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Sample records for objective correction collar

  1. Improving Signal Levels in Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy using an Objective Correction Collar.

    PubMed

    Muriello, Pamela A; Dunn, Kenneth W

    2008-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has enabled biologists to collect high-resolution images hundreds of microns into biological tissues, including tissues of living animals. While the depth of imaging exceeds that possible from any other form of light microscopy, multiphoton microscopy is nonetheless generally limited to depths of less than a millimeter. Many of the advantages of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging accrue from the unique nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation. However, the quadratic relationship between illumination level and fluorescence excitation makes multiphoton microscopy especially susceptible to factors that degrade the illumination focus. Here we examine the effect of spherical aberration on multiphoton microscopy in fixed kidney tissues and in the kidneys of living animals. We find that spherical aberration, as evaluated from axial asymmetry in the point spread function, can be corrected by adjustment of the correction collar of a water immersion objective lens. Introducing a compensatory positive spherical aberration into the imaging system decreased the depth-dependence of signal levels in images collected from living animals, increasing signal by up to 50%.

  2. Improving Signal Levels in Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy using an Objective Correction Collar

    PubMed Central

    Muriello, Pamela A.; Dunn, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has enabled biologists to collect high-resolution images hundreds of microns into biological tissues, including tissues of living animals. While the depth of imaging exceeds that possible from any other form of light microscopy, multiphoton microscopy is nonetheless generally limited to depths of less than a millimeter. Many of the advantages of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging accrue from the unique nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation. However, the quadratic relationship between illumination level and fluorescence excitation makes multiphoton microscopy especially susceptible to factors that degrade the illumination focus. Here we examine the effect of spherical aberration on multiphoton microscopy in fixed kidney tissues and in the kidneys of living animals. We find that spherical aberration, as evaluated from axial asymmetry in the point spread function, can be corrected by adjustment of the correction collar of a water immersion objective lens. Introducing a compensatory positive spherical aberration into the imaging system decreased the depth-dependence of signal levels in images collected from living animals, increasing signal by up to 50%. PMID:19343075

  3. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd

  4. Microvascularization on collared peccary placenta: a microvascular cast study [corrected] in late pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Tatiana Carlesso; Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Dantzer, Vibeke; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-07-01

    The microvascularization of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta was studied by vascular casts and immunolocalization of α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin, to identify the three dimensional organization and vascular flow interrelation in the microvasculature between the maternal and fetal compartments of the placentae. The immunolocalization of vimentin in the vascular endothelium and in the smooth muscle cells of blood vessels showed indented capillaries along the uterine epithelium and the trophoblast at the sides of complementary maternal and fetal microfolds, or rugae. This confers the three-dimensional structure observed in vascular casts. On the maternal side, casts demonstrated uterine folds coated by with primary and secondary ridges, and by areolae dispersed between these ridges. The arteriole runs through the center/middle of ridges, branching at the top into a microvascular network wall in a basket-like fashion. At the base of these baskets venules were formed. On the fetal side, arterioles branched centrally in the fetal rugae into a capillary network in a bulbous form, complementary to the opposite maternal depressions forming the baskets. At the base of the bulbous protrusions, the fetal venules arise. The blood vessel orientation in the materno-fetal interface of the placentae of collared peccaries suggests a blood flow pattern of the type countercurrent to cross current. The same pattern has been reported in domestic swine demonstrating that, even after 38 million years, the Tayassuidae and Suidae families exhibit similar placental morphology, which is here characterized at the microvascular level.

  5. Are forward bending of the trunk and low back pain associated among Danish blue-collar workers? A cross-sectional field study based on objective measures.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Morten; Samani, Afshin; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Gupta, Nidhi; Madeleine, Pascal; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between the duration of objectively measured forward bending of the trunk and low back pain (LBP) intensity among 198 Danish blue-collar workers (male = 115; female = 83). The duration of forward bending of ≥ 30°, ≥ 60° and ≥ 90° was divided into high (the highest tertile) and low-moderate (the remaining tertiles) categories. High (>5) and low ( ≤ 5) pain intensities were categorised from a self-reported 0-9 scale. Results of multi-adjusted logistic regressions indicated no significant positive associations between forward bending and LBP intensity. On the contrary, higher duration of forward bending of ≥ 30° was associated with lower LBP intensity during all day (OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-1.02; p = 0.05) and work (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.17-1.15; p = 0.09). This indication of a negative association may be explained by fear-avoidance behaviour of the blue-collar worker, job crafting or healthy worker effect.

  6. Rapid Visuomotor Corrective Responses during Transport of Hand-Held Objects Incorporate Novel Object Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Jonathan S; Nashed, Joseph Y; Johansson, Roland S; Wolpert, Daniel M; Flanagan, J Randall

    2015-07-22

    Numerous studies have shown that people are adept at learning novel object dynamics, linking applied force and motion, when performing reaching movements with hand-held objects. Here we investigated whether the control of rapid corrective arm responses, elicited in response to visual perturbations, has access to such newly acquired knowledge of object dynamics. Participants first learned to make reaching movements while grasping an object subjected to complex load forces that depended on the distance and angle of the hand from the start position. During a subsequent test phase, we examined grip and load force coordination during corrective arm movements elicited (within ∼150 ms) in response to viewed sudden lateral shifts (1.5 cm) in target or object position. We hypothesized that, if knowledge of object dynamics is incorporated in the control of the corrective responses, grip force changes would anticipate the unusual load force changes associated with the corrective arm movements so as to support grasp stability. Indeed, we found that the participants generated grip force adjustments tightly coupled, both spatially and temporally, to the load force changes associated with the arm movement corrections. We submit that recently learned novel object dynamics are effectively integrated into sensorimotor control policies that support rapid visually driven arm corrective actions during transport of hand held objects. Significance statement: Previous studies have demonstrated that the motor system can learn, and make use of, internal models of object dynamics to generate feedforward motor commands. However, it is not known whether such internal models are incorporated into rapid, automatic arm movement corrections that compensate for errors that arise during movement. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that internal models of novel object dynamics are integrated into rapid corrective arm movements made in response to visuomotor perturbations that, importantly, do

  7. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  8. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  9. Iterative Beam Hardening Correction for Multi-Material Objects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunsong; Li, Mengfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an iterative beam hardening correction method that is applicable for the case with multiple materials. By assuming that the materials composing scanned object are known and that they are distinguishable by their linear attenuation coefficients at some given energy, the beam hardening correction problem is converted into a nonlinear system problem, which is then solved iteratively. The reconstructed image is the distribution of linear attenuation coefficient of the scanned object at a given energy. So there are no beam hardening artifacts in the image theoretically. The proposed iterative scheme combines an accurate polychromatic forward projection with a linearized backprojection. Both forward projection and backprojection have high degree of parallelism, and are suitable for acceleration on parallel systems. Numerical experiments with both simulated data and real data verifies the validity of the proposed method. The beam hardening artifacts are alleviated effectively. In addition, the proposed method has a good tolerance on the error of the estimated x-ray spectrum.

  10. Solving the problem of pressure ulcers resulting from cervical collars.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, B

    1996-05-01

    Cervical orthotic devices (cervical collars) are integral to the treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed fracture of the cervical spine. Pressure ulcers can develop under the cervical collar on the occipital protuberance and on the chin due to both prolonged immobilization and the collar construction. A multidisciplinary team at a Northwest Ohio trauma center led an investigation of this problem when a one day study of pressure ulcer prevalence revealed that of 4% of nosocomial pressure ulcers, 2% were attributed to cervical collars. To solve this problem, the team visualized risk factors using a fishbone diagram, investigated by calling manufacturers and other institutions and by searching the literature, developed educational programs on skin care and correct collar fitting, conducted a product trial on a new collar, and continuously monitored the results. The conclusions of the team were that the pressure ulcers were the result of the construction of the previous cervical collars used. The product trial resulted in zero skin breakdown for the 20 patients involved. Changes implemented as a result were an improved skin care regimen, education on proper fitting and appropriate choice of collars, and implementation of the new collar for trauma patients. PMID:8826136

  11. Solving the problem of pressure ulcers resulting from cervical collars.

    PubMed

    Blaylock, B

    1996-05-01

    Cervical orthotic devices (cervical collars) are integral to the treatment of patients with suspected or confirmed fracture of the cervical spine. Pressure ulcers can develop under the cervical collar on the occipital protuberance and on the chin due to both prolonged immobilization and the collar construction. A multidisciplinary team at a Northwest Ohio trauma center led an investigation of this problem when a one day study of pressure ulcer prevalence revealed that of 4% of nosocomial pressure ulcers, 2% were attributed to cervical collars. To solve this problem, the team visualized risk factors using a fishbone diagram, investigated by calling manufacturers and other institutions and by searching the literature, developed educational programs on skin care and correct collar fitting, conducted a product trial on a new collar, and continuously monitored the results. The conclusions of the team were that the pressure ulcers were the result of the construction of the previous cervical collars used. The product trial resulted in zero skin breakdown for the 20 patients involved. Changes implemented as a result were an improved skin care regimen, education on proper fitting and appropriate choice of collars, and implementation of the new collar for trauma patients.

  12. Effects of Football Collars on Cervical Hyperextension and Lateral Flexion

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, Jeffery A.; Swanik, C. Buz; Swanik, Kathleen A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of 3 football collars in reducing cervical range of motion. Design and Setting: A repeated-measures design in a controlled laboratory setting. Subjects: Fifteen male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I varsity football athletes. Measurements: Cervical hyperextension and lateral flexion were measured with video analysis. Subjects underwent 5 testing conditions: standard football helmet, standard helmet and shoulder pads, and standard pads with the addition of the Cowboy Collar, A-Force Neck Collar, or a foam neck roll. Subjects performed motions both actively and passively. Results: All 3 collars reduced hyperextension when compared with the helmet and shoulder pads alone (P < .05); in addition, the Cowboy Collar was superior to the foam neck roll (P < .05) in reducing hyperextension. No collar reduced passive lateral flexion when compared with the helmet and shoulder pads, but the foam neck roll permitted significantly less active lateral flexion (P < .01) than the other 3 brace conditions. Conclusions: In a laboratory setting, cervical hyperextension can be controlled through the use of various cervical collars. Cervical lateral flexion (a more common cause of burners in a scholastic population) cannot be controlled with any of the cervical collars tested. Moreover, foam collars may impede active lateral flexion while not providing additional protection when loaded. These results are limited in that they were produced in a controlled situation as opposed to active football play. PMID:14608429

  13. From white-collar crime to red-collar crime

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Richard G.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. Practical implications The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. Originality/value The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes. PMID:25414590

  14. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  15. Automated spherical aberration correction in scanning confocal microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H. W.; van Royen, M. E.; van Cappellen, W. A.; Houtsmuller, A. B.; Verhaegen, M.; Schitter, G.

    2014-12-01

    Mismatch between the refractive indexes of immersion media and glass coverslips introduces spherical aberrations in microscopes especially for high numerical aperture objectives. This contribution demonstrates an automated adjustment of the coverslip correction collar in scanning confocal microscopy to compensate for spherical aberrations due to coverslip thickness mismatch. With a motorized coverslip correction collar, the adjustment procedure consists of xz image scans, image processing, correction quality evaluation, the mismatch estimation, and eventually the optimal adjustment of the correction collar. For fast correction with less photodamage, coarse-fine Gaussian fitting algorithms are proposed and evaluated with various specimen for their estimation accuracy. The benefits of the proposed automated correction are demonstrated for various coverslips with biological specimens, showing the optimized resolution of the confocal microscope.

  16. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior.

  17. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  18. The blue-collar brain.

    PubMed

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body's tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  19. The role of attention in motion extrapolation: are moving objects 'corrected' or flashed objects attentionally delayed?

    PubMed

    Khurana, B; Watanabe, K; Nijhawan, R

    2000-01-01

    Objects flashed in alignment with moving objects appear to lag behind [Nijhawan, 1994 Nature (London) 370 256-257]. Could this 'flash-lag' effect be due to attentional delays in bringing flashed items to perceptual awareness [Titchener, 1908/1973 Lectures on the Elementary Psychology of Feeling and Attention first published 1908 (New York: Macmillan); reprinted 1973 (New York: Arno Press)]? We overtly manipulated attentional allocation in three experiments to address the following questions: Is the flash-lag effect affected when attention is (a) focused on a single event in the presence of multiple events, (b) distributed over multiple events, and (c) diverted from the flashed object? To address the first two questions, five rings, moving along a circular path, were presented while observers attentively tracked one or multiple rings under four conditions: the ring in which the disk was flashed was (i) known or (ii) unknown (randomly selected from the set of five); location of the flashed disk was (i) known or (ii) unknown (randomly selected from ten locations). The third question was investigated by using two moving objects in a cost-benefit cueing paradigm. An arrow cued, with 70% or 80% validity, the position of the flashed object. Observers performed two tasks: (a) reacted as quickly as possible to flash onset; (b) reported the flash-lag effect. We obtained a significant and unaltered flash-lag effect under all the attentional conditions we employed. Furthermore, though reaction times were significantly shorter for validly cued flashes, the flash-lag effect remained uninfluenced by cue validity, indicating that quicker responses to validly cued locations may be due to the shortening of post-perceptual delays in motor responses rather than the perceptual facilitation. We conclude that the computations that give rise to the flash-lag effect are independent of attentional deployment.

  20. Object image correction using an X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer hologram.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas K

    2014-03-01

    Taking into account background correction and using Fourier analysis, a numerical method of an object image correction using an X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer hologram is presented. An example of the image correction of a cylindrical beryllium wire is considered. A background correction of second-order iteration leads to an almost precise reconstruction of the real part of the amplitude transmission coefficient and improves the imaginary part compared with that without a background correction. Using Fourier analysis of the reconstructed transmission coefficient, non-physical oscillations can be avoided. This method can be applied for the determination of the complex amplitude transmission coefficient of amplitude as well as phase objects, and can be used in X-ray microscopy.

  1. Population delineation of polar bears using satellite collar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, R.; Taylor, M.; Amstrup, S.; Messler, F.

    1996-01-01

    To produce reliable estimates of the size or vital rates of a given population, it is important that the boundaries of the population under study are clearly defined. This is particularly critical for large, migratory animals where levels of sustainable harvest are based on these estimates, and where small errors may have serious long-term consequences for the population. Once populations are delineated, rates of exchange between adjacent populations can be determined and accounted/corrected for when calculating abundance (e.g., based on mark-recapture data). Using satellite radio-collar locations for polar bears in the western Canadian Arctic, we illustrate one approach to delineating wildlife populations that integrates cluster analysis methods for determining group membership with home range plotting procedures to define spatial utilization. This approach is flexible with respect to the specific procedures used and provides an objective and quantitative basis for defining population boundaries.

  2. Is a pre-change object representation weakened under correct detection of a change?

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yei-Yu; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2009-03-01

    We investigated whether a pre-change representation is inhibited or weakened under correct change detection. Two arrays of six objects were rapidly presented for change detection in three experiments. After detection, the perceptual identification of degraded stimuli was tested in Experiments 1 and 2. The weakening of a pre-change representation was not observed under correct detection. The repetition priming effect was observed for a pre-change object and the magnitude was equivalent to the effect for a post-change object. Under change blindness, repetition priming for a pre-change representation was observed when detection did not require report of location in Experiment 1 and was not observed when location was required to be reported in Experiment 2. The results of Experiment 3 showed that a pre-change representation was recognized at a higher rate under correct detection than under change blindness, reflecting a stronger rather than a weaker pre-change representation in the former context.

  3. Online phase measuring profilometry for rectilinear moving object by image correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Han; Cao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Ya-Pin

    2015-11-01

    In phase measuring profilometry (PMP), the object must be static for point-to-point reconstruction with the captured deformed patterns. While the object is rectilinearly moving online, the size and pixel position differences of the object in different captured deformed patterns do not meet the point-to-point requirement. We propose an online PMP based on image correction to measure the three-dimensional shape of the rectilinear moving object. In the proposed method, the deformed patterns captured by a charge-coupled diode camera are reprojected from the oblique view to an aerial view first and then translated based on the feature points of the object. This method makes the object appear stationary in the deformed patterns. Experimental results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. Correcting scale drift by object recognition in single-camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Botterill, Tom; Mills, Steven; Green, Richard

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel solution to the problem of scale drift in single-camera simultaneous localization and mapping, based on recognizing and measuring objects. When reconstructing the trajectory of a camera moving in an unknown environment, the scale of the environment, and equivalently the speed of the camera, is obtained by accumulating relative scale estimates over sequences of frames. This leads to scale drift: errors in scale accumulate over time. The proposed solution is to learn the classes of objects that appear throughout the environment and to use measurements of the size of these objects to improve the scale estimate. A bag-of-words-based scheme to learn object classes, to recognize object instances, and to use these observations to correct scale drift is described and is demonstrated reducing accumulated errors by 64% while navigating for 2.5 km through a dynamic outdoor environment.

  5. Correcting scale drift by object recognition in single-camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Botterill, Tom; Mills, Steven; Green, Richard

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes a novel solution to the problem of scale drift in single-camera simultaneous localization and mapping, based on recognizing and measuring objects. When reconstructing the trajectory of a camera moving in an unknown environment, the scale of the environment, and equivalently the speed of the camera, is obtained by accumulating relative scale estimates over sequences of frames. This leads to scale drift: errors in scale accumulate over time. The proposed solution is to learn the classes of objects that appear throughout the environment and to use measurements of the size of these objects to improve the scale estimate. A bag-of-words-based scheme to learn object classes, to recognize object instances, and to use these observations to correct scale drift is described and is demonstrated reducing accumulated errors by 64% while navigating for 2.5 km through a dynamic outdoor environment. PMID:24273146

  6. On the Concept of Varying Influence Radii for a Successive Corrections Objective Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    There has been a long standing concept by those who use successive corrections objective analysis that the way to obtain the most accurate objective analysis is first, to analyze for the long wavelengths and then to build in the details of the shorter wavelengths by successively decreasing the influence of the more distant observations upon the interpolated values. Using the Barnes method, the filter characteristics were compared for families of response curves that pass through a common point at a reference wavelength. It was found that the filter cutoff is a maximum if the filter parameters that determine the influence of observations are unchanged for both the initial and corrections passes. This information was used to define and test the following hypothesis. If accuracy is defined by how well the method retains desired wavelengths and removes undesired wavelengths, then the Barnes method gives the most accurate analyses if the filter parameter on the initial and corrections passes are the same. This hypothesis does not follow the usual conceptual approach to successive corrections analysis.

  7. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with...

  8. A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2007-11-15

    Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup

  9. The vest-collar as a rodent collar to prevent licking and scratching during experiments.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yura; Park, Ye Eun; Yun, Cheol-Won; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chung, Hesson

    2016-08-01

    Various types of restraint collars have been used for research animals, and the Elizabethan collar (E-collar) is the most commonly used. However, animals can be choked by the E-collar or they tend to remove it; furthermore, repeated rubbing and scratching of the collar may chafe the neck. We developed a new restraint collar with a vest to overcome these limitations. The vest-collar (V-collar) can be worn similarly to a vest, in contrast to the E-collar, which is fixed around the neck. A cone-shaped collar is attached to the vest in the V-collar and is made of Eva foam to surround the chest softly, accompanied by a transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film for visibility. To evaluate the performance of the V-collar, we conducted experiments with mice wearing the V-collar and the E-collar. Both groups showed normal weight gain and food intake. Glucose and stress hormone levels showed no significant differences, and no stress-associated leukocyte profiles were observed during the experiments. However, despite the short experimental duration, more than half of the mice in the E-collar group showed injury to the skin on the neck, with increased thickness of the epidermal and keratin layers. Moreover, inflammatory cell counts were higher in the E-collar group than in the V-collar group. In conclusion, the V-collar, in contrast to the E-collar, does not cause skin injuries in animals and is thus beneficial for animals and investigators. Investigators can effectively use the V-collar to enhance laboratory animal welfare.

  10. Multi-object Feature Detection and Error Correction for NIF Automatic Optical Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2006-07-17

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In any laser beam alignment operation, a beam needs to be aligned to a reference location. Generally, the beam and reference fiducials are composed of separate beams, as a result only a single feature of each beam needs to be identified for determining the position of the beam or reference. However, it is possible to have the same beam image contain both the beam and reference fiducials. In such instances, it is essential to separately identify these features. In the absence of wavefront correction or when image quality is poor, the features of such beams may get distorted making it difficult to distinguish between different fiducials. Error checking and correction mechanism must be implemented to avoid misidentification of one type of feature as the other. This work presents the algorithm for multi-object detection and error correction implemented for such a beam line image in the NIF facility. Additionally, we show how when the original algorithm fails a secondary algorithm takes over and provides required location outputs.

  11. Geometric correction of atmospheric turbulence-degraded video containing moving objects.

    PubMed

    Halder, Kalyan Kumar; Tahtali, Murat; Anavatti, Sreenatha G

    2015-02-23

    Long-distance surveillance is a challenging task because of atmospheric turbulence that causes time-varying image shifts and blurs in images. These distortions become more significant as the imaging distance increases. This paper presents a new method for compensating image shifting in a video sequence while keeping real moving objects in the video unharmed. In this approach, firstly, a highly accurate and fast optical flow technique is applied to estimate the motion vector maps of the input frames and a centroid algorithm is employed to generate a geometrically correct frame in which there is no moving object. The second step involves applying an algorithm for detecting real moving objects in the video sequence and then restoring it with those objects unaffected. The performance of the proposed method is verified by comparing it with that of a state-of-the-art approach. Simulation experiments using both synthetic and real-life surveillance videos demonstrate that this method significantly improves the accuracy of image restoration while preserving moving objects.

  12. An improved dark-object subtraction technique for atmospheric scattering correction of multispectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Digital analysis of remotely sensed data has become an important component of many earth-science studies. These data are often processed through a set of preprocessing or "clean-up" routines that includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, often called haze. Various methods to correct or remove the additive haze component have been developed, including the widely used dark-object subtraction technique. A problem with most of these methods is that the haze values for each spectral band are selected independently. This can create problems because atmospheric scattering is highly wavelength-dependent in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the scattering values are correlated with each other. Therefore, multispectral data such as from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner must be corrected with haze values that are spectral band dependent. An improved dark-object subtraction technique is demonstrated that allows the user to select a relative atmospheric scattering model to predict the haze values for all the spectral bands from a selected starting band haze value. The improved method normalizes the predicted haze values for the different gain and offset parameters used by the imaging system. Examples of haze value differences between the old and improved methods for Thematic Mapper Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are 40.0, 13.0, 12.0, 8.0, 5.0, and 2.0 vs. 40.0, 13.2, 8.9, 4.9, 16.7, and 3.3, respectively, using a relative scattering model of a clear atmosphere. In one Landsat multispectral scanner image the haze value differences for Bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 30.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 40.0 for the old method vs. 30.0, 34.4, 43.6, and 6.4 for the new method using a relative scattering model of a hazy atmosphere. ?? 1988.

  13. Collar nut and thrust ring

    DOEpatents

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  14. Shielding effect of thyroid collar for digital panoramic radiography

    PubMed Central

    Han, G-S; Cheng, J-G; Li, G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the shielding effect of thyroid collar for digital panoramic radiography. Methods: 4 machines [Orthopantomograph® OP200 (Instrumentarium Dental, Tuusula, Finland), Orthophos CD (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany), Orthophos XG Plus (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH) and ProMax® (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland)] were used in this study. Average tissue-absorbed doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeter chips in an anthropomorphic phantom. Effective organ and total effective doses were derived according to the International Commission of Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations. The shielding effect of one collar in front and two collars both in front and at the back of the neck was measured. Results: The effective organ doses of the thyroid gland obtained from the 4 panoramic machines were 1.12 μSv for OP200, 2.71 μSv for Orthophos CD, 2.18 μSv for Orthophos XG plus and 2.20 μSv for ProMax, when no thyroid collar was used. When 1 collar was used in front of the neck, the effective organ doses of the thyroid gland were 1.01 μSv (9.8% reduction), 2.45 μSv (9.6% reduction), 1.76 μSv (19.3% reduction) and 1.70 μSv (22.7% reduction), respectively. Significant differences in dose reduction were found for Orthophos XG Plus and ProMax. When two collars were used, the effective organ doses of the thyroid gland were also significantly reduced for the two machines Orthophos XG Plus and ProMax. The same trend was observed in the total effective doses for the four machines. Conclusions: Wearing a thyroid collar was helpful when the direct digital panoramic imaging systems were in use, whereas for the indirect digital panoramic imaging systems, the thyroid collar did not have an extra protective effect on the thyroid gland and whole body. PMID:24005060

  15. Rigid plastic collars for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballou, R.M.; Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Rigid plastic collars of one to three colors proved useful for recognition of individual Canada geese (Branta canadensis). The collars did not seem to affect the behavior of the geese, and there was little mortality caused by their use. In good light, bright colors are visible through a 20-power spotting scope for more than 1 mile. Retention of collars was about 90 percent for 1 year and more than 80 percent for 2 years.

  16. Efficient correction for CT image artifacts caused by objects extending outside the scan field of view.

    PubMed

    Ohnesorge, B; Flohr, T; Schwarz, K; Heiken, J P; Bae, K T

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a method of eliminating CT image artifacts generated by objects extending outside the scan field of view, such as obese or inadequately positioned patients. CT projection data are measured only within the scan field of view and thus are abruptly discontinuous at the projection boundaries if the scanned object extends outside the scan field of view. This data discontinuity causes an artifact that consists of a bright peripheral band that obscures objects near the boundary of the scan field of view. An adaptive mathematical extrapolation scheme with low computational expense was applied to reduce the data discontinuity prior to convolution in a filtered backprojection reconstruction. Despite extended projection length, the convolution length was not increased and thus the reconstruction time was not affected. Raw projection data from ten patients whose bodies extended beyond the scan field of view were reconstructed using a conventional method and our extended reconstruction method. Limitations of the algorithm are investigated and extensions for further improvement are discussed. The images reconstructed by conventional filtered backprojection demonstrated peripheral bright-band artifacts near the boundary of the scan field of view. Images reconstructed with our technique were free of such artifacts and clearly showed the anatomy at the periphery of the scan field of view with correct attenuation values. We conclude that bright-band artifacts generated by obese patients whose bodies extend beyond the scan field of view were eliminated with our reconstruction method, which reduces boundary data discontinuity. The algorithm can be generalized to objects with inhomogeneous peripheral density and to true "Region of Interest Reconstruction" from truncated projections.

  17. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the article by Heuslein et al, which published online ahead of print on September 3, 2015 (DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305775), a correction was needed. Brett R. Blackman was added as the penultimate author of the article. The article has been corrected for publication in the November 2015 issue. PMID:26490278

  18. High-resolution microscopy with low-resolution objectives: correcting phase aberrations in Fourier ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konda, Pavan Chandra; Taylor, Jonathan M.; Harvey, Andrew R.

    2015-09-01

    The spatial resolution of a microscope is inversely proportionate to the sum of the objective numerical aperture (NA) and the illumination NA. Fourier Ptychography (FP) microscopy achieves high-resolution, wide-field imaging by the use of a low-NA, wide-field objective combined with time-sequential synthesis of high NA illumination using an array of LEDs. We describe reconstruction algorithms based on Fresnel propagation, rather than the traditional Fraunhofer propagation, which enables more accurate representation of LED illumination and hence reduced aberration in the image reconstruction. This also enables the new technique of Multi-Aperture Fourier Ptychography in the near-field. In this work the implementation of this algorithm is described together with some experimental results. The performance of this algorithm is validated by comparing to Fraunhofer based algorithm. More sophisticated update functions in the reconstruction procedures developed for FP are implemented with this algorithm and their performance is validated. The pupil phase can also be reconstructed during the reconstruction procedure hence allowing us to correct for the aberrations in the optical system without the need of any additional measurements.

  19. Building illness in the white-collar workplace.

    PubMed

    Sterling, T D; Sterling, E; Dimich-Ward, H

    1983-01-01

    An increasing incidence of "building illness" is being noted among white-collar workers due to the high pollutant content of air in modern energy-efficient office buildings. These buildings are hermetically sealed, mechanically ventilated, and contain many materials that give off a variety of toxic fumes and aerosols. Severe outbreaks of illness have also been traced to ventilation problems in sealed hospital buildings. Similarly, tightly sealed and well insulated private homes present many sources of toxic pollutants to homemakers. Recent studies linking increases in the frequency and duration of respiratory illnesses with increasing pollution levels warn us that increases in indoor pollution levels should be avoided in the white-collar workplace, hospital, and private residence. Unfortunately, the cost of adequate ventilation of modern air-tight buildings is high. However, proper planning must be conducted to foresee and correct the impact of energy management policies on the livability and healthfulness of the indoor environment.

  20. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  1. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  2. Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    The feature article "Material advantage?" on the effects of technology and rule changes on sporting performance (July pp28-30) stated that sprinters are less affected by lower oxygen levels at high altitudes because they run "aerobically". They run anaerobically. The feature about the search for the Higgs boson (August pp22-26) incorrectly gave the boson's mass as roughly 125 MeV it is 125 GeV, as correctly stated elsewhere in the issue. The article also gave a wrong value for the intended collision energy of the Superconducting Super Collider, which was designed to collide protons with a total energy of 40 TeV.

  3. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Circulation Research article by Keith and Bolli (“String Theory” of c-kitpos Cardiac Cells: A New Paradigm Regarding the Nature of These Cells That May Reconcile Apparently Discrepant Results. Circ Res. 2015:116:1216-1230. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305557) states that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of fibroblasts and adventitial cells, some smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and rare cardiomyocytes originated from c-kit positive progenitors. However, van Berlo et al reported that only occasional fibroblasts and adventitial cells derived from c-kit positive progenitors in their studies. Accordingly, the review has been corrected to indicate that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of endothelial cells, with some smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and more rarely cardiomyocytes, originated from c-kit positive progenitors in their murine model. The authors apologize for this error, and the error has been noted and corrected in the online version of the article, which is available at http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/7/1216.full ( PMID:25999426

  4. Methods for correcting morphological-based deficiencies in hyperspectral images of round objects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NIR images of curved surfaces contain undesirable artifacts that are a consequence of the morphology, or shape of the sample. A software correction was developed to remove the variation in pixel intensity in hyperspectral images of spherical samples generated on a linescan type imaging system. The c...

  5. Methods for correcting morphological-based deficiencies in hyperspectral images of round objects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NIR images of curved surfaces contain undesirable artifacts that are a consequence of the morphology, or shape of the sample. A software correction was developed to remove the variation in pixel intensity based directly on well known physical effects involving light reflection and intensity. The ide...

  6. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  7. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-08-24

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  8. Neural activation for conceptual identification of correct versus incorrect tool-object pairs.

    PubMed

    Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2010-10-01

    Appropriate tool-object pairing is a natural part of our lives. When preparing to clean our teeth, we know that a toothbrush is useful, but not a screwdriver. The neural correlates of this pairing process remain unclear. We recorded 64-channel electroencephalography to determine neural correlates of identification of tool-object matches and mismatches. Subjects were shown a target tool (e.g. spoon) later paired with an object that was either a conceptual match (e.g. bowl) or mismatch (e.g. wood). To verify that activity was not related to general concept of match-mismatch, in a second condition subjects saw non-tool environmental items (e.g. bird) later paired with a conceptual match (e.g. nest) or mismatch (e.g. spider web). Analysis was focused on time bins after each picture, using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Tool-object match versus mismatch revealed significant differences in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus. These patterns were not present for environmental match versus mismatch. This work suggests a specific network in comprehending tool-based pairings, but not extensive to other pairings. The posterior cingulate, precuneus, insula and superior temporal gyrus preferentially differentiates tool-object matching and mismatching, identifying a potential locus related to impairments in comprehending appropriate and inappropriate tool-object relationships that arise after neural injury.

  9. Parkinson's disease patients show impaired corrective grasp control and eye-hand coupling when reaching to grasp virtual objects.

    PubMed

    Lukos, J R; Snider, J; Hernandez, M E; Tunik, E; Hillyard, S; Poizner, H

    2013-12-19

    The effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on hand-eye coordination and corrective response control during reach-to-grasp tasks remains unclear. Moderately impaired PD patients (n=9) and age-matched controls (n=12) reached to and grasped a virtual rectangular object, with haptic feedback provided to the thumb and index fingertip by two 3-degree of freedom manipulanda. The object rotated unexpectedly on a minority of trials, requiring subjects to adjust their grasp aperture. On half the trials, visual feedback of finger positions disappeared during the initial phase of the reach, when feedforward mechanisms are known to guide movement. PD patients were tested without (OFF) and with (ON) medication to investigate the effects of dopamine depletion and repletion on eye-hand coordination online corrective response control. We quantified eye-hand coordination by monitoring hand kinematics and eye position during the reach. We hypothesized that if the basal ganglia are important for eye-hand coordination and online corrections to object perturbations, then PD patients tested OFF medication would show reduced eye-hand spans and impoverished arm-hand coordination responses to the perturbation, which would be further exasperated when visual feedback of the hand was removed. Strikingly, PD patients tracked their hands with their gaze, and their movements became destabilized when having to make online corrective responses to object perturbations exhibiting pauses and changes in movement direction. These impairments largely remained even when tested in the ON state, despite significant improvement on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Our findings suggest that basal ganglia-cortical loops are essential for mediating eye-hand coordination and adaptive online responses for reach-to-grasp movements, and that restoration of tonic levels of dopamine may not be adequate to remediate this coordinative nature of basal ganglia-modulated function.

  10. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of

  11. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for

  12. Flexible plastic collars compared to nasal discs for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, G.A.

    1966-01-01

    Construction of a flexible plastic collar for marking geese is described. The usefulness of the collars, tried on 468 Canada geese (Branta canadensis) at the Seney National Wildlife Refuge from 1963 to 1965, was compared with that of nasal discs attached to 361 Canada geese at Seney in 1961 and 1962. The collars were superior to the discs in visibility, retention, and ease of placement, and injury to the geese was eliminated. There was no evidence that the collars affected breeding behavior.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of freely moving objects: prospective real-time motion correction using an external optical motion tracking system.

    PubMed

    Zaitsev, M; Dold, C; Sakas, G; Hennig, J; Speck, O

    2006-07-01

    Subject motion and associated artefacts limit the applicability of MRI and the achievable quality of the images acquired. In this paper, a fully integrated method for prospective correction of arbitrary rigid body motion employing an external motion tracking device is demonstrated for the first time. The position of the imaging volume is updated prior to every excitation of the spin system. The performance of the available tracking hardware and its connection to the MR imager is analyzed in detail. With the introduction of a novel calibration procedure the accuracy of motion correction is improved compared to previous approaches. Together with the high geometry update rate even freely moving objects can be imaged without motion related artefacts. The high performance and image quality improvement in case of subject motion are demonstrated for various imaging techniques such as gradient and spin echo, as well as echo planar imaging.

  14. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  15. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...

  19. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    PubMed Central

    Akib, Shatirah; Liana Mamat, Noor; Basser, Hossein; Jahangirzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles. PMID:25247201

  20. Reducing local scouring at bridge piles using collars and geobags.

    PubMed

    Akib, Shatirah; Liana Mamat, Noor; Basser, Hossein; Jahangirzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles.

  1. Reducing local scouring at bridge piles using collars and geobags.

    PubMed

    Akib, Shatirah; Liana Mamat, Noor; Basser, Hossein; Jahangirzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles. PMID:25247201

  2. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  3. Field testing the wildlink capture collar on wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Gese, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen Wildlink capture collars were tested 61 times on 18 gray wolves (Canis lupus) during 1989-1991 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. Overall success rate was 89%, and most failures were attributable to premature battery expiration. When batteries were changed .ltoreq. every 2 months, 17 of 17 tests succeeded. With an upgraded version of the collar in which batteries lasted longer, 17 of 18 tests succeeded. Over the 2-year study, 6 of the 17 collars were lost. For serially recapturing individuals, the Wildlink collar proved useful and reliable if care was taken to replace batteries at proper intervals.

  4. Characteristics of a Frisch collar grid CdZnTe radiation detector grown by low-pressure Bridgman method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Manhee; Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Ha, Jang Ho

    2015-06-01

    A single-polarity charge-sensing method was studied by using a CdZnTe Frisch collar grid detector grown by using a low-pressure Bridgeman furnace at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The Frisch collar grid CdZnTe detector has an active volume of 5 × 5 × 10 mm3, and was fabricated from a single crystal, Teflon tape and copper tape used as a Frisch collar grid. A room-temperature energy resolution of 6% full width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained for the 662keV peak of Cs-137 without any additional electrical corrections. The detector's fabrication process is described, and its characteristics are discussed. Finally, the charge transport properties and gamma-ray energy resolution of the fabricated Frisch collar grid detector are compared with those of two other Frisch collar detectors grown by using different crystal growth methods and purchased from eV-products and Redlen technology.

  5. Apparatus for detecting ruptures in drill pipe above and below the drill collar

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, J.L.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for detecting ruptures in a drill pipe above and below the drill collar comprising a nose cone, a lower body threadably engaged to the nose cone. The lower body has a structure defined by a plurality of circulation by-pass apertures and shear pin apertures. A cylinder actuator having actuator apertures is installed within the lower body juxtaposed to the shear pin apertures. Shear pins slideably lodge through the shear pin apertures of the lower body into the actuator apertures of the cylinder actuator. A steel ball seats on top of the cylinder actuator. An upper body threadably engages the lower body and a retrieval cap threadably engages the upper body. The apparatus seats into a seating sub in operation of the invention. The method of detecting and correcting ruptures in a drill pipe above and below the drill collar to prevent loss of drill mud comprises running a seating sub in the drill string at the top of the drill collar and subsequently dropping a washout locator tool into the drill pipe until the tool seats in the seating sub. The drill string is pressurized above the seated tool to a predetermined pressure. The predetermined pressure is monitored to ascertain whether or not the predetermined pressure holds without bleeding off, indicating that there is no noticeable leak in the drill string between the tool and the surface, or doesn't hold and bleeds off indicating that there is a leak. If the pressure holds without bleeding off, shearing pins are sheared in the tool to establish circulation and the drill stern is pulled dry and the bottom hole assembly below the drill collar is checked. When the pressure does not hold, the drill string is pulled in order to detect and correct any ruptures which cause the decrease in the predetermined pressure.

  6. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  7. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  8. Orbivirus infections in collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Galinari, Grazielle C F; Cortez, Adriana; Paula, Cátia D; Lobato, Zélia I P; Heinemann, Marcos B

    2012-01-01

    We surveyed 49 free-living collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) in Brazil for antibodies against bluetongue virus (BTV) and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Antibodies against BTV were detected in 19/49 (39%) samples. All samples were negative for PCV2. The importance of antibodies to BTV in collared peccaries remains to be determined.

