Science.gov

Sample records for objective correction collar

  1. Improving signal levels in intravital multiphoton microscopy using an objective correction collar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muriello, Pamela A.; Dunn, Kenneth W.

    2008-04-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has enabled biologists to collect high-resolution images hundreds of microns into biological tissues, including tissues of living animals. While the depth of imaging exceeds that possible from any other form of light microscopy, multiphoton microscopy is nonetheless generally limited to depths of less than a millimeter. Many of the advantages of multiphoton microscopy for deep tissue imaging accrue from the unique nature of multiphoton fluorescence excitation. However, the quadratic relationship between illumination level and fluorescence excitation makes multiphoton microscopy especially susceptible to factors that degrade the illumination focus. Here we examine the effect of spherical aberration on multiphoton microscopy in fixed kidney tissues and in the kidneys of living animals. We find that spherical aberration, as evaluated from axial asymmetry in the point-spread function, can be corrected by adjustment of the correction collar of a water immersion objective lens. Introducing a compensatory positive spherical aberration into the imaging system decreases the depth-dependence of signal levels in images collected from living animals, increasing signal by up to 50%.

  2. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd

  3. Management by Objectives: A Corrections Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConkie, Mark L.

    The handbook was designed as a guide to help correctional personnel obtain better results in their work by applying the principles of Management by Objectives (MBO). It describes methods of development and processes of implementation of MBO in the correctional setting. The first chapter defines management by objectives and illustrates that it can…

  4. Subjects and Objects in Modern Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the medical model and the current cognitive model in corrections are based on a subject-object relationship between keepers and prisoners. Suggests approaches to correctional rehabilitation that facilitate transformations in prisoners' lives by relating to them as subjects rather than as objects. (JOW)

  5. [Parameters influencing the preclinical application of cervical collars].

    PubMed

    Kreinest, M; Goller, S; Rauch, G; Gliwitzky, B; Frank, C; Matschke, S; Wölfl, C G; Münzberg, M

    2016-06-29

    The application of cervical collars is a standard procedure in emergency care of trauma patients. It is often observed that the application of cervical collars is performed incorrectly, which may lead to reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of professional emergency care providers concerning the application of cervical collars. Emergency care professionals (n = 104) were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll. Each performance step was assessed separately. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. The study participants included professional rescue personnel and emergency physicians. The average occupational experience of all study participants in out-of-hospital emergency care was 11.1 ± 8.9 years. Most participants had already received training on trauma care (61 %) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84 %). The application of the cervical collar was performed correctly in 11 % of the performances. The most common error was incorrect size adjustment of the cervical collar (66 %). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and possible parameters of influence, such as working experience in emergency care or participation in trauma courses. Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study shows that there are general deficits in the practical skills of applying cervical collars. Therefore, a critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must be demanded.

  6. Differences between work and leisure in temporal patterns of objectively measured physical activity among blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Gupta, Nidhi; Korshøj, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-09-28

    Leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is generally associated with favorable cardiovascular health outcomes, while occupational physical activity (OPA) shows less clear, or even opposite, cardiovascular effects. This apparent paradox is not sufficiently understood, but differences in temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA have been suggested as one explanation. Our aim was to investigate the extent to which work and leisure (non-occupational time) differ in temporal activity patterns among blue-collar workers, and to assess the modification of these patterns by age and gender. This study was conducted on a cross-sectional sample of male (n = 108) and female (n = 83) blue-collar workers, aged between 21 and 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk for four consecutive days. Temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA were retrieved using Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA), and expressed in terms of percentage of work and leisure time spent in uninterrupted periods of different durations (<1 min, 1-5 min, 5-10 min, 10-30 min, 30-60 min and > 60 min) of sitting, standing, and walking. Repeated measures ANOVA and linear regression analyses were used to test a) possible differences between OPA and LTPA in selected EVA derivatives, and b) the modification of these differences by age and gender. OPA showed a larger percentage time walking in brief (<5 min) periods [mean (SD): 33.4 % (12.2)], and less time in prolonged (>30 min) sitting [7.0 % (9.3)] than LTPA [walking 15.4 % (5.0); sitting 31.9 % (15.3)], even after adjustment for the difference between work and leisure in total time spent in each activity type. These marked differences in the temporal pattern of OPA and LTPA were modified by gender, but not age. We found that the temporal patterns of OPA and LTPA among blue-collar workers were markedly different even after adjustment for total physical activity time, and that this

  7. Are forward bending of the trunk and low back pain associated among Danish blue-collar workers? A cross-sectional field study based on objective measures.

