects, with an average standard error of the mean of 0.1 D that decreased with age. Conclusions Depth of field increases subjective of amplitude of accommodation overestimating the objective amplitude obtained with all the metrics used. The change in the negative direction of spherical aberration during accommodation increases the amplitude of accommodation by an amount that varies with age.

  10. Accommodation measurements of horizontally scanning holographic display.

    PubMed

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Yokouchi, Masahito

    2012-02-13

    Eye accommodation is considered to function properly for three-dimensional (3D) images generated by holography. We developed a horizontally scanning holographic display technique that enlarges both the screen size and viewing zone angle. A 3D image generated by this technique can be easily seen by both eyes. In this study, we measured the accommodation responses to a 3D image generated by the horizontally scanning holographic display technique that has a horizontal viewing zone angle of 14.6° and screen size of 4.3 in. We found that the accommodation responses to a 3D image displayed within 400 mm from the display screen were similar to those of a real object.

  11. Short-term adaptation of accommodation, accommodative vergence and disparity vergence facility.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M

    2012-06-01

    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 ms before training and 100 ms after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-Term Adaptation of Accommodation, Accommodative Vergence and Disparity Vergence Facility

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, James; Tong, Jianliang; Schor, Clifton M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have found that subjects can increase the velocity of accommodation using visual exercises such as pencil push ups, flippers, Brock strings and the like and myriad papers have shown improvement in accommodation facility (speed) and sufficiency (amplitude) using subjective tests following vision training but few have objectively measured accommodation before and after training in either normal subjects or in patients diagnosed with accommodative infacility (abnormally slow dynamics). Accommodation is driven either directly by blur or indirectly by way of neural crosslinks from the vergence system. Until now, no study has objectively measured both accommodation and accommodative-vergence before and after vision training and the role vergence might play in modifying the speed of accommodation. In the present study, accommodation and accommodative-vergence were measured with a Purkinje Eye Tracker/Optometer before and after normal subjects trained in a flipper-like task in which the stimulus stepped between 0 and 2.5 diopters and back for over 200 cycles. Most subjects increased their speed of accommodation as well as their speed of accommodative vergence. Accommodative vergence led the accommodation response by approximately 77 msec before training and 100 msec after training and the vergence lead was most prominent in subjects with high accommodation and vergence velocities and the vergence leads tended to increase in conjunction with increases in accommodation velocity. We surmise that volitional vergence may help increase accommodation velocity by way of vergence-accommodation cross links. PMID:22480879

  13. Accommodation response measurements for integral 3D image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiura, H.; Mishina, T.; Arai, J.; Iwadate, Y.

    2014-03-01

    We measured accommodation responses under integral photography (IP), binocular stereoscopic, and real object display conditions, and viewing conditions of binocular and monocular viewing conditions. The equipment we used was an optometric device and a 3D display. We developed the 3D display for IP and binocular stereoscopic images that comprises a high-resolution liquid crystal display (LCD) and a high-density lens array. The LCD has a resolution of 468 dpi and a diagonal size of 4.8 inches. The high-density lens array comprises 106 x 69 micro lenses that have a focal length of 3 mm and diameter of 1 mm. The lenses are arranged in a honeycomb pattern. The 3D display was positioned 60 cm from an observer under IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. The target was presented at eight depth positions relative to the 3D display: 15, 10, and 5 cm in front of the 3D display, on the 3D display panel, and 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm behind the 3D display under the IP and binocular stereoscopic display conditions. Under the real object display condition, the target was displayed on the 3D display panel, and the 3D display was placed at the eight positions. The results suggest that the IP image induced more natural accommodation responses compared to the binocular stereoscopic image. The accommodation responses of the IP image were weaker than those of a real object; however, they showed a similar tendency with those of the real object under the two viewing conditions. Therefore, IP can induce accommodation to the depth positions of 3D images.

  14. Simultaneous refraction measurement and OCT axial biometry of the eye during accommodation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Freitas, Carolina; Hernandez, Victor M.; Ruggeri, Marco; Durkee, Heather A.; Williams, Siobhan; Gregori, Giovanni; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate a system that will enable objective assessment of the optical accommodative response in real-time while acquiring axial biometric information. The system combines three sub-systems which were integrated and mounted on a joystick x-y-z adjustable modified slit-lamp base to facilitate alignment and data acquisition: (1) a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for dynamic refraction measurement, provided software calculates sphere, cylinder and axis values, (2) an extended-depth Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system using an optical switch records high-resolution cross-sectional images across the length of the eye, from which, dynamic axial biometry (corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens thickness and vitreous depth) can be extracted, and (3) a modified dual-channel accommodation stimulus unit based on the Badal optometer for providing a step change in accommodative stimulus. The prototypal system is capable of taking simultaneous measurements of both the optical and the mechanical response of lens accommodation. These measurements can provide insight into correlating changes in lens shape with changes in lens power and ocular refraction and ultimately provide a more comprehensive understanding of accommodation, presbyopia and an objective assessment of presbyopia correction techniques.

  15. Effect of heterophoria measurement technique on the clinical accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Jaime Bernal; Rosenfield, Mark

    2006-05-01

    Measurement of the stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio is a standard procedure in clinical optometric practice. Typically, heterophoria is assessed at several accommodative stimulus levels, and the gradient of the vergence to accommodation function computed. A number of procedures are available for the subjective measurement of heterophoria, but it is unclear whether the use of different vergence measurement techniques will alter the obtained AC/A value. Accordingly, the current study compared AC/A ratios measured using 3 clinical subjective heterophoria tests, namely the von Graefe (VG), Maddox Rod (MR), and Modified Thorington (MT) procedures. The AC/A ratio was measured in 60 visually normal subjects between 20 and 25 years of age using each of the 3 procedures listed above. The accommodative stimulus was varied by the introduction of +/-1.00 diopter (D) spherical lenses over the distance refractive correction while subjects viewed a target at a viewing distance of 40 cm. To examine the repeatability of each procedure, the AC/A ratio was measured on 2 separate occasions for each measurement technique, with the 2 sessions being separated by at least 24 hours. Mean values of stimulus AC/A ratio measured using the VG, MR, and MT procedures were 3.47, 2.99, and 2.46Delta/D, respectively. These differences were significant (p=0.0001). In addition, the coefficient of repeatability for the 3 techniques was 2.22, 1.99, and 1.20 Delta/D, respectively. Ratios obtained using the Modified Thorington technique with +/-1.00 D lenses showed the best repeatability, whereas the poorest repeatability was found with the von Graefe technique when only +1.00 D lenses were used to vary the accommodative stimulus. Accordingly, we recommend that that Modified Thorington procedure with +/-1.00 D lenses be used to quantify heterophoria during clinical measurement of the stimulus AC/A ratio.

  16. Influence of accommodative lag upon the far-gradient measurement of accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio in strabismic patients.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Manabu; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    To determine the influence of the lag of accommodation (LOA) on the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio measured by the far-gradient method in strabismic patients. The AC/A ratio was measured with a distance target viewed with and without -3.00 diopter (D) addition lenses in 63 patients with different types of strabismus (age range, 7-34 years; range of strabismic angle, -60 to +40 prism diopters; refractive error range, -7.33 to +6.63 D). The LOA for the same lens was measured with an open-view-type autorefractometer. The stimulus AC/A ratio and the AC/A ratio adjusted by the individually measured LOA (adjusted AC/A ratio) were compared. The mean +/- SD of the LOA to the -3.00 D lenses was 1.06 +/- 0.43 D. The mean adjusted AC/A ratio was 41% greater than the stimulus AC/A ratio. The LOA differed widely among patients (0.13 to 2.14 D), and a large LOA tended to appear in myopic or young patients. The AC/A ratio obtained using the conventional far-gradient method is significantly biased by the LOA, and thus does not always represent the actual relationship between accommodation and vergence control systems. Copyright Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2006.

  17. Accommodation and age-dependent eye model based on in vivo measurements.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Díaz, Juan F; Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil; López-Gil, Norberto

    2018-03-21

    To develop a flexible model of the average eye that incorporates changes with age and accommodation in all optical parameters, including entrance pupil diameter, under photopic, natural, environmental conditions. We collated retrospective in vivo measurements of all optical parameters, including entrance pupil diameter. Ray-tracing was used to calculate the wavefront aberrations of the eye model as a function of age, stimulus vergence and pupil diameter. These aberrations were used to calculate objective refraction using paraxial curvature matching. This was also done for several stimulus positions to calculate the accommodation response/stimulus curve. The model predicts a hyperopic change in distance refraction as the eye ages (+0.22D every 10 years) between 20 and 65 years. The slope of the accommodation response/stimulus curve was 0.72 for a 25 years-old subject, with little change between 20 and 45 years. A trend to a more negative value of primary spherical aberration as the eye accommodates is predicted for all ages (20-50 years). When accommodation is relaxed, a slight increase in primary spherical aberration (0.008μm every 10 years) between 20 and 65 years is predicted, for an age-dependent entrance pupil diameter ranging between 3.58mm (20 years) and 3.05mm (65 years). Results match reasonably well with studies performed in real eyes, except that spherical aberration is systematically slightly negative as compared with the practical data. The proposed eye model is able to predict changes in objective refraction and accommodation response. It has the potential to be a useful design and testing tool for devices (e.g. intraocular lenses or contact lenses) designed to correct the eye's optical errors. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in dynamics of accommodation after accommodative facility training in myopes and emmetropes.

    PubMed

    Allen, Peter M; Charman, W Neil; Radhakrishnan, Hema

    2010-05-12

    This study evaluates the effect of accommodative facility training in myopes and emmetropes. Monocular accommodative facility was measured in nine myopes and nine emmetropes for distance and near. Subjective facility was recorded with automated flippers and objective measurements were simultaneously taken with a PowerRefractor. Accommodative facility training (a sequence of 5 min monocular right eye, 5 min monocular left eye, 5 min binocular) was given on three consecutive days and facility was re-assessed on the fifth day. The results showed that training improved the facility rate in both groups. The improvement in facility rates were linked to the time constants and peak velocity of accommodation. Some changes in amplitude seen in emmetropes indicate an improvement in facility rate at the expense of an accurate accommodation response. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Changes in Ciliary Muscle Thickness with Accommodation in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lossing, Laura Ashley; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Kao, Chiu-Yen; Richdale, Kathryn; Bailey, Melissa D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop a measurement protocol for changes in the shape and size of the ciliary muscle with accommodation using the Zeiss Visante™ Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer (AS-OCT) and to determine the test-retest repeatability of these measurements. Methods Subjects were 25 adults ages 23–28 years. The ciliary muscle was imaged at two visits with the Visante™ while accommodative response was monitored during imaging using the PowerRefractor. Ciliary muscle thickness was measured at 1 mm (CMT1), 2 mm (CMT2), and 3 mm (CMT3) posterior to the scleral spur and at the point of maximal thickness (CMTMAX). Thickness was measured at these locations while subjects viewed a target at distance and at a 4.00-D accommodative stimulus. Outcome measures were the change in thickness between distance and the 4.00-D stimulus and the change in thickness per diopter of accommodative response (PowerRefractor). Finally, the repeatability measurements between visit 1 and visit 2 were determined with a Bland-Altman analysis. Results The statistically significant modeled changes in ciliary muscle thickness were as follows: CMTMAX = 69.2 μm (4.00-D stimulus) and 18.1 μm (per diopter of accommodation); CMT1 = 45.2 μm (4.00-D stimulus) and 12.3 μm (per diopter of accommodation); and CMT3 = −45.9 μm (4.00-D stimulus) and −12.0 μm (per diopter of accommodation); p < 0.0001 for all. Conclusions The combination of the Visante™ and the PowerRefractor is a feasible tool for measuring thickening of ciliary muscle at more anterior locations and thinning at more posterior locations during accommodation. We noted a wide range of accommodative responses during the time of image capture in this study indicating that the most accurate estimates of the change in ciliary muscle dimensions with accommodation may be obtained by using accommodative response rather than stimulus values and by using measurements taken simultaneously with image capture. PMID:22504328

  20. The Case for Reasonable Accommodation of Conscientious Objections to Declarations of Brain Death.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L Syd M

    2016-03-01

    Since its inception in 1968, the concept of whole-brain death has been contentious, and four decades on, controversy concerning the validity and coherence of whole-brain death continues unabated. Although whole-brain death is legally recognized and medically entrenched in the United States and elsewhere, there is reasonable disagreement among physicians, philosophers, and the public concerning whether brain death is really equivalent to death as it has been traditionally understood. A handful of states have acknowledged this plurality of viewpoints and enacted "conscience clauses" that require "reasonable accommodation" of religious and moral objections to the determination of death by neurological criteria. This paper argues for the universal adoption of "reasonable accommodation" policies using the New Jersey statute as a model, in light of both the ongoing controversy and the recent case of Jahi McMath, a child whose family raised religious objections to a declaration of brain death. Public policies that accommodate reasonable, divergent viewpoints concerning death provide a practical and compassionate way to resolve those conflicts that are the most urgent, painful, and difficult to reconcile.

  1. Full-Field Accommodation in Rhesus Monkeys Measured Using Infrared Photorefraction

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin; Wendt, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Full-field photorefraction was measured during accommodation in anesthetized monkeys to better understand the monkey as a model of human accommodation and how accommodation affects off-axis refraction. Methods. A photorefraction camera was rotated on a 30-cm-long rod in a horizontal arc, with the eye at the center of curvature of the arc so that the measurement distance remained constant. The resistance of a potentiometer attached to the rotation center of the rod changed proportionally with the rotation angle. Photorefraction and rotation angle were simultaneously measured at 30 Hz. Trial-lens calibrations were performed on-axis and across the full field in each eye. Full-field refraction measurements were compared using on-axis and full-field calibrations. In five iridectomized monkeys (mean age in years ± SD: 12.8 ± 0.9), full-field refraction was measured before and during carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation, a total of seven times (with one repeat each in two monkeys). Results. Measurements over approximately 20 seconds had <0.1 D of variance and an angular resolution of 0.1°, from at least −30° to 30°. Photorefraction calibrations performed over the full field had a maximum variation in the calibration slopes within one eye of 90%. Applying full-field calibrations versus on-axis calibrations resulted in a decrease in the maximum SDs of the calculated refractions from 1.99 to 0.89 D for relative peripheral refractive error and from 4.68 to 1.99 D for relative accommodation. Conclusions. By applying full-field calibrations, relative accommodation in pharmacologically stimulated monkeys was found to be similar to that reported with voluntary accommodation in humans. PMID:22125278

  2. Static and Dynamic Measurements of Accommodation in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Manny, Ruth E.; Glasser, Adrian; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To identify whether static and dynamic aspects of accommodation other than accuracy are deficient in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and whether poor accommodation is related to sensory or motor pathway deficits. Methods. Static aspects of accommodation (maximum accommodative response and lag) were measured with an autorefractor for both proximal and minus lens demands. Dynamic aspects of accommodation (latency, peak velocity, microfluctuations) were recorded at 30 Hz with a custom-built photorefractor as subjects viewed a movie switching between 11 m and 50, 33, 25, or 20 cm. Thirty-six subjects with DS were recruited (age 3 to 39 years), and 24 (67%) had useable responses for at least one study measurement for comparison with 140 controls (3 to 40 years) from a previously published cohort. Results. DS subjects had lower maximum accommodative responses (mean = 2.52 ± 1.66 D) and higher lags (1.81 ± 1.30 D for 33 cm demand) than controls for both proximal and minus lens stimuli. DS subjects had greater microfluctuations (one-way ANCOVA, P < 0.001), and a small percentage of the total number of latency measurements (17% accommodative and 16% disaccommodative) were longer than controls. Peak velocities of accommodation and disaccommodation were not different between groups (one-way ANCOVA, P = 0.143). Conclusions. Peak velocities of accommodation and disaccommodation (primarily motor aspects) did not differ between controls and DS subjects; however, latencies (primarily sensory) and microfluctuations (combined motor and sensory) were poorer in DS subjects. These results suggest that poor accommodative accuracy in individuals with DS may be predominantly related to sensory deficits. PMID:20739471

  3. Crystalline lens MTF measurement during simulated accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, David; Takeuchi, Gaku; Ziebarth, Noel; Acosta, Ana C.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To design and test an optical system to measure the optical quality of post mortem lenses during simulated accommodation. Methods: An optical bench top system was designed to measure the point spread function and calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of monkey and human ex-vivo crystalline lenses. The system consists of a super luminescent diode emitting at 850nm, collimated into a 3mm beam which is focused by the ex-vivo lens under test. The intensity distribution at the focus (point spread function) is re-imaged and magnified onto a beam profiler CCD camera. The optical quality in terms of spatial frequency response (modulation transfer function) is calculated by Fourier transform of the point spread function. The system was used on ex-vivo lenses with attached zonules, ciliary body and sclera. The sclera was glued to 8 separate PMMA segments and stretched radial by 5mm on an accommodation simulating lens stretching device. The point spread function was measured for each lens in the relaxed and stretched state for 5 human (ages 38-86 years) and 5 cynomolgus monkey (ages 53 - 67 months) fresh post mortem crystalline lenses. Results: Stretching induced measurable changes in the MTF. The cutoff frequency increased from 54.4+/-13.6 lp/mm unstretched to 59.5+/-21.4 lp/mm stretched in the post-presbyopic human and from 51.9+/-24.7 lp/mm unstretched to 57.7+/-18.5 lp/mm stretched cynomolgus monkey lenses. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the optical quality of ex-vivo human and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation. Additional experiments are underway to quantify changes in optical quality induced by stretching.

  4. Differences in the Stimulus Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation Ratio using Various Techniques and Accommodative Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tsukasa; Ito, Misae; Shinomiya, Yuma; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Hara, Naoto; Niida, Takahiro

    2018-04-04

    To investigate differences in the stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli, and to describe a method for determining the stimulus AC/A ratio. A total of 81 subjects with a mean age of 21 years (range, 20-23 years) were enrolled. The relationship between ocular deviation and accommodation was assessed using two methods. Ocular deviation was measured by varying the accommodative requirement using spherical plus/minus lenses to create an accommodative stimulus of 10.00 diopters (D) (in 1.00 D steps). Ocular deviation was assessed using the alternate prism cover test in method 1 at distance (5 m) and near (1/3 m), and the major amblyoscope in method 2. The stimulus AC/A ratios obtained using methods 1 and 2 were calculated and defined as the stimulus AC/A ratios with low and high accommodation, respectively, using the following analysis method. The former was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to an accommodative stimulus of 3 D and 0 D, divided by 3. The latter was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to a maximum (max) accommodative stimulus with distinct vision of the subject and an accommodative stimulus of max minus 3.00 D, divided by 3. The median stimulus AC/A ratio with low accommodation (1.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 2.0 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 2.7 Δ/D for method 2) differed significantly among the measurement methods (P < 0.01). Differences in the median stimulus AC/A ratio with high accommodation (4.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 3.7 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 4.7 Δ/D for method 2) between method 1 at distance and method 2 were statistically significant (P < 0.05), while method 1 at near was not significantly different compared with other methods. Differences in the stimulus AC/A ratio value were significant according to measurement technique and accommodative stimuli. However, differences caused by

  5. Object strength--an accurate measure for small objects that is insensitive to partial volume effects.

    PubMed

    Tofts, P S; Silver, N C; Barker, G J; Gass, A

    2005-07-01

    There are currently four problems in characterising small nonuniform lesions or other objects in Magnetic Resonance images where partial volume effects are significant. Object size is over- or under-estimated; boundaries are often not reproducible; mean object value cannot be measured; and fuzzy borders cannot be accommodated. A new measure, Object Strength, is proposed. This is the sum of all abnormal intensities, above a uniform background value. For a uniform object, this is simply the product of the increase in intensity and the size of the object. Biologically, this could be at least as relevant as existing measures of size or mean intensity. We hypothesise that Object Strength will perform better than traditional area measurements in characterising small objects. In a pilot study, the reproducibility of object strength measurements was investigated using MR images of small multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. In addition, accuracy was investigated using artificial lesions of known volume (0.3-6.2 ml) and realistic appearance. Reproducibility approached that of area measurements (in 33/90 lesion reports the difference between repeats was less than for area measurements). Total lesion volume was accurate to 0.2%. In conclusion, Object Strength has potential for improved characterisation of small lesions and objects in imaging and possibly spectroscopy.

  6. Application of video-based technology for the simultaneous measurement of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Meyers, Jason P; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2007-01-01

    Accommodation and vergence are two ocular motor systems that interact during binocular vision. Independent measurement of the response dynamics of each system has been achieved by the application of optometers and eye trackers. However, relatively few devices, typically earlier model optometers, allow the simultaneous assessment of accommodation and vergence. In this study we describe the development and application of a custom designed high-speed digital photorefractor that allows for rapid measures of accommodation (up to 75Hz). In addition the photorefractor was also synchronized with a video-based stereo eye tracker to allow a simultaneous measurement of accommodation and vergence. Analysis of accommodation and vergence could then be conducted offline. The new instrumentation is suitable for investigation of young children and could be potentially used for clinical populations.

  7. The Measures Contribution Researches on Renewable Energy Accommodation Based on Production Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhe, MI; Jinfang, Zhang; Jun, Liu

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the impacts of load, source and grid factors on renewable energy accommodation in the northern region of China. Renewable energy curtailment reasons and key measures to improve accommodations are also discussed. The production simulation method is utilized to analysis renewable energy accommodation and the Shapely value method is introduced to calculate the accommodation contribution rate of different factors. The result shows that the amount of renewable energy accommodation is 389 TWh in northern region of China by the year 2020. The contribution rate of load, source and grid factors to renewable energy accommodation are 39%, 35.8% and 25.1%, respectively.

  8. Fast scanning photoretinoscope for measuring peripheral refraction as a function of accommodation.

    PubMed

    Tabernero, Juan; Schaeffel, Frank

    2009-10-01

    A new device was designed to provide fast measurements (4 s) of the peripheral refraction (90 degrees central horizontal field). Almost-continuous traces are obtained with high angular resolution (0.4 degrees) while the subject is fixating a central stimulus. Three-dimensional profiles can also be measured. The peripheral refractions in 10 emmetropic subjects were studied as a function of accommodation (200 cm, 50 cm, and 25 cm viewing distances). Peripheral refraction profiles were largely preserved during accommodation but were different in each individual. Apparently, the accommodating lens changes its focal length evenly over the central 90 degrees of the visual field.

  9. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis].

    PubMed

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J

    2011-06-01

    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  10. The effect of proximity on open-loop accommodation responses measured with pinholes.

    PubMed

    Morrison, K A; Seidel, D; Strang, N C; Gray, L S

    2010-07-01

    Open-loop accommodation levels were measured in 41 healthy, young subjects using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor in the three viewing conditions: a small physical pinhole pupil (SP), an optically projected pinhole in Maxwellian view (MV) and in the dark (DF). The target viewed through the pinholes was a high-contrast letter presented at 0 D vergence in a +5 D Badal lens system. Overall, results showed that SP open-loop accommodation levels were significantly higher than MV and DF levels. Subjects could be divided into two distinct subgroups according to their response behaviour: responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation > MV accommodation) and non-responders to the proximal effect of the small physical pinhole (SP accommodation approximately MV accommodation). Correlation analysis demonstrated that open-loop accommodation for both pinhole conditions was correlated with DF for the responders, while for the non-responders SP and MV accommodation were correlated, but were not related to DF accommodation. This suggests that under open-loop conditions some individuals' accommodation levels are mainly affected by proximal and cognitive factors (responders) while others are guided primarily by the presence of the more distal target (non-responders). In conclusion, MV reduces the proximal effect of the physical pinhole and produces open-loop accommodation responses which are more consistent than SP and DF responses.

  11. New methods for the assessment of accommodative convergence.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Ken; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    The authors introduced a new objective method for measuring horizontal eye movements based on the first Purkinje image with the use of infrared charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras and compared stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios as determined by a standard gradient method. The study included 20 patients, 5 to 9 years old, who had intermittent exotropia (10 eyes) and accommodative esotropia (10 eyes). Measurement of horizontal eye movements in millimeters (mm), based on the first Purkinje image, was obtained with a TriIRIS C9000 instrument (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu, Japan). The stimulus AC/A ratio was determined with the far gradient method. The average values of horizontal eye movements (mm) and eye deviation (Delta) (a) before and (b) after an accommodative stimulus of 3.00 diopters (D) were calculated with the following formula: horizontal eye movements (mm/D) and stimulus AC/A ratio (Delta/D) = (b - a)/3. The average values of the horizontal eye movements and the stimulus AC/A ratio were 0.5 mm/D and 3.8 Delta/D, respectively. Correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between these two parameters (r = 0.92). Moreover, horizontal eye movements are directly proportional to the AC/A ratio measured with the gradient method. The methods used in this study allow objective recordings of accommodative convergence to be obtained in many clinical situations. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. The effects of a convex rear-view mirror on ocular accommodative responses.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tatsuo; Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Kondo, Hiroyuki; Tawara, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    Convex mirrors are universally used as rear-view mirrors in automobiles. However, the ocular accommodative responses during the use of these mirrors have not yet been examined. This study investigated the effects of a convex mirror on the ocular accommodative systems. Seven young adults with normal visual functions were ordered to binocularly watch an object in a convex or plane mirror. The accommodative responses were measured with an infrared optometer. The average of the accommodation of all subjects while viewing the object in the convex mirror were significantly nearer than in the plane mirror, although all subjects perceived the position of the object in the convex mirror as being farther away. Moreover, the fluctuations of accommodation were significantly larger for the convex mirror. The convex mirror caused the 'false recognition of distance', which induced the large accommodative fluctuations and blurred vision. Manufactures should consider the ocular accommodative responses as a new indicator for increasing automotive safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Tonic accommodation predicts closed-loop accommodation responses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunming; Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Escobar, Amy; Stark, Lawrence; Chase, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential relationship between tonic accommodation (TA), near work induced TA-adaptation and the steady state closed-loop accommodation response (AR). Forty-two graduate students participated in the study. Various aspects of their accommodation system were objectively measured using an open-field infrared auto-refractor (Grand Seiko WAM-5500). Tonic accommodation was assessed in a completely dark environment. The association between TA and closed-loop AR was assessed using linear regression correlations and t-test comparisons. Initial mean baseline TA was 1.84diopter (D) (SD±1.29D) with a wide distribution range (-0.43D to 5.14D). For monocular visual tasks, baseline TA was significantly correlated with the closed-loop AR. The slope of the best fit line indicated that closed-loop AR varied by approximately 0.3D for every 1D change in TA. This ratio was consistent across a variety of viewing distances and different near work tasks, including both static targets and continuous reading. Binocular reading conditions weakened the correlation between baseline TA and AR, although results remained statistically significant. The 10min near reading task with a 3D demand did not reveal significant near work induced TA-adaptation for either monocular or binocular conditions. Consistently, the TA-adaptation did not show any correlation with AR during reading. This study found a strong association between open-loop TA and closed-loop AR across a variety of viewing distances and different near work tasks. Difference between the correlations under monocular and binocular reading condition suggests a potential role for vergence compensation during binocular closed-loop AR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Static and Dynamic Measurement of Accommodation Using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 Autorefractor

    PubMed Central

    Win-Hall, Dorothy M.; Houser, Jaime; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The Grand Seiko WR-5500 (WAM) is an open field autorefractor capable of measuring accommodation and pupil diameter dynamically. This study was undertaken to compare static and dynamic accommodation measurements with this instrument in young, phakic subjects. Methods Fifteen subjects, aged 20–28 years (23.8±0.58; mean±SD) participated. Accommodation was stimulated with text printed on a transparent sheet presented at various distances. In static mode, subjects focused on the near text and three measurements were taken for each stimulus amplitude. In dynamic mode, the 5 Hz recording was started and subjects alternately looked through the transparent near chart and focused on a letter chart at 6 m for 5 seconds and then focused on the near letter chart for 5 seconds for a total of 30 seconds. After smoothing the raw data, the highest three individual values recorded in each 5 second interval of focusing at near were averaged for each stimulus amplitude. ANOVA and Bland-Altman analysis were used to compare the static and dynamic measurements. A calibration was performed with +3.00 to -10.00 D trial lenses behind an IR filter, in 1.00 D steps in 5 of the 15 subjects. Results Stimulus-response graphs from static and dynamic modes were not significantly different in the lower stimulus range (< 5.00 D, p = 0.93), but differed significantly for the higher stimulus amplitudes (p = 0.0027). One of 15 subjects showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic modes. Corresponding pupil diameter could be recorded along with the accommodation responses for the subjects and pupil diameter decreased with increasing stimulus demand. Calibration curves for static and dynamic measurements were not significantly different from the 1:1 line or from each other (p = 0.32). Conclusion Although slight differences between the dynamically and statically recorded responses were identified, the Grand-Seiko WAM autorefractor provides the ability to measure both. Dynamic

  15. Accommodation and convergence during sustained computer work.

    PubMed

    Collier, Juanita D; Rosenfield, Mark

    2011-07-01

    With computer usage becoming almost universal in contemporary society, the reported prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) is extremely high. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying CVS remain unclear. Although abnormal accommodation and vergence responses have been cited as being responsible for the symptoms produced, there is little objective evidence to support this claim. Accordingly, this study measured both of these oculomotor parameters during a sustained period of computer use. Subjects (N = 20) were required to read text aloud from a laptop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm for a sustained 30-minute period through their habitual refractive correction. At 2-minute intervals, the accommodative response (AR) to the computer screen was measured objectively using a Grand Seiko WAM 5500 optometer (Grand Seiko, Hiroshima, Japan). Additionally, the vergence response was assessed by measuring the associated phoria (AP), i.e., prism to eliminate fixation disparity, using a customized fixation disparity target that appeared on the computer screen. Subjects were asked to rate the degree of difficulty of the reading task on a scale from 1 to 10. Mean accommodation and AP values during the task were 1.07 diopters and 0.74∆ base-in (BI), respectively. The mean discomfort score was 4.9. No significant changes in accommodation or vergence were observed during the course of the 30-minute test period. There was no significant difference in the AR as a function of subjective difficulty. However, the mean AP for the subjects who reported the least and greatest discomfort during the task was 1.55∆ BI and 0, respectively (P = 0.02). CVS, after 30 minutes was worse in subjects exhibiting zero fixation disparity when compared with those subjects having a BI AP but does not appear to be related to differences in accommodation. A slightly reduced vergence response increases subject comfort during the task. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric

  16. Measurement of Crystalline Lens Volume During Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher

    PubMed Central

    Marussich, Lauren; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Yao, Yue; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if the lens volume changes during accommodation. Methods The study used data acquired on 36 cynomolgus monkey lenses that were stretched in a stepwise fashion to simulate disaccommodation. At each step, stretching force and dioptric power were measured and a cross-sectional image of the lens was acquired using an optical coherence tomography system. Images were corrected for refractive distortions and lens volume was calculated assuming rotational symmetry. The average change in lens volume was calculated and the relation between volume change and power change, and between volume change and stretching force, were quantified. Linear regressions of volume-power and volume-force plots were calculated. Results The mean (±SD) volume in the unstretched (accommodated) state was 97 ± 8 mm3. On average, there was a small but statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase in measured lens volume with stretching. The mean change in lens volume was +0.8 ± 1.3 mm3. The mean volume-power and volume-load slopes were −0.018 ± 0.058 mm3/D and +0.16 ± 0.40 mm3/g. Conclusions Lens volume remains effectively constant during accommodation, with changes that are less than 1% on average. This result supports a hypothesis that the change in lens shape with accommodation is accompanied by a redistribution of tissue within the capsular bag without significant compression of the lens contents or fluid exchange through the capsule. PMID:26161985

  17. Measurement of Crystalline Lens Volume During Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher.

    PubMed

    Marussich, Lauren; Manns, Fabrice; Nankivil, Derek; Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Yao, Yue; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2015-07-01

    To determine if the lens volume changes during accommodation. The study used data acquired on 36 cynomolgus monkey lenses that were stretched in a stepwise fashion to simulate disaccommodation. At each step, stretching force and dioptric power were measured and a cross-sectional image of the lens was acquired using an optical coherence tomography system. Images were corrected for refractive distortions and lens volume was calculated assuming rotational symmetry. The average change in lens volume was calculated and the relation between volume change and power change, and between volume change and stretching force, were quantified. Linear regressions of volume-power and volume-force plots were calculated. The mean (± SD) volume in the unstretched (accommodated) state was 97 ± 8 mm3. On average, there was a small but statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase in measured lens volume with stretching. The mean change in lens volume was +0.8 ± 1.3 mm3. The mean volume-power and volume-load slopes were -0.018 ± 0.058 mm3/D and +0.16 ± 0.40 mm3/g. Lens volume remains effectively constant during accommodation, with changes that are less than 1% on average. This result supports a hypothesis that the change in lens shape with accommodation is accompanied by a redistribution of tissue within the capsular bag without significant compression of the lens contents or fluid exchange through the capsule.

  18. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  19. Objective evaluation of the changes in the crystalline lens during accommodation in young and presbyopic populations using Pentacam HR system.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yao; Liu, Xia-Lin; Wu, Ming-Xing; Lin, Ying; Sun, Yu-Ying; He, Chang; Liu, Yi-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the changes in the lens profile with accommodation in different age groups. The Pentacam HR system was used to obtain the images of the anterior eye segment from 23 young and 15 presbyopic emmetropic subjects in unaccommodated (with an accommodation stimulus of 0.0D) and accommodated (with an accommodation stimulus of 5.0D for the young group and 1.0D for the presbyopic group) states. The phakic crystalline lens shape, including curvature of crystalline lens and central lens thickness (CLT), and the measurements of anterior segment length (ASL), central anterior chamber depth (CACD) were investigated. The anterior chamber volume (ACV) was also measured. The reduction of CACD and ACV were significant in both groups after accommodation stimulus. From the profile of anterior eye segment, a significant decrease in anterior crystalline lens radii of curvature (-2.52mm) and a mean increase in CLT (0.222mm) and ASL (0.108mm) were found in the young group with an accommodation stimulus of 5.0D. However, no statistically significant changes of CLT, ASL, or crystalline lens radii of curvature were found in the presbyopic group. Our data showed that the shallowing of anterior chamber during accommodation was caused by the forward bulging of the anterior lens surface, rather than by anterior shifting of lens position in either young or presbyopic subjects.

  20. A novel experimental method for measuring vergence and accommodation responses to the main near visual cues in typical and atypical groups.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2009-01-01

    Binocular disparity, blur, and proximal cues drive convergence and accommodation. Disparity is considered to be the main vergence cue and blur the main accommodation cue. We have developed a remote haploscopic photorefractor to measure simultaneous vergence and accommodation objectively in a wide range of participants of all ages while fixating targets at between 0.3 and 2 m. By separating the three main near cues, we can explore their relative weighting in three-, two-, one-, and zero-cue conditions. Disparity can be manipulated by remote occlusion; blur cues manipulated by using either a Gabor patch or a detailed picture target; looming cues by either scaling or not scaling target size with distance. In normal orthophoric, emmetropic, symptom-free, naive visually mature participants, disparity was by far the most significant cue to both vergence and accommodation. Accommodation responses dropped dramatically if disparity was not available. Blur only had a clinically significant effect when disparity was absent. Proximity had very little effect. There was considerable interparticipant variation. We predict that relative weighting of near cue use is likely to vary between clinical groups and present some individual cases as examples. We are using this naturalistic tool to research strabismus, vergence and accommodation development, and emmetropization.

  1. A Novel Experimental Method for Measuring Vergence and Accommodation Responses to the Main Near Visual Cues in Typical and Atypical Groups

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Binocular disparity, blur and proximal cues drive convergence and accommodation. Disparity is considered to be the main vergence cue and blur the main accommodation cue. We have developed a remote haploscopic photorefractor to measure simultaneous vergence and accommodation objectively in a wide range of participants of all ages while fixating targets at between 0.3m and 2m. By separating the three main near cues we can explore their relative weighting in three, two, one and zero cue conditions. Disparity can be manipulated by remote occlusion; blur cues manipulated by using either a Gabor patch or a detailed picture target; looming cues by either scaling or not scaling target size with distance. In normal orthophoric, emmetropic, symptom-free, naive visually mature participants, disparity was by far the most significant cue to both vergence and accommodation. Accommodation responses dropped dramatically if disparity was not available. Blur only had a clinically significant effect when disparity was absent. Proximity had very little effect. There was considerable inter-participant variation. We predict that relative weighting of near cue use is likely to vary between clinical groups and present some individual cases as examples. We are using this naturalistic tool to research strabismus, vergence and accommodation development and emmetropisation. PMID:19301186

  2. [Effects of orthokeratology lenses on the magnitude of accommodative lag and accommodativeconvergence/accommodation].

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiujin; Yue, Hui; Zhou, Qing

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the change in accommodative lag and accommodation convergence/accommodation (AC/A) after patients with myopia wear orthokeratology lenses. 
 A total of 48 myopic subjects (a test group), who wore orthokeratology lenses regularly, and 48 myopic subjects (a control group), who wore spectacles regularly, were enrolled for this study from January 2011 to January 2013 in Optometric Center, the Forth Hospital of Changsha. Accommodative lag was measured by fused cross cylinder method, where the patients should gaze at the front optotypes 40 cm away. Gradient of the AC/A ratio was measured by Von Grafe method to check closer distance heterophoria. Accommodative lag and AC/A ratio were analyzed by statistics.
 After 1-year follow-up, accommodative lag and AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia in the test group was decreased in 1, 3, 6 months or 1 year compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). 
 Compared with spectacles, orthokeratology lenses are able to decrease accommodative lag and high AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia. The relationship between accommodation and convergence is improved by orthokeratology lenses. Orthokeratology is an effective way to control myopia.

  3. Clinical evaluation of accommodation and ocular surface stability relavant to visual asthenopia with 3D displays

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To validate the association between accommodation and visual asthenopia by measuring objective accommodative amplitude with the Optical Quality Analysis System (OQAS®, Visiometrics, Terrassa, Spain), and to investigate associations among accommodation, ocular surface instability, and visual asthenopia while viewing 3D displays. Methods Fifteen normal adults without any ocular disease or surgical history watched the same 3D and 2D displays for 30 minutes. Accommodative ability, ocular protection index (OPI), and total ocular symptom scores were evaluated before and after viewing the 3D and 2D displays. Accommodative ability was evaluated by the near point of accommodation (NPA) and OQAS to ensure reliability. The OPI was calculated by dividing the tear breakup time (TBUT) by the interblink interval (IBI). The changes in accommodative ability, OPI, and total ocular symptom scores after viewing 3D and 2D displays were evaluated. Results Accommodative ability evaluated by NPA and OQAS, OPI, and total ocular symptom scores changed significantly after 3D viewing (p = 0.005, 0.003, 0.006, and 0.003, respectively), but yielded no difference after 2D viewing. The objective measurement by OQAS verified the decrease of accommodative ability while viewing 3D displays. The change of NPA, OPI, and total ocular symptom scores after 3D viewing had a significant correlation (p < 0.05), implying direct associations among these factors. Conclusions The decrease of accommodative ability after 3D viewing was validated by both subjective and objective methods in our study. Further, the deterioration of accommodative ability and ocular surface stability may be causative factors of visual asthenopia in individuals viewing 3D displays. PMID:24612686

  4. Retinal image quality during accommodation.

    PubMed

    López-Gil, Norberto; Martin, Jesson; Liu, Tao; Bradley, Arthur; Díaz-Muñoz, David; Thibos, Larry N

    2013-07-01

    We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552 nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye's higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced visual function may be a useful

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Accommodations for Psychiatry Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Harold Walker; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Brenes, Gretchen A.; Silvia, Loretta; Rosenquist, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: With the increase in diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults, it is expected that more resident physicians will require accommodations so that their academic performance and clinical competency can be measured adequately. The authors provide an overview of the requirements and issues…

  6. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  7. Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies.

    PubMed

    Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Measurement of wavefront aberrations and lens deformation in the accommodated eye with optical coherence tomography-equipped wavefront system.

    PubMed

    He, Ji C; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-04-21

    To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation.

  9. Measurement of wavefront aberrations and lens deformation in the accommodated eye with optical coherence tomography-equipped wavefront system

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji C.; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    To quantitatively approach the relationship between optical changes in an accommodated eye and the geometrical deformation of its crystalline lens, a long scan-depth anterior segment OCT equipped wavefront sensor was developed and integrated with a Badal system. With this system, accommodation was stimulated up to 6.0D in the left eye and also measured in the same eye for three subjects. High correlations between the accommodative responses of refractive power and the radius of the anterior lens surface were found for the three subjects (r>0.98). The change in spherical aberration was also highly correlated with the change in lens thickness (r>0.98). The measurement was very well repeated at a 2nd measurement session on the same day for the three subjects and after two weeks for one subject. The novelty of incorporating the Badal system into the OCT equipped wavefront sensor eliminated axial misalignment of the measurement system with the test eye due to accommodative vergence, as in the contralateral paradigm. The design also allowed the wavefront sensor to capture conjugated sharp Hartmann-Shack images in accommodated eyes to accurately analyze wavefront aberrations. In addition, this design extended the accommodation range up to 10.0D. By using this system, for the first time, we demonstrated linear relationships of the changes between the refractive power and the lens curvature and also between the spherical aberration and the lens thickness during accommodation in vivo. This new system provides an accurate and useful technique to quantitatively study accommodation. PMID:24787861

  10. Non-linearity of the response accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Miriam S; Firth, Alison Y

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have reported variation in stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio across differing accommodative stimuli. Response AC/A ratio was assessed across 4 accommodative demands to determine if these differences could be due to accommodative inaccuracies to stimuli. Twenty-three student participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean age 20.3 ± 1.7 years) successfully completed all testing conditions. The modified Thorington technique was used at 4 m to measure heterophoria. The Shin Nippon SRW 5000 infrared autorefractor was used to determine accommodative change to -1.50, -3.00, -4.50, and -6.00D lens stimuli. Significant differences were found in response AC/A ratio between different minus lens stimulated accommodative demands (p < 0.001). Mean AC/A ratio values were 3.11 ± 1.29 with the -1.50D lens stimulus; 4.03 ± 2.11 with -3.00D; 4.14 ± 1.40 with -4.50D; and 4.48 ± 1.56 with -6.00D. No differences in linearity were noted between myopes and non-myopic participants, but myopes tended to have higher response AC/A ratios than non-myopes, mean 4.88 ± 1.89 for myopes vs 3.61 ± 1.47 for non-myopes (p = 0.045). Response AC/A ratio did not display linearity across 4 minus lens accommodative stimuli, but tended to increase with accommodative demand. Significant variability in response AC/A ratio was found, both within individuals to different accommodative demands, and between individuals across the data set.

  11. Gender differences in early accommodation and vergence development.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2008-03-01

    A remote haploscopic photorefractor was used to assess objective binocular vergence and accommodation responses in 157 full-term healthy infants aged 1-6 months while fixating a brightly coloured target moving between fixation distances at 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33 m. Vergence and accommodation response gain matured rapidly from 'flat' neonatal responses at an intercept of approximately 2 dioptres (D) for accommodation and 2.5 metre angles(MA) for vergence, reaching adult-like values at 4 months. Vergence gain was marginally higher in females (p = 0.064), but accommodation gain (p = 0.034) was higher and accommodative intercept closer to zero (p = 0.004) in males in the first 3 months as they relaxed accommodation more appropriately for distant targets. More females showed flat accommodation responses (p = 0.029). More males behaved hypermetropically in the first two months of life, but when these hypermetropic infants were excluded from the analysis, the gender difference remained. Gender differences disappeared after three months. Data showed variable responses and infants could behave appropriately and simultaneously on both, neither or only one measure at all ages. If accommodation was appropriate (gain between 0.7 and 1.3; r(2) > 0.7) but vergence was not, males over- and under-converged equally, while the females who accommodated appropriately were more likely to overconverge (p = 0.008). The apparent earlier maturity of the male accommodative responses may be due to refractive error differences but could also reflect gender-specific male preference for blur cues while females show earlier preference for disparity, which may underpin the earlier emerging, disparity dependent, stereopsis and full vergence found in females in other studies.

  12. Testing accommodation or modification? The effects of integrated object representation on enhancing geometry performance in children with and without geometry difficulties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dake; Wang, Qiu; Ding, Yi; Liu, Jeremy Jian

    2014-01-01

    According to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, geometry and spatial sense are fundamental components of mathematics learning. However, learning disabilities (LD) research has shown that many K-12 students encounter particular geometry difficulties (GD). This study examined the effect of an integrated object representation (IOR) accommodation on the test performance of students with GD compared to students without GD. Participants were 118 elementary students who took a researcher-developed geometry problem solving test under both a standard testing condition and an IOR accommodation condition. A total of 36 students who were classified with GD scored below 40% correct in the geometry problem solving test in the standard testing condition, and 82 students who were classified without GD scored equal to or above 40% correct in the same test and condition. All students were tested in both standard testing condition and IOR accommodation condition. The results from both ANOVA and regression discontinuity (RD) analyses suggested that students with GD benefited more than students without GD from the IOR accommodation. Implications of the study are discussed in terms of providing accommodations for students with mathematics learning difficulties and recommending RD design in LD research. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  13. A multi-resolution strategy for a multi-objective deformable image registration framework that accommodates large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bel, Arjan

    2014-03-01

    Currently, two major challenges dominate the field of deformable image registration. The first challenge is related to the tuning of the developed methods to specific problems (i.e. how to best combine different objectives such as similarity measure and transformation effort). This is one of the reasons why, despite significant progress, clinical implementation of such techniques has proven to be difficult. The second challenge is to account for large anatomical differences (e.g. large deformations, (dis)appearing structures) that occurred between image acquisitions. In this paper, we study a framework based on multi-objective optimization to improve registration robustness and to simplify tuning for specific applications. Within this framework we specifically consider the use of an advanced model-based evolutionary algorithm for optimization and a dual-dynamic transformation model (i.e. two "non-fixed" grids: one for the source- and one for the target image) to accommodate for large anatomical differences. The framework computes and presents multiple outcomes that represent efficient trade-offs between the different objectives (a so-called Pareto front). In image processing it is common practice, for reasons of robustness and accuracy, to use a multi-resolution strategy. This is, however, only well-established for single-objective registration methods. Here we describe how such a strategy can be realized for our multi-objective approach and compare its results with a single-resolution strategy. For this study we selected the case of prone-supine breast MRI registration. Results show that the well-known advantages of a multi-resolution strategy are successfully transferred to our multi-objective approach, resulting in superior (i.e. Pareto-dominating) outcomes.

  14. The effect of bifocal add on accommodative lag in myopic children with high accommodative lag.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, David A; Mutti, Donald O; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-12-01

    To determine the effect of a bifocal add and manifest correction on accommodative lag in myopic children with high accommodative lag, who have been reported to have the greatest reduction in myopia progression with progressive addition lenses (PALs). Monocular accommodative lag to a 4-D Badal stimulus was measured on two occasions 6 months apart in 83 children (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.3 years) with high lag randomized to wearing single-vision lenses (SVLs) or PALs. Accommodative lag was measured with the following corrections: habitual, manifest, manifest with +2.00-D add, and habitual with +2.00-D add (6-month visit only). At baseline, accommodative lag was higher (1.72 ± 0.37 D; mean ± SD) when measured with manifest correction than with habitual correction (1.51 ± 0.50; P < 0.05). This higher lag with manifest correction correlated with a larger amount of habitual undercorrection at baseline (r = -0.29, P = 0.009). A +2.00-D add over the manifest correction reduced lag by 0.45 ± 0.34 D at baseline and 0.33 ± 0.38 D at the 6-month visit. Lag results at 6 months were not different between PAL and SVL wearers (P = 0.92). A +2.00-D bifocal add did not eliminate accommodative lag and reduced lag by less than 25% of the bifocal power, indicating that children mainly responded to a bifocal by decreasing accommodation. If myopic progression is substantial, measuring lag with full correction can overestimate the hyperopic retinal blur that a child most recently experienced. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00335049.).