  9. A merging scheme for constructing daily precipitation analyses based on objective bias-correction and error estimation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Suping; Luo, Yong; Wu, Tongwen; Shi, Xueli; Wang, Zaizhi

    2015-09-01

    A new merging scheme (referred to as HL-OI) was developed to combine daily precipitation data from high-resolution gauge (HRG) observations, The Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite estimates, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical simulations over China to perform reliable high-resolution daily precipitation analyses. The scheme is designed using a three-step strategy of removing systemic biases, reducing random errors, quantitatively estimating error variances, and combining useful information from each data source. First, a cumulative distribution function matching procedure is adopted to reduce biases and provide unbiased background fields for the following merging processes. Second, the developed error estimation algorithm is implemented to quantify both the background and observation errors from the background departures. Third, the bias-corrected NCEP and CMORPH data are combined with the HRG data using the optimal interpolation (OI) objective analysis technique. The magnitudes and spatial structures of both observation errors and background errors can be estimated successfully. Results of cross-validation experiments show that the HL-OI scheme effectively removes most of systemic biases and random errors in the background fields compared to the independent gauge observations and is robust even with imperfect background fields. The HL-OI merging scheme significantly improves the temporal variations, agreements between the spatial patterns, frequency, and locations of daily precipitation occurrences. When information from gauge observations, satellite estimates, and model simulations are combined simultaneously, the merged multisource analyses perform better than dual-source analyses. These results indicate that each independent information source of daily precipitation contributes to improving the quality of the final merged analyses under the framework of HL-OI scheme.

  10. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    PubMed Central

    Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Yalcin, Serdar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD) at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group). The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm) than in the M group (1.38 mm) at 3 years (p < 0.01). A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant. PMID:27660765

  11. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    PubMed Central

    Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Yalcin, Serdar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD) at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group). The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm) than in the M group (1.38 mm) at 3 years (p < 0.01). A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant.

  12. Health-promoting lifestyles of blue-collar, skilled trade, and white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Lusk, S L; Kerr, M J; Ronis, D L

    1995-01-01

    The health-promoting lifestyles of blue-collar, skilled trade, and white-collar workers were examined. Specific purposes included determining differences in health-promoting behaviors, especially according to worker category, as well as ethnic identification, age, gender, education, and marital status. A convenience sample of 638 workers in a midwestern automotive components plant completed the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) and demographics questionnaire. In a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) including all demographic variables, significant differences were found in the mean scores on subscales of the HPLP by job category (2 subscales), age (3), gender (2), and education (4). Prior to including education in the MANOVA, significant differences were found by job category on 5 subscales of the HPLP. The effects of education eliminated the majority of the effects of job category.

  13. Integrating ultrasonography within the reproductive management of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; López-Gatius, Fernando; López-Béjar, Manel

    2005-04-15

    Ultrasound imaging has been used to elucidate certain aspects of the reproductive biology of wild or endangered species. However, to our knowledge, this tool has not been used for reproductive monitoring of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). In this study, real-time ultrasonography was used in 16 collared peccary females to diagnose early pregnancy status and predict gestational age. Based on the detection of an embryo, the earliest pregnancy diagnosis was made on Day 18 after mating, with the mean time needed for diagnosis being 22 days. Overall accuracies on Days 22, 26 and 28 were 56, 93, and 100%, respectively. On Days 26 and 28, all pregnancy and non-pregnancy diagnoses, respectively, were correct. The fetal measurements that best correlated with gestational age were crown-rump-length (CRL) and the length and diameter of the thorax. CRL was considered the most practical measurement because, contrary to thoracic fetometry, it could be determined when the embryo was first detected. Our findings revealed real-time ultrasound scanning to be a very accurate method for early pregnancy diagnosis and prediction of gestational age in the collared peccary.

  14. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  15. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  16. Proposal for classification of the circumaortic renal collar's morphology.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Tsitouridis, Ioannis; Totlis, Trifon; Levva, Sofia; Tsikaras, Prokopios; Skandalakis, Panagiotis

    2008-12-01

    In the present study, we propose a classification of the different forms of the circumaortic renal collar based on the findings of 319 patients and on a literature review. The patients underwent a CT angiography scan of the abdomen for various diagnostic reasons. The different forms in which the circumaortic renal collar may appear were categorized. The renal collar was observed in eight of the 319 (2.5%) patients. The classification we propose is the following: Type I, one left renal vein splitting into two branches, a preaortic and a retroaortic, draining into the inferior vena cava; Type II, two different left renal veins, the one preaortic and the other retroaortic, draining into the inferior vena cava; and Type III, either anastomoses between the preaortic and retroaortic vein, being multiple or not, or multiple preaortic or retroaortic renal veins without anastomoses. Although the circumaortic renal collar is usually asymptomatic, the knowledge of this variation is useful, mainly before abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery and renal transplantation. Failure to recognize the collar's retroaortic component may lead to hemorrhage and death during retroperitoneal surgery. We believe that our classification contributes to recognize the circumaortic renal collar's morphology both preoperatively and intraoperatively.

  17. Parasites of the collared peccary from Texas.

    PubMed

    Samuel, W M; Low, W A

    1970-01-01

    Results of a survey of the parasites of the collared peccary (Dicotyles tajacu angulatus) in Texas are presented. Three ectoparasites, Amblyomma cajennense, Dermacentor variabilis, and Pulex porcinus were very common on peccaries from south Texas, but less common or absent in arid west Texas. Sucking lice, Pecaroecus javalii, were common on peccaries from west Texas, but were not found in south Texas. The known range of this louse in Texas is extended into the Big Bend area. Two ticks, Amnblyomma inornatumn and Haemaphysalis leporis-palustris, were found infrequently. Five of nine species of endoparasites found in this survey (Dirofilaria acutiuscula, Parabronema pecatriae, Parostertagia heterospiculum, Physocephalus sp., and Texicospirura turki) were prevalent. Three species, D. acutiuscula, Gongylonema baylisi, and Fascioloides magna, are reported from North American peccaries for the first time. The geographic distribution of the large American liver fluke, F. magna, coincided with an area where the parasite is enzootic in white-tailed deer. It is concluded that parasitism was of little importance in population control of peccaries during the period of the study.

  18. Use of cervical collar in temporomandibular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Jaisani, Mehul R; Pradhan, Leeza; Sagtani, Alok

    2015-06-01

    Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint represents 3 % of all reported dislocated joints. In the last 3 decades many cases of TMJ dislocation have been reported with a wide variety of treatment options ranging from non-surgical conservative approaches to open joint procedures. The question remains whether one method is superior to the others. Conservative treatments are still the option in this part of the continent due to financial constraints and as well as due to availability of skilled manpower. A variety of conservative techniques have been described for reducing dislocations, all of which require 10-14 days of immobilization of the jaw post reduction so as to prevent further episodes of dislocation. Immobilization of the jaw can be done in the form of barrel bandage, barton bandage, head chin cap or maxillomandibular fixation using arch bars. We suggest the use of a cervical collar as a form of post reduction immobilization technique to overcome the inherent disadvantages of conventional forms of immobilization techniques.

  19. Occupational injuries in Korea: a comparison of blue-collar and white-collar workers' rates and underreporting.

    PubMed

    Won, Jonguk; Ahn, Yeonsoon; Song, Jaesuk; Koh, Donghee; Roh, Jaehoon

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the differences in occupational injuries and illnesses between white-collar and blue-collar workers and to estimate the magnitude of the underreporting of these injuries and illnesses in Korea. Two datasets were used. One was a cohort established in the Gyeongin area with workers who underwent mandated health examinations, and the other was the National Health Insurance (NHI) data of claims submitted by workers employed between 1999 and 2001. Workers were classified into two groups--white-collar and blue-collar workers--according to their job types and the type of health examination they received. Injury rates were calculated for white-collar and blue-collar workers. The differences in the incidences of musculoskeletal diseases or injury and poisoning between the two groups were regarded as unreported occupational injuries or illnesses. Thereafter, work-related injury rates were estimated. With regard to medical treatment for musculoskeletal diseases or injuries and poisonings covered by the NHI, blue-collar workers had 3.47 more cases per 100 person-years than white-collar workers. This translates into a rate of between 12.57 and 18.1 injured workers per million working hours. The injury rate was 2.74 to 3.29 injured workers and the incidence rate was 3.62 to 5.44 injuries and illnesses per hundred workers. The estimated occupational injury and illness rates in this study were likely to be two to three times higher than those officially reported. However, the limitations of the study should also be considered.

  20. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  1. Political Correctness--Correct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)

  2. Correction to ``Extracting Man-Made Objects From High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Images via Fast Level Set Evolutions''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongbin; Shi, Wenzhong; Wang, Qunming; Miao, Zelang

    2015-10-01

    Object extraction from remote sensing images has long been an intensive research topic in the field of surveying and mapping. Most existing methods are devoted to handling just one type of object and little attention has been paid to improving the computational efficiency. In recent years, level set evolution (LSE) has been shown to be very promising for object extraction in the community of image processing and computer vision because it can handle topological changes automatically while achieving high accuracy. However, the application of state-of-the-art LSEs is compromised by laborious parameter tuning and expensive computation. In this paper, we proposed two fast LSEs for man-made object extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images. The traditional mean curvature-based regularization term is replaced by a Gaussian kernel and it is mathematically sound to do that. Thus a larger time step can be used in the numerical scheme to expedite the proposed LSEs. In contrast to existing methods, the proposed LSEs are significantly faster. Most importantly, they involve much fewer parameters while achieving better performance. The advantages of the proposed LSEs over other state-of-the-art approaches have been verified by a range of experiments.

  3. New pulsating casing collar to improve cementing quality

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; He, K.; Wu, J.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the design and test results of a new pulsating casing collar which improves cementing quality. The new pulsating casing collar (PCC) is designed according to the Helmholtz oscillator to generate a pulsating jet flow by self-excitation in the cementing process. By placing this new pulsating casing collar at the bottom of casing string, the generated pulsating jet flow transmits vibrating pressure waves up through the annulus and helps remove drilling mud in the annulus. It can therefore improve cementing quality, especially when eccentric annulus exists due to casing eccentricity where the mud is difficult to remove. The new pulsating casing collar consists of a top nozzle, a resonant chamber, and a bottom nozzle. It can be manufactured easily and is easy to use in the field. It has been tested in Jianghan oil-field, P.R. China. The field-test results support the theoretical analysis and laboratory test, and the cementing quality is shown greatly improved by using the new pulsating casing collar.

  4. Design and evaluation of new color-corrected rigid endomicroscopic high NA GRIN-objectives with a sub-micron resolution and large field of view.

    PubMed

    Matz, Gregor; Messerschmidt, Bernhard; Gross, Herbert

    2016-05-16

    We demonstrate new GRIN-based endomicroscopic objectives for high resolution single photon fluorescence imaging modalities. Two endoscopic optical design approaches are presented in detail utilizing firstly diffractive and secondly refractive optical elements for the color correction in a spectral range from 488 nm to 550 nm. They are compared with their precursor device experimentally and by simulation. Inherent aberrations for off-axis field points could be lowered remarkably compared with the values of the state-of-the-art system by increasing the intrinsic optical complexity but maintaining the outer spatial dimensions. As a result, those presented objectives predict a diffraction-limited imaging of objects up to 300 μm in diameter with a numerical aperture of 0.8 while keeping an overall outer diameter of the assembly at 1.4 mm. Lastly, confocal fluorescence imaging experiments focus on the comparison between the numerical predicted and the practically achieved quality parameters. PMID:27409921

  5. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  6. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless. PMID:20019002

  7. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-11-19

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  8. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies. PMID:26610534

  9. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip.

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Silva, A F; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2007-06-01

    Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) belongs to the Tayassuidae family that is characterized by a dorsal scent gland located in the middle of the hump. It can be found from south-west United States to Argentina. It is a very well-adapted animal that can survive different environments, having a varied diet. Very little morphological information of the animal is available, except that concerning the reproductive tract. This study describes the histological organization of the collared peccary lip. The lip marks the junction between the integument and digestive system. It is lined by skin on the outer surface and mucosa on the inner surface. Skin appendages such as hair follicles and glands are usually found on the outer surface. The collared peccary's lip shows, on the outer surface, simple and sinus hair follicles as well as sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands. No salivary gland is found on the inner surface, and deep in the connective tissue pacinian corpuscles can be found. The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system.

  10. The Educational Potential of Blue-Collar Workers in Udmurtia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    A strategically essential area for Russia's economy in the transition to market relations and the unequal development of the sectorial structure is the development of the sphere of production, which is now in a state of instability. The forecasted decline of manpower resources, the aging of blue-collar cadres, and the slump in the number of those…

  11. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  12. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  13. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  14. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... FR 68036 (Nov. 8, 2002). In accordance with sections 201.16(c) and 207.3 of the Commission's rules... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... from China. For further information concerning the conduct of this proceeding and rules of...

  15. Dynamics of Segregation and Earnings in Brown-Collar Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzarite, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Los Angeles census data showed that recently immigrated Latinos were concentrated in poorly paid, irregular occupations. Their marginalization in these "brown-collar" occupations was accompanied by depreciation in median pay for both immigrant and native workers in these jobs. (Contains 100 references.) (SK)

  16. Hydrodynamic analysis of elastic floating collars in random waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai; Li, Yu-cheng

    2015-06-01

    As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton's second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.

  17. Turning Blue-Collar Workers into Knowledge Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusimano, James M.

    1995-01-01

    A training approach developed by Management Technology Strategies makes blue-collar employees responsible for their own learning. The adaptable system follows three phases: (1) data and design; (2) documentation; and (3) training. The organization provides trainers, tools, and resources, but employees must be proactively involved in using them.…

  18. Effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Mehmet Zuhuri; Üstünes, Levent; Sevin, Gülnur; Özer, Erdener

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C has efficient antioxidant properties and is involved in important physiological processes such as collagen synthesis. As such, vitamin C deficiency leads to serious complications, including vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin C treatment on collar-induced intimal thickening. Rabbits were fed a normocholesterolemic diet and a non-occlusive silicon collar was placed around the left carotid artery for 3, 7, and 14 days. The rabbits were treated with or without vitamin C (150 mg/kg/day). Collar-induced intimal thickening became apparent at day 7. The effect of the collar on intimal thickening was more prominent at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly inhibited collar-induced intimal thickening at day 14. The placement of the collar around the carotid artery decreased maximum contractile responses against contractile agents (KCl, phenylephrine, 5-hydroxytryptamine). The effect of the collar on contractile responses was enhanced as days elapsed. Decreased contractile responses of collared carotid arteries normalized at day 14 in the vitamin C treatment group. Vitamin C treatment also restored sensitivity to phenylephrine. The collar also significantly decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxations at day 3 and day 7. Acetylcholine-induced relaxations normalized in collared-arteries in the placebo group at day 14. Vitamin C treatment significantly increased acetylcholine-induced relaxations of both normal and collared carotid arteries at day 14. MMP-9 expression increased in collared arteries at day 3 and day 7 but did not change at day 14. MMP-2 expression increased in collared arteries at day 14. However, vitamin C treatment reduced collar-stimulated expression of MMP-2 at day 14. These findings indicate that vitamin C may have potentially beneficial effects on the early stages of atherosclerosis. Furthermore these results, for the first time, may indicate that vitamin C can also normalize decreased contractile

  19. An object-specific and dose-sparing scatter correction approach for a dedicated cone-beam breast CT system using a parallel-hole collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Burkett, George, Jr.; Boone, John M.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray scatter is a common cause of image artifacts for cone-beam CT systems due to the expanded field of view and degrades the quantitative accuracy of measured Hounsfield Units (HU). Due to the strong dependency of scatter on the object being scanned, it is crucial to measure the scatter signal for each object. We propose to use a beam pass array (BPA) composed of parallel-holes within a tungsten plate to measure scatter for a dedicated breast CT system. A complete study of the performance of the BPA was conducted. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of measuring and compensating for the scatter signal for each individual object. Different clinical study schemes were investigated, including a full rotation scan with BPA and discrete projections acquired with BPA followed by interpolation for full rotation. Different sized cylindrical phantoms and a breast shaped polyethylene phantom were used to test for the robustness of the proposed method. Physically measured scatter signals were converted into scatter to primary ratios (SPRs) at discrete locations through the projection image. A complete noise-free 2D SPR was generated from these discrete measurements. SPR results were compared to Monte Carlo simulation results and scatter corrected CT images were quantitatively evaluated for "cupping" artifact. With the proposed method, a reduction of up to 47 HU of "cupping" was demonstrated. In conclusion, the proposed BPA method demonstrated effective and accurate objectspecific scatter correction with the main advantage of dose-sparing compared to beam stop array (BSA) approaches.

  20. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis.

  1. Assessing Herbivore Foraging Behavior with GPS Collars in a Semiarid Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, David J.; Derner, Justin D.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in global positioning system (GPS) technology have dramatically enhanced the ability to track and study distributions of free-ranging livestock. Understanding factors controlling the distribution of free-ranging livestock requires the ability to assess when and where they are foraging. For four years (2008–2011), we periodically collected GPS and activity sensor data together with direct observations of collared cattle grazing semiarid rangeland in eastern Colorado. From these data, we developed classification tree models that allowed us to discriminate between grazing and non-grazing activities. We evaluated: (1) which activity sensor measurements from the GPS collars were most valuable in predicting cattle foraging behavior, (2) the accuracy of binary (grazing, non-grazing) activity models vs. models with multiple activity categories (grazing, resting, traveling, mixed), and (3) the accuracy of models that are robust across years vs. models specific to a given year. A binary classification tree correctly removed 86.5% of the non-grazing locations, while correctly retaining 87.8% of the locations where the animal was grazing, for an overall misclassification rate of 12.9%. A classification tree that separated activity into four different categories yielded a greater misclassification rate of 16.0%. Distance travelled in a 5 minute interval and the proportion of the interval with the sensor indicating a head down position were the two most important variables predicting grazing activity. Fitting annual models of cattle foraging activity did not improve model accuracy compared to a single model based on all four years combined. This suggests that increased sample size was more valuable than accounting for interannual variation in foraging behavior associated with variation in forage production. Our models differ from previous assessments in semiarid rangeland of Israel and mesic pastures in the United States in terms of the value of different activity

  2. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, S Eryn; Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  3. Improving health promotion for blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, M M; Bush, H A

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to discover factors that may influence blue collared workers' participation in health promotion programs. One hundred sixty blue collared workers age 18 to 65 completed Laffrey's Health Conception Scale (LHCS) and Penders Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). Results indicated: 1.) Women scored significantly higher on health responsibility and interpersonal support than men; 2.) Older workers scored significantly higher on nutrition, while younger workers scored significantly higher on exercise; 3.) Older workers scored significantly higher on role and self-actualization than younger workers; and 4.) A significant relationship exists between health conception and health promoting life style. Gender, age, and the individual definition of health are important when planning health promotion programs at industrial sites. PMID:10881451

  4. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  5. Performance of differential GPS collars in temperate mountain forest.

    PubMed

    Janeau, Georges; Adrados, Christophe; Joachim, Jean; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Pépin, Dominique

    2004-12-01

    To determine the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) for habitat studies in free-ranging animals, we tested differential 6- and 8-channel GPS collars under six representative canopies and one open-field reference site in the 'Parc national des Cévennes', southern France. The proportion of successful locations decreased under taller trees and worsened with snow accumulation in mixed coniferous habitats. The mean location success of seven free-ranging red deer fitted with 6-channel GPS collars in the same study area increased with a shorter interval between location attempts and during the leaf-off period. Our data suggested that the differences in location success between leaf-on and leaf-off periods might reflect shifts in habitat use rather than a leaf effect under deciduous trees.

  6. Factors Associated with Halitosis in White-Collar Employees in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hai-Xia; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors associated with halitosis in Chinese white-collar employees. Materials and Methods Subjects in three randomly selected office buildings in Shanghai, China, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study using cluster random sampling. Oral malodor was assessed by measuring volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) with a portable sulfide monitor. Subjects’ oral health, including dental caries, periodontal status, and tongue coating, was evaluated clinically. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about participants’ demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits, and health behaviors. Results Of the 805 subjects invited to participate in this study, 720 were enrolled (89.4% response rate). Data from these subjects were used for statistical analyses. The prevalence of halitosis was 33.2%. In the final regression model, halitosis was significantly related to tongue coating thickness, periodontal pocket depth, no food consumption within 2 hours prior to oral examination, and less intake frequency of sweet foods. Conclusions In this Chinese white-collar population, tongue coating and periodontal disease were associated with halitosis. Oral hygiene education should be provided at the population level to encourage the maintenance of oral health and fresh breath. Consumption of sweet foods may reduce VSC production, although this finding requires further investigation. PMID:27186878

  7. Preliminary results from a study of collar lamination variation in SSC Prototype Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Gattu, R.; Brown, G.M.; Pollock, D.

    1993-04-01

    The collar laminations used in SSC Prototype Collider Dipole Magnets determine the volume within which the magnet coils are constrained after collaring and keying. The uniformity and symmetry of the inside volume of the collars along the length of the magnet may have a significant influence on the field quality of the finished assembly. This paper describes an on-going Statistical Quality Control study of collar lamination dimensional variation being performed by SSCL Magnet Systems Division Quality Assurance. Samples of collars have been measured using a coordinate measuring machine evaluate manufacturing process capability as well as the overall uniformity of the inventory population of collar laminations. The collar data will be used to predict variation in the coil assembly center and radius for inner and outer top-bottom, left-right coil combinations well as pole angles. Collar results will be combined with azimuthal coil size measurements part of a manufacturing cause and effect model for predicting axial geometric multipoles based on the observed mechanical variation. This work focuses on Prototype Collider Dipole Magnet DCA 102 currently being built at the SSCL MDL in Waxahachie, Texas. This magnet is being made on the same coil curing and collaring mold cavities that were used for the DCA 300 series magnets built at FNAL in 1991--1992 and which were later used in the 1992 Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST). The collars are part of the same procurement used for the DCA300 series magnets.

  8. Evaluation of 3 radio transmitters and collar designs for Amazona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    I evaluated 3 radio transmitter attachments and designs for adult parrots. Two of the transmitters and attachments were similar to those used previously in the study on fledgling and adult parrots. I designed, in collaboration with the manufacturer, a third transmitter and attachment that provided protection of key areas from chewing and eventual destruction of the attachment or transmitter. This design was used successfully to radio-track parrots an average of 43.4 weeks (range = 35.9-51.6 weeks). It was the only transmitter of the 3 tested to operate without failure (>36 weeks) caused by chewing damage to the transmitter, antenna, collar, or attachment mechanism (Fisher's exact test, 3 df, P = 0.0003). Its adjustable collar, made from 59 kg-test stainless steel wire covered with plastic heat-shrink tubing, was sturdy and easy to apply. Transmitters for parrots should be enclosed in a protective metal case (brass) and have metal crimped tubes (brass or copper) protecting key areas, such as the base of the antenna and mechanism for attachment of the collar.

  9. Fix success and accuracy of GPS radio collars in old-growth temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sager-Fradkin, Kimberly A.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Happe, P.; Beecham, J.; Wright, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry is used extensively to study animal distribution and resource selection patterns but is susceptible to biases resulting from data omission and spatial inaccuracies. These data errors may cause misinterpretation of wildlife habitat selection or spatial use patterns. We used both stationary test collars and collared free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) to quantify systemic data loss and location error of GPS telemetry in mountainous, old-growth temperate forests of Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We developed predictive models of environmental factors that influence the probability of obtaining GPS locations and evaluated the ability of weighting factors derived from these models to mitigate data omission biases from collared bears. We also examined the effects of microhabitat on collar fix success rate and examined collar accuracy as related to elevation changes between successive fixes. The probability of collars successfully obtaining location fixes was positively associated with elevation and unobstructed satellite view and was negatively affected by the interaction of overstory canopy and satellite view. Test collars were 33% more successful at acquiring fixes than those on bears. Fix success rates of collared bears varied seasonally and diurnally. Application of weighting factors to individual collared bear fixes recouped only 6% of lost data and failed to reduce seasonal or diurnal variation in fix success, suggesting that variables not included in our model contributed to data loss. Test collars placed to mimic bear bedding sites received 16% fewer fixes than randomly placed collars, indicating that microhabitat selection may contribute to data loss for wildlife equipped with GPS collars. Horizontal collar errors of >800 m occurred when elevation changes between successive fixes were >400 m. We conclude that significant limitations remain in accounting for data loss and error inherent in using

  10. [White-collar criminals--a homogenous offender population? Reflections on typical and atypical "white-collar criminals"].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Little has been written in German scientific literature on the personality structure of white-collar criminals. Often, the relevance of this level of investigation has downright been denied. Conventional psychopathology does not seem to be an appropriate approach to these character problems since there are not only deficits but also competences to be found which are useful while making a professional career. The author points out the inhomogeneity of this offender population and presents a case report of an atypical white-collar criminal. Over and above that, he introduces two psychological concepts which are apt to better describe the peculiarities of these individuals: Machiavellian intelligence is often the core competence when it comes to rising in hierarchies, whereas the newly defined psychopathy concept according to R. D. Hare makes plausible the moral and ethical failure of these offenders in their professional settings.

  11. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  12. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  13. Method for the determination of the modulation transfer function (MTF) in 3D x-ray imaging systems with focus on correction for finite extent of test objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Dirk; Wiegert, Jens; Bertram, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    It is well known that rotational C-arm systems are capable of providing 3D tomographic X-ray images with much higher spatial resolution than conventional CT systems. Using flat X-ray detectors, the pixel size of the detector typically is in the range of the size of the test objects. Therefore, the finite extent of the "point" source cannot be neglected for the determination of the MTF. A practical algorithm has been developed that includes bias estimation and subtraction, averaging in the spatial domain, and correction for the frequency content of the imaged bead or wire. Using this algorithm, the wire and the bead method are analyzed for flat detector based 3D X-ray systems with the use of standard CT performance phantoms. Results on both experimental and simulated data are presented. It is found that the approximation of applying the analysis of the wire method to a bead measurement is justified within 3% accuracy up to the first zero of the MTF.

  14. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  15. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  16. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2012-03-01

    The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (p<0.05), with the highest mean in the luteal phase. Primordial follicles were found in the cortex; the oocytes were enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. In the primary follicles, proliferation of the follicular cells gave rise to cuboidal cells (granulosa cells). The secondary follicle was characterized by two or more concentric layers of cuboidal cells (granulosa), beginning of antrum formation, and the presence of pellucid zone and theca cells. Antral follicles were characterized by a central cavity (antrum), the presence of cumulus oophorus and theca layers (interna and externa). In the right ovary, the values of the primordial and primary follicles were similar, but significantly different from the secondary ones (p<0.05). In the left ovary, significant differences were observed between all follicles in the follicular phase (p<0.05); the

  17. Techniques for collecting blood from collared peccaries, Dicotyles tajacu (L.).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Robinson, R M; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Four methods are described for obtaining blood samples from the collared peccary. This animal lacks prominent superficial veins which makes the procedure of taking blood difficult for inexperienced persons. Large volumes of blood (greater than 20 ml) can be obtained easily via anterior vena cava venipuncture. Moderate amounts of blood (less than 20 ml) can be obtained from the orbital sinus. Lesser volumes of blood can be obtained from superficial veins located on the ear and the hind limb. The saphenous vein is distended easily due to its unique location across the cranial face of the tibia.

  18. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing Boron-10 Lined Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Jeremy L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-09-18

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report, providing results for model development of Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) designs, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project.

  19. The company man: a case of white-collar crime.

    PubMed

    Brottman, Mikita

    2009-06-01

    Insider trading scandals on Wall Street have focused public attention on the abuse of money and power in the service of greed. The analytic situation described in this paper involves a patient who was involved in a major white-collar crime in the 1990s and imprisoned on charges of fraud. Release from prison brought his anxieties about money, work, and masculinity into sharp focus. The paper explores the some of the emotional conflicts and confusion around corporate success and failure, and the particular issues that arise when people identify themselves with the company they work for, something that corporate culture has always encouraged.

  20. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10) with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent) or 48 h (acaricidal) after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h), efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly demonstrated

  1. Social structure of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu): does relatedness matter?

    PubMed

    Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R

    2014-11-01

    Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  2. Career and Technical Education: Pursuing a Pipeline for the New Green-Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy; Varela, Erika

    2009-01-01

    As the white- and blue-collar jobs are thinning because of the economic downturn, the economy is being rejuvenated by a new color of collar jobs--green. Green jobs encompass a range of skills, educational backgrounds and occupational profiles. The green industry has been recognized as a high-growth workforce sector because of the demand for…

  3. The Accumulation of Educational Capital among Young Blue-Collar Workers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on young blue-collar workers in Russia indicates that a large percentage of them continue to improve their educational qualifications during the first five years of employment, but that it declines after that time. The two most frequent reasons for upgrading their skills are a desire to leave blue-collar employment, and to increase the…

  4. Research Note: Assessing the Perceived Seriousness of White-Collar and Street Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…

  5. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested dogs with an imidacloprid / flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) to preempt infection with Dipylidium caninum.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Crafford, Dionne; Horak, Ivan G; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10 % imidacloprid and 4.5 % flumethrin, incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs after repeated laboratory infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes of this tapeworm. Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 dogs with cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on study days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, from batches suitably infected with D. caninum metacestodes. Prior to each post-treatment infestation the D. caninum infection rate for the fleas was determined by microscopically examining 100 fleas for D. caninum metacestodes. The D. caninum prevalence in the fleas used for infestations ranged from 23 % to 52 %. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the dogs on study day 0. The weight of the IVP collars varied between 35.48 g and 38.48 g (average 37.16 g), whilst animal weight varied between 12.20 kg and 17.98 kg (treated group, n = 8, average 14.79 kg). Seven days later infestation of each of the 16 dogs with 250 fleas commenced. Infestations continued at weekly intervals until Day 42 with efficacy against fleas evaluated 24 hours after each infestation. From Days 21 to 74, infection of the dogs with D. caninum was verified (daily examination of faeces and cages for the presence of expelled proglottids). Calculation of prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection with D. caninum was based on the difference in geometric mean numbers of scoleces between groups at necropsy on Day 75. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum was found to be 96.6 %. Efficacy of the collars against fleas was ≥ 99.9 % for the duration of the assessment period. Newly acquired infestations of fleas are rapidly eliminated by the insecticidal components of the medicated collars over a period of several months. In the event of fleas being infected with metacestodes, with D. caninum can be prevented in

  6. Serum chemistry of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

    1984-04-01

    Values of serum biochemistry were obtained for 33 adult (16 male and 17 female) and six juvenile (four male and two female) collared peccaries collected by trapping and drugging animals from southern Texas during the period July through September 1982. Only cholesterol and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations differed significantly with respect to sex. Juvenile peccaries had significantly lower concentrations of total protein and globulins, but had higher concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium, and a higher albumin/globulin ratio than did adults. Effects of method of capture on biochemical attributes of serum from five gunshot and nine trapped adult peccaries collected from a single herd during March 1983 also were examined. Trapped peccaries had significantly higher levels of serum urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen/creatinine ratio, glucose, and chloride concentrations. Levels of uric acid, calcium, and potassium were significantly lower among the trapped animals.

  7. Friction and wear in threaded surfaces of rotary drill collars

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, H.R. ); Bailey, E.I. ); Williamson, J.S. )

    1993-03-01

    Two surfaces, under high normal stress, in sliding contact provide the basis for friction and wear studies within rotary drill collars. Flat and ring specimens, considering three different contact areas, were rotated to determine the effect of surface finish, coatings, lubricants and normal stress on friction and wear. The 4145 steel specimens were heat-treated to a yield strength of 124,000 lb/in[sup 2] (855 MPa) and a R[sub c] hardness of 28. The torque required to rotate the ring specimen was measured as a function of the rotation angle. The friction coefficient was calculated. Seizure and galling were common for metal-to-metal contact. Rust and phosphate coatings break down under the high normal stress. Metal-filled lubricants produce static coefficients of friction between 0.03 and 0.25 and dynamic coefficients between 0.04 and 0.26. Seizure and galling were not observed.

  8. Female ornamentation and territorial conflicts in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis).

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2008-10-01

    Female ornaments in species with conventional sex roles often indicate individual quality, but the evolutionary forces maintaining them are less clear. Sexual competition for breeding opportunities may represent an important role for female signals, especially in polygynous species, but there is little experimental evidence for this. The wing patch size (WPS) of female collared flycatchers indicates age and body condition and predicts social mating patterns. We challenged nest-building females with decoy females of varying WPS and found that the aggressive response of residents increased with decoy WPS, suggesting a role for this female ornament in territorial competition. Our results explain why female WPS predicts territorial distances when mated to a polygynous male and indicate that the role of WPS in female competitive interactions is similar to that in males of the same population.

  9. Restriction of neck flexion using soft cervical collars: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Aker, Peter D; Randoll, Martine; Rheault, Chantal; O’Connor, Sandra

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the use of dropped neck flexion as a manoeuvre to test the restrictive abilities of two different types of soft collars, an Airway soft cervical collar and a handmade cervical rough. The range of neck flexion of 40 asymptomatic subjects aged 20-29 was assessed, both with and without collar wear, using a Spinal Rangiometer. Dropped neck flexion is described as possibly being more representative of the type of movement that a patient with neck pain will undergo, and hence a more useful manoeuvre to employ when testing for the restrictive abilities of soft cervical collars. The mean dropped flexion was 64 degrees without collar wear, 58 degrees with the Airway soft collar, and 34 degrees with the cervical rough. Only the cervical rough provided both statistically (p < 0.001) and clinically (> 15°) significant restriction of dropped neck flexion. The comfort, preparation time, and ease of application of each of these collars is not addressed in this study, and may reflect on use in clinical practice. This preliminary study provides insight and pilot data for future studies in this area. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3

  10. Fabrication and Test of 90-mm Nb3Sn Quadrupole Model Based on Dipole-type Collar

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Velev, G.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-29

    A series of 90-mm TQC quadrupole models with a collar-based mechanical structure has been fabricated and tested within the framework of the US-LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) using quadrupole-symmetric stainless steel collar laminations. This paper describes the design features, construction and test of TQC02Eb, the first TQC made with dipole-type collar and collaring techniques. Magnet test includes quench performance and field quality measurements at 4.5 and 1.9 K. Results of model performance for TQC quadrupoles based on dipole-type and quadrupole-type collars are compared and discussed.

  11. Phylogenetic divisions among Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) detected using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Morales, Socorro; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Moran, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is one of the three extant recognised species of the family Tayassuidae, living in the Americas. To understand phylogenetic relationships among Collared peccaries, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b as well as partial nuclear GPIP and PRE-1 P27, PRE-1 P642 and TYR sequences from specimens from Colombia, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, United States and Australian zoo animals of unknown origin were analysed. Separate and combined analyses of the mitochondrial sequences provided good resolution of Collared peccary relationships. Nuclear sequences were partially informative when combined sequence analyses were performed. Maximum Likelihood analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that Collared peccaries clustered in two major clades, representing North-Central American and South American specimens. Collared peccaries from Colombia are paraphyletic. Statistical Parsimony analysis of combined nuclear sequences showed a distribution of DNA variants consistent with mitochondrial sequence analyses. However, there is an uncoupling of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence variation in two specimens from Colombia. The present study suggests the recent contact of isolated populations within Colombia and possible mitochondrial introgression between the North/Central clade and the South clade. Pairwise genetic distances comparison of mitochondrial sequences show that divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was higher and comparable respectively with that within and between the other two recognised peccary species. Divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was also higher than that observed within and even between recognised species of the Suidae family. The divergence within the major clades of the Collared peccary showed comparable values with those observed within the other two species of Tayassuidae and within six species of Suidae. The results show that the geographically

  12. Radio-triggered anesthetic-dart collar for recapturing large mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Chapman, R.C.; Cochran, W.W.; Simmons, L.; Seal, U.S.

    1984-01-01

    A re-usable, radio-triggered, anesthetic-dart collar costing about $1,200 has been developed for recapturing large, free-ranging mammals. The collar was tested successfully on captive gray wolves, white-tailed deer, a mountain lion, a black bear, and a tiger, and on wild wolves, a bear, and deer after periods of up to 32 days. The main advantage of the capture collar is that it allows frequent recapture of individuals at will and thus enhances opportunities for new physiological monitoring of wild animals.

  13. In-field Calibration of a Fast Neutron Collar for the Measurement of Fresh PWR Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; De Baere, Paul

    2015-04-17

    A new neutron collar has been designed for the measurement of fresh LEU fuel assemblies. This collar uses “fast mode” measurement to reduce the effect of burnable poison rods on the assay and thus reduce the dependence on the operator’s declaration. The new collar design reduces effect of poison rods considerably. Instead of 12 pins of 5.2% Gd causing a 20.4% effect, as in the standard thermal mode collar, they only cause a 3.2% effect in the new collar. However it has higher efficiency so that reasonably precise measurements can be made in 25 minutes, rather than the 1 hour of previous collars. The new collar is fully compatible with the use of the standard data collection and analysis code INCC. This report describes the calibration that was made with a mock-up assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with actual assemblies at the AREVA Fuel fabrication Plant in Lingen, Germany.

  14. A recommended integrated mechanism to enhance OSH management of blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the roles and functions of businesses, labor-exporting countries' representative offices in Taiwan, religious organizations, and manpower agencies in promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). It also offers advice to Taiwanese authorities on making policies and improvements regarding the oversight mechanism mandated by the Labor Safety and Health Act, giving them an idea of what to focus on when enforcing control over blue-collar foreign workers' OSH conditions. This study also proposes that Taiwanese authorities may serve not only as an overseer/inspector of those hiring blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan, but also expand their role to lay down policies regarding a variety of OSH teaching materials in the blue-collar foreign workers' native languages (spoken or written), the qualifications of translators in blue-collar foreign workers' OSH training programs, and regulations concerning the longer hours such training programs take.

  15. 78 FR 4167 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  16. A recommended integrated mechanism to enhance OSH management of blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei; Lee, Lien-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the roles and functions of businesses, labor-exporting countries' representative offices in Taiwan, religious organizations, and manpower agencies in promoting occupational safety and health (OSH). It also offers advice to Taiwanese authorities on making policies and improvements regarding the oversight mechanism mandated by the Labor Safety and Health Act, giving them an idea of what to focus on when enforcing control over blue-collar foreign workers' OSH conditions. This study also proposes that Taiwanese authorities may serve not only as an overseer/inspector of those hiring blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan, but also expand their role to lay down policies regarding a variety of OSH teaching materials in the blue-collar foreign workers' native languages (spoken or written), the qualifications of translators in blue-collar foreign workers' OSH training programs, and regulations concerning the longer hours such training programs take. PMID:25513790

  17. The effects of the collar on total hip femoral component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, L A; Amador, D; Russell, K

    1988-06-01

    Twenty-four preserved autopsy femurs were used to evaluate the effect of the collar and tight distal fit on noncemented femoral component subsidence, micromotion, and load to failure. Ten collared implants (five with tight and five with loose distal fit) and 14 collarless implants (seven with tight and seven with loose distal fit) were inserted with press-fit technique. They were compressively loaded in an Instron machine (Instron, Canton, Massachusetts) at 25-kg increments with 20 cycles applied at each load level. Subsidence was significantly decreased, and load to failure increased by the collar. None of the parameters was significantly affected by tight fit of the cylindrical distal stem. Tightening of the collarless implant by subsidence could not be relied upon to achieve fixation, and may not be reliable in a clinical situation. Improved rigidity of fixation and increased strength achieved by seating on the collar are distinctive advantages for pain control and biologic fixation of noncemented femoral components. PMID:3370866

  18. Serologic survey for antibodies to canine distemper virus in collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) populations in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Noon, Ted H; Heffelfinger, James R; Olding, Ronald J; Wesche, Shannon Lynn; Reggiardo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    In 1989, a disease outbreak was observed among collared peccaries (javelina, Tayassu tajacu) in southern Arizona (USA) and canine distemper virus (CDV) was isolated from affected animals. Subsequently, 364 sera were collected from hunter-harvested javelina over a 4 yr period (1993-96) and were tested for antibody to CDV. Neutralizing antibody to CDV was detected in 58% of the serum samples suggesting that CDV infection is probably enzootic in the collared peccary populations of southern Arizona.