    PubMed

    Villumsen, Morten; Samani, Afshin; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Gupta, Nidhi; Madeleine, Pascal; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between the duration of objectively measured forward bending of the trunk and low back pain (LBP) intensity among 198 Danish blue-collar workers (male = 115; female = 83). The duration of forward bending of ≥ 30°, ≥ 60° and ≥ 90° was divided into high (the highest tertile) and low-moderate (the remaining tertiles) categories. High (>5) and low ( ≤ 5) pain intensities were categorised from a self-reported 0-9 scale. Results of multi-adjusted logistic regressions indicated no significant positive associations between forward bending and LBP intensity. On the contrary, higher duration of forward bending of ≥ 30° was associated with lower LBP intensity during all day (OR = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-1.02; p = 0.05) and work (OR = 0.44; 95% CI, 0.17-1.15; p = 0.09). This indication of a negative association may be explained by fear-avoidance behaviour of the blue-collar worker, job crafting or healthy worker effect.

  8. Application of Cervical Collars – An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers

    PubMed Central

    Kreinest, Michael; Goller, Sarah; Rauch, Geraldine; Frank, Christian; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Wölfl, Christoph G.; Matschke, Stefan; Münzberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars. Material and Methods Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. Results The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8%) and emergency physicians (12.5%). The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61%) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%). 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians) or the participation in certified trauma courses. Conclusion Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded. PMID:26587650

  9. Application of Cervical Collars - An Analysis of Practical Skills of Professional Emergency Medical Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Kreinest, Michael; Goller, Sarah; Rauch, Geraldine; Frank, Christian; Gliwitzky, Bernhard; Wölfl, Christoph G; Matschke, Stefan; Münzberg, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The application of a cervical collar is a standard procedure in trauma patients in emergency medicine. It is often observed that cervical collars are applied incorrectly, resulting in reduced immobilization of the cervical spine. The objective of this study was to analyze the practical skills of trained professional rescue personnel concerning the application of cervical collars. Within emergency medical conferences, n = 104 voluntary test subjects were asked to apply a cervical collar to a training doll, wherein each step that was performed received an evaluation. Furthermore, personal and occupational data of all study participants were collected using a questionnaire. The test subjects included professional rescue personnel (80.8%) and emergency physicians (12.5%). The average occupational experience of all study participants in pre-clinical emergency care was 11.1±8.9 years. Most study participants had already attended a certified training on trauma care (61%) and felt "very confident" in handling a cervical collar (84%). 11% applied the cervical collar to the training doll without errors. The most common error consisted of incorrect adjustment of the size of the cervical collar (66%). No association was found between the correct application of the cervical collar and the occupational group of the test subjects (trained rescue personnel vs. emergency physicians) or the participation in certified trauma courses. Despite pronounced subjective confidence regarding the application of cervical collars, this study allows the conclusion that there are general deficits in practical skills when cervical collars are applied. A critical assessment of the current training contents on the subject of trauma care must, therefore, be demanded.

  10. Adaptive deformation correction of depth from defocus for object reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Tjahjadi, Tardi; Staunton, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The accuracy of three-dimensional object reconstruction using depth from defocus (DfD) can be severely reduced by elliptical lens deformation. This paper presents two correction methods, correction by deformation cancellation (CDC) and correction by least squares fit (CLSF). CDC works by subtracting the current deformed depth value by a prestored deformed value, and CLSF by mapping the deformed values to the expected values. Each method is followed by a smoothing algorithm to address the low-texture problem of DfD. Experiments using four DfD methods on real images show that the proposed methods effectively and efficiently eliminate the deformation.