  15. The Effect of Bifocal Add on Accommodative Lag in Myopic Children with High Accommodative Lag

    PubMed Central

    Mutti, Donald O.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of a bifocal add and manifest correction on accommodative lag in myopic children with high accommodative lag, who have been reported to have the greatest reduction in myopia progression with progressive addition lenses (PALs). Methods. Monocular accommodative lag to a 4-D Badal stimulus was measured on two occasions 6 months apart in 83 children (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.3 years) with high lag randomized to wearing single-vision lenses (SVLs) or PALs. Accommodative lag was measured with the following corrections: habitual, manifest, manifest with +2.00-D add, and habitual with +2.00-D add (6-month visit only). Results. At baseline, accommodative lag was higher (1.72 ± 0.37 D; mean ± SD) when measured with manifest correction than with habitual correction (1.51 ± 0.50; P < 0.05). This higher lag with manifest correction correlated with a larger amount of habitual undercorrection at baseline (r = −0.29, P = 0.009). A +2.00-D add over the manifest correction reduced lag by 0.45 ± 0.34 D at baseline and 0.33 ± 0.38 D at the 6-month visit. Lag results at 6 months were not different between PAL and SVL wearers (P = 0.92). Conclusions. A +2.00-D bifocal add did not eliminate accommodative lag and reduced lag by less than 25% of the bifocal power, indicating that children mainly responded to a bifocal by decreasing accommodation. If myopic progression is substantial, measuring lag with full correction can overestimate the hyperopic retinal blur that a child most recently experienced. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00335049.) PMID:20688729

  16. Cues for the control of ocular accommodation and vergence during postnatal human development.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Candy, T Rowan

    2008-12-22

    Accommodation and vergence help maintain single and focused visual experience while an object moves in depth. The relative importance of retinal blur and disparity, the primary sensory cues to accommodation and vergence, is largely unknown during development; a period when growth of the eye and head necessitate continual recalibration of egocentric space. Here we measured the developmental importance of retinal disparity in 192 typically developing subjects (1.9 months to 46 years). Subjects viewed high-contrast cartoon targets with naturalistic spatial frequency spectra while their accommodation and vergence responses were measured from both eyes using a PowerRefractor. Accommodative gain was reduced during monocular viewing relative to full binocular viewing, even though the fixating eye generated comparable tracking eye movements in the two conditions. This result was consistent across three forms of monocular occlusion. The accommodative gain was lowest in infants and only reached adult levels by 7 to 10 years of age. As expected, the gain of vergence was also reduced in monocular conditions. When 4- to 6-year-old children read 20/40-sized letters, their monocular accommodative gain reached adult-like levels. In summary, binocular viewing appears necessary under naturalistic viewing conditions to generate full accommodation and vergence responses in typically developing humans.

  17. Cues for the control of ocular accommodation and vergence during postnatal human development

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation and vergence help maintain single and focused visual experience while an object moves in depth. The relative importance of retinal blur and disparity, the primary sensory cues to accommodation and vergence, is largely unknown during development; a period when growth of the eye and head necessitate continual recalibration of egocentric space. Here we measured the developmental importance of retinal disparity in 192 typically developing subjects (1.9 months to 46 years). Subjects viewed high-contrast cartoon targets with naturalistic spatial frequency spectra while their accommodation and vergence responses were measured from both eyes using a PowerRefractor. Accommodative gain was reduced during monocular viewing relative to full binocular viewing, even though the fixating eye generated comparable tracking eye movements in the two conditions. This result was consistent across three forms of monocular occlusion. The accommodative gain was lowest in infants and only reached adult levels by 7 to 10 years of age. As expected, the gain of vergence was also reduced in monocular conditions. When 4- to 6-year-old children read 20/40-sized letters, their monocular accommodative gain reached adult-like levels. In summary, binocular viewing appears necessary under naturalistic viewing conditions to generate full accommodation and vergence responses in typically developing humans. PMID:19146280

  18. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children.

    PubMed

    Gwiazda, Jane; Thorn, Frank; Held, Richard

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate accommodation, accommodative convergence, and AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Refractive error, accommodation, and phorias were measured annually over a period of 3 years in 80 6- to 18-year-old children (mean age at first visit = 11.1 years), including 26 who acquired myopia of at least -0.50 D and 54 who remained emmetropic (-0.25 to + 0.75 D). Refraction was measured by noncycloplegic distance retinoscopy. Concomitant measures of accommodation and phorias were taken for letter targets at 4.0 m and 0.33 m using the Canon R-1 open field-of-view autorefractor with an attached motorized Risley prism and Maddox rod. The accommodation and phoria measurements were used to calculate response AC/A ratios. Compared with children who remained emmetropic, those who became myopic had elevated response AC/A ratios at 1 and 2 years before the onset of myopia, in addition to at onset and 1 year later (t's = -2.97 to -4.04, p < 0.01 at all times). The significantly higher AC/A ratios in the children who became myopic are a result of significantly reduced accommodation. Accommodative convergence was significantly greater in myopes only at onset. These findings suggest that the abnormal oculomotor factors found before the onset of myopia may contribute to myopigenesis by producing hyperopic retinal defocus when a child is engaged in near-viewing tasks.

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children exhibit an impaired accommodative response.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Beatriz; Vera, Jesús; Molina, Rubén; García, José Antonio; Ouadi, Miriam; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Jiménez, Raimundo

    2018-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common paediatric neurobehavioural disorders causing multiple functional impairments in children. Based on the relationship between the neural system that controls attention and ocular dynamics, the present study compares the magnitude and variability of accommodation between a group of non-medicated ADHD children and an age-matched control group. The magnitude and variability of the accommodative response were objectively measured in 36 children using the WAM-5500 autorefractometer for 90 consecutive seconds at three static viewing distances (500, 40, and 20 cm). Participants were divided into ADHD (n = 18) or control (n = 18) groups based on clinically validated criteria. Children with ADHD exhibited higher lags of accommodation (p = 0.024), increasing at closer viewing distances, in comparison to the control group. Marginal statistical differences were found for the variability of accommodation (p = 0.066), with the ADHD group showing a trend towards higher variability. Our analysis showed that the magnitude and variability of accommodation did not vary over time between groups (p > 0.05). Our data suggest that children with ADHD have a less accurate accommodative response. These results provide a new ocular index that could help to clarify the relationship between accommodative response and attentional deficits, which could have a direct impact on the academic, cognitive, and visual performance of ADHD children.

  20. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Toor, Sonia; Riddell, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Background/aims To investigate the presence of asymmetrical accommodation in hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia. Methods Accommodation in each eye and binocular vergence were measured simultaneously using a PlusoptiX SO4 photorefractor in 26 children aged 4–8 years with hyperopic anisometropic amblyopia and 13 controls (group age-matched) while they viewed a detailed target moving in depth. Results Without spectacles, only 5 (19%) anisometropes demonstrated symmetrical accommodation (within the 95% CI of the mean gain of the sound eye of the anisometropic group), whereas 21 (81%) demonstrated asymmetrical accommodation. Of those, 15 (58%) showed aniso-accommodation and 6 (23%) demonstrated ‘anti-accommodation’ (greater accommodation for distance than for near). In those with anti-accommodation, the response gain in the sound eye was (0.93±0.20) while that of the amblyopic eye showed a negative accommodation gain of (−0.44±0.23). Anti-accommodation resolved with spectacles. Vergence gains were typical in those with symmetrical and asymmetrical accommodation. Conclusion The majority of hyperopic anisometropic amblyopes demonstrated non-consensual asymmetrical accommodation. Approximately one in four demonstrated anti-accommodation. PMID:29051327

  2. The Job Accommodation Scale (JAS): Psychometric evaluation of a new measure of employer support for temporary job modifications

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, William S.; Kristman, Vicki L.; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work (RTW) for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. OBJECTIVE To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure (the Job Accommodation Scale [JAS]) to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. METHODS Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8% male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. RESULTS The full response range (1–4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. CONCLUSIONS The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with LBP showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to

  3. A centre for accommodative vergence motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    Latencies in accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil-diameter responses to changing accommodation stimuli, as well as latencies in pupil response to light-intensity changes were measured. From the information obtained, a block diagram has been derived that uses the least number of blocks for representing the accommodation, accommodative-vergence, and pupil systems. The signal transmission delays over the various circuits of the model have been determined and compared to known experimental physiological-delay data. The results suggest the existence of a motor center that controls the accommodative vergence and is completely independent of the accommodation system.

  4. Subjective and Objective Parameters Determining "Salience" in Long-Term Dialect Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Peter; Barden, Birgit; Grosskopf, Beate

    1998-01-01

    Presents results of a longitudinal study on long-term dialect accommodation in a German dialect setting. An important model of explaining which linguistic structures undergo such convergence and which do not makes use of the notion of "salience." (Author/VWL)

  5. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  6. Accommodative insufficiency in a student population in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Nabovati, Payam; Shahraki, Fatemeh Azad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Faghihi, Mohammad; Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Doostdar, Asgar; Yekta, Abbasali

    2018-05-22

    To determine the prevalence of accommodative insufficiency (AI) and its relation with age, gender, and refractive errors in a college-age student population in Iran. The present study was conducted cross-sectionally in 2017. All students had optometric tests including measurement of visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, as well as binocular vision and accommodative examinations. Amplitude of accommodation was measured with the Donders' push-up method using the Royal Air Force (RAF) rule. Monocular accommodative facility was measured with ±2.00diopter flipper lenses. The accommodative response was tested using dynamic retinoscopy with the monocular estimation method (MEM). The prevalence of AI in the studied population was 4.07% (95% CI: 2.61-5.52). The rate was 6.04% (95% CI: 3.58-8.50) in females and 2.01% (95% CI: 0.53-3.48) in males, and logistic regression showed a significantly higher odds of AI in females (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45, p-value=0.009). The prevalence of AI was 2.59% (95% CI: 0.55-7.56) in the 18-19-year-old age group and 4.08% (95% CI: 0.09-8.07) in the 24-25-year-old group (p-value=0.848). The prevalence of AI among emmetropic, myopic, and hyperopic individuals was 3.74% (95% CI: 1.88-5.61), 4.44% (95% CI: 2.07-6.81), and 5.26% (95% CI: 4.79-16.32), respectively (p-value=0.869). In the multiple regression model, only gender showed significant relationship with AI (Odds ratio=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45; p-values=0.009). The prevalence of AI in the present study is lower than the most prevalence rates reported in previous studies. In the present study, gender and AI showed a strong association, such that AI prevalence was significantly higher in females than males. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Phacoemulsification and implantation of an accommodating IOL after PRK.

    PubMed

    Aslanides, loannis M; Plainis, Sotiris; Kumar, Vinod; Ginis, Harilaos

    2006-01-01

    To present a case of phacoemulsification and implantation of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) in a patient with cataract formation after previous refractive surgery. A 50-year-old man, who initially had photorefractive keratectomy to correct moderate myopia, developed a cataract in one eye. He subsequently underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a 1CU accommodating IOL, as he wished to remain spectacle independent. The patient's distance vision was fully restored. However, accommodative function, which was assessed using subjective and novice objective techniques, was only partially restored. Although the accommodating IOL fully restored the patient's distance vision, accommodative function was only partially restored.

  8. Object permanence and method of disappearance: looking measures further contradict reaching measures.

    PubMed

    Charles, Eric P; Rivera, Susan M

    2009-11-01

    Piaget proposed that understanding permanency, understanding occlusion events, and forming mental representations were synonymous; however, accumulating evidence indicates that those concepts are not unified in development. Infants reach for endarkened objects at younger ages than for occluded objects, and infants' looking patterns suggest that they expect occluded objects to reappear at younger ages than they reach for them. We reaffirm the latter finding in 5- to 6-month-olds and find similar responses to faded objects, but we fail to find that pattern in response to endarkened objects. This suggests that looking behavior and reaching behavior are both sensitive to method of disappearance, but with opposite effects. Current cognition-oriented (i.e. representation-oriented) explanations of looking behavior cannot easily accommodate these results; neither can perceptual-preference explanations, nor the traditional ecological reinterpretations of object permanence. A revised ecological hypothesis, invoking affordance learning, suggests how these differences could arise developmentally.

  9. Extralenticular and lenticular aspects of accommodation and presbyopia in human versus monkey eyes.

    PubMed

    Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared P; Katz, Alexander; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L

    2013-07-26

    To determine if the accommodative forward movements of the vitreous zonule and lens equator occur in the human eye, as they do in the rhesus monkey eye; to investigate the connection between the vitreous zonule posterior insertion zone and the posterior lens equator; and to determine which components-muscle apex width, lens thickness, lens equator position, vitreous zonule, circumlental space, and/or other intraocular dimensions, including those stated in the objectives above-are most important in predicting accommodative amplitude and presbyopia. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically in 12 visually normal human subjects (ages 19-65 years) and by midbrain electrical stimulation in 11 rhesus monkeys (ages 6-27 years). Ultrasound biomicroscopy imaged the entire ciliary body, anterior and posterior lens surfaces, and the zonule. Relevant distances were measured in the resting and accommodated eyes. Stepwise regression analysis determined which variables were the most important predictors. The human vitreous zonule and lens equator move forward (anteriorly) during accommodation, and their movements decline with age, as in the monkey. Over all ages studied, age could explain accommodative amplitude, but not as well as accommodative lens thickening and resting muscle apex thickness did together. Accommodative change in distances between the vitreous zonule insertion zone and the posterior lens equator or muscle apex were important for predicting accommodative lens thickening. Our findings quantify the movements of the zonule and ciliary muscle during accommodation, and identify their age-related changes that could impact the optical change that occurs during accommodation and IOL function.

  10. Applicability of Infrared Photorefraction for Measurement of Accommodation in Awake-Behaving Normal and Strabismic Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Bossong, Heather; Swann, Michelle; Glasser, Adrian; Das, Vallabh E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to use infrared photorefraction to measure accommodation in awake-behaving normal and strabismic monkeys and describe properties of photorefraction calibrations in these monkeys. Methods Ophthalmic trial lenses were used to calibrate the slope of pupil vertical pixel intensity profile measurements that were made with a custom-built infrared photorefractor. Day to day variability in photorefraction calibration curves, variability in calibration coefficients due to misalignment of the photorefractor Purkinje image and the center of the pupil, and variability in refractive error due to off-axis measurements were evaluated. Results The linear range of calibration of the photorefractor was found for ophthalmic lenses ranging from –1 D to +4 D. Calibration coefficients were different across monkeys tested (two strabismic, one normal) but were similar for each monkey over different experimental days. In both normal and strabismic monkeys, small misalignment of the photorefractor Purkinje image with the center of pupil resulted in only small changes in calibration coefficients, that were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Off-axis measurement of refractive error was also small in the normal and strabismic monkeys (~1 D to 2 D) as long as the magnitude of misalignment was <10°. Conclusions Remote infrared photorefraction is suitable for measuring accommodation in awake, behaving normal, and strabismic monkeys. Specific challenges posed by the strabismic monkeys, such as possible misalignment of the photorefractor Purkinje image and the center of the pupil during either calibration or measurement of accommodation, that may arise due to unsteady fixation or small eye movements including nystagmus, results in small changes in measured refractive error. PMID:19029024

  11. Accommodation-induced variations in retinal thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Sun, Yong; Dai, Cuixia; Zheng, Haihua; Ren, Qiushi; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-09-01

    To research retinal stretching or distortion with accommodation, accommodation-induced changes in retinal thickness (RT) in the macular area were investigated in a population of young adults (n=23) by using a dual-channel spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system manufactured in-house for this study. This dual-channel SD-OCT is capable of imaging the cornea and retina simultaneously with an imaging speed of 24 kHz A-line scan rate, which can provide the anatomical dimensions of the eye, including the RT and axial length. Thus, the modification of the RT with accommodation can be calculated. A significant decrease in the RT (13.50±1.25 μm) was observed during maximum accommodation. In the 4 mm×4 mm macular area centered at the fovea, we did not find a significant quadrant-dependent difference in retinal volume change, which indicates that neither retinal stretching nor distortion was quadrant-dependent during accommodation. We speculate that the changes in RT with maximum accommodation resulted from accommodation-induced ciliary muscle contractions.

  12. Determining the relative contribution of retinal disparity and blur cues to ocular accommodation in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Lesley; Saunders, Kathryn J; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-01-10

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) often exhibit hypoaccommodation alongside accurate vergence. This study investigates the sensitivity of the two systems to retinal disparity and blur cues, establishing the relationship between the two in terms of accommodative-convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and convergence-accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratios. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation and vergence under binocular conditions and when retinal disparity and blur cues were removed. Participants were aged 6-16 years (DS n = 41, controls n = 76). Measures were obtained from 65.9% of participants with DS and 100% of controls. Accommodative and vergence responses were reduced with the removal of one or both cues in controls (p < 0.007). For participants with DS, removal of blur was less detrimental to accommodative responses than removal of disparity; accommodative responses being significantly better when all cues were available or when blur was removed in comparison to when proximity was the only available cue. AC/A ratios were larger and CA/C ratios smaller in participants with DS (p < 0.00001). This study demonstrates that retinal disparity is the main driver to both systems in DS and illustrates the diminished influence of retinal blur. High AC/A and low CA/C ratios in combination with disparity-driven responses suggest prioritisation of vergence over accurate accommodation.

  13. Determining the relative contribution of retinal disparity and blur cues to ocular accommodation in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lesley; Saunders, Kathryn J.; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) often exhibit hypoaccommodation alongside accurate vergence. This study investigates the sensitivity of the two systems to retinal disparity and blur cues, establishing the relationship between the two in terms of accommodative-convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and convergence-accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratios. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation and vergence under binocular conditions and when retinal disparity and blur cues were removed. Participants were aged 6–16 years (DS n = 41, controls n = 76). Measures were obtained from 65.9% of participants with DS and 100% of controls. Accommodative and vergence responses were reduced with the removal of one or both cues in controls (p < 0.007). For participants with DS, removal of blur was less detrimental to accommodative responses than removal of disparity; accommodative responses being significantly better when all cues were available or when blur was removed in comparison to when proximity was the only available cue. AC/A ratios were larger and CA/C ratios smaller in participants with DS (p < 0.00001). This study demonstrates that retinal disparity is the main driver to both systems in DS and illustrates the diminished influence of retinal blur. High AC/A and low CA/C ratios in combination with disparity-driven responses suggest prioritisation of vergence over accurate accommodation. PMID:28071728

  14. Extralenticular and Lenticular Aspects of Accommodation and Presbyopia in Human Versus Monkey Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared P.; Katz, Alexander; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if the accommodative forward movements of the vitreous zonule and lens equator occur in the human eye, as they do in the rhesus monkey eye; to investigate the connection between the vitreous zonule posterior insertion zone and the posterior lens equator; and to determine which components—muscle apex width, lens thickness, lens equator position, vitreous zonule, circumlental space, and/or other intraocular dimensions, including those stated in the objectives above—are most important in predicting accommodative amplitude and presbyopia. Methods. Accommodation was induced pharmacologically in 12 visually normal human subjects (ages 19–65 years) and by midbrain electrical stimulation in 11 rhesus monkeys (ages 6–27 years). Ultrasound biomicroscopy imaged the entire ciliary body, anterior and posterior lens surfaces, and the zonule. Relevant distances were measured in the resting and accommodated eyes. Stepwise regression analysis determined which variables were the most important predictors. Results. The human vitreous zonule and lens equator move forward (anteriorly) during accommodation, and their movements decline with age, as in the monkey. Over all ages studied, age could explain accommodative amplitude, but not as well as accommodative lens thickening and resting muscle apex thickness did together. Accommodative change in distances between the vitreous zonule insertion zone and the posterior lens equator or muscle apex were important for predicting accommodative lens thickening. Conclusions. Our findings quantify the movements of the zonule and ciliary muscle during accommodation, and identify their age-related changes that could impact the optical change that occurs during accommodation and IOL function. PMID:23745002

  15. Effect of Phenylephrine on the Accommodative System

    PubMed Central

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J.; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; López-Gil, Norberto; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accommodation is controlled by the action of the ciliary muscle and mediated primarily by parasympathetic input through postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. During accommodation the pupil constricts to increase the depth of focus of the eye and improve retinal image quality. Researchers have traditionally faced the challenge of measuring the accommodative properties of the eye through a small pupil and thus have relied on pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil. Achieving pupil dilation (mydriasis) without affecting the accommodative ability of the eye (cycloplegia) could be useful in many clinical and research contexts. Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHCl) is a sympathomimetic agent that is used clinically to dilate the pupil. Nevertheless, first investigations suggested some loss of functional accommodation in the human eye after PHCl instillation. Subsequent studies, based on different measurement procedures, obtained contradictory conclusions, causing therefore an unexpected controversy that has been spread almost to the present days. This manuscript reviews and summarizes the main research studies that have been performed to analyze the effect of PHCl on the accommodative system and provides clear conclusions that could help clinicians know the real effects of PHCl on the accommodative system of the human eye. PMID:28053778

  16. Accommodation training in foreign workers.

    PubMed

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki

    2013-01-01

    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  17. Experimental study of visual accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornsweet, T. N.; Crane, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    A summary report of a research effort related to the human visual accommodation system is presented. A theoretical study of the accommodation system was made. Subsequent effort was aimed at the development of specialized instrumentation for experiments designed to lead to understanding the nature of the control system in human accommodation. The necessary instrumentation consisted primarily of: (1) an automatic optometer to measure the state of eye focus, (2) a focus stimulator device to control the apparent optical distance to any target, and (3) a two-dimensional eye tracker. The concepts and designs of the first two instruments have been published in the open literature, but this report contains the first detailed treatment of the Purkinje eye tracker developed under this program. The report also discusses an accommodation lag model to explain the ability of the eye to apparently know the polarity of focus error even though the blur on the retina is to a first-approximation an even function. The interaction of the accommodation and eye movement systems is also discussed, as is the ability to train the visual accommodation system to a surprisingly responsive condition in only a few hours of training.

  18. Objectivity in Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Wen; Cai, C. Y.; Liu, X. F.; Sun, C. P.

    2018-06-01

    The objectivity is a basic requirement for the measurements in the classical world, namely, different observers must reach a consensus on their measurement results, so that they believe that the object exists "objectively" since whoever measures it obtains the same result. We find that this simple requirement of objectivity indeed imposes an important constraint upon quantum measurements, i.e., if two or more observers could reach a consensus on their quantum measurement results, their measurement basis must be orthogonal vector sets. This naturally explains why quantum measurements are based on orthogonal vector basis, which is proposed as one of the axioms in textbooks of quantum mechanics. The role of the macroscopicality of the observers in an objective measurement is discussed, which supports the belief that macroscopicality is a characteristic of classicality.

  19. Objectivity in Quantum Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Wen; Cai, C. Y.; Liu, X. F.; Sun, C. P.

    2018-05-01

    The objectivity is a basic requirement for the measurements in the classical world, namely, different observers must reach a consensus on their measurement results, so that they believe that the object exists "objectively" since whoever measures it obtains the same result. We find that this simple requirement of objectivity indeed imposes an important constraint upon quantum measurements, i.e., if two or more observers could reach a consensus on their quantum measurement results, their measurement basis must be orthogonal vector sets. This naturally explains why quantum measurements are based on orthogonal vector basis, which is proposed as one of the axioms in textbooks of quantum mechanics. The role of the macroscopicality of the observers in an objective measurement is discussed, which supports the belief that macroscopicality is a characteristic of classicality.

  20. Effects of Age on Dynamic Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Thurmon E.; Shi, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Visual accommodation plays a critical role in one’s visual perception and activities of daily living. Age-related accommodation loss poses an increased risk to older adults’ safety and independence. Although extensive effort has been made towards understanding the effect of age on steady-state accommodation, dynamic aspects of accommodation is still unknown. A study was therefore conducted to investigate age-related dynamic accommodative characteristics utilizing a modified autorefractor. Ten individuals from each of three age groups (i.e., younger group: 20 to 29 years old, middle-aged group: 40 to 49 years old, and older group: 60 to 69 years old) were recruited and their dynamic accommodation responses were examined. The laboratory experiment was designed to assess dynamic accommodation associated with an abrupt change from a constant far target (400 cm, 50 cd/m2) to a near target (70 cm, 100 cd/m2 or 20 cd/m2), which aimed to simulate car dashboard reading behavior while driving. The results of the study indicated that age and target intensity both had a significant impact on dynamic accommodation. These effects were attributed to both the age-related physiological limitation of the eye as well as to central neural processing delay. A method of measuring dynamic accommodation and the implications of the study are discussed. PMID:20582770

  1. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Objective Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the CA/C (convergence accommodation to convergence) linkage but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression, so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4-11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. Methods 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photorefractor set in a remote haploscopic device which assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2m and 33cm. Responses on decompensation were compared to those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Results Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target reduced significantly (p<0.0001), with resultant mean under-accommodation of 2.33D at 33cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Conclusions Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near. PMID:21873311

  2. Method for measuring thermal accommodation coefficients of gases on thin film surfaces using a MEMS sensor structure

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Grau, Mario, E-mail: mario.grau@hs-rm.de; Völklein, Friedemann; Meier, Andreas

    A method for measuring the thermal accommodation coefficient α for surface-/gas interfaces is presented. It allows the determination of α for thin films produced by a variety of deposition technologies, such as chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The setup is based on two microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) Pirani sensors facing each other in a defined positioning. Because these MEMS sensors show a very high sensitivity in their individual molecular flow regimes, it is possible to measure the accommodation coefficients of gases without the disturbing influence of the transition regime. This paper presents the analytical backgroundmore » and the actual measurement principle. The results for air and nitrogen molecules on sputtered Au and Pt surfaces are presented.« less

  3. Reproducibility of carbachol stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Approaches are being explored to restore accommodation to the presbyopic eye. Some of these approaches can be tested in monkeys by stimulating accommodation in various ways including using carbachol iontophoresis. Knowledge of the repeatability of carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation in the monkey phakic eye is necessary to understand the variability of this method of evaluating accommodation. Data from 9 to 10 separate carbachol iontophoresis experiments performed on phakic eyes from 8 monkeys were retrospectively analyzed. For each experiment, carbachol was applied iontophoretically to the eyes of anesthetized monkeys and refraction generally measured every two minutes until accommodation reached a plateau. Repeated experiments were performed in each monkey over periods ranging from 10 to 18 months. Maximum accommodation measured for each monkey ranged from 11.1 D to 18.3 D with standard deviations from 0.8 D to 2.1 D and differences in accommodative amplitude varying from 2.2 D to 7.5 D. Time to reach maximum accommodation ranged from 18 to 64 min in individual experiments. Averaged time-courses indicate that maximum accommodation is generally achieved between 10 and 20 min after carbachol administration. Although carbachol iontophoresis is considered a reliable method to stimulate maximum accommodation in anesthetized monkeys, the amplitude achieved typically varies by more than 2 D. Presbyopia treatments evaluated in this way in phakic monkeys would need to show an increase in accommodation of over 2 D to clearly demonstrate that the treatments work when being tested with carbachol iontophoresis stimulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transitions: Times of Change and Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; O'Brien, Marion

    1990-01-01

    The research literature is reviewed for transitions from birth to eight years. A model describes transition as a change in ecocultural niche, requiring accommodations in daily routines for a child, family, and service providers and transition impact measures the number of accommodations required and the sustainability of daily routines.…

  5. Long-term reproducibility of Edinger-Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-08-01

    If longitudinal studies of accommodation or accommodation restoration procedures are undertaken in rhesus monkeys, the methods used to induce and measure accommodation must remain reproducible over the study period. Stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (EW) nucleus in anesthetized rhesus monkeys is a valuable method to understand various aspects of accommodation. A prior study showed reproducibility of EW-stimulated accommodation over 14 months after chronic electrode implantation. However, reproducibility over a period longer than this has not been investigated and therefore remains unknown. To address this, accommodation stimulation experiments in four eyes of two rhesus monkeys (13.7 and 13.8 years old) were evaluated over a period of 68 months. Carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation was first measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer (HCR) two weeks before electrode implantation to determine maximum accommodative amplitudes. EW stimulus-response curves were initially measured with the HCR one month after electrode implantation and then repeated at least six times for each eye in the following 60 months. At 64 months, carbachol iontophoresis induced accommodation was measured again. At 68 months, EW stimulus-response curves were measured with an HCR and photorefraction every week over four consecutive weeks to evaluate the short-term reproducibility over one month. In the four eyes studied, long-term EW-stimulated accommodation decreased by 7.00 D, 3.33 D, 4.63 D, and 2.03 D, whereas carbachol stimulated accommodation increased by 0.18 D-0.49 D over the same time period. The short-term reproducibility of maximum EW-stimulated accommodation (standard deviations) over a period of four weeks at 68 months after electrode implantation was 0.48 D, 0.79 D, 0.55 D and 0.39 D in the four eyes. Since the long-term decrease in EW-stimulated accommodation is not matched by similar decreases in carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation, the decline

  6. Gain and movement time of convergence-accommodation in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, R; Bobier, W R

    2004-11-01

    Convergence-accommodation is the synkinetic change in accommodation driven by vergence. A few studies have investigated the static and dynamic properties of this cross-link in adults but little is known about convergence-accommodation in children. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for measuring convergence-accommodation and to study its dynamics (gain and movement time) in a sample of pre-school children. Convergence-accommodation measures were examined on thiry-seven normal pre-school children (mean age = 4.0 +/- 1.31 yrs). Stimulus CA/C (sCA/C) ratios and movement time measures of convergence-accommodation were assessed using a photorefractor while subjects viewed a DOG target. Repeated measures were obtained on eight normal adults (mean age = 23 +/- 0.2 yrs). The mean sCA/C ratios and movement times were not significantly different between adults and children (0.10 D/Delta [0.61 D/M.A.], 743 +/- 70 ms and 0.11 D/Delta [0.50 D/M.A.], 787 +/- 216 ms). Repeated measures on adults showed a non-significant mean difference of 0.001 D/Delta. The results suggest that the possible differences in crystalline lens (plant) characteristics between children and adults do not appear to influence convergence-accommodation gain or duration.

  7. Correlates of Accommodation of Pediatric Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Parent, Child, and Family Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Tara S.; Bergman, R. Lindsey; Langley, Audra; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T.; Piacentini, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, impairing condition associated with high levels of family accommodation (i.e., participation in symptoms). Understanding of factors that may engender accommodation of pediatric OCD is limited. This study conducted exploratory analyses of parent-, child-, and family-level correlates of family accommodation, considering both behavioral and affective components of the response. Method The sample included 65 youth (mean age = 12.3 years; 62% male) with OCD and their parents who completed a standardized assessment battery comprised of both clinical and self-report measures (e.g., CY-BOCS, Brief Symptom Inventory). Results Family accommodation was common, with the provision of reassurance and participation in rituals the most frequent practices (respectively occurring on a daily basis among 56% and 46% of parents). Total scores on the Family Accommodation Scale were not associated with child OCD symptom severity; however, parental involvement in rituals was associated with higher levels of child OCD severity and parental psychopathology, and with lower levels of family organization. Comorbid externalizing symptomatology and family conflict were associated with parent report of worse consequences when not accommodating. Conclusions Although these findings must be interpreted in light of potential Type I error, they suggest that accommodation is the norm in pediatric OCD. Family-focused interventions must consider the parent, child, and family-level variables associated with this familial response when teaching disengagement strategies. PMID:18724255

  8. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  9. Peripheral Design of Progressive Addition Lenses and the Lag of Accommodation in Myopes.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Tim; Ohlendorf, Arne; Varnas, Saulius R; Wahl, Siegfried

    2017-07-01

    Insufficient accommodative response is assumed to result in myopia progression. We have investigated if the accommodative lag in myopes is different between a single vision lens (SVL) and the progressive addition lens PAL 2, clinically trialled for its ability to reduce progression of myopia, and if there exist differences in accommodative lag between PAL 2 and other PALs with the same addition power (+1.50 D). The influence of spherical SVL and four different designs of PALs that differ in the near zone width (PAL 1) or that have different signs and magnitude of horizontal gradients of mean power adjacent to their near vision zones (PAL 3 and PAL 4) on the accommodative response was investigated for different near viewing distances (40, 33, and 25 cm) in 31 subjects, aged 18 to 25 years. The SVL correction resulted in insufficient accommodative response for the near object viewing distances tested. PAL 2 did significantly reduce accommodative lag for all near object distances tested. The PAL design with a more negative horizontal mean power gradient (PAL 4) provided a lower lag of accommodation when compared with PAL 2 at the shortest object distance of 25 cm (P = 0.03) and was able to reduce the lag of accommodation to a level below the depth of focus for the higher near working distances tested. Designs of PAL with more negative horizontal mean power gradients are the most effective in lowering the lag of accommodation in myopes. This could make them good test candidates for myopia control applications.

  10. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for training the human visual accommodation system is described. Specifically, the apparatus is useful for training personnel to volitionally control focus to the far point (normally infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision. The device comprises a number of optical elements arranged on a single optical axis. Several of the elements are arranged in order on a movable stage in fixed relationship to each other: a light source, a lens, a target, an aperture and/or a second lens. On a base and in fixed relationship to each other are eyepiece and third lens. A stage generates an image of the target and the stage is movable with respect to the base by means of a knob. The device is utilized for the various training and test functions by following a series of procedural steps, and interchanging the apertures as necessary for the selected procedure.

  11. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-17

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  12. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children.

    PubMed

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur

    2014-01-01

    Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3-16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced 'with the motion' was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that 'against the motion' was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was -0.63±0.69D and dynamic refraction was -0.07±0.44D before cycloplegia, while the mean was+0.52D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured -0.17D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90D after cycloplegia. The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11-13 and 14-15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Accommodation to wavefront vergence and chromatic aberration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B; Li, James S; Lin, Peter L; Stark, Lawrence R

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In this study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less.

  14. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  15. Ocular Aberrations Across the Visual Field During Accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    Myopia is classically defined as a mismatch between the optical power of the relaxed eye and its dioptric length. This definition is entirely foveocentric without concern for the contributions of peripheral refractive errors to myopia development. Long periods of steady near-work was considered to cause myopia development due to inadequate accommodation. Consequently, not only the on-axis optical features but also off-axis ones should be probed to gain insight about myopia progression. Moreover, these features need to be understood not only for the relaxed eye, but also for the accommodating eye. To acquire complete data set, a custom-built Indiana Scanning Aberrometer for Wavefront (I SAW) was developed to measure wavefront aberration along 37 line-of-sights at 8 different accommodation states in the central 30 degree visual field. We found that ocular refractive state changed uniformly over the central visual field as the eye accommodates up to 6D, and the accuracy of accommodation across the central visual field is similar to that measured in the fovea. No systematic difference between emmetropic and myopic eyes was evident. Then, a linear vector-summation rule for axial and oblique astigmatism was found to account for their interaction over the central visual field. Using this combination rule, our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations. The axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye is less than for the cornea alone, indicating a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states. This compensation mechanism was further validated theoretically with schematic eye model. Lastly, we developed a hybrid method yielding customized eye models that accurately reproduce the empirical measurements and reasonably represent the anatomical structure, thus providing a mechanistic explanation for the changes in the eye's aberration structure that occur over the central

  16. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children

    PubMed Central

    Krishnacharya, Prabhakar Srinivasapur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Childhood accommodation interferes with accurate diagnosis of the latent refractive errors. Dynamic retinoscopy offers accurate measurements of accommodative response, while an autorefractometer can predict the accommodative system activation in children. A correlation of the accommodative effort with the dynamic refraction has been investigated in emmetropic children, before and after cycloplegia. Methods A prospective clinical study of accommodative effort in 149 emmetropic children, in the age group 3–16 years, has been conducted using TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor. Dynamic refraction was performed by monocular estimation method before and after cycloplegia, using the retinoscope mirror light as target. Retinoscopic reflex produced ‘with the motion’ was corrected with positive spherical lenses, and that ‘against the motion’ was corrected with negative spherical lenses, to achieve neutralization. Results Mean accommodative effort measured for 149 children included in the study was −0.63 ± 0.69 D and dynamic refraction was −0.07 ± 0.44 D before cycloplegia, while the mean was + 0.52 D after cycloplegia, irrespective of the method used. Autorefractor measured −0.17 D of accommodative effort per unit change in dynamic refraction before cycloplegia and +0.90 D after cycloplegia. Conclusions The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11–13 and 14–15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia. PMID:25130066

  17. Accommodation to Wavefront Vergence and Chromatic Aberration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinan; Kruger, Philip B.; Li, James S.; Lin, Peter L.; Stark, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) provides a cue to accommodation with small pupils. However, large pupils increase monochromatic aberrations, which may obscure chromatic blur. In the present study, we examined the effect of pupil size and LCA on accommodation. Methods Accommodation was recorded by infrared optometer while observers (nine normal trichromats) viewed a sinusoidally moving Maltese cross target in a Badal stimulus system. There were two illumination conditions: white (3000 K; 20 cd/m2) and monochromatic (550 nm with 10 nm bandwidth; 20 cd/m2) and two artificial pupil conditions (3 mm and 5.7 mm). Separately, static measurements of wavefront aberration were made with the eye accommodating to targets between 0 and 4 D (COAS, Wavefront Sciences). Results Large individual differences in accommodation to wavefront vergence and to LCA are a hallmark of accommodation. LCA continues to provide a signal at large pupil sizes despite higher levels of monochromatic aberrations. Conclusions Monochromatic aberrations may defend against chromatic blur at high spatial frequencies, but accommodation responds best to optical vergence and to LCA at 3 c/deg where blur from higher order aberrations is less. PMID:21317666

  18. Choosing Accommodations: Signed Language Interpreting and the Absence of Choice.

    PubMed

    Burke, Teresa Blankmeyer

    This paper carves out a topic space for discussion about the ethical question of whether input from signing Deaf consumers of interpreting services ought to be included in the provision of signed language interpreter accommodations. The first section provides background about disability accommodations and practices, including how signed language interpreting accommodations are similar and dissimilar to other kinds of disability accommodations. In the second section, I offer a personal narrative of my experience as a Deaf academic who has been excluded from the interpreter selection process, highlighting some of the harmful consequences of such exclusion. In the subsequent two sections, I describe and analyze the process of choosing interpreter accommodations, starting with the process of requesting signed language interpreters and the institutionalization of this process, followed by a brief overview of privacy and autonomy concerns from the standpoint of the signing Deaf consumer. The penultimate section considers some objections to the proposal of involving more consumer choice in signed language accommodations. I conclude the paper with some concrete suggestions for a more Deaf-centered, inclusive process for choosing interpreter accommodations.

  19. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children?

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2014-08-01

    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    PubMed

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo

    2017-04-01

    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Human dynamic closed-loop accommodation augmented by sympathetic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Culhane, H M; Winn, B; Gilmartin, B

    1999-05-01

    A ciliary alpha-adrenoceptor accommodative effect has been proposed, caused by a small population of alpha1-inhibitory receptors in excised human ciliary muscle. This study was intended to investigate the effect on the closed-loop dynamic accommodative process of modulating alpha1-adrenoceptor activity by topical instillation of the alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine hydrochloride. A group of 10 visually normal subjects viewed a photopic (30 candela/m2) high-contrast Maltese cross, which was modulated sinusoidally (0.05-0.6Hz) and stepwise over a 2-D range (2-4 D). Monocular temporal accommodation responses were measured using a continuously recording dynamic tracking infrared optometer under two trial conditions: after instillation of saline control solution and 50 minutes subsequent to the instillation of 0.27 microl 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride and 0.27 microl 2.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride. Pupil size and accommodative amplitude were measured at 90-second intervals for 50 minutes after drug instillation. All accommodative measurements were recorded through a fixed 4-mm pupil. A significant reduction in accommodative amplitude (11%; P < 0.05) was recorded, whereas pupil size showed a significant increase (33%; P < 0.05). No significant change in step-response dynamics was observed. However, phenylephrine hydrochloride caused a significant increase in accommodative gain in the low and midtemporal frequency ranges compared with the effect of a saline control treatment. No significant variation in phase lag was observed. For the first time in humans, this study shows that augmentation of the alpha1-inhibitory sympathetic contribution results in increased accommodative gain at low and midtemporal frequencies, which is consistent with findings in animal studies.

  2. Accommodation Decision Making for Postsecondary Students With Learning Disabilities: Individually Tailored or One Size Fits All?

    PubMed

    Weis, Robert; Dean, Emily L; Osborne, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Clinicians uniformly recommend accommodations for college students with learning disabilities; however, we know very little about which accommodations they select and the validity of their recommendations. We examined the assessment documentation of a large sample of community college students receiving academic accommodations for learning disabilities to determine (a) which accommodations their clinicians recommended and (b) whether clinicians' recommendations were supported by objective data gathered during the assessment process. In addition to test and instructional accommodations, many clinicians recommended that students with learning disabilities should have different educational expectations, standards, and methods of evaluation (i.e., grading) than their nondisabled classmates. Many of their recommendations for accommodations were not supported by objective evidence from students' history, diagnosis, test data, and current functioning. Furthermore, clinicians often recommended accommodations that were not specific to the student's diagnosis or area of disability. Our findings highlight the need for individually selected accommodations matched to students' needs and academic contexts. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  3. Comparison of Approaches for Measuring the Mass Accommodation Coefficient for the Condensation of Water and Sensitivities to Uncertainties in Thermophysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We compare and contrast measurements of the mass accommodation coefficient of water on a water surface made using ensemble and single particle techniques under conditions of supersaturation and subsaturation, respectively. In particular, we consider measurements made using an expansion chamber, a continuous flow streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei chamber, the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator, aerosol optical tweezers, and electrodynamic balances. Although this assessment is not intended to be comprehensive, these five techniques are complementary in their approach and give values that span the range from near 0.1 to 1.0 for the mass accommodation coefficient. We use the same semianalytical treatment to assess the sensitivities of the measurements made by the various techniques to thermophysical quantities (diffusion constants, thermal conductivities, saturation pressure of water, latent heat, and solution density) and experimental parameters (saturation value and temperature). This represents the first effort to assess and compare measurements made by different techniques to attempt to reduce the uncertainty in the value of the mass accommodation coefficient. Broadly, we show that the measurements are consistent within the uncertainties inherent to the thermophysical and experimental parameters and that the value of the mass accommodation coefficient should be considered to be larger than 0.5. Accurate control and measurement of the saturation ratio is shown to be critical for a successful investigation of the surface transport kinetics during condensation/evaporation. This invariably requires accurate knowledge of the partial pressure of water, the system temperature, the droplet curvature and the saturation pressure of water. Further, the importance of including and quantifying the transport of heat in interpreting droplet measurements is highlighted; the particular issues associated with interpreting measurements of condensation

  4. Accommodative Performance of Children With Unilateral Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Manh, Vivian; Chen, Angela M.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Kristina; Cotter, Susan A.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the accommodative performance of the amblyopic eye of children with unilateral amblyopia to that of their nonamblyopic eye, and also to that of children without amblyopia, during both monocular and binocular viewing. Methods. Modified Nott retinoscopy was used to measure accommodative performance of 38 subjects with unilateral amblyopia and 25 subjects with typical vision from 3 to 13 years of age during monocular and binocular viewing at target distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm. The relationship between accommodative demand and interocular difference (IOD) in accommodative error was assessed in each group. Results. The mean IOD in monocular accommodative error for amblyopic subjects across all three viewing distances was 0.49 diopters (D) (95% confidence interval [CI], ±1.12 D) in the 180° meridian and 0.54 D (95% CI, ±1.27 D) in the 90° meridian, with the amblyopic eye exhibiting greater accommodative errors on average. Interocular difference in monocular accommodative error increased significantly with increasing accommodative demand; 5%, 47%, and 58% of amblyopic subjects had monocular errors in the amblyopic eye that fell outside the upper 95% confidence limit for the better eye of control subjects at viewing distances of 50, 33, and 25 cm, respectively. Conclusions. When viewing monocularly, children with unilateral amblyopia had greater mean accommodative errors in their amblyopic eyes than in their nonamblyopic eyes, and when compared with control subjects. This could lead to unintended retinal image defocus during patching therapy for amblyopia. PMID:25626970

  5. Change in convergence and accommodation after two weeks of eye exercises in typical young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M.; Toor, Sonia S.; Riddell, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency, and intermittent strabismus, results can be confounded by placebo, practice, and encouragement effects. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in naive young adults after a 2-week period of eye exercises under controlled conditions to determine the extent to which treatment effects occur over other factors. Methods Asymptomatic young adults were randomly assigned to one of two no-treatment (control) groups or to one of six eye exercise groups: accommodation, vergence, both, convergence in excess of accommodation, accommodation in excess of convergence, and placebo. Subjects were tested and retested under identical conditions, except for the second control group, who were additionally encouraged. Objective accommodation and vergence were assessed to a range of targets moving in depth containing combinations of blur, disparity, and proximity/looming cues. Results A total of 156 subjects were included. Response gain improved more for less naturalistic targets where more improvement was possible. Convergence exercises improved vergence for near across all targets (P = 0.035). Mean accommodation changed similarly but nonsignificantly. No other treatment group differed significantly from the nonencouraged control group, whereas encouraging effort produced significantly increased vergence (P = 0.004) and accommodation (P = 0.005) gains in the second control group. Conclusions True treatment effects were small, significantly better only after vergence exercises to a nonaccommodative target, and rarely related to the response they were designed to improve. Exercising accommodation without convergence made no difference to accommodation to cues containing detail. Additional effort improved objective responses the most. PMID:24582466

  6. Dynamic accommodation with simulated targets blurred with high order aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Gambra, Enrique; Wang, Yinan; Yuan, Jing; Kruger, Philip B.; Marcos, Susana

    2010-01-01

    High order aberrations have been suggested to play a role in determining the direction of accommodation. We have explored the effect of retinal blur induced by high order aberrations on dynamic accommodation by measuring the accommodative response to sinusoidal variations in accommodative demand (1–3 D). The targets were blurred with 0.3 and 1 μm (for a 3-mm pupil) of defocus, coma, trefoil and spherical aberration. Accommodative gain decreased significantly when 1-μm of aberration was induced. We found a strong correlation between the relative accommodative gain (and phase lag) and the contrast degradation imposed on the target at relevant spatial frequencies. PMID:20600230

  7. Are high lags of accommodation in myopic children due to motor deficits?

    PubMed

    Labhishetty, Vivek; Bobier, William R

    2017-01-01

    Children with a progressing myopia exhibit an abnormal pattern of high accommodative lags coupled with high accommodative convergence (AC/A) and high accommodative adaptation. This is not predicted by the current models of accommodation and vergence. Reduced accommodative plant gain and reduced sensitivity to blur have been suggested as potential causes for this abnormal behavior. These etiologies were tested by altering parameters (sensory, controller and plant gains) in the Simulink model of accommodation. Predictions were then compared to the static and dynamic blur accommodation (BA) measures taken using a Badal optical system on 12 children (6 emmetropes and 6 myopes, 8-13years) and 6 adults (20-35years). Other critical parameters such as CA/C, AC/A, and accommodative adaptation were also measured. Usable BA responses were classified as either typical or atypical. Typical accommodation data confirmed the abnormal pattern of myopia along with an unchanged CA/C. Main sequence relationship remained invariant between myopic and nonmyopic children. An overall reduction was noted in the response dynamics such as peak velocity and acceleration with age. Neither a reduced plant gain nor reduced blur sensitivity could predict the abnormal accommodative behavior. A model adjustment reflecting a reduced accommodative sensory gain (ASG) coupled with an increased AC cross-link gain and reduced vergence adaptive gain does predict the empirical findings. Empirical measures also showed a greater frequency of errors in accommodative response generation (atypical responses) in both myopic and control children compared to adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accommodation and Phoria in Children Wearing Multifocal Contact Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Celia R; Troilo, David; Richdale, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of multifocal contact lenses on accommodation and phoria in children. Methods This was a prospective, non-dispensing, randomized, crossover, single visit study. Myopic children with normal accommodation and binocularity and no history of myopia control treatment were enrolled and fitted with Coopervision Biofinity single vision (SV) and multifocal (MF, +2.50D center distance add) contact lenses. Accommodative responses (photorefraction) and phorias (Modified Thorington) were measured at 4 distances (>3m, 100cm, 40cm, 25cm). Secondary measures included high and low contrast logMAR acuity, accommodative amplitude and facility. Differences between contact lens designs were analyzed using repeated measures regression and paired t-tests. Results A total of 16 subjects, aged 10-15 years, completed the study. There was a small decrease in high (SV: -0.08, MF: +0.01) and low illumination (SV:-0.03, MF: +0.08) (both p<0.01) visual acuity, and contrast sensitivity (SV: 2.0, MF: 1.9 log units, p=0.015) with multifocals. Subjects were more exophoric at 40 cm (SV: -0.41, MF: -2.06 Δ) and 25cm (SV: -0.83, MF: -4.30 Δ) (both p<0.01). With multifocals, subjects had decreased accommodative responses at distance (SV: -0.04; MF: -0.37 D, p=0.02), 100 cm (SV: +0.37; MF: -0.35 D, p<0.01), 40 cm (SV: +1.82; MF: +0.62 D, p<0.01), and 25 cm (SV: +3.38; MF: +1.75 D, p<0.01). There were no significant differences in accommodative amplitude (p=0.66) or facility (p=0.54). Conclusions Children wearing multifocal contact lenses exhibited reduced accommodative responses and more exophoria at increasingly higher accommodative demands than with single vision contact lenses. This suggests that children may be relaxing their accommodation and using the positive addition or increased depth of focus from added spherical aberration of the multifocals. Further studies are needed to evaluate other lens designs, different amounts of positive addition and aberrations, and

  9. The influence of interactions between accommodation and convergence on the lag of accommodation.

    PubMed

    Schor, C

    1999-03-01

    Several models of myopia predict that growth of axial length is stimulated by blur. Accommodative lag has been suggested as an important source of blur in the development of myopia and this study has modeled how cross-link interactions between accommodation and convergence might interact with uncorrected distance heterophoria and refractive error to influence accommodative lag. Accommodative lag was simulated with two models of interactions between accommodation and convergence (one with and one without adaptable tonic elements). Simulations of both models indicate that both uncorrected hyperopia and esophoria increase the lag of accommodative and uncorrected myopia and exophoria decrease the lag or introduce a lead of accommodation in response to the near (40 cm) stimulus. These effects were increased when gain of either cross-link, accommodative convergence (AC/A) or convergence accommodation (CA/C), was increased within a moderate range of values while the other was fixed at a normal value (clamped condition). These effects were exaggerated when both the AC/A and CA/C ratios were increased (covaried condition) and affects of cross-link gain were negated when an increase of one cross-link (e.g. AC/A) was accompanied by a reduction of the other cross-link (e.g. CA/C) (reciprocal condition). The inclusion of tonic adaptation in the model reduced steady state errors of accommodation for all conditions except when the AC/A ratio was very high (2 MA/D). Combinations of cross-link interactions between accommodation and convergence that resemble either clamped or reciprocal patterns occur naturally in clinical populations. Simulations suggest that these two patterns of abnormal cross-link interactions could affect the progression of myopia differently. Adaptable tonic accommodation and tonic vergence could potentially reduce the progression of myopia by reducing the lag of accommodation.