  19. Nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of Collared, White-lipped, and Chacoan peccaries (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The three extant peccary species, the Chacoan (Catagonus wagneri), the White-lipped (Tayassu pecari) and the Collared (Pecari tajacu), are morphologically and chromosomally distinct and confined to the New World. There is ongoing paleontological, cytogenetic, and molecular debate about phylogenetic relationships among them. To contribute to the understanding of Tayassuidae phylogeny, three mitochondrial (control region, cytochrome b, and 12S rRNA) and five nuclear (K-casein, thyrotropin, tyrosinase, and swine short interspersed nuclear elements PRE-1 P27 and P642) peccary DNA fragments were amplified, cloned and sequenced from Chacoan, White-lipped, and Collared peccaries. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining methods. K-casein, thyrotropin, and tyrosinase sequences did not resolve the phylogeny, while control region, cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and PRE-1 P27 and P642 sequences were more informative in deciphering phylogenetic relationships. When pig and warthog were used as an outgroup, Chacoan and White-lipped peccaries clustered distinct from Collared peccaries. Furthermore, control region and cytochrome b sequence variation within Collared peccaries was as extreme as that between White-lipped and Chacoan peccaries, supporting subspecific and possibly even specific variation within the widely distributed Collared peccary. This study supports the existence of two independent genera within the Tayassuidae family consisting of Collared and Chacoan/White-lipped peccaries, in contrast with classical morphological taxonomy which clusters White-lipped and Collared peccaries in the genus Tayassu or which alternatively clusters the Collared peccary in the genus Dicotyles as a related sister clade of the Chacoan peccary (genus Catagonus).

  20. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  1. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, G. M.; Beck, A.; Lopez, A.; Deniaud, M.; Araujo, J. A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across ‘during’ and ‘post’ thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  2. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity.

  3. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  4. The evolution of the ozone collar in the Antarctic lower stratosphere during early August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotti, A.; Mechoso, C.R.; Legras, B.; Daniel, V.

    2000-02-01

    The ozone evolution in the lower stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere during the period 5--10 August 1994 is analyzed. The analysis focuses on the ozone collar (the band of maximum values in ozone mixing ratio around the Antarctic ozone hole at these altitudes) and the development of collar filaments. Ozone mixing ratios provided by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and by an ER-2 aircraft participating in the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of stratospheric Aircraft campaign are compared with values at corresponding locations in high-resolution isentropic maps obtained by using the numerical scheme of contour advection with surgery (CAS). The CAS reconstructed ozone maps provide a view of the way in which air masses are exported from the outskirts of the collar to form the tongues of higher mixing ratios observed at lower latitudes on MLS synoptic maps. There is an overall consistency between the datasets insofar as the collar location is concerned. This location seems to be primarily defined by the local properties of the flow. Nevertheless the CAS reconstructed collar tends to become weaker than that depicted by MLS data. By means of radioactive calculation estimates, it is argued that diabatic descent may be responsible for maintaining the ozone concentration approximately constant in the collar while filaments isentropically disperse collarlike mixing ratios from this region toward lower latitudes.

  5. [Disability by cervical sprain I and II and the use of neck collar].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sousa, Martha Guadalupe; Sánchez-Avendaño, María Eugenia; Solís-Rodríguez, Annel; Yáñez-Estrada, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la incidencia del esguince cervical ocasiona altos costos en atención médica, incapacidades y ausencias laborales. El objetivo fue demostrar que los días de incapacidad por esguince cervical grados I y II son menores sin el uso de collarín. Métodos: estudio transversal en 100 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urgencias por esguince cervical grados I y II. Se evaluó el uso de collarín y los días de incapacidad laboral. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: fueron tratados con collarín más antiinflamatorio 68 % de los pacientes y 32 %, solamente con antiinflamatorio; 86 % requirió incapacidad laboral, con 11.75 días en promedio. De los pacientes incapacitados, 74.4 % utilizó collarín; de los 14 pacientes que no requirieron incapacidad, 28.6 % utilizó collarín (χ(2) = 11.63, p < 0.001). Conclusiones: los días de incapacidad y recuperación fueron menores en los pacientes que no utilizaron collarín.

  6. Teaching Picture-to-Object Relations in Picture-Based Requesting by Children with Autism: A Comparison between Error Prevention and Error Correction Teaching Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, D.; Felce, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children who have a combination of language and developmental disabilities with autism often experience major difficulties in learning relations between objects and their graphic representations. Therefore, they would benefit from teaching procedures that minimize their difficulties in acquiring these relations. This study compared two…

  7. Abdominal exploration in captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Oliveira, I R S; Alves, N D; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    This study determines the morphology and ultrasound features of the abdominal organs in male, nestling and healthy collared peccaries. The bladder wall is hyperechogenic, with a thickness of 0.2 ± 0.08 cm. The kidneys present a well-defined cortex, medulla and pelvis, and the dimensions are 2.56 ± 0.3 × 4.6 ± 0.8 cm for the left and 2.51 ± 0.4 × 4.86 ± 1.1 cm for the right kidney. The spleen has a uniform echotexture over its entire surface. The largest dimensions of the liver are 2.0 ± 0.57 cm for the left lobe and 1.42 ± 0.66 cm for the caudate lobe. The liver presents a homogeneous echotexture in the majority of cases, but sometimes some hyperechoic spots are present. The stomach wall has a thickness of 0.42 ± 0.28 cm. The bowel loops show alternate hyperechoic and hypoechoic layers with a uniform diameter and a wall thickness of 0.19 ± 0.07 cm.

  8. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Rogers, Jeremy L.; Schweppe, John E.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-07-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in a configuration typically used for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. The specific application selected for boron-lined tube replacement in this project was one of the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) designs. This report, providing results for model development of a UNCL, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project. The current UNCL instruments utilize 3He tubes. As the first step in developing and optimizing a boron-lined proportional counter based version of the UNCL, models of eight different 3He-based UNCL detectors currently in use were developed and evaluated. A comparison was made between the simulated results and measured efficiencies for those systems with values reported in the literature. The reported experimental measurements for efficiencies and die-away times agree to within 10%.

  9. Toxicity of Compound 1080 livestock protection collars to sheep.

    PubMed

    Burns, R J; Connolly, G E

    1995-02-01

    The toxicity of Compound 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) livestock protection collars (LPCs) to sheep was investigated. Lambs wearing punctured LPCs were observed to determine dermal toxicity, sheep were fed hay treated with LPC solution to find a lethal concentration, hay treated with a lethal concentration was subjected to sun and simulated rain to assess weathering influences, and sheep were held on pasture treated with LPC solution to evaluate grazing effects. Five lambs that wore punctured LPCs for up to seven days showed no dermal erythema or edema, but three died after ingesting 1080 from LPCs. All sheep died after eating 1.0 kg of hay treated with 3.75 ml, or more, of 1.0% LPC solution. Weathering 1.0 kg of hay treated with 3.75 ml of LPC solution in the sun for up to 12 weeks, reduced, but did not eliminate, toxicity; one inch or more of simulated rain eliminated toxicity. Survival of sheep in 250 m2 pens containing 1.1 m2 of forage treated with different amounts of LPC solution depended on the treatment and amount of treated forage consumed. LPC solution poses no dermal toxicity or irritation to sheep, and toxic effects on sheep from LPC solution on hay and forage was variable and situation dependent. Under conditions of exaggerated hazard, sheep can be poisoned by ingesting LPC solution, but adverse effects from normal LPC use are rare.

  10. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (P<0.05). Regarding post-thaw semen variables, no differences were verified between freezing curves when the same straw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (P<0.05), both in the use of 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL straws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (P<0.05). In conclusion, we recommend the use of a fast freezing curve that reduces the time spent on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen, which could be packaged both in 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL straws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min.

  11. Chromosome comparison between populations of the collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu, raised in captivity.

    PubMed

    Carvalho de Souza, Patrícia; Khayat, André Salim; Seligmann, Igor Chamon; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel Mario

    2008-08-01

    The collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is widely distributed over the American continent, being found from the south of the USA to the north of Argentina. In Brazil, it is spread all over the country, being one of the potential species to be raised in captivity. Therefore, the cytogenetic techniques could be a potential tool for reproductive monitoring of animals raised in captivity, mainly when destined for commercial purposes. This study had the objective of determining the chromosome number of two populations raised in captivity and characterizing them by GTG banding. For this purpose, an analysis was made of mitotic metaphases obtained from lymphocyte cultures made from blood samples of 11 animals, six of which from the Northeast and five from the North of Brazil. The results of this analysis showed the same karyotype pattern for the species (2n=30 chromosomes and NF=48), besides corresponding to the South American pattern of the species, i.e., without a translocation between autosomes 1 and 8, chromosome X acrocentric, and no differences were found between the two populations studied. However, chromosomal polymorphisms were observed compared to data from the literature on populations from North and South America.

  12. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  13. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  14. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  15. An evaluation of the accuracy and performance of lightweight GPS collars in a suburban environment.

    PubMed

    Adams, Amy L; Dickinson, Katharine J M; Robertson, Bruce C; van Heezik, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of lightweight GPS collars has enabled medium-to-small sized animals to be tracked via GPS telemetry. Evaluation of the performance and accuracy of GPS collars is largely confined to devices designed for large animals for deployment in natural environments. This study aimed to assess the performance of lightweight GPS collars within a suburban environment, which may be different from natural environments in a way that is relevant to satellite signal acquisition. We assessed the effects of vegetation complexity, sky availability (percentage of clear sky not obstructed by natural or artificial features of the environment), proximity to buildings, and satellite geometry on fix success rate (FSR) and location error (LE) for lightweight GPS collars within a suburban environment. Sky availability had the largest affect on FSR, while LE was influenced by sky availability, vegetation complexity, and HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision). Despite the complexity and modified nature of suburban areas, values for FSR (mean= 90.6%) and LE (mean = 30.1 m) obtained within the suburban environment are comparable to those from previous evaluations of GPS collars designed for larger animals and within less built-up environments. Due to fine-scale patchiness of habitat within urban environments, it is recommended that resource selection methods that are not reliant on buffer sizes be utilised for selection studies.

  16. Effects of neck collars and radiotransmitters on survival and reproduction of emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmutz, J.A.; Morse, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck collars have been used widely for studies of goose population biology. Despite concerns about their negative impacts, few studies have employed designs capable of clearly demonstrating these effects. During a 1993-98 study of emperor geese (Chen canagica), we contrasted survival and reproduction of geese marked with tarsal bands to those marked with either small neck collars, large neck collars, or small neck collars with attached radiotransmitters. Annual survival of adult females marked with tarsal bands varied among years and averaged 0.807 ?? 0.140 (v?? ?? SE). Survival of geese with other types of markers also varied among years but was lower (0.640 ?? 0.198). Collars with radiotransmitters lowered breeding propensity, as indexed by resighting rates. Although clutch sizes of tarsal banded birds were similar to those for unmarked birds, other markers reduced clutch sizes by about 1 egg. Egg mass and hatch date were not affected by marker type. Future studies of goose demographics should seriously consider use of alternative markers.

  17. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    PubMed

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  18. Structural Analysis of the SHMS Cosine Theta Superconducting Dipole Force Collar

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Lassiter, P.D. Brindza, M.J. Fowler, E. Sun, G. Markham

    2009-06-01

    Jefferson Laboratory is developing a set of innovative superconducting magnets for the 12 GeV upgrade in JLAB Hall C. We will report on the finite element analysis (FEA) of the force collar for the Super High Momentum Spectrometer Cosine Theta Dipole magnet. The force collar is designed with an interference fit and intended to provide enough pressure after cool down to operating temperature to counteract Lorentz forces acting on the dipole coil during operation. By counteracting the Lorentz forces and keeping the coil pack in overall compression, movement of the coils is expected to be minimized. The dimensional geometry of the cold mass is maintained in the commercial solid modeling code UG/I-DEAS while the magnetic field design is maintained in the commercial TOSCA code from Vector Fields. The three dimensional FEA was conducted in the commercial codes ANSYS and IDEAS. The method for converting the models and calculating the loads transferred to the structure is discussed. The results show the cold mass response to: force collar assembly preload, differential thermal contraction, and operational Lorentz loads. Evaluations are made for two candidate force collar materials and two candidate force collar designs.

  19. Cultural and linguistic factors in worker notification to blue collar and no-collar African-Americans.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A

    1993-01-01

    This presentation offers historical and sociolinguistic perspectives regarding the origins of the language used by African-Americans. U.S. descendants of slaves of West and Niger Congo African origin should not be thought of as native speakers of English. To the extent that they have lived in de jure or de facto social isolation from Euro-American English-speaking persons, they have retained a West and Niger Congo African thought process or substratum in the phonology and morphosyntax of their speech. Their mother tongue has been described by several African-American linguists, psychologists, and ethnologists as Ebonics. In a sense, Ebonics refers to the paralinguistic verbal and non-verbal sounds, cues, and gestures that are systematically used in the process of communication by many African-Americans. As one consequence of historical social isolation, African-Americans invariably score poorly on nationally standardized scales of "Standard American" English competence. Therefore, worker notification intended for African-Americans, especially among the blue- and no-collar levels, that does not contain an Afro-centric perspective will likely not prove successful. The linguistic factors, which can severely impede or tremendously enhance the effectiveness of worker notification to these groups, are therefore vital and should not be ignored. Worker notification targeted for limited English-speaking or unlettered populations should include the development of materials and presentations in the language or primary medium best understood by the audience. Based upon research findings on the psycholinguistics of learning modal preference, the development of notification materials that target a learning channel that is audio oral or aural-oral is promoted.

  20. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  1. White-collar workers' self-reported physical symptoms associated with using computers.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily.

  2. Beaded-chain collars: A new method to radiotag kangaroo rats for short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.

  3. Genetic studies on collar rot resistance in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Dhawan, Om Prakash; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Sattar, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The collar rot disease has been reported recently and occurs at the 10-12-leaf stage of plants of opium poppy. Infected plants topple down and dry prematurely due to fast rotting at the collar region. The inoculum for this study was multiplied on the cornmeal-sand culture. Genetic ratios were calculated by the chi-square test. Inheritance studies on this disease show a monogenic pattern of segregation with the ratio of 3 : 1 at F2, 1 : 2 : 1 at F3 and 1 : 1 at the backcross. Such genetic ratios clearly indicate that a single recessive gene (rs-1) is responsible for disease resistance in opium poppy. The inference drawn on the basis of the present study will be a great help in the future breeding programme of opium poppy for collar rot resistance.

  4. Coordinate action of distinct sequence elements localizes checkpoint kinase Hsl1 to the septin collar at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Sterling, Sarah M.; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N.; Sargsyan, Aspram; Garcia, Galo; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle requires processes that are tightly regulated both spatially and temporally. Surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) exert quality control and impose order on the timing and organization of downstream events by impeding cell cycle progression until the necessary components are available and undamaged and have acted in the proper sequence. In budding yeast, a checkpoint exists that does not allow timely execution of the G2/M transition unless and until a collar of septin filaments has properly assembled at the bud neck, which is the site where subsequent cytokinesis will occur. An essential component of this checkpoint is the large (1518-residue) protein kinase Hsl1, which localizes to the bud neck only if the septin collar has been correctly formed. Hsl1 reportedly interacts with particular septins; however, the precise molecular determinants in Hsl1 responsible for its recruitment to this cellular location during G2 have not been elucidated. We performed a comprehensive mutational dissection and accompanying image analysis to identify the sequence elements within Hsl1 responsible for its localization to the septins at the bud neck. Unexpectedly, we found that this targeting is multipartite. A segment of the central region of Hsl1 (residues 611–950), composed of two tandem, semiredundant but distinct septin-associating elements, is necessary and sufficient for binding to septin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. However, in addition to 611–950, efficient localization of Hsl1 to the septin collar in the cell obligatorily requires generalized targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, a function normally provided by the C-terminal phosphatidylserine-binding KA1 domain (residues 1379–1518) in Hsl1 but that can be replaced by other, heterologous phosphatidylserine-binding sequences. PMID:27193302

  5. Collar grids for intersecting geometric components within the Chimera overlapped grid scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Steven J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chan, William M.; Steger, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    A method for overcoming problems with using the Chimera overset grid scheme in the region of intersecting geometry components is presented. A 'collar grid' resolves the intersection region and provides communication between the component grids. This approach is validated by comparing computed and experimental data for a flow about a wing/body configuration. Application of the collar grid scheme to the Orbiter fuselage and vertical tail intersection in a computation of the full Space Shuttle launch vehicle demonstrates its usefulness for simulation of flow about complex aerospace vehicles.

  6. Necrotic enteritis in collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Galvão; Santos, Polyana Silva; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha; Lessa, Fabiana; Almeida, Valter dos Anjos; Leça-Júnior, Nilo Fernandes; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2011-12-01

    An outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type C was diagnosed in captive collared (Pecari tajacu) and white-lipped (Tayassu pecari) peccaries housed in the Laboratory of Applied Ethology of Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz located in Ilhéus, State of Bahia, Brazil. Four collared peccaries and three white-lipped peccaries, all juveniles (25-105 days old), were affected. For all affected animals, lethargy and inappetance were followed by sudden death within 24 hours. Histopathology of intestinal wall, culture of C. perfringens type C, and the identification of beta-toxin from intestinal content confirmed the diagnosis.

  7. Inflammatory reaction to fabric collars from percutaneous antennas attached to intracoelomic radio transmitters implanted in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus).

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Daniel M; Burek, K A; Esler, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    In wild birds implanted intracoelomically with radio transmitters, a synthetic fabric collar placed around the base of a percutaneous antenna is believed to function as a barrier to contamination of the coelom. We examined 13 fabric collars recovered from percutaneous antennas of radio transmitters implanted intracoelomically in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) 12 months earlier. Both the transmitters and antenna collars were encapsulated in fibrous connective tissue, with adhesions to internal organs. Histologically, bacteria were evident at the fabric-plastic interface in 8 of 10 collars examined in cross section and along the length of the collar in 3 collars examined longitudinally. Bacteria were confined within the fibrotic sheath surrounding the transmitter and the antenna collar in all birds. No evidence of chronic systemic effects secondary to implantation was present on hematologic or serum biochemical testing. These findings indicate that antenna collars do not prevent the entry of bacteria along the percutaneous antenna but may help stabilize the antenna and minimize coelomic contamination. We conclude that radio transmitters implanted into the coelom of harlequin ducks do not appear to cause significant health problems for at least 1 year after implantation.

  8. Inflammatory reaction to fabric collars from percutaneous antennas attached to intracoelomic radio transmitters implanted in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Burek, K.A.; Esler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In wild birds implanted intracoelomically with radio transmitters, a synthetic fabric collar placed around the base of a percutaneous antenna is believed to function as a barrier to contamination of the coelom. We examined 13 fabric collars recovered from percutaneous antennas of radio transmitters implanted intracoelomically in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) 12 months earlier. Both the transmitters and antenna collars were encapsulated in fibrous connective tissue, with adhesions to internal organs. Histologically, bacteria were evident at the fabric-plastic interface in 8 of 10 collars examined in cross section and along the length of the collar in 3 collars examined longitudinally. Bacteria were confined within the fibrotic sheath surrounding the transmitter and the antenna collar in all birds. No evidence of chronic systemic effects secondary to implantation was present on hematologic or serum biochemical testing. These findings indicate that antenna collars do not prevent the entry of bacteria along the percutaneous antenna but may help stabilize the antenna and minimize coelomic contamination. We conclude that radio transmitters implanted into the coelom of harlequin ducks do not appear to cause significant health problems for at least 1 year after implantation.

  9. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  10. A Study of the Comparative Influence of Learning Writing Conventions upon the Expressive Literacy of Average Ability Blue and White Collar Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Marben Robert

    The effect of teaching dialect-related writing skills to black, blue collar children in the fourth, seventh, and eleventh grades in comparison with similar white, blue collar students and white, white collar students was investigated. Eight operational hypotheses were developed and tested at the three grade levels. The data compared consisted of…

  11. Victims of fraud: comparing victims of white collar and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Ganzini, L; McFarland, B; Bloom, J

    1990-01-01

    Mental health professionals have focused attention on the psychiatric sequelae of criminal victimization. This article compares the experience of white collar and violent crime victims on several parameters including statistical risk of victimization and psychiatric outcome after victimization. Emphasis is given to data obtained from interviewing 77 victims of a fraudulent financial scheme.

  12. Transitional cell carcinoma metastatic to the eye in a collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    McCowan, Christina; Stanley, Robin; Lynch, Michael

    2002-09-01

    A 15-year-old female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) was presented for ophthalmic examination following sudden onset of blindness. Bilateral retinal detachment was diagnosed, neoplasia suspected, and euthanasia performed. Widespread tumor dissemination was apparent at autopsy, and transitional cell carcinoma was diagnosed histologically. The tumor was identified as arising from the ovary. Epidemiologic features of this case are discussed.

  13. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  14. Socializing Messages in Blue-Collar Families: Communicative Pathways to Social Mobility and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This study explicitly links processes of anticipatory socialization to social mobility and reproduction. An examination of the socializing messages exchanged between blue-collar parents (n = 41) and their children (n = 25) demonstrate that family-based messages about work and career seldom occur in straightforward, unambiguous ways. Instead,…

  15. The development and validation of a job crafting measure for use with blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Karina; Abildgaard, Johan Simonsen

    2012-10-01

    Job crafting describes a set of proactive behaviours in which employees may engage to shape their work in order to minimize hindering job demands and maximize resources and challenging demands. Such behaviours may be particularly important among blue-collar workers whose jobs are characterized by poor working conditions and low well-being. We present the development and adaptation of a job crafting measure that may be used among blue-collar workers, based on an existing scale by Tims, Bakker, and Derks (2012) that was not specifically developed for blue-collar workers. We test the validity and reliability of the measure in a longitudinal study based on multiple source information from mail delivery workers in Denmark (N = 362 at Time 1; N = 408 at Time 2). Results indicate the presence of five job crafting dimensions: increasing challenging demands, decreasing social job demands, increasing social job resources, increasing quantitative demands and decreasing hindering job demands. These can be reliably measured with 15 items. The measure shows acceptable discriminant and criterion validity, and test-retest reliability. The findings extend the application of the original questionnaire. They also add to knowledge of the job crafting behaviours in which blue-collar workers engage and link them to well-being outcomes.

  16. Model Curriculum And Trainer's Guide for Programs to Combat White-Collar Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Clifford L.

    This model curriculum is addressed to the training needs of personnel working in general white-collar crime assignments located in state and local police or prosecutors' offices. It is designed intentionally to orient personnel to the requirements of building a case as it moves along the enforcement process. Materials on trainer use and…

  17. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  18. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S... Trade Commission has determined not to review an initial determination (``ID'') (Order No. 3) of the....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic...

  19. 78 FR 12788 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  20. 76 FR 34978 - Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... cancellations based on their belief that EPA failed to adequately assess residential exposures to pet collars... health risks above EPA's level of concern. NRDC believes that the Agency used incorrect exposure... interest to a wide range of stakeholders including environmental and human health advocates; the...

  1. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  2. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (Hb) (P < 0.06), and packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.07). Cortisol concentrations were lower (P < 0.0001) in capture-collared deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  3. Agreement on Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Blue-Collar Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was…

  4. White Collar Work: Career Ambitions of Fiji Final Year School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilan, Pam; Cavu, Paula; Tagicakiverata, Isimeli; Hazelman, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The career ambitions of 1012 pupils in the final years of secondary schooling in Fiji were surveyed. The range of careers they nominated was very narrow, with teaching, nursing and other white collar work in the majority of responses. This stands in somewhat stark contrast to projected labour force needs, and the current serious shortage of…

  5. Blue-Collar Affluence in a Remote Mining Town: Challenging the Modernist Myth of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on research in Karratha, a remote resource town in Western Australia, this paper explores the ways in which blue-collar affluence disturbs the meritocratic mythology of formal education. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century Karratha was one of Australia's most affluent towns, yet its adult population was characterised by a level…

  6. White Collar Crime. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Materials. Business Issues in the Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    One of a series of units on business issues designed for secondary school students, this packet examines white collar crime. Teacher and student materials are provided in two separate sections. The teacher's guide contains four lesson plans as well as research project recommendations, student handouts, answer keys, and suggestions for using a…

  7. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  8. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  9. Chinese White-Collar Workers and Multilingual Creativity in the Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2011-01-01

    The nearly universal requirement of English study in colleges has afforded the language an unprecedented institutional status and given rise to an increasingly large English-literate public in the Expanding Circle countries. Adopting the lens of domestic diaspora, the present study explores Chinese white-collar workers' multilingual creativity…

  10. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. Results A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P <  0.001) (P-value for heterogeneity: 0.885, I2: 0.000% = no heterogeneity). WMD (95% CI) between microgaps placed either at or below the bone crest amounted to −0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P <  0.001) (P-value for heterogeneity: 0.333, I2: 12.404% = low heterogeneity). Only two studies compared different implant–abutment configurations. Due to a high heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Conclusions While the positioning of the machined neck and microgap may limit crestal bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant–abutment connection lacks documentation. PMID:23782338

  11. Factors affecting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers: a case study of one healthcare institution.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai'i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporation in Hawai'i participated. A mixed-methods approach was employed, in which findings from focus groups with white-collar workers (WCW) (n=18) were used to inform development of a questionnaire with closed and open-ended items for use with blue-collar workers (BCW) (n=39), whose jobs did not provide adequate time to participate in focus groups. Focus groups with WCW revealed that onsite availability of healthy food and fitness opportunities provided the most support for healthy eating and physical activity at work; work demands, easy access to unhealthy foods, and lack of onsite fitness opportunities were barriers; and lifestyle management was a topic of substantial interest. BCW cited the ability to bring home lunch and their (physically active) jobs as being supportive of healthy behaviors; not having enough time to eat and personal illness/injury were barriers; and chronic disease topics were of greatest interest. Knowing differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity, as well as preferences for worksite wellness programming, among BCW and WCW, is important when planning and implementing worksite health promotion programs. PMID:24069570

  12. Factors affecting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers: a case study of one healthcare institution.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Jodi H; Braun, Kathryn L; Novotny, Rachel; Mokuau, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    Worksite health promotion programs can reduce prevalence of chronic disease among employees, but little research has been done to discern whether they meet the needs and incorporate the preferences of workers of different occupational types. The objective of this study is to examine differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity and preferences for programs among multiethnic blue- and white-collar workers in Hawai'i. A total of 57 employees from a major health care corporation in Hawai'i participated. A mixed-methods approach was employed, in which findings from focus groups with white-collar workers (WCW) (n=18) were used to inform development of a questionnaire with closed and open-ended items for use with blue-collar workers (BCW) (n=39), whose jobs did not provide adequate time to participate in focus groups. Focus groups with WCW revealed that onsite availability of healthy food and fitness opportunities provided the most support for healthy eating and physical activity at work; work demands, easy access to unhealthy foods, and lack of onsite fitness opportunities were barriers; and lifestyle management was a topic of substantial interest. BCW cited the ability to bring home lunch and their (physically active) jobs as being supportive of healthy behaviors; not having enough time to eat and personal illness/injury were barriers; and chronic disease topics were of greatest interest. Knowing differences in influences to healthy eating and physical activity, as well as preferences for worksite wellness programming, among BCW and WCW, is important when planning and implementing worksite health promotion programs.

  13. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  14. Endocrine and metabolic responses of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) to immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Grant, W E

    1985-10-01

    Serial physiological responses were examined for 150 min from captive collared peccaries during immobilization with ketamine hydrochloride. Rectal temperatures decreased significantly (P less than 0.01) during anesthesia. Serum concentrations of total proteins, albumin, cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and calcium declined significantly (P less than 0.05) during the first 45 min post-immobilization before stabilizing. Concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase in sera showed similar but nonsignificant (P greater than 0.05) trends. Inorganic phosphorus and aspartate aminotransferase concentrations increased significantly (P less than 0.05) throughout the trial. Concentrations of serum glucose and glucocorticoid during the immobilization period were highly variable between individuals. Serum electrolytes, urea nitrogen, creatinine, gammaglutamyl transferase and progesterone were not significantly (P greater than 0.05) affected by immobilization. Elevations in serum testosterone were noted. Results indicated appropriate sampling times relative to immobilization for assay of particular serum biochemicals and steroid hormones during investigations of the physiology of the collared peccary.

  15. Indices for physiological assessment of nutritional condition in pregnant collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Grant, W E

    1988-07-01

    Hematological and serum biochemical responses to two levels of dietary energy (high energy [HE], 3300 kcal digestible energy [DE]/kg; moderate energy [ME], 2300 kcal DE/kg) and protein (high protein [HP], 16.0% crude protein; moderate protein [MP], 8.4% crude protein) during gestation in 15 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were examined. Dietary energy and protein levels influenced body weight gain during gestation. Red blood cell counts and lymphocyte concentrations were higher and neutrophil concentrations were lower among females fed an HP diet compared to those fed an MP diet. Alkaline phosphatase and alpha-2 globulin concentrations were higher among females fed an MP diet. Aspartate aminotransferase and cholesterol concentrations were higher and calcium and thyroxine concentrations were lower among females fed ME diets compared to those fed HE diets. These results suggest that physiological indices used in combination with morphological measurements can be useful in assessing collared peccary nutritional health during gestation.

  16. Predictors of health-promoting behavior associated with cardiovascular diseases among Korean blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oi Saeng; Rankin, Sally H

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks, psychosocial and work-related factors as predictors of health behavior. A sample of 234 Korean blue-collar workers, who worked in small companies, was included in this cross-sectional study. Data collection included a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling. Multiple regression analyses showed that the model explained 30% of the variance in health behavior of blue-collar workers. The significant predictors for health behavior included education level, perceived general health, greater family function, higher social support, decision latitude, and non-shift work. Future research should focus on incorporating these significant predictors into effective behavioral interventions designed to promote cardiovascular health in this population.

  17. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  18. The Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Allows Tracheal Intubation When the Cervical Spine Is Immobilized by a Rigid Collar

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Ryu; Nagata, Osamu; Kamata, Kotoe; Yamagata, Katsuyuki; Sessler, Daniel I.; Ozaki, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Summary An intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) facilitates tracheal intubation with the neck in neutral position, which is similar to the neck position maintained by a rigid cervical collar. However, a cervical collar virtually obliterates neck movement, even the small movements that normally facilitate airway insertion. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the ILMA facilitates tracheal intubation even in patients wearing a rigid cervical collar. In 50 cervical spine surgery patients with a rigid Philadelphia collar in place and 50 general surgery patients under general anaesthesia, we performed blind tracheal intubation via an ILMA. The time required for intubation, intubation success rate, and numbers and type of adjusting manoeuvres employed were recorded. Inter-incisor distance was significantly smaller (4.1 [0.8] cm vs. 4.6 [0.7] cm, mean [SD], P<0.01) and Mallampati scores were significantly greater (P<0.001) in the collared patients. ILMA insertion took longer (30 [25] vs. 22 [6] seconds), more patients required 2 insertion attempts (15 vs. 3; P<0.005), and ventilation adequacy with ILMA was worse (P<0.05) in collared patients. However, there were no significant differences between the collared and control patients in terms of total time required for intubation (60 [41] vs. 50 [30] seconds), number of intubation attempts, overall intubation success rate (96 vs. 98%), or the incidence of intubation complications. Blind intubation through an ILMA is thus a reasonable strategy for controlling the airway in patients who are immobilized with a rigid cervical collar, especially when urgency precludes a fiberoptic approach. PMID:15321932

  19. Urea concentration in collared peccary milk as an indicator of protein nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E; Varner, L W

    1987-07-01

    Milk urea nitrogen (UN) concentration was examined as a possible index to protein-energy intake in female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu). Captive adults were bred and assigned to one of four experimental diets through gestation and lactation. Females fed a high protein diet produced milk with UN concentrations exceeding those of low-protein-fed females. A low energy intake tended to elevate UN concentrations in milk.

  20. Evaluating home range techniques: use of Global Positioning System (GPS) collar data from chacma baboons.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Morgan, Hanna R; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) collars have revolutionized the field of spatial ecology, but to date, few primate studies have used them. We fitted a free-ranging, semi-habituated, juvenile male chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) with an automatic self-releasing GPS collar and tracked his movements for 359 days. The collar captured 4254 fixes out of 5719 programmed opportunities, a 74.4 % acquisition rate, suggesting that the collar effectively tracked this baboon in a variety of habitat types. Of the data points captured, 73.7 % were three-dimensional fixes, and of these fixes, 66.9 % were highly accurate, having a dilution of precision of less than four. We calculated home range using three protocols with three estimation methods: minimum convex polygon, fixed kernel-density estimation (KDE), and fixed r local convex hull. Using all data points and the 95 % contour, these methods created home range estimations ranging from 10.8 to 23.1 km(2) for this baboon troop. Our results indicate that the KDE output using all data locations most accurately represented our data set, as it created a continuous home range boundary that excluded unused areas and outlying, potentially exploratory data points while including all seven sleeping sites and a movement corridor. However, home range estimations generated from KDE varied from 15.4 to 18.8 km(2) depending on the smoothing parameter used. Our results demonstrated that the ad hoc smoothing parameter selection technique was a better method for our data set than either the least squares cross-validation or biased cross-validation techniques. Our results demonstrate the need for primatologists to develop a standardized reporting method which documents the tool, screening protocol, and smoothing parameter used in the creation of home range estimations in order to make comparisons that are meaningful.

  1. The horse-collar aurora - A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Evans, D. S.; Newell, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The frequent appearance of the 'horse-collar aurora' pattern in quiet-time DE 1 images is reported, presenting a two-hour image sequence that displays the basic features and shows that it sometimes evolves toward the theta configuration. There is some evidence for interplanetary magnetic field B(y) influence on the temporal development of the pattern. A preliminary statistical analysis finds the pattern appearing in one-third or more of the image sequences recorded during quiet times.

  2. Biological control of collar rot disease with broad-spectrum antifungal bacteria associated with groundnut.

    PubMed

    Kishore, G Krishna; Pande, S; Podile, A R

    2005-02-01

    Bacteria associated with 6 habitats of groundnut were evaluated for their broad-spectrum antifungal activity and suppression of collar rot (Aspergillus niger) of groundnut. Three hundred and ninety-three strains were tested against 8 fungal pathogens of groundnut including 5 necrotrophic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii, and 3 biotrophic fungi, Cercospora arachidicola, Phaeoisariopsis personata, and Puccinia arachidis. Pseudomonas sp. GRS 175, Pseudomonas aeruginosa GPS 21, GSE 18, GSE 19, and GSE 30, and their cell-free culture filtrates were highly antagonistic to all the test fungi. The cell-free culture filtrates of these bacteria were fungicidal and induced mycelial deformations including hyphal bulging and vacuolization in necrotrophic fungi. The cell-free culture filtrates at 10% (v/v) concentration significantly inhibited the spore germination of biotrophic fungi. In the greenhouse, P. aeruginosa GSE 18 emerged as an effective biocontrol agent of collar rot closely followed by P. aeruginosa GSE 19. The bacterium applied as a seed treatment reduced the pre-emergence rotting and postemergence wilting by > 60%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18 effectively colonized the groundnut rhizosphere, both in native and in A. niger infested potting mixtures. Ninety-day-old peat formulation of P. aeruginosa GSE 18 had biocontrol ability comparable with the midlog-phase cells. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GSE 18, tolerant to thiram, in combination with the fungicide had an improved collar rot control. The present study was a successful attempt in selection of broad-spectrum and fungicide tolerant biocontrol agents that can be a useful component of integrated management of collar rot.

  3. Reproductive performance of captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) in the eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; Le Pendu, Yvonnick; Da Silva, Jurupytan Viana; Jori, Ferran; López-Béjar, Manel

    2007-11-01

    This study analyses reproductive parameters resulting from 74 parturitions in a population of captive collared peccaries in the eastern Amazon (Belém, State of Pará, Brazil) during a 65-month survey. Parturitions were homogeneously distributed throughout the year. The average litter size was 1.85 newborns per parturition. Collared peccary females had a newborn sex ratio of 52.6% females and 47.4% males. The mean age at first parturition was 639, although, the earliest first parturition occurred at age of 381 days. Estimated parturition-conception interval was 58 days. Mean farrowing interval was 196 days and mean production was 1.03 litters and 1.86 newborns per year per female. Mortality rate in newborns less than 2 months old was 26.9% of the total newborn population. Most identified causes of death were abandonment by the mother (22.2%) and trauma due to aggression (13.9%). Newborn deaths occurred mainly during the first two days of life. This study suggests that the collared peccary possesses interesting reproductive parameters for its introduction in captive breeding programmes in the Amazon region.

  4. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  5. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  6. Estrous synchronization in captive collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) using a prostaglandin F2α analog.

    PubMed

    Maia, Keilla Moreira; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; Campos, Lívia Batista; Silva, Andréia Maria da; Castelo, Thibério de Souza; Ricarte, Aracely Rafaelle Fernandes; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    We verify the efficiency of a protocol for estrus synchronization in captive female collared peccaries (Pecaricari tajacu) using the prostaglandin analog D-cloprostenol. Five adult female collared peccaries received an intramuscular administration of 60 µg D-cloprostenol, which procedure was repeated after a 9-day interval. For 10 days after second the D-cloprostenol administration, females were monitored for changes in external genitalia, ovarian ultrasonography, vaginal cytology and reproductive hormonal dosage. As a result, four females synchronized their estrous at 9.5 ± 0.5 days after the second administration of the prostaglandin analog. Such females showed external signs of estrus, including vulvar opening, hyperemic vaginal mucosa, and vaginal mucus, concomitant with an increase in the proportion of superficial cells (52.2 ± 9.9%) verified through vaginal cytology. An estrogen peak of 22.7 ± 3.4 pg/ml was detected by hormonal dosage, and the presence of anechoic follicles measuring 0.29 ± 0.05 × 0.32 ± 0.07 mm were detected in the ovary by ultrasonography. Given these findings, we suggest that D-cloprostenol may be effective for use in estrus synchronization in collared peccaries.

  7. Electroweak Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    The test of the electroweak corrections has played a major role in providing evidence for the gauge and the Higgs sectors of the Standard Model. At the same time the consideration of the electroweak corrections has given significant indirect information on the masses of the top and the Higgs boson before their discoveries and important orientation/constraints on the searches for new physics, still highly valuable in the present situation. The progression of these contributions is reviewed.