  11. Correction of bias in belt transect studies of immotile objects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, D.R.; Pospahala, R.S.

    1970-01-01

    Unless a correction is made, population estimates derived from a sample of belt transects will be biased if a fraction of, the individuals on the sample transects are not counted. An approach, useful for correcting this bias when sampling immotile populations using transects of a fixed width, is presented. The method assumes that a searcher's ability to find objects near the center of the transect is nearly perfect. The method utilizes a mathematical equation, estimated from the data, to represent the searcher's inability to find all objects at increasing distances from the center of the transect. An example of the analysis of data, formation of the equation, and application is presented using waterfowl nesting data collected in Colorado.

  12. Quantum correction to classical gravitational interaction between two polarizable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Puxun; Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-12-01

    When gravity is quantized, there inevitably exist quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations which induce quadrupole moments in gravitationally polarizable objects and produce a quantum correction to the classical Newtonian interaction between them. Here, based upon linearized quantum gravity and the leading-order perturbation theory, we study, from a quantum field-theoretic prospect, this quantum correction between a pair of gravitationally polarizable objects treated as two-level harmonic oscillators. We find that the interaction potential behaves like r-11 in the retarded regime and r-10 in the near regime. Our result agrees with what were recently obtained in different approaches. Our study seems to indicate that linearized quantum gravity is robust in dealing with quantum gravitational effects at low energies.

  13. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  14. Iterative Beam Hardening Correction for Multi-Material Objects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunsong; Li, Mengfei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an iterative beam hardening correction method that is applicable for the case with multiple materials. By assuming that the materials composing scanned object are known and that they are distinguishable by their linear attenuation coefficients at some given energy, the beam hardening correction problem is converted into a nonlinear system problem, which is then solved iteratively. The reconstructed image is the distribution of linear attenuation coefficient of the scanned object at a given energy. So there are no beam hardening artifacts in the image theoretically. The proposed iterative scheme combines an accurate polychromatic forward projection with a linearized backprojection. Both forward projection and backprojection have high degree of parallelism, and are suitable for acceleration on parallel systems. Numerical experiments with both simulated data and real data verifies the validity of the proposed method. The beam hardening artifacts are alleviated effectively. In addition, the proposed method has a good tolerance on the error of the estimated x-ray spectrum.

  15. Prototype Stilbene Neutron Collar

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, M. K.; Shumaker, D.; Snyderman, N.; Verbeke, J.; Wong, J.

    2016-10-26

    A neutron collar using stilbene organic scintillator cells for fast neutron counting is described for the assay of fresh low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies. The prototype stilbene collar has a form factor similar to standard He-3 based collars and uses an AmLi interrogation neutron source. This report describes the simulation of list mode neutron correlation data on various fuel assemblies including some with neutron absorbers (burnable Gd poisons). Calibration curves (doubles vs 235U linear mass density) are presented for both thermal and fast (with Cd lining) modes of operation. It is shown that the stilbene collar meets or exceeds the current capabilities of He-3 based neutron collars. A self-consistent assay methodology, uniquely suited to the stilbene collar, using triples is described which complements traditional assay based on doubles calibration curves.

  16. Abrasion Collar Around Shrapnel Entry Wound.

    PubMed

    Gujaral, Pootheril Balan; Ajay, Balachandran

    2017-02-28

    Abrasion collar is usually described as a feature of bullet entry wounds caused by friction and indentation. The present case is that of the peculiar entry wound caused by a piece of flying shrapnel which was ejected from a furnace in a steel plant. The scrap metal which exploded in the plant was sourced from the West Asia region. The entry wound on the chest was circular and had an abrasion collar around it. The projectile was a cylindrical object of obscure origin. The forensic science laboratory put forth the possibility that the projectile was a component of an artillery fuze. A decades old study which employed high-speed photography has rejected the possibility that abrasion collars are produced by friction. High-velocity projectiles other than bullets can also produce abrasion collars as the rubbing of the bullet against the skin or its rotation are not the causative mechanisms.