  10. Prediction of accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic patients using ultrasound biomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine whether relatively low-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) can predict the accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes as well as in a previous study of young phakic subjects, despite lower accommodative amplitudes. SETTING College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, USA. DESIGN Observational cross-sectional study. METHODS Static accommodative optical response was measured with infrared photorefraction and an autorefractor (WR-5100K) in subjects aged 36 to 46 years. A 35 MHz UBM device (Vumax, Sonomed Escalon) was used to image the left eye, while the right eye viewed accommodative stimuli. Custom-developed Matlab image-analysis software was used to perform automated analysis of UBM images to measure the ocular biometry parameters. The accommodative optical response was predicted from biometry parameters using linear regression, 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and 95% prediction intervals. RESULTS The study evaluated 25 subjects. Per-diopter (D) accommodative changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature, and anterior segment length were similar to previous values from young subjects. The standard deviations (SDs) of accommodative optical response predicted from linear regressions for UBM-measured biometry parameters were ACD, 0.15 D; lens thickness, 0.25 D; anterior lens radii of curvature, 0.09 D; posterior lens radii of curvature, 0.37 D; and anterior segment length, 0.42 D. CONCLUSIONS Ultrasound biomicroscopy parameters can, on average, predict accommodative optical response with SDs of less than 0.55 D using linear regressions and 95% CIs. Ultrasound biomicroscopy can be used to visualize and quantify accommodative biometric changes and predict accommodative optical response in prepresbyopic eyes. PMID:26049831

  11. Visual-Accommodation Trainer/Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, Robert J., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Ophthalmic instrument tests and helps develop focusing ability. Movable stage on a fixed base permits adjustment of effective target position as perceived by subject. Various apertures used to perform tests and training procedures. Ophthalmic instrument provides four functions: it measures visual near and far points; provides focus stimulus in vision research; measures visual-accommodation resting position; can be used to train for volitional control of person's focus response.

  12. The effect of incipient presbyopia on the correspondence between accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Baker, Fiona J; Gilmartin, Bernard

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the accommodation-convergence relationship during the incipient phase of presbyopia. The study aimed to differentiate between the current theories of presbyopia and to explore the mechanisms by which the oculomotor system compensates for the change in the accommodation-convergence relationship contingent on a declining amplitude of accommodation. Using a Canon R-1 open-view autorefractor and a haploscope device, measurements were made of the stimulus and response accommodative convergence/accommodation ratios and the convergence accommodation/convergence ratio of 28 subjects aged 35-45 years at the commencement of the study. Amplitude of accommodation was assessed using a push-down technique. The measurements were repeated at 4-monthly intervals over a 2-year period. The results showed that with the decline in the amplitude of accommodation there is an increase in the accommodative convergence response per unit of accommodative response and a decrease in the convergence accommodation response per unit of convergence. The results of this study fail to support the Hess-Gullstrand theory of presbyopia in that the ciliary muscle effort required to produce a unit change in accommodation increases, rather than stays constant, with age. Data show that the near vision response is limited to the maximum vergence response that can be tolerated and, despite being within the amplitude of accommodation, a stimulus may still appear blurred because the vergence component determines the proportion of available accommodation utilised during near vision.

  13. Change in convergence and accommodation after two weeks of eye exercises in typical young adults.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-04-01

    Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency, and intermittent strabismus, results can be confounded by placebo, practice, and encouragement effects. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in naive young adults after a 2-week period of eye exercises under controlled conditions to determine the extent to which treatment effects occur over other factors. Asymptomatic young adults were randomly assigned to one of two no-treatment (control) groups or to one of six eye exercise groups: accommodation, vergence, both, convergence in excess of accommodation, accommodation in excess of convergence, and placebo. Subjects were tested and retested under identical conditions, except for the second control group, who were additionally encouraged. Objective accommodation and vergence were assessed to a range of targets moving in depth containing combinations of blur, disparity, and proximity/looming cues. A total of 156 subjects were included. Response gain improved more for less naturalistic targets where more improvement was possible. Convergence exercises improved vergence for near across all targets (P = 0.035). Mean accommodation changed similarly but nonsignificantly. No other treatment group differed significantly from the nonencouraged control group, whereas encouraging effort produced significantly increased vergence (P = 0.004) and accommodation (P = 0.005) gains in the second control group. True treatment effects were small, significantly better only after vergence exercises to a nonaccommodative target, and rarely related to the response they were designed to improve. Exercising accommodation without convergence made no difference to accommodation to cues containing detail. Additional effort improved objective responses the most. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Vergence accommodation and monocular closed loop blur accommodation have similar dynamic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Meyers, Jason P; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R

    2007-02-01

    Retinal blur and disparity are two different sensory signals known to cause a change in accommodative response. These inputs have differing neurological correlates that feed into a final common pathway. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dynamic properties of monocular blur driven accommodation and binocular disparity driven vergence-accommodation (VA) in human subjects. The results show that when response amplitudes are matched, blur accommodation and VA share similar dynamic properties.

  15. Random Changes of Accommodation Stimuli: An Automated Extension of the Flippers Accommodative Facility Test.

    PubMed

    Otero, Carles; Aldaba, Mikel; López, Silvia; Díaz-Doutón, Fernando; Vera-Díaz, Fuensanta A; Pujol, Jaume

    2018-06-01

    To study the accommodative dynamics for predictable and unpredictable stimuli using manual and automated accommodative facility tests Materials and Methods: Seventeen young healthy subjects were tested monocularly in two consecutive sessions, using five different conditions. Two conditions replicated the conventional monocular accommodative facility tests for far and near distances, performed with manually held flippers. The other three conditions were automated and conducted using an electro-optical system and open-field autorefractor. Two of the three automated conditions replicated the predictable manual accommodative facility tests. The last automated condition was a hybrid approach using a novel method whereby far and near-accommodative-facility tests were randomly integrated into a single test of four unpredictable accommodative demands. The within-subject standard deviations for far- and near-distance-accommodative reversals were (±1,±1) cycles per minute (cpm) for the manual flipper accommodative facility conditions and (±3, ±4) cpm for the automated conditions. The 95% limits of agreement between the manual and the automated conditions for far and near distances were poor: (-18, 12) and (-15, 3). During the hybrid unpredictable condition, the response time and accommodative response parameters were significantly (p < 0.05) larger for accommodation than disaccommodation responses for high accommodative demands only. The response times during the transitions 0.17/2.17 D and 0.50/4.50 D appeared to be indistinguishable between the hybrid unpredictable and the conventional predictable automated tests. The automated accommodative facility test does not agree with the manual flipper test results. Operator delays in flipping the lens may account for these differences. This novel test, using unpredictable stimuli, provides a more comprehensive examination of accommodative dynamics than conventional manual accommodative facility tests. Unexpectedly, the

  16. Influence of Ametropia and Its Correction on Measurement of Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Molina, Paula; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; Thibos, Larry N; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-06-01

    Amplitude of accommodation (AA) is reportedly greater for myopic eyes than for hyperopic eyes. We investigated potential explanations for this difference. Analytical analysis and computer ray tracing were performed on two schematic eye models of axial ametropia. Using paraxial and nonparaxial approaches, AA was specified for the naked and the corrected eye using the anterior corneal surface as the reference plane. Assuming that axial myopia is due entirely to an increase in vitreous chamber depth, AA increases with the amount of myopia for two reasons that have not always been taken into account. First is the choice of reference location for specifying refractive error and AA in diopters. When specified relative to the cornea, AA increases with the degree of myopia more than when specified relative to the eye's first Gaussian principal plane. The second factor is movement of the eye's second Gaussian principal plane toward the retina during accommodation, which has a larger dioptric effect in shorter eyes. Using the corneal plane (placed at the corneal vertex) as the reference plane for specifying accommodation, AA depends slightly on the axial length of the eye's vitreous chamber. This dependency can be reduced significantly by using a reference plane located 4 mm posterior to the corneal plane. A simple formula is provided to help clinicians and researchers obtain a value of AA that closely reflects power changes of the crystalline lens, independent of axial ametropia and its correction with lenses.

  17. Near visual acuity for everyday activities with accommodative and monofocal intraocular lenses.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Donald R; Sanders, Monica L

    2007-10-01

    To determine the levels of functional near visual acuity required for everyday social reading activities and to compare the levels to those attained with accommodative and monofocal intraocular lenses (LOLs). Font size equivalencies of an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study near chart and a variety of commonly read print objects were determined and correlated to the findings of distance-corrected near vision measurements with 2 accommodative (Tetraflex, 1CU) and 1 monofocal (Acrysof MA30) IOLs. The smallest print objects studied were sweetener packets with type between 20/40 (Jaeger [J] 5) and 20/50 (J6). Type in classified ads, stock quotations, and pocket bibles was 20/50 (J6), type in a telephone directory was 20/63 (J8), and type in standard newspapers, journals, and magazines was 20/80 (J9). Tested monocularly, 88% of Tetraflex, 40% of ICU, and 7% of Acrysof MA30 eyes had distance-corrected near vision sufficient to read newspaper and telephone directory print, and 63% of Tetraflex, 30% of 1CU, and 0% of Acrysof MA30 eyes could read classified ads, stock quotations, and pocket bibles, respectively. Tested binocularly after bilateral implantation, 96% of Tetraflex patients could read telephone directory print and 89% could read ads, stock quotations, and pocket bibles. Functional near visual acuity is not equivalent to the bottom-line objective at 20/20 (J1) near visual acuity. No print size was found at or smaller than 20/40 (J5), indicating that a requirement of nearly perfect near visual acuity, while desirable, may not be necessary for patients' social reading needs for accommodative IOLs.

  18. Stimulating human accommodation without changes in focus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Monika; Seidemann, Anne; Schaeffel, Frank

    2004-05-01

    Inspired by the finding in chickens that preferential stimulation of the ON retinal system suppresses myopia induced by negative spectacle lens wear and that stimulation of the OFF system suppresses the hyperopia induced by positive lens wear, we sought to determine whether stimulation of the ON-OFF retinal systems could drive directional accommodation responses in humans. If emmetropisation and accommodation use similar image processing algorithms, more accommodation would be expected with OFF stimulation. Accommodation responses were measured while viewing a computer-generated pattern designed to stimulate the ON-OFF systems. The stimulus comprised a rectangular field (12 x 9.5 cm) on a black background filled with 196 discs (diameters: 0.4-1.0 cm). These were presented on an LCD monitor in a dark room at a viewing distance of 55 cm (1.8 D). Thirteen subjects aged 21-37 years took part. The individual discs had saw-tooth shaped temporal luminance profiles with the same time period but with random phases with respect to each other, so that the mean brightness of the stimulus was constant. To eliminate accommodation responses based on other cues (i.e. proximity) a 0.5 mm artificial pupil was used to open the accommodation loop. Refraction in the vertical pupil meridian was continuously recorded with an infrared photorefractor (the PowerRefractor). To verify that computer-based stimuli presented within our experimental design were effective in driving accommodation, previously studied stimuli were also tested: changes in size (looming) and incremental low pass filtering. Preferential stimulation of the ON or OFF subsystems produced a convincing depth illusion in all subjects (which was psychophysically confirmed in four subjects). Although the stimulus appeared to move in depth it did not produce accommodation responses that were consistent with that, i.e. the accommodation system did not appear to fluctuate in rhythm with the temporal oscillations of the stimulus

  19. Disabling accommodation barriers: A study exploring how to better accommodate government employees with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Mellifont, Damian; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Scanlan, Justin Newton

    2016-11-22

    Accommodating mental health in the workplace is challenging. Despite policy efforts to encourage the availability of mental health accommodations in the workplace, employees experiencing mental illness are missing out on accommodations that they need. To inform vocational rehabilitation professionals and managers in the public service of best practice accommodations for government employees with anxiety disorders. Thematic analysis was applied to data collected from the online Accommodating Government Employees with Anxiety Disorders Survey undertaken by 71 Australian public service employees diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Our research results include theme and sub-theme representations of accommodations received, accommodations reported as missing, accommodations that study participants felt they couldn't request, along with rejected accommodations. From the study participants' accounts, three key findings supporting desirable vocational outcomes become apparent. First, that the availability of 'standard' flexible work arrangements, along with personalised accommodations, can assist persons with anxiety disorders (where needed) to reach and retain government positions. Second, the chief barriers reported to making accommodation requests revolve around fears of being stigmatised and penalised. Finally, there is a need for managerial decision-makers to remain open-minded, particularly when assessing requests for accommodations that may break from government norms.

  20. Accommodative Behavior of Young Eyes Wearing Multifocal Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Altoaimi, Basal H; Almutairi, Meznah S; Kollbaum, Pete S; Bradley, Arthur

    2018-05-01

    The effectiveness of multifocal contact lenses (MFCLs) at slowing myopia progression may hinge on the accommodative behavior of young eyes fit with these presbyopic style lenses. Can they remove hyperopic defocus? Convergence accommodation as well as pupil size and the zonal geometry are likely to contribute to the final accommodative responses. The aim of this study was to examine the accommodation behavior of young adult eyes wearing MFCLs and the effectiveness of these MFCLs at removing foveal hyperopic defocus when viewing near targets binocularly. Using a high-resolution Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, accommodation and pupil behavior of eight young adults (27.25 ± 2.05 years) were measured while subjects fixated a 20/40 character positioned between 2 m and 20 cm (0.50 to 5.00 diopters [D]) in 0.25-D steps. Refractive states were measured while viewing binocularly and monocularly with single-vision and both center-distance and center-near +2.00 D add MFCLs. Refractive state was defined using three criteria: the dioptric power that would (1) minimize the root mean square wavefront error, (2) focus the pupil center, and (3) provide the peak image quality. Refractive state pupil maps reveal the complex optics that exist in eyes wearing MFCLs. Reduced accommodative gain beyond the far point of the near add revealed that young subjects used the added plus power to help focus near targets. During accommodation to stimuli closer than the far point generated by the add power, a midperipheral region of the pupil was approximately focused, resulting in the smallest accommodative errors for the minimum root mean square-defined measures of refractive state. Paraxial images were always hyperopically or myopically defocused in eyes viewing binocularly with center-distance or center-near MFCLs, respectively. Because of zone geometry in the concentric MFCLs tested, the highly aberrated transition zone between the distance and near optics contributed a significant proportion and

  1. Test-retest reproducibility of accommodative facility measures in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Adler, Paul; Scally, Andrew J; Barrett, Brendan T

    2018-05-08

    To determine the test-retest reproducibility of accommodative facility (AF) measures in an unselected sample of UK primary school children. Using ±2.00 DS flippers and a viewing distance of 40 cm, AF was measured in 136 children (range 4-12 years, average 8.1 ± 2.1) by five testers on three occasions (average interval between successive tests: eight days, range 1-21 days). On each occasion, AF was measured monocularly and binocularly, for two minutes. Full datasets were obtained in 111 children (81.6 per cent). Intra-individual variation in AF was large (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8 cycles per minute [cpm]) and there was variation due to the identity of the tester (SD = 1.6 cpm). On average, AF was greater: (i) in monocular compared to binocular testing (by 1.4 cpm, p < 0.001); (ii) in the second minute of testing compared to the first (by 1.3 cpm, p < 0.001); (iii) in older compared to younger children (for example, AF for 4/5-year-olds was 3.3 cpm lower than in children ≥ 10 years old, p = 0.009); and (iv) on subsequent testing occasions (for example, visit-2 AF was 2.0 cpm higher than visit-1 AF, p < 0.001). After the first minute of testing at visit-1, only 36.9 per cent of children exceeded published normative values for AF (≥ 11 cpm monocularly and ≥ 8 cpm binocularly), but this rose to 83.8 per cent after the third test. Using less stringent pass criteria (≥ 6 cpm monocularly and ≥ 3 cpm binocularly), the equivalent figures were 82.9 and 96.4 per cent, respectively. Reduced AF did not co-exist with abnormal near point of accommodation or reduced visual acuity. The results reveal considerable intra-individual variability in raw AF measures in children. When the results are considered as pass/fail, children who initially exhibit normal AF continued to do so on repeat testing. Conversely, the vast majority of children with initially reduced AF exhibit normal performance on repeat

  2. Adaptive Calibration of Dynamic Accommodation—Implications for Accommodating Intraocular Lenses

    PubMed Central

    Schor, Clifton M.; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE When the aging lens is replaced with prosthetic accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs), with effective viscoelasticities different from those of the natural lens, mismatches could arise between the neural control of accommodation and the biomechanical properties of the new lens. These mismatches could lead to either unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation. Using computer simulations, we investigated whether optimal accommodative responses could be restored through recalibration of the neural control of accommodation. Using human experiments, we also investigated whether the accommodative system has the capacity for adaptive recalibration in response to changes in lens biomechanics. METHODS Dynamic performance of two accommodating IOL prototypes was simulated for a 45-year-old accommodative system, before and after neural recalibration, using a dynamic model of accommodation. Accommodating IOL I, a prototype for an injectable accommodating IOL, was less stiff and less viscous than the natural 45-year-old lens. Accommodating IOL II, a prototype for a translating accommodating IOL, was less stiff and more viscous than the natural 45-year-old lens. Short-term adaptive recalibration of dynamic accommodation was stimulated using a double-step adaptation paradigm that optically induced changes in neuromuscular effort mimicking responses to changes in lens biomechanics. RESULTS Model simulations indicate that the unstable oscillations or sluggishness of dynamic accommodation resulting from mismatches between neural control and lens biomechanics might be restored through neural recalibration. CONCLUSIONS Empirical measures reveal that the accommodative system is capable of adaptive recalibration in response to optical loads that simulate effects of changing lens biomechanics. PMID:19044245

  3. A model to predict accommodations needed by disabled persons.

    PubMed

    Babski-Reeves, Kari; Williams, Sabrina; Waters, Tzer Nan; Crumpton-Young, Lesia L; McCauley-Bell, Pamela

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, several approaches to assist employers in the accommodation process for disabled employees are discussed and a mathematical model is proposed to assist employers in predicting the accommodation level needed by an individual with a mobility-related disability. This study investigates the validity and reliability of this model in assessing the accommodation level needed by individuals utilizing data collected from twelve individuals with mobility-related disabilities. Based on the results of the statistical analyses, this proposed model produces a feasible preliminary measure for assessing the accommodation level needed for persons with mobility-related disabilities. Suggestions for practical application of this model in an industrial setting are addressed.

  4. A meta-analysis of family accommodation and OCD symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; McGuire, Joseph F; Martino, Charitie; Phares, Vicky; Selles, Robert R; Storch, Eric A

    2016-04-01

    Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by myriad behaviors, such as modifying family routines, facilitating avoidance, and engaging in compulsions to reduce obsessional distress. It has been linked to various deleterious outcomes including increased functional impairment and poorer treatment response for OCD. Although extant literature suggests a linear relationship between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity, the magnitude and statistical significance of this association has been inconsistent across studies, indicating that moderators may be influencing this relationship. The present study examined this relationship using meta-analytic techniques, and investigated sample-dependent (age, gender, comorbid anxiety/mood disorders) and methodological (administration method and number of items used in family accommodation measure, informant type, sample size, publication year) moderators. Forty-one studies were included in the present meta-analysis, and the overall effect size (ES) for the correlation between family accommodation and OCD symptom severity was moderate (r=.42). Moderator analyses revealed that the number of items on the family accommodation scale moderated the ES. No other sample-dependent or methodological characteristics emerged as moderators. In addition to being the first systematic examination of family accommodation moderators, these results highlight the moderate relationship between family accommodation and OCD severity that is influenced by measurement scales. Findings may be used to guide clinical care and inform future investigations by providing a more nuanced understanding of family accommodation in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving Accommodations Outcomes: Monitoring Instructional and Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Wang, Ting

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a five-step process for schools, districts, and states to use in monitoring accommodations for instruction and assessment. This document was designed to be a companion to the "Council of Chief State School Officers' Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and…

  6. Success in baccalaureate nursing programs: a matter of accommodation?

    PubMed

    Haislett, J; Hughes, R B; Atkinson, G; Williams, C L

    1993-02-01

    This article explores student learning styles as an important variable in four-year baccalaureate nursing programs. Student learning styles were assessed by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-1985 (LSI-1985), which identifies the accommodator, diverger, assimilator, and converger learning styles. The authors examined the relationship between learning style and academic performance as measured by grade-point ratio (GPR) and studied behaviors and attitudes as measured by Brown and Holtzman's (1964) Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Analysis indicated that this sample (N = 100) included mainly assimilators and divergers, making reflective observation the most common mode of learning. Compared to the accommodator/converger group, the assimilator/diverger group earned a significantly higher GPR, significantly better scores on the study habits variable of Work Methods (WM), and moderately better scores on the study attitude variable of Educational Acceptance (EA). Accommodators were identified as the most at-risk learning style group, and specific interventions were suggested to assist accommodators in adapting to the academic rigors of a nursing curriculum.

  7. Intraocular Pressure Changes during Accommodation in Progressing Myopes, Stable Myopes and Emmetropes

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaodan; Hu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Mingzhou; Li, Xuemin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) induced by 3-diopter (3 D) accommodation in progressing myopes, stable myopes and emmetropes. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants 318 subjects including 270 myopes and 48 emmetropes. Methods 195 progressing myopes, 75 stable myopes and 48 emmetropes participated in this study. All subjects had their IOP measured using iCare rebound tonometer while accommodative stimuli of 0 D and 3 D were presented. Main Outcome Measures IOP values without accommodation and with 3 D accommodation were measured in all subjects. Baseline IOPs and IOP changes were compared within and between groups. Results There was no significant difference in IOPs between progressing myopes, stable myopes and emmetropes when no accommodation was induced (17.47±3.46, 16.62±2.98 and 16.80±3.62 respectively, p>0.05). IOP experienced an insignificantly slight decrease after 3 D accommodation in three groups (mean change -0.19±2.16, -0.03±1.68 and -0.39±2.65 respectively, p>0.05). Subgroup analysis showed in progressing myopic group, IOP of children (<18 years old) declined with accommodation while IOP of adults (≥18 years) increased, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.008). However, after excluding the age factor, accommodation induced IOP changes of high progressing myopes (≤-6 D), low, moderate and non-myopes (>-6 D) was not significantly different after Bonferroni correction (p = 0.838). Conclusions Although no difference was detected between the baseline IOPs and accommodation induced IOP changes in progressing myopes, stable myopes and emmetropes, this study found accommodation could cause transient IOP elevation in adult progressing myopes. PMID:26517725

  8. Long-term follow-up of acute isolated accommodation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Jin; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel

    2013-04-01

    To define the long-term results of accommodation insufficiency and to investigate the correlation between accommodation insufficiency and other factors including near point of convergence (NPC), age, and refractive errors. From January 2008 to December 2009, 11 patients with acute near vision disturbance and remote near point of accommodation (NPA) were evaluated. Full ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction and prism cover tests were performed. Accommodation ability was measured by NPA using the push-up method. We compared accommodation insufficiency and factors including age, refractive errors and NPC. We also investigated the recovery from loss of accommodation in patients. Mean age of patients was 20 years (range, 9 to 34 years). Five of the 11 patients were female. Mean refractive error was -0.6 diopters (range, -3.5 to +0.25 diopters) and 8 of 11 patients (73%) had emmetropia (+0.50 to -0.50 diopters). No abnormalities were found in brain imaging tests. Refractive errors were not correlated with NPA or NPC (rho = 0.148, p = 0.511; rho = 0.319, p = 0.339; respectively). The correlation between age and NPA was not significant (rho = -395, p = 0.069). However, the correlation between age and NPC was negative (rho = -0.508, p = 0.016). Three of 11 patients were lost to follow-up, and 6 of 8 patients had permanent insufficiency of accommodation. Accommodation insufficiency is most common in emmetropia, however, refractive errors and age are not correlated with accommodation insufficiency. Dysfunction of accommodation can be permanent in the isolated accommodation insufficiency.

  9. Long-term Follow-up of Acute Isolated Accommodation Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Jin; Baek, Seung-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To define the long-term results of accommodation insufficiency and to investigate the correlation between accommodation insufficiency and other factors including near point of convergence (NPC), age, and refractive errors. Methods From January 2008 to December 2009, 11 patients with acute near vision disturbance and remote near point of accommodation (NPA) were evaluated. Full ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction and prism cover tests were performed. Accommodation ability was measured by NPA using the push-up method. We compared accommodation insufficiency and factors including age, refractive errors and NPC. We also investigated the recovery from loss of accommodation in patients. Results Mean age of patients was 20 years (range, 9 to 34 years). Five of the 11 patients were female. Mean refractive error was -0.6 diopters (range, -3.5 to +0.25 diopters) and 8 of 11 patients (73%) had emmetropia (+0.50 to -0.50 diopters). No abnormalities were found in brain imaging tests. Refractive errors were not correlated with NPA or NPC (rho = 0.148, p = 0.511; rho = 0.319, p = 0.339; respectively). The correlation between age and NPA was not significant (rho = -395, p = 0.069). However, the correlation between age and NPC was negative (rho = -0.508, p = 0.016). Three of 11 patients were lost to follow-up, and 6 of 8 patients had permanent insufficiency of accommodation. Conclusions Accommodation insufficiency is most common in emmetropia, however, refractive errors and age are not correlated with accommodation insufficiency. Dysfunction of accommodation can be permanent in the isolated accommodation insufficiency. PMID:23543051

  10. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  11. Operationalizing workplace accommodations for individuals with disabilities: A scoping review.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Vidya

    2017-01-01

    The provision of workplace accommodations is a proven strategy in supporting individuals with disabilities at work. Accommodations include a wide range of supports and strategies that are not very well defined beyond the Americans with Disabilities Act in the United States. Understanding the landscape of accommodations is important to measure the impact of programs that support employment of individuals with disabilities. To conduct a scoping review and thematic analysis of research literature to identify how workplace accommodations are operationalized and to identify knowledge gaps in its conceptualization. Keywords searches were conducted in seven electronic databases. Title, abstract, and full text screening was conducted followed by a thematic analysis of the content to identify how workplace accommodations are operationalized. Overall, 47 studies were selected for review. 433 different types of accommodations were identified, of which assistive technology and specialized equipment represented the most frequently reported type of accommodation (40%). A very small percentage of studies included policy changes (9%) and human assistance (5%) as an accommodation strategy. This scoping review aims to clarify how accommodations are operationalized in the research literature. Key knowledge gaps identified include the systematic exclusion of certain types of supports or disability types.

  12. Age-Related Changes in Accommodative Dynamics from Preschool to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Adrian; Manny, Ruth E.; Stuebing, Karla K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To study variations in dynamic measures of accommodation and disaccommodation with age in subjects ranging from preschool to adulthood. Methods. Accommodative responses to a step stimulus cartoon movie alternating from distance to near were recorded with a dynamic infrared photorefractor. Subjects viewed at least three stimulus cycles of far and near for four near stimulus demands (2, 3, 4, and 5 D). Latencies, peak velocities, and the magnitude of accommodative microfluctuations were calculated from the responses and compared in 41 subjects from 3 to 38 years of age. Results. Mean accommodative and disaccommodative latencies decreased linearly with age. The magnitude of accommodative microfluctuations during sustained near accommodation had a significant quadratic relationship to age, with subjects in the first decade of life having the largest fluctuations and subjects in the third decade of life having the smallest for all stimulus demands. Accommodative peak velocities were fastest in subjects in the first two decades of life, compared with subjects in the third and fourth decades; however, disaccommodative peak velocities showed no significant age differences. Conclusions. Age-related changes in dynamics occur in accommodative and disaccommodative latencies, accommodative peak velocities, and accommodative microfluctuations, all of which decrease with increasing age from preschool to adulthood. Disaccommodative peak velocities showed no change with age. PMID:19684002

  13. Predicting Accommodative Response Using Paraxial Schematic Eye Models

    PubMed Central

    Ramasubramanian, Viswanathan; Glasser, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) studies showed that accommodative optical response (AOR) can be predicted from accommodative biometric changes in a young and a pre-presbyopic population from linear relationships between accommodative optical and biometric changes, with a standard deviation of less than 0.55D. Here, paraxial schematic eyes (SE) were constructed from measured accommodative ocular biometry parameters to see if predictions are improved. Methods Measured ocular biometry (OCT, A-scan and UBM) parameters from 24 young and 24 pre-presbyopic subjects were used to construct paraxial SEs for each individual subject (individual SEs) for three different lens equivalent refractive index methods. Refraction and AOR calculated from the individual SEs were compared with Grand Seiko (GS) autorefractor measured refraction and AOR. Refraction and AOR were also calculated from individual SEs constructed using the average population accommodative change in UBM measured parameters (average SEs). Results Schematic eye calculated and GS measured AOR were linearly related (young subjects: slope = 0.77; r2 = 0.86; pre-presbyopic subjects: slope = 0.64; r2 = 0.55). The mean difference in AOR (GS - individual SEs) for the young subjects was −0.27D and for the pre-presbyopic subjects was 0.33D. For individual SEs, the mean ± SD of the absolute differences in AOR between the GS and SEs was 0.50 ± 0.39D for the young subjects and 0.50 ± 0.37D for the pre-presbyopic subjects. For average SEs, the mean ± SD of the absolute differences in AOR between the GS and the SEs was 0.77 ± 0.88D for the young subjects and 0.51 ± 0.49D for the pre-presbyopic subjects. Conclusions Individual paraxial SEs predict AOR, on average, with a standard deviation of 0.50D in young and pre-presbyopic subject populations. Although this prediction is only marginally better than from individual linear regressions, it does consider all the ocular biometric parameters. PMID:27092928

  14. Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268

  15. The Job Accommodation Scale (JAS): psychometric evaluation of a new measure of employer support for temporary job modifications.

    PubMed

    Shaw, William S; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Côté, Pierre; Loisel, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    An employer offer of temporary job modification is a key strategy for facilitating return-to-work for musculoskeletal conditions, but there are no validated scales to assess the level of support for temporary job modifications across a range of job types and organizations. To pilot test a new 21-item self-report measure [the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS)] to assess its applicability, internal consistency, factor structure, and relation to physical job demands. Supervisors (N = 804, 72.8 % male, mean age = 46) were recruited from 19 employment settings in the USA and Canada and completed a 30-min online survey regarding job modification practices. As part of the survey, supervisors nominated and described a job position they supervised and completed the JAS for a hypothetical worker (in that position) with an episode of low back pain. Job characteristics were derived from the occupational informational network job classification database. The full response range (1-4) was utilized on all 21 items, with no ceiling or floor effects. Avoiding awkward postures was the most feasible accommodation and moving the employee to a different site or location was the least feasible. An exploratory factor analysis suggested five underlying factors (Modify physical workload; Modify work environment; Modify work schedule; Find alternate work; and Arrange for assistance), and there was an acceptable goodness-of-fit for the five parceled sub-factor scores as a single latent construct in a measurement model (structural equation model). Job accommodations were less feasible for more physical jobs and for heavier industries. The pilot administration of the JAS with respect to a hypothetical worker with low back pain showed initial support for its applicability, reliability, and validity when administered to supervisors. Future studies should assess its validity for use in actual disability cases, for a range of health conditions, and to assess different stakeholder opinions about the

  16. Corneal changes with accommodation using dual Scheimpflug photography.

    PubMed

    Sisó-Fuertes, Irene; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To assess whether corneal parameters and aberrations are affected by accommodation. Optics Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Prospective cross-sectional study. The Galilei G4 dual Scheimpflug device was used to obtain data on the anterior and posterior axial curvatures, total corneal power (TCP), and corneal pachymetry from 3 corneal zones (central: 0.0 up to 4.0 mm; paracentral or mid: 4.0 up to 7.0 mm; peripheral: 7.0 up to 10.0 mm) in young emmetropic eyes in the unaccommodated and 4 accommodated states (from -1.0 to -4.0 diopters [D] in 1.0 D steps). The 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order aberrations as well as the root mean square (RMS) were also determined for the entire cornea at the same accommodative demands. The study evaluated 7 subjects (12 eyes). No significant changes in any measured parameter were found during accommodation for any corneal zone (P > .05). Statistically significant differences were found in the various corneal zones when it was assumed they were constant with accommodation (P < .01). A stable linear trend with accommodation was also found for corneal aberrations, although individual variations existed because of the high standard deviation values. Different parameters in various zones of the cornea as well as corneal aberrations were stable during accommodation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and the Local Reasonable Accommodation Coordinators (LORAC) to manage information related to Reasonable Accommodation (RA) requests. It provides a data base system in compliance with Executive Order 13164 and required by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Regulations and American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) Bargaining Unit as described in the AFGE National Reasonable Accommodation Procedures. It is a tool that was internally developed in Lotus Notes to track requests for reasonable accommodation and was custom-configured to meet EPA's specific needs and infrastructure.

  18. Accommodative and convergence response to computer screen and printed text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andreia; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this work was to find out if differences exist in accommodative and convergence response for different computer monitors' and a printed text. It was also tried to relate the horizontal heterophoria value and accommodative response with the symptoms associated with computer use. Two independents experiments were carried out in this study. The first experiment was measuring the accommodative response on 89 subjects using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 (Grand Seiko Co., Ltd., Japan). The accommodative response was measured using three computer monitors: a 17-inch cathode ray tube (CRT), two liquid crystal displays LCDs, one 17-inch (LCD17) and one 15 inches (LCD15) and a printed text. The text displayed was always the same for all the subjects and tests. A second experiment aimed to measure the value of habitual horizontal heterophoria on 80 subjects using the Von Graefe technique. The measurements were obtained using the same target presented on two different computer monitors, one 19-inch cathode ray tube (CRT) and other 19 inches liquid crystal displays (LCD) and printed on paper. A small survey about the incidence and prevalence of symptoms was performed similarly in both experiments. In the first experiment, the accommodation response was higher in the CRT and LCD's than for paper. There were not found significantly different response for both LCD monitors'. The second experiment showed that, the heterophoria values were similar for all the stimuli. On average, participants presented a small exophoria. In both experiments, asthenopia was the symptom that presented higher incidence. There are different accommodative responses when reading on paper or on computer monitors. This difference is more significant for CRT monitors. On the other hand, there was no difference in the values of convergence for the computer monitors' and paper. The symptoms associated with the use of computers are not related with the increase in accommodation and with the horizontal

  19. Molecular-dynamics study on characteristics of energy and tangential momentum accommodation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Matsuda, Yu; Niimi, Tomohide

    2017-07-01

    Gas-surface interaction is studied by the molecular dynamics method to investigate qualitatively characteristics of accommodation coefficients. A large number of trajectories of gas molecules colliding to and scattering from a surface are statistically analyzed to calculate the energy (thermal) accommodation coefficient (EAC) and the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). Considering experimental measurements of the accommodation coefficients, the incident velocities are stochastically sampled to represent a bulk condition. The accommodation coefficients for noble gases show qualitative coincidence with experimental values. To investigate characteristics of these accommodation coefficients in detail, the gas-surface interaction is parametrically studied by varying the molecular mass of gas, the gas-surface interaction strength, and the molecular size of gas, one by one. EAC increases with increasing every parameter, while TMAC increases with increasing the interaction strength, but decreases with increasing the molecular mass and the molecular size. Thus, contradictory results in experimentally measured TMAC for noble gases could result from the difference between the surface conditions employed in the measurements in the balance among the effective parameters of molecular mass, interaction strength, and molecular size, due to surface roughness and/or adsorbed molecules. The accommodation coefficients for a thermo-fluid dynamics field with a temperature difference between gas and surface and a bulk flow at the same time are also investigated.

  20. Disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among youth with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer

    2018-03-20

    Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.

  1. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose It is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation. Patients and methods A double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data. Results Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (P<0.001) at each time point. Consumption of the caffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (P<0.001). Amplitude of accommodation rose from 12.4 (±2.2 D) at baseline to 15.8(±2.6 D) at 90 min. Similarly, pupil size increased from 3.4 (±0.4 mm) at baseline to 4.5 (±0.72 mm) at 90 min. Consumption of vehicle was not associated with increase in amplitude of accommodation or pupil size with time. Conclusion Pupil size and accommodation are affected after ingestion of caffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions. PMID:27983733

  2. The effect of a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist on accommodative adaptation in Hong Kong children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jennifer C; Schmid, Katrina L; Brown, Brian; Edwards, Marion H

    2005-03-01

    Increased susceptibility to nearwork-induced accommodative adaptation has been suggested as a risk factor for myopia development. We investigated whether accommodative adaptation may explain in part the high prevalence of myopia in Hong Kong children and examined the effect of beta-antagonism with topical timolol maleate on accommodative adaptation. Thirty children (10 emmetropes and 20 myopes) aged between 8 and 12 years were recruited. Tonic accommodation was measured before and after 5 min of video game-playing using an open-field Shin-Nippon autorefractor. Measurements were repeated 30 min after timolol instillation. Children with progressing myopia demonstrated accommodative adaptation following the near task, whereas stable myopes showed counter-adaptive, hyperopic accommodative changes. Timolol increased the magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the stable myopes but had little effect on responses of the progressing myopes or emmetropes. Neuropharmacological modulation of the accommodative system may have a possible etiological role in the progression of myopia.

  3. Comparison between carbachol iontophoresis and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Mark; He, Lin; Glasser, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Rhesus monkeys are an animal model for human accommodation and presbyopia and consistent and repeatable methods are needed to stimulate and measure accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys. Accommodation has typically been pharmacologically stimulated with topical pilocarpine or carbachol iontophoresis. Intravenous (i.v.) pilocarpine has recently been shown to produce more natural, rapid and reproducible accommodative responses compared to topical pilocarpine. Here, i.v. pilocarpine was compared to carbachol iontophoresis stimulated accommodation. Experiments were performed under anaesthesia on five previously iridectomized monkeys aged 10-16 years. In three monkeys, accommodation was stimulated with carbachol iontophoresis in five successive experiments and refraction measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer. In separate experiments, accommodation was stimulated using a 5 mg/kg bolus of i.v. pilocarpine given over 30 s followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/hr for 5.5 min in three successive experiments with the same monkeys as well as in single experiments with two additional monkeys. Refraction was measured continuously using photorefraction with baseline and accommodated refraction also measured with the Hartinger. In subsequent i.v. pilocarpine experiments with each monkey, accommodative changes in lens equatorial diameter were measured in real-time with video-image analysis. Maximum accommodation of three monkeys with carbachol iontophoresis (five repeats) was (mean ± SD; range) 14.0 ± 3.5; 9.9-20.3 D and with i.v. pilocarpine stimulation (three repeats) was 11.1 ± 1.1; 9.9-13.0 D. The average of the standard deviations of maximum accommodation from each monkey was 0.8 ± 0.3 D from carbachol iontophoresis and 0.3 ± 0.2 from i.v. pilocarpine. The average latency to the start of the response after carbachol iontophoresis was 2.5 ± 3.9; 0.0-12.0 min with a time constant of 12.7 ± 9.5; 2.3-29.2 min. The average

  4. The relationship between refractive and biometric changes during Edinger–Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Vilupuru, Abhiram S.; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken to understand the relationship between dynamic accommodative refractive and biometric (lens thickness (LT), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior segment length (ASL=ACD+LT)) changes during Edinger–Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were conducted on three rhesus monkeys (aged 11·5, 4·75 and 4·75 years) which had undergone prior, bilateral, complete iridectomies and implantation of a stimulating electrode in the Edinger–Westphal (EW) nucleus. Accommodative refractive responses were first measured dynamically with video-based infrared photorefraction and then ocular biometric responses were measured dynamically with continuous ultrasound biometry (CUB) during EW stimulation. The same stimulus amplitudes were used for the refractive and biometric measurements to allow them to be compared. Main sequence relationships (ratio of peak velocity to amplitude) were calculated. Dynamic accommodative refractive changes are linearly correlated with the biometric changes and accommodative biometric changes in ACD, ASL and LT show systematic linear correlations with increasing accommodative amplitudes. The relationships are relatively similar for the eyes of the different monkeys. Dynamic analysis showed that main sequence relationships for both biometry and refraction are linear. Although accommodative refractive changes in the eye occur primarily due to changes in lens surface curvature, the refractive changes are well correlated with A-scan measured accommodative biometric changes. Accommodative changes in ACD, LT and ASL are all well correlated over the full extent of the accommodative response. PMID:15721617

  5. Comparison of the ocular wavefront aberration between pharmacologically-induced and stimulus-driven accommodation.

    PubMed

    Plainis, S; Plevridi, E; Pallikaris, I G

    2009-05-01

    To compare the ocular wavefront aberration between pharmacologically- and stimulus-driven accommodation in phakic eyes of young subjects. The aberration structure of the tested eye when accommodating was measured using the Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System (COAS; AMO WaveFront Sciences, Albuquerque, NM, USA). It was used in conjunction with a purposely-modified Badal optometer to allow blur-driven accommodation to be stimulated by a high contrast letter E with a vergence range between +0.84 D and -8.00 D. Pharmacological accommodation was induced with one drop of pilocarpine 4%. Data from six subjects (age range: 23-36 years) with dark irides were collected. No correlation was found between the maximal levels of accommodative response achieved with an 8 D blur-driven stimulus and pharmacological stimulation. Pharmacological accommodation varied considerably among subjects: maximum accommodation, achieved within 38-85 min following application of pilocarpine, ranged from 2.7 D to 10.0 D. Furthermore, although the changes of spherical aberration and coma as a function of accommodation were indistinguishable between the two methods for low levels of response, a characteristic break in the pattern of aberration occurred at higher levels of pilocarpine-induced accommodation. This probably resulted from differences in the time course of biometric changes occurring with the two methods. Measuring the pilocarpine-induced accommodative response at only one time point after its application may lead to misleading results. The considerable inter-individual differences in the time course of drug-induced accommodative response and its magnitude may lead to overestimation or underestimation of the corresponding amplitude of normal, blur-driven accommodation. Stimulating accommodation by topical application of pilocarpine is inappropriate for evaluating the efficacy of 'accommodating' IOLs.

  6. Job Accommodation Network

    MedlinePlus

    ADA LIBRARY PUBLICATIONS AND RESOURCES SEARCH ACCOMMODATIONS DATABASE A-Z OF DISABILITIES AND ACCOMMODATIONS NEWS Hot Topics How to Use this Site JAN en Español Print this Page A A A Text Size Connect with JAN (800)526-7234 (Voice) (877)781-9403 ( ...

  7. Improving Objective Measures of Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodds, Allan G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The article examines shortcomings in existing objective measures of mobility for blind persons in the light of evaluative experiences and demonstrates improvements in reliability, together with a new technique for tracking pavement position. It refutes the idea that it is not possible to measure improvement in performance objectively. (Author/CL)

  8. Effect of elimination of nitrogen and/or hypoxia or restricted visual environment on color vision and range of accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.; White, C. W.; Anderson, W. B., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The effects upon range of accommodation and color vision of reduced atmospheric pressure, at partial and complete elimination of nitrogen, of hypoxia, and of exposure for varying periods of time to restricted visual environment, have been studied alone or in various combinations. Measurements were made on the electroretinogram, the electrooculogram, and the diameter of the retinal vessels as an indicator of blood flow to the retina at the time of total elimination of nitrogen. An objective method was used to test range of accommodation. In the color vision test the flicker colors of a Benham's top were matched with a colorimeter.

  9. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  10. EBooks and Accommodations: Is This the Future of Print Accommodation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    This article explains the three components of eBooks: an eBook file, software to read the eBook, and a hardware device to read it on. The use of eBooks for students with special needs, the advantages of eBooks, built in accommodations, and creating accommodations are discussed. EBook resources are included. (Contains references.) (CR)

  11. [Accommodation effects of the audiovisual stimulation in the patients experiencing eyestrain with the concomitant disturbances of psychological adaptation].

    PubMed

    Shakula, A V; Emel'ianov, G A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual stimulation on the state of the eye accommodation system in the patients experiencing eyes train with the concomitant disturbances of psychological. It was shown that a course of audiovisual stimulation (seeing a psychorelaxing film accompanied by a proper music) results in positive (5.9-21.9%) dynamics of the objective accommodation parameters and of the subjective status (4.5-33.2%). Taken together, these findings whole allow this method to be regarded as "relaxing preparation" in the integral complex of the measures for the preservation of the professional vision in this group of the patients.

  12. Normal and Tangential Momentum Accommodation for Earth Satellite Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knechtel, Earl D.; Pitts, William C.

    1973-01-01

    Momentum accommodation was determined experimentally for gas-surface interactions simulating in a practical way those of near-earth satellites. Throughout the ranges of gas energies and incidence angles of interest for earth-conditions, two components of force were measured by means of a vacuum microbalance to determine the normal and tangential momentum-accommodation coefficients for nitrogen ions on technical-quality aluminum surfaces. For these experimental conditions, the electrodynamics of ion neutralization near the surface indicate that results for nitrogen ions should differ relatively little from those for nitrogen molecules, which comprise the largest component of momentum flux for near-earth satellites. The experimental results indicated that both normal and tangential momentum-accommodation coefficients varied widely with energy, tending to be relatively well accommodated at the higher energies, but becoming progressively less accommodated as the energy was reduced to and below that for earth-satellite speeds. Both coefficients also varied greatly with incidence angle, the normal momentum becoming less accommodated as the incidence angle became more glancing, whereas the tangential momentum generally became more fully accommodated. For each momentum coefficient, an empirical correlation function was obtained which closely approximated the experimental results over the ranges of energy and incidence angle. Most of the observed variations of momentum accommodation with energy and incidence angle were qualitatively indicated by a calculation using a three-dimensional model that simulated the target surface by a one-dimensional attractive potential and hard sphere reflectors.