  8. Satellite Telemetry of Large Mammals in Mongolia: What Expectations Should We Have for Collar Function?

    PubMed

    Kaczensky, P; Ito, T Y; Walzer, C

    2010-12-01

    The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 98 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos (n = 29) or the global positioning system (GPS; n = 69), on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus), 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), 15 Przewalski's horses (E. ferus przewalskii), eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus), and two wolves (Canis lupus). Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 98 collars deployed, only 29 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 69 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 12), with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1), or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12). Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10), software bugs (n = 7), mechanical failures (n = 5), poor GPS performance (n = 1) and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21). The better performance of Argos only collars on Mongolian gazelles and of collars not attached to an animal suggest that a large body mass reduces the Argos signal below a critical threshold. Consequently, we presently would not recommend the use of collars depending on an Argos unit for data collection or transfer on large bodied ungulates in central Asia. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This implies logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the

  9. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  10. Vertical Drop of 44-BWR Waste Package With Lifting Collars

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2005-08-23

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a waste package (WP) dropped flat on its bottom from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 44-Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The Uncanistered Waste Disposal Container System is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 4, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 16). AP-3. 12Q, Design Calculations and Analyses (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 44-BWR WP considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for that design.

  11. Evolution of suiform aromatases: ancestral duplication with conservation of tissue-specific expression in the collared peccary (Pecari tayassu).

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Hughes, A L; Heffelfinger, J R; Berger, T; Waltzek, T B; Roser, J F; Santos, T C; Miglino, M A; Oliveira, M F; Braga, F C; Meirelles, F V; Conley, A J

    2007-10-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom), the enzyme that catalyzes estrogen synthesis, is required for successful reproduction and is encoded by a single copy gene (CYP19) in most mammals. However, pigs and their distant suiform relatives the peccaries experienced CYP19 duplication. Here, the evolutionary origin of CYP19 duplication, and the evolution of the gene paralogs, was explored further in collared peccaries (Pecari tayassu). Exons IV and V, and the intervening intron, representing duplicated CYP19 genes, were cloned and sequenced from collared peccary, pig, and hippopotamus. Sequence alignment and analysis identified a gene conversion in collared peccary with a breakpoint 102 base pairs (bp) upstream of exon V. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence upstream of the breakpoint supported a tree in which one peccary sequence was orthologous with the porcine gonadal gene. Cloning and sequencing of tissue transcripts, using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction techniques (RT-PCR), confirmed that the gonadal ortholog was expressed in collared peccary testis. Orthology of the other genomic sequence with the porcine placental gene was not resolved, but its placenta-specific expression in collared peccary was confirmed by similar transcript analysis. Immunoblot and enzyme activity in collared peccary testes demonstrated much lower levels of P450arom than in pig testis. Collared peccary placental P450arom expression also seemed much lower than pigs. Thus, suiform CYP19 genes arose from an ancestral duplication that has maintained gonad- and placenta-specific expression, but at lower levels in peccaries than pigs, perhaps facilitating the emergence of different reproductive strategies as Suiformes diverged and evolved. PMID:17912474

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Different Shapes of Collars on the Reduction of Scour around a Single Bridge Pier

    PubMed Central

    Jahangirzadeh, Afshin; Basser, Hossein; Akib, Shatirah; Karami, Hojat; Naji, Sareh; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin

    2014-01-01

    The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream’s bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars. PMID:24919065

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of different shapes of collars on the reduction of scour around a single bridge pier.

    PubMed

    Jahangirzadeh, Afshin; Basser, Hossein; Akib, Shatirah; Karami, Hojat; Naji, Sareh; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin

    2014-01-01

    The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream's bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars.

  14. Jitter Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waegell, Mordecai J.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Jitter_Correct.m is a MATLAB function that automatically measures and corrects inter-frame jitter in an image sequence to a user-specified precision. In addition, the algorithm dynamically adjusts the image sample size to increase the accuracy of the measurement. The Jitter_Correct.m function takes an image sequence with unknown frame-to-frame jitter and computes the translations of each frame (column and row, in pixels) relative to a chosen reference frame with sub-pixel accuracy. The translations are measured using a Cross Correlation Fourier transformation method in which the relative phase of the two transformed images is fit to a plane. The measured translations are then used to correct the inter-frame jitter of the image sequence. The function also dynamically expands the image sample size over which the cross-correlation is measured to increase the accuracy of the measurement. This increases the robustness of the measurement to variable magnitudes of inter-frame jitter

  15. C2 Body Fracture: Report of Cases Managed Conservatively by Philadelphia Collar

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Purpose To present results of conservative management in patients with pure C2 body fractures. Overview of Literature Axis body fractures, a less common subgroup of C2 fractures, are commonly classified as vertical coronal, vertical sagittal, and transverse subtypes. While the treatment paradigm for other C2 fractures is clear, there is insufficient evidence to support treatment guidelines for C2 body fractures. Methods Eleven patients with pure C2 body fractures were managed with external immobilization and followed thereafter. Results All neurologic examinations were normal. In computed tomography (CT) scans, four, two, three, and two patients had a coronal, sagittal, horizontal, and burst fracture, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hematoma and partial rupture in the anterior longitudinal ligament in four patients, posterior ligamentous complex injury in one, and normal ligamentous structure in six. All fractures were managed conservatively using the Philadelphia collar, which was continued until complete disappearance of symptoms (within 1–3 months in all patients). The decision to discontinue the neck collar was made by a dynamic neck X-ray and CT scan that showed complete bony fusion. All patients were then followed for an additional 1.5 years (mean follow-up of 21 months for all patients). No patient showed any neurologic symptoms or deficits during the follow-up period. Conclusions In patients with pure C2 body fracture, non-operative management with Philadelphia neck collar is a safe and efficacious option, even in the presence of some sort of ligamentous injury. PMID:27790321

  16. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Spencer N; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF COLLARED PECCARY ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) WITH SWINE KIDNEY WORM ( Stephanurus dentatus ).

    PubMed

    Harwell, G M; Davis, D S; Robinson, R M; Galvin, T J

    1977-10-01

    Two captive-born juvenile collared peccaries ( Dicotyles tajacu angulatus ) were given 3000 infective larvae of Stephanurus dentatus per os. One peccary harbored viable S. dentatus sub-adults in the liver 50 days post-infection. The other peccary had no larvae but did have diffuse fibrotic hepatic lesions and bile duct hyperplasia 213 days post-infection; however, the lesions may have been partially due to a concurrent Ascaris suum infection. A domestic pig ( Sus scrofa domesticus ) infected as a control was severely but non-patently parasitized 170 days postinfection.

  18. Results of Temperature and Collar Surveys in EE-2 – November 16-17, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Murhpy, Hugh D.; Dash, Zora V.

    1983-11-21

    The purpose of these surveys was to remove the ambiguities in fracture locations from the Experiment 2035 surveys which were run the previous week without a collar locator. It was confirmed that a major fracture, taking about 50% of the injected water, exists right at, or within 10 to 20 feet below , the casing shoe. Another large fracture, taking about 30% of the flow, occurs at 11,900 feet, 320 feet below the shoe. During these surveys we detected small, about 0.6°C,

  19. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, Vicente; Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study.

  20. Screening older, blue-collar workers for drinking problems: an assessment of the efficacy of the drinking problems index.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Peter A; Sonnenstuhl, William J; Vashdi, Dana

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the performance of the Drinking Problems Index (DPI) as a screening instrument for the identification of drinking problems among older blue-collar workers. Performance was assessed using a random sample of 1055 retirement-eligible blue-collar workers with the CAGE as a problem-drinking criterion. The authors also assessed the relative performance of the DPI versus the CAGE on the basis of each instrument's sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with regard to other alcohol-related criteria. DPI was found to offer reasonable levels of sensitivity and specificity, although its sensitivity varied by age. Moreover, for older, blue-collar workers, the DPI was found to more effectively screen for problematic patterns of alcohol consumption than the CAGE.

  1. Australian blue-collar men's health and well-being: contextual issues for workplace health promotion interventions.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Karin; Cronin, David; Corney, Tim; Green, Emma

    2013-09-01

    In Australia, blue-collar workers are predominantly male and form a unique and large (approximately 30%) subset of the Australian workforce. They exhibit particular health-related issues and, in comparison to other groups, often a lack of health promoting behavior. This article briefly discusses the Australian context and some of the key health issues blue-collar men face, in particular as it relates to construction workers. It reviews the impact of gender and socioeconomic factors in designing workplace health promotion interventions. This article considers practice strategies for health promoters in a specific workplace setting: it looks at meta-factors and industry-based contextual factors, including barriers to implementation and participation, while addressing common misconceptions about Australian blue-collar workers.

  2. Reducing Social Disparities in Tobacco Use: A Social-Contextual Model for Reducing Tobacco Use Among Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Hunt, Mary Kay; Emmons, Karen

    2004-01-01

    In the United States in 1997, the smoking prevalence among blue-collar workers was nearly double that among white-collar workers, underscoring the need for new approaches to reduce social disparities in tobacco use. These inequalities reflect larger structural forces that shape the social context of workers’ lives. Drawing from a range of social and behavioral theories and lessons from social epidemiology, we articulate a social-contextual model for understanding ways in which socioeconomic position, particularly occupation, influences smoking patterns. We present applications of this model to worksite-based smoking cessation interventions among blue-collar workers and provide empirical support for this model. We also propose avenues for future research guided by this model. PMID:14759932

  3. Fine structural and immunohistochemical detection of collar enamel in the teeth of Polypterus senegalus, an actinopterygian fish.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, I; Yokosuka, H; Ishiyama, M; Mikami, M; Shimokawa, H; Uchida, T

    2012-02-01

    This is the first detailed report about the collar enamel of the teeth of Polypterus senegalus. We have examined the fine structure of the collar enamel and enamel organ of Polypterus during amelogenesis by light and transmission electron microscopy. An immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody against bovine amelogenin, an antiserum against porcine amelogenin and region-specific antibodies or antiserum against the C-terminus, middle region and N-terminus of porcine amelogenin has also been performed to examine the collar enamel matrix present in these teeth. Their ameloblasts contain fully developed Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory granules. During collar enamel formation, an amorphous fine enamel matrix containing no collagen fibrils is found between the dentin and ameloblast layers. In non-demineralized sections, the collar enamel (500 nm to 1 μm thick) is distinguishable from dentin, because of its higher density and differences in the arrangement of its crystals. The fine structural features of collar enamel in Polypterus are similar to those of tooth enamel in Lepisosteus (gars), coelacanths, lungfish and amphibians. The enamel matrix shows intense immunoreactivity to the antibody and antiserum against mammalian amelogenins and to the middleregion- and C-terminal-specific anti-amelogenin antibodies. These findings suggest that the proteins in the enamel of Polypterus contain domains that closely resemble those of bovine and porcine amelogenins. The enamel matrix, which exhibits positive immunoreactivity to mammalian amelogenins, extends to the cap enameloid surface, implying that amelogenin-like proteins are secreted by ameloblasts as a thin matrix layer that covers the cap enameloid after enameloid maturation.

  4. The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan J.; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4–5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward

  5. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan J; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based

  6. Prevalence and Health Correlates of Work-Life Conflict among Blue- and White-Collar Workers from Different Economic Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Hämmig, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The research on work-life conflict (WLC) is largely neglected in occupational medicine and public health and typically limited to white-collar workers and public servants. This study therefore aims to explore possible differences in the prevalence of WLC and its association with health outcomes between white- and blue-collar workers from different work environments in Switzerland. Cross-sectional survey data collected in 2007 in the service sector and in 2010 in the industrial sector were used for statistical analyses. A subsample of university graduates employed by large service companies (N = 1,170) from the first survey’s population was taken and compared with a subsample of low or unskilled industrial and construction workers with no or only compulsory education (N = 489) from the second survey’s population. The results show almost consistently, and particularly in women, a lower prevalence of time- and strain-based forms and both causal directions of WLC in blue-collar workers. However, associations between different WLC measures and general, physical and mental health outcomes were found to be equally strong or even stronger among blue-collar workers compared to white-collar workers. Low or unskilled industrial and construction workers are less frequently affected by higher degrees of WLC but are then at no lower risk of suffering poor self-rated health or severe backaches and sleep disorders than university graduates working in the service sector with comparable exposure to WLC. In conclusion, it can be stated that WLC turned out to be much less prevalent but equally or even more detrimental to health in blue-collar workers, who therefore need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25426483

  7. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  8. Spermatogenic cycle length and sperm production in a feral pig species (collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Costa, Guilherme M J; Leal, Marcelo C; Silva, Jurupytan V; Ferreira, Ana Cássia S; Guimarães, Diva A; França, Luiz Renato de

    2010-01-01

    Although the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) is found throughout the Americas, with a high potential for domestication and commercial exploitation, there are few data on the reproductive biology of this mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate testis structure, spermatogenic cycle length, Sertoli cell efficiency, and spermatogenic efficiency. Twelve adult peccaries were used for biometrical, histological, and stereological analyses; 3 of these peccaries received intratesticular injections of (3)H-thymidine for the determination of the duration of spermatogenesis. Testis weight and gonadosomatic index were 23.7 +/- 1.8 g and 0.2% +/- 0.1%, respectively. Seminiferous tubule volume density was 77.4% +/- 1.7%. Leydig cells occupied 12.8% +/- 1.8% of the testis parenchyma and presented a peculiar cytoarchitecture in the periphery of the seminiferous tubule lobes. The premeiotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic stage frequencies were very similar to those found for wild and domestic boars. The spermatogenic cycle and entire spermatogenic process (based on 4.5 cycles) lasted approximately 12.3 +/- 0.2 and 55.1 +/- 0.7 days, respectively. Daily sperm production per gram of testis in the collared peccary was approximately 23.4 +/- 2 x 10(6), which is similar to that of domestic and wild boars. The knowledge generated in the present study could be used in reproduction and animal improvement programs and provides important information that may be used for comparative reproductive biology with previously investigated mammalian species.

  9. Ovarian features of the wild collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the northeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Fenech, Mar; Bodmer, Richard E; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the ovaries of 27 wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from the Amazonian region of northeastern Peru were examined macroscopically and microscopically, and expression of major steroidogenic enzymes was detected by immunohistochemistry. Our observations suggest a mean ovulation rate of 2.3 +/- 0.6 follicles and a low rate of reproductive wastage (0.4 +/- 0.6 oocytes or embryos per pregnancy). The collared peccary seems to exhibit follicular waves involving the synchronous growth of a cohort of follicles, several of which seem to attain selection. The presence of antral follicles in pregnant females suggests that follicular turnover continues during pregnancy. In cyclic animals, corpora lutea were characterised by the presence of distinct large and small luteal cell populations. The luteal volume in pregnant females was larger than that recorded for non-pregnant females. Through immunohistochemistry, it was observed that luteal cells from active corpora lutea exhibit intensive 3beta-HSD expression in advanced stages of pregnancy. This suggests that the corpora lutea seems to remain steroidogenically active throughout pregnancy and likely contribute to progesterone production during pregnancy.

  10. Influence of recovery method and centrifugation on epididymal sperm from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; da Silva, Andréia Maria; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; da Silva, Mariana de Araújo; Franco de Oliveira, Moacir; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    In order to establish protocols for gamete recovery from accidentally killed wild animals, or to take advantage of those slaughtered by captive breeders, we assess the influence of two methods on the recovery of epididymal sperm from collared peccaries, and verify the effect of centrifugation on such gametes. Genitalia from nine animals were used. For each animal, one epididymis was processed by flotation and the other was processed by retrograde flushing, both using a buffered media based on Tris. Following recovery, sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, viability, functional membrane integrity, and morphology. A 1-mL aliquot of each sample was centrifuged, the supernatant removed, and the pellet suspended and evaluated as fresh samples. The sperm characteristics did not differ between the samples collected by flotation or retrograde flushing (P < 0.05). Centrifugation promoted an increase in head and tail defects, thus reducing the percentage of viable sperm (P < 0.05). No other parameter assessed for both methods was affected by centrifugation. In conclusion, epididymal sperm from collared peccaries can be efficiently collected through flotation or retrograde flushing, but not when either is followed by centrifugation.

  11. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates.

  12. Sleep problems in white-collar male workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakata, A; Haratani, T; Kawakami, N; Miki, A; Kurabayashi, L; Shimizu, H

    2000-01-01

    In order to clarify poor sleep habits and prevalence in sleep problems (disturbances) of healthy male white-collar workers and the relationship of these to age and job type, a total of 1,161 Japanese employees of an electric equipment manufacturing company (aged 23 to 59, mean 37 years) were surveyed by means of a mailed questionnaire. The workers were asked about eleven sleep habits. They were also divided into four groups according to age and job type: 23-29 (n = 226), 30-39 (n = 597), 40-49 (n = 225) and 50-59 (n = 113); managerial (n = 209), professional (n = 336), technical (n = 475) and clerical (n = 134). In this study, the sleep problems were defined as who had at least one of the following four poor sleep habits: 1) taking more than 30 minutes to fall asleep, 2) awakening during sleep (ADS) almost every day, 3) early morning awakening (EMA) almost every day, and 4) excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) at work almost every day. Analyses showed that sleep problems were present in 26.0% of workers; the problems were most serious among workers aged 50 years and more (36.0%) which may be due to a significant increase in the prevalence rate of EMA. The results revealed that sleep problems are common in male white-collar daytime workers. The findings also suggest a need for increased attention to sleep problems in older workers and younger ones with EDS at work.

  13. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  14. Experimental manipulation shows that the white wing patch in collared flycatchers is a male sexual ornament

    PubMed Central

    de Heij, Maaike E; Gustafsson, Lars; Brommer, Jon E

    2011-01-01

    Descriptive analysis suggests that a conspicuous white wing patch in dichromatic (black and white) pied and collared flycatchers is under sexual selection. Here, we use an experimental approach to test whether this trait is indeed the target of selection. We caught 100 collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis males soon after their arrival on the breeding site. We reduced (blackened) part of the white wing patch in half of these males and recorded their mating success and within and extra-pair offspring production. Reduction of the size of the white wing patch lowered a male's probability to attract a secondary social female, but not a primary female. However, primary females paired to males with a reduced wing patch were smaller (in tarsus), suggesting that male choice of partner or female–female competition over mates occurs in this species. The probability of pairing with a primary female (but not other components of male reproductive success) declined with arrival time (proxied by the date of capture). Males with a reduced wing patch size tended to sire less extra-pair offspring, although this relationship was reversed in one of the three study plots, suggesting that mating dynamics are context dependent. While our findings show that wing patch size is the target of sexual selection, the pathways and the strength of selection on this ornament differed markedly from a previous descriptive study. Nonexperimental studies of sexual selection in the wild may overestimate its importance because male fitness and ornamentation both depend positively on environmental conditions. PMID:22393521

  15. Exercise among blue-collar workers: application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Blue, C L; Wilbur, J; Marston-Scott, M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify cognitive predictors of blue-collar workers' (N = 468) intention to exercise and their self-reported exercise behavior. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) provided the framework for the study. A cross-sectional sample of skilled and unskilled workers from the physical facilities department of a large, Midwestern state university completed a questionnaire containing measures of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intention, and self-reported leisure exercise behavior. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that workers' attitude toward exercise and perceived behavioral control explained 61.7% of the variance of intention, whereas intention and perceived behavioral control explained 51.3% of the variance of exercise behavior. Subjective norm was not a significant predictor of intention to exercise. The findings support the use of the TPB in identifying cognitive factors that explain exercise behavior and suggest that interventions to promote exercise behavior in blue-collar workers should address their attitude toward exercise and their perceptions of behavioral control.

  16. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  17. Immobilization of wild collared anteaters with ketamine- and xylazine-hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Fournier, P; Vié, J C

    1997-10-01

    Collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) were immobilized for clinical procedures as part of a wildlife rescue during the filling of a hydroelectric dam (Petit Saut, French Guiana) from March 1994 to March 1995. Two doses of ketamine hydrochloride (KH) (group I mean +/- SD = 11.2 +/- 1.4 mg/kg, group II = 19.7 +/- 1.3 mg/kg) in combination with xylazine hydrochloride (XH) (1.0 +/- 0.1 mg/kg) were evaluated in seven and 10 collared anteaters, respectively. Induction time did not differ between the two groups. Immobilization time was significantly longer in group II than in group I (48.3 +/- 15.8 min and 35.0 +/- 9.5 min, respectively), without lengthening the recovery process. Adverse effects were not observed. The degree of anesthesia and the muscle relaxation were better in group II than in group I. Rectal temperature decreased in both groups and was significantly higher in group II than in group I. Heart rate was significantly higher in group II than in group I at 5 min post-injection and decreased in group II. No effects on respiratory rate were observed. We recommend the 20 mg/kg KH -1 mg/kg XH combination, especially for manipulations longer than 30 to 40 min and for minor surgery procedures.

  18. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread poleward to very high latitudes, (the type of a pattern referred to as a 'horse-collar' aurora by Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use a DE data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager while at the same time the DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. There is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2-D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  19. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region of a pattern referred to as 'horse-collar' aurora (Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use the Dynamics Explorer data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager, while at the same time DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. Our analysis shows that, in general, there is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. In many instances, over scales ranging from tens to a few hundred kilometers, electron precipitation features and upward field-aligned currents are observed at locations where the plasma flow gradients indicate negative V-average x E. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  20. Zero prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in 300 breeding Collared Flycatchers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Järhult, Josef D; Stedt, Johan; Gustafsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Wild birds are important indicators and potential spreaders of antibiotic resistance. The order Passerines is scarcely studied apart from Corvus sp. but extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has been found in Blackbirds. We tested 300 fecal samples from a well-studied population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) at the Island of Gotland in Sweden and found no ESBL-producing bacteria. These results support the idea of 'ecological guild' as Blackbirds are ground-foraging invertebrate feeders, whereas Collared Flycatchers are aerial insectivores not regularly coming into contact with fecal contaminations and therefore less prone to acquire pathogens spread by the fecal-oral route. PMID:23898397

  1. The Only Thing We Have to Fear Is Fear Itself: Investigating the Relationship between Fear of Falling and White-Collar Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper

    2012-01-01

    Criminologists have long been interested in understanding why people commit crime. Perhaps an even more interesting question is what accounts for the offending of individuals who occupy white-collar positions. Most explanations of white-collar offending have relied on extant criminological theories that have been developed to account for street or…

  2. Improving the accuracy of estimates of animal path and travel distance using GPS drift-corrected dead reckoning.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Evans, Hannah K; Roskilly, Kyle; Harvey, Richard J; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Route taken and distance travelled are important parameters for studies of animal locomotion. They are often measured using a collar equipped with GPS. Collar weight restrictions limit battery size, which leads to a compromise between collar operating life and GPS fix rate. In studies that rely on linear interpolation between intermittent GPS fixes, path tortuosity will often lead to inaccurate path and distance travelled estimates. Here, we investigate whether GPS-corrected dead reckoning can improve the accuracy of localization and distance travelled estimates while maximizing collar operating life. Custom-built tracking collars were deployed on nine freely exercising domestic dogs to collect high fix rate GPS data. Simulations were carried out to measure the extent to which combining accelerometer-based speed and magnetometer heading estimates (dead reckoning) with low fix rate GPS drift correction could improve the accuracy of path and distance travelled estimates. In our study, median 2-dimensional root-mean-squared (2D-RMS) position error was between 158 and 463 m (median path length 16.43 km) and distance travelled was underestimated by between 30% and 64% when a GPS position fix was taken every 5 min. Dead reckoning with GPS drift correction (1 GPS fix every 5 min) reduced 2D-RMS position error to between 15 and 38 m and distance travelled to between an underestimation of 2% and an overestimation of 5%. Achieving this accuracy from GPS alone would require approximately 12 fixes every minute and result in a battery life of approximately 11 days; dead reckoning reduces the number of fixes required, enabling a collar life of approximately 10 months. Our results are generally applicable to GPS-based tracking studies of quadrupedal animals and could be applied to studies of energetics, behavioral ecology, and locomotion. This low-cost approach overcomes the limitation of low fix rate GPS and enables the long-term deployment of lightweight GPS collars

  3. Improving the accuracy of estimates of animal path and travel distance using GPS drift-corrected dead reckoning.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Evans, Hannah K; Roskilly, Kyle; Harvey, Richard J; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Route taken and distance travelled are important parameters for studies of animal locomotion. They are often measured using a collar equipped with GPS. Collar weight restrictions limit battery size, which leads to a compromise between collar operating life and GPS fix rate. In studies that rely on linear interpolation between intermittent GPS fixes, path tortuosity will often lead to inaccurate path and distance travelled estimates. Here, we investigate whether GPS-corrected dead reckoning can improve the accuracy of localization and distance travelled estimates while maximizing collar operating life. Custom-built tracking collars were deployed on nine freely exercising domestic dogs to collect high fix rate GPS data. Simulations were carried out to measure the extent to which combining accelerometer-based speed and magnetometer heading estimates (dead reckoning) with low fix rate GPS drift correction could improve the accuracy of path and distance travelled estimates. In our study, median 2-dimensional root-mean-squared (2D-RMS) position error was between 158 and 463 m (median path length 16.43 km) and distance travelled was underestimated by between 30% and 64% when a GPS position fix was taken every 5 min. Dead reckoning with GPS drift correction (1 GPS fix every 5 min) reduced 2D-RMS position error to between 15 and 38 m and distance travelled to between an underestimation of 2% and an overestimation of 5%. Achieving this accuracy from GPS alone would require approximately 12 fixes every minute and result in a battery life of approximately 11 days; dead reckoning reduces the number of fixes required, enabling a collar life of approximately 10 months. Our results are generally applicable to GPS-based tracking studies of quadrupedal animals and could be applied to studies of energetics, behavioral ecology, and locomotion. This low-cost approach overcomes the limitation of low fix rate GPS and enables the long-term deployment of lightweight GPS collars.

  4. Serum estradiol-17beta, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance as predictors of estrus cyclicity in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon region.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Galvez, Hugo; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of estrus in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the eastern Amazon. Two consecutive experiments were performed. The objective of the first experiment was to assess the efficacy of estrus diagnosis by serum estradiol-17beta measurements, vaginal cytology and vulval appearance. The second experiment was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of these features for predicting the period of mating acceptance. In Experiment 1, we monitored 56 presumptive estruses in 14 captive females. Estrus was characterized by the reddish and tumescent appearance of the vulva, the presence of vaginal mucus and vaginal opening, which persisted for 4, 4, 2, and 2 days, respectively. In vaginal smears, superficial plus intermediate cells became predominant (accounting for 60% of all cells) for a 4-day period, from 2 days before the estradiol-17beta peak. Superficial cells did not attain their maximum density (45% of all cells) until approximately 1 day before the serum estradiol-17beta peak. Following estrus, superficial and intermediate cells were notably reduced and the appearance of the vulval appearance was characterized by a pale, non-tumescent vulva and vaginal closure. A complete concordance in estrus diagnosis by the 3 methodologies was observed in 35 (62.5%) of the total 56 estrus predictions. In Experiment 2, mating was confirmed in 10 out of the 14 cyclic females. Sexual receptivity was observed in the last third of the period during which secondary estrus signs were shown. In conclusion, examining the vulval appearance and taking a vaginal smear constitutes a useful method of detecting estrus and predicting the period of male acceptance of the collared peccary female. Estrus was indicated by a predominance of superficial cells, and a proportion of superficial plus intermediate cells higher than 60% in the vaginal smear.

  5. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Lima, G L; Bezerra, J A B; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a powdered coconut water-based extender (ACP-116c), plus various concentrations of egg-yolk and glycerol, as an alternative for cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were apportioned into aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus 10% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, or in ACP-116c plus 10 or 20% egg yolk and 1.5 or 3% glycerol. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and, after 1 mo, thawed at 37 °C for 1 min. After thawing, samples were evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for sperm membrane integrity (fluorescent probes) and kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). Results were presented as means ± SEM. Freezing and thawing decreased sperm characteristics relative to fresh semen. Overall, ACP-116c plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol provided better (P < 0.05) sperm motility and kinetic rating (48 ± 6.1% and 2.8 ± 0.2, respectively) after thawing than Tris extender (30.4 ± 5.7% and 2.4 ± 0.2). However, there were no differences (P > 0.05) among treatments with regard to the other sperm characteristics. Based on computerized motion analysis, total (26.5 ± 5.9%) and progressive (8.1 ± 2.2%) motility were best preserved (P < 0.05) with the above-mentioned treatment. In conclusion, a coconut water-based extender, ACP-116c, plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, was effective for cryopreservation of semen from collared peccaries.

  6. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of workplace intervention strategies to reduce sedentary time in white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Chu, A H Y; Ng, S H X; Tan, C S; Win, A M; Koh, D; Müller-Riemenschneider, F

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged sedentary behaviour has been associated with various detrimental health risks. Workplace sitting is particularly important, providing it occupies majority of total daily sedentary behaviour among desk-based employees. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of workplace interventions overall, and according to different intervention strategies (educational/behavioural, environmental and multi-component interventions) for reducing sitting among white-collar working adults. Articles published through December 2015 were identified in five online databases and manual searches. Twenty-six controlled intervention studies published between 2003 and 2015 of 4568 working adults were included. All 26 studies were presented qualitatively, and 21 studies with a control group without any intervention were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled intervention effect showed a significant workplace sitting reduction of -39.6 min/8-h workday (95% confidence interval [CI]: -51.7, -27.5), favouring the intervention group. Multi-component interventions reported the greatest workplace sitting reduction (-88.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -132.7, -44.9), followed by environmental (-72.8 min/8-h workday; 95% CI: -104.9, -40.6) and educational/behavioural strategies -15.5 min/8-h workday (95% CI:-22.9,-8.2). Our study found consistent evidence for intervention effectiveness in reducing workplace sitting, particularly for multi-component and environmental strategies. Methodologically rigorous studies using standardized and objectively determined outcomes are warranted. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26990220

  8. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch. PMID:17839404

  9. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch.

  10. Surgical correction of brachymetatarsia.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, F J

    1990-02-01

    Brachymetatarsia describes the condition of an abnormally short metatarsal. Although the condition has been recorded since antiquity, surgical options to correct the deformity have been available for only two decades. Most published procedures involve metaphyseal lengthening with autogenous grafts from different donor sites. The author discusses one such surgical technique. In addition, the author proposes specific criteria for the objective diagnosis of brachymetatarsia. PMID:2406417

  11. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  12. Ataxia, depression, and dermatitis associated with the use of dichlorvos-impregnated collars in the laboratory cat.

    PubMed

    Bell, T G; Farrell, R K; Padgett, G A; Leendertsen, L W

    1975-10-01

    Ataxia and depression developed in 21 of 50 (42%) laboratory cats wearing flea collars impregnated with 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (dichlorvos or DDVP) in a warm dry environment. Five (10%) of the cats died. Whole blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity was significantly (P smaller than 0.001) reduced in all cats and cervical dermatitis occurred in 37 (74%) of them.

  13. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  14. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits. PMID:25975798

  15. Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, testicular measurements and semen characteristics in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Magyar, S J; Coscarelli, K P; Grant, W E

    1989-03-01

    Blood samples and testicular measurements were obtained from 4-8 captive adult collared peccaries monthly for 18 months and from wild adult males during summer (N = 16) and winter (N = 22) seasons. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Semen samples were collected monthly by electroejaculation from captive males for 1 year. Serum testosterone concentrations and testicular measurements varied in a low-amplitude circannual pattern, with maximum mean testosterone concentrations in fall and winter (1150-1400 pg/ml) and minimum values in summer (500-700 pg/ml). Circannual rhythms appeared to be related to dominance. Serum testosterone levels in wild males generally were lower than in captive males, although this difference was not significant (P greater than 0.05). Semen characteristics did not exhibit a circannual rhythm. These results suggest that the male peccary remains reproductively fertile throughout the year, yet may undergo a facultative summer quiescence influenced by ambient temperature and social factors.

  16. Relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the developing, nursling collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Morphological characteristics that reflect size differences due to dietary conditions are in wide use to assess nutritional status of many wild ungulates. This study was designed to provide baseline information on the development of internal visceral and endocrine structures of nursling collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from birth to six weeks of age (weaning). A high energy-high protein ration was fed ad libitum to lactating females, and absolute and relative mass of selected visceral organ, endocrine, and fat depots were measured in various aged nurslings. Linear measurements were also obtained on components of the gastrointestinal tract. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied considerably among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (brain, b = 0.26) to well above (thymus, b = 1.61) unity.

  17. An electrophoretic characterization of serum proteins of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Grant, W E

    1984-01-01

    Serum proteins of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis for wild adult males and females, nursing young, and reproductively-active females in captivity. Electrophoretic profiles of the adult peccary showed at least six distinct protein bands corresponding to the fractions: albumin, alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1, beta-2, and gamma globulin. Globulin fractions of the peccary had different mobilities from the domestic swine. The only sexual dimorphisms were associated with the beta globulin:albumin ratio and the albumin:globulin ratio. Ingestion of colostrum in 1-day-old neonates was marked by a very large increase in gamma globulins. The only significant difference between pregnant and lactating females was in the alpha globulin:beta globulin ratio. Lactating females had higher concentrations of alpha-2 globulin than non-pregnant females.

  18. Volatile components in dorsal gland secretions of the collared peccary,Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae, mammalia).

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, J S; Ke, J; Pickett, J A; Weldon, P J

    1996-07-01

    Secretions of the dorsal gland of free-ranging adult male and female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Both sexes contain (2E,6E,10E)-geranylgeraniol; squalene (allE isomer); and the following isomers of springene, a diterpene homolog of β-farnesene: (3E,6E,10E)-α-springene, (3Z,6E,10E)-α-springene, and (6E,10E)-β-springene. A diterpene alcohol and an additional isomer each of squalene and springene also were observed. Straight- and branched-chain esters abound in the secretions of females, but they were not detected in males.

  19. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Browne, Michael C.

    2012-08-13

    Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

  20. STS-55 Pilot Henricks with baroreflex collar in SL-D2 module onboard OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Working in the shirt-sleeve research environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module, STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks, shirtless and wearing the baroreflex (BA) collar, conducts a space adaptation experiment at Rack 12, an experiment rack. The BA experiment is designed to investigate the theory that light-headedness and a reduction in blood pressure behaves differently after having adapted to a microgravity environment. These space-based measurements of the baroreflex will be compared to ground measurements to determine if microgravity affects the reflex. The SL-D2 module is located in the payload bay (PLB) of the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  1. Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Barney A.; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male’s courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors. PMID:23624091

  2. Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Schlinger, Barney A; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2013-08-01

    Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male's courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors. PMID:23624091

  3. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, V.; Mech, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study. ?? 2010 US Government.

  4. An efficient flat-surface collar-free grafting method for Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grafting procedures are an excellent tool to study long range signalling processes within a plant. In the last decade, suitable flat-surface grafting procedures for young Arabidopsis seedlings using a collar to support the graft have been developed, allowing the study of long-range signals from a molecular perspective. Results In the modification presented here, scion and stock are put together on the medium without supporting elements, while cotyledons are removed from the scion, resulting in increased grafting success that can reach up to 100%. At the same time, the protocol enables to process as many as 36 seedlings per hour, which combined with the high success percentage represents increased efficiency per time unit. Conclusions Growing cotyledons usually push the scion and the rootstock away in the absence of a supporting element. Removing them at the grafting step greatly improved success rate and reduced post-grafting manipulations. PMID:23641687

  5. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data collected from 608 employees of a white-collar organization before and after a workplace initiative was implemented, we investigate whether the initiative affects work-family conflict and fit, whether schedule control mediates these effects, and whether work demands, including long hours, moderate the initiative’s effects on work-family outcomes. Analyses clearly demonstrate that the workplace initiative positively affects the work-family interface, primarily by increasing employees’ schedule control. This study points to the importance of schedule control for our understanding of job quality and for management policies and practices. PMID:21580799

  6. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  7. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  8. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  9. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  10. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-12-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission-fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate.

  11. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks and tick-borne pathogens in dogs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tick-borne diseases comprise a group of maladies that are of substantial medical and veterinary significance. A range of tick-borne pathogens, including diverse species of bacteria and protozoa, can infect both dogs and humans. Hence, the control of tick infestations is pivotal to decrease or prevent tick-borne pathogen transmission. Therefore, different commercial products with insecticidal, repellent or both properties have been developed for use on dogs. Recently, a collar containing a combination of imidacloprid 10% and flumethrin 4.5% has proven effective to prevent tick and flea infestations in dogs under field conditions and the infection by some vector-borne pathogens they transmit under laboratory-controlled conditions. Methods From March 2011 to April 2012, a field study was conducted in a private shelter in southern Italy to assess the efficacy of the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against tick and flea infestations and to determine if this strategy would decrease tick-borne pathogen transmission in young dogs. A total of 122 animals were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to group A (n = 64; collared) or group B (n = 58; untreated controls). Dogs were examined monthly for ticks and fleas and systematically tested for selected tick-borne pathogens. Results Compared to controls, the collar provided overall efficacies of 99.7% and 100% against tick and flea infestation, respectively. The overall efficacy for the prevention of tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli) was 91.6%. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar is efficacious against flea and tick infestation as well as tick-borne pathogen transmission to dogs under field conditions. PMID:23972013

  12. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-01-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission–fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate. PMID:24455148

  13. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-12-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission-fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate. PMID:24455148

  14. Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay for collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Coradello, Mara Adriana; Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Roper, James; Spercoski, Katherinne Maria; Massuda, Thiago; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira Cunha; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of assessing endogenous adrenal activity in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) was tested by using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assay. Feces were collected from 12 captive adult male peccaries beginning 48 hr prior to challenge; six of these animals received the challenge as an ACTH injection and the other six were injected with saline solution. Feces collection ended 120 hr after injections. As a control, feces were collected for eight consecutive days from another six adult male peccaries that remained in their original mixed-sex herds in semiconfined paddocks. All feces samples were freeze-dried, extracted by an ethanol vortex method, and assayed for glucocorticoids by means of an enzyme immunoassay. FGM concentrations were compared between the treatments by a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc Tukey test. The assay is reliable but, instead of the usual proportion of 1:50 in ethanol (fecal mass:solvent), 1:10 is recommended for best extraction of FGM. Baseline FGM concentrations were similar among the ACTH, saline, and control treatments (29.7 +/- 11.2 ng/g(-1) dry feces) during the 48 hr before the challenge. The ACTH group reached an FGM excretion peak at 24 hr post-treatment, followed by a decline, while in the control and saline groups FGM levels remained relatively constant. Therefore, the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay reflects endogenous adrenal activity in the collared peccary and is a powerful tool for noninvasive stress monitoring in peccaries.

  15. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  16. Dispersal of Warren root collar weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in three types of habitat.