  17. Computer correction of turbulent distortions of image of extended objects on near-Earth paths

    SciTech Connect

    Averin, A P; Morozov, Yu B; Pryanichkov, V S; Tyapin, V V

    2011-05-31

    An algorithm of computer-based correction of images of extended objects distorted by turbulent atmosphere is developed. The method of computer correction is used to correct a distorted image of an extended object on a horizontal 2300-m-long observation path. The angular size of the corrected-image region was 15'. (image processing)

  18. Testing VHF/GPS collar design and safety in the study of free-roaming horses.

    PubMed

    Collins, Gail H; Petersen, Steven L; Carr, Craig A; Pielstick, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness.

  19. Testing VHF/GPS Collar Design and Safety in the Study of Free-Roaming Horses

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Gail H.; Petersen, Steven L.; Carr, Craig A.; Pielstick, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Effective and safe monitoring techniques are needed by U.S. land managers to understand free-roaming horse behavior and habitat use and to aid in making informed management decisions. Global positioning system (GPS) and very high frequency (VHF) radio collars can be used to provide high spatial and temporal resolution information for detecting free-roaming horse movement. GPS and VHF collars are a common tool used in wildlife management, but have rarely been used for free-roaming horse research and monitoring in the United States. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the design, safety, and detachment device on GPS/VHF collars used to collect free-roaming horse location and movement data. Between 2009 and 2010, 28 domestic and feral horses were marked with commercial and custom designed VHF/GPS collars. Individual horses were evaluated for damage caused by the collar placement, and following initial observations, collar design was modified to reduce the potential for injury. After collar modifications, which included the addition of collar length adjustments to both sides of the collar allowing for better alignment of collar and neck shapes, adding foam padding to the custom collars to replicate the commercial collar foam padding, and repositioning the detachment device to reduce wear along the jowl, we observed little to no evidence of collar wear on horses. Neither custom-built nor commercial collars caused injury to study horses, however, most of the custom-built collars failed to collect data. During the evaluation of collar detachment devices, we had an 89% success rate of collar devices detaching correctly. This study showed that free-roaming horses can be safely marked with GPS and/or VHF collars with minimal risk of injury, and that these collars can be a useful tool for monitoring horses without creating a risk to horse health and wellness. PMID:25198704

  20. Boron-Coated Straw Collar for Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design and optimize, in simulation space, an active neutron coincidence counter (or collar) using boron-coated straws (BCSs) as a non-3He replacement to the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL). UNCL has been used by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) since the 1980s to verify the 235U content in fresh light water reactor fuel assemblies for safeguards purposes. This report documents the design and optimization of the BCS collar.

  1. Restraint collars. Part I: Elizabethan collars and other types of restraint collars.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cyndi

    2006-02-01

    Restraint collars can provide an investigator with a noninvasive means to prevent certain undesirable behaviors and provide a clinician with a nonpharmaceutical method to prevent an animal from inflicting self-injury; without proper use and monitoring, however, these collars can do more harm than good. This first part of our look at restraint collars introduces collar types and proper use. Next month's installment will review specific issues associated with the use of different types of collars for different species.

  2. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  3. Collar crack of birch

    Treesearch

    Alex L. Shigo

    1964-01-01

    The name "Collar crack" is suggested for a condition of birches observed in the past 4 years during field studies of forest disease problems in the White Mountains of New Hampshire. The first close observations of this condition were made during the summer of 1963. This is a report on those observations and an explanation of the possible cause.

  4. From white-collar crime to red-collar crime

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Richard G.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. Design/methodology/approach The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. Practical implications The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. Originality/value The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes. PMID:25414590

  5. From white-collar crime to red-collar crime.

    PubMed

    Brody, Richard G; Kiehl, Kent A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of violence with respect to white-collar criminals. The analysis is conceptual, focusing on the historical underpinnings of white-collar crime and reviewing the evolution of white-collar criminals. Findings suggest that white-collar criminals do display violent tendencies and, contrary to popular belief, can become dangerous individuals. The paper represents an extremely useful and practical source for fraud examiners and other white-collar crime investigators. Raising the mvareness of investigators dealing with white-collar criminals may prevent them from becoming victims of a violent act. The paper fulfills a need to highlight a dangerous trend with white-collar criminals in that they may be driven to violence against those involved in investigating their crimes.