  13. An evaluation of the lag of accommodation using photorefraction.

    PubMed

    Seidemann, Anne; Schaeffel, Frank

    2003-02-01

    The lag of accommodation which occurs in most human subjects during reading has been proposed to explain the association between reading and myopia. However, the measured lags are variable among different published studies and current knowledge on its magnitude rests largely on measurements with the Canon R-1 autorefractor. Therefore, we have measured it with another technique, eccentric infrared photorefraction (the PowerRefractor), and studied how it can be modified. Particular care was taken to ensure correct calibration of the instrument. Ten young adult subjects were refracted both in the fixation axis of the right eye and from the midline between both eyes, while they read text both monocularly and binocularly at 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 D distance ("group 1"). A second group of 10 subjects ("group 2"), measured from the midline between both eyes, was studied to analyze the effects of binocular vs monocular vision, addition of +1 or +2 D lenses, and of letter size. Spherical equivalents (SE) were analyzed in all cases. The lag of accommodation was variable among subjects (standard deviations among groups and viewing distances ranging from 0.18 to 1.07 D) but was significant when the measurements were done in the fixation axis (0.35 D at 3 D target distance to 0.60 D at 5 D with binocular vision; p<0.01 or better all cases). Refracting from the midline between both eyes tended to underestimate the lag of accommodation although this was significant only at 5 D (ANOVA: p<0.0001, post hoc t-test: p<0.05). There was a small improvement in accommodation precision with binocular compared to monocular viewing but significance was reached only for the 5 D reading target (group 1--lags for a 3/4/5 D target: 0.35 vs 0.41 D/0.48 vs 0.47 D/0.60 vs 0.66 D, ANOVA: p<0.0001, post hoc t-test: p<0.05; group 2--0.29 vs 0.12 D, 0.33 vs 0.16 D, 0.23 vs -0.31 D, ANOVA: p<0.0001, post hoc t-test: p<0.05). Adjusting the letter height for constant angular subtense (0.2 deg) induced

  14. A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object-Oriented Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

  15. A Taxonomy of Object-Oriented Measures Modeling the Object Oriented Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to control the quality of software and the software development process, it is important to understand the measurement of software. A first step toward a better comprehension of software measurement is the categorization of software measures by some meaningful taxonomy. The most worthwhile taxonomy would capture the fundamental nature of the object-oriented (O-O) space. The principal characteristics of object-oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. This paper introduces a taxonomy of measures based upon fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature. This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps or redundancies in the existing O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with measures taken from the literature.

  16. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  17. The Effect of Age, Accommodation and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye

    PubMed Central

    Richdale, Kathryn; Bullimore, Mark A.; Sinnott, Loraine T.; Zadnik, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantify changes in ocular dimensions associated with age, refractive error, and accommodative response, in vivo, in 30- to 50-year-old human subjects. Methods The right eyes of 91 adults were examined using ultrasonography, phakometry, keratometry, pachymetry, interferometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Accommodation was measured subjectively with a push-up test and objectively using open-field autorefraction. Regression analyses were used to assess differences in ocular parameters with age, refractive error and accommodation. Results With age, crystalline lens thickness increased (0.03 mm/yr), anterior lens curvature steepened (0.11 mm/yr), anterior chamber depth decreased (0.02 mm/y) and lens equivalent refractive index decreased (0.001 /y) (all p < 0.01). With increasing myopia, there were significant increases in axial length (0.37 mm/D), vitreous chamber depth (0.34 mm/D), vitreous chamber height (0.09 mm/D) and ciliary muscle ring diameter (0.10 mm/D) (all p < 0.05). Increasing myopia was also associated with steepening of both the cornea (0.16 mm/D) and anterior lens surface (0.011 mm/D) (both p < 0.04). With accommodation, the ciliary muscle ring diameter decreased (0.08 mm/D), and the muscle thinned posteriorly (0.008 mm/D), allowing the lens to shorten equatorially (0.07 mm/D) and thicken axially (0.06 mm/D) (all p < 0.03). Conclusions Refractive error is significantly correlated with not only the axial dimensions, but the anterior equatorial dimension of the adult eye. Further testing and development of accommodating intraocular lenses should account for differences in patients’ preoperative refractive error. PMID:26703933

  18. Vergence driven accommodation with simulated disparity in myopia and emmetropia.

    PubMed

    Maiello, Guido; Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2018-01-01

    The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display. In Step 1, vergence was driven behind the monitor using a blurred, non-accommodative, uncrossed disparity target. In Step 2, vergence and accommodation were driven back to the monitor plane using naturalistic images that contained structured depth and focus information from size, blur and/or disparity. In Step 1, both refractive groups converged towards the stereoscopic target depth plane, but the vergence-driven accommodative change was smaller in emmetropes than in myopes (F 1,19 =5.13, p=0.036). In Step 2, there was little effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation or vergence in either refractive group. However, vergence responses were significantly slower (F 1,19 =4.55, p=0.046) and accommodation variability was higher (F 1,19 =12.9, p=0.0019) in myopes. Vergence and accommodation responses are disrupted in virtual reality displays in both refractive groups. Accommodation responses are less stable in myopes, perhaps due to a lower sensitivity to dioptric blur. Such inaccuracies of accommodation may cause long-term blur on the retina, which has been associated with a failure of emmetropization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quantifying interactions between accommodation and vergence in a binocularly normal population.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Laura E; Seidel, Dirk; Day, Mhairi; Gray, Lyle S

    2014-12-01

    Stimulation of the accommodation system results in a response in the vergence system via accommodative vergence cross-link interactions, and stimulation of the vergence system results in an accommodation response via vergence accommodation cross-link interactions. Cross-link interactions are necessary in order to ensure simultaneous responses in the accommodation and vergence systems. The crosslink interactions are represented most comprehensively by the response AC/A (accommodative vergence) and CA/C (vergence accommodation) ratios, although the stimulus AC/A ratio is measured clinically, and the stimulus CA/C ratio is seldom measured in clinical practice. The present study aims to quantify both stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios in a binocularly normal population, and determine the relationship between them. 25 Subjects (mean ± SD age 21.0 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from the university population. A significant linear relationship was found between the stimulus and response ratios, for both AC/A (r² = 0.96, p < 0.001) and CA/C ratios (r² = 0.40, p < 0.05). Good agreement was found between the stimulus and response AC/A ratios (95% CI -0.06 to 0.24 MA/D). Stimulus and response CA/C ratios are linearly related. Stimulus CA/C ratios were higher than response ratios at low values, and lower than response ratios at high values (95% CI -0.46 to 0.42 D/MA). Agreement between stimulus and response CA/C ratios is poorer than that found for AC/A ratios due to increased variability in vergence responses when viewing the Gaussian blurred target. This study has shown that more work is needed to refine the methodology of CA/C ratio measurement.

  20. [Mental Disorders and Reasonable Accommodation at Work: The Potential of Quebec Law].

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Anne-Marie

    Objectives Being able to work constitutes a powerful social integration vector for those suffering from mental health disorders, while also providing therapeutic benefits for them. Yet, despite some advances in this regard, such persons are still denied employment. The obstacles to their full workforce integration reside in the prejudices surrounding the disorders affecting them and the need to adapt tasks to their needs and abilities. The International Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, adopted by the United Nations in 2006, points out that disability results from the interaction between persons with impairments and attitudinal and environmental barriers that hinder their full and effective participation in society on the basis of equality with others. It stresses the importance of the right to work of persons with disabilities and, in particular, the implementation of reasonable accommodation for these persons in all workplaces. From this perspective, this article aims to explore the impacts of the legal obligation of accommodation.Methods In Canada, the fundamental rights approach and, in particular, the obligation for reasonable accommodation with regard to handicapped workers, has been well established in case law since the mid 1980s. This obligation is of a constitutional nature and its extended range is limited only by the proof of undue hardship. It thus forcefully prompts labour markets to take into consideration the needs and capacities of disabled workers. Through a study of Quebec case law, this article looks at the potential of the duty to accommodate with regard to promoting access to and retention of employment among people with mental disorders.Results The study found that the duty to accommodate imposes an innovative approach that takes into account the particular situation of the disabled person and involves the participation of all stakeholders. Accommodation allows employees to maintain an employment relationship despite

  1. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  2. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication

    PubMed Central

    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as Joint Convergence, followed closely by Asymmetrical-Patient Convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by Joint Convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. Differences were predominantly non-significant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as Joint Convergence or Asymmetrical-Physician Convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender concordant and non-concordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in healthcare communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective. PMID:24138223

  3. Wavefront aberration changes caused by a gradient of increasing accommodation stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, X-Y; Wang, L; Zhou, X-T; Yu, Z-Q

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the wavefront aberration changes in human eyes caused by a gradient of increasing accommodation stimuli. Design This is a prospective, single-site study. Methods Healthy volunteers (n=22) aged 18–28 years whose refraction states were emmetropia or mild myopia, with astigmatism <1 diopter (D), were included in this study. After dilating the right pupil with 0.5% phenylephrine drops, the wavefront aberration of the right eye was measured continuously either without or with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6D accommodation stimuli (WFA1000B psychophysical aberrometer). The root mean square (RMS) values of the total wavefront aberrations, higher-order aberrations, and 35 individual Zernike aberrations under different accommodation stimuli were calculated and compared. Results The average induced accommodations using 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6D accommodation stimuli were 0.848, 1.626, 2.375, 3.249, 4.181, or 5.085 D, respectively. The RMS of total wavefront aberrations, as well as higher-order aberrations, showed no significant effects with 1–3 D accommodation stimuli, but increased significantly under 4, 5, and 6 D accommodation stimuli compared with relaxed accommodation. Zernike coefficients of significantly decreased with increasing levels of accommodation. Conclusion Higher-order wavefront aberrations in human eyes changed with increased accommodation. These results are consistent with Schachar's accommodation theory. PMID:25341432

  4. Partner Accommodation Moderates Treatment Outcomes for Couple Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fredman, Steffany J.; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Wagner, Anne C.; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Monson, Candice M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Partner accommodation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (i.e., altering one’s own behaviors to minimize patient distress and/or relationship conflict due to patients’ PTSD symptoms) has been shown to be positively associated with patient and partner psychopathology and negatively associated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction cross-sectionally. However, the prognostic value of partner accommodation in treatment outcomes is unknown. The goals of the present study were to determine if partner accommodation decreases as a function of couple therapy for PTSD and if pretreatment partner accommodation moderates the efficacy of couple therapy for PTSD. Method Thirty-nine patients with PTSD and their intimate partners (n = 39) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012) and received CBCT for PTSD immediately or after three months of waiting. Blinded assessors determined clinician-rated PTSD symptoms and patient-rated PTSD and depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction at baseline, mid-treatment/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting. Results Contrary to expectation, partner accommodation levels did not change over time for either treatment condition. However, baseline partner accommodation significantly moderated treatment outcomes. Higher levels of partner accommodation were associated with greater improvements in PTSD, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction among patients receiving CBCT for PTSD compared with waiting list. At lower levels of partner accommodation, patients in both groups improved or remained at low levels of these outcomes. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD who have more accommodating partners may be particularly well-suited for couple therapy for PTSD. PMID:26501498

  5. Employer benefits from making workplace accommodations.

    PubMed

    Solovieva, Tatiana I; Dowler, Denetta L; Walls, Richard T

    2011-01-01

    This study explored workplace disability accommodations and their benefits. The participants were employers and human resource professionals who had not used the services of the Job Accommodation Network (JAN). The companies included large businesses (more than 499 employees) and small businesses (fewer than 500 employees). The intent of this investigation was to assess the disability accommodations and benefits for the employers. The study used responses to online survey from194 employers to discuss disability-related accommodations for an employee or potential employee. The survey included 128 employers who reported having had a person with a disability who requested an accommodation. As reported by the employers, the most frequently mentioned direct benefits from implementing workplace accommodations were (a) retained a qualified employee, (b) increased worker productivity, and (c) eliminated the cost of training a new employee. The most frequently mentioned indirect benefits from accommodations were (a) improved interactions with coworkers, (b) increased overall company morale, and (c) increased overall company productivity. The most frequently reported types of implemented accommodations were buying equipment and changing work schedules. Most of the respondents estimated the direct benefits of having made an accommodation at more than $1000. The findings heighten awareness of benefits associated with making accommodations for people with disabilities in the workplace. These benefits signify value for business, coworkers, and individuals with disabilities for whom accommodations are critical for successful employment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental... that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to...

  7. Evidence that convergence rather than accommodation controls intermittent distance exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Methods 19 distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2m and 33cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Results Accommodation responses for near targets (p=0.017) response gains (p=0.026) were greater in the exotropes than the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p=0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p=0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses (“controlled by accommodation”) or on occlusion (“controlled by fusion”), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Conclusions Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting over-accommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. PMID:22280437

  8. Anterior segment biometry during accommodation imaged with ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chixin; Shen, Meixiao; Li, Ming; Zhu, Dexi; Wang, Michael R.; Wang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To measure by ultra-long scan depth optical coherence tomography (UL-OCT) dimensional changes in the anterior segment of human eyes during accommodation. Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. Participants Forty-one right eyes of healthy subjects with a mean age of 34 years (range, 22–41 years) and a mean refraction of −2.5±2.6 diopters (D) were imaged in two repeated measurements at minimal and maximal accommodation. Methods A specially adapted designed UL-OCT instrument was used to image from the front surface of the cornea to the back surface of the crystalline lens. Custom software corrected the optical distortion of the images and yielded the biometric measurements. The coefficient of repeatability (COR) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate the repeatability and reliability. Main Outcome Measures Anterior segment parameters and associated repeatability and reliability upon accommodation. The dimensional results included central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth and width (ACD, ACW), pupil diameter (PD), lens thickness (LT), anterior segment length (ASL=ACD+LT), lens central position (LCP=ACD+1/2LT) and horizontal radii of the lens anterior and posterior surface curvatures (LAC, LPC). Results Repeated measurements of each variable within each accommodative state did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The CORs and ICCs for CCT, ACW, ACD, LT, LCP, and ASL were excellent (1.2% to 3.59% and 0.998 to 0.877, respectively). They were higher for PD (18.90% to 21.63% and 0.880 to 0.874, respectively), and moderate for LAC and LPC (34.86% to 42.72% and 0.669 to 0.251, respectively) in the two accommodative states. Compared to minimal accommodation, PD, ACD, LAC, LPC, and LCP decreased and LT and ASL increased significantly at maximal accommodation (P<0.05), while CCT and ACW did not change (P>0.05). Conclusions UL-OCT measured changes in anterior segment dimensions during accommodation with

  9. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  10. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  11. There is more to accommodation of the eye than simply minimizing retinal blur

    PubMed Central

    Marín-Franch, I.; Del Águila-Carrasco, A. J.; Bernal-Molina, P.; Esteve-Taboada, J. J.; López-Gil, N.; Montés-Micó, R.; Kruger, P. B.

    2017-01-01

    Eyes of children and young adults change their optical power to focus nearby objects at the retina. But does accommodation function by trial and error to minimize blur and maximize contrast as is generally accepted? Three experiments in monocular and monochromatic vision were performed under two conditions while aberrations were being corrected. In the first condition, feedback was available to the eye from both optical vergence and optical blur. In the second, feedback was only available from target blur. Accommodation was less precise for the second condition, suggesting that it is more than a trial-and-error function. Optical vergence itself seems to be an important cue for accommodation. PMID:29082097

  12. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-12-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3 (-1)) and oblique trefoil (Z3 (-3)) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg).

  13. OCT-based crystalline lens topography in accommodating eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Marcos, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Custom Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to measure anterior and posterior crystalline lens surface elevation in accommodating eyes and to evaluate relationships between anterior segment surfaces. Nine young eyes were measured at different accommodative demands. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased at a rate of 0.78 ± 0.18 and 0.13 ± 0.07 mm/D, anterior chamber depth decreased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D and lens thickness increased at 0.04 ± 0.01 mm/D with accommodation. Three-dimensional surface elevations were estimated by subtracting best fitting spheres. In the relaxed state, the spherical term accounted for most of the surface irregularity in the anterior lens (47%) and astigmatism (70%) in the posterior lens. However, in accommodated lenses astigmatism was the predominant surface irregularity (90%) in the anterior lens. The RMS of high-order irregularities of the posterior lens surface was statistically significantly higher than that of the anterior lens surface (x2.02, p<0.0001). There was significant negative correlation in vertical coma (Z3−1) and oblique trefoil (Z3−3) between lens surfaces. The astigmatic angle showed high degree of alignment between corneal surfaces, moderate between corneal and anterior lens surface (~27 deg), but differed by ~80 deg between the anterior and posterior lens surfaces (including relative anterior/posterior lens astigmatic angle shifts (10-20 deg). PMID:26713216

  14. OCT-based full crystalline lens shape change during accommodation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Marcos, Susana

    2017-02-01

    The full shape of the accommodating crystalline lens was estimated using custom three-dimensional (3-D) spectral OCT and image processing algorithms. Automatic segmentation and distortion correction were used to construct 3-D models of the lens region visible through the pupil. The lens peripheral region was estimated with a trained and validated parametric model. Nineteen young eyes were measured at 0-6 D accommodative demands in 1.5 D steps. Lens volume, surface area, diameter, and equatorial plane position were automatically quantified. Lens diameter & surface area correlated negatively and equatorial plane position positively with accommodation response. Lens volume remained constant and surface area decreased with accommodation, indicating that the lens material is incompressible and the capsular bag elastic.

  15. An initial study of family accommodation in children and adolescents with chronic tic disorders.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Johnco, Carly; McGuire, Joseph F; Wu, Monica S; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2017-01-01

    This initial study examined the nature, incidence, and clinical correlates of family accommodation in youth with tic disorders, and validated a brief self-report measure of tic-related family accommodation, the Tic Family Accommodation Scale (TFAS). Seventy-five youth aged 6-18 who were diagnosed with a tic disorder and their parent completed a diagnostic clinical interview, and clinician and parent-report measures of tic severity, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, behavioral problems, family accommodation and impairment. An exploratory factor analysis of the TFAS showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency for the Total score, Modification of Child Environment and Modification of Parent Environment subscales (α = 0.88, 0.86, and 0.81, respectively). Family accommodation was not associated with tic severity. Family accommodation was associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms, higher externalizing, rule breaking, aggressive behaviors and social problems, and with greater tic-related functional impairment. Anxiety and externalizing problems (but not depressive symptoms) predicted family accommodation when controlling for tic severity. Family accommodation predicted high levels of functional impairment over and above the effect of tic severity, anxiety, depression and externalizing problems. Family accommodation is a common phenomenon for youth with tic disorders, with modifications typically encompassing changes to the child and/or parent environments. Accommodation was not associated with tic severity, but was related to higher levels of anxiety, depressive symptoms, externalizing symptoms, aggression, and rule breaking behaviors. Results suggest that other emotional symptoms are more likely to drive accommodation practices than the tic symptoms per se.

  16. Medial rectus Faden operations with or without recession for partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    PubMed

    Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Sayin, Nihat; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior fixation over time. In this retrospective study, 108 of 473 patients who underwent surgery for partially accommodative esotropia with a high AC : A ratio received Faden operations on both MR muscles, and 365 received symmetric MR muscle recessions combined with a Faden operation. For the Faden operation, a satisfactory outcome of 76.9% at 1 month postoperation, decreased to 71.3% by the final follow-up visit (mean 4.8 years). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the increase in the postoperative near deviation and postoperative time. For the Faden operations combined with MR recession, a satisfactory outcome of 78.9% at 1 month post-operation, decreased to 78.4% by the final follow-up visit. A Faden operation of the MR muscles with or without recession is an effective surgical option for treating partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high AC : A ratio. For Faden operations of the MR muscles without recession, the effects of the posterior fixation decline over time.

  17. Convergence and Accommodation Development Is Preprogrammed in Premature Infants.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in preterm infants is preprogrammed or is driven by experience. Thirty-two healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range, 31.2-36 weeks), were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6-month period, starting at 4 to 6 weeks postnatally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infrared photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33 and 2 m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33 and 2 m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (postnatal) age. When compared by their corrected age, preterm and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6 to 7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, preterm infants' responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33 m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2 m compared to full-term infants between 8 and 13 weeks after birth. When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in preterm infants show few differences from full-term infants' responses. Maturation appears preprogrammed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave preterm infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus.

  18. [Spasm of accommodation].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  19. Axial movement of the dual-optic accommodating intraocular lens for the correction of the presbyopia: optical performance and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Juan, Javier; Murueta-Goyena Larrañaga, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Presbyopia occurs in the aging eye due to changes in the ciliary muscle, zonular fibers, crystalline lens, and an increased lens sclerosis. As a consequence, the capacity of accommodation decreases, which hampers to focus near objects. With the aim of restoring near vision, different devices that produce multiple focuses have been developed and introduced. However, these devices are still unable to restore accommodation. In order to achieve that goal, dual-optic accommodating Intraocular Lenses have been designed, whose anterior optic displaces axially to increase ocular power, and focus near objects. Although dual-optic accommodating IOLs are relatively new, their outcomes are promising, as they provide large amplitudes of accommodation and a greater IOL displacement than single-optic accommodating IOLs. The outcomes show comfortable near vision, higher patients' satisfaction rates, and minimal postoperative complications like Posterior Capsular Opacification and Anterior Capsular Opacification, due to their design and material. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  20. Evidence that convergence rather than accommodation controls intermittent distance exotropia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2012-03-01

    This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Nineteen distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Accommodation responses for near targets (p = 0.017) and response gains (p = 0.026) were greater in the exotropes than in the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p = 0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p = 0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses ('controlled by accommodation') or on occlusion ('controlled by fusion'), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting overaccommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man.

    PubMed

    Clark, B R; Randle, R J; Stewart, J D

    1975-11-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present study was designed to study a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 s of rotation. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 s under two conditions; while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  2. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENT QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR RESEARCH PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper provides assistance with systematic planning using measurement quality objectives to those working on research projects. These performance criteria are more familiar to researchers than data quality objectives because they are more closely associated with the measuremen...

  3. Topical and intravenous pilocarpine stimulated accommodation in anesthetized rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    Many studies have used pilocarpine to stimulate accommodation in both humans and monkeys. However, the concentrations of pilocarpine used and the methods of administration vary. In this study, three different methods of pilocarpine administration are evaluated for their effectiveness in stimulating accommodation in rhesus monkeys. Experiments were performed in 17 iridectomized, anesthetized rhesus monkeys aged 4-16 years. Maximum accommodation was stimulated in all these monkeys with a 2% pilocarpine solution maintained on the cornea for at least 30 min in a specially designed perfusion lens. In subsequent topical pilocarpine experiments, baseline refraction was measured with a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and then while the monkeys were upright and facing forward, commercially available pilocarpine (2, 4, or 6%) was applied topically to the cornea as 2 or 4 drops in two applications or 6 drops in three applications over a five minute period with the eyelids closed between applications. Alternatively, while supine, 10-12 drops of pilocarpine were maintained on the cornea in a scleral cup for 5 min. Refraction measurements were begun 5 min after the second application of pilocarpine and continued for at least 30 min after initial administration until no further change in refraction occurred. In intravenous experiments, pilocarpine was given either as boluses ranging from 0.1mg/kg to 2mg/kg or boluses followed by a constant infusion at rates between 3.06 mg/kg/h and 11.6 mg/kg/h. Constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye in the perfusion lens produced 10.88+/-2.73 D (mean+/-SD) of accommodation. Topically applied pilocarpine produced 3.81 D+/-2.41, 5.49 D+/-4.08, and 5.55 D+/-3.27 using 2%, 4%, and 6% solutions respectively. When expressed as a percentage of the accommodative response amplitude obtained in the same monkey with constant 2% pilocarpine solution on the eye, the responses were 34.7% for 2% pilocarpine, 48.4% for 4% pilocarpine, and 44.6% for 6

  4. Accommodative performance for chromatic displays.

    PubMed

    Lovasik, J V; Kergoat, H

    1988-01-01

    Over the past few years, video display units (VDUs) have been incorporated into many varieties of workplaces and occupational demands. The success of electro-optical displays in facilitating and improving job performance has spawned interest in extracting further advantage from VDUs by incorporating colour coding into such communication systems. However, concerns have been raised about the effect of chromatic stimuli on the visual comfort and task efficiency, because of the chromatic aberration inherent in the optics of the human eye. In this study, we used a computer aided laser speckle optometer system to measure the accommodative responses to brightness-matched chromatic letters displayed on a high-resolution RGB monitor. Twenty, visually normal, paid volunteers in a 22-35 year age category served as subjects. Stimuli were 14, 21, 28 minutes of arc letters presented in a 'monochromatic' (white, red, green or blue, on a black background) or 'multichromatic' (blue-red, blue-green, red-green, foreground-background combinations) mode at 40 and 80 cm viewing distances. The results demonstrated that while the accommodative responses were strongly influenced by the foreground-background colour combination, the group-averaged dioptric difference across colours was relatively small. Further, accommodative responses were not guided in any systematic fashion by the size of letters presented for fixation. Implications of these findings for display designs are discussed.

  5. Variations in accommodation and convergence responses in a minimally controlled photorefractive setting.

    PubMed

    Horwood, A M; Turner, J E; Houston, S M; Riddell, P M

    2001-11-01

    A remote haploscopic photorefractor, designed for assessment of accommodation and convergence in infants and clinical groups, was used to determine heterophoria accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratios in normal naïve adults. These were compared with conventional clinical measures. Twenty-one naïve subjects were used to compare occluded and unoccluded prism cover test responses with the remote haploscopic photorefractor using a text and picture target. Although luminance was generally low for both targets, binocular vergences were appropriate for target demand in both studies. Binocular accommodation showed greater lag for the highest target accommodative demand and the less demanding target. Occlusion not only reduced vergence response, but also frequently caused a marked reduction in accommodation, especially to the picture target. Normal mean AC/A values were found, but with wide variations between individual subjects. Although mean accommodation, vergence, and AC/A values were comparable with published data, we suggest that in these conditions using naïve subjects, accommodation is frequently inaccurate, especially on occlusion, without concomitant loss of vergence, at least at low light levels. Accommodative convergence may play a less important part in, and other cues contribute more to, the near reflex than has been previously suggested.

  6. Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety symptoms in mothers and children.

    PubMed

    Jones, Johnna D; Lebowitz, Eli R; Marin, Carla E; Stark, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    The link between child anxiety and maternal anxiety has been well established but the factors underlying this association are not well understood. One potential factor is family accommodation, which describes ways in which parents change their behaviour to help a child avoid or alleviate anxiety. Family accommodation has been associated with greater symptom severity, more impairment and poorer treatment outcomes in the child. The aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal accommodation mediates the relation between parent and child anxiety. Mothers of children (N = 85) aged 7-17 years (M = 11.79) completed measures of their own anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)), their child's anxiety (Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED)), and family accommodation (Family Accommodation Scale Anxiety (FASA)). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to test the mediational role of accommodation linking parent and child anxiety. Family accommodation was found to significantly mediate the link between maternal anxiety and child anxiety. These results inform theory and imply that the development of interventions designed to target family accommodation may improve the prognosis of those diagnosed with paediatric anxiety disorders and youth with subclinical anxiety symptoms by reducing both parent and child anxiety.

  7. Handbook of Reasonable Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Sandra M.; And Others

    The booklet discusses a basic concept in affirmative action and nondiscrimination for the handicapped, which requires federal agencies to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of a qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the agency. Reasonable…

  8. Accommodation-Amplitudes following an Accommodative Lens Refilling Procedure — an in vivo Update

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Okihiro; Nishi, Yutaro; Chang, S.; Nishi, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether a newly developed lens refilling procedure can provide some accommodation in monkey eyes and to evaluate the difference in accommodation with different degrees of capsular bag refilling. Setting Jinshikai Medical Foundation, Nishi Eye Hospital, Osaka, Japan. Design Experimental monkey study. Methods Following a central 3–4 mm continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification was performed in the usual manner. A novel accommodative membrane intraocular lens for sealing capsular opening was implanted into the capsular bag. Silicone polymers were injected beneath the intraocular lens into the capsular bag through the delivery hole. In three study groups, each with six monkey eyes, the lens capsule was refilled with 0.08 ml corresponding to 65% bag volume, 0.1 ml corresponding to 80% bag volume, and 0.125 ml of silicone polymers corresponding to 100% bag volume, respectively. To calculate the accommodation-amplitudes achieved, automated refractometry was performed before and 1 hour after the topical 4% pilocarpine application before and four weeks after surgery. Results The refilling technique was successful in all monkeys without polymer leakage. Accommodation-amplitudes attained were 2.56 ± 0.74 dioptries (D), 2.42 ± 1.00D, and 2.71 ± 0.63D, respectively, 4 weeks after surgery in the three study groups. Conclusions Using the technique, some accommodation could be obtained in the young monkey eyes. Leakage of the injectable silicone polymer and anterior capsular opacification at least in the visual axis could be avoided. The results suggest that this lens refilling procedure warrants further studies for a possible clinical application. PMID:24461501

  9. Effect of third-order aberrations on dynamic accommodation.

    PubMed

    López-Gil, Norberto; Rucker, Frances J; Stark, Lawrence R; Badar, Mustanser; Borgovan, Theodore; Burke, Sean; Kruger, Philip B

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the potential for the third-order aberrations coma and trefoil to provide a signed cue to accommodation. It is first demonstrated theoretically (with some assumptions) that the point spread function is insensitive to the sign of spherical defocus in the presence of odd-order aberrations. In an experimental investigation, the accommodation response to a sinusoidal change in vergence (1-3D, 0.2Hz) of a monochromatic stimulus was obtained with a dynamic infrared optometer. Measurements were obtained in 10 young visually normal individuals with and without custom contact lenses that induced low and high values of r.m.s. trefoil (0.25, 1.03 microm) and coma (0.34, 0.94 microm). Despite variation between subjects, we did not find any statistically significant increase or decrease in the accommodative gain for low levels of trefoil and coma, although effects approached or reached significance for the high levels of trefoil and coma. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the presence of Zernike third-order aberrations on the eye does not seem to play a crucial role in the dynamics of the accommodation response.

  10. OCT-based full crystalline lens shape change during accommodation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Velasco-Ocana, Miriam; Marcos, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The full shape of the accommodating crystalline lens was estimated using custom three-dimensional (3-D) spectral OCT and image processing algorithms. Automatic segmentation and distortion correction were used to construct 3-D models of the lens region visible through the pupil. The lens peripheral region was estimated with a trained and validated parametric model. Nineteen young eyes were measured at 0-6 D accommodative demands in 1.5 D steps. Lens volume, surface area, diameter, and equatorial plane position were automatically quantified. Lens diameter & surface area correlated negatively and equatorial plane position positively with accommodation response. Lens volume remained constant and surface area decreased with accommodation, indicating that the lens material is incompressible and the capsular bag elastic. PMID:28270993

  11. Effect of temporal location of correction of monochromatic aberrations on the dynamic accommodation response

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Karen M.; Chin, Sem Sem; Mallen, Edward A. H.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic correction of monochromatic aberrations of the eye is known to affect the accommodation response to a step change in stimulus vergence. We used an adaptive optics system to determine how the temporal location of the correction affects the response. The system consists of a Shack-Hartmann sensor sampling at 20 Hz and a 37-actuator piezoelectric deformable mirror. An extra sensing channel allows for an independent measure of the accommodation level of the eye. The accommodation response of four subjects was measured during a +/− 0.5 D step change in stimulus vergence whilst aberrations were corrected at various time locations. We found that continued correction of aberrations after the step change decreased the gain for disaccommodation, but increased the gain for accommodation. These results could be explained based on the initial lag of accommodation to the stimulus and changes in the level of aberrations before and after the stimulus step change. Future considerations for investigations of the effect of monochromatic aberrations on the dynamic accommodation response are discussed. PMID:21258515

  12. Red-green opponent channel mediation of control of human ocular accommodation.

    PubMed Central

    Kotulak, J C; Morse, S E; Billock, V A

    1995-01-01

    1. It has been hypothesized, but not verified empirically, that the control of human ocular accommodation is mediated by either the red-green or yellow-blue colour channels. Our goal was to determine experimentally whether the red-green channel by itself could influence the accommodative response. 2. To find out, we isolated the red-green channel through chromatic bandpass filtering and measured accommodation under dynamic and static conditions. The effect of this filtering was to modulate the red-green channel without disturbing either the yellow-blue or luminance channels. 3. Accommodative gain (ratio of response to stimulus amplitude) declined monotonically with decreasing bandwidth under dynamic conditions. Because the outputs of both the luminance and yellow-blue colour channels did not vary with bandwidth, the only explanation is that the red-green opponent process was responsible for the effect. 4. Under static conditions, however, accommodation was independent of bandwidth. This may be attributable to the decreased sensitivity to chromatic contrast that occurs at low temporal frequencies. PMID:7738858

  13. Measuring what matters: does 'objectivity' mean good science?

    PubMed

    Kayes, Nicola M; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2010-01-01

    While the limitations of self-report measures are clearly acknowledged, less apparent is attention to the potential limitations of their 'objective' counterparts leading to the assumption that objectivity results in more robust and scientifically valid measurement tools. This article aims to: (1) test this assumption; (2) consider the implications of advocating for a measure on the basis of its objectivity; (3) propose an alternative approach to measure selection. A critical evaluation of one 'objective' measure highlights a number of potential limitations suggesting that the apparent willingness to adopt 'objective' measures with little questioning may be misguided. The possible implications of this are discussed and include a risk to the advancement of, and capacity for, knowledge in rehabilitation; or worse, of making clinical decisions based on erroneous conclusions. Characterising a measure on the basis of objectivity (or not) assumes an overly simplistic dichotomy that is unhelpful and perhaps misleading. We argue that assessing whether a measure is fit for purpose and makes mathematical sense is the key consideration. Indeed, in some cases, using both an 'objective' measure and a subjective rating scale may be appropriate and the only way of truly capturing the phenomenon of interest.

  14. Changes in accommodation and ocular aberration with simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Alcocer, Javier; Madrid-Costa, David; Radhakrishnan, Hema; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular aberration changes through different simultaneous vision multifocal contact lenses (CLs). Eighteen young-adult subjects with a mean age of 29.8±2.11 years took part. Changes in accommodative response, spherical aberration (C(4)(0)), horizontal coma (C(3)(1)), vertical coma (C(3)(-1)), and root mean square (RMS) of higher-order aberrations (HOAs, third to sixth orders) were evaluated. Measurements were obtained with a distance-single vision CL and 2 aspheric multifocal CLs of simultaneous focus center-near design (PureVision Low Add and PureVision High Add) for 2 accommodative stimuli (-2.50 and -4.00 D). All measurements were performed monocularly with a Hartmann-Shack aberrometer (IRX-3; Imagine Eyes, Orsay, France). No statistically significant differences were found in accommodative responses to -2.50- and -4.00-D stimuli between the single vision CL and the 2 multifocal CLs. Spherical aberration was found to decrease and become more negative with accommodation for both stimuli with all three CLs. Horizontal coma decreased significantly with accommodation (-2.5- and -4.00-D stimuli) for the distance-single vision CLs (P=0.002 and P=0.003). No differences were found in vertical coma Zernike coefficients. The RMS of HOAs was found to decrease only with the single vision CLs for both stimuli (P<0.01). Data obtained in this study suggest that in young subjects, the multifocal CLs studied do not induce large changes in accommodative response compared with the distance-single vision CLs. Spherical aberration reduced significantly with accommodation.

  15. Supervisors' perceptions of organizational policies are associated with their likelihood to accommodate back-injured workers.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William S; Loisel, Patrick; Reguly, Paula; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2017-02-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is a major concern among North American workplaces and little is known regarding a supervisor's decision to support job accommodation for workers with LBP. The extent to which supervisors are included in a company's effort to institute disability management policies and practices and workplace safety climate are two factors that may influence a supervisor's decision to accommodate workers with LBP. Objective Determine the association between supervisors' perceptions of disability management policies, corporate safety culture and their likelihood of supporting job accommodations for workers with LBP. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of supervisors (N=796) recruited from a non-random, convenience sample of 19 Canadian and US employers. The outcome was supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation and the exposure was global work safety culture and disability management policies and practices. A multivariable generalized linear modelling strategy was used and final models for each exposure were obtained after assessing potential effect modifiers and confounders. Results In the study, 796 eligible supervisors from 19 employers participated. Disability management policies and practices were positively associated with supervisors' likeliness to accommodate (β=0.19; 95% CI: 0.13; 0.24) while no significant association was found between corporate safety culture (β= -0.084; 95% CI: -0.19; 0.027) and supervisors' likeliness to accommodate. Conclusions Employers should ensure that proactive disability management policies and practices are clearly communicated to supervisors in order to improve job modification and return to work efforts. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain (LBP) is a major workplace concern and little is known regarding what factors are associated with a supervisor's likelihood to support job accommodation for workers with LBP. The objective of this article was to determine the association

  16. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms

    PubMed Central

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age = 25.8 ± 3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p > 0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil. PMID:25891121

  17. Scheimpflug image-based changes in anterior segment parameters during accommodation induced by short-term reading.

    PubMed

    Lipecz, Agnes; Tsorbatzoglou, Alexis; Hassan, Ziad; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo; Nemeth, Gabor

    2017-05-11

    To analyze the effect of the accommodation on the anterior segment data (corneal and anterior chamber parameters) induced by short-time reading in a healthy, nonpresbyopic adult patient group. Images of both eyes of nonpresbyopic volunteers were captured with a Scheimpflug device (Pentacam HR) in a nonaccommodative state. Fifteen minutes of reading followed and through fixation of the built-in target of Pentacam HR further accommodation was achieved and new images were captured by the device. Anterior segment parameters were observed and the differences were analyzed. Fifty-two healthy eyes of 26 subjects (range 20.04-28.58 years) were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the keratometric values before and after the accommodative task (p = 0.35). A statistically significant difference was measured in the 5.0-mm-diameter and the 7.0-mm-diameter corneal volume (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03) between accommodation states. Corneal aberrometric data did not change significantly during short-term accommodation. Significant differences were observed between nonaccommodative and accommodative states of the eyes for all measured anterior chamber parameters. Among the parameters of the cornea, only corneal volume changed during the short-term accommodation process, showing some fine changes with accommodation of the cornea in young, emmetropic patients. The position of the pupil and the anterior chamber parameters were observed to change with accommodation as captured by a Scheimpflug device.

  18. Objectivity in psychosocial measurement: what, why, how.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W P

    2000-01-01

    This article raises and tries to answer questions concerning what objectivity in psychosocial measurement is, why it is important, and how it can be achieved. Following in the tradition of the Socratic art of maiuetics, objectivity is characterized by the separation of meaning from the geometric, metaphoric, or numeric figure carrying it, allowing an ideal and abstract entity to take on a life of its own. Examples of objective entities start from anything teachable and learnable, but for the purposes of measurement, the meter, gram, volt, and liter are paradigmatic because of their generalizability across observers, instruments, laboratories, samples, applications, etc. Objectivity is important because it is only through it that distinct conceptual entities are meaningfully distinguished. Seen from another angle, objectivity is important because it defines the conditions of the possibility of shared meaning and community. Full objectivity in psychosocial measurement can be achieved only by attending to both its methodological and its social aspects. The methodological aspect has recently achieved some notice in psychosocial measurement, especially in the form of Rasch's probabilistic conjoint models. Objectivity's social aspect has only recently been noticed by historians of science, and has not yet been systematically incorporated in any psychosocial science. An approach to achieving full objectivity in psychosocial measurement is adapted from the ASTM Standard Practice for Conducting an Interlaboratory Study to Determine the Precision of a Test Method (ASTM Committee E-11 on Statistical Methods, 1992).

  19. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program. (b) Reasonable accommodation may... hardship on the operation of a recipient's program, factors to be considered include: (1) The overall size...

  20. Toward accommodating physicians' conscientious objections: an argument for public disclosure.

    PubMed

    Harter, Thomas D

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate how public disclosure can be used to balance physicians' conscientious objections with their professional obligations to patients--specifically respect for patient autonomy and informed consent. It is argued here that physicians should be permitted to exercise conscientious objections, but that they have a professional obligation to provide advance notification to patients about those objections. It is further argued here that public disclosure is an appropriate and ethically justifiable limit to the principle of advance notification. The argument for publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is made in this paper by discussing three practical benefits of public disclosure in medicine, and then addressing how publicly disclosing physicians' conscientious objections is not an undue invasion of privacy. Three additional concerns with public disclosure of physicians' conscientious objections are briefly addressed--potential harassment of physicians, workplace discrimination, and mischaracterising physicians' professional aptitude--concluding that each of these concerns requires further deliberation in the realm of business ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    remarks can lead the designer of visual displays to inappropriate application of some so-called laws of vision. As Ogle (1950) has suggested the objective...SNS control of accommodation, discussing much of tne above literature, and presenting clinical, experimental , and pnarmacological evidence for his view...the mechanisms operates and how to evaluate the relevance of the experimental findings under varying conditions. P1. 7. 7 7 - Cogan (1937) reviewed

  2. Magnifications of Single and Dual Element Accommodative Intraocular Lenses: Paraxial Optics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ale, Jit B; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Using an analytical approach of paraxial optics, we evaluated the magnification of a model eye implanted with single-element (1E) and dual-element (2E) translating-optics accommodative intraocular lenses (AIOL) with an objective of understanding key control parameters relevant to their design. Potential clinical implications of the results arising from pseudophakic accommodation were also considered. Methods Lateral and angular magnifications in a pseudophakic model eye were analyzed using the matrix method of paraxial optics. The effects of key control parameters such as direction (forward or backward) and distance (0 to 2 mm) of translation, power combinations of the 2E-AIOL elements (front element power range +20.0 D to +40.0 D), and amplitudes of accommodation (0 to 4 D) were tested. Relative magnification, defined as the ratio of the retinal image size of the accommodated eye to that of unaccommodated phakic (rLM1) or pseudophakic (rLM2) model eyes, was computed to determine how retinal image size changes with pseudophakic accommodation. Results Both lateral and angular magnifications increased with increased power of the front element in 2E-AIOL and amplitude of accommodation. For a 2E-AIOL with front element power of +35 D, rLM1 and rLM2 increased by 17.0% and 16.3%, respectively, per millimetre of forward translation of the element, compared to the magnification at distance focus (unaccommodated). These changes correspond to a change of 9.4% and 6.5% per dioptre of accommodation, respectively. Angular magnification also increased with pseudophakic accommodation. 1E-AIOLs produced consistently less magnification than 2E-AIOLs. Relative retinal image size decreased at a rate of 0.25% with each dioptre of accommodation in the phakic model eye. The position of the image space nodal point shifted away from the retina (towards the cornea) with both phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Conclusion Power of the mobile element, and amount and direction of

  3. Independent and reciprocal accommodation in anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M.; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accommodation is considered to be a symmetrical response, and to be driven by the least ametropic and nonamblyopic eye in anisometropia. We report a case of a 4-year-old child with anisometropic amblyopia who accommodates asymmetrically, reliably demonstrating normal accommodation in the nonamblyopic eye and anti-accommodation of the amblyopic eye to near targets. The abnormal accommodation of the amblyopic eye remained largely unchanged over seven subsequent testing sessions undertaken over the course of therapy. We suggest that a congenital dysinnervation syndrome may result in relaxation of accommodation in relation to near cues and might be a hitherto-unconsidered additional etiologic factor in anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:20863728

  4. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to be...

  5. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  6. Agreement between clinical and laboratory methods assessing tonic and cross-link components of accommodation and vergence.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Philippe, Matthieu; Fuchs, Philippe; Roumes, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    Several tests are available to optometrists for investigating accommodation and vergence. This study sought to investigate the agreement between clinical and laboratory methods and to clarify which components are actually measured when tonic and cross-link of accommodation and vergence are assessed. Tonic vergence, tonic accommodation, accommodative vergence (AC/A) and vergence accommodation (CA/C) were measured using several tests. Clinical tests were compared to the laboratory assessment, the latter being regarded as an absolute reference. The repeatability of each test and the degree of agreement between the tests were quantified using Bland-Altman analysis. The values obtained for each test were found to be stable across repetitions; however, in most cases, significant differences were observed between tests supposed to measure the same oculomotor component. Tonic and cross-link components cannot be easily assessed because proximal and instrumental responses interfere with the assessment. Other components interfere with oculomotor assessment. Specifically, accommodative divergence interferes with tonic vergence estimation and the type of accommodation considered in the AC/A ratio affects its magnitude. Results on clinical tonic accommodation and clinical CA/C show that further investigation is needed to clarify the limitations associated with the use of difference of Gaussian as visual targets to open the accommodative loop. Although different optometric tests of accommodation and vergence rely on the same basic principles, the results of this study indicate that clinical and laboratory methods actually involve distinct components. These differences, which are induced by methodological choices, must be taken into account, when comparing studies or when selecting a test to investigate a particular oculomotor component. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  7. Receding and disparity cues aid relaxation of accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Accommodation can mask hyperopia and reduce the accuracy of non-cycloplegic refraction. It is therefore important to minimize accommodation to obtain as accurate a measure of hyperopia as possible. In order to characterize the parameters required to measure the maximally hyperopic error using photorefraction, we used different target types and distances to determine which target was most likely to maximally relax accommodation and thus more accurately detect hyperopia in an individual. Methods A PlusoptiX SO4 infra-red photorefractor was mounted in a remote haploscope which presented the targets. All participants were tested with targets at four fixation distances between 0.3m and 2m containing all combinations of blur, disparity and proximity/looming cues. 38 infants (6-44 wks) were studied longitudinally, and 104 children (4 -15 yrs (mean 6.4)) and 85 adults, with a range of refractive errors and binocular vision status, were tested once. Cycloplegic refraction data was available for a sub-set of 59 participants spread across the age range. Results The maximally hyperopic refraction (MHR) found at any time in the session was most frequently found when fixating the most distant targets and those containing disparity and dynamic proximity/looming cues. Presence or absence of blur was less significant, and targets in which only single cues to depth were present were also less likely to produce MHR. MHR correlated closely with cycloplegic refraction (r = 0.93,mean difference 0.07D,p=n.s.,95%CI ±<0.25D) after correction by a calibration factor. Conclusion Maximum relaxation of accommodation occurred for binocular targets receding into the distance. Proximal and disparity cues aid relaxation of accommodation to a greater extent than blur, and thus non-cycloplegic refraction targets should incorporate these cues. This is especially important in screening contexts with a brief opportunity to test for significant hyperopia. MHR in our laboratory was found to be a

  8. Static and dynamic crystalline lens accommodation evaluated using quantitative 3-D OCT.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Ortiz, Sergio; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Gora, Michalina; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo in four subjects, for accommodative demands between 0 to 6 D in 1 D steps. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased with accommodative demand at rates of 0.73 and 0.20 mm/D, resulting in an increase of the estimated optical power of the eye of 0.62 D per diopter of accommodative demand. Dynamic fluctuations in crystalline lens radii of curvature, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were also estimated from dynamic 2-D OCT images (14 Hz), acquired during 5-s of steady fixation, for different accommodative demands. Estimates of the eye power from dynamical geometrical measurements revealed an increase of the fluctuations of the accommodative response from 0.07 D to 0.47 D between 0 and 6 D (0.044 D per D of accommodative demand). A sensitivity analysis showed that the fluctuations of accommodation were driven by dynamic changes in the lens surfaces, particularly in the posterior lens surface.

  9. Static and dynamic crystalline lens accommodation evaluated using quantitative 3-D OCT

    PubMed Central

    Gambra, Enrique; Ortiz, Sergio; Perez-Merino, Pablo; Gora, Michalina; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Custom high-resolution high-speed anterior segment spectral domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) provided with automatic quantification and distortion correction algorithms was used to characterize three-dimensionally (3-D) the human crystalline lens in vivo in four subjects, for accommodative demands between 0 to 6 D in 1 D steps. Anterior and posterior lens radii of curvature decreased with accommodative demand at rates of 0.73 and 0.20 mm/D, resulting in an increase of the estimated optical power of the eye of 0.62 D per diopter of accommodative demand. Dynamic fluctuations in crystalline lens radii of curvature, anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were also estimated from dynamic 2-D OCT images (14 Hz), acquired during 5-s of steady fixation, for different accommodative demands. Estimates of the eye power from dynamical geometrical measurements revealed an increase of the fluctuations of the accommodative response from 0.07 D to 0.47 D between 0 and 6 D (0.044 D per D of accommodative demand). A sensitivity analysis showed that the fluctuations of accommodation were driven by dynamic changes in the lens surfaces, particularly in the posterior lens surface. PMID:24049680

  10. Localization of Virtual Objects in the Near Visual Field (Operator Interaction with Simple Virtual Objects)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content in four experiments using a total of 38 subjects. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects' age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. These errors apparently arise from the occlusion of the physical background by the optically superimposed virtual objects. But they are modified by subjects' accommodative competence and specific viewing conditions. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are influenced by their relative position when superimposed. The design implications of the findings are discussed in a concluding section.