    PubMed

    Machial, Laura A; Lindgren, B Staffan; Steenweg, Robin W; Aukema, Brian H

    2012-06-01

    Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood, is a native, flightless insect distributed throughout the boreal forest of North America. It is an emerging problem in young plantings of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia, in western Canada, where larval feeding can kill young trees by girdling the root collar. Susceptible plantings are becoming more abundant following salvage harvesting and replanting activities in the wake of an ongoing epidemic of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins). Previous studies using mark-trap-recapture methods found that movement rates of adult H. warreni were elevated in areas with high numbers of dead trees, consistent with a hypothesis that the insects immigrate from stands with high mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality to young plantings in search of live hosts. Sampling methods were necessarily biased to insects captured in traps; however, potentially missing individuals that had died, left the study area, or simply remained stationary. Here, we used harmonic radar to examine weevil movement in three different habitats: open field, forest edge, and within a forest. We were able to reliably monitor all but two of 36 insects initially released, over 96 h (4 d). Weevils released in the open field had the highest rates of movement, followed by weevils released at the forest edge, then weevils released within the forest. Movement declined with decreasing ambient air temperature. Our results suggest that weevils tend to be relatively stationary in areas of live hosts, and hence may concentrate in a suitable area once such habitat is found. PMID:22732616

  17. Breeding Experience and the Heritability of Female Mate Choice in Collared Flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Wilson, Alastair J.; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Rosivall, Balázs; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2010-01-01

    Background Heritability in mate preferences is assumed by models of sexual selection, and preference evolution may contribute to adaptation to changing environments. However, mate preference is difficult to measure in natural populations as detailed data on mate availability and mate sampling are usually missing. Often the only available information is the ornamentation of the actual mate. The single long-term quantitative genetic study of a wild population found low heritability in female mate ornamentation in Swedish collared flycatchers. One potentially important cause of low heritability in mate ornamentation at the population level is reduced mate preference expression among inexperienced individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Applying animal model analyses to 21 years of data from a Hungarian collared flycatcher population, we found that additive genetic variance was 50 percent and significant for ornament expression in males, but less than 5 percent and non-significant for mate ornamentation treated as a female trait. Female breeding experience predicted breeding date and clutch size, but mate ornamentation and its variance components were unrelated to experience. Although we detected significant area and year effects on mate ornamentation, more than 85 percent of variance in this trait remained unexplained. Moreover, the effects of area and year on mate ornamentation were also highly positively correlated between inexperienced and experienced females, thereby acting to remove difference between the two groups. Conclusions/Significance The low heritability of mate ornamentation was apparently not explained by the presence of inexperienced individuals. Our results further indicate that the expression of mate ornamentation is dominated by temporal and spatial constraints and unmeasured background factors. Future studies should reduce unexplained variance or use alternative measures of mate preference. The heritability of mate preference in the wild

  18. Synchronous genetic turnovers across Western Eurasia in Late Pleistocene collared lemmings.

    PubMed

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Baca, Mateusz; Abramson, Natalia I; Sablin, Mikhail; Socha, Paweł; Nadachowski, Adam; Prost, Stefan; Germonpré, Mietje; Kosintsev, Pavel; Smirnov, Nickolay G; Vartanyan, Sergey; Ponomarev, Dmitry; Nyström, Johanna; Nikolskiy, Pavel; Jass, Christopher N; Litvinov, Yuriy N; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Grigoriev, Semyon; Fadeeva, Tatyana; Douka, Aikaterini; Higham, Thomas F G; Ersmark, Erik; Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Stewart, John R; Węgleński, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    Recent palaeogenetic studies indicate a highly dynamic history in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.), with several demographical changes linked to climatic fluctuations that took place during the last glaciation. At the western range margin of D. torquatus, these changes were characterized by a series of local extinctions and recolonizations. However, it is unclear whether this pattern represents a local phenomenon, possibly driven by ecological edge effects, or a global phenomenon that took place across large geographical scales. To address this, we explored the palaeogenetic history of the collared lemming using a next-generation sequencing approach for pooled mitochondrial DNA amplicons. Sequences were obtained from over 300 fossil remains sampled across Eurasia and two sites in North America. We identified five mitochondrial lineages of D. torquatus that succeeded each other through time across Europe and western Russia, indicating a history of repeated population extinctions and recolonizations, most likely from eastern Russia, during the last 50 000 years. The observation of repeated extinctions across such a vast geographical range indicates large-scale changes in the steppe-tundra environment in western Eurasia during the last glaciation. All Holocene samples, from across the species' entire range, belonged to only one of the five mitochondrial lineages. Thus, extant D. torquatus populations only harbour a small fraction of the total genetic diversity that existed across different stages of the Late Pleistocene. In North American samples, haplotypes belonging to both D. groenlandicus and D. richardsoni were recovered from a Late Pleistocene site in south-western Canada. This suggests that D. groenlandicus had a more southern and D. richardsoni a more northern glacial distribution than previously thought. This study provides significant insights into the population dynamics of a small mammal at a large geographical scale and reveals a rather complex

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  20. 43 CFR 1865.0-2 - Objective.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Objective. 1865.0-2 Section 1865.0-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Correction of Conveyancing Documents § 1865.0-2 Objective. The objective of a correction document is...

  1. Actual cardiovascular disease risk and related factors: a cross-sectional study of Korean blue collar workers employed by small businesses.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Uk; Hong, Oi Saeng; Hwang, Won Ju

    2013-04-01

    Actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and related factors among blue collar workers employed by small businesses were investigated. This cross-sectional study of 238 Korean blue collar workers used surveys, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and blood sampling for lipid and glucose levels to answer the research questions. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze study data. The prevalence of actual CVD risk among blue collar workers was 32 cases per 100 workers. A multiple regression model showed that a combination of individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors explained 34% of the variance in actual CVD risk. The significant predictors of actual CVD risk included knowledge of CVD risk, risk perception, job stress, and waist-to-hip ratio. It is important for clinicians to consider all of these significant predictors of actual CVD risk when designing an intervention program to reduce CVD among Korean blue collar workers.

  2. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  3. The use of radio-collars for monitoring wildlife diseases: a case study from Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wildlife radio tracking has gained popularity during the recent past. Ecologists and conservationists use radio-collars for different purposes: animal movement monitoring, home range, productivity, population estimation, behaviour, habitat use, survival, and predator-prey interaction, among others. The aim of our present study is to highlight the application of radio-collars for wildlife diseases monitoring. The spread of wildlife diseases and the efficacy of management actions for controlling them propose serious challenges for ecologists and conservationists, since it is difficult to re-capture (or simply observe) the same animal in pre-determined temporal interval, but such difficulty is overcome by the use of gps-gsm radio collars. Methods In the present study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of radio-collars in the monitoring of Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada mountain range, Spain. Twenty-five moderate or slightly mangy animals were radio-collared between 2006 and 2013. Results The radio-collars allowed us to confirm the presence of resistance to S. scabiei within Iberian ibex population. Twenty (80%) of the collared animals recovered totally from mange, while the disease progressed in the other five Iberian ibex (20% of the collared animals) and the animals died. The average estimated recovery time of the resistant animals was 245 ± 277 days, and the estimated average survival time of the non-resistant Iberian ibex was 121 ± 71 days. Non-resistant animals survived at least 100 days, while all of them died with less than 200 days. Sixty per cent of the resistant animals were recovered with less than 200 days. Conclusions We report, for the first time, the successful use of radio collars for wildlife diseases monitoring using Iberian ibex/S. scabiei as a model. By using radio collars we documented that most of the Sarcoptes-infected Iberian ibex are resistant to this disease, and we

  4. First postpartum estrus and pregnancy in the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from the amazon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimaraes, Diva Anelie; Lopez-Gatius, Fernando; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2006-11-01

    The onset of sexual cycle postpartum was described in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu). Serum progesterone and 17beta-estradiol profiles, vaginal smears and external genitalia were analyzed in 20 animals housed with their piglets during the first postpartum month. The appearance of external genitalia showed no variation in any of the females: a shallow, reddish vulva, and vaginal mucus were constant features throughout the study. Based on hormonal profiles and vaginal smear cell patterns, 16 (80%) of the 20 peccaries showed signs of estrus and were considered cycling. The remaining four females (20%) did no show signs of estrus confirmed by low levels of progesterone (0.9+/-0.4 ng/mL) during the first postpartum month. In the cycling peccaries, a serum 17beta-estradiol peak (53.4+/-8.1 pg/mL) was observed on Day 7+/-1 postpartum, along with a linear increase in progesterone concentration from 3 (4.3+/-2.6 ng/mL) to 11 (30.8+/-4.9 ng/mL) days after this estradiol peak. Proportions of the different cells of the vaginal epithelium also changed in these females: superficial plus intermediate cells amounted to 76% of the cell total between Days 6 and 9 postpartum, corresponding to the estradiol peak. Nine (56%) of the 16 cycling females mated, indicated by the presence of sperm cells in their vaginal smears, and 6 (67%) became pregnant, reaching term. Non-pregnant cycling females (n=10) showed a steady decrease in serum progesterone concentration from 11 to 23 days after the estradiol peak, when basal levels were attained and a new estradiol peak registered, indicating the resumption of cyclicity in these females. The time interval between the two estradiol peaks was 23.5+/-2.1 days in these females. In pregnant females, progesterone concentrations continued to rise to levels of 60 ng/mL (n=6) 23 days after mating. These findings indicate that the lactating collared peccary female can become cycling and fertile during the early postpartum period, and that a

  5. Objective Eulerian coherent structures.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mattia; Haller, George

    2016-05-01

    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as the instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic, and parabolic OECSs. As an illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns. PMID:27249950

  6. Evaluation of genetic variability in the collared peccary Pecari tajacu and the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari by microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roxane Wirschum; de Freitas, Thales R O; Sbalqueiro, Ives José

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the microsatellite technique was used to evaluate the genetic variability in populations of collared and white-lipped peccaries kept in captivity. Six primers developed for domestic pigs were used and amplified in both species. They revealed the presence of five polymorphic loci and one monomorphic locus. The polymorphic loci included 4 of the 16 alleles in collared peccaries, and 3 of the 10 alleles in the white-lipped peccaries. Polymorphic information content (PIC) in both species and all the loci was highly informative. The probability of paternity exclusion (PEC), if one of the parents is known, was almost as high in white-lipped peccaries (95.53%) as in the collared (99,48%). The Fst values for collared (0.042) and white-lipped (0.1387) peccaries showed that both populations are not structured. The Fis values for all loci, except ACTG2 in white-lipped peccaries (-0.0275) and in both species (0.1985 to 0.9284 in collared peccaries and 0.3621 to 0.4754 in the white-lipped), revealed a high level of homozygosis, probably caused by inbreeding. Data on heterologous amplification and genetic variability in collared and white-lipped peccaries are presented for the first time.

  7. Evaluation of habitat use by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in north-central New Mexico using global positioning system radio collars

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-04-01

    In 1996 the authors initiated a study to identify habitat use in north-central New Mexico by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. They collared six elk in the spring of 1996 with GPS radio collars programmed to obtain locational fixes every 23 h. Between April 1, 1996 and January 7, 1997, they collected >1,200 fixes with an approximately 70% observation rate. They have interfaced GPS locational fixes of elk and detailed vegetation maps using the geographical information system to provide seasonal habitat use within mountainous regions of north-central New Mexico. Based on habitat use and availability analysis, use of grass/shrub and pinon/juniper habitats was generally higher than expected during most seasons and use of forested habitats was lower than expected. Most of the collared elk remained on LANL property year-round. The authors believe the application of GPS collars to elk studies in north-central New Mexico to be a more efficient and effective method than the use of VHF (very-high frequency) radio collars.

  8. Evaluation of genetic variability in the collared peccary Pecari tajacu and the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the microsatellite technique was used to evaluate the genetic variability in populations of collared and white-lipped peccaries kept in captivity. Six primers developed for domestic pigs were used and amplified in both species. They revealed the presence of five polymorphic loci and one monomorphic locus. The polymorphic loci included 4 of the 16 alleles in collared peccaries, and 3 of the 10 alleles in the white-lipped peccaries. Polymorphic information content (PIC) in both species and all the loci was highly informative. The probability of paternity exclusion (PEC), if one of the parents is known, was almost as high in white-lipped peccaries (95.53%) as in the collared (99,48%). The Fst values for collared (0.042) and white-lipped (0.1387) peccaries showed that both populations are not structured. The Fis values for all loci, except ACTG2 in white-lipped peccaries (-0.0275) and in both species (0.1985 to 0.9284 in collared peccaries and 0.3621 to 0.4754 in the white-lipped), revealed a high level of homozygosis, probably caused by inbreeding. Data on heterologous amplification and genetic variability in collared and white-lipped peccaries are presented for the first time. PMID:21637606

  9. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  10. Use of Non-invasive Methods for Evaluating the Testicular Biometry in Collared Peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Silva, M A; Lima, G L; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Ricarte, A R F; Silva, A R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of two methods used to estimate testicular volume in the collared peccary. Calliper and ultrasonographic measurements of testicular dimensions (length, width and height) of both testes were taken on five adult collared peccaries. The testicular volume was calculated by Lambert's empiric formula: length (L) × width (W) × height (H) × 0.71, the formula of an ellipsoid L × W × H × 0.52, and Hansen's formula: L × W(2)  × 0.52. The calculated volumes were then compared with the actual ones, which were estimated by water displacement. The mean of true testicular volume was 22.65 ± 1.52 ml. Lambert's formula estimated testicular volume more accurately when ultrasound measurements were taken. However, when the calliper was the methodology used, the results were closest to the true volume, especially when Ellipsoid formula and Hansen's formula were applied, and underestimated the true volumes by 1.53 ± 1.75 ml and 1.53 ± 1.65 ml, respectively. This specific application of technologies in wild animals has the potential to revolutionize the selection process for the collared peccary entering artificial insemination or natural breeding programmes.

  11. Progesterone and estradiol-17β as a potential method for pregnancy diagnosis in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; López-Béjar, Manel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the period of pregnancy of nine collared peccary females has been monitored through the analysis of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β profiles. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased by Day 4 after conception, reaching concentrations of 33.4±5.6 ng/mL on Day 10. Between Days 10 and 130 progesterone values were maintained between 20 and 60 ng/mL. In the collared peccary, embryonic estradiol synthesis is first observed in the systemic circulation by Day 15 of pregnancy. Between Days 0 and 50 of pregnancy, average estradiol-17β concentrations were between 0 and 30 pg/mL. From Day 75 of pregnancy onwards, estradiol concentrations were constantly increasing, reaching maximum concentrations (131.4±40.8 pg/mL) on the day of parturition. The combined study of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations as a potential method for early pregnancy diagnosis presented the best overall accuracy (73%) when the threshold was established at 20 ng/mL serum progesterone and 20 pg/mL serum estradiol. Nevertheless, the accuracy for diagnosing pregnancy of females at mid and late pregnancy was 78% and 95%, respectively. The analysis of the sexual hormones during pregnancy could be a useful tool as a potential pregnancy diagnosis and an efficient predictor of the day of parturition in the captive collared peccary.

  12. Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Tiwari, Rajesh K; Dhawan, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Collar rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed and capsule straw yield per plant, oil and protein content of seeds, peroxidase activity in leaves, morphine content of capsule straw and DSI for collar rot showed high heritability as well as genetic advance. Highly significant negative correlation between DSI and seed yield clearly shows that as the disease progresses in plants, seed yield declines, chiefly due to premature death of infected plants as well as low seed and capsule setting in the survived population of susceptible plants. Similarly, a highly significant negative correlation between peroxidase activity and DSI indicated that marker-assisted selection of disease-resistant plants based on high peroxidase activity would be effective and survived susceptible plants could be removed from the population to stop further spread.

  13. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  14. 77 FR 72199 - Technical Corrections; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...) is correcting a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39899), and effective on August 6, 2012. That final rule amended the NRC regulations to make technical... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 171 RIN 3150-AJ16 Technical Corrections; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear...

  15. Macroscopic and microscopic aspects of collared peccary and white-lipped peccary placenta.

    PubMed

    Santos, T C; Dantzer, V; Jones, C J P; Oliveira, M F; Miglino, M A

    2006-01-01

    This study examines middle and late gestational placentae from 13 Tayassu tajacu (collared peccary) and 3 Tayassu pecari (white-lipped peccary), which are Artiodactyla belonging to the Family Tayassuidae. The chorionic sac of Tayassu species is diffuse and chorioallantoic. These epitheliochorial placentae show no trophoblast invasion into the uterine epithelium and there is interdigitation between fetal and maternal microvilli. Two distinct regions of the fetomaternal interface can be identified: the interareolar and the areolar regions. The uterine epithelium has eosinophilic cytoplasm with dispersed, basophilic and electron-dense granules. Trophoblast cells are irregularly cuboidal on top of the fetal ridges and columnar on troughs, where cells have cytoplasmic vesicles and large basal vacuoles, surrounded by whorls of smooth membranes. Capillaries indent the trophoblast cells forming a placental barrier 3 microm or less thick. The columnar uterine glandular epithelium has a subpopulation of granules staining with Perl's Prussian blue reaction, suggesting iron secretion. In areolar areas, the trophoblast cells show apical microvilli, a basophilic cytoplasm with electron-dense intracellular vacuoles and cisternae. The placenta can therefore be classified as non-deciduate. The ultrastructural aspects of this study reveal features that have not previously been described and extend our knowledge of functions relating to materno-fetal transport in these species.

  16. Agreement on intimate partner violence among a sample of blue-collar couples.

    PubMed

    Cunradi, Carol B; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was assessed with Cohen's kappa statistic. Lower-bound estimates (based on couple agreement that an IPV event occurred) and upper-bound estimates (based on uncorroborated reports from either partner that an IPV event occurred) were calculated. Results indicated low agreement for most IPV behaviors (kappa < .40). Estimated lower- and upper-bound rates for MFPV were 6.7% and 21.2%, for FMPV, 7.1% and 24.2%, and for any IPV, 10.1% and 30.2%. Findings suggest that single-point IPV prevalence estimates are biased; lower- and upper-bound estimates using collateral reports should be calculated when possible. In addition, findings underscore the importance of conducting IPV research among understudied populations, such as working-class couples, that may be at elevated IPV risk.

  17. The Trypanosome Flagellar Pocket Collar and Its Ring Forming Protein-TbBILBO1.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Doranda; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Robinson, Derrick R

    2016-03-02

    Sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei are the causal agents of human African sleeping sickness and Nagana in domesticated livestock. These pathogens have developed an organelle-like compartment called the flagellar pocket (FP). The FP carries out endo- and exocytosis and is the only structure this parasite has evolved to do so. The FP is essential for parasite viability, making it an interesting structure to evaluate as a drug target, especially since it has an indispensible cytoskeleton component called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC). The FPC is located at the neck of the FP where the flagellum exits the cell. The FPC has a complex architecture and division cycle, but little is known concerning its organization. Recent work has focused on understanding how the FP and the FPC are formed and as a result of these studies an important calcium-binding, polymer-forming protein named TbBILBO1 was identified. Cellular biology analysis of TbBILBO1 has demonstrated its uniqueness as a FPC component and until recently, it was unknown what structural role it played in forming the FPC. This review summarizes the recent data on the polymer forming properties of TbBILBO1 and how these are correlated to the FP cytoskeleton.

  18. Geographic variation in the association between exploratory behavior and physiology in rufous-collared sparrows.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Karin; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Sabat, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Increasing research has attempted to clarify the links between animal personality and physiology. However, the mechanisms driving this association remain largely unknown, and knowledge of how ecological factors may affect its direction and strength is scant. In this study, we quantified variation in the association between exploratory behavior, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) inhabiting desert, Mediterranean, and cold-temperate climates. We found that the exploratory behavior score was highest in birds from the cold-temperate site, which was characterized by a moderate level of ecological variability (seasonality). Moreover, the association between exploratory behavior and physiological variables differed among localities. Only birds from the Mediterranean site showed a positive correlation between exploratory behavior and BMR. We found no association between exploration and TEWL at any study site. Our findings suggest that differences in the ecological conditions experienced by each sparrow population result in a particular combination of behavioral and physiological traits. An understanding of this intraspecific variation along ecological gradients provides unique insights into how specific ecological conditions affect the coupling of behavioral and physiological traits and the mechanisms underlying that relationship.

  19. Kodiak brown bears surf the salmon red wave: direct evidence from GPS collared individuals.

    PubMed

    Deacy, William; Leacock, William; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-05-01

    A key constraint faced by consumers is achieving a positive energy balance in the face of temporal variation in foraging opportunities. Recent work has shown that spatial heterogeneity in resource phenology can buffer mobile consumers from this constraint by allowing them to track changes in resource availability across space. For example, salmon populations spawn asynchronously across watersheds, causing high-quality foraging opportunities to propagate across the landscape, prolonging the availability of salmon at the regional scale. However, we know little about how individual consumers integrate across phenological variation or the benefits they receive by doing so. Here, we present direct evidence that individual brown bears track spatial variation in salmon phenology. Data from 40 GPS collared brown bears show that bears visited multiple spawning sites in synchrony with the order of spawning phenology. The number of sites used was correlated with the number of days a bear exploited salmon, suggesting the phenological variation in the study area influenced bear access to salmon, a resource which strongly influences bear fitness. Fisheries managers attempting to maximize harvest while maintaining ecosystem function should strive to protect the population diversity that underlies the phenological variation used by wildlife consumers.

  20. Ancient DNA supports southern survival of Richardson's collared lemming (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) during the last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Tara L; Norris, Ryan W; Graham, Russell W; Semken, Holmes A; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-05-01

    Collared lemmings (genus Dicrostonyx) are circumpolar Arctic arvicoline rodents associated with tundra. However, during the last glacial maximum (LGM), Dicrostonyx lived along the southern ice margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in communities comprising both temperate and boreal species. To better understand these communities and the fate of these southern individuals, we compare mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data from three LGM-age Dicrostonyx fossils from south of the Laurentide ice sheet to sequences from modern Dicrostonyx sampled from across their present-day range. We test whether the Dicrostonyx populations from LGM-age continental USA became extinct at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition ~11000 years ago or, alternatively, if they belong to an extant species whose habitat preferences can be used to infer the palaeoclimate along the glacial margin. Our results indicate that LGM-age Dicrostonyx from Iowa and South Dakota belong to Dicrostonyx richardsoni, which currently lives in a temperate tundra environment west of Hudson Bay, Canada. This suggests a palaeoclimate south of the Laurentide ice sheet that contains elements similar to the more temperate shrub tundra characteristic of extant D. richardsoni habitat, rather than the very cold, dry tundra of the Northern Arctic. While more data are required to determine whether or not the LGM southern population is ancestral to extant D. richardsoni, it seems most probable that the species survived the LGM in a southern refugium.

  1. Kodiak brown bears surf the salmon red wave: direct evidence from GPS collared individuals.

    PubMed

    Deacy, William; Leacock, William; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-05-01

    A key constraint faced by consumers is achieving a positive energy balance in the face of temporal variation in foraging opportunities. Recent work has shown that spatial heterogeneity in resource phenology can buffer mobile consumers from this constraint by allowing them to track changes in resource availability across space. For example, salmon populations spawn asynchronously across watersheds, causing high-quality foraging opportunities to propagate across the landscape, prolonging the availability of salmon at the regional scale. However, we know little about how individual consumers integrate across phenological variation or the benefits they receive by doing so. Here, we present direct evidence that individual brown bears track spatial variation in salmon phenology. Data from 40 GPS collared brown bears show that bears visited multiple spawning sites in synchrony with the order of spawning phenology. The number of sites used was correlated with the number of days a bear exploited salmon, suggesting the phenological variation in the study area influenced bear access to salmon, a resource which strongly influences bear fitness. Fisheries managers attempting to maximize harvest while maintaining ecosystem function should strive to protect the population diversity that underlies the phenological variation used by wildlife consumers. PMID:27349087

  2. Stress-Activated Cap’n’collar Transcription Factors in Aging and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Bohmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Cap’n’collar (Cnc) transcription factors are conserved in metazoans and have important developmental and homeostatic functions. The vertebrate Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3, the Caenorhabditis elegans SKN-1, and the Drosophila CncC comprise a subgroup of Cnc factors that mediate adaptive responses to cellular stress. The most studied stress-activated Cnc factor is Nrf2, which orchestrates the transcriptional response of cells to oxidative stressors and electrophilic xenobiotics. In rodent models, signaling by Nrf2 defends against oxidative stress and aging-associated disorders, such as neurodegeneration, respiratory diseases, and cancer. In humans, polymorphisms that decrease Nrf2 abundance have been associated with various pathologies of the skin, respiratory system, and digestive tract. In addition to preventing disease in rodents and humans, Cnc factors have lifespan-extending and anti-aging functions in invertebrates. However, despite the pro-longevity and antioxidant roles of stress-activated Cnc factors, their activity paradoxically declines in aging model organisms and in humans suffering from progressing respiratory disease or neurodegeneration. We review the roles and regulation of stress-activated Cnc factors across species, present all reported instances in which their activity is paradoxically decreased in aging and disease, and discuss the possibility that the pharmacological restoration of Nrf2 signaling may be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20215646

  3. Prevalence of radiographic appearance of pneumoconiosis in an unexposed blue collar population

    SciTech Connect

    Castellan, R.M.; Sanderson, W.T.; Petersen, M.R.

    1985-05-01

    Blue collar employees currently working in environments free from exposure to respiratory hazards were examined with chest radiography and a standard occupational history questionnaire. Workers who had worked for a total of 5 yr or more in previous jobs with possible hazardous respiratory exposures were excluded. Each radiograph was read independently by 3 NIOSH-certified ''B'' readers. For small opacities, the median profusion was accepted as a summary reading. The 1,422 readable films represented a population of 50.6% males, 49.4% females, 52.5% whites, 44.2% blacks, 47.0% current smokers, and 38.5% nonsmokers. The mean age was 33.8 yr, with a range from 16 to 70 yr. Small opacities of profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 were identified in only 3 (0.21%) of the radiographs--2 with small rounded opacities and 1 with small irregular opacities. Small irregular opacities of profusion category greater than or equal to 0/1 were statistically associated with age, gender, and pack-years of smoking. The results suggest that using the median of 3 independent readings should rarely result in interpretation of chest radiographs as ''positive'' for pneumoconiosis in active workers who have not had significant dust exposure.

  4. Measuring glottal activity during voiced speech using a tuned electromagnetic resonating collar sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R., III; Keenaghan, K.; Desimini, S.

    2005-11-01

    Non-acoustic speech sensors can be employed to obtain measurements of one or more aspects of the speech production process, such as glottal activity, even in the presence of background noise. These sensors have a long history of clinical applications and have also recently been applied to the problem of denoising speech signals recorded in acoustically noisy environments (Ng et al 2000 Proc. Int. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP) (Istanbul, Turkey) vol 1, pp 229-32). Recently, researchers developed a new non-acoustic speech sensor based primarily on a tuned electromagnetic resonator collar (TERC) (Brown et al 2004 Meas. Sci. Technol. 15 1291). The TERC sensor measures glottal activity by sensing small changes in the dielectric properties of the glottis that result from voiced speech. This paper builds on the seminal work in Brown et al (2004). The primary contributions of this paper are (i) a description of a new single-mode TERC sensor design addressing the comfort and complexity issues of the original sensor, (ii) a complete description of new external interface systems used to obtain long-duration recordings from the TERC sensor and (iii) more extensive experimental results and analysis for the single-mode TERC sensor including spectrograms of speech containing both voiced and unvoiced speech segments in quiet and acoustically noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrate that the single-mode TERC sensor is able to detect glottal activity up to the fourth harmonic and is also insensitive to acoustic background noise.

  5. Group display in the socially monogamous Northern Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris reichenowi).

    PubMed

    Riegert, Jan; Antczak, Marcin; Fainová, Drahomíra; Blažková, Pavla

    2014-03-01

    Several sunbird species (Nectariniidae) exhibit group display, but the function of this behaviour still remains unclear. We test two hypotheses (reproductive tactic and joint territory defence) to explain the function of this behaviour using data gathered on Northern Double-collared Sunbirds (Cinnyris reichenowi) from the Cameroon Mountains. Sunbirds exhibited group display throughout the breeding cycle. Groups of birds were mainly comprised of neighbouring pairs aggregated at territory boundaries. The frequency of group displays varied significantly among individuals and over the breeding cycle, with the highest frequency during the pre-breeding period and the lowest during egg-laying (∼female's fertile period). Time spent on group display was significantly longer at the end of breeding. Off-territory forays were recorded for both males and females, males significantly increased the time spent on these forays during incubation. Extra-pair copulations were recorded only in five cases for females (4%) suggesting that most off-territory forays were motivated by feeding on nectar in neighbouring territories. Therefore, we suggest that the behaviour is used for joint territory defence rather than as an information centre for choosing mates for extra-pair copulations. Its function for choosing primary mates is also unlikely, because group displays were mainly observed in complete pairs. PMID:24345518

  6. The Trypanosome Flagellar Pocket Collar and Its Ring Forming Protein—TbBILBO1

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, Doranda; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Robinson, Derrick R.

    2016-01-01

    Sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei are the causal agents of human African sleeping sickness and Nagana in domesticated livestock. These pathogens have developed an organelle-like compartment called the flagellar pocket (FP). The FP carries out endo- and exocytosis and is the only structure this parasite has evolved to do so. The FP is essential for parasite viability, making it an interesting structure to evaluate as a drug target, especially since it has an indispensible cytoskeleton component called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC). The FPC is located at the neck of the FP where the flagellum exits the cell. The FPC has a complex architecture and division cycle, but little is known concerning its organization. Recent work has focused on understanding how the FP and the FPC are formed and as a result of these studies an important calcium-binding, polymer-forming protein named TbBILBO1 was identified. Cellular biology analysis of TbBILBO1 has demonstrated its uniqueness as a FPC component and until recently, it was unknown what structural role it played in forming the FPC. This review summarizes the recent data on the polymer forming properties of TbBILBO1 and how these are correlated to the FP cytoskeleton. PMID:26950156

  7. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  8. Circadian Clock-Specific Roles for the Light Response Protein WHITE COLLAR-2

    PubMed Central

    Collett, Michael A.; Dunlap, Jay C.; Loros, Jennifer J.

    2001-01-01

    To understand the role of white collar-2 in the Neurospora circadian clock, we examined alleles of wc-2 thought to encode partially functional proteins. We found that wc-2 allele ER24 contained a conservative mutation in the zinc finger. This mutation results in reduced levels of circadian rhythm-critical clock gene products, frq mRNA and FRQ protein, and in a lengthened period of the circadian clock. In addition, this mutation altered a second canonical property of the clock, temperature compensation: as temperature increased, period length decreased substantially. This temperature compensation defect correlated with a temperature-dependent increase in overall FRQ protein levels, with the relative increase being greater in wc-2 (ER24) than in wild type, while overall frq mRNA levels were largely unaltered by temperature. We suggest that this temperature-dependent increase in FRQ levels partially rescues the lowered levels of FRQ resulting from the wc-2 (ER24) defect, yielding a shorter period at higher temperatures. Thus, normal activity of the essential clock component WC-2, a positive regulator of frq, is critical for establishing period length and temperature compensation in this circadian system. PMID:11283242

  9. Disrupting evolutionary processes: The effect of habitat fragmentation on collared lizards in the Missouri Ozarks

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.; Robertson, Robert J.; Brisson, Jennifer; Strasburg, Jared

    2001-01-01

    Humans affect biodiversity at the genetic, species, community, and ecosystem levels. This impact on genetic diversity is critical, because genetic diversity is the raw material of evolutionary change, including adaptation and speciation. Two forces affecting genetic variation are genetic drift (which decreases genetic variation within but increases genetic differentiation among local populations) and gene flow (which increases variation within but decreases differentiation among local populations). Humans activities often augment drift and diminish gene flow for many species, which reduces genetic variation in local populations and prevents the spread of adaptive complexes outside their population of origin, thereby disrupting adaptive processes both locally and globally within a species. These impacts are illustrated with collared lizards (Crotaphytus collaris) in the Missouri Ozarks. Forest fire suppression has reduced habitat and disrupted gene flow in this lizard, thereby altering the balance toward drift and away from gene flow. This balance can be restored by managed landscape burns. Some have argued that, although human-induced fragmentation disrupts adaptation, it will also ultimately produce new species through founder effects. However, population genetic theory and experiments predict that most fragmentation events caused by human activities will facilitate not speciation, but local extinction. Founder events have played an important role in the macroevolution of certain groups, but only when ecological opportunities are expanding rather than contracting. The general impact of human activities on genetic diversity disrupts or diminishes the capacity for adaptation, speciation, and macroevolutionary change. This impact will ultimately diminish biodiversity at all levels. PMID:11344289

  10. Nutritional correlates and mate acquisition role of multiple sexual traits in male collared flycatchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Török, János; Eens, Marcel; Garamszegi, László Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The information content of a sexual signal may predict its importance in a multiple signal system. Many studies have correlated sexual signal expression with the absolute levels of nutrient reserves. In contrast, the changes of nutrient reserves associated with signal expression are largely unknown in the wild due to technical limitations although they are important determinants of signal information content. We compared two visual and eight acoustic sexual traits in male collared flycatchers to see whether the nutritional correlates of expression predict the role of the signal in sexual selection. We used single point assays of plasma lipid metabolites to estimate short-term changes in nutritional state in relation to sexual trait expression during courtship. As a measure of sexual selection, we estimated the relationship with pairing latency after arrival in a 4-year dataset. Males which found a mate rapidly were characterized by large wing and forehead patches, but small song strophe complexity and small figure repertoire size. Traits more strongly related to pairing latency were also more closely related to changes in nutrient reserves. This indicates a link between signal role and information content. Small wing patches and, surprisingly, complex songs seemed to indicate poor phenotypic quality and were apparently disfavoured at mate acquisition in our population. Future studies of the information content of sexual traits, especially dynamic traits such as song, may benefit from the use of plasma metabolite profiles as non-invasive indicators of short-term changes in body condition.

  11. Health effects of long-term solvent exposure among women in blue-collar occupations.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J; Cohen, S; Dunn, L O; Dew, M A; Ryan, C; Schwartz, J E

    1990-01-01

    The relationship of solvent exposure to self-reported neurologic and somatic symptoms as well as neuropsychological performance was examined in a sample of 567 female blue collar workers who were members of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW). Structured interviews were conducted at IBEW offices. Five solvent exposure categories were derived--never exposed, exposed prior to but not during the past year, exposed during the past year but not currently, currently exposed less than 50% of the time, and currently exposed more than 50% of the time. No differences among the groups on neuropsychological performance were found. On the other hand, heightened exposure was significantly related to depression, severe headaches, light-headedness, room spinning, appetite difficulties, funny taste in mouth, weakness/fatigue, rashes, and abdominal pain after controlling for the effects of seven risk factors (age, smoking, moderate-heavy alcohol consumption, severe obesity, history of physician-diagnosed chronic illness, working in a clean room, and exposure to other chemicals). These findings are consistent with Scandinavian studies of solvent-exposed male workers and point to the need for careful prospective research.

  12. Factors affecting the helminth community structure of adult collared peccaries in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Corn, J L; Pence, D B; Warren, R J

    1985-07-01

    Four species of nematodes (Gongylonema pulchrum, Parabronema pecariae, Texicospirura turki, and Physocephalus sexalatus) and one species of cestode (Moniezia sp.) comprised the helminth fauna of adult collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from the plains in southern Texas. The community structure of the helminth fauna of peccaries from this region was basically dissimilar to that from the more humid Gulf coastal prairies of southern Texas in composition (by the conspicuous absence of certain species) and relative abundance of shared species. The distributions of each of the three common species of helminths (G. pulchrum, T. turki, and P. sexalatus) were overdispersed. The effects of selected habitat variables operating across host subpopulations (delineated by condition and sex) and of the extrinsic variable of season on the dispersion patterns of the three common species of helminths were examined. The hypothesis that heterogeneity within the host population, rather than across the collective host population, is the main factor generating overdispersion in natural parasite populations was not confirmed for the three common species of helminths. Overdispersion in P. sexalatus resulted from seasonal changes across the collective host population, with the greatest abundances occurring during the cool season. Aggregated abundances of G. pulchrum resulted from variation generated across host sex subpopulations, while the dispersion patterns of T. turki appeared to be unaffected by the habitat variables examined in this study.

  13. Group display in the socially monogamous Northern Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris reichenowi).

    PubMed

    Riegert, Jan; Antczak, Marcin; Fainová, Drahomíra; Blažková, Pavla

    2014-03-01

    Several sunbird species (Nectariniidae) exhibit group display, but the function of this behaviour still remains unclear. We test two hypotheses (reproductive tactic and joint territory defence) to explain the function of this behaviour using data gathered on Northern Double-collared Sunbirds (Cinnyris reichenowi) from the Cameroon Mountains. Sunbirds exhibited group display throughout the breeding cycle. Groups of birds were mainly comprised of neighbouring pairs aggregated at territory boundaries. The frequency of group displays varied significantly among individuals and over the breeding cycle, with the highest frequency during the pre-breeding period and the lowest during egg-laying (∼female's fertile period). Time spent on group display was significantly longer at the end of breeding. Off-territory forays were recorded for both males and females, males significantly increased the time spent on these forays during incubation. Extra-pair copulations were recorded only in five cases for females (4%) suggesting that most off-territory forays were motivated by feeding on nectar in neighbouring territories. Therefore, we suggest that the behaviour is used for joint territory defence rather than as an information centre for choosing mates for extra-pair copulations. Its function for choosing primary mates is also unlikely, because group displays were mainly observed in complete pairs.

  14. Determination of the wingsnap sonation mechanism of the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Bodony, Daniel J; Day, Lainy; Friscia, Anthony R; Fusani, Leonida; Karon, Aharon; Swenson, George W; Wikelski, Martin; Schlinger, Barney A

    2016-05-15

    Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus), small suboscine passeriform birds of Panamanian forests, communicate acoustically using a variety of non-vocal sonations. The most prominent sonations are single or multiple intense 'wingsnaps' with a dominant acoustic frequency around 5 kHz. Several hypotheses have been proposed addressing the source of the sound, ranging from purely aerodynamic origins (due to a rapid jet of air formed by the wings or by a 'whiplike' motion) to purely structural origins (such as physical contact of the wings), but without definitive assessment. Using anatomical analysis as well as high-speed video and synchronized audio recordings, we show that compared with related species, M. vitellinus radii are morphologically unique and confirm that they collide over the back of the bird at the moment (±1 ms) the wingsnap is produced. Using aeroacoustic theory, we quantitatively estimate the acoustic signatures from several sonation mechanisms. We conclude that only the physical contact hypothesis, wherein the wing collisions create the sound, is consistent with the measured sonation. PMID:26994170

  15. Plectosphaerella species associated with root and collar rots of horticultural crops in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, A; Raimondo, M L; Santos, J; Phillips, A J L

    2012-06-01

    Plectosphaerella cucumerina, most frequently encountered in its Plectosporium state, is well known as a pathogen of several plant species causing fruit, root and collar rot, and collapse. It is considered to pose a serious threat to melon (Cucumis melo) production in Italy. In the present study, an intensive sampling of diseased cucurbits as well as tomato and bell pepper was done and the fungal pathogens present on them were isolated. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolates were determined through a study of ribosomal RNA gene sequences (ITS cluster and D1/D2 domain of the 28S rRNA gene). Combining morphological, culture and molecular data, six species were distinguished. One of these (Pa. cucumerina) is already known. Four new species are described as Plectosphaerella citrullae, Pa. pauciseptata, Pa. plurivora and Pa. ramiseptata. Acremonium cucurbitacearum is shown to be a synonym of Nodulisporium melonis and is transferred to Plectosphaerella as Plectosphaerella melonis comb. nov. A further three known species of Plectosporium are recombined in Plectosphaerella. PMID:23105152

  16. Influence of Climate Warming on Arctic Mammals? New Insights from Ancient DNA Studies of the Collared Lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus

    PubMed Central

    Prost, Stefan; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Sommer, Robert S.; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Global temperature increased by approximately half a degree (Celsius) within the last 150 years. Even this moderate warming had major impacts on Earth's ecological and biological systems, especially in the Arctic where the magnitude of abiotic changes even exceeds those in temperate and tropical biomes. Therefore, understanding the biological consequences of climate change on high latitudes is of critical importance for future conservation of the species living in this habitat. The past 25,000 years can be used as a model for such changes, as they were marked by prominent climatic changes that influenced geographical distribution, demographic history and pattern of genetic variation of many extant species. We sequenced ancient and modern DNA of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), which is a key species of the arctic biota, from a single site (Pymva Shor, Northern Pre Urals, Russia) to see if climate warming events after the Last Glacial Maximum had detectable effects on the genetic variation of this arctic rodent species, which is strongly associated with a cold and dry climate. Results Using three dimensional network reconstructions we found a dramatic decline in genetic diversity following the LGM. Model-based approaches such as Approximate Bayesian Computation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference show that there is evidence for a population decline in the collared lemming following the LGM, with the population size dropping to a minimum during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (Bølling/Allerød) warming phase at 14.5 kyrs BP. Conclusion Our results show that previous climate warming events had a strong influence on genetic diversity and population size of collared lemmings. Due to its already severely compromised genetic diversity a similar population reduction as a result of the predicted future climate change could completely abolish the remaining genetic diversity in this population. Local population extinctions of collared

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  18. Corrective Jaw Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Craniofacial Surgery Cleft Lip/Palate and Craniofacial Surgery A cleft lip may require one or more ... find out more. Corrective Jaw Surgery Corrective Jaw Surgery Orthognathic surgery is performed to correct the misalignment ...