  6. Object files across eye movements: Previous fixations affect the latencies of corrective saccades.

    PubMed

    Schut, Martijn J; Fabius, Jasper H; Van der Stoep, Nathan; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    One of the factors contributing to a seamless visual experience is object correspondence-that is, the integration of pre- and postsaccadic visual object information into one representation. Previous research had suggested that before the execution of a saccade, a target object is loaded into visual working memory and subsequently is used to locate the target object after the saccade. Until now, studies on object correspondence have not taken previous fixations into account. In the present study, we investigated the influence of previously fixated information on object correspondence. To this end, we adapted a gaze correction paradigm in which a saccade was executed toward either a previously fixated or a novel target. During the saccade, the stimuli were displaced such that the participant's gaze landed between the target stimulus and a distractor. Participants then executed a corrective saccade to the target. The results indicated that these corrective saccades had lower latencies toward previously fixated than toward nonfixated targets, indicating object-specific facilitation. In two follow-up experiments, we showed that presaccadic spatial and object (surface feature) information can contribute separately to the execution of a corrective saccade, as well as in conjunction. Whereas the execution of a corrective saccade to a previously fixated target object at a previously fixated location is slowed down (i.e., inhibition of return), corrective saccades toward either a previously fixated target object or a previously fixated location are facilitated. We concluded that corrective saccades are executed on the basis of object files rather than of unintegrated feature information.

  7. The Blue-Collar Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Orden, Guy; Hollis, Geoff; Wallot, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Much effort has gone into elucidating control of the body by the brain, less so the role of the body in controlling the brain. This essay develops the idea that the brain does a great deal of work in the service of behavior that is controlled by the body, a blue-collar role compared to the white-collar control exercised by the body. The argument that supports a blue-collar role for the brain is also consistent with recent discoveries clarifying the white-collar role of synergies across the body’s tensegrity structure, and the evidence of critical phenomena in brain and behavior. PMID:22719730

  8. Aspherical surfaces design for extreme ultraviolet lithographic objective with correction of thermal aberration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Yanqiu

    2016-09-01

    At present, few projection objectives for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography pay attention to correct thermal aberration in optical design phase, which would lead to poor image quality in a practical working environment. We present an aspherical modification method for helping the EUV lithographic objective additionally correct the thermal aberration. Based on the thermal aberration and deformation predicted by integrated optomechanical analysis, the aspherical surfaces in an objective are modified by an iterative algorithm. The modified aspherical surfaces could correct the thermal aberration and maintain the initial high image quality in a practical working environment. A six-mirror EUV lithographic objective with 0.33-numerical aperture is taken as an example to illustrate the presented method. The results show that the thermal aberration can be corrected effectively, and the image quality of the thermally deformed system is improved to the initial design level, which proves the availability of the method.

  9. Object image correction using an X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer hologram.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas K

    2014-03-01

    Taking into account background correction and using Fourier analysis, a numerical method of an object image correction using an X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer hologram is presented. An example of the image correction of a cylindrical beryllium wire is considered. A background correction of second-order iteration leads to an almost precise reconstruction of the real part of the amplitude transmission coefficient and improves the imaginary part compared with that without a background correction. Using Fourier analysis of the reconstructed transmission coefficient, non-physical oscillations can be avoided. This method can be applied for the determination of the complex amplitude transmission coefficient of amplitude as well as phase objects, and can be used in X-ray microscopy.