  11. Hyperelastic modelling of the crystalline lens: Accommodation and presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Lanchares, Elena; Navarro, Rafael; Calvo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The modification of the mechanical properties of the human crystalline lens with age can be a major cause of presbyopia. Since these properties cannot be measured in vivo, numerical simulation can be used to estimate them. We propose an inverse method to determine age-dependent change in the material properties of the tissues composing the human crystalline lens. Methods A finite element model of a 30-year-old lens in the accommodated state was developed. The force necessary to achieve full accommodation in a 30-year-old lens of known external geometry was computed using this model. Two additional numerical models of the lens corresponding to the ages of 40 and 50 years were then built. Assuming that the accommodative force applied to the lens remains constant with age, the material properties of nucleus and cortex were estimated by inverse analysis. Results The zonular force necessary to reshape the model of a 30-year-old lens from the accommodated to the unaccommodated geometry was 0.078 newton (N). Both nucleus and cortex became stiffer with age. The stiffness of the nucleus increased with age at a higher rate than the cortex. Conclusions In agreement with the classical theory of Helmholtz, on which we based our model, our results indicate that a major cause of presbyopia is that both nucleus and cortex become stiffer with age; therefore, a constant value of the zonular forces with aging does not achieve full accommodation, that is, the accommodation capability decreases.

  12. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  13. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  14. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  15. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  16. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  17. [Effects of visual optical stimuli for accommodation-convergence system on asthenopia].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Tawara, Akihiko; Miyake, Nobuyuki

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect on eyestrain of optical stimuli that we designed for accommodation and convergence systems. Eight female students were given optical stimuli for accommodation and convergence systems for 1.5 min immediately after 20 min of a sustained task on a 3-D display. Before and after the trial, their ocular functions were measured and their symptoms were assessed. The optical stimuli were applied by moving targets of scenery images far and near around the far point position of both eyes on a horizonal place, which induced divergence in the direction of the eye position of rest. In a control group, subjects rested with closed eyes for 1.5 min instead of applying the optical stimuli. There were significant changes in the accommodative contraction time (from far to near) and the accommodative relaxation time (from near to far) and the lag of accommodation at near target, from 1.26 s to 1.62 s and from 1.49 s to 1.63 s and from 0.5 D to 0.65 D, respectively, and in the symptoms in the control group after the duration of closed-eye rest. In the stimulus group, however, the changes of those functions were smaller than in the control group. From these results, we suggest that our designed optical stimuli for accommodation and convergence systems are effective on asthenopia following accommodative dysfunction.

  18. Magnitude of visual accommodation to a head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, E. F.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The virtual image symbology of head-up displays (HUDs) is presented at optical infinity to the pilot. This design feature is intended to help pilots maintain visual focus distance at optical infinity. However, the accommodation response could be nearer than optical infinity, due to an individual's dark focus response. Accommodation responses were measured of two age groups of airline pilots to: (1) static symbology on a HUD; (2) a landing site background at optical infinity; (3) the combination of the HUD symbology and the landing site background; and (4) complete darkness. Results indicate that magnitude of accommodation to HUD symbology, with and without the background, is not significantly different from an infinity focus response for either age group. The dark focus response is significantly closer than optical infinity for the younger pilots, but not the older pilots, a finding consistent with previous research.

  19. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  20. Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania's Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the use of accommodations and the performance of students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities on the Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)yCoan alternate performance-based assessment. Methods: Differences in test scores on the most basic level (level A) of the PASA of 286…

  1. Promoting Independence for Wheelchair Users: The Role of Home Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan; Resnik, Linda; Roy, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this research is to investigate whether home accommodations influence the amount of human help provided to a nationally representative sample of adults who use wheelchairs. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the Adult Disability Follow-back Survey (DFS), Phase II, of the Disability Supplement to the 1994-1995…

  2. Driving time modulates accommodative response and intraocular pressure.

    PubMed

    Vera, Jesús; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo; Morales, José M; Catena, Andrés; Cardenas, David; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2016-10-01

    Driving is a task mainly reliant on the visual system. Most of the time, while driving, our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing between the road and the dashboard or near and far traffic. Thus, prolonged driving time should produce visual fatigue. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on two ocular parameters: the accommodative response (AR) and the intraocular pressure (IOP). A pre/post-test design has been used to assess the impact of driving time on both indices. Twelve participants (out of 17 recruited) completed the study (5 women, 24.42±2.84years old). The participants were healthy and active drivers with no visual impairment or pathology. They drove for 2h in a virtual driving environment. We assessed AR and IOP before and after the driving session, and also collected subjective measures of arousal and fatigue. We found that IOP and AR decreased (i.e., the accommodative lag increased) after the driving session (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the nearest distances tested (20cm, 25cm, and 33cm) induced the highest decreases in AR (corrected p-values<0.05). Consistent with these findings, the subjective levels of arousal decreased and levels of fatigue increased after the driving session (all p-values<0.001). These results represent an innovative step towards an objective, valid, and reliable assessment of fatigue-impaired driving based on visual fatigue signs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Convergence and accommodation development is pre-programmed in premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in pre-term infants is pre-programmed or is driven by experience. Methods 32 healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range 31.2-36 weeks) were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6 month period, starting at 4-6 weeks post-natally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infra-red photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33m and 2m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33m and 2m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (post-natal) age. Results When compared by their corrected age, pre-term and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6-7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, pre-term infants’ responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2m, compared to full-term infants between 8-13 weeks after birth. Conclusions When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in pre-term infants show few differences from full-term infants’ responses. Maturation appears pre-programmed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave pre-term infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus. PMID:26275135

  4. Frequency of convergence and accommodative disorders in a clinical population of Mashhad, Iran.

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Yekta, AbbasAli; Nouri, Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of convergence and accommodation anomalies in an optometric clinical setting in Mashhad, Iran, and to determine tests with highest accuracy in diagnosing these anomalies. From 261 patients who came to the optometric clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during a month, 83 of them were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria. Near point of convergence (NPC), near and distance heterophoria, monocular and binocular accommodative facility (MAF and BAF, respectively), lag of accommodation, positive and negative fusional vergences (PFV and NFV, respectively), AC/A ratio, relative accommodation, and amplitude of accommodation (AA) were measured to diagnose the convergence and accommodation anomalies. The results were also compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The accuracy of these tests was explored using sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-). Mean age of the patients was 21.3 ± 3.5 years and 14.5% of them had specific binocular and accommodative symptoms. Convergence and accommodative anomalies were found in 19.3% of the patients; accommodative excess (4.8%) and convergence insufficiency (3.6%) were the most common accommodative and convergence disorders, respectively. Symptomatic patients showed lower values for BAF (p = .003), MAF (p = .001), as well as AA (p = .001) compared with asymptomatic patients. Moreover, BAF (S = 75%, Sp = 62%) and MAF (S = 62%, Sp = 89%) were the most accurate tests for detecting accommodative and convergence disorders in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. Convergence and accommodative anomalies are the most common binocular disorders in optometric patients. Including tests of monocular and binocular accommodative facility in routine eye examinations as accurate tests to diagnose these anomalies requires further investigation.

  5. Dynamic accommodation responses following adaptation to defocus.

    PubMed

    Cufflin, Matthew P; Mallen, Edward A H

    2008-10-01

    Adaptation to defocus is known to influence the subjective sensitivity to blur in both emmetropes and myopes. Blur is a major contributing factor in the closed-loop dynamic accommodation response. Previous investigations have examined the magnitude of the accommodation response following blur adaptation. We have investigated whether a period of blur adaptation influences the dynamic accommodation response to step and sinusoidal changes in target vergence. Eighteen subjects (six emmetropes, six early onset myopes, and six late onset myopes) underwent 30 min of adaptation to 0.00 D (control), +1.00 D or +3.00 D myopic defocus. Following this adaptation period, accommodation responses to a 2.00 D step change and 2.00 D sinusoidal change (0.2 Hz) in target vergence were recorded continuously using an autorefractor. Adaptation to defocus failed to influence accommodation latency times, but did influence response times to a step change in target vergence. Adaptation to both +1.00 and +3.00 D induced significant increases in response times (p = 0.002 and p = 0.012, respectively) and adaptation to +3.00 D increased the change in accommodation response magnitude (p = 0.014) for a 2.00 D step change in demand. Blur adaptation also significantly increased the peak-to-peak phase lag for accommodation responses to a sinusoidally oscillating target, although failed to influence the accommodation gain. These changes in accommodative response were equivalent across all refractive groups. Adaptation to a degraded stimulus causes an increased level of accommodation for dynamic targets moving towards an observer and increases response times and phase lags. It is suggested that the contrast constancy theory may explain these changes in dynamic behavior.

  6. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh air...

  7. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh air...

  8. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the stem. The space must not be located totally below the deepest load waterline. (b) Bulkheads separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh air...

  9. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh air...

  10. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh air...

  11. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  12. Non-invasive measurements of the dynamic changes in the ciliary muscle, crystalline lens morphology, and anterior chamber during accommodation with a high-resolution OCT.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-invasively the changes in the anterior chamber eye, crystalline lens morphology, and ciliary muscle during accommodation by means of an anterior chamber optical coherence tomographer (OCT), and correlate them with vergence. Twenty-five eyes of twenty-five healthy subjects, whose mean age was 29.9±7.1 years, were included and measured with an anterior chamber OCT. The central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior crystalline lens radius of curvature (ALRC), crystalline lens thickness (CLT), and ciliary muscle area (CMA) were measured for each participant at 0, -1, -2, and -3 D of target vergence. A linear model was used to assess the correlation of each eye parameter with the vergence demand. The mean CCT showed no change for all the accommodative stimuli. The mean ACD and ALRC decreased with the vergence, about 4.5 and 30 % at -3 D, respectively. On the contrary, the CLT and CMA showed an opposite tendency, where the mean CLT was increased by 4.0 % and the mean CMA was done by 26% at -3 D. Statistical significant differences (p < 0.001) were obtained among all vergences for each eye metric, except for the CCT (p = 0.76). The ACD and ALRC decreased about 2 and 10 % per dioptre of accommodation, respectively; whereas the CLT and CMA increased about 2 and 9 %, respectively. These results add knowledge regarding the understanding of accommodation and give new perspectives for biomechanics and biometry.

  13. A Review of Worksite Lactation Accommodations.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Elizabeth Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine workplace lactation accommodations, and their association with breastfeeding duration, and identify strategies occupational health professionals can use to promote lactation improvements. This study included literature published from 1985 through 2015 and listed in PubMed and CINAHL. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 11 articles were identified for review. Presence of a corporate lactation program, on-site child care, and return to work/telephone lactation consultation were consistently associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Other breastfeeding accommodations (i.e., lactation spaces, lactation breaks, worksite lactation policies, and supervisor/coworker support) were not consistently associated with breastfeeding duration. Occupational health professionals can play key roles in improving the effectiveness of lactation accommodations. Assuring adequate implementation of accommodations, increasing communication and marketing of accommodations, and promoting supervisor and coworker support are areas that occupational health professionals should explore for improving lactation duration.

  14. Exploring the Relationship Between Students Needing Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying with Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anna M.; Meyer, Kevin R.

    2017-01-01

    The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors' perception that they can meet…

  15. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  16. Cross-coupling between accommodation and convergence is optimized for a broad range of directions and distances of gaze.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dorothy; Vedamurthy, Indu; Schor, Clifton

    2008-03-01

    Accommodation and convergence systems are cross-coupled so that stimulation of one system produces responses by both systems. Ideally, the cross-coupled responses of accommodation and convergence match their respective stimuli. When expressed in diopters and meter angles, respectively, stimuli for accommodation and convergence are equal in the mid-sagittal plane when viewed with symmetrical convergence, where historically, the gains of the cross coupling (AC/A and CA/C ratios) have been quantified. However, targets at non-zero azimuth angles, when viewed with asymmetric convergence, present unequal stimuli for accommodation and convergence. Are the cross-links between the two systems calibrated to compensate for stimulus mismatches that increase with gaze-azimuth? We measured the response AC/A and stimulus CA/C ratios at zero azimuth, 17.5 and 30 deg of rightward gaze eccentricities with a Badal Optometer and Wheatstone-mirror haploscope. AC/A ratios were measured under open-loop convergence conditions along the iso-accommodation circle (locus of points that stimulate approximately equal amounts of accommodation to the two eyes at all azimuth angles). CA/C ratios were measured under open-loop accommodation conditions along the iso-vergence circle (locus of points that stimulate constant convergence at all azimuth angles). Our results show that the gain of accommodative-convergence (AC/A ratio) decreased and the bias of convergence-accommodation increased at the 30 deg gaze eccentricity. These changes are in directions that compensate for stimulus mismatches caused by spatial-viewing geometry during asymmetric convergence.

  17. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own clothes...

  18. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own clothes...

  19. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own clothes...

  20. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own clothes...

  1. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own clothes...

  2. Employer Accommodation and Labor Supply of Disabled Workers*

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Matthew J.; Maestas, Nicole; Mullen, Kathleen J.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the factors that influence employer accommodation of newly disabled workers and how effective such accommodations are in retaining workers and discouraging disability insurance applications. Using the Health and Retirement Study, we find that only a quarter of newly disabled older workers in their 50s are accommodated by their employers in some way following onset of a disability. Importantly, we find that few employer characteristics explain which workers are accommodated; rather, employee characteristics, particularly the presence of personality traits correlated with assertiveness and open communication, are highly predictive of accommodation. We also find that if employer accommodation rates could be increased, disabled workers would be significantly more likely to delay labor force exit for up to two years. However, accommodation does not appear to reduce subsequent disability insurance claiming. PMID:27840560

  3. Supervisor and organizational factors associated with supervisor support of job accommodations for low back injured workers

    PubMed Central

    Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William S.; Reguly, Paula; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Loisel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Temporary job accommodations contribute to the prevention of chronic work disability due to low back pain (LBP) through the facilitation of early return to work; yet, workplace dimensions of job accommodation are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine supervisor and organizational factors associated with supervisors’ support for temporary job accommodations for LBP injured workers. METHODS Supervisors were recruited from 19 workplaces in the USA and Canada and completed an online survey regarding job accommodation practices and potential associated factors with respect to a case vignette of a worker with LBP. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify the most parsimonious set of factors associated with supervisors’ support for accommodations. RESULTS A total of 804 supervisors participated with 796 eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The final set of factors explained 21% of the variance in supervisors’ support for temporary job accommodations. Considerate leadership style (β = .261; 95 % CI: .212, .310), workplace disability management policies and practices (β = .243; 95 % CI: .188, .298), and supervisor autonomy for designing and providing workplace accommodations (β = .156; 95 % CI: .071, .241) had the largest effect on supervisor support for accommodations. CONCLUSION Factors predicting supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate LBP injured workers include use of considerate leadership style, workplace disability management policies and practices, and supervisor autonomy. Workplace interventions targeting these factors should be developed and evaluated for their ability to improve work disability prevention outcomes. PMID:27032398

  4. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a vertical...

  5. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a vertical...

  6. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a vertical...

  7. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a vertical...

  8. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a vertical...

  9. The feasibility of accommodating physically handicapped individuals on pedestrian over and undercrossing structures

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of accommodating the physically handicapped on over- and undercrossing structures. Based upon the evaluation of 124 crossing structures, 86 percent of these structures had at least one majo...

  10. [Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of various treatment modalities for accommodation disorders and acquired progressive myopia].

    PubMed

    Tarutta, E P; Tarasova, N A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical treatment of accommodation disorders and progressive myopia in children. A total of 190 patients (380 eyes) with myopia aged from 6 to 18 years (10.79±0.18 years on average) were enrolled and divided into 9 groups depending on the treatment prescribed. Comparative evaluation of different hardware-based treatment modalities for progressive myopia allowed to work out their optimal combination: "Visotronic", "MACDEL 09", and magnetophoresis of Taufon 4%. Such courses, provided twice a year, were associated with optimization of accommodative response and 1.9-2.8 times reduction of the rate of myopia progression. On the contrary, pleoptic therapy showed a negative effect on accommodative tonus and the rate of progression of acquired myopia. Comparative evaluation of different hardware-based treatment modalities for progressive myopia and accommodation disorders allowed to work out their optimal combination: "Visotronic", "MACDEL 09" and magnetophoresis of Taufon 4%. This treatment, provided twice a year, allows to increase accommodative reserves and volume, improve objective accommodative response, and reduce accommodative hypertonus as well as the rate of myopia progression (1.9-2.8 times over a 1.5-year period). Under pleoptic therapy (specialized software, near field speckles, color pulse therapy, Ambliokor device), both accommodative tonus and the rate of myopia progression increased (1.3-1.5 and 1.6 times correspondingly).

  11. Image registration reveals central lens thickness minimally increases during accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Schachar, Ronald A; Mani, Majid; Schachar, Ira H

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate anterior chamber depth, central crystalline lens thickness and lens curvature during accommodation. Setting California Retina Associates, El Centro, CA, USA. Design Healthy volunteer, prospective, clinical research swept-source optical coherence biometric image registration study of accommodation. Methods Ten subjects (4 females and 6 males) with an average age of 22.5 years (range: 20–26 years) participated in the study. A 45° beam splitter attached to a Zeiss IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Jena, Germany) biometer enabled simultaneous imaging of the cornea, anterior chamber, entire central crystalline lens and fovea in the dilated right eyes of subjects before, and during focus on a target 11 cm from the cornea. Images with superimposable foveal images, obtained before and during accommodation, that met all of the predetermined alignment criteria were selected for comparison. This registration requirement assured that changes in anterior chamber depth and central lens thickness could be accurately and reliably measured. The lens radii of curvatures were measured with a pixel stick circle. Results Images from only 3 of 10 subjects met the predetermined criteria for registration. Mean anterior chamber depth decreased, −67 μm (range: −0.40 to −110 μm), and mean central lens thickness increased, 117 μm (range: 100–130 μm). The lens surfaces steepened, anterior greater than posterior, while the lens, itself, did not move or shift its position as appeared from the lack of movement of the lens nucleus, during 7.8 diopters of accommodation, (range: 6.6–9.7 diopters). Conclusion Image registration, with stable invariant references for image correspondence, reveals that during accommodation a large increase in lens surface curvatures is associated with only a small increase in central lens thickness and no change in lens position. PMID:28979092

  12. Eye-lens accommodation load and static trapezius muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Richter, H O; Bänziger, T; Forsman, M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate if sustained periods of oculomotor load impacts on neck/scapular area muscle activity. The static trapezius muscle activity was assessed from bipolar surface electromyography, normalized to a submaximal contraction. Twenty-eight subjects with a mean age of 29 (range 19-42, SD 8) viewed a high-contrast fixation target for two 5-min periods through: (1) -3.5 dioptre (D) lenses; and (2) 0 D lenses. The target was placed 5 D away from the individual's near point of accommodation. Each subject's ability to compensate for the added blur was extracted via infrared photorefraction measurements. Subjects whose accommodative response was higher in the -D blur condition (1) showed relatively more static bilateral trapezius muscle activity level. During no blur (2) there were no signs of relationships. The results indicate that sustained eye-lens accommodation at near, during ergonomically unfavourable viewing conditions, could possibly represent a risk factor for trapezius muscle myalgia.

  13. The stability of steady state accommodation in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Candy, T. Rowan; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal image quality in infants is largely determined by the accuracy and the stability of their accommodative responses. Although the accuracy of infants’ accommodation has been investigated previously, little is known about the stability of their responses. We performed two experiments that characterized the stability of infants’ steady state accommodation. Analyses were performed in the time domain (root mean square [RMS] deviation) and in the frequency domain (spectral analysis). In Experiment 1, accommodation responses were recorded for a period of 3 s from the left eye of four groups of infants (8–10, 11–13, 14–19, and 20–30 weeks of age) and eight prepresbyopic adults while they focused on a small toy placed at a dioptric viewing distance of 1.0 D (at 1 m). In Experiment 2, accommodation responses were recorded for a period of 14 s from the left eye of a group of 8- to 12-week-old infants and six prepresbyopic adults while they focused on a cartoon image placed at three different dioptric viewing distances (1.25, 2.0, and 3.0 D). The data, collected using a photorefractor sampling at 25 Hz, showed two important characteristics. First, the RMS deviations and the power were quantitatively similar across different infant age groups, and they were significantly larger in infants than in adults. Second, the overall and relative power also increased with the dioptric viewing distance both in infants and adults. At all three dioptric viewing distances, the measures of power were larger in infants than in adults. These data demonstrate that infants’ accommodative responses contain instabilities that are qualitatively very similar to those observed in adults. However, the larger RMS deviations suggest that infants are likely to experience larger fluctuations in retinal image quality than adults. PMID:17997659

  14. Extended Time Testing Accommodations for Students with Disabilities: Answers to Five Fundamental Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2010-01-01

    Extended time is one of the most common testing accommodations provided to students with disabilities. It is also controversial; critics of extended time accommodations argue that extended time is used too readily, without concern for how it changes the skills measured by tests, leading to scores that cannot be compared fairly with those of other…

  15. Imaging and full-length biometry of the eye during accommodation using spectral domain OCT with an optical switch.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Marco; Uhlhorn, Stephen R; De Freitas, Carolina; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-07-01

    An optical switch was implemented in the reference arm of an extended depth SD-OCT system to sequentially acquire OCT images at different depths into the eye ranging from the cornea to the retina. A custom-made accommodation module was coupled with the delivery of the OCT system to provide controlled step stimuli of accommodation and disaccommodation that preserve ocular alignment. The changes in the lens shape were imaged and ocular distances were dynamically measured during accommodation and disaccommodation. The system is capable of dynamic in vivo imaging of the entire anterior segment and eye-length measurement during accommodation in real-time.

  16. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  17. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2012-04-01

    Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) linkage, but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4 and 11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photo refractor set in a remote haploscopic device that assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Responses on decompensation were compared with those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target was significantly reduced (p<0.0001), with resultant mean under-accommodation of 2.33 D at 33 cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near.

  18. APPLICATION OF DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND MEASUREMENT QUALITY OBJECTIVES TO RESEARCH PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper assists systematic planning for research projects. It presents planning concepts in terms that have some utility for researchers. For example, measurement quality objectives are more familiar to researchers than data quality objectives because these quality criteria are...

  19. Conscientious objection and compromising the patient: Response to Hughes.

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Julian; Schuklenk, Udo

    2018-06-19

    Hughes offers a consequentialist response to our rejection of accommodation of conscientious objection in medicine. We argue here that his compromise proposition has been tried in many jurisdictions and has failed to deliver unimpeded access to care for eligible patients. The compromise position, entailing an accommodation of conscientious objection provided there is unimpeded access, fails to grasp that the objectors are both determined not to provide services they object to as well as to subvert patient access to the objected to services. Unpredictable future developments in drug R&D and resulting treatment and prevention options in medicine make the compromise position unrealistic. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Teleworkers with disabilities: characteristics and accommodation use.

    PubMed

    Linden, Maureen; Milchus, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of telework among people with disabilities is not as great as the general population, despite the accommodative benefits of telework. This study of employment and accommodation use patterns of people with disabilities investigates relationships between functional abilities, work location and nature, and accommodation use. Currently employed subjects with disabilities were recruited from client lists of research, technical assistance, and service provision centers, as well as through over 100 social networking venues focused on individuals with disabilities. A national, cross-sectional survey was administered electronically. Details of accommodation use for 373 individuals were compared using Chi-Square distribution analysis. Those in white-collar and knowledge-based jobs were twice as likely to telework as other worker types, and teleworkers were twice as likely to use flexible scheduling. Only 47% of teleworkers reported telework as a job accommodation. Of those, 57% were satisfied with telework and 76% reported it as important to job task completion. Increased use of flexible scheduling, particularly among those who view telework as an accommodation, suggests the primary accommodative benefit of telework is to reduce pain and fatigue-related barriers to traditional employment. Relatively low satisfaction with telework suggests that it presents other employment-related barriers.

  1. Diurnal rhythms of visual accommodation and blink responses - Implication for flight-deck visual standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    Possible 24-h variations in accommodation responses were investigated. A recently developed servo-controlled optometer and focus stimulator were used to obtain monocular accommodation response data on four college-age subjects. No 24-h rhythm in accommodation was shown. Heart rate and blink rate also were measured and periodicity analysis showed a mean 24-h rhythm for both; however, blink rate periodograms were significant for only two of the four subjects. Thus, with the qualifications that college students were tested instead of pilots and that they performed monocular laboratory tasks instead of binocular flight-deck tasks, it is concluded that 24-h rhythms in accommodation responses need not be considered in setting visual standards for flight-deck tasks.

  2. Measuring systems of hard to get objects: problems with analysis of measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilewska, Grazyna

    2005-02-01

    The problem accessibility of metrological parameters features of objects appeared in many measurements. Especially if it is biological object which parameters very often determined on the basis of indirect research. Accidental component predominate in forming of measurement results with very limited access to measurement objects. Every measuring process has a lot of conditions limiting its abilities to any way processing (e.g. increase number of measurement repetition to decrease random limiting error). It may be temporal, financial limitations, or in case of biological object, small volume of sample, influence measuring tool and observers on object, or whether fatigue effects e.g. at patient. It's taken listing difficulties into consideration author worked out and checked practical application of methods outlying observation reduction and next innovative methods of elimination measured data with excess variance to decrease of mean standard deviation of measured data, with limited aomunt of data and accepted level of confidence. Elaborated methods wee verified on the basis of measurement results of knee-joint width space got from radiographs. Measurements were carried out by indirectly method on the digital images of radiographs. Results of examination confirmed legitimacy to using of elaborated methodology and measurement procedures. Such methodology has special importance when standard scientific ways didn't bring expectations effects.

  3. Supervisor and Organizational Factors Associated with Supervisor Support of Job Accommodations for Low Back Injured Workers.

    PubMed

    Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William S; Reguly, Paula; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Soklaridis, Sophie; Loisel, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Purpose Temporary job accommodations contribute to the prevention of chronic work disability due to low back pain (LBP) through the facilitation of early return to work; yet, workplace dimensions of job accommodation are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine supervisor and organizational factors associated with supervisors' support for temporary job accommodations for LBP injured workers. Methods Supervisors were recruited from 19 workplaces in the USA and Canada and completed an online survey regarding job accommodation practices and potential associated factors with respect to a case vignette of a worker with LBP. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify the most parsimonious set of factors associated with supervisors' support for accommodations. Results A total of 804 supervisors participated with 796 eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The final set of factors explained 21 % of the variance in supervisors' support for temporary job accommodations. Considerate leadership style (β = 0.261; 95 % CI 0.212, 0.310), workplace disability management policies and practices (β = 0.243; 95 % CI 0.188, 0.298), and supervisor autonomy for designing and providing workplace accommodations (β = 0.156; 95 % CI 0.071, 0.241) had the largest effect on supervisor support for accommodations. Conclusion Factors predicting supervisors' likelihood to accommodate LBP injured workers include use of considerate leadership style, workplace disability management policies and practices, and supervisor autonomy. Workplace interventions targeting these factors should be developed and evaluated for their ability to improve work disability prevention outcomes.

  4. A systematic review of objective burn scar measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Chear; Dretzke, Janine; Grover, Liam; Logan, Ann; Moiemen, Naiem

    2016-01-01

    Problematic scarring remains a challenging aspect to address in the treatment of burns and can significantly affect the quality of life of the burn survivor. At present, there are few treatments available in the clinic to control adverse scarring, but experimental pharmacological anti-scarring strategies are now beginning to emerge. Their comparative success must be based on objective measurements of scarring, yet currently the clinical assessment of scars is not carried out systematically and is mostly based on subjective review of patients. However, several techniques and devices are being introduced that allow objective analysis of the burn scar. The aim of this article is to evaluate various objective measurement tools currently available and recommend a useful panel that is suitable for use in clinical trials of anti-scarring therapies. A systematic literature search was done using the Web of Science, PubMed and Cochrane databases. The identified devices were then classified and grouped according to the parameters they measured. The tools were then compared and assessed in terms of inter- and intra-rater reproducibility, ease of use and cost. After duplicates were removed, 5062 articles were obtained in the search. After further screening, 157 articles which utilised objective burn scar measurement systems or tools were obtained. The scar measurement devices can be broadly classified into those measuring colour, metric variables, texture, biomechanical properties and pathophysiological disturbances. Objective scar measurement tools allow the accurate and reproducible evaluation of scars, which is important for both clinical and scientific use. However, studies to evaluate their relative performance and merits of these tools are scarce, and there remain factors, such as itch and pain, which cannot be measured objectively. On reviewing the available evidence, a panel of devices for objective scar measurement is recommended consisting of the 3D cameras (Eykona

  5. Reducing the lag of accommodation by auditory biofeedback: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Sandra; Ohlendorf, Arne; Schaeffel, Frank; Wahl, Siegfried

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a reduction of the accommodative lag is possible by training the accuracy of accommodation using auditory biofeedback. Accommodation responses were measured in thirty-one young adults with myopia for dioptric target distances of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0D using an eccentric infrared photorefractor. For the biofeedback training, subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=15) or a control group (n=16). Subjects of the experimental group were provided with two tones while fixating a target, one tone was related to their accommodative response and the second to the target distance. Their task was to match these tones. The control group did not receive any auditory biofeedback. Two different training methods were applied, a continuous training of 200s, and ten consecutive sessions of 20s each. The training effects on the lag of accommodation (change Δ) were highly variable. Regarding the entire study group, the observed change in the accommodative lag was greater at closer distances, while no difference between the two training methods was revealed. Nevertheless, seven experimental subjects reduced their lag by ⩾0.3D (3.0D target distance: Δ long =-0.29±0.20D, Δ short =-0.24±0.21D). This reduction was also seen in two control subjects. Remeasurement revealed that the average training effect cannot be preserved over a period of 5-7days. The current investigation has shown that the accuracy of accommodation can be trained in some subjects using auditory biofeedback for target distances of 2.5D or closer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging and full-length biometry of the eye during accommodation using spectral domain OCT with an optical switch

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Marco; Uhlhorn, Stephen R.; De Freitas, Carolina; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: An optical switch was implemented in the reference arm of an extended depth SD-OCT system to sequentially acquire OCT images at different depths into the eye ranging from the cornea to the retina. A custom-made accommodation module was coupled with the delivery of the OCT system to provide controlled step stimuli of accommodation and disaccommodation that preserve ocular alignment. The changes in the lens shape were imaged and ocular distances were dynamically measured during accommodation and disaccommodation. The system is capable of dynamic in vivo imaging of the entire anterior segment and eye-length measurement during accommodation in real-time. PMID:22808424

  7. Effect of visual target blurring on accommodation under distance viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Yo; Handa, Tomoya; Ishikawa, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    Abstract Purpose To examine the effect of visual target blurring on accommodation. Methods We evaluated the objective refraction values when the visual target (asterisk; 8°) was changed from the state without Gaussian blur (15 s) to the state with Gaussian blur adapted [0(without blur) → 10, 0 → 50, 0 → 100: 15 s each]. Results In Gaussian blur 10, when blurring of the target occurred, refraction value did not change significantly. In Gaussian blur 50 and 100, when blurring of the target occurred, the refraction value became significantly myopic. Conclusion Blurring of the distant visual target results in intervention of accommodation.

  8. Usage of CISS and Conlon surveys in eye accommodation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panke, Karola; Svede, Aiga; Jaschinski, Wolfgang; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-08-01

    To date, there is no assessment of more than one survey used for a clinical research study that address subjects with and without symptoms related to accommodative or binocular vision disorders. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate two different surveys - CISS and Conlon for the same subject group and analyse also critical visual function parameters. Monocular and binocular accommodative response for 20 subjects was measured for dominant eye with openfield infrared autorefractometer (Shin-Nippon SRW-5000) at three distances (24 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). Subjects were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic group using cut off score 21 for CISS and 20 for Conlon survey. We found positive exponential growth relationship between CISS and Conlon scores (R² = 0.7), but separation between symptomatic and asymptomatic group differed significantly depending on which survey was used. We found positive correlation between Conlon score and exophoria at 30 cm (r=0.41, p=0.01) and 24 cm (r=0.27, p=0.03). Relationship between subjective symptoms and following clinical parameters - accommodation lag (r < 0.2, p < 0.05), positive relative accommodation (r < 0.15, p < 0.05) and convergence near point (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) were not significant. Our results confirmed that using different subjective symptom surveys can provide different results within the same subject group, therefore we recommend to use surveys as a part of case history and tool to measure patient satisfaction and results of treatment effectiveness instead of using them for clinical trials as a criteria to divide symptomatic and asymptomatic group.

  9. Surface accommodation of molecular contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Philip T.; Hedgeland, Randy J.; Thomson, Shaun R.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical consideration and supporting data are presented regarding the nature of the transport mechanisms which cause the adsorption of gases on spacecraft surfaces. Particular attention is given to the concept of a sticking coefficient which is the ratio of the thermally accommodated mass to the total incident mass. Existing molecular accommodation data are examined in terms of spacecraft applications and recent contamination-control data are introduced. Two distinct yet linked concepts emerge which are the accommodation and sticking coefficients, and surface roughness contributes significantly to both coefficients. A general equation regarding the coefficients is developed, and the data are found to fit the equation basically. It is concluded that a more precise characterization of the coefficients can be obtained through experimentation under simulated spacecraft conditions.

  10. An Improved Suite of Object Oriented Software Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In the pursuit of ever increasing productivity, the need to be able to measure specific aspects of software is generally agreed upon. As object oriented programming languages are becoming more and more widely used, metrics specifically designed for object oriented software are required. In recent years there has been an explosion of new, object oriented software metrics proposed in the literature. Unfortunately, many or most of these proposed metrics have not been validated to measure what they claim to measure. In fact, an analysis of many of these metrics shows that they do not satisfy basic properties of measurement theory, and thus their application has to be suspect. In this paper ten improved metrics are proposed and are validated using measurement theory.

  11. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  12. Effects of longitudinal chromatic aberration on accommodation and emmetropization.

    PubMed

    Seidemann, Anne; Schaeffel, Frank

    2002-09-01

    Less accommodation was found when human subjects read in blue (peak at about 440 nm) than when they read in red light (above 600 nm; [Kroger & Binder, British Journal of Ophthalmology 84 (2000) 890]). On the other hand, emmetropization in chickens did not appear to compensate for the chromatic defocus (385 nm versus 665 nm; [Rohrer, Schaeffel & Zrenner, Journal of Physiology 449 (1992) 363]). The apparently contradictory result was studied in more detail in humans and chickens. Accommodation was measured with an eccentric infrared photorefractor, the PowerRefractor, in human subjects reading under quasi-monochromatic illumination conditions. Chickens were refracted in quasi-monochromatic ambient illumination but with no particular fixation target. In a second experiment, they were also raised in monochromatic light for two days and subsequently refracted both in complete darkness, in monochromatic light, and in white light, both without and with cycloplegia. Consistent with the initial report by Kroger and Binder [British Journal of Ophthalmology 84 (2000) 890], accommodation in human subjects was found to shift in accordance with the chromatic aberration function. An immediate shift in accommodation tonus was also found in the chickens when they were refracted under red and in blue ambient illumination (average difference between refractions in both conditions: 1.26+/-0.54 D, p<0.001 paired t-test). This value is close to the chromatic focus difference between the two wavelengths (1.5 D [Mandelman & Sivak, Vision Research 23 (1983) 1555]). When chickens were raised in blue or red light for two days, and their refractions were subsequently measured in complete darkness, they showed also a difference in refractions (1.41+/-1.00 D; ANOVA: p<0.0012, post hoc t-test: at least p<0.05 among different groups). This difference was no longer significant when they were refracted in white light but became again significant when they were cyclopleged (0.57+/-0.58 D, p=0

  13. The effect of longitudinal chromatic aberration on the lag of accommodation and depth of field.

    PubMed

    Jaskulski, Mateusz; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; López-Gil, Norberto

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal chromatic aberration is present in all states of accommodation and may play a role in the accommodation response and the emmetropisation process. We study the change of the depth of field (DOFi) with the state of accommodation, taking into account the longitudinal chromatic aberration. Subjective DOFi was defined as the range of defocus beyond which the blur of the target (one line of optotypes of 0.1 logMAR shown on a black-and-white microdisplay, seen through different colour filters) was perceived as objectionable. The subject's eye was paralysed and different, previously-measured accommodative states (corresponding to the accommodative demands of 0D, 2D and 4D) were simulated with a deformable mirror. Different colour conditions (monochromatic red, green and blue and polychromatic (white) were tested. The DOFi was measured subjectively, using a motorised Badal system. Taking as reference the average accommodative response for the white stimulus, the blue response exhibits on average a lead of 0.45 ± 0.09D, the green a negligible lead of 0.07 ± 0.02D and red a lag of 0.49 ± 0.10D. The monochromatic DOFi, calculated by averaging DOFi over the red, green and blue colour conditions for each accommodative demand was 1.10 ± 0.10D for 0D, 1.20 ± 0.08D for 2D, and 1.26 ± 0.40D for 4D. The polychromatic white DOFi were greater than the average monochromatic DOFi by 19%, 9% and 14% for 0D, 2D, and 4D of accommodative demand, respectively. The longitudinal chromatic aberration causes a dioptric shift of the monochromatic accommodation response. The study did not reveal this shift to depend on the accommodative demand or to have an effect on the DOFi. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  14. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant... cooperative agreement to manage and operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical...

  15. Proposed method to estimate the liquid-vapor accommodation coefficient based on experimental sonoluminescence data.

    PubMed

    Puente, Gabriela F; Bonetto, Fabián J

    2005-05-01

    We used the temporal evolution of the bubble radius in single-bubble sonoluminescence to estimate the water liquid-vapor accommodation coefficient. The rapid changes in the bubble radius that occur during the bubble collapse and rebounds are a function of the actual value of the accommodation coefficient. We selected bubble radius measurements obtained from two different experimental techniques in conjunction with a robust parameter estimation strategy and we obtained that for water at room temperature the mass accommodation coefficient is in the confidence interval [0.217,0.329].

  16. Educational Accommodations for Students with Behavioral Challenges: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; Bunford, Nora; Evans, Steven W.; Owens, Julie Sarno

    2013-01-01

    Educational policies mandate the consideration of accommodations so that students with disabilities become proficient in the objectives outlined by state academic content standards and demonstrate proficiency on high-stakes assessments. However, neither policies nor empirical research provide sufficient guidance for educators to effectively select…

  17. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia.

    PubMed

    Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.

  18. Correlates of accommodation of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder: parent, child, and family characteristics.

    PubMed

    Peris, Tara S; Bergman, R Lindsey; Langley, Audra; Chang, Susanna; McCracken, James T; Piacentini, John

    2008-10-01

    Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic, impairing condition associated with high levels of family accommodation (i.e., participation in symptoms). Understanding of factors that may engender accommodation of pediatric OCD is limited. This study conducted exploratory analyses of parent-, child-, and family-level correlates of family accommodation, considering both behavioral and affective components of the response. The sample included 65 youths (mean age 12.3 years, 62% male) with OCD and their parents who completed a standardized assessment battery composed of both clinical and self-report measures (e.g., Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Brief Symptom Inventory). Family accommodation was common, with the provision of reassurance and participation in rituals the most frequent practices (occurring on a daily basis among 56% and 46% of parents, respectively). Total scores on the Family Accommodation Scale were not associated with child OCD symptom severity; however, parental involvement in rituals was associated with higher levels of child OCD severity and parental psychopathology and with lower levels of family organization. Comorbid externalizing symptomatology and family conflict were associated with parent report of worse consequences when not accommodating. Although these findings must be interpreted in light of potential type I error, they suggest that accommodation is the norm in pediatric OCD. Family-focused interventions must consider the parent, child, and family-level variables associated with this familial response when teaching disengagement strategies.

  19. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped... facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons; and (2) Job...

  20. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped... facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons; and (2) Job...

  1. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped... facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons; and (2) Job...

  2. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped... facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons; and (2) Job...

  3. Accommodation of missing shear strain in the Central Walker Lane, western North America: Constraints from dense GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Jayne M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    We present 264 new interseismic GPS velocities from the Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) and continuous GPS networks that measure Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation in the Central Walker Lane. Relative to a North America-fixed reference frame, northwestward velocities increase smoothly from ∼4 mm/yr in the Basin and Range province to 12.2 mm/yr in the central Sierra Nevada resulting in a Central Walker Lane deformation budget of ∼8 mm/yr. We use an elastic block model to estimate fault slip and block rotation rates and patterns of deformation from the GPS velocities. Right-lateral shear is distributed throughout the Central Walker Lane with strike-slip rates generally <1.5 mm/yr predicted by the block model, but extension rates are highest near north-striking normal faults found along the Sierra Nevada frontal fault system and in a left-stepping, en-echelon series of asymmetric basins that extend from Walker Lake to Lake Tahoe. Neotectonic studies in the western Central Walker Lane find little evidence of strike-slip or oblique faulting in the asymmetric basins, prompting the suggestion that dextral deformation in this region is accommodated through clockwise block rotations. We test this hypothesis and show that a model relying solely on the combination of clockwise block rotations and normal faulting to accommodate dextral transtensional strain accumulation systematically misfits the GPS data in comparison with our preferred model. This suggests that some component of oblique or partitioned right-lateral fault slip is needed to accommodate shear in the asymmetric basins of the western Central Walker Lane. Present-day clockwise vertical axis rotation rates in the Bodie Hills, Carson Domain, and Mina Deflection are between 1-4°/Myr, lower than published paleomagnetic rotation rates, suggesting that block rotation rates have decreased since the Late to Middle Miocene.

  4. Peripheral Defocus of the Monkey Crystalline Lens With Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher

    PubMed Central

    Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Manns, Fabrice; Ruggeri, Marco; Ho, Arthur; Gonzalez, Alex; Rowaan, Cor; Bernal, Andres; Arrieta, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the peripheral defocus of the monkey crystalline lens and its changes with accommodation. Methods Experiments were performed on 15 lenses from 11 cynomolgus monkey eyes (age: 3.8–12.4 years, postmortem time: 33.5 ± 15.3 hours). The tissue was mounted in a motorized lens stretcher to allow for measurements of the lens in the accommodated (unstretched) and unaccommodated (stretched) states. A custom-built combined laser ray tracing and optical coherence tomography system was used to measure the paraxial on-axis and off-axis lens power for delivery angles ranging from −20° to +20° (in air). For each delivery angle, peripheral defocus was quantified as the difference between paraxial off-axis and on-axis power. The peripheral defocus of the lens was compared in the unstretched and stretched states. Results On average, the paraxial on-axis lens power was 52.0 ± 3.4 D in the unstretched state and 32.5 ± 5.1 D in the stretched state. In both states, the lens power increased with increasing delivery angle. From 0° to +20°, the relative peripheral lens power increased by 10.7 ± 1.4 D in the unstretched state and 7.5 ± 1.6 D in the stretched state. The change in field curvature with accommodation was statistically significant (P < 0.001), indicating that the unstretched (accommodated) lens has greater curvature or relative peripheral power. Conclusions The cynomolgus monkey lens has significant accommodation-dependent curvature of field, which suggests that the lens asserts a significant contribution to the peripheral optical performance of the eye that also varies with the state of accommodation.

  5. Variation of axial and oblique astigmatism with accommodation across the visual field

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Thibos, Larry N.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated the impact of accommodation on axial and oblique astigmatism along 12 meridians of the central 30° of visual field and explored the compensation of corneal first-surface astigmatism by the remainder of the eye's optical system. Our experimental evidence revealed no systematic effect of accommodation on either axial or oblique astigmatism for two adult populations (myopic and emmetropic eyes). Although a few subjects exhibited systematic changes in axial astigmatism during accommodation, the dioptric value of these changes was much smaller than the amount of accommodation. For most subjects, axial and oblique astigmatism of the whole eye are both less than for the cornea alone, which indicates a compensatory role for internal optics at all accommodative states in both central and peripheral vision. A new method for determining the eye's optical axis based on visual field maps of oblique astigmatism revealed that, on average, the optical axis is 4.8° temporal and 0.39° superior to the foveal line-of-sight in object space, which agrees with previous results obtained by different methodologies and implies that foveal astigmatism includes a small amount of oblique astigmatism (0.06 D on average). Customized optical models of each eye revealed that oblique astigmatism of the corneal first surface is negligible along the pupillary axis for emmetropic and myopic eyes. Individual variation in the eye's optical axis is due in part to misalignment of the corneal and internal components that is consistent with tilting of the crystalline lens relative to the pupillary axis. PMID:28362902

  6. Misalignment Accommodating Connector Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stemper, Jack S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Misalignment accommodating connector assembly for removably connecting first and second objects which may comprise: a first connector subassembly having an arm member extending therefrom transversely through which is provided a tubular member; a second connector subassembly having a pair of spaced apart arm members each of which is provided with a transversely disposed coaxially aligned semi-cylindrical recess for receiving opposite ends of the first connector tubular member upon lateral insertion of the first connector arm member into the space between the second connector pair of arm members. An axially extendable and contractible fastener subassembly carried by the first connector tubular member is extendable to allow insertion or removal of the first connector arm member into or from the space between the second connector pair of arm members and contractible when the opposite ends of the tubular member are substantially received by the semi-cylindrical recesses of the pair of spaced apart arm members to lock the first and second connector subassemblies together.

  7. First ultraviolet reflectance measurements of several Kuiper Belt objects, Kuiper Belt object satellites, and new ultraviolet measurements of A Centaur

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stern, S. A.; Schindhelm, E.; Cunningham, N. J., E-mail: astern@swri.edu

    We observed the 2600-3200 Å (hereafter, mid-UV) reflectance of two Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), two KBO satellites, and a Centaur, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Other than measurements of the Pluto system, these constitute the first UV measurements obtained of KBOs, and KBO satellites, and new HST UV measurements of the Centaur 2060 Chiron. We find significant differences among these objects, constrain the sizes and densities of Haumea's satellites, and report the detection of a possible spectral absorption band in Haumea's spectrum near 3050 Å. Comparisons of these objects to previously published UV reflectance measurementsmore » of Pluto and Charon are also made here.« less

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of aging, accommodating, phakic, and pseudophakic ciliary muscle diameters

    PubMed Central

    Strenk, Susan A.; Strenk, Lawrence M.; Guo, Suqin

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE To quantify in vivo accommodative changes in the aging human ciliary muscle diameter in phakic and pseudophakic eyes. SETTING Department of Surgery/Bioengineering, UMDNJ–Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, and the Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science UMDNJ–New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, USA. METHODS Images were acquired from 48 eyes of 40 people between the ages of 22 and 91 years, 1 eye of 32 phakic volunteers and both eyes of 8 patients who had monocular implantation of a single-piece AcrySof intraocular lens (IOL) (Alcon Laboratories). Images were acquired during physiological accommodation and with accommodation at rest, and the diameter of the ciliary muscle ring was measured. RESULTS Results show the ciliary muscle remains active throughout life. The accommodative change in its diameter (mean 0.64 mm) (P<.00001) was undiminished by age or IOL implantation. Preliminary data showed that the accommodative decrease in muscle diameter in phakic and pseudophakic eyes was statistically identical. The phakic eyes had a marked decrease in ciliary muscle diameter with advancing age for both accommodative states (P<.000001 and P<.000001), which did not appear to be altered by IOL implantation. The lens equator was constant with age in the unaccommodated human eye, resulting in decreased circumlental space with advancing age in the phakic eyes. CONCLUSION Although the undiminished ability of the ciliary muscle to decrease its diameter with accommodation can be relied on in strategies for presbyopia correction, even in advanced presbyopia, the decreasing circumlental space and its potential effects on zonular tension must also be considered. PMID:17081859

  9. Cyclic esotropia with development of a high accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio after surgery for intermittent exotropia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Bingjie; Liu, Longqian

    2017-08-01

    To report a patient with cyclic esotropia with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio after surgical correction of intermittent exotropia who was found to have bilateral anomalous medial rectus muscle insertion sites. A 5-year-old girl developed intermittent esotropia on alternating days after undergoing bilateral lateral rectus recessions for correction of intermittent exotropia. Alternate prism and cover measurement of ocular alignment and binocular function was assessed on consecutive days. Surgical correction was performed for the full amount measured on a "crossed" day. On "straight" days, her eyes were orthotropic with normal binocular vision. Examination on "crossed" days revealed a left esotropia of 75 prism diopters (PD) at near fixation and 40 PD at distance fixation in primary gaze without fusion or stereopsis. The patient underwent bilateral medial rectus recessions in conjunction with posterior fixation sutures (MRP). During surgery, the distance from the limbus to the medial rectus muscle insertion was 3.5 mm bilaterally. Postoperatively, the cycle was broken, and the esotropia disappeared with no recurrence at the latest follow-up at 12 months. MRP is an effective procedure for correction of cyclic esotropia with a high AC/A ratio. Strabismus surgeons should design surgical strategies based on preoperative measurement of deviations at all distances and the anatomy of muscle insertions in patients with cyclic esotropia.