  19. Risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging and cervical collar in comatose, blunt trauma patients with negative comprehensive cervical spine computed tomography and no apparent spinal deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C Michael; Brocker, Brian P; Collier, B David; Gemmel, David J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In blunt trauma, comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 8) with a negative comprehensive cervical spine (CS) computed tomography assessment and no apparent spinal deficit, CS clearance strategies (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and prolonged cervical collar use) are controversial. Methods We conducted a literature review to delineate risks for coma, CS instability, prolonged cervical collar use, and CS MRI. Results Based on our search of the literature, the numbers of functional survivor patients among those who had sustained blunt trauma were as follows: 350 per 1,000 comatose unstable patients (increased intracranial pressure [ICP], hypotension, hypoxia, or early ventilator-associated pneumonia); 150 per 1,000 comatose high-risk patients (age > 45 years or Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 5); and 600 per 1,000 comatose stable patients (not unstable or high risk). Risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable, high-risk, and stable patients were as follows: 2.5% for CS instability; 26.2% for increased intensive care unit complications with prolonged cervical collar use; 9.3% to 14.6% for secondary brain injury with MRI transportation; and 20.6% for aspiration during MRI scanning (supine position). Additional risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable patients were as follows: 35.8% for increased ICP with cervical collar; and 72.1% for increased ICP during MRI scan (supine position). Conclusion Blunt trauma coma functional survivor (independent living) rates are alarming. When a comprehensive CS computed tomography evaluation is negative and there is no apparent spinal deficit, CS instability is unlikely (2.5%). Secondary brain injury from the cervical collar or MRI is more probable than CS instability and jeopardizes cerebral recovery. Brain injury severity, probability of CS instability, cervical collar risk, and MRI risk assessments are essential when deciding whether CS MRI is appropriate and for determining the timing of

  20. Physiological responses of the adult male collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae), to severe dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Varner, L W; Greene, L W; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Metabolic and hormonal responses of eight adult male collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) to an ad libitum diet intake, or 25% of an ad libitum intake, were examined. Blood samples for hematological, serum-biochemical and hormonal profiles were collected at three week intervals during the nine week experiment starting 4 August 1983. Males fed on the restricted diet lost an average of 26% of their body weight during the trial, compared to a slight weight gain for those fed ad libitum. Characteristics of the red and white blood cell populations were not influenced by diet intake, with the exception of mean corpuscular volume, which was consistently lower amongst males fed on the restricted diet. Restricted food intake resulted in significantly elevated serum values for urea nitrogen, urea nitrogen:creatinine, urea index, alpha globulin:beta globulin, gamma globulin:albumin, nonesterified fatty acids, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase isozymes (LD1 and LD2). Restricted food intake resulted in significantly lowered serum values for total alpha globulin, alpha-1 globulin, total beta globulin, beta-1 globulin, beta-2 globulin, glucose, triglycerides, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, copper and triiodothyronine. Serum levels of creatinine, total protein, albumin, alpha-2 globulin, uric acid, total bilirubin, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and thyroxine were unaffected by diet intake level. Semen evaluation indicated spermatogenesis was not affected by dietary restriction despite reductions in scrotal circumference and ejaculate gel volume. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower among males fed on the restricted diet after nine weeks. These data suggest male libido might be depressed during poor range conditions, while maintenance of spermatogenesis might permit them to take immediate advantage of improved

  1. Histomorphometrical and proliferative aspects of placenta and uterus of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Santos, T C; Tonarelli, C; Teixeira, F A; Oliveira, M F; Maria, D; Reginato, P; Kfoury, J R; Oliveira, C A L; Lourenço, D A L; Miglino, M A

    2012-06-01

    The histomorphometric and proliferative characteristics of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) placenta and uterus were analyzed. The material was examined by standard histological techniques and histochemistry (PAS, Perls and Alcian Blue pH 0.5 and 2.5%) and the cellular proliferation by AgNORs and flow cytometry. All the analyzed morphometric variables differed between pregnant and non-pregnant uteri in the luteal phase using the Dunnet test. Height and gland diameter of uterine glands increased linearly during pregnancy, with an intense positive PAS and Perls reaction in all stages. The cells with more than seven AgNORs per nuclei and the cells in the G2M cell cycle phase in the maternal tissue also increased after 70 days of pregnancy. The uteroplacental ridges had a linear increase in size with two distinct areas, base and top, with uterine epithelium and trophoblastic cells changing their morphology following the placental ridge development. Flow cytometry analysis showed the percentage of cells in each cell cycle phase with a quadratic behavior for stages G2/M in the maternal tissue, suggesting an increase in proliferative capacity of maternal tissue after 65 days of pregnancy. The same quadratic effect was observed in the G0/G1 phase in both maternal and fetal tissues. Cells in apoptosis showed cubic behavior in both tissues. The morphometric and cellular dynamic aspects observed in this study have not been previously described and they extend our knowledge of functions relating to maternal-fetal dynamics in this species.

  2. Adaptable Neighbours: Movement Patterns of GPS-Collared Leopards in Human Dominated Landscapes in India

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male  = 89 km in 37 days, female  = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations <25 m from houses), but rarely during day (<1%). One leopard living in a sparsely populated area avoided human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity. PMID:25390067

  3. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Barske, J.; Fusani, L.; Wikelski, M.; Feng, N. Y.; Santos, M.; Schlinger, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a ‘slow pace of life’ metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d−1) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d−1 for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end. PMID:24352944

  4. Sexually dimorphic neural phenotypes in golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Day, Lainy B; Fusani, Leonida; Kim, Carol; Schlinger, Barney A

    2011-01-01

    Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform a high-speed acrobatic courtship display punctuated by loud 'snaps' produced by the wings. Females join males on display courts to select individuals for copulation; females follow displaying males but do not perform acrobatics or make wing snaps. Sexually dimorphic courtship displays such as those performed by manakins are the result of intense sexual selection and suggest that differences between sexes exist at neural levels as well. We examined sex differences in the volume of brain areas that might be involved in the male manakin courtship display and in the female assessment of this display. We found that males had a larger hippocampus (HP, spatial learning) and arcopallium (AP, motor and limbic areas) than females when adjusted for the size of the telencephalon (TELE) minus the target area. Females had a larger ventrolateral mesopallium (MVL) both when adjusting for the size of the remaining TELE and by direct comparison. The entopallium (E) was not sexually dimorphic. The E is part of the avian tectofugal pathway and the MVL is linked to this pathway by reciprocal connections. The MVL likely modulates visually guided behavior via descending brainstem pathways. We found no sex differences in the volume of the cerebellum or cerebellar nuclei. We speculate that the HP is important to males for cross-season site fidelity and for local spatial memory, the AP for sexually driven motor patterns that are complex in males, and that the MVL facilitates female visual processing in selecting male display traits. These results are consistent with the idea that sexual selection has acted to select sex-specific behaviors in manakins that have neural correlates in the brain. PMID:21576936

  5. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Barske, J; Fusani, L; Wikelski, M; Feng, N Y; Santos, M; Schlinger, B A

    2014-02-01

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a 'slow pace of life' metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d(-1)) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d(-1) for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end. PMID:24352944

  6. The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Garamszegi, László Z; Mueller, Jakob C; Markó, Gábor; Szász, Eszter; Zsebők, Sándor; Herczeg, Gábor; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that the genetic architecture of exploration behavior includes the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). Such a link implies that the within-individual consistency in the same behavior has a genetic basis. Behavioral consistency is also prevalent in the form of between-individual correlation of functionally different behaviors; thus, the relationship between DRD4 polymorphism and exploration may also be manifested for other behaviors. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their behavioral displays during the courtship period. In completely natural conditions, we assayed novelty avoidance, aggression and risk-taking, traits that were previously shown repeatable over time and correlate with each other, suggesting that they could have a common mechanistic basis. We identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP554 and SNP764) in the exon 3 of the DRD4 gene by sequencing a subsample, then we screened 202 individuals of both sexes for these SNPs. Focusing on the genotypic variation in courting males, we found that "AC" heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common "AA" homozygotes (the "CC" homozygotes were not represented in our subsample of males). We also found a considerable effect size for the relationship between SNP554 polymorphism and novelty avoidance. Therefore, in addition to exploration, DRD4 polymorphisms may also be associated with the regulation of behaviors that may incur fear or stress. Moreover, polymorphisms at the two SNPs were not independent indicating a potential role for genetic constraints or another functional link, which may partially explain behavioral correlations.

  7. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  8. BILBO1 Is a Scaffold Protein of the Flagellar Pocket Collar in the Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Florimond, Célia; Sahin, Annelise; Vidilaseris, Keni; Dong, Gang; Landrein, Nicolas; Dacheux, Denis; Albisetti, Anna; Byard, Edward H.; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Robinson, Derrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The flagellar pocket (FP) of the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei is an important single copy structure that is formed by the invagination of the pellicular membrane. It is the unique site of endo- and exocytosis and is required for parasite pathogenicity. The FP consists of distinct structural sub-domains with the least explored being the annulus/horseshoe shaped flagellar pocket collar (FPC). To date the only known component of the FPC is the protein BILBO1, a cytoskeleton protein that has a N-terminus that contains an ubiquitin-like fold, two EF-hand domains, plus a large C-terminal coiled-coil domain. BILBO1 has been shown to bind calcium, but in this work we demonstrate that mutating either or both calcium-binding domains prevents calcium binding. The expression of deletion or mutated forms of BILBO1 in trypanosomes and mammalian cells demonstrate that the coiled-coil domain is necessary and sufficient for the formation of BILBO1 polymers. This is supported by Yeast two-hybrid analysis. Expression of full-length BILBO1 in mammalian cells induces the formation of linear polymers with comma and globular shaped termini, whereas mutation of the canonical calcium-binding domain resulted in the formation of helical polymers and mutation in both EF-hand domains prevented the formation of linear polymers. We also demonstrate that in T. brucei the coiled-coil domain is able to target BILBO1 to the FPC and to form polymers whilst the EF-hand domains influence polymers shape. This data indicates that BILBO1 has intrinsic polymer forming properties and that binding calcium can modulate the form of these polymers. We discuss whether these properties can influence the formation of the FPC. PMID:25822645

  9. The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    Garamszegi, László Z; Mueller, Jakob C; Markó, Gábor; Szász, Eszter; Zsebők, Sándor; Herczeg, Gábor; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the genetic architecture of exploration behavior includes the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). Such a link implies that the within-individual consistency in the same behavior has a genetic basis. Behavioral consistency is also prevalent in the form of between-individual correlation of functionally different behaviors; thus, the relationship between DRD4 polymorphism and exploration may also be manifested for other behaviors. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their behavioral displays during the courtship period. In completely natural conditions, we assayed novelty avoidance, aggression and risk-taking, traits that were previously shown repeatable over time and correlate with each other, suggesting that they could have a common mechanistic basis. We identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP554 and SNP764) in the exon 3 of the DRD4 gene by sequencing a subsample, then we screened 202 individuals of both sexes for these SNPs. Focusing on the genotypic variation in courting males, we found that “AC” heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common “AA” homozygotes (the “CC” homozygotes were not represented in our subsample of males). We also found a considerable effect size for the relationship between SNP554 polymorphism and novelty avoidance. Therefore, in addition to exploration, DRD4 polymorphisms may also be associated with the regulation of behaviors that may incur fear or stress. Moreover, polymorphisms at the two SNPs were not independent indicating a potential role for genetic constraints or another functional link, which may partially explain behavioral correlations. PMID:24834341

  10. Adaptable neighbours: movement patterns of GPS-collared leopards in human dominated landscapes in India.

    PubMed

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male = 89 km in 37 days, female = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations <25 m from houses), but rarely during day (<1%). One leopard living in a sparsely populated area avoided human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity.

  11. High-resolution comparative chromosome painting in the Arizona collared peccary (Pecari tajacu, Tayassuidae): a comparison with the karyotype of pig and sheep.

    PubMed

    Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel; Kofler, Andrea; Krausman, Paul R; Masabanda, Julio; Wienberg, Johannes; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2006-01-01

    We used chromosome painting with chromosome-specific probes derived from domestic sheep and pig for a high-resolution cytogenetic comparison with the karyotype of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu sonoriensis). A reorganization of the karyotype involving at least 62-66 conserved segments were observed between the sheep and collared peccary. This is an extremely high number compared with other members of the same mammalian order (Cetartiodactyla). The comparison between pig and collared peccary, both belonging to the Suiformes, however, revealed various changes in the gross organization of both karyotypes that may have already occurred in a common ancestor of both species suggesting a monophyletic origin of Suidae/Tayassuidae. The sheep probes, however, also revealed several rearrangements between the two Suidae/Tayassuidae, indicating that these probes represent a useful tool for a more detailed analysis of the evolutionary history of Suiformes. Our sample of the collared peccary from North America (Arizona, USA) showed distinct differences to those already described from South America. The chromosome painting results defined a complex translocation that involves chromosomes including about one-quarter of the entire collared peccary karyotype. This considerable rearrangement indicates subspecies or even species status of both peccary populations, as it should present a significant barrier for their hybridization.

  12. Influence of Climate Warming on Arctic Mammals? New Insights from Ancient DNA Studies of the collared lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, Stefan; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Sommer, Robert S.; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Global temperature increased by approximately half a degree (Celsius) within the last 150 years. Even this moderate warming had major impacts on Earth's ecological and biological systems, especially in the Arctic where the magnitude of abiotic changes even exceeds those in temperate and tropical biomes. Therefore, understanding the biological consequences of climate change on high latitudes is of critical importance for future conservation of the species living in this habitat. The past 25,000 years can be used as a model for such changes, as they were marked by prominent climatic changes that influenced geographic distribution, demographic history and pattern of genetic variation of many extant species. We sequenced ancient and modern DNA of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), which is a key species of the arctic biota, from a single site (Pymva Shor, Northern Pre Urals, Russia) to see if climate warming events after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) had detectable effects on the genetic variation of this arctic rodent species, which is strongly associated with cold and dry climate. Using three dimensional network reconstruction and model-based approaches such as Approximate Bayesian Computation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference we show that there is evidence for a population decline in the collared lemming following the LGM, with the population size dropping to a minimum during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (Blling/Allerd) warming phase at 14.5 kyrs BP. Our results show that previous climate warming events had a strong influence on collard lemming populations. A similar population reduction due to predicted future climate change would have severe effects on the arctic ecosystem, as collared lemmings are a key species in the trophic interactions and ecosystem processes in the Arctic.

  13. Collar-type osteophyte of the femur in young adults: is it a harbinger of intra-articular osteoid osteoma?

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Bozkurt, Yalcin

    2013-09-01

    Variable clinical and radiological findings for intra-articular osteoid osteoma (OO) of the hip joint make its diagnosis difficult. Because radiographs commonly do not identify the nidus, MR imaging becomes the second line of study. However, because the appearance varies, findings on MR images can be confusing. We found "collar type osteophyte" of the femur i.e. an osteophyte rim around the femoral neck, to be a conspicuous finding of intra-articular OO. Here, this feature will be emphasized and intra-articular OOs will be discussed, with a review of the literature.

  14. Objectives and Standards for Libraries in Correctional Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal of Correction, 1962

    1962-01-01

    The library shares in common with other units or divisions of the institution the responsibility for educational, social, and vocational training of people committed to the institution. In carrying out this function, the library program: (1) provides vocational information; (2) enlarges social and reading backgrounds; (3) develops reading as a…

  15. Subdivision of arthropod cap-n-collar expression domains is restricted to Mandibulata

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The monophyly of Mandibulata - the division of arthropods uniting pancrustaceans and myriapods - is consistent with several morphological characters, such as the presence of sensory appendages called antennae and the eponymous biting appendage, the mandible. Functional studies have demonstrated that the patterning of the mandible requires the activity of the Hox gene Deformed and the transcription factor cap-n-collar (cnc) in at least two holometabolous insects: the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. Expression patterns of cnc from two non-holometabolous insects and a millipede have suggested conservation of the labral and mandibular domains within Mandibulata. However, the activity of cnc is unknown in crustaceans and chelicerates, precluding understanding of a complete scenario for the evolution of patterning of this appendage within arthropods. To redress these lacunae, here we investigate the gene expression of the ortholog of cnc in Parhyale hawaiensis, a malacostracan crustacean, and two chelicerates: the harvestman Phalangium opilio, and the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. Results In the crustacean P. hawaiensis, the segmental expression of Ph-cnc is the same as that reported previously in hexapods and myriapods, with two distinct head domains in the labrum and the mandibular segment. In contrast, Po-cnc and Cs-cnc expression is not enriched in the labrum of either chelicerate, but instead is expressed at comparable levels in all appendages. In further contrast to mandibulate orthologs, the expression domain of Po-cnc posterior to the labrum is not confined within the expression domain of Po-Dfd. Conclusions Expression data from two chelicerate outgroup taxa suggest that the signature two-domain head expression pattern of cnc evolved at the base of Mandibulata. The observation of the archetypal labral and mandibular segment domains in a crustacean exemplar supports the synapomorphic nature of mandibulate cnc

  16. Regular structures of the lunar Orientale Basin: ring spacing and beads-like collars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA's GRAIL mission produced unprecedented detailed gravity maps of the lunar subsurface as its measurements (from very low orbits - 55 -23 kilometers) included some depths of the satellite (down to the core?). However, one might say that these maps have repeated in some aspects the principal gravity pattern acquired earlier by Clementine [1] and Kaguya missions (Fig. 3), which shows the surface densely "peppered" by evensized "craters" about 100 km in diameter. The wave planetology admits that many of them are of an impact origin but a bulk is due to an intersection of standing waves produced by the two elliptical orbit of the body (Fig. 2). The lunar community should realize that one of bases of the Moon's geology - crater size -frequency curve is of a complex nature. Impacts surely contribute to this curve but a significant part of it is due to ring structures of non-impact origin. Ring structures can be produced by an interference of standing inertiagravity waves of four directions (ortho- and diagonal) warping any rotating celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit (Fig. 2) [2]. Many ring structures observed on solid and gaseous planetary spheres are of such profound nature. They form regular grids of shoulder-to-shoulder even ring structures (Fig. 1-3). Their sizes depend on orbiting frequencies: the higher frequency- the smaller "rings", and vice versa. Satellites having two orbiting frequencies in the Solar system are particularly "peppered" with rings as a low frequency modulates a high one producing along with the main ring populations the side populations [3]. Recent MOONKAM lunar images (GRAIL mission) at the first time show so clearly intersecting planetary scale lineations (imprint of standing waves) producing chains and grids of ring features (Fig. 5-6; a theoretical model-Fig. 2). This wave woven pattern with spacing and beads has to be compared with a real gravity pattern of Fig. 1. Multi-ring spacing with the factor of √ 2 and collars

  17. Atmospheric Corrections in Coastal Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonita, Maria; Kumar, Raj

    2012-07-01

    The range measurements from the altimeter are associated with a large number of geophysical corrections which needs special attention near coasts and the shallow water regions. The corrections due to ionosphere, dry and wet troposphere and that due to sea state are of primary importance in altimetry. Water vapor dominates the wet tropospheric corrections by several factors which is more complex with higher spatio-temporal variations and thus needs a careful attention near coasts. In addition to this rain is one of the major atmospheric phenomena which attenuate the backscatter altimeter measurements which in turn affect the altimeter derived wind and wave measurements. Thus during rain events utmost care should be taken while deriving the altimeter wind speeds and wave heights. The first objective of the present study involves the comparison of the water vapor corrections estimated from radiosonde measurements near the coastal regions with the model estimated corrections applied in the altimeter range measurements. Analysis has been performed for the Coastal Altimeter products provided by the PISTACH to observe these corrections. The second objective is to estimate the rain rate using altimeter backscatter measurements. The differential attenuation of KU band over C band due to rain has been utilized to identify the rain events and to estimate the amount of rain fall. JASON-2 altimeter data during two tropical cyclonic events over Bay of Bengal have been used for this purpose. An attempt is made to compare the estimated rain rate from altimeter measurements with the other available collocated satellite observations like KALPANA and TRMM-TMI. The results are encouraging and can be used to provide valid rain flags in the altimeter products in addition to the radiometer rain flags.

  18. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Dec. 12, 2015 Wearing eyeglasses is an easy way to correct refractive errors. Improving your vision with eyeglasses offers the opportunity to select from ...

  19. Illinois Corrections Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Jack

    1974-01-01

    The Illinois Corrections Project for Law-Focused Education, which brings law-focused curriculum into corrections institutions, was initiated in 1973 with a summer institute and includes programs in nine particpating institutions. (JH)

  20. Anatomicohistological characteristics of the tubular genital organs of the female collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) from North-eastern Amazon.

    PubMed

    Mayor, P; Jori, F; López-Béjar, M

    2004-04-01

    The present study examines anatomical and histological characteristics of tubular genital organs and its relationships with the reproductive state of 24 wild adult collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) females. The tunica mucosa of the uterine tube presents a pseudostratified, intermittently ciliated columnar epithelium. The epithelial secretory cells of pregnant females and females in the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle became taller than the ciliated cells and showed abundant apical secretory blebs, whereas secretory cells of females in the follicular phase showed abundant mucous secretory activity (periodic acid-Schiff positive cells). The uterus is composed of two narrow and convoluted uterine horns, separated by the velum uteri, a small uterine body and a long and muscular cervix. The endometrial lining of both uterine horns and body is a monostratified, columnar ciliated epithelium. Pregnant females and females in luteal phase showed a more developed hyperplasia of the endometrial simple tubular glands than females in the follicular phase. The cervix presents interdigitated rows of mucosal prominences that project into the lumen, structures similar to pulvini cervicali, occluding the cervical canal. In pregnant females, the endocervical canal was filled by a viscous cervical secretion. Females in follicular phase presented a thicker vaginal epithelium than pregnant females and females in luteal phase. The present study suggests that the collared peccary female showed different histological features of the uterine tubes, uterus and vagina in accordance with the reproductive state of the females.

  1. Light and clock expression of the Neurospora clock gene frequency is differentially driven by but dependent on WHITE COLLAR-2.

    PubMed Central

    Collett, Michael A; Garceau, Norm; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2002-01-01

    Visible light is thought to reset the Neurospora circadian clock by acting through heterodimers of the WHITE COLLAR-1 and WHITE COLLAR-2 proteins to induce transcription of the frequency gene. To characterize this photic entrainment we examined frq expression in constant light, under which condition the mRNA and protein of this clock gene were strongly induced. In continuous illumination FRQ accumulated in a highly phosphorylated state similar to that seen at subjective dusk, the time at which a step from constant light to darkness sets the clock. Examination of frq expression in several wc-2 mutant alleles surprisingly revealed differential regulation when frq expression was compared between constant light, following a light pulse, and darkness (clock-driven expression). Construction of a wc-2 null strain then demonstrated that WC-2 is absolutely required for both light and clock-driven frq expression, in contrast to previous expectations based on presumptive nulls containing altered Zn-finger function. Additionally, we found that frq light signal transduction differs from that of other light-regulated genes. Thus clock and light-driven frq expression is differentially regulated by, but dependent on, WC-2. PMID:11805052

  2. Collared Pikas as a Model Species for Studying the Biological Impacts of Climate Change in Alpine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donovan, K. S.; Hik, D.

    2007-12-01

    Climate models suggest that global temperatures could rise between 1.4° C and 5.8° C over the next 100 years, and that these effects will be most extreme in northern mountain regions. Pikas (Ochotona, Lagomorpha) are widespread small mammals in the alpine environments of Asia and North America. They are cold adapted and consequently sensitive to warming global temperatures. Considerable research has shown a poleward migration of many species as a result of rising temperatures, but high alpine dwelling species, like the pika, may already be trapped at the top of mountains. Little is known about the threshold values of environmental conditions under which pikas either persist or disappear. Collared pikas (Ochotona collaris) inhabit alpine meadows in the Kluane region of the southwest Yukon. Sites located along an environmental gradient from nunataks in the St Elias Icefields to the Ruby Range Mountains have experienced different climatic and glacial histories. Using baseline data from the long-term study in the Ruby Ranges, we report on differences in the ecological and climatic conditions of sites along this gradient and how this translates into differences in the behavioural and population ecology of the pikas living there. By looking at these differences we can infer the potential impacts of a warming climate, and the subsequent ecological changes on collared pika populations in order to clarify the causes of local extinction and allow us to develop models for predicting ecological responses as conditions change under future climate regimes.

  3. Changing climate and the phenological response of great tit and collared flycatcher populations in floodplain forest ecosystems in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Zdeněk; Trnka, Miroslav; Bauerová, Jana; Možný, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr; Bartošová, Lenka; Žalud, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on 47 years of observations (1961-2007) on two common bird species, the Great Tit ( Parus major) and the Collared Flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis), and a dominant tree species in their habitat, the English Oak ( Quercus robur). The study took place at four research sites in the Czech Republic located in full-grown, multi-aged floodplain forests with no forestry management. An increase in air temperature over the evaluated period clearly influenced the length of phenological phases. The full foliage date of English Oak has advanced by 8.7 days during the past 47 years. Great Tit and Collared Flycatcher populations have reacted to the changing climate in the same way, with first laying date and mean laying date advancing by between 6.0 and 9.0 days. In all cases, the trends are highly significant and consistent over all sites. Despite the ongoing shift in phenological stages toward the beginning of the year, the change does not appear to have led to mistiming in the trophic food chain. Overall, this study shows almost identical rates of change in egg laying dates for both bird species in all the floodplain forests studied, and these trends are coherent with those of English Oak and peak herbivorous caterpillar activity.

  4. Single round blasting of 10-foot diameter X 65-foot depth emplacement collar holes at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Since 1961 REECo has drilled and mined emplacement holes for testing nuclear devices underground. An oversize drill pattern was the primary method used. The application of drilling the final size configuration hole to a 65-foot depth and mucking with the Auger Rig was then investigated. Numerous drilling patterns, loading and time schemes and methods were tried. Some were successful. Most were expensive. All concerned looked for a better and less costly method for this collar casing installation. Poor fragmentation in the collar holes prior to Atlas Powder becoming involved resulted in slow hole cleanout and excessive rig maintenance with associated excessive costs. One of the more successful shots was a 120-inch diameter {times} 60-foot deep hole that was drilled using 3 1/2-inch holes and then casing them to a 2-inch diameter using PVC pipe. A 30-inch burn hole was drilled to total depth. Twenty-seven 3 1/2-inch holes were drilled and then loaded with 1 1/2-inch powder boosted with Detaprimes and wired using all 0 delay caps. This shot smooth walled and the blast holes were visible all the way from top to bottom. Fragmentation was excellent and the Auger Rig mucked out quickly. The 28-inch bit used for the burn hole was a high cost item in this test and other methods continued to be investigated.

  5. In-plant test and evaluation of the neutron collar for verification of PWR fuel assemblies at Resende, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Marzo, M.A.S.; de Almeida, S.G.; de Almeida, M.C.; Moitta, L.P.M.; Conti, L.F.; de Paiva, J.R.T.

    1985-11-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar has been evaluated for the measurement of pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies at the Fabrica de Elementos Combustiveis plant in Resende, Brazil. This evaluation was part of the cooperative-bilateral-safeguards technical-exchange program between the United States and Brazil. The neutron collar measures the STVU content per unit length of full fuel assemblies using neutron interrogation and coincidence counting. The STYU content is measured in the passive mode without the AmLi neutron-interrogation source. The extended evaluation took place over a period of 6 months with both scanning and single-zone measurements. The results of the tests gave a coincidence-response standard deviation of 0.7% (sigma = 1.49% for mass) for the active case and 2.5% for the passive case in 1000-s measurement times. The length measurement in the scanning mode was accurate to 0.77%. The accuracies of different calibration methods were evaluated and compared.

  6. Comparison of tracheal intubation with the Airway Scope or Clarus Video System in patients with cervical collars.

    PubMed

    Kim, J K; Kim, J A; Kim, C S; Ahn, H J; Yang, M K; Choi, S J

    2011-08-01

    Tracheal intubations with the Airway Scope or the Clarus Video System, a new rigid fibrescope, were compared in 140 patients whose necks were immobilised by cervical collars. The time for intubation, success rate, number of attempts and number of optimisation manoeuvres were assessed. Mean (SD) intubation time was longer with the Airway Scope (30.4 (16.5) s) than with the Clarus Video System (18.9 (15.2) s; p = 0.003) and the median (IQR [range]) number of optimisation manoeuvres was also marginally different; 0 (0-1 [0-2]) with the Airway Scope, 0 (0-0 [0-2]) with the Clarus Video System; p = 0.004. The tracheas of 67 (95.7%) and 66 (94.3%) patients were successfully intubated with the Airway Scope and the Clarus Video System, respectively (p = 1.0). The number of attempts, vital signs and complications were not different between devices. The Clarus Video System was comparable to the Airway Scope in the success rate for tracheal intubation, but provided faster and easier intubations than the Airway Scope in patients with cervical collars.

  7. Expansion of an exotic species and concomitant disease outbreaks: pigeon paramyxovirus in free-ranging Eurasian collared doves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuler, Krysten L.; Green, David E.; Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Jaffe, Rosemary; Cunningham, Mark; Thomas, Nancy J.; Spalding, Marilyn G.; Ip, Hon S.

    2012-01-01

    Eurasian collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto) have expanded their range across the United States since their introduction several decades ago. Recent mortality events in Eurasian collared doves in Arizona and Montana, USA, during the winter of 2009-2010 were the result of pigeon paramyxovirus (PPMV), a novel disease agent. The first instance of mortality by this emerging infectious disease in this species occurred in Florida in 2001 with subsequent disease events in 2006 and 2008. Full diagnostic necropsies were performed on carcasses from the three states. PPMV was identified by RT-PCR and virus isolation and was sequenced to the VIb genotype of avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV). Other APMVs are common in a variety of free-ranging birds, but concern is warranted because of the potential for commingling of this species with native birds, virus evolution, and threats to domestic poultry. Improved surveillance for wildlife mortality events and efforts to prevent introduction of non-native animals could reduce the threat of introducing new pathogens.

  8. 46 CFR 201.148 - Corrections of transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... upon by the presiding officer. Motions made after the hearing to correct the record as to matters of... approval of the presiding officer, be changed to reflect such corrections. If objections are received,...

  9. 46 CFR 201.148 - Corrections of transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... upon by the presiding officer. Motions made after the hearing to correct the record as to matters of... approval of the presiding officer, be changed to reflect such corrections. If objections are received,...

  10. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  11. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  12. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  13. Welcoming Blue-Collar Scholars into the Ivory Tower: Developing Class-Conscious Strategies for Student Success. Series on Special Student Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.

    2015-01-01

    "Welcoming Blue-Collar Scholars Into the Ivory Tower" is the first volume in a new book series designed to explore how institutional policies, practices, and cultures shape learning, development, and success for students who have been historically underserved or given limited consideration in the design of higher education contexts.…

  14. Refining the pole-and-collar method of restraint: emphasizing the use of positive training techniques with rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research.

  15. Refining the Pole-and-Collar Method of Restraint: Emphasizing the Use of Positive Training Techniques with Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Perlman, Jaine E; Galvan, Adriana; Wichmann, Thomas; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2014-01-01

    The pole-and-collar method is one of several techniques that enable the safe transfer of a nonhuman primate from its home environment into a restraint chair without the need for sedation. It has been used within the scientific community for decades. Traditional methods to train animals for pole-and-collar use rely primarily on aspects of negative reinforcement, with very little incorporation of positive-reinforcement techniques. With increasing emphasis on animal training and welfare, research facilities are incorporating positive-reinforcement training into husbandry and experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of training rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) to cooperate for pole-and-collar transfer to a primate restraint chair. By using predominantly positive-reinforcement techniques, with supplemental elements of negative reinforcement, macaques were trained in a mean of 85 training sessions (a mean of 1085 min of training time). We also provide tools for investigators using the pole-and-collar method to help them successfully incorporate positive-reinforcement training into their procedures. This refinement has the potential to improve animal welfare and enhance the value of nonhuman primate models in research. PMID:24411781

  16. Crime and punishment. Instead of a slap on the wrist, crooked healthcare executives now are being sentenced to prison thanks to a crackdown on white-collar crime.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark

    2002-03-18

    Lawmakers wondering how to handle white-collar crime might look to the healthcare industry, where crooked executives are being held criminally accountable for shady business dealings and corrupt practices that previously may have resulted in quiet dismissals. A confluence of factors has driven the crackdown, from escalating whistleblower lawsuits to a decade-long effort to halt Medicare and Medicaid fraud.

  17. Visual Priming of Inverted and Rotated Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlton, Barbara J.; McAuliffe, Sean P.; Coelho, Chase J.; Hummel, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Object images are identified more efficiently after prior exposure. Here, the authors investigated shape representations supporting object priming. The dependent measure in all experiments was the minimum exposure duration required to correctly identify an object image in a rapid serial visual presentation stream. Priming was defined as the change…

  18. The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of electronic training devices for dog training is controversial. The aims of this study were to give an indication of the extent to which dog owners use these devices in England, identify factors associated with their use, and compare owner report of outcomes. A convenience sample of dog owners in England was used to identify numbers using electronic training devices and identify reasons for use. Factors associated with use of remote e-collars only were determined by comparing dogs trained using these devices with two control populations matched for reason of use (recall / chasing problems). Comparison groups were: those using other ‘negative reinforcement / positive punishment’ training techniques, and those using ‘positive reinforcement / negative punishment’ based methods. A multinominal logistic regression model was used to compare factors between categories of training method. Owner reported success for use was compared using chi-squared analysis. Results For England only, 3.3% (n = 133) owners reported using remote activated e-collars, 1.4% (n = 54) reported use of bark activated e-collars, and 0.9% (n = 36) reported using electronic boundary fences. In comparison with the e-collar group, owners using reward based training methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to be female and 2.7 times less likely to have attended agility training. Owners using other aversive methods for recall / chasing were 2.8 times more likely to have attended puppy classes than those using e-collars. However, the model only explained 10% variance between groups. A significantly higher proportion of owners in the reward group reported training success than those in the e-collar group. Conclusions In conclusion, a fairly low proportion of owners select to use electronic training devices. For a population matched by reason for training method use, characteristics of dogs, including occurrence of undesired behaviours do not appear to

  19. Objective Criteria for Evaluation of Grading Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    This report compares maximum linear prediction, maximum total correct classifications for a group, and maximum probability of correct classification for an individual as objective criteria for univariate grading scales. Since the goals of valid prediction and valid classification lead to conflicting criteria, it is possible that a compromise…

  20. White collar-1, a central regulator of blue light responses in Neurospora, is a zinc finger protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ballario, P; Vittorioso, P; Magrelli, A; Talora, C; Cabibbo, A; Macino, G

    1996-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa blind mutant white collar-1 (wc-1) is pleiotropically defective in all blue light-induced phenomena, establishing a role for the wc-1 gene product in the signal transduction pathway. We report the cloning of the wc-1 gene isolated by chromosome walking and mutant complementation. The elucidation of the wc-1 gene product provides a key piece of the blue light signal transduction puzzle. The wc-1 gene encodes a 125 kDa protein whose encoded motifs include a single class four, zinc finger DNA binding domain and a glutamine-rich putative transcription activation domain. We demonstrate that the wc-1 zinc finger domain, expressed in Escherichia coli, is able to bind specifically to the promoter of a blue light-regulated gene of Neurospora using an in vitro gel retardation assay. Furthermore, we show that wc-1 gene expression is autoregulated and is transcriptionally induced by blue light irradiation. Images PMID:8612589

  1. Work-related risk factors and employee substance use: insights from a sample of Israeli blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Biron, Michal; Bamberger, Peter A; Noyman, Tamir

    2011-04-01

    Although studies have found evidence that certain workplace conditions in North American enterprises may serve as risk factors for alcohol and illicit drug use, little is known regarding the generalizability of these findings to enterprises in other countries. To address this gap, we collected data from a random sample of 569 blue-collar workers employed in nine different facilities of one of Israel's largest manufacturing firms. The results of zero-inflated Poisson and ordered probit regressions partly confirmed earlier findings reported in North America, with a heightened rate of a substance use among those perceiving (a) more permissive drinking norms, (b) lower supervisor ability to handle substance use problems, (c) greater exposure to job hazards, and (d) lower levels of coworker interactions. Permissive drinking norms were also found to moderate the associations between the other risk factors and substance use.

  2. [Working conditions and job-requirement of older industrial blue collar workers and the consequences in employment problems (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bäcker, G

    1978-07-01

    In the following passage the reduced vocational capacity of older workers will be discussed as a consequence of the intended high-capacity of workers as well as the non--human working--conditions in industry. The reduced personal sanity and working capacity of older workers point out the high rate of handicaps and the incapacity of vocational engagement. Problems of employment--and this could be pointed out by the high rates of unemployment amongst older workers--does not signify prejudice but indicates the low profitableness of older workers in the capitalistic production system. Finally discussed will be the contribution of a monetary--conpensatoric against a more prophylactic social policy for a better solution of the vocational problems of older blue-collar workers. PMID:27114

  3. A test of the "sexy son" hypothesis: sons of polygynous collared flycatchers do not inherit their fathers' mating status.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna

    2006-02-01

    According to the original "sexy son" hypothesis, a female may benefit from pairing with an already-mated male despite a reduction in fecundity because her sons inherit their father's attractiveness. We used data from a long-term study of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) collected during 24 years to test this prediction. Our results show that the sons of polygynously mated females fledged in poor condition and therefore did not inherit their father's large forehead patch (a condition-dependent display trait) or mating status. From the female's perspective, polygynous pairing resulted in fewer recruited grandchildren than did a monogamous pairing. The reproductive value of sons did not outweigh the fecundity costs of polygyny because the low paternal care reduced the attractiveness of sons. When there are long-lasting parental effects on offspring attractiveness, costs of polygyny may include the production of nonsexy sons.