  10. Error analysis of motion correction method for laser scanning of moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goel, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-05-01

    The limitation of conventional laser scanning methods is that the objects being scanned should be static. The need of scanning moving objects has resulted in the development of new methods capable of generating correct 3D geometry of moving objects. Limited literature is available showing development of very few methods capable of catering to the problem of object motion during scanning. All the existing methods utilize their own models or sensors. Any studies on error modelling or analysis of any of the motion correction methods are found to be lacking in literature. In this paper, we develop the error budget and present the analysis of one such `motion correction' method. This method assumes availability of position and orientation information of the moving object which in general can be obtained by installing a POS system on board or by use of some tracking devices. It then uses this information along with laser scanner data to apply correction to laser data, thus resulting in correct geometry despite the object being mobile during scanning. The major application of this method lie in the shipping industry to scan ships either moving or parked in the sea and to scan other objects like hot air balloons or aerostats. It is to be noted that the other methods of "motion correction" explained in literature can not be applied to scan the objects mentioned here making the chosen method quite unique. This paper presents some interesting insights in to the functioning of "motion correction" method as well as a detailed account of the behavior and variation of the error due to different sensor components alone and in combination with each other. The analysis can be used to obtain insights in to optimal utilization of available components for achieving the best results.

  11. Population delineation of polar bears using satellite collar data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bethke, R.; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Messier, François

    1996-01-01

    To produce reliable estimates of the size or vital rates of a given population, it is important that the boundaries of the population under study are clearly defined. This is particularly critical for large, migratory animals where levels of sustainable harvest are based on these estimates, and where small errors may have serious long-term consequences for the population. Once populations are delineated, rates of exchange between adjacent populations can be determined and accounted/corrected for when calculating abundance (e.g., based on mark-recapture data). Using satellite radio-collar locations for polar bears in the western Canadian Arctic, we illustrate one approach to delineating wildlife populations that integrates cluster analysis methods for determining group membership with home range plotting procedures to define spatial utilization. This approach is flexible with respect to the specific procedures used and provides an objective and quantitative basis for defining population boundaries.

  12. The use of the 'corrective emotional experience' and the search for the bad object in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Knight, Zelda G

    2005-01-01

    In this article the classical concept and the use of the 'corrective emotional experience' in psychotherapy is described. This concept is not widely accepted within the standpoint of contemporary psychoanalytic psychotherapy and object relations theories. It has an unfavorable reputation. However, this paper does not advocate discarding this therapeutic idea and action because it does have therapeutic value. The case is made that the search for the bad object, and patient's reenactment of early experiences as they had been, is a corrective emotional experience in that it is a reparative experience. Furthermore, the search for the bad object is necessary for attachment. In addition, the point is made that patients find and create the object, therefore, the corrective emotional experience must be viewed as something that patients find rather than what therapists do.

  13. DICOM router: an open source toolbox for communication and correction of DICOM objects.

    PubMed

    Hackländer, Thomas; Kleber, Klaus; Martin, Jens; Mertens, Heinrich

    2005-03-01

    Today, the exchange of medical images and clinical information is well defined by the digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (ie, HL7) standards. The interoperability among information systems is specified by the integration profiles of IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). However, older imaging modalities frequently do not correctly support these interfaces and integration profiles, and some use cases are not yet specified by IHE. Therefore, corrections of DICOM objects are necessary to establish conformity. The aim of this project was to develop a toolbox that can automatically perform these recurrent corrections of the DICOM objects. The toolbox is composed of three main components: 1) a receiver to receive DICOM objects, 2) a processing pipeline to correct each object, and 3) one or more senders to forward each corrected object to predefined addressees. The toolbox is implemented under Java as an open source project. The processing pipeline is realized by means of plug ins. One of the plug ins can be programmed by the user via an external eXtensible Stylesheet Language (ie, XSL) file. Using this plug in, DICOM objects can also be converted into eXtensible Markup Language (ie, XML) documents or other data formats. DICOM storage services, DICOM CD-ROMs, and the local file system are defined as input and output channel. The toolbox is used clinically for different application areas. These are the automatic correction of DICOM objects from non-IHE-conforming modalities, the import of DICOM CD-ROMs into the picture archiving and communication system and the pseudo naming of DICOM images. The toolbox has been accepted by users in a clinical setting. Because of the open programming interfaces, the functionality can easily be adapted to future applications.

  14. Subsurface object position and image correction for standoff ground penetrating radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. J.