  10. Accommodation and the Visual Regulation of Refractive State in Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Troilo, David; Totonelly, Kristen; Harb, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of imposed anisometropic retinal defocus on accommodation, ocular growth, and refractive state changes in marmosets. Methods Marmosets were raised with extended-wear soft contact lenses for an average duration of 10 wks beginning at an average age of 76 d. Experimental animals wore either a positive or negative contact lens over one eye and a plano lens or no lens over the other. Another group wore binocular lenses of equal magnitude but opposite sign. Untreated marmosets served as controls and three wore plano lenses monocularly. Cycloplegic refractive state, corneal curvature, and vitreous chamber depth were measured before, during, and after the period of lens wear. To investigate the accommodative response, the effective refractive state was measured through each anisometropic condition at varying accommodative stimuli positions using an infrared refractometer. Results Eye growth and refractive state are significantly correlated with the sign and power of the contact lens worn. The eyes of marmosets reared with monocular negative power lenses had longer vitreous chambers and were myopic relative to contralateral control eyes (p<0.01). Monocular positive power lenses produced a significant reduction in vitreous chamber depth and hyperopia relative to the contralateral control eyes (p<0.05). In marmosets reared binocularly with lenses of opposite sign, we found larger interocular differences in vitreous chamber depths and refractive state (p<0.001). Accommodation influences the defocus experienced through the lenses, however, the mean effective refractive state was still hyperopia in the negative-lens-treated eyes and myopia in the positive-lens-treated eyes. Conclusions Imposed anisometropia effectively alters marmoset eye growth and refractive state to compensate for the imposed defocus. The response to imposed hyperopia is larger and faster than the response to imposed myopia. The pattern of accommodation under imposed

  11. Medical treatment of dementia patients at the end of life: can the law accommodate the personal identity and welfare problems?

    PubMed

    Lewis, Penney

    2006-09-01

    This article considers whether two significant philosophical objections to autonomy-based legal approaches to decision-making for incompetent individuals could be accommodated by the law. These philosophical objections are known as the personal identity and welfare problems. The article first sets out the autonomy-based approaches and their objections. Next, the present legal position is briefly canvassed in a comparative vein. Finally, the article suggests how the personal identity and welfare problems might be accommodated were legislators minded to do so, by proposing specific statutory amendments to the recent English legislation on advance decisions and evaluating their viability, particularly in light of the European Convention on Human Rights.

  12. Acceleration characteristics of human ocular accommodation.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shrikant R; Schor, Clifton M

    2005-01-01

    Position and velocity of accommodation are known to increase with stimulus magnitude, however, little is known about acceleration properties. We investigated three acceleration properties: peak acceleration, time-to-peak acceleration and total duration of acceleration to step changes in defocus. Peak velocity and total duration of acceleration increased with response magnitude. Peak acceleration and time-to-peak acceleration remained independent of response magnitude. Independent first-order and second-order dynamic components of accommodation demonstrate that neural control of accommodation has an initial open-loop component that is independent of response magnitude and a closed-loop component that increases with response magnitude.

  13. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  14. Human eyes do not need monochromatic aberrations for dynamic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Molina, Paula; Marín-Franch, Iván; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Esteve-Taboada, Jose J; López-Gil, Norberto; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-09-01

    To determine if human accommodation uses the eye's own monochromatic aberrations to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. Wavefront aberrations were measured while subjects monocularly viewed a monochromatic Maltese cross moving sinusoidally around 2D of accommodative demand with 1D amplitude at 0.2 Hz. The amplitude and phase (delay) of the accommodation response were compared to the actual vergence of the stimulus to obtain gain and temporal phase, calculated from wavefront aberrations recorded over time during experimental trials. The tested conditions were as follows: Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus (C); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and habitual second-order astigmatism (AS); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and odd higher-order aberrations (HOAs); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and even HOAs (E); Natural aberrations of the subject's eye, i.e., the adaptive-optics system only corrected the optical system's aberrations (N); Correction of all the subject's aberrations except defocus and fourth-order spherical aberration (SA). The correction was performed at 20 Hz and each condition was repeated six times in randomised order. Average gain (±2 standard errors of the mean) varied little across conditions; between 0.55 ± 0.06 (SA), and 0.62 ± 0.06 (AS). Average phase (±2 standard errors of the mean) also varied little; between 0.41 ± 0.02 s (E), and 0.47 ± 0.02 s (O). After Bonferroni correction, no statistically significant differences in gain or phase were found in the presence of specific monochromatic aberrations or in their absence. These results show that the eye's monochromatic aberrations are not necessary for accommodation to track dynamic accommodative stimuli. © 2017 The Authors. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of College of Optometrists.

  15. Appropriate Accommodations for Individual Needs Allowable by State Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Ashley Sokol

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation decisions should be based on the validity and accountability to provide the least restrictive accommodations for students with learning disabilities. Accommodations are based upon the allowable guidelines set by the Ohio Department of Education but the scribing accommodations do not meet the least restrictive criteria for many…

  16. The accommodation index measures the perturbation associated with insertions and deletions in coiled‐coils: Application to understand signaling in histidine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Nathan W.; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Coiled‐coils are essential components of many protein complexes. First discovered in structural proteins such as keratins, they have since been found to figure largely in the assembly and dynamics required for diverse functions, including membrane fusion, signal transduction and motors. Coiled‐coils have a characteristic repeating seven‐residue geometric and sequence motif, which is sometimes interrupted by the insertion of one or more residues. Such insertions are often highly conserved and critical to interdomain communication in signaling proteins such as bacterial histidine kinases. Here we develop the “accommodation index” as a parameter that allows automatic detection and classification of insertions based on the three dimensional structure of a protein. This method allows precise identification of the type of insertion and the “accommodation length” over which the insertion is structurally accommodated. A simple theory is presented that predicts the structural perturbations of 1, 3, 4 residue insertions as a function of the length over which the insertion is accommodated. Analysis of experimental structures is in good agreement with theory, and shows that short accommodation lengths give rise to greater perturbation of helix packing angles, changes in local helical phase, and increased structural asymmetry relative to long accommodation lengths. Cytoplasmic domains of histidine kinases in different signaling states display large changes in their accommodation lengths, which can now be seen to underlie diverse structural transitions including symmetry/asymmetry and local variations in helical phase that accompany signal transduction. PMID:27977891

  17. New EEOC guidance details responsibilities for job accommodation.

    PubMed

    1999-04-02

    The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) released new guidelines on how employers should accommodate the needs of workers with disabilities. Guidelines address using leave as an accommodation, the duty of offering reassignment as a form of reasonable accommodation, and an employer's cost of accommodation. Among the clarifications, the EEOC states that employers do not have to provide more paid leave than workers in similar situations receive. Employees must be qualified for reassignments, and the employer is not obligated to provide training for the new position. The EEOC disagrees with the Americans with Disabilities Act reasoning that employers should not be forced to accommodate if a cost-benefit analysis reveals undue hardship on the employer. Contact information is provided.

  18. Advanced detection, isolation, and accommodation of sensor failures in turbofan engines: Real-time microcomputer implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, John C.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation Program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines. For this purpose, an algorithm was developed which detects, isolates, and accommodates sensor failures by using analytical redundancy. The performance of this algorithm was evaluated on a real time engine simulation and was demonstrated on a full scale F100 turbofan engine. The real time implementation of the algorithm is described. The implementation used state-of-the-art microprocessor hardware and software, including parallel processing and high order language programming.

  19. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45-50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  20. 46 CFR 177.810 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Passenger Accommodations § 177.810 Overnight accommodations. (a) A... three high and must be constructed of wood, fiber reinforced plastic, or metal. A berth located more... construction and arrangement of berths and other furniture must allow free and unobstructed access to each...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the recipient can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to...

  2. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the recipient can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its... an accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity...

  3. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable... would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to be...

  4. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation... on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to be considered include: (1) The...

  5. Potential role for microfluctuations as a temporal directional cue to accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Metlapally, Sangeetha; Tong, Jianliang L.; Tahir, Humza J.; Schor, Clifton M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal was to revisit an important, yet unproven notion that accommodative microfluctuations facilitate the determination of direction (sign) of abrupt focus changes in the stimulus to accommodation. We contaminated the potential temporal cues from natural accommodative microfluctuations by presenting uncorrelated external (screen) temporal defocus noise that combined with the retinal image effects of natural microfluctuations. A polychromatic Maltese spoke pattern thus either modulated defocus at a combination of two temporal frequencies (on-screen noise condition) or was static (control condition). The on-screen conditions were combined with step changes in optical vergence that were randomized in direction and magnitude. Five subjects monocularly viewed stimuli through a Badal optical system in a Maxwellian view. An artificial 4-mm aperture was imaged at the entrance pupil of the eye. Wavefront aberrations were measured dynamically at 50 Hz using a custom Shack–Hartmann aberrometer. Dynamic changes in the Zernike defocus term with step changes in optical vergence were analyzed. We calculated the percentage of correct directional responses for 1, 2, and 3 D accommodative and disaccommodative step stimuli using preset criteria for latency, velocity, and persistence of the response. The on-screen noise condition reduced the percent-correct responses compared to the static stimulus, suggesting that this manipulation affected the detectability of the sign of the accommodative stimulus. Several possible reasons and implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27120075

  6. Development and psychometric properties of the client's assessment of treatment scale for supported accommodation (CAT-SA).

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sima; Killaspy, Helen; Krotofil, Joanna; McPherson, Peter; Harrison, Isobel; Dowling, Sarah; Arbuthnott, Maurice; Curtis, Sarah; King, Michael; Leavey, Gerard; Shepherd, Geoff; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-02-25

    Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are important for evaluating mental health services. Yet, no specific PROM exists for the large and diverse mental health supported accommodation sector. We aimed to produce and validate a PROM specifically for supported accommodation services, by adapting the Client's Assessment of Treatment Scale (CAT) and assessing its psychometric properties in a large sample. Focus groups with service users in the three main types of mental health supported accommodation services in the United Kingdom (residential care, supported housing and floating outreach) were conducted to adapt the contents of the original CAT items and assess the acceptability of the modified scale (CAT-SA). The CAT-SA was then administered in a survey to service users across England. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was tested through correlations with subjective quality of life and satisfaction with accommodation, as measured by the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). All seven original items of the CAT were regarded as relevant to appraisals of mental health supported accommodation services, with only slight modifications to the wording required. In the survey, data were obtained from 618 clients. The internal consistency of the CAT-SA items was 0.89. Mean CAT-SA scores were correlated with the specific accommodation item on the MANSA (r s  = 0.37, p ˂ .001). The content of the CAT-SA has relevance to service users living in mental health supported accommodation. The findings from our large survey show that the CAT-SA is acceptable across different types of supported accommodation and suggest good psychometric properties. The CAT-SA appears a valid and easy to use PROM for service users in mental health supported accommodation services.

  7. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  8. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  9. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  10. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  11. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to or...

  12. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... known physical or mental limitations of a handicapped applicant or employee if such accommodation would... that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to be considered...

  13. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and…

  14. Beyond Psychometric Evaluation of the Student--Task Determinants of Accommodation: Why Students with Learning Disabilities May Not Need to Be Accommodated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities obtain a wide range of recommended accommodations in secondary school, which they anticipate will continue into postsecondary education. Although the student's specific learning disability (SLD) contributes to the accommodation planning process, it is not the sole determinant of appropriate accommodation.…

  15. The role of interactions between accommodation and vergence in human visual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teel, Danielle F. W.

    Even in early infancy accommodation and vergence interact through neural coupling such that accommodation drives vergence (AC/A ratio) and vergence drives accommodation (CA/C ratio), to assist coordination and development of clear and single binocular vision. Infants have narrow inter-pupillary distances (IPD) requiring less vergence in angular units (degrees or prism diopters), and are typically hyperopic, requiring larger accommodative responses (diopters) than adults. The relative demands also change with emmetropization (decreasing hyperopia) and head growth (increasing IPD) over time. Therefore, adult-like couplings may not be optimal during development and the couplings may play a role in abnormality such as esotropia. A range of cues can drive accommodation and vergence. In addition to blur and disparity, proximity in the form of looming, size and perceived distance has been shown to influence the interactions between accommodation and vergence in adults. The role of this cue in measures of coupling is also poorly understood and may impact key clinical AC/A estimates in young children. Utilizing principles of eccentric photorefraction and Purkinje image eye tracking, this research examines the AC/A and CA/C ratios in infants, preschoolers and adults as a function of age, refractive error and interpupillary distance, plus the role proximity, specifically looming and size cues, plays in estimating the AC/A ratio in three year olds and adults. The AC/A (PD/D) was significantly higher in adults than three-year-olds or infants but similar across age groups in MA/D units. The CA/C was higher in infants than adults or three-year-olds (D/MA and D/PD). Although, not fully reciprocally related, a significant negative relationship was found between the response AC/A and CA/C. Similarly, higher AC/As (PD/D) and lower CA/Cs (D/PD) were associated with larger IPDs and less hyperopia. Although, not statistically significant the absence of proximity resulted in a trend

  16. Convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in patients with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Fumitaka; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio in strabismic patients and to clarify its clinical implications. Seventy-eight consecutive patients (mean age: 12.9 +/- 6.0 years) with intermittent exotropia and decompensated exophoria who showed binocular fusion at least at near viewing were recruited. The CA/C ratio was estimated by measuring accommodative responses induced by horizontal prisms with different magnitudes under accommodation feedback open-loop conditions. The CA/C ratios were compared with accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios and other clinical parameters. A linear regression analysis indicated that the mean (+/-SD) CA/C ratio was 0.080 +/- 0.043 D/prism diopter or 0.48 +/- 0.26 D/meter angle. There was no inverse or reciprocal relationship between CA/C and AC/A ratios. The patients with lower CA/C ratios tended to have smaller tonic accommodation under binocular viewing conditions and larger exodeviation at near viewing. The CA/C ratio, like the AC/A ratio, is an independent parameter that characterizes clinical features. A lower CA/C may be beneficial for the vergence control system to compensate for ocular misalignment with minimum degradation of accommodation accuracy.

  17. Job Accommodation System: Project TIE (Technology in Employment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary; Zimbrich, Karen; Butterworth, John; Hart, Debra

    This manual presents a comprehensive evaluation tool that can be used by employees with disabilities, by rehabilitation practitioners, and by consultants to develop job accommodations in a variety of employment settings. The Job Accommodation System is designed to help in identifying, selecting, and implementing job accommodations and consists of…

  18. Accommodation Responds to Optical Vergence and Not Defocus Blur Alone.

    PubMed

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Esteve-Taboada, José J; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between -1 and +1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D. Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (±SD) gain for the vergence-driven condition was 0.50 (±0.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (±0.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain <0.08. Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blur-driven condition gain (P = 0.004). Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.

  19. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  20. Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L.; Carver, W.; VanDeZande, J.; Lazarus, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers' "Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities" was first developed to establish guidelines for states to use for the selection, administration, and evaluation of accommodations for…

  1. Lenticular accommodation in relation to ametropia: the chick model.

    PubMed

    Choh, Vivian; Sivak, Jacob G

    2005-03-04

    Our goal was to determine whether experimentally induced ametropias have an effect on lenticular accommodation and spherical aberration. Form-deprivation myopia and hyperopia were induced in one eye of hatchling chicks by application of a translucent goggle and +15 D lens, respectively. After 7 days, eyes were enucleated and lenses were optically scanned prior to accommodation, during accommodation, and after accommodation. Accommodation was induced by electrical stimulation of the ciliary nerve. Lenticular focal lengths for form-deprived eyes were significantly shorter than for their controls and accommodation-associated changes in focal length were significantly smaller in myopic eyes compared to their controls. For eyes imposed with +15 D blur, focal lengths were longer than those for their controls and accommodative changes were greater. Spherical aberration of the lens increased with accommodation in both form-deprived and lens-treated birds, but induction of ametropia had no effect on lenticular spherical aberration in general. Nonmonotonicity from lenticular spherical aberration increased during accommodation but effects of refractive error were equivocal. The crystalline lens contributes to refractive error changes of the eye both in the case of myopia and hyperopia. These changes are likely attributable to global changes in the size and shape of the eye.

  2. Planning and the "Measurable Objective."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald H.

    1973-01-01

    Accountability is being required of all America's institutions of higher education. Gallaudet College, an institution for the deaf in Washington, D.C., feels it has found a solution to the accountability problem in the use of "measurable objectives" in its program planning. The first phase from January 1 through June 30, 1972 of…

  3. ADHD symptoms and benefit from extended time testing accommodations.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Benjamin J; Leja, Ashley M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms, executive functioning problems, and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. College students completed a battery of measures assessing processing speed and reading fluency, reading comprehension (under two different time limits), symptoms of ADHD, executive functioning deficits, and perceptions of need for extended time. Students reporting more symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning deficits actually benefited less from extended time, and students' perceptions of their timing needs did not predict benefit. Students with more ADHD symptoms are less likely to use extended time effectively, possibly because of their associated executive functioning problems. These results suggest there may be little justification for examining a student's ADHD symptoms when making extended time accommodation decisions. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  4. The Effect of Child Distress on Accommodation of Anxiety: Relations With Maternal Beliefs, Empathy, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Settipani, Cara A; Kendall, Philip C

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of child behaviors on accommodation of anxiety and how accommodation relates to other parent factors. The present study examined the comparative effect of high and low levels of child distress on mother-reported accommodation, mother factors in relation to accommodation, and moderators of the relation between accommodation and child distress. Maternal perceptions of accommodation were measured by vignettes depicting youth exhibiting high or low levels of distress in anxiety-provoking situations that elicited social anxiety, generalized anxiety, or separation anxiety in a sample of 7- to 17-year-old youth with anxiety disorders (N = 70, M = 11.66, 47.1% male). Findings indicated an effect of child distress on mother-reported accommodation of youth anxiety, such that mothers reported more overall accommodation under conditions of high child distress; situation-level analyses revealed this effect for social and generalized anxiety situations. Furthermore, an association was found between greater mother-reported accommodation and more negative beliefs about their child's experience of anxiety, which held across situations. Maternal empathy moderated the relation between overall accommodation and child distress. Maternal anxiety also moderated the relation between accommodation and child distress, with results varying based on situation type. Findings, consistent with theory, indicate a relation between child distress and mother-reported accommodation and suggest that maternal beliefs about anxiety are an important treatment target. High maternal empathy may be related to a greater degree of adaptability in response to child behaviors, whereas maternal anxiety may be linked with less adaptive responses to child behaviors.

  5. Accommodation and vergence response gains to different near cues characterize specific esotropias.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2013-09-01

    To describe preliminary findings of how the profile of the use of blur, disparity, and proximal cues varies between non-strabismic groups and those with different types of esotropia. This was a case control study. A remote haploscopic photorefractor measured simultaneous convergence and accommodation to a range of targets containing all combinations of binocular disparity, blur, and proximal (looming) cues. Thirteen constant esotropes, 16 fully accommodative esotropes, and 8 convergence excess esotropes were compared with age- and refractive error-matched controls and 27 young adult emmetropic controls. All wore full refractive correction if not emmetropic. Response AC/A and CA/C ratios were also assessed. Cue use differed between the groups. Even esotropes with constant suppression and no binocular vision (BV) responded to disparity in cues. The constant esotropes with weak BV showed trends for more stable responses and better vergence and accommodation than those without any BV. The accommodative esotropes made less use of disparity cues to drive accommodation (p = 0.04) and more use of blur to drive vergence (p = 0.008) than controls. All esotropic groups failed to show the strong bias for better responses to disparity cues found in the controls, with convergence excess esotropes favoring blur cues. AC/A and CA/C ratios existed in an inverse relationship in the different groups. Accommodative lag of > 1.0 D at 33 cm was common (46%) in the pooled esotropia groups compared with 11% in typical children (p = 0.05). Esotropic children use near cues differently from matched non-esotropic children in ways characteristic to their deviations. Relatively higher weighting for blur cues was found in accommodative esotropia compared to matched controls.

  6. Accommodation and vergence response gains to different near cues characterize specific esotropias

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Aim To describe preliminary findings of how the profile of the use of blur, disparity and proximal cues varies between non-strabismic groups and those with different types of esotropia. Design Case control study Methodology A remote haploscopic photorefractor measured simultaneous convergence and accommodation to a range of targets containing all combinations of binocular disparity, blur and proximal (looming) cues. 13 constant esotropes, 16 fully accommodative esotropes, and 8 convergence excess esotropes were compared with age and refractive error matched controls, and 27 young adult emmetropic controls. All wore full refractive correction if not emmetropic. Response AC/A and CA/C ratios were also assessed. Results Cue use differed between the groups. Even esotropes with constant suppression and no binocular vision (BV) responded to disparity in cues. The constant esotropes with weak BV showed trends for more stable responses and better vergence and accommodation than those without any BV. The accommodative esotropes made less use of disparity cues to drive accommodation (p=0.04) and more use of blur to drive vergence (p=0.008) than controls. All esotropic groups failed to show the strong bias for better responses to disparity cues found in the controls, with convergence excess esotropes favoring blur cues. AC/A and CA/C ratios existed in an inverse relationship in the different groups. Accommodative lag of >1.0D at 33cm was common (46%) in the pooled esotropia groups compared with 11% in typical children (p=0.05). Conclusion Esotropic children use near cues differently from matched non-esotropic children in ways characteristic to their deviations. Relatively higher weighting for blur cues was found in accommodative esotropia compared to matched controls. PMID:23978142

  7. The Assignment of Scale to Object-Oriented Software Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.; Weistroffer, H. Roland; Coppins, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve productivity (and quality), measurement of specific aspects of software has become imperative. As object oriented programming languages have become more widely used, metrics designed specifically for object-oriented software are required. Recently a large number of new metrics for object- oriented software has appeared in the literature. Unfortunately, many of these proposed metrics have not been validated to measure what they purport to measure. In this paper fifty (50) of these metrics are analyzed.

  8. The Relationship Between High-Order Aberration and Anterior Ocular Biometry During Accommodation in Young Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Bilian; Mao, Xinjie; Jiang, Hong; He, Jichang; Liu, Che; Li, Min; Yuan, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the anterior ocular anatomic origin of high-order aberration (HOA) components using optical coherence tomography and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Methods A customized system was built to simultaneously capture images of ocular wavefront aberrations and anterior ocular biometry. Relaxed, 2-diopter (D) and 4-D accommodative states were repeatedly measured in 30 young subjects. Custom software was used to correct optical distortions and measure biometric parameters from the images. Results The anterior ocular biometry changed during 2-D accommodation, in which central lens thickness, ciliary muscle thicknesses at 1 mm posterior to the scleral spur (CMT1), and the maximum value of ciliary muscle thickness increased significantly, whereas anterior chamber depth, CMT3, radius of anterior lens surface curvature (RAL), and radius of posterior lens surface curvature (RPL) decreased significantly. The changes in the anterior ocular parameters during 4-D accommodation were similar to those for the 2-D accommodation. \\begin{document}\

  9. Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station: ISS accommodation study

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wefel, John P.

    1999-01-22

    ACCESS--Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station--was selected as a new Mission Concept under NRA 96-OSS-03, with the goal of combining calorimeter and transition radiation techniques to provide measurements of cosmic rays from Hydrogen through Nickel up to energies approaching the 'knee' in the cosmic ray all particle spectrum, plus providing measurements of the Z>28 (Ultra-Heavy) nuclei at all energies. An instrument to perform such an investigation is undergoing an ISS/STS Accommodation Study at JSC. The instrument concept, the mission plan, and the accommodation issues for an ISS attached payload which include, in part, the carrier, ISS Site, thermal control,more » power, data and operations are described and the current status of these issues, for an ACCESS Mission, is summarized.« less

  10. Effect of vergence adaptation on convergence-accommodation: model simulations.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2009-10-01

    Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.

  11. Proximal and Overall Gastric Emptying of Solids in Patients with Reduced Gastric Volume Accommodation Compared to Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Breen, Mary; Ryks, Michael; Burton, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions such as gastric surgery and erythromycin result in displacement of solids to the distal stomach and acceleration of overall and proximal gastric emptying. The effect of non-surgical impairment of gastric accommodation on gastric emptying is unclear. Non-surgical impairment of gastric accommodation is associated with accelerated gastric emptying. Aim To compare measurements of proximal and overall gastric emptying in patients with reduced postprandial gastric volume accommodation with the emptying rates in age- and gender-matched controls with normal postprandial gastric volume accommodation. Methods We evaluated overall and proximal gastric emptying in 9 patients with impaired gastric accommodation and age-equivalent and gender-matched controls. Gastric volumes and emptying were measured using validated SPECT and dual gamma camera scintigraphy respectively. We compared group differences in overall and proximal gastric emptying t1/2 by t test. Results Patients with impaired postprandial gastric volume accommodation had greater fasting gastric volume. The proportion of food emptied from the proximal stomach immediately after meal ingestion was lower and t1/2of proximal gastric emptying correspondingly longer in the group with reduced postprandial gastric accommodation. In contrast, differences were not detected in overall gastric emptying in the two groups, and the ratio of overall to proximal gastric emptying t1/2was greater in the group with impaired volume accommodation. Conclusions Proximal stomach emptying is reduced in patients with impaired postprandial volume accommodation; this difference occurs predominantly during the time of meal ingestion. Compensatory mechanisms that result in normal overall gastric emptying require further elucidation. PMID:21327917

  12. Framing Appropriate Accommodations in Terms of Individual Need: Examining the Fit of Four Approaches to Selecting Test Accommodations of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koran, Jennifer; Kopriva, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Providing appropriate test accommodations to most English language learners (ELLs) is important to facilitate meaningful inferences about learning. This study compared teacher large-scale test accommodation recommendations to those from a literature- and practitioner-grounded accommodation selection taxonomy. The taxonomy links student-specific…

  13. Inter-individual variability in the dynamics of natural accommodation in humans: relation to age and refractive errors.

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffel, F; Wilhelm, H; Zrenner, E

    1993-01-01

    1. To study the relationship between accommodation under natural viewing conditions, age and refractive errors, we have measured time courses of accommodation in thirty-nine human subjects aged 5-49 years using a newly developed technique. The technique is based on infrared photoretinoscopy and involves fully automated on-line image processing of digitized video images of the eyes with a sampling rate of 5.3 Hz. 2. The distance between the subject and the video camera was about 1.3 m. Head movements of the subject required little restriction because the eyes were automatically tracked in the video image by the computer program. All subjects were tested under binocular viewing conditions. 3. Both refraction of the right eye and pupil diameter were measured with a precision of 0.2-0.4 dioptres (D) and 0.1 mm, respectively, and were plotted on-line. The data were subsequently automatically analysed. 4. Automated infrared photoretinoscopy proved to be very convenient and easy to handle in both children and adults. 5. The maximal speed of accommodation for a target at a distance of 5 D declined in the subjects with age (from up to 21.7 D s-1 for accommodation and 32.7 D s-1 for subsequent accommodation to a distant target ('near to far accommodation') in children down to 2-18 D s-1 in adults). There was a striking inter-individual variability in the maximum possible speed of accommodation and near to far accommodation. 6. Speed of accommodation and of near to far accommodation was correlated for each subject. However, in most of the subjects, the process of near to far accommodation was faster than accommodation (P < 0.005, if averaged over all subjects). This correlation was independent of age. 7. The accommodation-induced pupillary constriction (pupillary near response) was absent in children for a 4 D target; even at 10 D, there was no reliable pupillary response. The pupillary near response increased to about 1.6 mm D-1 of accommodation at the age of 47. Since a

  14. Correlation between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Lekha Mary; Kuriakose, Thomas; Sivanandam, Viswanathan; Venkatesan, Nithya; Thomas, Ravi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between ocular parameters and amplitude of accommodation (AA) in the peri-presbyopic age group (35–50 years). Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of consecutive patients in the age group 35–50 years, who attended our outpatient clinic, were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 20/20, J1 in both eyes were included. The AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation. The axial length (AL), central anterior chamber depth (CACD) and lens thickness (LT) were also measured. Results: There was moderate correlation (Pearson’s correlation coefficient r = 0.56) between AL and AA as well as between CACD and AA (r = 0.53) in myopes in the age group 35–39 years. In the other age groups and the groups taken as a whole, there was no correlation. In hypermetropes and emmetropes, there was no correlation between AA and the above ocular parameters. No significant correlation existed between LT and AA across different age groups and refractive errors. Conclusion: There was no significant correlation between AA and ocular parameters like anterior chamber depth, AL and LT. PMID:20952831

  15. A Fuzzy Description Logic with Automatic Object Membership Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yi; Leung, Ho-Fung

    In this paper, we propose a fuzzy description logic named f om -DL by combining the classical view in cognitive psychology and fuzzy set theory. A formal mechanism used to determine object memberships automatically in concepts is also proposed, which is lacked in previous work fuzzy description logics. In this mechanism, object membership is based on the defining properties of concept definition and properties in object description. Moreover, while previous works cannot express the qualitative measurements of an object possessing a property, we introduce two kinds of properties named N-property and L-property, which are quantitative measurements and qualitative measurements of an object possessing a property respectively. The subsumption and implication of concepts and properties are also explored in our work. We believe that it is useful to the Semantic Web community for reasoning the fuzzy membership of objects for concepts in fuzzy ontologies.

  16. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  17. Objective and automated measurement of dynamic vision functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, M. C.; Adams, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    A phoria stimulus array and electro-oculographic (EOG) arrangements for measuring motor and sensory responses of subjects subjected to stress or drug conditions are described, along with experimental procedures. Heterophoria (as oculomotor function) and glare recovery time (time required for photochemical and neural recovery after exposure to a flash stimulus) are measured, in research aimed at developing automated objective measurement of dynamic vision functions. Onset of involuntary optokinetic nystagmus in subjects attempting to track moving stripes (while viewing through head-mounted binocular eyepieces) after exposure to glare serves as an objective measure of glare recovery time.

  18. What Works? Toward a New Classification System for Mental Health Supported Accommodation Services: The Simple Taxonomy for Supported Accommodation (STAX-SA)

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Peter; Krotofil, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Inconsistent terminology and variation in service models have made synthesis of the supported accommodation literature challenging. To overcome this, we developed a brief, categorical taxonomy that aimed to capture the defining features of different supported accommodation models: the simple taxonomy for supported accommodation (STAX-SA). Data from a previous review of existing classification systems were used to develop the taxonomy structure. After initial testing and amendments, the STAX-SA and an existing taxonomy were applied to 132 supported accommodation service descriptions drawn from two systematic reviews and their performance compared. To assess external validity, the STAX-SA was distributed to a sample of supported accommodation managers in England and they were asked to use it to classify their services. The final version of the STAX-SA comprised of five supported accommodation ‘types’, based on four domains; Staffing location; Level of support; Emphasis on move-on; and Physical setting. The STAX-SA accurately categorized 71.1% (n = 94) of service descriptions, outperforming the comparison tool, and was not affected by publication date or research design. The STAX-SA effectively discriminated between ‘real world’ service models in England and 53.2% (n = 17) of service managers indicated that the taxonomy was ‘Very effective’ or ‘Extremely effective’ in capturing key characteristics of their service. The STAX-SA is an effective tool for classifying supported accommodation models and represents a promising approach to synthesizing the extant effectiveness literature. The authors recommend the development of reporting guidelines for future supported accommodation publications to facilitate comparison between models. PMID:29364171

  19. What Works? Toward a New Classification System for Mental Health Supported Accommodation Services: The Simple Taxonomy for Supported Accommodation (STAX-SA).

    PubMed

    McPherson, Peter; Krotofil, Joanna; Killaspy, Helen

    2018-01-24

    Inconsistent terminology and variation in service models have made synthesis of the supported accommodation literature challenging. To overcome this, we developed a brief, categorical taxonomy that aimed to capture the defining features of different supported accommodation models: the simple taxonomy for supported accommodation (STAX-SA). Data from a previous review of existing classification systems were used to develop the taxonomy structure. After initial testing and amendments, the STAX-SA and an existing taxonomy were applied to 132 supported accommodation service descriptions drawn from two systematic reviews and their performance compared. To assess external validity, the STAX-SA was distributed to a sample of supported accommodation managers in England and they were asked to use it to classify their services. The final version of the STAX-SA comprised of five supported accommodation 'types', based on four domains; Staffing location ; Level of support ; Emphasis on move-on ; and Physical setting . The STAX-SA accurately categorized 71.1% ( n = 94) of service descriptions, outperforming the comparison tool, and was not affected by publication date or research design. The STAX-SA effectively discriminated between 'real world' service models in England and 53.2% ( n = 17) of service managers indicated that the taxonomy was ' Very effective ' or ' Extremely effective ' in capturing key characteristics of their service. The STAX-SA is an effective tool for classifying supported accommodation models and represents a promising approach to synthesizing the extant effectiveness literature. The authors recommend the development of reporting guidelines for future supported accommodation publications to facilitate comparison between models.

  20. Functional spasm of accommodation: Changes on scheimpflug imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sukhija, Jaspreet; Dogra, Mangat R.; Zadeng, Thara; Ram, Jagat

    2014-01-01

    Spasm of accommodation is a rare condition characterized by a sudden increase in myopia. It can occur in emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes. All the physiological changes that occur in normal accommodation are exaggerated. Mostly the cause is functional disorder and the condition gradually improves. We hereby present the changes occurring in spasm of accommodation as seen on Scheimpflug imaging. PMID:25378883

  1. [One-year longitudinal change in parameters of myopic school children trained by a new accommodative training device--uncorrected visual acuity, refraction, axial length, accommodation, and pupil reaction].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kumiko; Hara, Naoto; Kimijima, Masumi; Kotegawa, Yasue; Ohno, Koji; Arimoto, Ako; Mukuno, Kazuo; Hisahara, Satoru; Horie, Hidenori

    2012-10-01

    School children with myopia were trained using a visual stimulation device that generated an isolated blur stimulus on a visual target, with a constant retinal image size and constant brightness. Uncorrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, axial length, dynamic accommodation and papillary reaction were measured to investigate the effectiveness of the training. There were 45 school children with myopia without any other ophthalmic diseases. The mean age of the children was 8.9 +/- 2.0 years (age range; 6-16)and the mean refraction was -1.56 +/- 0.58 D (mean +/- standard deviation). As a visual stimulus, a white ring on a black background with a constant ratio of visual target size to retinal image size, irrespective of the distance, was displayed on a liquid crystal display (LCD), and the LCD was quickly moved from a proximal to a distal position to produce an isolated blur stimulus. Training with this visual stimulus was carried out in the relaxation phase of accommodation. Uncorrected visual acuity, cycloplegic refraction, axial length, dynamic accommodation and pupillary reaction were investigated before training and every 3 months during the training. Of the 45 subjects, 42 (93%) could be trained for 3 consecutive months, 33 (73%) for 6 months, 23 (51%) for 9 months, and 21 (47%) for 12 months. The mean refraction decreased by 0.83 +/- 0.56 D (mean +/- standard deviation) and the mean axial length increased by 0.47 +/- 0.16 mm at 1 year, showing that the training bad some effect in improving the visual acuity. In the tests of the dynamic accommodative responses, the latency of the accommodative-phase decreased from 0.4 +/- 0.2 sec to 0.3 +/- 0.1 sec at 1 year, the gain of the accommodative-phase improved from 69.0 +/- 27.0% to 93.3 +/- 13.4%, the maximum speed of the accommodative-phase increased from 5.1 +/- 2.2 D/sec to 6.8 +/- 2.2 D/sec and the gain of the relaxation-phase significantly improved from 52.1 +/- 26.0% to 72.7 +/- 13.7% (corresponding t

  2. Accommodating Adolescent Sleep-Wake Patterns: The Effects of Shifting the Timing of Sleep on Training Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P.; Shattuck, Lawrence G.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. Design: The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. Setting: The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. Trainees: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Measurements and Results: Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Conclusions: Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment. Citation: Miller NL; Tvaryanas AP; Shattuck LG. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness. SLEEP 2012;35(8):1123-1136. PMID:22851808

  3. Communication Accommodation between Chinese and Australian Students and Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallois, Cynthia; And Others

    A study tested paths predicted by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) in the context of interactions between 105 Chinese and 283 Anglo-Australian students and 98 academic staff in situations of potential conflict. Videotapes of student-lecturer interactions in which speakers accommodated, over-accommodated, or under-accommodated were rated by…

  4. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that provides...

  5. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  6. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  7. Change in peripheral refraction and curvature of field of the human eye with accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Arthur; Zimmermann, Frederik; Whatham, Andrew; Martinez, Aldo; Delgado, Stephanie; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Sankaridurg, Padmaja

    2009-02-01

    Recent research showed that the peripheral refractive state is a sufficient stimulus for myopia progression. This finding led to the suggestion that devices that control peripheral refraction may be efficacious in controlling myopia progression. This study aims to understand whether the optical effect of such devices may be affected by near focus. In particular, we seek to understand the influence of accommodation on peripheral refraction and curvature of field of the eye. Refraction was measured in twenty young subjects using an autorefractor at 0° (i.e. along visual axis), and 20°, 30° and 40° field angles both nasal and temporal to the visual axis. All measurements were conducted at 2.5 m, 40 cm and 30 cm viewing distances. Refractive errors were corrected using a soft contact lens during all measurements. As field angle increased, refraction became less hyperopic. Peripheral refraction also became less hyperopic at nearer viewing distances (i.e. with increasing accommodation). Astigmatism (J180) increased with field angle as well as with accommodation. Adopting a third-order aberration theory approach, the position of the Petzval surface relative to the retinal surface was estimated by considering the relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) and J180 terms of peripheral refraction. Results for the estimated dioptric position of the Petzval surface relative to the retina showed substantial asymmetry. While temporal field tended to agree with theoretical predictions, nasal response departed dramatically from the model eye predictions. With increasing accommodation, peripheral refraction becomes less hyperopic while the Petzval surface showed asymmetry in its change in position. The change in the optical components (i.e. cornea and/or lens as opposed to retinal shape or position) is implicated as at least one of the contributors of this shift in peripheral refraction during accommodation.

  8. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  9. Computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Daniel B

    2015-02-01

    To understand, demonstrate, and further research the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Private practice, Little Silver, New Jersey, USA. Experimental study. The CAMA 2.0 computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator using Autodesk Maya animation software and Adobe After Effects. The computer-animated model demonstrates the configuration and synchronous movements of all accommodative elements. A new classification of the zonular apparatus based on structure and function is proposed. There are 3 divisions of zonular fibers; that is, anterior, crossing, and posterior. The crossing zonular fibers form a scaffolding to support the lens; the anterior and posterior zonular fibers work reciprocally to achieve focused vision. The model demonstrates the important support function of Weiger ligament. Dynamic movement of the ora serrata demonstrates that the forces of ciliary muscle contraction store energy for disaccommodation in the elastic choroid. The flow of aqueous and vitreous provides strong evidence for our understanding of the hydrodynamic interactions during the accommodative cycle. The interaction may result from the elastic stretch in the choroid transmitted to the vitreous rather than from vitreous pressue. The model supports the concept that presbyopia results from loss of elasticity and increasing ocular rigidity in both the lenticular and extralenticular structures. The computer-animated model demonstrates the structures of accommodation moving in synchrony and might enhance understanding of the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Dr. Goldberg is a consultant to Acevision, Inc., and Bausch & Lomb. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modeling the Object-Oriented Space Through Validated Measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    In order to truly understand software and the software development process, software measurement must be better understood. A beginning step toward a better understanding of software measurement is the categorization of the measurements by some meaningful taxonomy. The most meaningful taxonomy would capture the basic nature of the subject oriented (O-O) space. The interesting characteristics of object oriented software offer a starting point for such a categorization of measures. A taxonomy has been developed based on fourteen characteristics of object-oriented software gathered from the literature This taxonomy allows us to easily see gaps and redundancies in the O-O measures. The taxonomy also clearly differentiates among taxa so that there is no ambiguity as to the taxon to which a measure belongs. The taxonomy has been populated with thirty-two measures that have been validated in the narrow sense of Fenton, using measurement theory with Zuse's augmentation.

  11. Influence of shape and gradient refractive index in the accommodative changes of spherical aberration in nonhuman primate crystalline lenses.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Alberto; Birkenfeld, Judith; Maceo, Bianca; Manns, Fabrice; Arrieta, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie; Marcos, Susana

    2013-09-11

    To estimate changes in surface shape and gradient refractive index (GRIN) profile in primate lenses as a function of accommodation. To quantify the contribution of surface shape and GRIN to spherical aberration changes with accommodation. Crystalline lenses from 15 cynomolgus monkeys were studied in vitro under different levels of accommodation produced by a stretching system. Lens shape was obtained from optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross-sectional images. The GRIN was reconstructed with a search algorithm using the optical path measured from OCT images and the measured back focal length. The spherical aberration of the lens was estimated as a function of accommodation using the reconstructed GRIN and a homogeneous refractive index. The lens anterior and posterior radii of curvature decreased with increasing lens power. Both surfaces exhibited negative asphericities in the unaccommodated state. The anterior surface conic constant shifted toward less negative values with accommodation, while the value of the posterior remained constant. GRIN parameters remained constant with accommodation. The lens spherical aberration with GRIN distribution was negative and higher in magnitude than that with a homogeneous equivalent refractive index (by 29% and 53% in the unaccommodated and fully accommodated states, respectively). Spherical aberration with the equivalent refractive index shifted with accommodation toward negative values (-0.070 μm/diopter [D]), but the reconstructed GRIN shifted it farther (-0.124 μm/D). When compared with the lens with the homogeneous equivalent refractive index, the reconstructed GRIN lens has more negative spherical aberration and a larger shift toward more negative values with accommodation.

  12. Influence of Shape and Gradient Refractive Index in the Accommodative Changes of Spherical Aberration in Nonhuman Primate Crystalline Lenses

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Alberto; Birkenfeld, Judith; Maceo, Bianca; Manns, Fabrice; Arrieta, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie; Marcos, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate changes in surface shape and gradient refractive index (GRIN) profile in primate lenses as a function of accommodation. To quantify the contribution of surface shape and GRIN to spherical aberration changes with accommodation. Methods. Crystalline lenses from 15 cynomolgus monkeys were studied in vitro under different levels of accommodation produced by a stretching system. Lens shape was obtained from optical coherence tomography (OCT) cross-sectional images. The GRIN was reconstructed with a search algorithm using the optical path measured from OCT images and the measured back focal length. The spherical aberration of the lens was estimated as a function of accommodation using the reconstructed GRIN and a homogeneous refractive index. Results. The lens anterior and posterior radii of curvature decreased with increasing lens power. Both surfaces exhibited negative asphericities in the unaccommodated state. The anterior surface conic constant shifted toward less negative values with accommodation, while the value of the posterior remained constant. GRIN parameters remained constant with accommodation. The lens spherical aberration with GRIN distribution was negative and higher in magnitude than that with a homogeneous equivalent refractive index (by 29% and 53% in the unaccommodated and fully accommodated states, respectively). Spherical aberration with the equivalent refractive index shifted with accommodation toward negative values (−0.070 μm/diopter [D]), but the reconstructed GRIN shifted it farther (−0.124 μm/D). Conclusions. When compared with the lens with the homogeneous equivalent refractive index, the reconstructed GRIN lens has more negative spherical aberration and a larger shift toward more negative values with accommodation. PMID:23927893

  13. A microcomputer system for on-line study of atrioventricular node accommodation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J R; Clemo, H F; Belardinelli, L

    1987-11-01

    An automated on-line programmable stimulator and interval measurement system was developed to study atrioventricular node (AVN) accommodation. This dedicated microcomputer system measures and stores the stimulus-to-His bundle (S-H) interval from His bundle electrogram (HBE) recordings. Interval measurements for each beat are accurate to within 500 microsecond. This user-controlled system has been used to stimulate at any rate up to 6.5 Hz and to measure intervals up to 125 ms in isolated perfused guinea pig hearts. A built-in timer-reset mechanism prevents failure of the system in the absence of a His potential (i.e., 2:1 AV block). It may be modified for use in clinical studies or other experimental systems and has the ability to measure other physiological intervals. The system provides the precision in pacing and accuracy in the measurement of AVN conduction time that is necessary for meaningful analysis of AVN accommodation and has the simplicity of design and use that is not available in previously described systems. Furthermore, this computer system can be used not only in studies involving AV conduction, but also in any setting where programmed stimulation and interval measurement and recording need to be performed simultaneously.

  14. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  15. Speckle correlation method used to measure object's in-plane velocity.

    PubMed

    Smíd, Petr; Horváth, Pavel; Hrabovský, Miroslav

    2007-06-20

    We present a measurement of an object's in-plane velocity in one direction by the use of the speckle correlation method. Numerical correlations of speckle patterns recorded periodically during motion of the object under investigation give information used to evaluate the object's in-plane velocity. The proposed optical setup uses a detection plane in the image field and enables one to detect the object's velocity within the interval (10-150) microm x s(-1). Simulation analysis shows a way of controlling the measuring range. The presented theory, simulation analysis, and setup are verified through an experiment of measurement of the velocity profile of an object.

  16. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors' Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Shaw, William; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    To determine the association between supervisors' leadership style and autonomy and supervisors' likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors' likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale (JAS). We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β = .012; 95% CI .009-.016) and autonomy (β = .066; 95% CI .025-.11) were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI -.0026 to .0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors' likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability.

  17. Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This document updates "Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities. A Guide for Educators," published by the Florida Department of Education (FDOE) in 2003. This document is written to assist school district personnel and parents when making decisions about the use of accommodations by students with disabilities in instructional…

  18. 14 CFR § 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ON BASIS OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall... handicapped applicant or employee unless the recipient can demonstrate that the accommodation would impose an...) Making facilities used by employees readily accessible to and usable by handicapped persons; and (2) Job...

  19. 7 CFR 15b.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable... undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's programs or activities, factors to be considered...

  20. Recommendations for Accommodations: Implications of (In)consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.

    2007-01-01

    When accurately assigned and administered appropriately, testing accommodations help ameliorate the effects of personal characteristics that limit access to critical information and prevent a person from demonstrating his or her true abilities in the tested domain. Inaccurate assignment or misuse of accommodations may counteract the benefits of…

  1. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo containment...

  2. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo containment...

  3. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo containment...

  4. Effects of visual imagery on the accommodation response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malmstrom, F. V.; Randle, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-seven naive male subjects were tested to determine whether they could effect appropriate accommodation changes in an empty field by 'thinking near' and 'thinking far'. Evidence indicated that naive subjects could effect significant and appropriate accommodation changes, but only about a steady-state value of 1.0 diopter. Additionally, the data support the hypothesis that the resting state of accommodation is not at the visual far point, but, rather, at about 1.0 diopter.

  5. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie

    2015-03-01

    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  6. Extended Time Testing Accommodations: What Does the Research Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Extended time is among the most common testing accommodations given to students with a wide range of disabilities. However, although school psychologists are often involved in accommodation decisions, many are unaware of research from the past decade that has changed their understanding of extended time. Used properly, testing accommodations let…

  7. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the...

  8. Fault detection and accommodation testing on an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. P.; Baer-Riedhart, J. L.; Maxwell, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    The fault detection and accommodation (FDA) methodology for digital engine-control systems may range from simple comparisons of redundant parameters to the more complex and sophisticated observer models of the entire engine system. Evaluations of the various FDA schemes are done using analytical methods, simulation, and limited-altitude-facility testing. Flight testing of the FDA logic has been minimal because of the difficulty of inducing realistic faults in flight. A flight program was conducted to evaluate the fault detection and accommodation capability of a digital electronic engine control in an F-15 aircraft. The objective of the flight program was to induce selected faults and evaluate the resulting actions of the digital engine controller. Comparisons were made between the flight results and predictions. Several anomalies were found in flight and during the ground test. Simulation results showed that the inducement of dual pressure failures was not feasible since the FDA logic was not designed to accommodate these types of failures.