  4. [The case of a collar-bone wedge-fracture caused by the impact of safety-belt clasp].

    PubMed

    Bloch-Bogusławska, Elzbieta; Wolska, Ewa

    2003-01-01

    In this study the case of a collar--bone wedge--fracture caused by the impact of safety--belt clasp was described. The presence of wedge--fracture is proof of an active mechanism of injury. This kind of fracture was described in traffic accidents as a Messerer fracture so far. The case of a wedge--fracture of the ulnar caused by impact of a baseball bat was also described. This study proves that Messerer fractures of bones are not characteristic only for long bones but may be connected with other types of bones if only the power of impact is strong enough to cause excessive bending of the bone trunk.

  5. Nucleic acid spot hybridization based species-specific detection of Sclerotium rolfsii associated with collar rot disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius.

    PubMed

    Pravi, V; Jeeva, M L; Archana, P V

    2015-02-01

    Collar rot is one of the most destructive and prevalent disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius, resulting in heavy yield losses. The causative organism, Sclerotium rolfsii is a soil-borne polyphagous fungus characterized by prolific growth and ability to produce persistent sclerotia. The pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. This study presents the suitability of DNA hybridization technique for species specific detection of S. rolfsii in soil and planting material. The detection limit of the probe was 10-15 pg of pure pathogen DNA. The developed probe was found to be highly specific and could be used for accurate identification of pathogen up to the species level. The protocol was standardized for detection of the pathogen in naturally infected field samples. PMID:25449141

  6. Coccidia of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) in southern Texas with descriptions of three new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae).

    PubMed

    Wilber, P G; Hellgren, E C; Gabor, T M

    1996-08-01

    In February 1993, fresh fecal samples were collected from 47 collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) killed by hunters at the Chaparral Wildlife Management Area, southern Texas, USA. Five species of coccidia (Eimeria chaparralensis n. sp. [9/47, 19%], Eimeria dicotylensis n. sp. [21/47, 21%], Eimeria pecari n. sp. [2/47, 4%], Eimeria sp. [1/47, 2%], and Klossia sp. [1/47, 2%]) were observed. Measurements are in micron. Sporulated oocysts of E. chaparralensis are rough-walled, elongate ovoidal, 43.3 x 28.5 (37-52 x 26-35); sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal 21.8 x 9.0 (16-27 x 7-12); micropyle (approximately 4.9), Stieda, and substieda body are present; sporocyst residuum is present in newly sporulated oocysts; polar granule and oocyst residuum are absent. Sporulated oocysts of E. dicotylensis are smooth-walled, ovoidal, 25.7 x 20.1 (23-29 x 17-23); sporocysts are ellipsoidal 13.0 x 6.9 (11-17 x 6-9); micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent; polar body sometimes present; Stieda body and sporocyst residuum always present. Sporulated oocysts of E. pecari are smooth-walled, elongate ellipsoidal, 26.8 x 18.1 (22-31 x 15-21); sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal 16.4 x 5.9 (13-22 x 4-7); micropyle (approximately 5.8) with collar, Stieda body, substieda body, and sporocyst residuum are present; polar granule and small oocyst residuum sometimes present. There were no sex or age differences in prevalences of infection, and there were no positive or negative associations between any species of eimerian. The majority of hosts were infected with a single species of Eimeria. Overall prevalence of infection with eimerians was 23/47 (49%).

  7. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses of collar enamel in the jaw teeth of gars, Lepisosteus oculatus, an actinopterygian fish.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Ichiro; Ishiyama, Mikio; Yokosuka, Hiroyuki; Mikami, Masato; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Uchida, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    Although most fish have no enamel layer in their teeth, those belonging to Lepisosteus (gars), an extant actinopterygian fish genus, do and so can be used to study amelogenesis. In order to examine the collar enamel matrix in gar teeth, we subjected gar teeth to light and electron microscopic immunohistochemical examinations using an antibody against bovine amelogenin (27 kDa) and antiserum against porcine amelogenin (25 kDa), as well as region-specific antibodies and antiserum against the C-terminus and middle region, and N-terminus of porcine amelogenin, respectively. The enamel matrix exhibited intense immunoreactivity to the anti-bovine amelogenin antibody and the anti-porcine amelogenin antiserum in addition to the C-terminal and middle region-specific antibodies, but not to the N-terminal-specific antiserum. These results suggest that the collar enamel matrix of gar teeth contains amelogenin-like proteins and that these proteins possess domains that closely resemble the C-terminal and middle regions of porcine amelogenin. Western blot analyses of the tooth germs of Lepisosteus were also performed. As a result, protein bands with molecular weights of 78 kDa and 65 kDa were clearly stained by the anti-bovine amelogenin antibody as well as the antiserum against porcine amelogenin and the middle-region-specific antibody. It is likely that the amelogenin-like proteins present in Lepisosteus do not correspond to the amelogenins found in mammals, although they do possess domains that are shared with mammalian amelogenins.

  8. Assessment of adrenocortical activity and behavior of the collared anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla) in response to food-based environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Eguizábal, Gabina V; Palme, Rupert; Villarreal, Daniel; Dal Borgo, Carla; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Busso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    One of the current standard approaches to the study of animal welfare is measuring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, frequently in association with behavioral assessment. We studied the effects of food-based environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity and behavior in zoo-housed collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla; n = 5). We successfully validated measurements of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) using an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay by stimulating (ACTH injection) and suppressing (dexamethasone administration) adrenocortical activity. Three months later, we subjected animals to an ABA-type experiment (three 6-week periods): pre-enrichment (routine diet: A), enrichment (modified diet: B), and post-enrichment (routine diet: A) periods. We assessed adrenocortical activity by collecting individual feces three times a week (total number of samples: 228), and evaluated behavior by performing 3 days of behavioral observations per period (with a total of 3,600 behavioral data points for the individuals studied). Statistical analysis revealed changes in FCM concentrations (µg/g) over the periods (3.04 ± 0.68, 2.98 ± 0.66, and 4.04 ± 0.90, respectively). Additionally, it showed that the number of FCM peaks was highly reduced during enrichment; meanwhile active natural behaviors were significantly increased. We consider that these changes in response to food-based environmental enrichment improved the welfare of individual zoo-housed collared anteaters. This research might contribute to in situ and ex situ studies on the physiology and behavior of this endemic South American species. PMID:24307059

  9. Assessment of adrenocortical activity and behavior of the collared anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla) in response to food-based environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Eguizábal, Gabina V; Palme, Rupert; Villarreal, Daniel; Dal Borgo, Carla; Di Rienzo, Julio A; Busso, Juan M

    2013-01-01

    One of the current standard approaches to the study of animal welfare is measuring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity, frequently in association with behavioral assessment. We studied the effects of food-based environmental enrichment on adrenocortical activity and behavior in zoo-housed collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla; n = 5). We successfully validated measurements of fecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) using an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay by stimulating (ACTH injection) and suppressing (dexamethasone administration) adrenocortical activity. Three months later, we subjected animals to an ABA-type experiment (three 6-week periods): pre-enrichment (routine diet: A), enrichment (modified diet: B), and post-enrichment (routine diet: A) periods. We assessed adrenocortical activity by collecting individual feces three times a week (total number of samples: 228), and evaluated behavior by performing 3 days of behavioral observations per period (with a total of 3,600 behavioral data points for the individuals studied). Statistical analysis revealed changes in FCM concentrations (µg/g) over the periods (3.04 ± 0.68, 2.98 ± 0.66, and 4.04 ± 0.90, respectively). Additionally, it showed that the number of FCM peaks was highly reduced during enrichment; meanwhile active natural behaviors were significantly increased. We consider that these changes in response to food-based environmental enrichment improved the welfare of individual zoo-housed collared anteaters. This research might contribute to in situ and ex situ studies on the physiology and behavior of this endemic South American species.

  10. Global orbit corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Symon, K.

    1987-11-01

    There are various reasons for preferring local (e.g., three bump) orbit correction methods to global corrections. One is the difficulty of solving the mN equations for the required mN correcting bumps, where N is the number of superperiods and m is the number of bumps per superperiod. The latter is not a valid reason for avoiding global corrections, since, we can take advantage of the superperiod symmetry to reduce the mN simultaneous equations to N separate problems, each involving only m simultaneous equations. Previously, I have shown how to solve the general problem when the machine contains unknown magnet errors of known probability distribution; we made measurements of known precision of the orbit displacements at a set of points, and we wish to apply correcting bumps to minimize the weighted rms orbit deviations. In this report, we will consider two simpler problems, using similar methods. We consider the case when we make M beam position measurements per superperiod, and we wish to apply an equal number M of orbit correcting bumps to reduce the measured position errors to zero. We also consider the problem when the number of correcting bumps is less than the number of measurements, and we wish to minimize the weighted rms position errors. We will see that the latter problem involves solving equations of a different form, but involving the same matrices as the former problem.

  11. Hologram production and representation for corrected image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Gui Chao; Zhang, Rui; Su, Xue Mei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a CCD sensor device is used to record the distorted homemade grid images which are taken by a wide angle camera. The distorted images are corrected by using methods of position calibration and correction of gray with vc++ 6.0 and opencv software. Holography graphes for the corrected pictures are produced. The clearly reproduced images are obtained where Fresnel algorithm is used in graph processing by reducing the object and reference light from Fresnel diffraction to delete zero-order part of the reproduced images. The investigation is useful in optical information processing and image encryption transmission.

  12. Contrast image correction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schettini, Raimondo; Gasparini, Francesca; Corchs, Silvia; Marini, Fabrizio; Capra, Alessandro; Castorina, Alfio

    2010-04-01

    A method for contrast enhancement is proposed. The algorithm is based on a local and image-dependent exponential correction. The technique aims to correct images that simultaneously present overexposed and underexposed regions. To prevent halo artifacts, the bilateral filter is used as the mask of the exponential correction. Depending on the characteristics of the image (piloted by histogram analysis), an automated parameter-tuning step is introduced, followed by stretching, clipping, and saturation preserving treatments. Comparisons with other contrast enhancement techniques are presented. The Mean Opinion Score (MOS) experiment on grayscale images gives the greatest preference score for our algorithm.

  13. Evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of an imidacloprid 10%/flumethrin 4.5% polymer matrix collar (Seresto®) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in multicentre clinical field studies in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of these two GCP multicentre European clinical field studies was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of a new imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer AnimalHealth, Investigational Veterinary Product(IVP)) in dogs and cats naturally infested with fleas and/or ticks in comparison to a dimpylat collar ("Ungezieferband fuer Hunde/fuer Katzen", Beaphar, Control Product (CP)). Methods 232 (IVP) and 81 (CP) cats and 271(IVP) and 129 (CP) dogs were treated with either product according to label claims and formed the safety population. Flea and tick counts were conducted in monthly intervals for up to 8 months in the efficacy subpopulation consisting of 118 (IVP) + 47 (CP) cats and 197 (IVP) + 94 (CP) dogs. Efficacy was calculated as reduction of infestation rate within the same treatment group and statistically compared between the two treatment groups. Results Preventive efficacy against fleas in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 97.4%/94.1% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.3%/96.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 57.1%/28.2% and 96.1%/67.8% (overall mean: 79.3%/57.9%). Preventive efficacy against ticks in cats/dogs varied in the IVP group between 94.0%/91.2% and 100%/100% (overall mean: 98.4%/94.7%) throughout the 8 month period and in the CP group between 90.7%/79.9% and 100%/88.0% (overall mean: 96.9%/85.6%). The IVP group was statistically non-inferior to the CP group, and on various assessment days, statistical superiority was proven for flea and tick count reduction in dogs and cats. Both treatments proved to be safe in dogs and cats with mainly minor local observations at the application site. There was moreover, no incidence of any mechanical problem with the collar in dogs and cats during the entire study period. Conclusions The imidacloprid/flumethrin collar proved to reduce tick counts by at least 90% and flea counts by at least 95% for a period of at least 7-8 months in cats and dogs

  14. A flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin prevents flea transmission of Bartonella henselae in cats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bartonella henselae is transmitted amongst cats by Ctenocephalides felis and is associated with multiple clinical syndromes in cats and people. In a previous study, monthly spot-on administration of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin was shown to block transmission of B. henselae amongst cats experimentally exposed to infected C. felis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether application of a flea and tick collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin would lessen C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8 months. Methods Specific pathogen free cats (n = 19) were housed in three adjoining enclosures that were separated by mesh to allow C. felis to pass among groups but prevent cats in different enclosures from contacting one another. One group of 4 cats was inoculated intravenously with B. henselae and after infection was confirmed in all cats based on positive PCR assay results, the cats were housed in the middle enclosure. The B. henselae infected cat group was flanked by a group of 8 cats that had the collar placed and maintained for the duration of the study and a group of 7 cats that were not treated. Ctenocephalides felis (50 males and 50 females) raised in an insectary were placed on each of the 4 cats in the B. henselae infected group monthly for 7 applications and then every 2 weeks for 4 applications starting the day the collar was applied. Blood was collected from all cats weekly for Bartonella spp. PCR, serology and culture. Results While side-effects associated with the collars were not noted, persistent fever necessitating enrofloxacin therapy occurred in two of the untreated cats. While B. henselae infection was ultimately confirmed in 4 of 7 of the untreated cats, none of the cats with collars became infected (P = 0.026). Conclusions In this study design, use of a collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin was well tolerated and prevented C. felis transmission of B. henselae amongst cats for 8

  15. Correction of Distributed Optical Aberrations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Olivier, S; Carrano, C; Phillion, D

    2006-02-12

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the use of multiple distributed deformable mirrors (DMs) to improve the performance of optical systems with distributed aberrations. This concept is expected to provide dramatic improvement in the optical performance of systems in applications where the aberrations are distributed along the optical path or within the instrument itself. Our approach used multiple actuated DMs distributed to match the aberration distribution. The project developed the algorithms necessary to determine the required corrections and simulate the performance of these multiple DM systems.

  16. Correcting Illumina data.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Michael; Ilie, Lucian

    2015-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies revolutionized the ways in which genetic information is obtained and have opened the door for many essential applications in biomedical sciences. Hundreds of gigabytes of data are being produced, and all applications are affected by the errors in the data. Many programs have been designed to correct these errors, most of them targeting the data produced by the dominant technology of Illumina. We present a thorough comparison of these programs. Both HiSeq and MiSeq types of Illumina data are analyzed, and correcting performance is evaluated as the gain in depth and breadth of coverage, as given by correct reads and k-mers. Time and memory requirements, scalability and parallelism are considered as well. Practical guidelines are provided for the effective use of these tools. We also evaluate the efficiency of the current state-of-the-art programs for correcting Illumina data and provide research directions for further improvement.

  17. 75 FR 68405 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ...'' (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. C1-2010-27668 Filed 11-5-10; 8:45 am] Billing Code 1505-01-D ..., 2010--Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Correction...

  18. 78 FR 73377 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    .... Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia''. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. C1-2013...--Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Correction In...

  19. Correcting Hubble Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

  20. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  1. Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidar, Daniel A.; Brun, Todd A.

    2013-09-01

    Prologue; Preface; Part I. Background: 1. Introduction to decoherence and noise in open quantum systems Daniel Lidar and Todd Brun; 2. Introduction to quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 3. Introduction to decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems Daniel Lidar; 4. Introduction to quantum dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 5. Introduction to quantum fault tolerance Panos Aliferis; Part II. Generalized Approaches to Quantum Error Correction: 6. Operator quantum error correction David Kribs and David Poulin; 7. Entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes Todd Brun and Min-Hsiu Hsieh; 8. Continuous-time quantum error correction Ognyan Oreshkov; Part III. Advanced Quantum Codes: 9. Quantum convolutional codes Mark Wilde; 10. Non-additive quantum codes Markus Grassl and Martin Rötteler; 11. Iterative quantum coding systems David Poulin; 12. Algebraic quantum coding theory Andreas Klappenecker; 13. Optimization-based quantum error correction Andrew Fletcher; Part IV. Advanced Dynamical Decoupling: 14. High order dynamical decoupling Zhen-Yu Wang and Ren-Bao Liu; 15. Combinatorial approaches to dynamical decoupling Martin Rötteler and Pawel Wocjan; Part V. Alternative Quantum Computation Approaches: 16. Holonomic quantum computation Paolo Zanardi; 17. Fault tolerance for holonomic quantum computation Ognyan Oreshkov, Todd Brun and Daniel Lidar; 18. Fault tolerant measurement-based quantum computing Debbie Leung; Part VI. Topological Methods: 19. Topological codes Héctor Bombín; 20. Fault tolerant topological cluster state quantum computing Austin Fowler and Kovid Goyal; Part VII. Applications and Implementations: 21. Experimental quantum error correction Dave Bacon; 22. Experimental dynamical decoupling Lorenza Viola; 23. Architectures Jacob Taylor; 24. Error correction in quantum communication Mark Wilde; Part VIII. Critical Evaluation of Fault Tolerance: 25. Hamiltonian methods in QEC and fault tolerance Eduardo Novais, Eduardo Mucciolo and

  2. An overview of correctional psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel

    2006-09-01

    Supermax facilities may be an unfortunate and unpleasant necessity in modern corrections. Because of the serious dangers posed by prison gangs, they are unlikely to disappear completely from the correctional landscape any time soon. But such units should be carefully reserved for those inmates who pose the most serious danger to the prison environment. Further, the constitutional duty to provide medical and mental health care does not end at the supermax door. There is a great deal of common ground between the opponents of such environments and those who view them as a necessity. No one should want these expensive beds to be used for people who could be more therapeutically and safely managed in mental health treatment environments. No one should want people with serious mental illnesses to be punished for their symptoms. Finally, no one wants these units to make people more, instead of less, dangerous. It is in everyone's interests to learn as much as possible about the potential of these units for good and for harm. Corrections is a profession, and professions base their practices on data. If we are to avoid the most egregious and harmful effects of supermax confinement, we need to understand them far better than we currently do. Though there is a role for advocacy from those supporting or opposed to such environments, there is also a need for objective, scientifically rigorous study of these units and the people who live there.

  3. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  4. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    PubMed

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection). PMID:24554231

  5. KNOWLEDGE OF HEPATITIS B AND VACCINATION STATUS OF SOME EXPATRIATE ETHNIC GROUPS OF BLUE COLLAR WORKERS IN NORTHERN SAUDI ARABIA

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Satter; Al-Sweilem, Maisa; Akturk, Zekeriya

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find out the level of knowledge and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue color workers. Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665) living in four main areas along the Northern Borders of Saudi Arabia was completed in 2005. We examined knowledge of HBV and vaccination status and compared them with some socio-demographic factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 45.61 years (±8.44), 53% of whom were Non-Arabs (Non Arabic speaking). Of the total, 41.6% gave seven or more correct answers out of 12 questions addressing knowledge about the transmission and sequelae of HBV. Almost 40% of the respondents had not been vaccinated while the remaining respondents had had three full doses of vaccination. A high level of knowledge (≥ 7 correct answers) was significantly associated (p<0.05) with higher level of education, vaccination status, ethnic groups, occupation, age, marital status, and the time spent in Saudi Arabia. Income and type of accommodation were not associated (p>0.05) with level of knowledge. However, vaccination status was associated (p<0.05) with almost all socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: Hepatitis screening programs for expatriates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia started 10 years ago and are expected to have a great impact on the combat against HBV infections and their complications. However, beyond screening, health promotion, vaccination campaigns, and access to vaccine for the underprivileged classes are some necessary measures towards achieving success. PMID:23012171

  6. Hierarchical modeling of an invasive spread: The eurasian collared-dove streptopelia decaocto in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bled, F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Cam, E.

    2011-01-01

    Invasive species are regularly claimed as the second threat to biodiversity. To apply a relevant response to the potential consequences associated with invasions (e.g., emphasize management efforts to prevent new colonization or to eradicate the species in places where it has already settled), it is essential to understand invasion mechanisms and dynamics. Quantifying and understanding what influences rates of spatial spread is a key research area for invasion theory. In this paper, we develop a model to account for occupancy dynamics of an invasive species. Our model extends existing models to accommodate several elements of invasive processes; we chose the framework of hierarchical modeling to assess site occupancy status during an invasion. First, we explicitly accounted for spatial structure and how distance among sites and position relative to one another affect the invasion spread. In particular, we accounted for the possibility of directional propagation and provided a way of estimating the direction of this possible spread. Second, we considered the influence of local density on site occupancy. Third, we decided to split the colonization process into two subprocesses, initial colonization and recolonization, which may be ground-breaking because these subprocesses may exhibit different relationships with environmental variations (such as density variation) or colonization history (e.g., initial colonization might facilitate further colonization events). Finally, our model incorporates imperfection in detection, which might be a source of substantial bias in estimating population parameters. We focused on the case of the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and its invasion of the United States since its introduction in the early 1980s, using data from the North American BBS (Breeding Bird Survey). The Eurasian Collared-Dove is one of the most successful invasive species, at least among terrestrial vertebrates. Our model provided estimation of the

  7. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0 ± 26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2 ± 49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0 ± 50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  8. Patterns of smoking and its association with psychosocial work conditions among blue-collar and service employees of hospitality venues in Shenyang, PR China

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To characterize the smoking patterns of hospitality employees in blue-collar and service occupations, and to examine its relations with psychosocial work conditions. Methods The Shenyang Hospitality Industry Employees Survey-a face-to-face cross-sectional study of representative hospitality industry employees-was conducted between March and July 2008. A total of 4,213 workers were selected using stratified random cluster sampling designs, and final analyses were performed on 2,508 blue-collar and service subjects. Multilevel-logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of psychosocial work conditions to smoking status. Results Blue-collar and service employees smoked at a rate 1.4 times that of the general population (49.4% vs. 35.8%), more particularly for females (12.9% vs. 3.08%). Strain jobs had significantly higher odds ratio of daily smoking (OR 2.09, 95%CI: 1.28-3.41) compared to the relaxed category. The passive jobs (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.27 to 3.17), highest job demands (OR 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61), and lowest job control (OR 2.56, 95%CI: 1.57-4.16) were also associated with a significantly higher daily smoking ratio. The negative relationship between job stability and smoking behavior was slightly stronger among daily than occasional smokers. However, neither job strain nor any of its components was found to be significantly associated with occasional smoking. Conclusions Smoking in hospitality blue-collar and service employees is certainly a major occupational health problem in Shenyang. This evidence also suggests an association between psychosocial-work conditions and smoking status, and implies that more intervention studies where changes in work environment are carried out in combination with health promotion interventions should be performed. PMID:20102639

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  10. Genetic Mapping in a Natural Population of Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): Conserved Synteny but Gene Order Rearrangements on the Avian Z Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Backström, Niclas; Brandström, Mikael; Gustafsson, Lars; Qvarnström, Anna; Cheng, Hans; Ellegren, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Data from completely sequenced genomes are likely to open the way for novel studies of the genetics of nonmodel organisms, in particular when it comes to the identification and analysis of genes responsible for traits that are under selection in natural populations. Here we use the draft sequence of the chicken genome as a starting point for linkage mapping in a wild bird species, the collared flycatcher—one of the most well-studied avian species in ecological and evolutionary research. A pedigree of 365 flycatchers was established and genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms in 23 genes selected from (and spread over most of) the chicken Z chromosome. All genes were also found to be located on the Z chromosome in the collared flycatcher, confirming conserved synteny at the level of gene content across distantly related avian lineages. This high degree of conservation mimics the situation seen for the mammalian X chromosome and may thus be a general feature in sex chromosome evolution, irrespective of whether there is male or female heterogamety. Alternatively, such unprecedented chromosomal conservation may be characteristic of most chromosomes in avian genome evolution. However, several internal rearrangements were observed, meaning that the transfer of map information from chicken to nonmodel bird species cannot always assume conserved gene orders. Interestingly, the rate of recombination on the Z chromosome of collared flycatchers was only ∼50% that of chicken, challenging the widely held view that birds generally have high recombination rates. PMID:16783008

  11. Absolute and allometric relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the adult collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1986-01-01

    Selected morphological features of 8 adult male and 8 adult female collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) shot from southern Texas during March 1983 are described. A total of 16 adult peccaries with an average body mass of 18.68 +/- 0.61 (SE) Kg was examined. Significant differences between males and females were observed for absolute and relative mass of liver and lungs, and relative heart mass. These visceral organs were heavier among females than males. Significant sex effects were also found for absolute and relative mass of the dorsal scent gland. The dorsal scent gland contributed twice as much to total body mass in males as in females. No sexual dimorphisms of the gastrointestinal tract were noted. Females had a significantly greater portion of total visceral fat deposited around the kidneys than did males. Relative mass of the mandible was significantly greater in males than in females. Adult males had extremely large accessory sex glands. The bulbourethral and seminal vesicle glands comprised 0.27 per cent of the total body mass. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (eyes, b = 0.34) to well above (seminal vesicles, b = 1.87) unity. Growth coefficients of lungs, kidneys, pituitary gland, and thyroid gland during adulthood greatly exceeded respective values in developing nurslings.

  12. Variation in positively selected major histocompatibility complex class I loci in rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis).

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew R; Cheviron, Zachary A; Carling, Matthew D

    2014-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a highly variable family of genes involved in parasite recognition and the initiation of adaptive immune system responses. Variation in MHC loci is maintained primarily through parasite-mediated selection or disassortative mate choice. To characterize MHC diversity of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis), an abundant South American passerine, we examined allelic and nucleotide variation in MHC class I exon 3 using pyrosequencing. Exon 3 comprises a substantial portion of the peptide-binding region (PBR) of class I MHC and thus plays an important role in intracellular pathogen defense. We identified 98 putatively functional alleles that produce 56 unique protein sequences across at least 6 paralogous loci. Allelic diversity per individual and exon-wide nucleotide diversity were relatively low; however, we found specific amino acid positions with high nucleotide diversity and signatures of positive selection (elevated d N /d S ) that may correspond to the PBR. Based on the variation in physicochemical properties of amino acids at these "positively selected sites," we identified ten functional MHC supertypes. Spatial variation in nucleotide diversity and the number of MHC alleles, proteins, and supertypes per individual suggests that environmental heterogeneity may affect patterns of MHC diversity. Furthermore, populations with high MHC diversity have higher prevalence of avian malaria, consistent with parasite-mediated selection on MHC. Together, these results provide a framework for subsequent investigations of selective agents acting on MHC in Z. capensis. PMID:25186067

  13. Testosterone and its effects on courtship in golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus): seasonal, sex, and age differences.

    PubMed

    Day, Lainy B; Fusani, Leonida; Hernandez, Estefanía; Billo, Timothy J; Sheldon, Kimberly S; Wise, Petra M; Schlinger, Barney A

    2007-01-01

    Male golden-collared manakins gather on leks and perform an acrobatic display to attract females. In temperate breeding species, testosterone (T) activation of courtship displays has been well studied. Few studies have examined T activation of displays in tropical species; even fewer have explored the activational role of T in elaborate courtship displays such as in the manakin. In some tropical species, including manakins, territorial aggression or song behavior are uncoupled from T. We have previously shown that T activates display behavior in manakin males when endogenous T levels are low in the non-courtship season. To understand how T functions in breeding birds, we examined T levels in a large group of manakins sampled during the courtship and non-courtship season. In addition, during the courtship season, we gave T implants to adult males, juvenile males, and females. We found that T levels were low during the non-courtship season and comparatively higher on average during the courtship season. However, T levels were low in many adult males during the courtship season, especially when compared to temperate breeding species. Regardless of initial endogenous T levels during the courtship season, T implants did not increase the display frequency of adult males. T-treated females and juvenile males did display under similar conditions. Our data suggest that the effects of T on manakin display vary with season, sex, and age and that high T is not necessary for display. PMID:17022984

  14. Adaptations for rapid and forceful contraction in wing muscles of the male golden-collared manakin: sex and species comparisons.

    PubMed

    Schultz, J D; Hertel, F; Bauch, M; Schlinger, B A

    2001-11-01

    The courtship display of the male golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests is noteworthy for several types of whip-crack-like sounds created by a rapid overhead flip of the wings. We have hypothesized that this courtship behavior. which is not performed by females, is associated with steroid-sensitive and sexually dimorphic neuromuscular systems. Presumably, muscles creating the motion of the wingsnap in males are specialized for greater force generation and speed of contraction. We tested this hypothesis by examining mass, fiber diameter, metabolic enzyme activity, and myosin isoform expression in several muscles of male and female manakins and in both sexes of a non-wingsnapping bird, the zebra finch (Taenopygia guttata). We have identified three wing muscles, the scapulohumeralis caudalis, the supracoracoideus, and the pectoralis major, that differ in one or more of these characteristics across sex and species, suggesting they are specialized for faster contraction and greater force production in male manakins. These muscles normally function to raise and lower the wings during flight. As this movement is the principal motion of the wingsnap, these adaptations presumably underlie the performance of the wingsnap display. PMID:11778830

  15. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  16. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen.

  17. Antioxidant defense response induced by Trichoderma viride against Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem causing collar rot in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.).

    PubMed

    Gajera, H P; Katakpara, Zinkal A; Patel, S V; Golakiya, B A

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to examine the antioxidant enzymes induced by Trichoderma viride JAU60 as initial defense response during invasion of rot pathogen Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem in five groundnut varieties under pot culture. Seed treatment of T. viride JAU60 reduced 51-58% collar rot disease incidence in different groundnut varieties under pathogen infected soil culture. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, EC 1.11.1.7) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), elevated in response to pathogen infection, in higher rate by tolerant varieties (J-11 and GG-2) compared with susceptible (GAUG-10, GG-13, GG-20) and further induced by T. viride treatment. Trichoderma treatment remarkably increased the 2.3 fold SOD, 5 fold GPX and 2.5 fold APX activities during disease development in tolerant varieties and the same was found about 1.2, 1.5 and 2.0 folds, respectively, in susceptible varieties. Overall, T. viride JAU60 treated seedlings (T3) witnessed higher activities of SOD (1.5 fold), GPX (3.25 fold) and APX (1.25 fold) than pathogen treatment (T2) possibly suggest the induction of antioxidant defense response by Trichoderma bio-controller to combat oxidative burst produced by invading pathogen. PMID:26620080

  18. Alternative Use of DNA Binding Domains by the Neurospora White Collar Complex Dictates Circadian Regulation and Light Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Zhou, Xiaoying; Loros, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    In the Neurospora circadian system, the White Collar complex (WCC) of WC-1 and WC-2 drives transcription of the circadian pacemaker gene frequency (frq), whose gene product, FRQ, as a part of the FRQ-FRH complex (FFC), inhibits its own expression. The WCC is also the principal Neurospora photoreceptor; WCC-mediated light induction of frq resets the clock, and all acute light induction is triggered by WCC binding to promoters of light-induced genes. However, not all acutely light-induced genes are also clock regulated, and conversely, not all clock-regulated direct targets of WCC are light induced; the structural determinants governing the shift from WCC's dark circadian role to its light activation role are poorly described. We report that the DBD region (named for being defective in binding DNA), a basic region in WC-1 proximal to the DNA-binding zinc finger (ZnF) whose function was previously ascribed to nuclear localization, instead plays multiple essential roles assisting in DNA binding and mediating interactions with the FFC. DNA binding for light induction by the WCC requires only WC-2, whereas DNA binding for circadian functions requires WC-2 as well as the ZnF and DBD motif of WC-1. The data suggest a means by which alterations in the tertiary and quaternary structures of the WCC can lead to its distinct functions in the dark and in the light. PMID:26711258

  19. Job satisfaction, common cold, and sickness absence among white-collar employees: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Takahashi, Masaya; Irie, Masahiro; Ray, Tapas; Swanson, Naomi G

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the independent association of job satisfaction with common cold and sickness absence among Japanese workers. A total of 307 apparently healthy white-collar employees (165 men and 142 women), aged 22-69 (mean 36) yr, completed a questionnaire survey during April to June, 2002. Global job satisfaction was measured by a 4-item scale from the Japanese version of a generic job stress questionnaire with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction. Information about whether the employees had a common cold (within the past 6 months) and sickness absence (within the past 12 months) was self-reported. Hierarchical log-linear Poisson regression analysis controlling for confounders revealed that greater job satisfaction was inversely correlated with days (B = -0.116; p<0.001) and times (B = -0.058; p = 0.067) of common cold and days (B = -0.160; p<0.001) and times (B = -0.141; p<0.001) of sickness absence. Our findings suggested that poor job satisfaction is associated with both common cold and sickness absence.

  20. Integrated plumage colour variation in relation to body condition, reproductive investment and laying date in the collared flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Laczi, Miklós; Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Kiss, Dorottya; Markó, Gábor; Nagy, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2013-10-01

    The possible integration of different sexual ornaments into a composite system, and especially the information content of such ornament complexes, is poorly investigated. Many bird species display complex plumage coloration, but whether this represents one integrated or several independent sexual traits can be unclear. Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) display melanised and depigmented plumage areas, and the spectral features (brightness and UV chroma) of these are correlated with each other across the plumage. In a 5-year dataset of male and female plumage reflectance, we examined some of the potential information content of integrated, plumage-level colour attributes by estimating their relationships to previous and current year body condition, laying date and clutch size. Females were in better condition the year before they became darker pigmented, and males in better current year condition were also darker pigmented. Female pigment-based brightness was positively, while male structurally based brightness was negatively related to current laying date. Finally, the overall UV chroma of white plumage areas in males was positively associated with current clutch size. Our results show that higher degree of pigmentation is related to better condition, while the structural colour component is associated with some aspects of reproductive investment. These results highlight the possibility that correlated aspects of a multiple plumage ornamentation system may reflect together some aspects of individual quality, thereby functioning as a composite signal.

  1. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birn, J.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Elphinstone, R. D.; Stern, D. P.

    1991-01-01

    The boundary between open and closed field lines is investigated in the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) magnetic field model. All field lines extending to distances beyond -70 R(E), the tailward velocity limit of the Tsyganenko model are defined as open, while all other field lines, which cross the equatorial plane earthward of -70 R(E) and are connected with the earth at both ends, are assumed closed. It is found that this boundary at the surface of the earth, identified as the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the sun, which is found in horse collar auroras. For increasing activity levels, the polar cap increases in area and becomes rounder, so that the arrowhead shape is less pronounced. The presence of a net B(y) component can also lead to considerable rounding of the open flux region. The arrowhead shape is found to be closely associated with the increase of B(z) from the midnight region to the flanks of the tail, consistent with a similar increase of the plasma sheet thickness.

  2. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds.

  3. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds. PMID:23207299

  4. Karyometry: Correction algorithm for differences in staining

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Peter H.; Bartels, Hubert G.; Alberts, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An algorithm is described which allows the correction of differences in staining of histopathologic sections while preserving chromatin texture. Methods In order to preserve the texture of the nuclear chromatin in the corrected digital imagery, it is necessary to correct the images pixel for pixel. This is accomplished by mapping each pixel’s value onto the cumulative frequency distribution of the data set to which the image belongs, to transfer to the cumulative frequency distribution of the data set serving as standard, and to project the intersection down onto the pixel optical density scale for the corrected value. Results Feature values in the corrected imagery, for the majority of features used in karyometry, are between less than one percent and a few percent of the feature values in standard imagery. For some higher order statistical features involving multiple pixels, sensitivity to a shift in the cumulative frequency distribution may exist, and a secondary small correction by a factor may be required. Conclusions The correction algorithm allows the elimination of the effects of small staining differences on karyometric analysis. PMID:19402382

  5. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  6. Corrections and clarifications.

    PubMed

    1994-11-11

    The 1994 and 1995 federal science budget appropriations for two of the activities were inadvertently transposed in a table that accompanied the article "Hitting the President's target is mixed blessing for agencies" by Jeffrey Mervis (News & Comment, 14 Oct., p. 211). The correct figures for Defense Department spending on university research are $1.460 billion in 1994 and $1.279 billion in 1995; for research and development at NASA, the correct figures are $9.455 billion in 1994 and $9.824 billion in 1995.

  7. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angle are distorted by the earth's atmosphere. High precision refraction correction equations are presented which are ideally suited for surveying because their inputs are optically measured range and optically measured elevation angle. The outputs are true straight line range and true geometric elevation angle. The 'short distances' used in surveying allow the calculations of true range and true elevation angle to be quickly made using a programmable pocket calculator. Topics covered include the spherical form of Snell's Law; ray path equations; and integrating the equations. Short-, medium-, and long-range refraction corrections are presented in tables.

  8. Internal voltages and currents in well-shielded cylindrical objects due to stimulated direct-strike lightning

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Warne, L.K.; Kostas, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of cylindrical tests objects of generic interest were tested to simulated severe direct-strike lightning with the intent of bounding possible internal voltages due to joint leakage and currents through low-impedance loads due to diffusion. All the test objects would normally be considered to be high-quality Faraday shields. The highest voltage recorded was 21 V, which was developed across a flange-and-collar joint in a steel cylinder driven longitudinally by a test current of /approximately/160 kA peak. A simple circuit model of the symmetric diffusion process, valid over the frequency range of lightning, is given. 4 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Mizzon, V; Siragusa, C; D'Oorazi, A; Gradoni, L

    2001-12-01

    Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin

  10. Learning Object Repositories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  11. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  12. Issues in Correctional Training and Casework. Correctional Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolford, Bruce I., Ed.; Lawrenz, Pam, Ed.

    The eight papers contained in this monograph were drawn from two national meetings on correctional training and casework. Titles and authors are: "The Challenge of Professionalism in Correctional Training" (Michael J. Gilbert); "A New Perspective in Correctional Training" (Jack Lewis); "Reasonable Expectations in Correctional Officer Training:…

  13. Training for Corrections: Rationale and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency and Corrections.

    A manual focuses on how to teach in inservice training programs for professional personnel in correctional agencies. A chapter on rationale discusses training objectives and curriculum. A second chapter covers learning environment, lesson plans, and learning problems. One, on teaching techniques, covers lecture, group discussion, case study,…

  14. College Curriculum for Correctional Instructional Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium C, Houston, TX.

    The project objective was to gather data for the purpose of identifying the scope and sequence of activities needed by instructional personnel in Texas correctional settings to meet the needs of students in a multidisciplinary setting. Six questionnaires were developed and administered to seven different sample groups: inmates, parolees, teachers,…

  15. Contingency Management in a Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    1971-01-01

    The individually prescribed instruction (IPI) system in use at Draper Correctional Center was studied. The IPI system for basic education involves five operations: (1) establishing the learning objectives--basic literacy, educational skills prerequisite for occupational training, preparation for the GED high school equivalency examination, etc.,…

  16. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  17. Space charge stopband correction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.

    2005-09-01

    It is speculated that the space charge effect cause beam emittance growth through the resonant envelope oscillation. Based on this theory, we propose an approach, called space charge stopband correction, to reduce such emittance growth by compensation of the half-integer stopband width of the resonant oscillation. It is illustrated with the Fermilab Booster model.

  18. Counselor Education for Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsigian, Linda

    Counselor education programs most often prepare their graduates to work in either a school setting, anywhere from the elementary level through higher education, or a community agency. There is little indication that counselor education programs have seriously undertaken the task of training counselors to enter the correctional field. If…

  19. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  20. 75 FR 68409 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2010-14 of September 3, 2010--Unexpected Urgent Refugee And... on page 67015 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On page 67015, the Presidential Determination number should read ``2010-14'' (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc....