    1994-05-01

    Present applications of standoff (airborne) Ground Penetrating Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) allows objects near the surface to be detected but only provides an approximation for the actual location and image. When single media models are employed the lack of correction for the phase velocity and refractive changes at the air/soil interface result in object distortions. Positional errors and image distortions comparable to the size of the object are possible. Correction is possible, if the media properties are known, by modeling the scene as a two-layer medium and accounting for the propagation effects. The propagation parameters for the lower media are estimated in the migration of observable responses for surface and subsurface objects. This approach allows for corrected images to subsurface objects to be produced after data collection. Surface objects will be distorted as a result of this process. The modeling process, simulations, and results with field data will be discussed. An improvement by a factor of two would enable standoff radar to detect objects at depths of one meter or more benefitting Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) and hazardous waste site survey activities.

  15. Online phase measuring profilometry for rectilinear moving object by image correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Han; Cao, Yi-Ping; Chen, Chen; Wang, Ya-Pin

    2015-11-01

    In phase measuring profilometry (PMP), the object must be static for point-to-point reconstruction with the captured deformed patterns. While the object is rectilinearly moving online, the size and pixel position differences of the object in different captured deformed patterns do not meet the point-to-point requirement. We propose an online PMP based on image correction to measure the three-dimensional shape of the rectilinear moving object. In the proposed method, the deformed patterns captured by a charge-coupled diode camera are reprojected from the oblique view to an aerial view first and then translated based on the feature points of the object. This method makes the object appear stationary in the deformed patterns. Experimental results show the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. On the Concept of Varying Influence Radii for a Successive Corrections Objective Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    There has been a long standing concept by those who use successive corrections objective analysis that the way to obtain the most accurate objective analysis is first, to analyze for the long wavelengths and then to build in the details of the shorter wavelengths by successively decreasing the influence of the more distant observations upon the interpolated values. Using the Barnes method, the filter characteristics were compared for families of response curves that pass through a common point at a reference wavelength. It was found that the filter cutoff is a maximum if the filter parameters that determine the influence of observations are unchanged for both the initial and corrections passes. This information was used to define and test the following hypothesis. If accuracy is defined by how well the method retains desired wavelengths and removes undesired wavelengths, then the Barnes method gives the most accurate analyses if the filter parameter on the initial and corrections passes are the same. This hypothesis does not follow the usual conceptual approach to successive corrections analysis.

  17. A high resolution, holographically corrected microscope with a Fresnel lens objective at large working distances.

    PubMed

    Andersen, G; Knize, R

    1998-06-22

    We present details of a microscope which incorporates an inexpensive, high numerical aperture Fresnel lens objective. The system aberrations are corrected by the use of an image hologram of the lens recorded using a point source of coherent illumination. This device gives high resolution, real time imaging while maintaining a large working distance. The same microscope can be used for micromachining and photolithography in situations where close proximity to the sample is impossible or undesirable.

  18. Biomechanical analysis of football neck collars.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; McNeely, David E; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-07-01

    To determine the load-limiting capabilities of protective neck collars used in football through dynamic impact testing. A 50th-percentile male Hybrid III dummy was used in 48 dynamic impact tests comparing The Cowboy Collar, Bullock Collar, and Kerr Collar. A control and each collar were tested at two velocities (5 m/s and 7 m/s), three impact locations (front, top, and side of the helmet), and two shoulder pad positions (normal and raised). Research laboratory. None. None. Independent variables were the neck collars, impact velocity, and shoulder pad position. In addition to range of motion, upper and lower neck forces and moments were measured. With the top impact location, it was found that the Kerr Collar and Bullock Collar reduced head accelerations and force transmission through the neck. With the front impact location, all the collars reduced lower neck moment. The Kerr Collar was also capable of reducing the lower neck force and upper neck moment. With the side impact location, the Kerr Collar substantially reduced lower neck moment. These reductions in loads correlate with the degree to which each collar restricted the motion of the head and neck. By restricting the range of motion of the neck and redistributing load to the shoulders, neck loads can be effectively lowered.