  9. End-of-Life Care Policies in Flemish Residential Care Facilities Accommodating Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Haene, I.; Pasman, H. R. W.; Deliens, L.; Bilsen, J.; Mortier, F.; Stichele, R. Vander

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article aims to describe the presence, content and implementation strategies of written policies on end-of-life decisions in Flemish residential care facilities (RCFs) accommodating persons with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to describe training, education and quality assessments of end-of-life care. Methods: A…

  10. Access to workplace accommodations to support breastfeeding after passage of the Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Jou, Judy; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K.; McGovern, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examines access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding, as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and its associations with breastfeeding initiation and duration. We hypothesize that women with access to reasonable break time and private space to express breast milk would be more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 6 months and to continue breastfeeding for a longer duration. Methods Data are from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18–45 who gave birth in 2011–2012. The study population included women who were employed full- or part-time at the time of survey. Using two-way tabulation, logistic regression, and survival analysis, we characterized women with access to breastfeeding accommodations and assessed the associations between these accommodations and breastfeeding outcomes. Results Only 40% of women had access to both break time and private space. Women with both adequate break time and private space were 2.3 times (95% CI 1.03, 4.95) as likely to be breastfeeding exclusively at 6 months and 1.5 times (95% CI 1.08, 2.06) as likely to continue breastfeeding exclusively with each passing month compared to women without access to these accommodations. Conclusions Employed women face unique barriers to breastfeeding and have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and shorter durations, despite compelling evidence of associated health benefits. Expanded access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding will likely entail collaborative efforts between public health agencies, employers, insurers, and clinicians to ensure effective workplace policies and improved breastfeeding outcomes. PMID:26474955

  11. Operator Localization of Virtual Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Errors in the localization of nearby virtual objects presented via see-through, helmet mounted displays are examined as a function of viewing conditions and scene content. Monocular, biocular or stereoscopic presentation of the virtual objects, accommodation (required focus), subjects'age, and the position of physical surfaces are examined. Nearby physical surfaces are found to introduce localization errors that differ depending upon the other experimental factors. The apparent physical size and transparency of the virtual objects and physical surfaces respectively are also influenced by their relative position when superimposed. Design implications are discussed.

  12. Objective Measurement of Fusional Vergence Ranges and Heterophoria in Infants and Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Babinsky, Erin E.; Wu, Yifei; Candy, T. Rowan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Binocular alignment typically includes motor fusion compensating for heterophoria. This study evaluated heterophoria and then accommodation and vergence responses during measurement of fusional ranges in infants and preschoolers. Methods Purkinje image eye tracking and eccentric photorefraction (MCS PowerRefractor) were used to record the eye alignment and accommodation of uncorrected infants (n = 17; 3–5 months old), preschoolers (n = 19; 2.5–5 years), and naïve functionally emmetropic adults (n = 14; 20–32 years; spherical equivalent [SE], +1 to −1 diopters [D]). Heterophoria was derived from the difference between monocular and binocular alignments while participants viewed naturalistic images at 80 cm. The presence or absence of fusion was then assessed after base-in (BI) and base-out (BO) prisms (2–40 prism diopters [pd]) were introduced. Results Mean (±SD) SE refractions were hyperopic in infants (+2.4 ± 1.2 D) and preschoolers (+1.1 ± 0.6 D). The average exophoria was similar (P = 0.11) across groups (Infants, −0.79 ± 2.5 pd; Preschool, −2.43 ± 2.0 pd; Adults, −1.0 ± 2.7 pd). Mean fusional vergence range also was similar (P = 0.1) for BI (Infants, 11.2 ± 2.5 pd; Preschool, 8.8 ± 2.8 pd; Adults, 11.8 ± 5.2 pd) and BO (Infants, 14 ± 6.6 pd; Preschool, 15.3 ± 8.3 pd; Adults, 20 ± 9.2 pd). Maximum change in accommodation to the highest fusible prism was positive (increased accommodation) for BO (Infants, 1.69 ± 1.4 D; Preschool, 1.35 ± 1.6 D; Adults, 1.22 ± 1.0 D) and negative for BI (Infants, −0.96 ± 1.0 D; Preschool, −0.78 ± 0.6 D; Adults, −0.62 ± 0.3 D), with a similar magnitude across groups (BO, P = 0.6; BI, P = 0.4). Conclusions Despite typical uncorrected hyperopia, infants and preschoolers exhibited small exophorias at 80 cm, similar to adults. All participants demonstrated substantial fusional ranges, providing evidence that even 3- to 5-month-old infants can respond to a large range of image disparities

  13. Learning object correspondences with the observed transport shape measure.

    PubMed

    Pitiot, Alain; Delingette, Hervé; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2003-07-01

    We propose a learning method which introduces explicit knowledge to the object correspondence problem. Our approach uses an a priori learning set to compute a dense correspondence field between two objects, where the characteristics of the field bear close resemblance to those in the learning set. We introduce a new local shape measure we call the "observed transport measure", whose properties make it particularly amenable to the matching problem. From the values of our measure obtained at every point of the objects to be matched, we compute a distance matrix which embeds the correspondence problem in a highly expressive and redundant construct and facilitates its manipulation. We present two learning strategies that rely on the distance matrix and discuss their applications to the matching of a variety of 1-D, 2-D and 3-D objects, including the corpus callosum and ventricular surfaces.

  14. The provision of workplace accommodations following cancer: survivor, provider, and employer perspectives.

    PubMed

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Pritlove, Cheryl; van Eerd, Dwayne; Holness, Linn D; Kirsh, Bonnie; Duncan, Andrea; Jones, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    With improvements in screening, diagnosis, and treatment, the number of persons surviving cancer and staying at or returning to work is increasing. While workplace accommodations optimize workers' abilities to participate in the workforce, there has been little in-depth investigation of the types of accommodations reported to have been provided to cancer survivors and the processes relevant to ensuring their successful implementation. We employed an exploratory qualitative method and conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with three groups: (i) cancers survivors (n = 16), (ii) health/vocational service providers (n = 16), and (iii) employer representatives (n = 8) to explore return to work and accommodation processes, successes, and challenges. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data. Four types of accommodations were recommended: (1) graduated return to work plans and flexible scheduling, (2) modification of work duties and performance expectations, (3) retraining and supports at the workplace, and (4) modification of the physical work environment and/or the provision of adaptive aids/technologies. Processes relevant to ensuring effective accommodations included: (1) developing knowledge about accommodations, (2) employer's ability to accommodate, (3) negotiating reasonable accommodations, (4) customizing accommodations, and (5) implementing and monitoring accommodation plans. Accommodation challenges included: (1) survivors' fears requesting accommodations, (2) developing clear and specific accommodations, (3) difficult to accommodate jobs, and (4) workplace challenges, including strained pre-cancer workplace relationships, insufficient/inflexible workplace policies, employer concerns regarding productivity and precedent setting, and limited modified duties. Accommodations need to be customized and clearly linked to survivors' specific job demands, work context, and available workplace supports. Survivors need to feel

  15. Utility accommodation and conflict tracker (UACT) : user manual

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-02-01

    Project 0-5475 performed a comprehensive analysis of utility conflict data/information flows between utility : accommodation stakeholders in the Texas Department of Transportation project development process, : developed data models to accommodate wo...

  16. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew. [CGD 74-127...

  18. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew. [CGD 74-127...

  19. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew. [CGD 74-127...

  20. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew. [CGD 74-127...

  1. 46 CFR 30.10-2 - Accommodation space-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space-TB/ALL. 30.10-2 Section 30.10-2... Accommodation space—TB/ALL. The term accommodation space means any public space such as a hall, dining room... that contains no cooking appliances, and a similar space open to the passengers and crew. [CGD 74-127...

  2. Contributions to Objective Measurement and Evaluation of Trainee Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonan, William J.

    The purpose of this paper is to lay a basis for and discuss the components of a system, called COMET, designed to objectively measure and evaluate the competency of trainees in military training enterprises. COMET is an acronym for "Computerized Objective Measurement and Evaluation of Trainees." These goals will be accomplished by: (a)…

  3. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  4. [The relationship between accommodative accuracy at different near-work distances and early-onset myopia].

    PubMed

    Yu, Q W; Zhang, P; Zhou, S B; Hu, Y; Ji, M X; Luo, Y C; You, H L; Yao, Z X

    2016-07-01

    To observe the accommodative accuracy of children with early-onset myopia at different near-work distances, and discuss the relationship between accommodative accuracy and early-onset myopia. This was a case-control study. Thirty-seven emmetropic children, 41 early-onset myopic children without correction, and 39 early-onset myopic children with spectacles, aged 7 to 13 years, were included. Measures of refractive errors and accommodative accuracy at four near-work distances, including 50 cm, 40 cm, 30 cm, and 20 cm, were made using the binocular fusion cross cylinder (FCC) of an automatic phoropter. Most candidates showed accommodative lags, including the children with emmetropia. The ratio of lags in all candidates at different near-work distances was 75.21% (50 cm), 87.18% (40 cm), 92.31% (30 cm), and 98.29% (20 cm), respectively. All accommodative accuracies became worse, and the accommodative lag ratio and values of FCC increased, along with the shortening of the distance. The difference in accommodative accuracy among groups was statistically significant at 30 cm (χ(2)=7.852, P= 0.020) and 20 cm (χ(2)=6.480, P=0.039). The values of FCC among groups were significantly different at 30 cm (F=3.626, P=0.030) and 20 cm (F=3.703, P=0.028), but not at 50 cm and 40 cm (P>0.05). In addition, the FCC values of 30 cm and 20 cm had a statistically significant difference between myopic children without correction [(1.25±0.44) D and (1.76±0.43) D] and emmetropic children [(0.95±0.52) D and (1.41±0.58) D] (P=0.012, 0.008). The correlation between diopters of myopia and accommodative accuracy at different nearwork distances was not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, the correlation between diopters of myopia and the accommodative lag value (FCC) at 20 cm was statistically significant (r=0.246, P=0.028). The closer the near-work distance is, the worse the accommodative accuracy is. This is more significant in early-onset myopia, especially myopia without

  5. The capacity of the US food system to accommodate improved diet quality: Projections to 2030

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: To estimate the capacity of the US agricultural system to produce enough food, in the right amounts, to accommodate a population shift toward healthier diet patterns. This analysis has immediate and long-term implications for the nutritional quality of the food supply, as well as for envi...

  6. Supervisor Autonomy and Considerate Leadership Style are Associated with Supervisors’ Likelihood to Accommodate Back Injured Workers

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Connor; Kristman, Vicki L; Williams-Whitt, Kelly; Reguly, Paula; Shaw, William; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine the association between supervisors’ leadership style and autonomy and supervisors’ likelihood of supporting job accommodations for back-injured workers. METHODS A cross-sectional study of supervisors from Canadian and US employers was conducted using a web-based, self-report questionnaire that included a case vignette of a back-injured worker. Autonomy and two dimensions of leadership style (considerate and initiating structure) were included as exposures. The outcome, supervisors’ likeliness to support job accommodation, was measured with the Job Accommodation Scale. We conducted univariate analyses of all variables and bivariate analyses of the JAS score with each exposure and potential confounding factor. We used multivariable generalized linear models to control for confounding factors. RESULTS A total of 796 supervisors participated. Considerate leadership style (β= .012; 95% CI: .009–.016) and autonomy (β= .066; 95% CI: .025–.11) were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate after adjusting for appropriate confounding factors. An initiating structure leadership style was not significantly associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate (β = .0018; 95% CI: −.0026–.0061) after adjusting for appropriate confounders. CONCLUSIONS Autonomy and a considerate leadership style were positively associated with supervisors’ likelihood to accommodate a back-injured worker. Providing supervisors with more autonomy over decisions of accommodation and developing their considerate leadership style may aid in increasing work accommodation for back-injured workers and preventing prolonged work disability. PMID:25595332

  7. Validation of a new measure of availability and accommodation of health care that is valid for rural and urban contexts.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Jeannie L; Levesque, Jean-Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    Patients are the most valid source for evaluating the accessibility of services, but a previous study observed differential psychometric performance of instruments in rural and urban respondents. To validate a measure of organizational accessibility free of differential rural-urban performance that predicts consequences of difficult access for patient-initiated care. Sequential qualitative-quantitative study. Qualitative findings used to adapt or develop evaluative and reporting items. Quantitative validation study. Primary data by telephone from 750 urban, rural and remote respondents in Quebec, Canada; follow-up mailed questionnaire to a subset of 316. Items were developed for barriers along the care trajectory. We used common factor and confirmatory factor analysis to identify constructs and compare models. We used item response theory analysis to test for differential rural-urban performance; examine individual item performance; adjust response options; and exclude redundant or non-discriminatory items. We used logistic regression to examine predictive validity of the subscale on access difficulty (outcome). Initial factor resolution suggested geographic and organizational dimensions, plus consequences of access difficulty. After second administration, organizational accommodation and geographic indicators were integrated into a 6-item subscale of Effective Availability and Accommodation, which demonstrates good variability and internal consistency (α = 0.84) and no differential functioning by geographic area. Each unit increase predicts decreased likelihood of consequences of access difficulties (unmet need and problem aggravation). The new subscale is a practical, valid and reliable measure for patients to evaluate first-contact health services accessibility, yielding valid comparisons between urban and rural contexts. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  9. Photogrammetric Measurements of Heritage Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumeliene, E.; Nareiko, V.; Suziedelyte Visockiene, J.

    2017-12-01

    Cultural heritage is an invaluable example of human culture and creativity. The majority of them can become unstable or can be destroyed due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. In order to restore, preserve, and systematize data about architectural heritage objects, it is necessary to have geodetic, photogrammetric measurements of such data and to constantly monitor condition of the objects. The data of immovable cultural objects for many years are stored in photogrammetric data archives. Such archives have Germany, Lithuania, England and other countries. The article gives a brief introduction of the history of data archives formation and presents a photogrammetric and modern methods of modelling the spatial geometric properties of objects currently used to reveal immovable cultural properties and to evaluate geometric sizes. The pilot work was done with the Concept Capture simulation program that was developed by the Bentley company with photos of the Blessed Virgin Mary painting in Pivašiūnai of Trakai district. A shot from the ground with 12.4 MP resolution Pentax K-x camera was done using lenses with different focal lengths. The painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary is coordinated by 4 reference geodesic points and therefore after the modelling work it was possible to evaluate the accuracy of the created model. Based on the results of the spatial (3D) model, photo shooting and modelling recommendations are presented, the advantages of the new technology are distinguished.

  10. Near Point of Accommodation and Convergence after Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) for Myopia.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Hassancourtney; Samet, Behnaz; Mirzajani, Ali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Rezvan, Bijan; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Near point of convergence (NPC) and near point of accommodation (NPA) were evaluated before and after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in normal myopic eyes. In this prospective cross sectional study, NPC and NPA were measured in 120 myopic eyes (60 patients) before and 3 months after PRK. Excluding criteria were manifest tropia, previous eye surgery, amblyopia, and any other ocular pathology. All subjects were younger than35 years old. Fifty-one females (85%) and nine males (15%) participated in the study. The average age of the participants was 25.75 years. Before the operation, the average NPC and NPA were 4.35 cm and 6.9 cm (14.5 D), respectively. NPC and NPA increased significantly 5.63 (p = 0.025) and (p 0.05) to 7.983 cm (12.5 D) (p 0.001), respectively, after 3 months. NPC and NPA may increase significantly after PRK. Convergence and accommodation problems may affect near visual performance. Therefore, for any PRK candidate, accommodation and convergence should be evaluated.

  11. ASUPT Automated Objective Performance Measurement System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waag, Wayne L.; And Others

    To realize its full research potential, a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the approach taken for the development of performance measures and also presents data collected…

  12. Method and system for fault accommodation of machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goebel, Kai Frank (Inventor); Subbu, Rajesh Venkat (Inventor); Rausch, Randal Thomas (Inventor); Frederick, Dean Kimball (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A method for multi-objective fault accommodation using predictive modeling is disclosed. The method includes using a simulated machine that simulates a faulted actual machine, and using a simulated controller that simulates an actual controller. A multi-objective optimization process is performed, based on specified control settings for the simulated controller and specified operational scenarios for the simulated machine controlled by the simulated controller, to generate a Pareto frontier-based solution space relating performance of the simulated machine to settings of the simulated controller, including adjustment to the operational scenarios to represent a fault condition of the simulated machine. Control settings of the actual controller are adjusted, represented by the simulated controller, for controlling the actual machine, represented by the simulated machine, in response to a fault condition of the actual machine, based on the Pareto frontier-based solution space, to maximize desirable operational conditions and minimize undesirable operational conditions while operating the actual machine in a region of the solution space defined by the Pareto frontier.

  13. Evaluation of Verisyse and Artiflex phakic intraocular lenses during accommodation using Visante optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Güell, José Luis; Morral, Merce; Gris, Oscar; Gaytan, Javier; Sisquella, Maite; Manero, Felicidad

    2007-08-01

    To perform a dynamic study of the relationship between Verisyse (AMO) and Artiflex (Ophtec B.V.) phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs) and anterior chamber structures during accommodation using optical coherence tomography (OCT) (Visante, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc.) Institutional practice. Eleven myopic patients were randomly selected to have implantation of a Verisyse pIOL in 1 eye and an Artiflex pIOL in the other. Using a 2-dimensional image, dynamic measurements of the relationship between the anterior surface of the pIOL and the corneal endothelium, the posterior surface of the pIOL and the anterior surface of the crystalline lens, and the pupil diameter were performed using Visante OCT. Physiological accommodation was stimulated by adding lenses in 1.00 diopter (D) steps from +1.00 to -7.00 D. Both groups had a significant decrease in pupil diameter (P<.0001, generalized linear model [GLM]) and in the distance between the anterior surface of the pIOL and the corneal endothelium (P<.0001, GLM) with accommodation. There were no statistically significant changes in the distance between the posterior surface of either pIOL and the anterior surface of the crystalline lens (P = .2845, GLM). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 pIOLs in any measurement (P>.05, GLM). The results fit with Helmholtz' theory of accommodation as forward movement of the diaphragm iris-crystalline lens was seen. There was a decrease in the distance between the pIOL and corneal endothelium and in the pupil diameter, whereas the distance between both pIOLs and the crystalline lens remained constant throughout the accommodation examination. This suggests that the risk for cataract from intermittent contact between the crystalline lens and IOL from accommodative effort is unlikely.

  14. Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes: a summary and update.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Katrina L; Strang, Niall C

    2015-11-01

    To provide a summary of the classic paper "Differences in the accommodation stimulus response curves of adult myopes and emmetropes" published in Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics in 1998 and to provide an update on the topic of accommodation errors in myopia. The accommodation responses of 33 participants (10 emmetropes, 11 early onset myopes and 12 late onset myopes) aged 18-31 years were measured using the Canon Autoref R-1 free space autorefractor using three methods to vary the accommodation demand: decreasing distance (4 m to 0.25 cm), negative lenses (0 to -4 D at 4 m) and positive lenses (+4 to 0 D at 0.25 m). We observed that the greatest accommodation errors occurred for the negative lens method whereas minimal errors were observed using positive lenses. Adult progressing myopes had greater lags of accommodation than stable myopes at higher demands induced by negative lenses. Progressing myopes had shallower response gradients than the emmetropes and stable myopes; however the reduced gradient was much less than that observed in children using similar methods. This paper has been often cited as evidence that accommodation responses at near may be primarily reduced in adults with progressing myopia and not in stable myopes and/or that challenging accommodation stimuli (negative lenses with monocular viewing) are required to generate larger accommodation errors. As an analogy, animals reared with hyperopic errors develop axial elongation and myopia. Retinal defocus signals are presumably passed to the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid and then ultimately the sclera to modify eye length. A number of lens treatments that act to slow myopia progression may partially work through reducing accommodation errors. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Pharmacologically and Edinger-Westphal stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys does not rely on changes in anterior chamber pressure.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Wendt, Mark; Glasser, Adrian

    2014-08-01

    This study was undertaken to understand the role of anterior chamber pressure (ACP) during pharmacological and Edinger-Westphal (EW) stimulated accommodation in anesthetized monkeys. Experiments were performed on one iridectomized eye each of 7 anesthetized adolescent rhesus monkeys. Accommodation was induced by EW stimulation (n = 2) and intravenous administration of 0.25-4.0 mg/kg pilocarpine (n = 6). Accommodative refractive and biometric changes were measured with continuous 60 Hz infrared photorefraction (n = 6) and 100 Hz A-scan ultrasound biometry (n = 1). An ocular perfusion system was used to measure and manipulate ACP. Pressure was recorded via a 27-gauge needle in the anterior chamber connected to a pressure transducer (n = 7). The needle was also connected to a fluid reservoir to allow ACP to be manipulated and clamped (n = 4) by raising or lowering the fluid reservoir. In all six pharmacologically stimulated monkeys ACP increased during accommodation, from 0.70 to 2.38 mmHg, four of which showed pressure decreases preceding the pressure increases. Two eyes also showed increases in ACP during EW-stimulated accommodation of 2.8 and 7.2 mmHg. ACP increased with increasing EW stimulus amplitudes (n = 2). Clamping or externally manipulating ACP had no effect on resting refraction or on EW and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in four eyes. The results show that EW stimulated and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation do not rely on ACP in rhesus monkeys. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    PubMed

    Geary, Julian Lindsay; Clifford, Thomas Joseph; Kinirons, Martin James

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards. Maxillary and mandibular alginate impressions, a wax interocclusal record of centric occlusion together with maxillary/condylar face-bow registrations, were recorded clinically for 10 undergraduate dental students who are sports activist volunteers of the School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast. Two ethylene vinyl acetate thermoformed maxillary mouthguards were made for each player (N = 20) using a standardised procedure. Ten mouthguards served both as the control (i.e. the non-accommodated) group and also the accommodated, occlusally 'imprinted' group. The other 10 mouthguards served as the accommodated, occlusally 'ground' group. Casts were articulated, each non-accommodated and accommodated mouthguard was seated and the extent of the interocclusal opening was recorded in all three arch relationships. The number of mouthguard and mandibular tooth contacts were also recorded in each position. The increased vertical occlusal dimension that was found in the presence of non-accommodated mouthguards equated to the full-sheet thickness of the material that was used to form the mouthguards. Only mouthguards accommodated by grinding retained high levels of occlusal contact in all arch relationships that were tested. Within the limitations of this study, the modification of the occlusal surface made by flat grinding reduced the arch separation in eccentric movements and increased the opposing tooth contacts in custom-made mouthguards. This may contribute to increased comfort, compliance and the protective effect of these appliances thus resulting in a reduction of injuries to the teeth, arches and soft tissues.

  17. Comparison of tests of accommodation for computer users.

    PubMed

    Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik

    2002-04-01

    With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.

  18. Accommodation in pediatric oncology: parental experiences, preferences and unmet needs.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Gunar; Wakefield, Claire E; Ryan, Barbara; Fleming, Catharine Ak; Levett, Nicole; Cohn, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    For families of children diagnosed with cancer, proximity to the treatment center and staying close to immediate family members are essential for proper patient management. Accommodation services are therefore a key consideration in pediatric oncology. This descriptive study explored the accommodation used, and preferred, by parents of pediatric cancer patients at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick (SCH), Australia, and investigated their accommodation and practical needs. Forty-two parents from 25 families participated in individual semi-structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded line-by-line. Coding was facilitated by data analysis software QSR NVivo v8 (www.qsrinternational.com). Emergent themes were numerically assessed to minimize the potential for researcher bias. Nine families (36%) lived near SCH and were able to stay at their own residence during treatment (mean distance of 15.4 km from SCH). The remaining families were categorized 'local, but requiring accommodation' (n=3 families represented by five parent interviews; mean distance of 82.22 km from SCH),'inner regional' (IR) (n=8 families, 15 parent interviews; mean distance of 396.75 km from SCH) or 'outer regional' (OR) (n=3 families, 5 interviews; mean distance of 547.4 km from SCH) according to the Australian Standard Geographical Classification (ASGC) remoteness ratings. Accommodation provided for families from both IR and OR areas was mixed, with several families using multiple accommodation options during treatment, including Ronald Macdonald House (RMH), private accommodation or a rental property close to the hospital for the duration of the treatment. Six IR and one OR family utilized hotel or motel accommodation as an alternative to RMH due to unavailability of rooms. The majority of parents (37/42) preferred to stay on the hospital campus, near their child. Seven out of 11 IR and OR mothers preferred self-contained accommodation, while three out

  19. Accommodation and vergence latencies in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Tondel, Grazyna M.; Candy, T. Rowan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Achieving simultaneous single and clear visual experience during postnatal development depends on the temporal relationship between accommodation and vergence, in addition to their accuracies. This study was designed to examine one component of the dynamic relationship, the latencies of the responses. Methods Infants and adults were tested in three conditions i) Binocular viewing of a target moving in depth at 5cm/s (closed loop) ii) monocular viewing of the same target (vergence open loop) iii) binocular viewing of a low spatial frequency Difference of Gaussian target during a prism induced step change in retinal disparity (accommodation open loop). Results There was a significant correlation between accommodation and vergence latencies in binocular conditions for infants from 7 to 23 weeks of age. Some of the infants, as young as 7 or 8 weeks, generated adult-like latencies of less than 0.5 s. Latencies in the vergence open loop and accommodation open loop conditions tended to be shorter for the stimulated system than the open loop system in both cases, and all latencies were typically less than 2 seconds across the infant age range. Conclusions Many infants between 7 and 23 weeks of age were able to generate accommodation and vergence responses with latencies of less than a second in full binocular closed loop conditions. The correlation between the latencies in the two systems suggests that they are limited by related factors from the earliest ages tested. PMID:18199466

  20. Accommodation and vergence latencies in human infants.

    PubMed

    Tondel, Grazyna M; Candy, T Rowan

    2008-02-01

    Achieving simultaneous single and clear visual experience during postnatal development depends on the temporal relationship between accommodation and vergence, in addition to their accuracies. This study was designed to examine one component of the dynamic relationship, the latencies of the responses. Infants and adults were tested in three conditions (i) binocular viewing of a target moving in depth at 5 cm/s (closed loop) (ii) monocular viewing of the same target (vergence open loop) (iii) binocular viewing of a low spatial frequency Difference of Gaussian target during a prism induced step change in retinal disparity (accommodation open loop). There was a significant correlation between accommodation and vergence latencies in binocular conditions for infants from 7 to 23 weeks of age. Some of the infants, as young as 7 or 8 weeks, generated adult-like latencies of less than 0.5 s. Latencies in the vergence open loop and accommodation open loop conditions tended to be shorter for the stimulated system than the open loop system in both cases, and all latencies were typically less than 2 s across the infant age range. Many infants between 7 and 23 weeks of age were able to generate accommodation and vergence responses with latencies of less than a second in full binocular closed loop conditions. The correlation between the latencies in the two systems suggests that they are limited by related factors from the earliest ages tested.

  1. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking.

    PubMed

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T

    2015-12-01

    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  2. Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

    2004-01-01

    One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented. PMID:15465958

  3. Measurements Conducted on an Unknown Object Labeled Pu-239

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hoteling, Nathan

    Measurements were carried out on 12 November 2013 to determine whether Pu-239 was present on an object discovered in a plastic bag with label “Pu-­239 6 uCi.” Following initial survey measurements to verify that the object was not leaking or contaminated, spectra were collected with a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector with object positioned in two different configurations. Analysis of the spectra did not yield any direct evidence of Pu-­239. From the measured spectra, minimum detectable activity (MDA) was determined to be approximately 2 uCi for the gamma-­ray measurements. Although there was no direct evidence of Pu-239, a peak atmore » 60 keV characteristic of Am-­241 decay was observed. Since it is very likely that Am-­241 would be present in aged plutonium samples, this was interpreted as indirect evidence for the presence of plutonium on the object. Analysis of this peak led to an estimated Pu-­239 activity of 0.02–0.04 uCi, or <1x10 -6 grams.« less

  4. Measuring the Speed of Newborn Object Recognition in Controlled Visual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.; Wood, Samantha M. W.

    2017-01-01

    How long does it take for a newborn to recognize an object? Adults can recognize objects rapidly, but measuring object recognition speed in newborns has not previously been possible. Here we introduce an automated controlled-rearing method for measuring the speed of newborn object recognition in controlled visual worlds. We raised newborn chicks…

  5. Reduction of deviation angle during occlusion therapy: in partially accommodative esotropia with moderate amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Chun, Bo Young; Kwon, Soon Jae; Chae, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Jung Yoon

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate changes in ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic children age ranged from 3 to 8 years during occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Angle measurements of twenty-two partially accommodative esotropic patients with moderate amblyopia were evaluated before and at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Mean deviation angle with glasses at the start of occlusion treatment was 19.45+/-5.97 PD and decreased to 12.14+/-12.96 PD at 2 years after occlusion therapy (p<0.01). After occlusion therapy, 9 (41%) cases were indications of surgery for residual deviation but if we had planned surgery before occlusion treatment, 18 (82%) of patients would have had surgery. There was a statistical relationship between increase of visual acuity ratio and decrease of deviation angle (r=-0.479, p=0.024). There was a significant reduction of deviation angle of partially accommodative esotropic patients at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Our results suggest that occlusion therapy has an influence on ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic patients with amblyopia.

  6. Reduction of Deviation Angle During Occlusion Therapy: In Partially Accommodative Esotropia with Moderate Amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Bo Young; Kwon, Soon Jae; Chae, Sun Hwa

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic children age ranged from 3 to 8 years during occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Methods Angle measurements of twenty-two partially accommodative esotropic patients with moderate amblyopia were evaluated before and at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Results Mean deviation angle with glasses at the start of occlusion treatment was 19.45±5.97 PD and decreased to 12.14±12.96 PD at 2 years after occlusion therapy (p<0.01). After occlusion therapy, 9 (41%) cases were indications of surgery for residual deviation but if we had planned surgery before occlusion treatment, 18 (82%) of patients would have had surgery. There was a statistical relationship between increase of visual acuity ratio and decrease of deviation angle (r=-0.479, p=0.024). Conclusions There was a significant reduction of deviation angle of partially accommodative esotropic patients at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Our results suggest that occlusion therapy has an influence on ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic patients with amblyopia. PMID:17804922

  7. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Family Accommodation Scale-Parent-Report (FAS-PR)

    PubMed Central

    Sapyta, Jeffrey; Garcia, Abbe; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Franklin, Martin E.; Foa, Edna; March, John

    2011-01-01

    Growing research has examined parental accommodation among the families of children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, these studies have utilized a parent-report (PR) version of a measure, the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) that has never received proper psychometric validation. In turn, previously derived subscales have been developed via clinical rather than empirical evidence. This study aims to conduct a comprehensive psychometric analysis of the FAS-PR utilizing data collected from 96 youths with OCD. Exploratory factors analysis was conducted and revealed a 12-item scale yielding two separate, yet related subscales, Avoidance of Triggers (AT) and Involvement in Compulsions (IC). Subsequent analyses revealed good internal consistency and convergent and discriminant validity. These findings suggest that future research should seek to examine factors that may impact various facets to accommodation as well as the role these facets plays in predicting treatment outcome. Limitations are discussed. PMID:21743772

  8. Accommodation Practices for English Language Learners in States' Mathematics Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Kao, Jenny C.; Rivera, Nichole M.; Chang, Sandy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Testing accommodations have been widely utilized as a way of increasing the validity of content assessments for English language learner (ELL) students. However, concerns have also arisen regarding the appropriateness of accommodation use, including the accessibility and fairness of accommodations. While many states have…

  9. Effects of magnification and visual accommodation on aimpoint estimation in simulated landings with real and virtual image displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J.; Roscoe, S. N.; Petitt, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty professional pilots observed a computer-generated airport scene during simulated autopilot-coupled night landing approaches and at two points (20 sec and 10 sec before touchdown) judged whether the airplane would undershoot or overshoot the aimpoint. Visual accommodation was continuously measured using an automatic infrared optometer. Experimental variables included approach slope angle, display magnification, visual focus demand (using ophthalmic lenses), and presentation of the display as either a real (direct view) or a virtual (collimated) image. Aimpoint judgments shifted predictably with actual approach slope and display magnification. Both pilot judgments and measured accommodation interacted with focus demand with real-image displays but not with virtual-image displays. With either type of display, measured accommodation lagged far behind focus demand and was reliably less responsive to the virtual images. Pilot judgments shifted dramatically from an overwhelming perceived-overshoot bias 20 sec before touchdown to a reliable undershoot bias 10 sec later.

  10. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  11. The Rate of Change of Vergence-Accommodation Conflict Affects Visual Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort. PMID:25448713

  12. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M.; Riddell, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Methods Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased “style” in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Results Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A–low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of −0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A–high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and −1.67. Conclusions Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. PMID:25498466

  13. Disparity-driven vs blur-driven models of accommodation and convergence in binocular vision and intermittent strabismus.

    PubMed

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M

    2014-12-01

    To propose an alternative and practical model to conceptualize clinical patterns of concomitant intermittent strabismus, heterophoria, and convergence and accommodation anomalies. Despite identical ratios, there can be a disparity- or blur-biased "style" in three hypothetical scenarios: normal; high ratio of accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and low ratio of convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C); low AC/A and high CA/C. We calculated disparity bias indices (DBI) to reflect these biases and provide early objective data from small illustrative clinical groups that fit these styles. Normal adults (n = 56) and children (n = 24) showed disparity bias (adult DBI 0.43 [95% CI, 0.50-0.36], child DBI 0.20 [95% CI, 0.31-0.07]; P = 0.001). Accommodative esotropia (n = 3) showed less disparity-bias (DBI 0.03). In the high AC/A-low CA/C scenario, early presbyopia (n = 22) showed mean DBI of 0.17 (95% CI, 0.28-0.06), compared to DBI of -0.31 in convergence excess esotropia (n=8). In the low AC/A-high CA/C scenario near exotropia (n = 17) showed mean DBI of 0.27. DBI ranged between 1.25 and -1.67. Establishing disparity or blur bias adds to AC/A and CA/C ratios to explain clinical patterns. Excessive bias or inflexibility in near-cue use increases risk of clinical problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Objectively measured sedentary time and academic achievement in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luís; Santos, Rute; Mota, Jorge; Pereira, Beatriz; Lopes, Vítor

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between objectively measured total sedentary time and academic achievement (AA) in Portuguese children. The sample comprised of 213 children (51.6% girls) aged 9.46 ± 0.43 years, from the north of Portugal. Sedentary time was measured with accelerometry, and AA was assessed using the Portuguese Language and Mathematics National Exams results. Multilevel linear regression models were fitted to assess regression coefficients predicting AA. The results showed that objectively measured total sedentary time was not associated with AA, after adjusting for potential confounders.

  15. Acoustic Measurement Of Periodic Motion Of Levitated Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1992-01-01

    Some internal vibrations, oscillations in position, and rotations of acoustically levitated object measured by use of microphone already installed in typical levitation chamber for tuning chamber to resonance and monitoring operation. Levitating acoustic signal modulated by object motion of lower frequency. Amplitude modulation detected and analyzed spectrally to determine amplitudes and frequencies of motions.

  16. The impact of testing accommodations on MCAT scores: descriptive results.

    PubMed

    Julian, Ellen R; Ingersoll, Deborah J; Etienne, Patricia M; Hilger, Anthony E

    2004-04-01

    Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) examinees with disabilities who receive accommodations receive flagged scores indicating nonstandard administration. This report compares MCAT examinees who received accommodations and their performances with standard examinees. Aggregate history records of all 1994-2000 MCAT examinees were identified as flagged (2,401) or standard (297,880), then further sorted by race/ethnicity (broadly identified as underrepresented minority and non-URM, at the time of testing) and gender. Those with flagged scores were also classified by disability (LD = learning disability, ADHD = attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, LD/ADHD = learning disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Other = other disability) and type of accommodation. Mean MCAT scores were calculated for all groups. A group of 866 examinees took the MCAT first as a standard administration and subsequently with accommodations. In a separate analysis, their two sets of scores were compared. Less than 1% of examinees (2,401) had accommodations; of these, 55% were LD, 17% ADHD, 5% LD/ADHD, and 23% Other. Extended time was the most frequently provided accommodation. Mean flagged scores slightly exceeded mean standard scores on all MCAT sections. Examinees who retook the MCAT with accommodations after a standard administration increased their scores by six points, quadrupling the average gain Standard-Standard retest cohort from another study. The small but statistically significant different higher flagged scores may reflect either appropriate compensation or overly generous accommodations. Extended time had a positive impact on the scores of those who retested with this accommodation. The validity the flagged MCAT in predicting success in medical school is not known, and further investigation is underway.

  17. [Accommodation to monochromatic targets in people with different color vision statuses].

    PubMed

    Qian, Yishan; Huang, Jia; Chu, Renyuan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the accommodation response (AR) to monochromatic targets in subjects with different color vision statuses, and to investigate the role of color vision in the control of accommodation and emmetropization. It was a case-control study. Accommodation was measured with a dynamic infrared optometer while subjects [17 protans, 47 deutans, and 23 normals; mean age: (20.0 ± 4.4) years] viewed a (1) red on black or (2) green on black vertical square-wave gratings of iso-luminance (3 cycles/deg; 0.9 contrast) in a Badal optic system. The grating stepped 1.00 D towards the eye from an initial position of 0 D until 5.00 D. With red-black targets, the AR in the protans (AR = 1.98 D) was worse than that in the normals (AR = 2.55 D) when the accommodation stimulus (AS) was 4.00 D (LSD, P = 0.031). The AR in the deutans were worse than that in the normals when the AS was 3.00, 4.00, and 5.00 D (3.00 D: 1.23 D vs. 1.69 D, P = 0.002; 4.00 D: 1.89 D vs. 2.55 D, P = 0.002; 5.00 D: 2.40 D vs. 3.17 D, P = 0.003). With green-black targets, the AR in the protans were worse than that in the normals when the AS was 3.00 and 4.00 D (3.00 D: 1.13 D vs. 1.61 D, P = 0.004; 4.00 D: 1.80 D vs. 2.34 D, P = 0.021). In the deutans, the AR was worse with stimuli of 3.00, 4.00, and 5.00 D (3.00 D: 1.21 D vs. 1.61 D, P = 0.003; 4.00 D: 1.65 D vs. 2.34 D, P < 0.001; 5.00 D: 2.36 D vs. 2.93 D, P = 0.007). No significant differences between the protans and deutans were found for all the stimulus conditions. In the protans, accommodation to red-black targets was better than that to green-black targets when the stimulus was 2.00, 3.00, and 5.00 D (2.00 D: t = -2.81, P = 0.013; 3.00 D: t = -4.55, P < 0.001; 5.00 D: t = -3.15, P = 0.006). In the deutans, accommodation to red-black targets was better than that to green-black targets when the stimulus was 4.00 D (t = -2.19, P = 0.034). In the normals, accommodation to red-black targets were better than that to green-black targets when the stimulus

  18. Spacelab payload accommodation handbook. Main volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The main characteristics of the Spacelab system are described to enable individual experimenters or payload planning groups to determine how their payload equipment can be accommodated by Spacelab. Spacelab/experiment interfaces, Spacelab payload support systems and requirements that the experiments have to comply with are described to allow experiment design and development. The basic operational aspects are outlined as far as they have an impact on experiment design. The relationship of the Spacelab Payload Accommodation Handbook to Space Transportation System documentation is outlined. Data concerning the space shuttle system are briefly described.

  19. An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Despite expectations for accommodations in inclusive classrooms, little guidance for effective practice is available. Most accommodations policies and evidence-based practices address assessments. High school regular and special educators collaborated in focus groups to articulate a model based on their practices and perceptions of best practice.…

  20. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  1. A Dyadic Perspective on Speech Accommodation and Social Connection: Both Partners’ Rejection Sensitivity Matter

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Lauren; Downey, Geraldine; Krauss, Robert; Pardo, Jennifer; Lane, Sean; Bolger, Niall

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings from confederate paradigms predict that mimicry is an adaptive route to social connection for rejection sensitive individuals (Lakin et al., 2008). However, dyadic perspectives predict that whether mimicry leads to perceived connection depends on the rejection sensitivity (RS) of both partners in an interaction. Method We investigated these predictions in 50 college women who completed a dyadic cooperative task in which members were matched or mismatched in being dispositionally high or low in RS. We used a psycholinguistics paradigm to assess, through independent listeners’ judgments (N = 162), how much interacting individuals accommodate phonetic aspects of their speech toward each other. Results Results confirmed predictions from confederate paradigms in matched RS dyads. However, mismatched dyads showed an asymmetry in levels of accommodation and perceived connection: Those high in RS accommodated more than their low RS partner but emerged feeling less connected. Meditational analyses indicated that low RS individuals’ nonaccommodation in mismatched dyads helped explain their high RS partners’ relatively low perceived connection to them. Conclusions Establishing whether mimicry is an adaptive route to social connection requires analyzing mimicry as a dyadic process influenced by the needs of each dyad member. PMID:25393028

  2. Advanced detection, isolation and accommodation of sensor failures: Real-time evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Walter C.; Delaat, John C.; Bruton, William M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of the Advanced Detection, Isolation, and Accommodation (ADIA) Program is to improve the overall demonstrated reliability of digital electronic control systems for turbine engines by using analytical redundacy to detect sensor failures. The results of a real time hybrid computer evaluation of the ADIA algorithm are presented. Minimum detectable levels of sensor failures for an F100 engine control system are determined. Also included are details about the microprocessor implementation of the algorithm as well as a description of the algorithm itself.

  3. Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements of Specular Objects Using Phase-Measuring Deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zonghua; Wang, Yuemin; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Chang, Caixia; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-12-07

    The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D) shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry) has been widely studied and applied in many fields. Phase information coded in the reflected fringe patterns relates to the local slope and height of the measured specular objects. The 3D shape is obtained by integrating the local gradient data or directly calculating the depth data from the phase information. We present a review of the relevant techniques regarding classical PMD. The improved PMD technique is then used to measure specular objects having discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces. Some influential factors on the measured results are presented. The challenges and future research directions are discussed to further advance PMD techniques. Finally, the application fields of PMD are briefly introduced.

  4. Three-Dimensional Shape Measurements of Specular Objects Using Phase-Measuring Deflectometry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuemin; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Chang, Caixia; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-01-01

    The fast development in the fields of integrated circuits, photovoltaics, the automobile industry, advanced manufacturing, and astronomy have led to the importance and necessity of quickly and accurately obtaining three-dimensional (3D) shape data of specular surfaces for quality control and function evaluation. Owing to the advantages of a large dynamic range, non-contact operation, full-field and fast acquisition, high accuracy, and automatic data processing, phase-measuring deflectometry (PMD, also called fringe reflection profilometry) has been widely studied and applied in many fields. Phase information coded in the reflected fringe patterns relates to the local slope and height of the measured specular objects. The 3D shape is obtained by integrating the local gradient data or directly calculating the depth data from the phase information. We present a review of the relevant techniques regarding classical PMD. The improved PMD technique is then used to measure specular objects having discontinuous and/or isolated surfaces. Some influential factors on the measured results are presented. The challenges and future research directions are discussed to further advance PMD techniques. Finally, the application fields of PMD are briefly introduced. PMID:29215600

  5. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  6. Family-based treatment for transition age youth: parental self-efficacy and caregiver accommodation.

    PubMed

    Dimitropoulos, Gina; Landers, Ashley L; Freeman, Victoria E; Novick, Jason; Cullen, Olivia; Engelberg, Marla; Steinegger, Cathleen; Le Grange, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Family-Based Treatment (FBT) is the first line of care in paediatric treatment while adult programs focus on individualized models of care. Transition age youth (TAY) with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) are in a unique life stage and between systems of care. As such, they and their caregivers may benefit from specialized, developmentally tailored models of treatment. The primary purpose of this study was to assess if parental self-efficacy and caregiver accommodation changed in caregivers during the course of FBT-TAY for AN. The secondary aim was to determine if changes in parental self-efficacy and caregiver accommodation contributed to improvements in eating disorder behaviour and weight restoration in the transition age youth with AN. Twenty-six participants (ages 16-22) and 39 caregivers were recruited. Caregivers completed the Parents versus Anorexia Scale and Accommodation and Enabling Scale for Eating Disorders at baseline, end-of-treatment (EOT), and 3 months follow-up. Unbalanced repeated measures designs for parental self-efficacy and caregiver accommodation towards illness behaviours were conducted using generalized estimation equations. Parental self-efficacy increased from baseline to EOT, although not significantly ( p =  .398). Parental self-efficacy significantly increased from baseline to 3 months post-treatment ( p  = .002). Caregiver accommodation towards the illness significantly decreased from baseline to EOT ( p  = 0.0001), but not from baseline to 3 months post-treatment ( p  = 1.000). Stepwise ordinary least squares regression estimates of eating disorder behaviour and weight restoration did not show that changes in parental-self efficacy and caregiver accommodation predict eating disorder behaviour or weight restoration at EOT or 3 months post-treatment. Our findings demonstrate, albeit preliminary at this stage, that FBT-TAY promotes positive increases in parental self-efficacy and assists caregivers in decreasing their accommodation

  7. Adiponectin, Leptin and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Nurnazahiah, Ali; Lua, Pei Lin; Shahril, Mohd Razif

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile and analyse existing scientific evidences reporting the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin. Articles related to the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin were searched from the Medline and PubMed databases. The search was limited to ‘objectively measured’ physical activity, and studies that did not objectively measure the physical activity were excluded. Only English articles were included in the search and review. A total of 18 articles encompassing 2,026 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The eligible articles included all forms of evidence (e.g., cross-sectional and intervention). Seventeen and 11 studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Five and four cross-sectional studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Two out of five studies showed a weak to moderate positive association between adiponectin and objectively measured physical activity, while three out of four studies showed a weak to moderate inverse association between leptin and objectively measured physical activity. For intervention studies, six out of 12 studies involving adiponectin and five out of seven studies involving leptin showed a significant effect between the proteins and objectively measured physical activity. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws in the existing articles and the acute lack of additional research in this area. In conclusion, the existing evidences are encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before the effectiveness of objectively measured physical activity in elevating adiponectin levels and in decreasing leptin levels could be strongly confirmed. PMID:28090175

  8. Monitoring the athlete training response: subjective self-reported measures trump commonly used objective measures: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Saw, Anna E; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Background Monitoring athlete well-being is essential to guide training and to detect any progression towards negative health outcomes and associated poor performance. Objective (performance, physiological, biochemical) and subjective measures are all options for athlete monitoring. Objective We systematically reviewed objective and subjective measures of athlete well-being. Objective measures, including those taken at rest (eg, blood markers, heart rate) and during exercise (eg, oxygen consumption, heart rate response), were compared against subjective measures (eg, mood, perceived stress). All measures were also evaluated for their response to acute and chronic training load. Methods The databases Academic search complete, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus and PubMed were searched in May 2014. Fifty-six original studies reported concurrent subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being. The quality and strength of findings of each study were evaluated to determine overall levels of evidence. Results Subjective and objective measures of athlete well-being generally did not correlate. Subjective measures reflected acute and chronic training loads with superior sensitivity and consistency than objective measures. Subjective well-being was typically impaired with an acute increase in training load, and also with chronic training, while an acute decrease in training load improved subjective well-being. Summary This review provides further support for practitioners to use subjective measures to monitor changes in athlete well-being in response to training. Subjective measures may stand alone, or be incorporated into a mixed methods approach to athlete monitoring, as is current practice in many sport settings. PMID:26423706

  9. Executive function in fibromyalgia: Comparing subjective and objective measures.

    PubMed

    Gelonch, Olga; Garolera, Maite; Valls, Joan; Rosselló, Lluís; Pifarré, Josep

    2016-04-01

    There is evidence to suggest the existence of an executive dysfunction in people diagnosed with fibromyalgia, although there are certain inconsistencies between studies. Here, we aim to compare executive performance between patients with fibromyalgia and a control group by using subjective and objective cognitive tests, analyzing the influence of patient mood on the results obtained, and studying associations between the two measures. 82 patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and 42 healthy controls, matched by age and years of education, were assessed using the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult Version (BRIEF-A) as a subjective measure of executive functioning. A selection of objective cognitive tests were also used to measure a series of executive functions and to identify symptoms of depression and anxiety. Patients with fibromyalgia perceived greater difficulties than the control group on all of the BRIEF-A scales. However, after adjustments were made for depression and anxiety the only differences that remained were those associated with the working memory scale and the Metacognition and Global Executive Composite index. In the case of the objective cognitive tests, a significantly worse overall performance was evidenced for the fibromyalgia patients. However, this also disappeared when adjustments were made for depression and anxiety. After this adjustment, fibromyalgia patients only performed significantly worse for the interference effect in the Stroop Test. Although there were no significant associations between most of the objective cognitive tests and the BRIEF-A scales, depression and anxiety exhibited strong associations with almost all of the BRIEF-A scales and with several of the objective cognitive tests. Patients with fibromyalgia showed executive dysfunction in subjective and objective measures, although most of this impairment was associated with mood disturbances. Exceptions to this general rule were observed in the

  10. Parental accommodation of child anxiety and related symptoms: Range, impact, and correlates

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Hollands, Johanna; Kerns, Caroline E.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Parental accommodation—i.e., changes in parents’ behavior in attempts to prevent or reduce child distress—has been most studied in relation to OCD. Although recent work suggests parents of children with non-OCD anxiety diagnoses also engage in accommodation, little is known about the specific forms, correlates, and associated interference of such accommodation. The present study examined the range and associated interference of parental accommodation behaviors using the newly developed Family Accommodation Checklist and Interference Scale (FACLIS) in a sample of the parents of 71 clinic-referred children with anxiety disorders (NMothers = 68; NFathers= 51). The FACLIS demonstrated good reliability and validity. Ninety-seven percent of mothers and 88% of fathers reported engaging in at least one type of accommodation in the previous two weeks, with parents reporting an average of roughly 4 interfering parental accommodation behaviors. Greater parental accommodation and associated interference were associated with higher maternal distress. Among the anxiety disorders, accommodation was most strongly associated with generalized and separation anxiety disorder, as well as specific phobias. Findings (a) offer psychometric support for the FACLIS as a reliable and valid tool for the assessment of accommodation range and impact, and (b) help clarify the considerable scope and interference associated with parental accommodation of childhood anxiety. PMID:25261837

  11. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  12. A Daily Diary Study of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Romantic Partner Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Sarah B.; Renshaw, Keith D.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Curby, Timothy W.; Carter, Sarah P.