  1. 75 FR 68407 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2010-12 of August 26, 2010--Unexpected Urgent Refugee and... beginning on page 67013 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On page 67013, the Presidential Determination number should read ``2010-12'' (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc....

  2. Corrected Entropy Law for Charged and Rotating Black Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizwan, Muhammad

    2016-08-01

    The primary objective in this work is to study the corrected entropy law for charged and rotating black strings in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. By employing, the Hamilton-Jacobi approach, fermions tunneling beyond semiclassical approximation is investigated. The correction has been done by taking the proportionality parameters of quantum correction of action I i to the semiclassical action I 0 as 2 π times the inverse of the black string horizon area. Moreover, with the aid of corrected Hawking temperature we finally compute the corrected area law, which includes the logarithmic term and inverse area terms.

  3. Colonization from divergent ancestors: glaciation signatures on contemporary patterns of genomic variation in Collared Pikas (Ochotona collaris).

    PubMed

    Lanier, Hayley C; Massatti, Rob; He, Qixin; Olson, Link E; Knowles, L Lacey

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the genetic structure of a species and the factors that drive it is an important first step in modern population management, in part because populations evolving from separate ancestral sources may possess potentially different characteristics. This is especially true for climate-sensitive species such as pikas, where the delimitation of distinct genetic units and the characterization of population responses to contemporary and historical environmental pressures are of particular interest. We combined a restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq) data set containing 4156 single nucleotide polymorphisms with ecological niche models (ENMs) of present and past habitat suitability to characterize population composition and evaluate the effects of historical range shifts, contemporary climates and landscape factors on gene flow in Collared Pikas, which are found in Alaska and adjacent regions of northwestern Canada and are the lesser-studied of North America's two pika species. The results suggest that contemporary environmental factors contribute little to current population connectivity. Instead, genetic diversity is strongly shaped by the presence of three ancestral lineages isolated during the Pleistocene (~148 and 52 kya). Based on ENMs and genetic data, populations originating from a northern refugium experienced longer-term stability, whereas both southern lineages underwent population expansion - contradicting the southern stability and northern expansion patterns seen in many other taxa. Current populations are comparable with respect to generally low diversity within populations and little-to-no recent admixture. The predominance of divergent histories structuring populations implies that if we are to understand and manage pika populations, we must specifically assess and accurately account for the forces underlying genetic similarity. PMID:26096099

  4. Telencephalic aromatase but not a song circuit in a sub-oscine passerine, the golden collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Saldanha, C J; Schultz, J D; London, S E; Schlinger, B A

    2000-06-01

    In oscine passerines, the telencephalon expresses high levels of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase. In contrast, forebrain aromatase is limited to low levels at discrete limbic loci in non-passerines. The function of forebrain aromatase in oscines is unknown, however, estrogen-sensitive elements of the telencephalic song circuit (an oscine characteristic) may be influenced by local aromatization. Very few studies have investigated the neuroendocrine characteristics of sub-oscine passerines. Species of this passerine sub-order are taxonomically similar to oscines, but do not appear to learn how to sing as oscines, and show no evidence of a song circuit. The neural expression of aromatase in these birds is unknown. We asked whether the golden-collared manakin, a sub-oscine, (a) showed evidence of a song circuit, and (b) expressed aromatase in the telencephalon at high levels like the zebra finch (oscine passerine) or at low levels like the quail (non-passerine). Nissl stains and immunocytochemistry for microtubule associated proteins showed no evidence of a song circuit in manakins of either sex, whereas both techniques delineate all song nuclei in the zebra finch. However, biochemical and immunocytochemical measures reveal that in the manakin, several telencephalic loci, including the hippocampus, caudomedial neostriatum, nucleus taeniae, and the lateral neostriatum express aromatase. Assays run in parallel show low to undetectable levels of aromatase in the telencephalon of the quail (nonpasserine) and abundant levels in the zebra finch (oscine passerine), suggesting a dissociation between the presence of a song circuit and forebrain aromatase expression in this sub-oscine. These data suggest that forebrain aromatase may have evolved in sub-oscine songbirds before the evolution of a song circuit and singing behavior in oscines. Alternatively, forebrain aromatase may serve functions distinct from singing behavior. PMID:11025342

  5. Male-male competition and parental care in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis): an experiment controlling for differences in territory quality.

    PubMed

    Qvarnström, A; Grifffith, S C; Gustafsson, L

    2000-12-22

    Females are known to benefit from mate choice in several different ways but the relationship between these benefits has received little attention. The quality of resources provided by males, such as nest sites, and paternal care are often assumed to covary positively However, because the location of the nest affects the cost of parental care, these two benefits from mate choice can easily be confounded. To investigate the provisioning ability of successful competitors while controlling for differences in territory quality we removed early-settled pairs of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) and allowed replacement by later-arriving males or floaters (i.e.'poor competitors'). A control group of early-settled males (i.e. 'good competitors') had their females removed. Females paired to good competitors enjoyed a significantly higher reproductive success and tended to receive more parental assistance from their mates compared with females mated to poor competitors. Thus, some males seem able not only to compete successfully over resources but also to feed their offspring at a relatively higher rate. An alternative explanation, that poor competitors invested less in offspring quality in response to a lower share of paternity, could be rejected. The rate of extra-pair paternity did not differ between the two treatment groups. Our results suggest that male- male competition can sometimes facilitate female choice of superior care-givers. Thus, a female's benefit from choosing a competitive male may not be restricted to the quality of the resource he defends but can also include superior paternal care. PMID:11197133

  6. On open and closed field line regions in Tsyganenko's field model and their possible associations with horse collar auroras

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J.; Hones, E.W. Jr. ); Craven, J.D.; Frank, L.A. ); Elphinstone, R.D. ); Stern, D.P. )

    1991-03-01

    Using the empirical Tsyganenko (1987) long model as a prime example of a megnetospheric field model, the authors have attempted to identify the boundary between open and closed field lines. They define as closed all field lines that are connested with the Earth at both ends and cross the equatorial plane earthward of x = {minus}70 R{sub E}, the tailward validity limit of the Tsyganenko model. They find that the form of the open/closed boundary at the Earth's surface, identified with the polar cap boundary, can exhibit the arrowhead shape, pointed toward the Sun, observed in horse collar auroras (Hones et al., 1989). The polar cap size in the Tsyganenko model increases with increasing K{sub p} values, and it becomes rounder and less pointed. The superposition of a net B{sub y} field, which is the expected consequence of an IMF B{sub y}, rotates the polar cap pattern and, for larger values, degrades the arrowhead shape, resulting in polar cap configurations consistent with known asymmetries in the aurora. The pointedness of the polar cap shape also diminishes or even completely disappears if the low-latitude magnetopause is assumed open and located considerably inside of the outermost magnetic flux surface in the Tsyganenko model. The arrowhead shape of the polar cap is found to be associated with a strong increase of B{sub z} from midnight toward the tail flanks, which is observed independently, and is possibly related to the NBZ field-aligned current system, observed during quiet times and strongly northward IMF B{sub z}. The larger B{sub z} values near the flanks of the tail cause more magnetic flux to close through these regions than through the midnight equatorial region.

  7. Aberration corrected emittance exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, E. A.; Graves, W. S.

    2015-08-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (rf) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by multiple orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dogleg emittance exchange setup with a five cell rf deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of an EEX line with emittances differing by four orders of magnitude, i.e., an initial transverse emittance of 1 pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of 10 nm-rad.

  8. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  9. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  10. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  11. MULTIPLE SEGMENTAL OSTEOTOMIES TO THE KYPHOSIS CORRECTION

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Herrero, Carlos Fernando Pereira; Porto, Maximiliano Aguiar; Barbosa, Marcello Henrique Nogueira; Defino, Helton Luiz Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the results of the surgical treatment of the spinal Kyphosis using the Ponte's technique (multiple posterior osteotomies). Methods: Ten patients (8 with Scheuermann's kyphosis and 2 with kyphosis after laminectomy) submitted to surgical correction of kyphotic deformity greater than 70° were retrospectively assessed. The age at the surgical time ranged from 12 to 20 years old (mean age16.8 years ± 2.89). The radiographic parameters evaluated were the kyphosis, the lordosis and the scoliosis – whenever present. The presence of proximal and distal junctional kyphosis, loss of correction, and complications as implants loosening and breakage were also assessed. The radiographic parameters were evaluated at the preoperative, early postoperative and late postoperative time. Results: The patients were followed through a period that ranged from 24 to 144 months (65.8 ±39.92). The mean value of the kyphosis was 78.8° ± 7.59° (Cobb) before surgery and 47.5° ± 12.54° at late follow up, with mean correction of 33.9° ± 9.53° and lost correction of 2.2°. Conclusion: The surgical treatment of the thoracic kyphosis using multiples posterior osteotomies presented a good correction of the deformity and minimal lost of correction during follow up. PMID:27077062

  12. Zoom microscope objective using electrowetting lenses.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Di; Liu, Chao; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2016-02-01

    We report a zoom microscope objective which can achieve continuous zoom change and correct the aberrations dynamically. The objective consists of three electrowetting liquid lenses and two glass lenses. The magnification is changed by applying voltages on the three electrowetting lenses. Besides, the three electrowetting liquid lenses can play a role to correct the aberrations. A digital microscope based on the proposed objective is demonstrated. We analyzed the properties of the proposed objective. In contrast to the conventional objectives, the proposed objective can be tuned from ~7.8 × to ~13.2 × continuously. For our objective, the working distance is fixed, which means no movement parts are needed to refocus or change its magnification. Moreover, the zoom objective can be dynamically optimized for a wide range of wavelength. Using such an objective, the fabrication tolerance of the optical system is larger than that of a conventional system, which can decrease the fabrication cost. The proposed zoom microscope objective cannot only take place of the conventional objective, but also has potential application in the 3D microscopy. PMID:26906860

  13. From object structure to object function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlateva, Stoyanka D.; Vaina, Lucia M.

    1991-03-01

    In this paper we provide a mathematical support for the nature of the shape representation methods useful for the computation of possible functions of an objects as derived from its shape structure. We discuss the concepts of parts and subparts of objects in the framework of axis based shape representation methods and boundary based methods. We propose a new method for obtaining descriptions of parts which based on a theorem from differential geometry (Pogorelov 1974) that any regular surface can be approximated in a finite environment with a given accuracy by a parabolloid of one of the following types - elliptic, hyperbolic and a parabolloid degenerating into a plane or a parabolic cylinder. Based on these considerations we suggest a heuristic for the approximation of convex object parts by a polyhedra, cylinder, ellipsoid or generalized cone with straight axis depending on the presence of plane, parabolic, elliptic subsets in their boundary, and nonconvex object parts by generalized cones with curved axis. This approach allows to obtain a primitive based shape description after the decomposition of the object shape through the more general boundary-based methods. We present examples of decomposing and describing shapes of common objects in terms of their parts, subparts and associated features.

  14. [Usefulness of attenuation correction with transmission source in myocardial SPECT].

    PubMed

    Murakawa, Keizo; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Nishimura, Yoshihiro; Enomoto, Naoyuki; Sago, Masayoshi; Oka, Hisashi

    2006-01-20

    Attenuation correction in SPECT has been used for uniformly absorptive objects like the head. On the other hand, it has seldom been applied to nonuniform absorptive objects like the heart and surrounding lungs because of the difficulty and inaccuracy of data processing. However, since attenuation correction using a transmission source recently became practical, we were able to apply this method to a nonuniform absorptive object. Therefore, we evaluated the usefulness of this attenuation correction system with a transmission source in myocardial SPECT. The dose linearity, defect/normal ratio using a myocardial phantom, and myocardial count distribution in clinical cases was examined with and without the attenuation correction system. We found that all data processed with attenuation correction were better than those without attenuation correction. For example, in myocardial count distribution, while there was a difference between men and women without attenuation correction, which was considered to be caused by differences in body shape, after processing with attenuation correction, myocardial count distribution was almost the same in all cases. In conclusion, these results suggested that attenuation correction with a transmission source was useful in myocardial SPECT.

  15. Maintenance of subjective health during a merger: the role of experienced change and pre-merger social support at work in white- and blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Ari; Pahkin, Krista; Kalimo, Raija; Buunk, Bram P

    2004-05-01

    Prospective research on psychosocial effects on employees' health associated with organizational mergers has been scarce. The first aim of this study was to explore the subjective health effects (exhaustion and functional incapacity) of an organizational merger among employees who had experienced a change in their own job position differently (improved, unaltered, and declined). Secondly, the effects of pre-merger social support (organizational, supervisor, and coworkers) at work on the experienced change in job position and on subjective health were examined. The merger took place in 1999 between two multinational firms of equal size. The study is based on two surveys (n=2,225) carried out in 1996 and in 2000 in the Finnish part of the company. The data on age, sex, pre-merger sickness absence (1996-98) and subjective health status (1996) were used as covariates. The results indicate that all sources of social support had a significant effect on the experience of change in one's job position. A decline in job position strongly increased the risk of poor subjective health after the merger. Weak organizational support was associated with impaired subjective health, especially in blue-collar workers, while weak supervisor support impaired functional capacity in white-collar workers. In turn, strong co-workers' support increased the risk of poor subjective health among blue-collar workers when their job position declined. We conclude that negative changes experienced in one's job position and lack of upper-level social support at work create a potential risk for health impairment in different employee groups in merging enterprises.

  16. 40 CFR 258.56 - Assessment of corrective measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.56... appendix II to this part have been detected at a statistically significant level exceeding the ground-water... potential corrective measures in meeting all of the requirements and objectives of the remedy as...

  17. 40 CFR 258.56 - Assessment of corrective measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Ground-Water Monitoring and Corrective Action § 258.56... appendix II to this part have been detected at a statistically significant level exceeding the ground-water... potential corrective measures in meeting all of the requirements and objectives of the remedy as...

  18. A Classroom Research Study on Oral Error Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    This study has the main objective to present the findings of a small-scale classroom research carried out to collect data about my spoken error correction behaviors by means of self-observation. With this study, I aimed to analyze how and which spoken errors I corrected during a specific activity in a beginner's class. I used Lyster and Ranta's…

  19. Onboard image correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. R.; Smaulon, A. S.; Hamori, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    A processor architecture for performing onboard geometric and radiometric correction of LANDSAT imagery is described. The design uses a general purpose processor to calculate the distortion values at selected points in the image and a special purpose processor to resample (calculate distortion at each image point and interpolate the intensity) the sensor output data. A distinct special purpose processor is used for each spectral band. Because of the sensor's high output data rate, 80 M bit per second, the special purpose processors use a pipeline architecture. Sizing has been done on both the general and special purpose hardware.

  20. Timebias corrections to predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Roger; Gibbs, Philip

    1993-01-01

    The importance of an accurate knowledge of the time bias corrections to predicted orbits to a satellite laser ranging (SLR) observer, especially for low satellites, is highlighted. Sources of time bias values and the optimum strategy for extrapolation are discussed from the viewpoint of the observer wishing to maximize the chances of getting returns from the next pass. What is said may be seen as a commercial encouraging wider and speedier use of existing data centers for mutually beneficial exchange of time bias data.

  1. Rapid and sensitive detection of Sclerotium rolfsii associated with collar rot disease of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius by species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay.

    PubMed

    Pravi, V; Jeeva, M L; Archana, P V

    2014-09-01

    Collar rot disease caused by Sclerotium rolfsii is an economically important disease prevailing in all Amorphophallus growing areas. The pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. A nested PCR assay has been developed for specific detection of S. rolfsii in soil and planting material. The PCR detection limit was 10 pg in conventional assay whereas 0.1 pg in nested assay. The primers designed were found to be highly specific and could be used for accurate identification of pathogen up to species level. The protocol was standardized for detection of the pathogen in artificially and naturally infected field samples. PMID:24788585

  2. 4 CFR 22.20 - Mistakes and Corrections [Rule 20].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... giving them an opportunity to object. Such corrections will ordinarily be made either by hand with pen and ink or by the appending of an errata sheet, or the Board may require that the reporter...

  3. 4 CFR 22.20 - Mistakes and Corrections [Rule 20].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... giving them an opportunity to object. Such corrections will ordinarily be made either by hand with pen and ink or by the appending of an errata sheet, or the Board may require that the reporter...

  4. 4 CFR 22.20 - Mistakes and Corrections [Rule 20].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... giving them an opportunity to object. Such corrections will ordinarily be made either by hand with pen and ink or by the appending of an errata sheet, or the Board may require that the reporter...

  5. 4 CFR 22.20 - Mistakes and Corrections [Rule 20].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... giving them an opportunity to object. Such corrections will ordinarily be made either by hand with pen and ink or by the appending of an errata sheet, or the Board may require that the reporter...

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554: Area 23 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 554 is located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 554 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), which is: 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. This site consists of soil contamination resulting from a fuel release from underground storage tanks (USTs). Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 554. Corrective Action Site 23-02-08 will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 15, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; and contractor personnel. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 554.

  7. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  8. Complications of auricular correction

    PubMed Central

    Staindl, Otto; Siedek, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction. PMID:22073079

  9. Complications of auricular correction.

    PubMed

    Staindl, Otto; Siedek, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    The risk of complications of auricular correction is underestimated. There is around a 5% risk of early complications (haematoma, infection, fistulae caused by stitches and granulomae, allergic reactions, pressure ulcers, feelings of pain and asymmetry in side comparison) and a 20% risk of late complications (recurrences, telehone ear, excessive edge formation, auricle fitting too closely, narrowing of the auditory canal, keloids and complete collapse of the ear). Deformities are evaluated less critically by patients than by the surgeons, providing they do not concern how the ear is positioned. The causes of complications and deformities are, in the vast majority of cases, incorrect diagnosis and wrong choice of operating procedure. The choice of operating procedure must be adapted to suit the individual ear morphology. Bandaging technique and inspections and, if necessary, early revision are of great importance for the occurence and progress of early complications, in addition to operation techniques. In cases of late complications such as keloids and auricles that are too closely fitting, unfixed full-thickness skin flaps have proved to be the most successful. Large deformities can often only be corrected to a limited degree of satisfaction. PMID:22073079

  10. 43 CFR 1864.0-2 - Objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Objectives. 1864.0-2 Section 1864.0-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) CONVEYANCES, DISCLAIMERS AND CORRECTION DOCUMENTS Recordable Disclaimers of Interest in Land §...

  11. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  12. Population and movement characteristics of radio-collared striped skunks in North Dakota during an epizootic of rabies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Raymond J.; Newton, Wesley E.; Pearson, Gary L.; Schamber, George J.

    1997-01-01

    We observed a total of 102 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from March to July of both 1991 and 1992 in Stutsman County, North Dakota (USA) during an experiment with food supplementation. Twenty-three apparently healthy skunks in 1991 and 56 in 1992 were equipped with radio-collars. In 1991, one of the 23 was tested and found to be rabid. In 1992, 50 of 56 were tested; 35 (70%) were rabid. Of skunks with ages estimated, 19 (66%) of 29 were first year animals in 1991 compared with nine (22%) of 41 first year animals in 1992. All 18 females captured in 1991 were pregnant or parous compared with 21 (60%) of 35 in 1992. The estimated survival rate of skunks was 0.85 during April to June 1991, but only 0.17 during April to July 1992. In 1992, the survival rate of first year skunks was 0.08, compared with 0.35 for older animals. Eleven (31%) of 36 skunks found dead of rabies or in late clinical stage were located below ground. We detected no differences in 1992 between healthy and rabid skunks in estimated mean (±SE) rate of travel (232 ± 14 m/hr), distance traveled (2,047 ± 141 m/night), or home range size (1.6 ± 0.4 km2) during half-month periods from April through June. Among rabid skunks, mean rate of travel tended to decrease from 298 ± 48 m/hr during the 14 days preceding the clinical period of rabies (pre-clinical) to 174 ± 48 m/hr during the clinical period of rabies (14 days immediately before death). Similar decrease occurred in distance traveled in a night (2,318 ± 281 m, pre-clinical; 1,497 ± 281 m, clinical). Mean home range size of males (2.8 ± 0.4) was greater than of females (1.2 ± 0.4) during the pre-clinical period, but during the clinical period home range sizes of males (1.8 ± 0.4) and females (1.8 ± 0.4) were similar. Mean home range size of females did not differ between pre-clinical (1.2 ± 0.4) and clinical (1.8 ± 0.4) periods (P= 0.22). Deaths of skunks from rabies in 1992 tended to be more spatially clumped than expected had they

  13. Population and movement characteristics of radio-collared striped skunks in North Dakota during an epizootic of rabies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, R.J.; Newton, W.E.; Pearson, G.L.; Schamber, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    We observed a total of 102 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) from March to July of both 1991 and 1992 in Stutsman County, North Dakota (USA) during an experiment with food supplementation. Twenty-three apparently healthy skunks in 1991 and 56 in 1992 were equipped with radio-collars. In 1991, one of 23 was tested and found to be rabid. In 1992, 50 of 56 were tested; 35 (69%) were rabid. Of skunks with ages estimated, 19 (66%) of 29 were first year animals in 1991 compared with nine (22%) of 41 first year animals in 1992. All 18 females captured in 1991 were pregnant or parous compared with 21 (60%) of 35 in 1992. The estimated survival rate of skunks was 0.85 during April to June 1991, but only 0.17 during April to July 1992. In 1992, the survival rate of first year skunks was 0.08, compared with 0.35 for older animals. Eleven (31%) of 36 skunks found dead of rabies or in late clinical stage were located below ground. We detected no differences in 1992 between healthy and rabid skunks in estimated mean (i?? SE) rate of travel (232 i?? 14 m/hr), distance traveled (2047 i?? 141 m/night), or home range size (1.6 i?? 0.4 km2) during half-month periods from April through June. Among rabid skunks, mean (i?? SE) rate of travel tended to decrease from 298 i?? 48 m/hr during the 14 days preceding the clinical period of rabies (pre-clinical) to 174 i?? 48 m/hr during the clinical period of rabies (14 days immediately before death). Similar decrease occurred in mean (i?? SE) distance traveled in a night (2318 i?? 281 m, pre-clinical; 1497 i?? 281 m, clinical). Mean (i?? SE) home range size of males (2.8 i?? 0.4) was greater than of females (1.2 i?? 0.4) during the pre-clinical period, but during the clinical period home range sizes of males (1.8 i?? 0.4) and females (1.8 i?? 0.4) were similar. Mean (i?? SE) home range size of females did not differ between pre-clinical (1.2 i?? 0.4) and clinical (1.8 i?? 0.4) periods (P = 0.22). Deaths of skunks from rabies in 1992 tended to

  14. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  15. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  16. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  17. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  18. Political Correctness and Cultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses political correctness and cultural studies, dealing with cultural studies and the left, the conservative assault on cultural studies, and political correctness in the university. Describes some of the underlying changes in the university, largely unaddressed in the political correctness debate, that provide the deep structure to the…

  19. Job Satisfaction in Correctional Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Ron J.

    For more than a decade, correctional leaders throughout the country have attempted to come to grips with the basic issues involved in ascertaining and meeting the needs of correctional institutions. This study investigated job satisfaction in 122 correctional officers employed in both rural and urban prison locations for the State of Kansas…

  20. Yearbook of Correctional Education 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen, Ed.

    This yearbook contains conference papers, commissioned papers, reprints of earlier works, and research-in-progress. They offer a retrospective view as well as address the mission and perspective of correctional education, its international dimension, correctional education in action, and current research. Papers include "Correctional Education and…

  1. Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay

    1997-01-01

    A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.

  2. Electronic measurement correction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mahns, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement; but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical integrating instruments. This paper takes a brief look at some of the features of the newcomers on the market and how they stack up against the old standby mechanical base volume/pressure/temperature correctors.

  3. Blue-Collar Blues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamps, David

    1998-01-01

    As the shortage of skilled workers reached crisis proportions in the metalworking trades, employers must scramble to beef up internal training efforts and to rebuild a strained relationship with vocational schools. (Author)

  4. Radicals and Roman Collars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Lauren; And Others

    A sociological study of students at Loyola University at the time of their protest regarding Kent State University and Cambodia revealed a wealth of factors regarding intergenerational conflict among Catholics. The majority of students supported the leaders and active participants of the political demonstration, and also approved of smoking…

  5. Rethinking political correctness.

    PubMed

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  6. Objectives and Preparing Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purohit, Anal A.; Bober, Kenneth F.

    1984-01-01

    The concepts behind, and construction of, specific behavioral objectives are examined as steps that are preliminary to evaluating student performance through tests. A taxonomy of educational objectives and guidelines in preparing them are outlined in detail. (MSE)

  7. Structural analysis of the collar of the Vredefort Dome, South Africa—Significance for impact-related deformation and central uplift formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, Frank; Gibson, Roger L.; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Landsat TM, aerial photograph image analysis, and field mapping of Witwatersrand supergroup meta-sedimentary strata in the collar of the Vredefort Dome reveals a highly heterogeneous internal structure involving folds, faults, fractures, and melt breccias that are interpreted as the product of shock deformation and central uplift formation during the 2.02 Ga Vredefort impact event. Broadly radially oriented symmetric and asymmetric folds with wavelengths ranging from tens of meters to kilometers and conjugate radial to oblique faults with strike-slip displacements of, typically, tens to hundreds of meters accommodated tangential shortening of the collar of the dome that decreased from ˜17% at a radius from the dome center of 21 km to <5% at a radius of 29 km. Ubiquitous shear fractures containing pseudotachylitic breccia, particularly in the metapelitic units, display local slip senses consistent with either tangential shortening or tangential extension; however, it is uncertain whether they formed at the same time as the larger faults or earlier, during the shock pulse. In addition to shatter cones, quartzite units show two fracture types—a cmspaced rhomboidal to orthogonal type that may be the product of shock-induced deformation and later joints accomplishing tangential and radial extension. The occurrence of pseudotachylitic breccia within some of these later joints, and the presence of radial and tangential dikes of impact melt rock, confirm the impact timing of these features and are suggestive of late-stage collapse of the central uplift.

  8. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Burr, Tom; Favalli, Andrea; Nicholson, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of 238U and 235U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar - Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of 235U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  9. Anesthetized- and awake-patched whole-cell recordings in freely moving rats using UV-cured collar-based electrode stabilization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doyun; Shtengel, Gleb; Osborne, Jason E; Lee, Albert K

    2014-12-01

    Intracellular recording allows precise measurement and manipulation of individual neurons, but it requires stable mechanical contact between the electrode and the cell membrane, and thus it has remained challenging to perform in behaving animals. Whole-cell recordings in freely moving animals can be obtained by rigidly fixing ('anchoring') the pipette electrode to the head; however, previous anchoring procedures were slow and often caused substantial pipette movement, resulting in loss of the recording or of recording quality. We describe a UV-transparent collar and UV-cured adhesive technique that rapidly (within 15 s) anchors pipettes in place with virtually no movement, thus substantially improving the reliability, yield and quality of freely moving whole-cell recordings. Recordings are first obtained from anesthetized or awake head-fixed rats. UV light cures the thin adhesive layers linking pipette to collar to head. Then, the animals are rapidly and smoothly released for recording during unrestrained behavior. The anesthetized-patched version can be completed in ∼4-7 h (excluding histology) and the awake-patched version requires ∼1-4 h per day for ∼2 weeks. These advances should greatly facilitate studies of neuronal integration and plasticity in identified cells during natural behaviors. PMID:25375992

  10. Sperm characteristics following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Souza, Ana Liza Paz; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; Peixoto, Gislayne Christianne Xavier; de Souza Castelo, Thibério; Oliveira, Maria Glaucia Carlos; de Paula, Valéria Veras; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare sperm quality characteristics of the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) following freezing in extenders supplemented with whole egg yolk and different concentrations of low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Semen from 11 adult males was obtained by electroejaculation and evaluated for sperm motility, vigor, morphology as well as membrane integrity analyzed by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test and a fluorescent staining. Moreover, the semen was diluted in a Tris-based extender containing 20% egg yolk (control group) or 5, 10 or 20% LDL (treatment groups). The semen samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed in a water bath for 60s at 37°C. The treatments did not affect (p>0.05) sperm vigor, morphology or membrane integrity analyzed by the HOS test. However, post-thaw sperm motility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (36.4 ± 5.3%) compared with the egg yolk extender and extender supplemented with 10% LDL. Furthermore, the percentage of membrane-intact frozen-thawed spermatozoa analyzed by the fluorescent staining was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the extender supplemented with 20% LDL (27.4 ± 6.5%) than in the other groups. In conclusion, 20% LDL can be used to substitute the whole egg yolk as a cryoprotective additive for freezing semen of the collared peccary.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a transport model of radionuclide release

  12. Direct manipulation of virtual objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Long K.

    Interacting with a Virtual Environment (VE) generally requires the user to correctly perceive the relative position and orientation of virtual objects. For applications requiring interaction in personal space, the user may also need to accurately judge the position of the virtual object relative to that of a real object, for example, a virtual button and the user's real hand. This is difficult since VEs generally only provide a subset of the cues experienced in the real world. Complicating matters further, VEs presented by currently available visual displays may be inaccurate or distorted due to technological limitations. Fundamental physiological and psychological aspects of vision as they pertain to the task of object manipulation were thoroughly reviewed. Other sensory modalities -- proprioception, haptics, and audition -- and their cross-interactions with each other and with vision are briefly discussed. Visual display technologies, the primary component of any VE, were canvassed and compared. Current applications and research were gathered and categorized by different VE types and object interaction techniques. While object interaction research abounds in the literature, pockets of research gaps remain. Direct, dexterous, manual interaction with virtual objects in Mixed Reality (MR), where the real, seen hand accurately and effectively interacts with virtual objects, has not yet been fully quantified. An experimental test bed was designed to provide the highest accuracy attainable for salient visual cues in personal space. Optical alignment and user calibration were carefully performed. The test bed accommodated the full continuum of VE types and sensory modalities for comprehensive comparison studies. Experimental designs included two sets, each measuring depth perception and object interaction. The first set addressed the extreme end points of the Reality-Virtuality (R-V) continuum -- Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) and Reality Environment (RE). This

  13. Ownership and Object History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  14. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  15. Survivability via Control Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  16. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  17. On the Crime Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  18. The Language of Objection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.

    2010-01-01

    Whenever the author talks to audiences about transforming school systems, without exception people raise objections. The half dozen most common objections often come in the form of "Yes, nice idea but..." What follows the "but" is the objection. The author learned a technique for responding to these "buts" from family members who work in sales.…

  19. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

  20. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  1. Neural subsystems for object knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hart, J; Gordon, B

    1992-09-01

    Critical issues in the cognitive neuroscience of language are whether there are multiple systems for the representation of meaning, perhaps organized by processing system (such as vision or language), and whether further subsystems are distinguishable within these larger ones. We describe here a patient (K.R.) with cerebral damage whose pattern of acquired deficits offers direct evidence for a major division between visually based and language-based higher-level representations, and for processing subsystems within language. K.R. could not name animals regardless of the type of presentation (auditory or visual), but had no difficulty naming other living things and objects. When asked to describe verbally the physical attributes of animals (for example, 'what colour is an elephant?'), she was strikingly impaired. Nevertheless, she could distinguish the correct physical attributes of animals when they were presented visually (she could distinguish animals that were correctly coloured from those that were not). Her knowledge of input stimulus. To explain this selective deficit, these data mandate the existence of two distinct representations of such properties in normal individuals, one visually based and one language-based. Furthermore, these data establish that knowledge of physical attributes is strictly segregated from knowledge of other properties in the language system.

  2. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  3. Acquiring functional object knowledge through motor imagery?

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; van Elk, Michiel; Bekkering, Harold

    2012-04-01

    A widely investigated question in the research on the acquisition of novel functional object representations is the role of the action system. Whereas most studies so far have investigated the role of active action training on the acquisition of object representation, we investigated whether people are able to acquire object representations by just imagining the use of novel objects, given that previous findings suggested that executed and imagined actions share a common representational format. To this end, participants trained the use of novel objects in a motor imagery condition. Training comprised the particular grip applied to the objects and the objects' typical end location. Subsequently, participants' object representations were assessed by means of an object detection task. The results show that participants responded slower when the novel objects were presented at functionally incorrect end locations, indicating that the participants had acquired functional knowledge about object use. Yet, there was no effect of correct versus incorrect grip. Altogether, the findings suggest that motor imagery can facilitate the acquisition of novel object representations, but point also to differences between first-hand action training and training by imagery.

  4. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  5. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  6. Correction of Gradient Nonlinearity Artifacts in Prospective Motion Correction for 7T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yarach, U.; Luengviriya, C.; Danishad, K.A.; Stucht, D.; Godenschweger, F.; Schulze, P.; Speck, O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the effect of gradient nonlinearity and develop a method for correction of gradient non-linearity artifacts in prospective motion correction (Mo-Co). Methods Non-linear gradients can induce geometric distortions in MRI, leading to pixel shifts with errors of up to several millimeters, thereby interfering with precise localization of anatomical structures. Prospective Mo-Co has been extended by conventional gradient warp correction applied to individual phase encoding steps/groups during the reconstruction. The gradient-related displacements are approximated using Spherical Harmonic (SPH) functions. In addition, the combination of this method with a retrospective correction of the changes in the coil sensitivity profiles relative to the object (augmented SENSE) was evaluated in simulation and experimental data. Results Prospective Mo-Co under gradient fields and coils sensitivity inconsistencies results in residual blurring, spatial distortion, and coil sensitivity mismatch artifacts. These errors can be considerably mitigated by the proposed method. High image quality with very little remaining artifacts was achieved after a few iterations. The relative image errors decreased from 25.7% to below 17.3% after 10 iterations. Conclusion The combined correction of gradient non-linearity and sensitivity map variation leads to a pronounced reduction of residual motion artifacts in prospectively motion-corrected data. PMID:24798889

  7. Correcting pretentious pronouns.

    PubMed

    Eoyang, T; Henderson, L; Ward, T

    1999-01-01

    If pronouns following prepositions or verbs sound lofty or pretentious, they probably are. Without attention to grammar rules, nurse authors and editors can make common mistakes by selecting the wrong form of the pronoun. Pronouns following prepositions and transitive verbs should be the objective form of the pronoun, not the subjective form. These experienced editors describe the rule, suggest a quick-fix tip, and provide several practice items followed by answers.

  8. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  9. 78 FR 52601 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Koloman Moser”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Koloman Moser'' ACTION: Notice....'' The referenced notice is corrected here to include additional objects as part of the exhibition... additional objects to be included in the exhibition ``Koloman Moser,'' imported from abroad for...

  10. From following edges to pursuing objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Guillaume S.; Stone, Leland S.

    2002-01-01

    Primates can generate accurate, smooth eye-movement responses to moving target objects of arbitrary shape and size, even in the presence of complex backgrounds and/or the extraneous motion of non-target objects. Most previous studies of pursuit have simply used a spot moving over a featureless background as the target and have thus neglected critical issues associated with the general problem of recovering object motion. Visual psychophysicists and theoreticians have shown that, for arbitrary objects with multiple features at multiple orientations, object-motion estimation for perception is a complex, multi-staged, time-consuming process. To examine the temporal evolution of the motion signal driving pursuit, we recorded the tracking eye movements of human observers to moving line-figure diamonds. We found that pursuit is initially biased in the direction of the vector average of the motions of the diamond's line segments and gradually converges to the true object-motion direction with a time constant of approximately 90 ms. Furthermore, transient blanking of the target during steady-state pursuit induces a decrease in tracking speed, which, unlike pursuit initiation, is subsequently corrected without an initial direction bias. These results are inconsistent with current models in which pursuit is driven by retinal-slip error correction. They demonstrate that pursuit models must be revised to include a more complete visual afferent pathway, which computes, and to some extent latches on to, an accurate estimate of object direction over the first hundred milliseconds or so of motion.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 145: Wells and Storage Holes, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-09-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 145: Wells and Storage Holes. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental samples. Corrective Action Unit 145 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 145 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-20-01, Core Storage Holes; (2) 03-20-02, Decon Pad and Sump; (3) 03-20-04, Injection Wells; (4) 03-20-08, Injection Well; (5) 03-25-01, Oil Spills; and (6) 03-99-13, Drain and Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. One conceptual site model with three release scenario components was developed for the six CASs to address all releases associated with the site. The sites will be investigated based on data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 24, 2004, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQOs process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 145.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-07-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 321, Weather Station Fuel Storage, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 321 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 22, and consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS) 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This CAS contains a fuel storage area approximately 325 by 540 feet, which was used to store fuel and other petroleum products necessary for motorized operations at the historical Camp Desert Rock facility, which was operational from 1951 to 1958. The corrective action investigation conducted in February 1999 found the only contaminant of concern above preliminary action levels to be total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics at two sample locations. During this investigation, the two corrective action objectives identified were (1) to prevent or mitigate exposure to near-surface soil containing contaminants of concern, and (2) to prevent spread of contaminants of concern beyond the corrective action unit. Based on the corrective action objectives, the two corrective action alternatives developed for consideration were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. The two alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors, and the preferred corrective action alternative chosen on technical merit, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety was Alternative 2. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Weather Station Fuel Storage site.

  13. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  14. Propelling Extended Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  15. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 546 is located in Areas 6 and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 546 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: •06-23-02, U-6a/Russet Testing Area •09-20-01, Injection Well These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 8, 2007, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process has been used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 546.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 560 is located in Areas 3 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 560 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 03-51-01, Leach Pit • 06-04-02, Septic Tank • 06-05-03, Leach Pit • 06-05-04, Leach Bed • 06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System • 06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond • 06-59-05, Control Point Septic System These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 22, 2008, by representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 560.

  17. Moving Object Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method is provided for controlling two objects relatively moveable with respect to each other. A plurality of receivers are provided for detecting a distinctive microwave signal from each of the objects and measuring the phase thereof with respect to a reference signal. The measured phase signal is used to determine a distance between each of the objects and each of the plurality of receivers. Control signals produced in response to the relative distances are used to control the position of the two objects.

  18. In Situ Mosaic Brightness Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deen, Robert G.; Lorre, Jean J.

    2012-01-01

    In situ missions typically have pointable, mast-mounted cameras, which are capable of taking panoramic mosaics comprised of many individual frames. These frames are mosaicked together. While the mosaic software applies radiometric correction to the images, in many cases brightness/contrast seams still exist between frames. This is largely due to errors in the radiometric correction, and the absence of correction for photometric effects in the mosaic processing chain. The software analyzes the overlaps between adjacent frames in the mosaic and determines correction factors for each image in an attempt to reduce or eliminate these brightness seams.

  19. QCD corrections to triboson production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazopoulos, Achilleas; Melnikov, Kirill; Petriello, Frank

    2007-07-01

    We present a computation of the next-to-leading order QCD corrections to the production of three Z bosons at the Large Hadron Collider. We calculate these corrections using a completely numerical method that combines sector decomposition to extract infrared singularities with contour deformation of the Feynman parameter integrals to avoid internal loop thresholds. The NLO QCD corrections to pp→ZZZ are approximately 50% and are badly underestimated by the leading order scale dependence. However, the kinematic dependence of the corrections is minimal in phase space regions accessible at leading order.

  20. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential ϕ. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.