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the role of romantic partner symptom accommodation in PTSD symptom maintenance. To explore the bidirectional associations of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and romantic partner symptom accommodation over time, military servicemen (n = 64) with symptoms of PTSD and their co-habiting heterosexual civilian romantic partners (n = 64) completed a 2-week daily diary study. Cross-lagged, autoregressive models assessed the stability of men’s PTSD symptoms and partners’ accommodation, as well as the prospective associations of earlier PTSD symptoms with later accommodation and vice versa. Analyses used Bayesian estimation to provide point estimates (b) and Credible Intervals (CIs). In all models, PTSD symptoms (total and individual clusters) were highly stable (b = 0.91; CI: 0.88–0.95), and accommodation was moderately stable (b = 0.48; CI: 0.40–0.54). In all models, earlier PTSD symptoms (total and clusters) were significantly, positively associated with later accommodation (b = 0.04; CI: 0.02–0.07). In contrast, earlier accommodation was significantly associated only with later situational avoidance (b = 0.02; CI: 0.00–0.07). Thus, PTSD symptoms may lead to subsequent accommodating behaviors in romantic partners, but partner accommodation seems to contribute only to survivors’ future situational avoidance symptoms. The findings reinforce the notion that PTSD symptoms have an impact on relationship behaviors, and that accommodation from partners may sustain avoidant behaviors in particular. Clinicians should attend to romantic partners’ accommodating behaviors when working with survivors. PMID:28270332

  13. Test Accommodations and Equating Invariance on a Fifth-Grade Science Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Anne Corinne; Elbaum, Batya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize Score Equity Assessment (SEA) to examine measurement comparability and equity in reported scores on a statewide fifth-grade science assessment with respect to groups of students defined by disability status, English Language Learner status and use of test accommodations. Benefits of SEA include a focus on…

  14. Inability of Open-Field Autorefraction to Eliminate Accommodation in Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Kara, Caner; Petriçli, İkbal Seza

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractometer (Rexxam Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan) (also branded as the Grand Seiko WR-5100K; Grand Seiko Co. Ltd., Hiroshima, Japan) based on the open-field refractometry principle in refractive measurements of preschool children and to determine its ability to eliminate accommodation adequately. The refractive results of 114 preschool children who presented to the ophthalmology outpatient department for screening were evaluated. The measurements were obtained before and after cycloplegia with the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractometer and after cycloplegia with retinoscopy, which is the gold standard. The results underwent vectorial transformation to produce the spherical equivalent (M) and two Jackson cross-cylinder (J0 and J45) values. All results were then subjected to statistical analysis. The difference between the measurements was evaluated with repeated measures analysis of variance. Included in the study were 106 preschool children (51 boys and 55 girls). The mean age was 5.3 ± 0.9 years (range: 3 to 6 years). Although statistically significantly more myopic results were obtained with non-cycloplegic measurements using the Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001 autorefractometer (P < .001), no difference was observed in cylindrical values (P > .05). Cycloplegic J0 measurements were significantly lower (P < .001), but no difference was found between J45 values before and after cycloplegia (P > .05). The Shin-Nippon NVision-K 5001/Grand Seiko WR-5100K open-field autorefractometer seems to be inadequate in eliminating accommodation in childhood. Measurements under cycloplegia continue to be the best method to ensure accurate results. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(5):311-318.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Testing Accommodations: Theory and Research to Inform Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettler, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a framework for practitioners in education and psychology to select accommodations based on student profiles and testing demands. A brief history of testing accommodations policy in the US and a definition of terms provide context for the discussion. A review of theory and empirical findings related to testing accommodations…

  16. Layout of personnel accommodations for the SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daughters, David M.; Bruich, J. G.; Arceneaux, Gregory P.; Zirretta, Jason; Caton, William B.

    2000-06-01

    The NASA Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) Observatory is based upon a refurbished and heavily modified Boeing 747 SP aircraft. The Observatory, which provides accommodations for the Deutsches Zentrum Fur Luftund Raumfahrt 2.5 m telescope, science investigator teams, scientific instruments, mission crew and support systems. The US contractor team has removed most of the aircraft original furnishings and designed a new Layout of Personnel Accommodations (LOPA) tailored to SOFIA's needs.

  17. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  18. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  19. Space Station accommodation of attached payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, Ronald K.; Gervin, Janette C.

    1987-01-01

    The Attached Payload Accommodation Equipment (APAE), which provides the structure to attach payloads to the Space Station truss assembly, to access Space Station resources, and to orient payloads relative to specified targets, is described. The main subelements of the APAE include a station interface adapter, payload interface adapter, subsystem support module, contamination monitoring system, payload pointing system, and attitude determination system. These components can be combined to provide accommodations for small single payloads, small multiple payloads, large self-supported payloads, carrier-mounted payloads, and articulated payloads. The discussion also covers the power, thermal, and data/communications subsystems and operations.

  20. Guidelines for Providing Accommodations Using CASAS Assessment for Learners with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines address methods for administering Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) assessments using accommodations for learners with documented disabilities. The suggested accommodations for disability categories include provisions for: (1) Accommodations in test administration procedures; and (2) Use of appropriate CASAS…

  1. Relative hardness measurement of soft objects by a new fiber optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Ashtaputre, Pranav; Abou Ziki, Jana; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of relative hardness of soft objects enables replication of human finger tactile perception capabilities. This ability has many applications not only in automation and robotics industry but also in many other areas such as aerospace and robotic surgery where a robotic tool interacts with a soft contact object. One of the practical examples of interaction between a solid robotic instrument and a soft contact object occurs during robotically-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Measuring the relative hardness of bio-tissue, while contacting the robotic instrument, helps the surgeons to perform this type of surgery more reliably. In the present work, a new optical sensor is proposed to measure the relative hardness of contact objects. In order to measure the hardness of a contact object, like a human finger, it is required to apply a small force/deformation to the object by a tactile sensor. Then, the applied force and resulting deformation should be recorded at certain points to enable the relative hardness measurement. In this work, force/deformation data for a contact object is recorded at certain points by the proposed optical sensor. Recorded data is used to measure the relative hardness of soft objects. Based on the proposed design, an experimental setup was developed and experimental tests were performed to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric materials. Experimental results verify the ability of the proposed optical sensor to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric samples.

  2. Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Maceo, Bianca M; Manns, Fabrice; Borja, David; Nankivil, Derek; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Arrieta, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the gradient refractive index to the change in lens power in hamadryas baboon and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher. Thirty-six monkey lenses (1.4-14.1 years) and twenty-five baboon lenses (1.8-28.0 years) were stretched in discrete steps. At each stretching step, the lens back vertex power was measured and the lens cross-section was imaged with optical coherence tomography. The radii of curvature for the lens anterior and posterior surfaces were calculated for each step. The power of each lens surface was determined using refractive indices of 1.365 for the outer cortex and 1.336 for the aqueous. The gradient contribution was calculated by subtracting the power of the surfaces from the measured lens power. In all lenses, the contribution of the surfaces and gradient increased linearly with the amplitude of accommodation. The gradient contributes on average 65 ± 3% for monkeys and 66 ± 3% for baboons to the total power change during accommodation. When expressed in percent of the total power change, the relative contribution of the gradient remains constant with accommodation and age in both species. These findings are consistent with Gullstrand's intracapsular theory of accommodation.

  3. Convergence accommodation to convergence CA/C ratio: convergence versus divergence.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joshua M; Firth, Alison Y

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratio during divergence with base-in (BI) prisms is of a similar or different magnitude to that measured during convergence with base-out (BO) prisms. Eighteen participants with normal binocular single vision were recruited. The participants viewed a pseudo-Gaussian target, which consisted of a light emitting diode (LED) behind a diffusing screen at 40 cm. After 5 minutes of dark adaptation, the refractive status of the eye was measured without any prism using a Shin-Nippon SRW-5000 autorefractor. The participant held the selected prism (5Δ or 10Δ BO or BI, counterbalanced) in front of their right eye and obtained a single, fused image of the target while refractive measures were taken with each. A 30-second rest period was given between measurements. The mean age of the participants was 20.6±3.22 years. The mean CA/C ratios for the 5Δ BO, 10Δ BO, 5Δ BI, and 10Δ BI were 0.108 (±0.074) D/Δ, 0.110 (±0.056) D/Δ, 0.100 (±0.090) D/Δ, and 0.089 (±0.055) D/Δ, respectively. A 2-factor repeated measures ANOVA found that the CA/C ratio did not significantly change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence (p=0.649). Change in accommodation induced by manipulating vergence is similar whether convergence or divergence are induced. The CA/C ratio did not show any change with differing levels of prism-induced convergence and divergence.

  4. 34 CFR 200.18 - Annual measurable objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual measurable objectives. 200.18 Section 200.18 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving...

  5. Quantitative analysis of animal model lens anatomy: accommodative range is related to fiber structure and organization.

    PubMed

    Kuszak, J R; Mazurkiewicz, M; Jison, L; Madurski, A; Ngando, A; Zoltoski, R K

    2006-01-01

    The results of a recent study on accommodation in humans and baboons has revealed that lens fiber structure and organization are key components of the mechanism of accommodation. Dynamic focusing involves the controlled displacement and replacement, or realignment, of cortical fiber-ends at sutures as the mechanism of accommodation at the fiber level. This emended explanation of the mechanism of accommodation raises the following question: as the structure of crystalline lenses are only similar, not identical between species, is accommodative amplitude related to differences in the structure and organization of fibers between species? To address this question, we have quantitatively examined the structure and organization of fibers in a number of the more commonly used animal models (mice, cattle, frogs, rabbits and chickens) for lens research. Lenses (a minimum of 12-18 lenses/species) from mice, cattle, frogs and rabbits were used for this study. Prior to fixation for structural analysis, measurements of the gross shape of the lenses (equatorial diameter, anterior and posterior minor radii [anterior + posterior minor radius = polar axis]) were taken directly through a stereo surgical dissecting microscope equipped with an ocular reticle. Lenses were then prepared for and examined by light (LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Scale computer-assisted drawings (CADs) of lenses and lens fibers were then constructed from quantitative data as described above and from quantitative data contained in micrographs. The differences in fiber structure and organization that effect accommodative range arise early in development and are continued throughout lifelong lens growth. In umbilical suture lenses (avian) secondary fibers develop with almost completely tapered anterior ends (85-90% reduction of their measures of width and thickness at the equator). By comparison, in lenses with line sutures (e.g. frogs and rabbits) secondary fibers develop

  6. Direct Measurements of Gas/Particle Partitioning and Mass Accommodation Coefficients in Environmental Chambers.

    PubMed

    Krechmer, Jordan E; Day, Douglas A; Ziemann, Paul J; Jimenez, Jose L

    2017-10-17

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are a major contributor to fine particulate mass and wield substantial influences on the Earth's climate and human health. Despite extensive research in recent years, many of the fundamental processes of SOA formation and evolution remain poorly understood. Most atmospheric aerosol models use gas/particle equilibrium partitioning theory as a default treatment of gas-aerosol transfer, despite questions about potentially large kinetic effects. We have conducted fundamental SOA formation experiments in a Teflon environmental chamber using a novel method. A simple chemical system produces a very fast burst of low-volatility gas-phase products, which are competitively taken up by liquid organic seed particles and Teflon chamber walls. Clear changes in the species time evolution with differing amounts of seed allow us to quantify the particle uptake processes. We reproduce gas- and aerosol-phase observations using a kinetic box model, from which we quantify the aerosol mass accommodation coefficient (α) as 0.7 on average, with values near unity especially for low volatility species. α appears to decrease as volatility increases. α has historically been a very difficult parameter to measure with reported values varying over 3 orders of magnitude. We use the experimentally constrained model to evaluate the correction factor (Φ) needed for chamber SOA mass yields due to losses of vapors to walls as a function of species volatility and particle condensational sink. Φ ranges from 1-4.

  7. Moire measuring technology for three-dimensional profile of the object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yanjun; Yang, Kuntao

    2006-02-01

    An optical system is designed to get projection of the transmission grating, the deformed grating is obtained on surface of the object. The image of the deformed grating is given by the lens, the reference grating is put on the place of the image, and then the moire fringe is obtained. The amplify principle of the moire fringe is used to measure the profile of the object. The optical principle of the projection is analyzed. And the relation between the phase and the height of object is deduced. From the different point of geometry optics and the physics opticsl, the optical system is analyzed, the factors that influence the image equality and the measuring result are obtained. So the betterment of improving the measuring precision is brought forward, and in the later information processing, because of the diffuse reflection, the image equality is not very well. In order to get a good image, the digital filter is used to filter the noise and smooth the image firstly. Then in order to improve the measure precision, the subdivision technology is applied. The Fourier transform profilometry and phase shifting technology is used in the calculation. A detail analyses is done both in time field and frequency field. And the method of improving the measuring precision is put forward. A good digital filter algorithm is brought forward in the Fourier transform profilometry. In the phase shifting technology, the detail formula of three-step and four-step is given. At last the phase that is relational with the high information of the object is get, but the phase is disconnected phase, after the unwrapping algorithm,the disconnected phase is changed to be the continuous phase. Taking use of the relation between the phase and height, the height is obtained. Then the three-dimensional profile of the measured object can be reconstructed. The system is very convenient for non-contact measure of profile of some objects.

  8. Accommodative amplitude using the minus lens at different near distances

    PubMed Central

    Momeni-Moghaddam, Hamed; Ng, Jason S; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the mean findings and the repeatability of the minus lens (ML) amplitude of accommodation (AA) at 33 cm and 40 cm. Materials and Methods: AA was measured from the dominant eye of 120 fully corrected subjects using the ML procedure when viewing the target at both 33 and 40 cm. Each measurement was repeated between 24 and 48 hours after the first trial. Results: Mean AA when tested at 33 cm and 40 cm was 10.20 diopter (D) (standard deviation [SD] =1.24) and 8.85 D (SD = 1.23), respectively (P < 0.001). The limits of agreement of the measured amplitude calculated with taking into account of the replicates at 33 and 40 cm were − 0.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.34 to −0.04) and 2.53 (95% CI: 2.38 to 2.68), respectively. The repeatability of testing at the two distances 33 and 40 cm was ± 1.24 and ± 0.99, respectively. In addition, the retest reliability of measured amplitude using the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.789–0.920) at 33 cm and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.872–0.945) at 40 cm. Conclusion: There is no agreement in the obtained amplitude at the two measurement distances. Testing the ML AA at 40 cm may be superior given that a lower repeatability coefficient was observed. However, it is unclear whether the larger amplitude measured at 33 cm reflects a larger increase in accommodation (greater proximity effect) or a decrease in the ability to perceive the first slight sustained blur. PMID:28440251

  9. Deformable Surface Accommodating Intraocular Lens: Second Generation Prototype Design Methodology and Testing.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, Sean J; Schwiegerling, Jim T

    2015-04-01

    Present an analysis methodology for developing and evaluating accommodating intraocular lenses incorporating a deformable interface. The next generation design of extruded gel interface intraocular lens is presented. A prototype based upon similar previously in vivo proven design was tested with measurements of actuation force, lens power, interface contour, optical transfer function, and visual Strehl ratio. Prototype verified mathematical models were used to optimize optical and mechanical design parameters to maximize the image quality and minimize the required force to accommodate. The prototype lens produced adequate image quality with the available physiologic accommodating force. The iterative mathematical modeling based upon the prototype yielded maximized optical and mechanical performance through maximum allowable gel thickness to extrusion diameter ratio, maximum feasible refractive index change at the interface, and minimum gel material properties in Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus. The design prototype performed well. It operated within the physiologic constraints of the human eye including the force available for full accommodative amplitude using the eye's natural focusing feedback, while maintaining image quality in the space available. The parameters that optimized optical and mechanical performance were delineated as those, which minimize both asphericity and actuation pressure. The design parameters outlined herein can be used as a template to maximize the performance of a deformable interface intraocular lens. The article combines a multidisciplinary basic science approach from biomechanics, optical science, and ophthalmology to optimize an intraocular lens design suitable for preliminary animal trials.

  10. Cultural Accommodation of Group Substance Abuse Treatment for Latino Adolescents: Results of an RCT

    PubMed Central

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J.; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This RCT was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Methods Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to one of two group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Results Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. Conclusions The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders. PMID:25602465

  11. The influence of first near-spectacle reading correction on accommodation and its interaction with convergence.

    PubMed

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Harrison, Wendy W; Liu, Yue; Cox, Ian; Schor, Clifton M

    2009-09-01

    Accommodation and convergence can adapt to blur and disparity stimuli and to age-related changes in accommodative amplitude. Does this ability decline with age? The authors investigated short-term adaptation to first near-spectacle reading correction on the accommodative-stimulus response (ASR) function, accommodative amplitude (AA), AC/A, and CA/C ratios in a pre-presbyopic and an incipient presbyopic population and determined whether changes in these functions recovered after discontinuation of the use of near spectacles. Thirty subjects with normal vision participated; their ages ranged from 21 to 30 years (n = 15) and 38 to 44 years (n = 15). Oculomotor functions were measured before and after single-vision reading spectacles were worn for near tasks over a 2-month period and then 2 months after the use of near spectacles was discontinued. The slope of the ASR function and the AC/A and CA/C ratios did not change significantly after near spectacles were worn. There was a hyperopic shift of the ASR function that significantly reduced the near point of accommodation (NPA) and lowered the far-point refraction. These changes were age invariant and did not recover after 2 months of discontinuation of near spectacle wear. These results imply that the NPA may be enhanced normally by tonic bias of accommodation that elevates the entire ASR function and produces myopic refraction bias. When this bias relaxes after reading spectacles are worn, there is a hyperopic shift of the refractive state and a reduction of the NPA, specified from optical infinity.

  12. The Influence of First Near-Spectacle Reading Correction on Accommodation and Its Interaction with Convergence

    PubMed Central

    Vedamurthy, Indu; Harrison, Wendy W.; Liu, Yue; Cox, Ian; Schor, Clifton M.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Accommodation and convergence can adapt to blur and disparity stimuli and to age-related changes in accommodative amplitude. Does this ability decline with age? The authors investigated short-term adaptation to first near-spectacle reading correction on the accommodative-stimulus response (ASR) function, accommodative amplitude (AA), AC/A, and CA/C ratios in a pre-presbyopic and an incipient presbyopic population and determined whether changes in these functions recovered after discontinuation of the use of near spectacles. METHODS Thirty subjects with normal vision participated; their ages ranged from 21 to 30 years (n = 15) and 38 to 44 years (n = 15). Oculomotor functions were measured before and after single-vision reading spectacles were worn for near tasks over a 2-month period and then 2 months after the use of near spectacles was discontinued. RESULTS The slope of the ASR function and the AC/A and CA/C ratios did not change significantly after near spectacles were worn. There was a hyperopic shift of the ASR function that significantly reduced the near point of accommodation (NPA) and lowered the far-point refraction. These changes were age invariant and did not recover after 2 months of discontinuation of near spectacle wear. CONCLUSIONS These results imply that the NPA may be enhanced normally by tonic bias of accommodation that elevates the entire ASR function and produces myopic refraction bias. When this bias relaxes after reading spectacles are worn, there is a hyperopic shift of the refractive state and a reduction of the NPA, specified from optical infinity. PMID:19264892

  13. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  14. Finding the Density of Objects without Measuring Mass and Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumba, Frackson; Tsige, Mesfin

    2007-01-01

    A simple method based on the moment of forces and Archimedes' principle is described for finding density without measuring the mass and volume of an object. The method involves balancing two unknown objects of masses M[subscript 1] and M[subscript 2] on each side of a pivot on a metre rule and measuring their corresponding moment arms. The object…

  15. Validation of a rapid, semiautomatic image analysis tool for measurement of gastric accommodation and emptying by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudeepa; Fox, Mark; Pal, Anupam

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advantages for the assessment of gastrointestinal structures and functions; however, processing MRI data is time consuming and this has limited uptake to a few specialist centers. This study introduces a semiautomatic image processing system for rapid analysis of gastrointestinal MRI. For assessment of simpler regions of interest (ROI) such as the stomach, the system generates virtual images along arbitrary planes that intersect the ROI edges in the original images. This generates seed points that are joined automatically to form contours on each adjacent two-dimensional image and reconstructed in three dimensions (3D). An alternative thresholding approach is available for rapid assessment of complex structures like the small intestine. For assessment of dynamic gastrointestinal function, such as gastric accommodation and emptying, the initial 3D reconstruction is used as reference to process adjacent image stacks automatically. This generates four-dimensional (4D) reconstructions of dynamic volume change over time. Compared with manual processing, this semiautomatic system reduced the user input required to analyze a MRI gastric emptying study (estimated 100 vs. 10,000 mouse clicks). This analysis was not subject to variation in volume measurements seen between three human observers. In conclusion, the image processing platform presented processed large volumes of MRI data, such as that produced by gastric accommodation and emptying studies, with minimal user input. 3D and 4D reconstructions of the stomach and, potentially, other gastrointestinal organs are produced faster and more accurately than manual methods. This system will facilitate the application of MRI in gastrointestinal research and clinical practice. PMID:25540229

  16. Barriers to Accommodation Use for Students with Disabilities in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Michael James

    2013-01-01

    Students with disabilities at the postsecondary level face a number of different barriers to accommodation use. Past research has shown that students with disabilities that use accommodations obtain greater academic achievement and higher graduation rates. Limited research has been conducted to identify barriers to accommodation use, and the…

  17. Teaching Adolescent Students with Learning Disabilities to Self-Advocate for Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Redman, Ashleigh Smith; Anderson, Darlene; Gibb, Gordon S.

    2014-01-01

    In the general education classroom students with learning disabilities (LD) often need academic accommodations to be successful. These accommodations are typically selected and implemented by their general education teachers, not by the students themselves. High school students with LD were taught to recognize when an accommodation was needed,…

  18. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Anorexia nervosa (AN) can be difficult to manage. Over time, carers can feel

  19. Objective Measurement of Emerging Affective Traits in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.

    An objective measure of motivation to achieve for preschool children called Gumpgookies is described. It is an objective-projective technique that requires choice between two alternate types of behavior portrayed in pictures and accompanying verbal descriptions. Gumpgookies are amoeba-like creatures who behave in ways intended to show differences…

  20. Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders: a five-year update

    PubMed Central

    Lebowitz, Eli R.; Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Bloch, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Family accommodation describes changes that individuals make to their behavior, to help their relative who is dealing with a psychiatric and/or psychological disorder(s), avoid or alleviate distress related to the disorder. Research on family accommodation has advanced rapidly. In this update we aim to provide a synthesis of findings from the past five years. A search of available, peer-reviewed, English language papers was conducted through PubMed and PsycINFO, cross referencing psychiatric disorders with accommodation and other family-related terms. The resulting 121 papers were individually reviewed and evaluated and the main findings were discussed. Family accommodation is common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in anxiety disorders, and manifests similarly across these disorders. Family accommodation is associated with more severe psychopathology and poorer clinical outcomes. Treatments have begun to focus on the reduction of family accommodation as a primary therapeutic goal and finally, neurobiological underpinnings of family accommodation are beginning to be investigated. PMID:26613396

  1. Family accommodation in obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders: a five-year update.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, Eli R; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Family accommodation describes changes that individuals make to their behavior, to help their relative who is dealing with a psychiatric and/or psychological disorder(s), avoid or alleviate distress related to the disorder. Research on family accommodation has advanced rapidly. In this update we aim to provide a synthesis of findings from the past five years. A search of available, peer-reviewed, English language papers was conducted through PubMed and PsycINFO, cross referencing psychiatric disorders with accommodation and other family-related terms. The resulting 121 papers were individually reviewed and evaluated and the main findings were discussed. Family accommodation is common in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and in anxiety disorders, and manifests similarly across these disorders. Family accommodation is associated with more severe psychopathology and poorer clinical outcomes. Treatments have begun to focus on the reduction of family accommodation as a primary therapeutic goal and finally, neurobiological underpinnings of family accommodation are beginning to be investigated.

  2. Amplitude, Latency, and Peak Velocity in Accommodation and Disaccommodation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Papadatou, Eleni; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to ascertain whether there are differences in amplitude, latency, and peak velocity of accommodation and disaccommodation responses when different analysis strategies are used to compute them, such as fitting different functions to the responses or for smoothing them prior to computing the parameters. Accommodation and disaccommodation responses from four subjects to pulse changes in demand were recorded by means of aberrometry. Three different strategies were followed to analyze such responses: fitting an exponential function to the experimental data; fitting a Boltzmann sigmoid function to the data; and smoothing the data. Amplitude, latency, and peak velocity of the responses were extracted. Significant differences were found between the peak velocity in accommodation computed by fitting an exponential function and smoothing the experimental data (mean difference 2.36 D/s). Regarding disaccommodation, significant differences were found between latency and peak velocity, calculated with the two same strategies (mean difference of 0.15 s and −3.56 D/s, resp.). The strategy used to analyze accommodation and disaccommodation responses seems to affect the parameters that describe accommodation and disaccommodation dynamics. These results highlight the importance of choosing the most adequate analysis strategy in each individual to obtain the parameters that characterize accommodation and disaccommodation dynamics. PMID:29226128

  3. Preliminary study of family accommodation in youth with autism spectrum disorders and anxiety: Incidence, clinical correlates, and behavioral treatment response.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Zavrou, Sophia; Collier, Amanda B; Ung, Danielle; Arnold, Elysse B; Mutch, P Jane; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K

    2015-08-01

    Anxiety symptoms are common in youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and directly associated with symptom severity and functional impairment. Family accommodation occurs frequently among individuals with obsessive-compulsive and anxiety disorders; to date, no data exist on the nature and correlates of family accommodation in youth with ASD and anxiety, as well as its relationship to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome. Forty children with ASD and a comorbid anxiety disorder participated. Clinicians administered measures of ASD and anxiety disorder caseness, anxiety symptom severity, and family accommodation; parents completed questionnaires assessing social responsiveness, internalizing and externalizing behaviors, and functional impairment. A subsample of youth (n = 24) completed a course of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Family accommodation was common and positively correlated with anxiety symptom severity, but not functional impairment, general internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, or social responsiveness. Family accommodation decreased following cognitive-behavioral therapy with decreases in family accommodation being associated with decreases in anxiety levels. Treatment responders reported lower family accommodation frequency and lower parent impact relative to non-responders. Clinical implications of this study in assessing and psychotherapeutically treating youth with ASD and comorbid anxiety are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increased onset of vergence adaptation reduces excessive accommodation during the orthoptic treatment of convergence insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R

    2015-06-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that the successful treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI) with vision-training (VT) procedures, leads to an increased capacity of vergence adaptation (VAdapt) allowing a more rapid downward adjustment of the convergence accommodation cross-link. Nine subjects with CI were recruited from a clinical population, based upon reduced fusional vergence amplitudes, receded near point of convergence or symptomology. VAdapt and the resulting changes to convergence accommodation (CA) were measured at specific intervals over 15 min (pre-training). Separate clinical measures of the accommodative convergence cross link, horizontal fusion limits and near point of convergence were taken and a symptomology questionnaire completed. Subjects then participated in a VT program composed of 2.5h at home and 1h in-office weekly for 12-14 weeks. Clinical testing was done weekly. VAdapt and CA measures were retaken once clinical measures normalized for 2 weeks (mid-training) and then again when symptoms had cleared (post-training). VAdapt and CA responses as well as the clinical measures were taken on a control group showing normal clinical findings. Six subjects provided complete data sets. CI clinical findings reached normal levels between 4 and 7 weeks of training but symptoms, VAdapt, and CA output remained significantly different from the controls until 12-14 weeks. The hypothesis was retained. The reduced VAdapt and excessive CA found in CI were normalized through orthoptic treatment. This time course was underestimated by clinical findings but matched symptom amelioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 14 CFR 1204.1510 - Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. 1204.1510 Section 1204.1510 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Programs and Activities § 1204.1510 Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. (a) If a state...

  6. Disclosure of disease status among employed multiple sclerosis patients: association with negative work events and accommodations.

    PubMed

    Frndak, Seth E; Kordovski, Victoria M; Cookfair, Diane; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2015-02-01

    Unemployment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and detrimental to quality of life. Studies suggest disclosure of diagnosis is an adaptive strategy for patients. However, the role of cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms in disclosure are not well studied. The goals of this paper were to (a) determine clinical factors most predictive of disclosure, and (b) measure the effects of disclosure on workplace problems and accommodations in employed patients. We studied two overlapping cohorts: a cross-sectional sample (n = 143) to determine outcomes associated with disclosure, and a longitudinal sample (n = 103) compared at four time points over one year on reported problems and accommodations. A case study of six patients, disclosing during monitoring, was also included. Disclosure was associated with greater physical disability but not cognitive impairment. Logistic regression predicting disclosure status retained physical disability, accommodations and years of employment (p < 0.0001). Disclosed patients reported more work problems and accommodations over time. The case study revealed that reasons for disclosing are multifaceted, including connection to employer, decreased mobility and problems at work. Although cognitive impairment is linked to unemployment, it does not appear to inform disclosure decisions. Early disclosure may help maintain employment if followed by appropriate accommodations. © The Author(s), 2014.

  7. Generally objective measurement of human temperature and reading ability: some corollaries.

    PubMed

    Stenner, A Jackson; Stone, Mark

    2010-01-01

    We argue that a goal of measurement is general objectivity: point estimates of a person's measure (height, temperature, and reader ability) should be independent of the instrument and independent of the sample in which the person happens to find herself. In contrast, Rasch's concept of specific objectivity requires only differences (i.e., comparisons) between person measures to be independent of the instrument. We present a canonical case in which there is no overlap between instruments and persons: each person is measured by a unique instrument. We then show what is required to estimate measures in this degenerate case. The canonical case encourages a simplification and reconceptualization of validity and reliability. Not surprisingly, this reconceptualization looks a lot like the way physicists and chemometricians think about validity and measurement error. We animate this presentation with a technology that blurs the distinction between instruction, assessment, and generally objective measurement of reader ability. We encourage adaptation of this model to health outcomes measurement.

  8. Circadian rhythms of visual accommodation responses and physiological correlations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a recently developed servocontrolled infrared optometer to continuously record the state of monocular focus while subjects viewed a visual target for which the stimulus to focus was systematically varied. Calculated parameters form recorded data - e.g., speeds of accommodation to approaching and receding targets, magnitude of accommodation to step changes in target distance, and amplitude and phase lag of response to sinusoidally varying stimuli were submitted to periodicity analyses. Ear canal temperature (ECT) and heart rate (HR) rhythms were also recorded for physiological correlation with accommodation rhythms. HR demonstrated a 24-hr rhythm, but ECT data did not.

  9. SURGICAL INTERVENTION AND ACCOMMODATIVE RESPONSES: I. CENTRIPETAL CILIARY BODY, CAPSULE AND LENS MOVEMENT IN RHESUS MONKEYS OF VARYING AGE

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Mary Ann; Mcdonald, Jared P.; James, Rebecca J.; Heatley, Gregg A.; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine how surgically altering the normal relationship between the lens and the ciliary body in rhesus monkeys affects centripetal ciliary body and lens movement. Methods In 18 rhesus monkey eyes (aged 6–27 years), accommodation was induced before and after surgery by electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal (E–W) nucleus. Accommodative amplitude was measured by coincidence refractometry. Goniovideography was performed before and after intra- and extra-capsular lens extraction (ICLE, ECLE) and anterior regional zonulolysis. Centripetal lens/capsule movements, centripetal ciliary process (CP) movements, and circumlental space were measured by computerized image analysis of the goniovideography images. Results Centripetal accommodative CP and capsule movement increased in velocity and amplitude post-ECLE compared to pre-ECLE regardless of age (n=5). The presence of the lens substance retarded capsule movement by ~21% in the young eyes and by ~62% in the older eyes. Post-ICLE compared to pre-ICLE centripetal accommodative CP movement was dampened in all eyes in which the anterior vitreous was disturbed (n=7), but not in eyes in which the anterior vitreous was left intact (n=2). Following anterior regional zonulolysis (n=4), lens position shifted toward the lysed quadrant during accommodation. Conclusions The presence of the lens substance, capsule zonular attachments, and Wiegers ligament may play a role in centripetal CP movement. The capsule is still capable of centripetal movement in the older eye (although at a reduced capacity) and may have the ability to produce ~6 diopters of accommodation in the presence of a normal young crystalline lens or a similar surrogate. PMID:18552393

  10. Surgical intervention and accommodative responses, I: centripetal ciliary body, capsule, and lens movements in rhesus monkeys of various ages.

    PubMed

    Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared P; James, Rebecca J; Heatley, Gregg A; Lin, Ting-Li; Lütjen-Drecoll, Elke; Kaufman, Paul L

    2008-12-01

    To determine how surgically altering the normal relationship between the lens and the ciliary body in rhesus monkeys affects centripetal ciliary body and lens movement. In 18 rhesus monkey eyes (aged 6-27 years), accommodation was induced before and after surgery by electrical stimulation of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus. Accommodative amplitude was measured by coincidence refractometry. Goniovideography was performed before and after intra- and extracapsular lens extraction (ICLE, ECLE) and anterior regional zonulolysis (ARZ). Centripetal lens/capsule movements, centripetal ciliary process (CP) movements, and circumlental space were measured by computerized image analysis of the goniovideography images. Centripetal accommodative CP and capsule movement increased in velocity and amplitude after, compared with before, ECLE regardless of age (n = 5). The presence of the lens substance retarded capsule movement by approximately 21% in the young eyes and by approximately 62% in the older eyes. Post-ICLE compared with pre-ICLE centripetal accommodative CP movement was dampened in all eyes in which the anterior vitreous was disrupted (n = 7), but not in eyes in which the anterior vitreous was left intact (n = 2). After anterior regional zonulolysis (n = 4), lens position shifted toward the lysed quadrant during accommodation. The presence of the lens substance, capsule zonular attachments, and Wieger's ligament may play a role in centripetal CP movement. The capsule is still capable of centripetal movement in the older eye (although at a reduced capacity) and may have the ability to produce approximately 6 D of accommodation in the presence of a normal, young crystalline lens or a similar surrogate.

  11. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  12. Coordination of Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) Science Working Group (SWG) for the study of instrument accommodation and operational requirements on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives are to coordinate the activities of the Science Working Group (SWG) of the Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) for the study of instruments accommodation and operation requirements on board space station. In order to facilitate the progress of the objective, two conferences were organized, together with two small group discussions.

  13. Accommodation requirements for microgravity science and applications research on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhran, M. L.; Holland, L. R.; Wear, W. O.

    1985-01-01

    Scientific research conducted in the microgravity environment of space represents a unique opportunity to explore and exploit the benefits of materials processing in the virtual abscence of gravity induced forces. NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. A study is performed to define from the researchers' perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. The accommodation requirements focus on the microgravity science disciplines including combustion science, electronic materials, metals and alloys, fluids and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and polymer science. User requirements have been identified in eleven research classes, each of which contain an envelope of functional requirements for related experiments having similar characteristics, objectives, and equipment needs. Based on these functional requirements seventeen items of experiment apparatus and twenty items of core supporting equipment have been defined which represent currently identified equipment requirements for a pressurized laboratory module at the initial operating capability of the NASA space station.

  14. Partner accommodation in posttraumatic stress disorder: initial testing of the Significant Others' Responses to Trauma Scale (SORTS).

    PubMed

    Fredman, Steffany J; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Wagner, Anne C; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M

    2014-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myriad relationship problems and psychological distress in partners of individuals with PTSD. This study sought to develop a self-report measure of partner accommodation to PTSD (i.e., ways in which partners alter their behavior in response to patient PTSD symptoms), the Significant Others' Responses to Trauma Scale (SORTS), and to investigate its reliability and construct validity in 46 treatment-seeking couples. The SORTS demonstrated strong internal consistency and associations with individual and relationship distress. Accommodation was positively correlated with partners' ratings of patients' PTSD symptoms, patient self-reported depressive and trait anger severity, and partner self-reported depressive and state anger severity. Accommodation was negatively correlated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction and partners' perceived social support received from patients. Findings suggest that accommodation may be an attempt to adapt to living with a partner with PTSD but may have negative implications for patient and partner well-being. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Partner Accommodation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Initial Testing of the Significant Others' Responses to Trauma Scale (SORTS)

    PubMed Central

    Fredman, Steffany J.; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Wagner, Anne C.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Monson, Candice M.

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with myriad relationship problems and psychological distress in partners of individuals with PTSD. This study sought to develop a self-report measure of partner accommodation to PTSD (i.e., ways in which partners alter their behavior in response to patient PTSD symptoms), the Significant Others' Responses to Trauma Scale (SORTS), and to investigate its reliability and construct validity in 46 treatment-seeking couples. The SORTS demonstrated strong internal consistency and associations with individual and relationship distress. Accommodation was positively correlated with partners' ratings of patients' PTSD symptoms, patient self-reported depressive and trait anger severity, and partner self-reported depressive and state anger severity. Accommodation was negatively correlated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction and partners' perceived social support received from patients. Findings suggest that accommodation may be an attempt to adapt to living with a partner with PTSD but may have negative implications for patient and partner well-being. PMID:24816277

  16. Personal Career Orientation. Performance Objectives. Criterion Measures. Home Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Alveta; And Others

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives for a personal career orientation course for seventh grade students. This 6- to 9-week course is designed to acquaint the student with personal qualities and characteristics necessary for success in the world of work.…

  17. Assessing ADHD symptoms in children and adults: evaluating the role of objective measures.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Johnston, Blair A; Steele, J Douglas; Kooij, Sandra; Thorell, Lisa; Christiansen, Hanna

    2018-05-18

    Diagnostic guidelines recommend using a variety of methods to assess and diagnose ADHD. Applying subjective measures always incorporates risks such as informant biases or large differences between ratings obtained from diverse sources. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that ratings and tests seem to assess somewhat different constructs. The use of objective measures might thus yield valuable information for diagnosing ADHD. This study aims at evaluating the role of objective measures when trying to distinguish between individuals with ADHD and controls. Our sample consisted of children (n = 60) and adults (n = 76) diagnosed with ADHD and matched controls who completed self- and observer ratings as well as objective tasks. Diagnosis was primarily based on clinical interviews. A popular pattern recognition approach, support vector machines, was used to predict the diagnosis. We observed relatively high accuracy of 79% (adults) and 78% (children) applying solely objective measures. Predicting an ADHD diagnosis using both subjective and objective measures exceeded the accuracy of objective measures for both adults (89.5%) and children (86.7%), with the subjective variables proving to be the most relevant. We argue that objective measures are more robust against rater bias and errors inherent in subjective measures and may be more replicable. Considering the high accuracy of objective measures only, we found in our study, we think that they should be incorporated in diagnostic procedures for assessing ADHD.

  18. Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Ong, Hon Shing; Evans, Jennifer R; Allan, Bruce D S

    2014-05-01

    spectacle-independent but the estimate was very uncertain (risk ratio (RR) 8.18; 95% CI 0.47 to 142.62, 1 study, 40 people, very low quality evidence).More cases of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) were seen in accommodative lenses but the effect of the lenses on PCO was uncertain (Peto odds ratio (OR) 2.12; 95% CI 0.45 to 10.02, 91 people, 2 studies, low quality evidence). People in the accommodative lens group were more likely to require laser capsulotomy (Peto OR 7.96; 95% CI 2.49 to 25.45, 2 studies, 60 people, 80 eyes, low quality evidence). Glare was reported less frequently with accommodative lenses but the relative effect of the lenses on glare was uncertain (RR any glare 0.78; 95% CI 0.32 to 1.90, 1 study, 40 people, and RR moderate/severe glare 0.45; 95% CI 0.04 to 4.60, low quality evidence). There is moderate-quality evidence that study participants who received accommodative IOLs had a small gain in near visual acuity after six months. There is some evidence that distance visual acuity with accommodative lenses may be worse after 12 months but due to low quality of evidence and heterogeneity of effect, the evidence for this is not clear-cut. People receiving accommodative lenses had more PCO which may be associated with poorer distance vision. However, the effect of the lenses on PCO was uncertain.Further research is required to improve the understanding of how accommodative IOLs may affect near visual function, and whether they provide any durable gains. Additional trials, with longer follow-up, comparing different accommodative IOLs, multifocal IOLs and monofocal IOLs, would help map out their relative efficacy, and associated late complications. Research is needed on control over capsular fibrosis postimplantation.Risks of bias, heterogeneity of outcome measures and study designs used, and the dominance of one design of accommodative lens in existing trials (the HumanOptics 1CU) mean that these results should be interpreted with caution. They may not be

  19. Online phase measuring profilometry for rectilinear moving object by image correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Han; Cao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Ya-Pin

    2015-11-01

    In phase measuring profilometry (PMP), the object must be static for point-to-point reconstruction with the captured deformed patterns. While the object is rectilinearly moving online, the size and pixel position differences of the object in different captured deformed patterns do not meet the point-to-point requirement. We propose an online PMP based on image correction to measure the three-dimensional shape of the rectilinear moving object. In the proposed method, the deformed patterns captured by a charge-coupled diode camera are reprojected from the oblique view to an aerial view first and then translated based on the feature points of the object. This method makes the object appear stationary in the deformed patterns. Experimental results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Contribution of the crystalline lens gradient refractive index to the accommodation amplitude in non-human primates: In vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    Maceo, Bianca M.; Manns, Fabrice; Borja, David; Nankivil, Derek; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Arrieta, Esdras; Ho, Arthur; Augusteyn, Robert C.; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the gradient refractive index to the change in lens power in hamadryas baboon and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation in a lens stretcher. Thirty-six monkey lenses (1.4–14.1 years) and twenty-five baboon lenses (1.8–28.0 years) were stretched in discrete steps. At each stretching step, the lens back vertex power was measured and the lens cross-section was imaged with optical coherence tomography. The radii of curvature for the lens anterior and posterior surfaces were calculated for each step. The power of each lens surface was determined using refractive indices of 1.365 for the outer cortex and 1.336 for the aqueous. The gradient contribution was calculated by subtracting the power of the surfaces from the measured lens power. In all lenses, the contribution of the surfaces and gradient increased linearly with the amplitude of accommodation. The gradient contributes on average 65 ± 3% for monkeys and 66 ± 3% for baboons to the total power change during accommodation. When expressed in percent of the total power change, the relative contribution of the gradient remains constant with accommodation and age in both species. These findings are consistent with Gullstrand’s intracapsular theory of accommodation. PMID:22131444

  1. Accommodation in Untextured Stimulus Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    that accommodation is notably inaccurate with reduced illumination, textural cue removal, or small aper ture viewing. These situational ametropias are...dark focus. Although, for any individual, large correlations exist among these ametropias , statistically reliable differen ces occur among them as well

  2. Measuring Positions of Objects using Two or More Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinko, Steve; Lane, John; Nelson, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    An improved method of computing positions of objects from digitized images acquired by two or more cameras (see figure) has been developed for use in tracking debris shed by a spacecraft during and shortly after launch. The method is also readily adaptable to such applications as (1) tracking moving and possibly interacting objects in other settings in order to determine causes of accidents and (2) measuring positions of stationary objects, as in surveying. Images acquired by cameras fixed to the ground and/or cameras mounted on tracking telescopes can be used in this method. In this method, processing of image data starts with creation of detailed computer- aided design (CAD) models of the objects to be tracked. By rotating, translating, resizing, and overlaying the models with digitized camera images, parameters that characterize the position and orientation of the camera can be determined. The final position error depends on how well the centroids of the objects in the images are measured; how accurately the centroids are interpolated for synchronization of cameras; and how effectively matches are made to determine rotation, scaling, and translation parameters. The method involves use of the perspective camera model (also denoted the point camera model), which is one of several mathematical models developed over the years to represent the relationships between external coordinates of objects and the coordinates of the objects as they appear on the image plane in a camera. The method also involves extensive use of the affine camera model, in which the distance from the camera to an object (or to a small feature on an object) is assumed to be much greater than the size of the object (or feature), resulting in a truly two-dimensional image. The affine camera model does not require advance knowledge of the positions and orientations of the cameras. This is because ultimately, positions and orientations of the cameras and of all objects are computed in a coordinate

  3. Different Measures of Structural Similarity Tap Different Aspects of Visual Object Processing

    PubMed Central

    Gerlach, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The structural similarity of objects has been an important variable in explaining why some objects are easier to categorize at a superordinate level than to individuate, and also why some patients with brain injury have more difficulties in recognizing natural (structurally similar) objects than artifacts (structurally distinct objects). In spite of its merits as an explanatory variable, structural similarity is not a unitary construct, and it has been operationalized in different ways. Furthermore, even though measures of structural similarity have been successful in explaining task and category-effects, this has been based more on implication than on direct empirical demonstrations. Here, the direct influence of two different measures of structural similarity, contour overlap and within-item structural diversity, on object individuation (object decision) and superordinate categorization performance is examined. Both measures can account for performance differences across objects, but in different conditions. It is argued that this reflects differences between the measures in whether they tap: (i) global or local shape characteristics, and (ii) between- or within-category structural similarity. PMID:28861027

  4. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-04-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by asserting the content as new information; or (b) by presupposing the content as given information which would then have to be accommodated. This distinction predicts that it is conversationally more appropriate to assert implausible information rather than presuppose it (e.g., von Fintel, 2008; Heim, 1992; Stalnaker, 2002). A second view rejects the assumption that presuppositions are accommodated; instead, presuppositions are assimilated into asserted content and both are correspondingly open to challenge (e.g., Gazdar, 1979; van der Sandt, 1992). Under this view, we should not expect to find a difference in conversational appropriateness between asserting implausible information and presupposing it. To distinguish between these two views of linguistic information, we performed two self-paced reading experiments with an on-line stops-making-sense judgment. The results of the two experiments-using the presupposition triggers the and too-show that accommodation is inappropriate (makes less sense) relative to non-presuppositional controls when the presupposed information is implausible but not when it is plausible. These results provide support for the first view of linguistic information: the contrast in implausible contexts can only be explained if there is a presupposition-assertion distinction and accommodation is a mechanism dedicated to reasoning about presuppositions. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Disabilities in the workplace: recruitment, accommodation, and retention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Linda

    2005-07-01

    Who has never had a need for accommodation to perform a job because of age-related changes, gender issues related to family care, religious practices, health status, or disability? Who has never had the benefit of universal accommodations designed to provide access for individuals with disabilities, such as using the handicap button to open a door when one's arms are loaded? All of society has had the benefit of inclusion of individuals with disabilities within the work force. Occupational health nurses are essential to accommodating new employees with disabilities, assisting ill or injured employees in returning to work, and changing attitudes toward disabled workers. Additionally, nurses have the skills and knowledge for leading and managing newly emerging disease management programs for workers with disabilities caused by chronic illness.

  6. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  7. Design principles to accommodate older adults.