  19. The vest-collar as a rodent collar to prevent licking and scratching during experiments.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yura; Park, Ye Eun; Yun, Cheol-Won; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Chung, Hesson

    2016-08-01

    Various types of restraint collars have been used for research animals, and the Elizabethan collar (E-collar) is the most commonly used. However, animals can be choked by the E-collar or they tend to remove it; furthermore, repeated rubbing and scratching of the collar may chafe the neck. We developed a new restraint collar with a vest to overcome these limitations. The vest-collar (V-collar) can be worn similarly to a vest, in contrast to the E-collar, which is fixed around the neck. A cone-shaped collar is attached to the vest in the V-collar and is made of Eva foam to surround the chest softly, accompanied by a transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film for visibility. To evaluate the performance of the V-collar, we conducted experiments with mice wearing the V-collar and the E-collar. Both groups showed normal weight gain and food intake. Glucose and stress hormone levels showed no significant differences, and no stress-associated leukocyte profiles were observed during the experiments. However, despite the short experimental duration, more than half of the mice in the E-collar group showed injury to the skin on the neck, with increased thickness of the epidermal and keratin layers. Moreover, inflammatory cell counts were higher in the E-collar group than in the V-collar group. In conclusion, the V-collar, in contrast to the E-collar, does not cause skin injuries in animals and is thus beneficial for animals and investigators. Investigators can effectively use the V-collar to enhance laboratory animal welfare.

  20. Gravitational-wave signatures of exotic compact objects and of quantum corrections at the horizon scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Hopper, Seth; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Palenzuela, Carlos; Pani, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Gravitational waves from binary coalescences provide one of the cleanest signatures of the nature of compact objects. It has been recently argued that the postmerger ringdown waveform of exotic ultracompact objects is initially identical to that of a black hole, and that putative corrections at the horizon scale will appear as secondary pulses after the main burst of radiation. Here we extend this analysis in three important directions: (i) we show that this result applies to a large class of exotic compact objects with a photon sphere for generic orbits in the test-particle limit; (ii) we investigate the late-time ringdown in more detail, showing that it is universally characterized by a modulated and distorted train of "echoes"of the modes of vibration associated with the photon sphere; (iii) we study for the first time equal-mass, head-on collisions of two ultracompact boson stars and compare their gravitational-wave signal to that produced by a pair of black holes. If the initial objects are compact enough as to mimic a binary black-hole collision up to the merger, the final object exceeds the maximum mass for boson stars and collapses to a black hole. This suggests that—in some configurations—the coalescence of compact boson stars might be almost indistinguishable from that of black holes. On the other hand, generic configurations display peculiar signatures that can be searched for in gravitational-wave data as smoking guns of exotic compact objects.

  1. Error determination of a successive correction type objective analysis scheme. [for surface meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. R.; Leslie, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Purdue Regional Objective Analysis of the Mesoscale (PROAM) is a successive correction type scheme for the analysis of surface meteorological data. The scheme is subjected to a series of experiments to evaluate its performance under a variety of analysis conditions. The tests include use of a known analytic temperature distribution to quantify error bounds for the scheme. Similar experiments were conducted using actual atmospheric data. Results indicate that the multiple pass technique increases the accuracy of the analysis. Furthermore, the tests suggest appropriate values for the analysis parameters in resolving disturbances for the data set used in this investigation.

  2. Error determination of a successive correction type objective analysis scheme. [for surface meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. R.; Leslie, F. W.

    1984-01-01

    The Purdue Regional Objective Analysis of the Mesoscale (PROAM) is a successive correction type scheme for the analysis of surface meteorological data. The scheme is subjected to a series of experiments to evaluate its performance under a variety of analysis conditions. The tests include use of a known analytic temperature distribution to quantify error bounds for the scheme. Similar experiments were conducted using actual atmospheric data. Results indicate that the multiple pass technique increases the accuracy of the analysis. Furthermore, the tests suggest appropriate values for the analysis parameters in resolving disturbances for the data set used in this investigation.

  3. Understanding the Function of Visual Short-Term Memory: Transsaccadic Memory, Object Correspondence, and Gaze Correction

    PubMed Central

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has received intensive study over the past decade, with research focused on VSTM capacity and representational format. Yet, the function of VSTM in human cognition is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that VSTM plays an important role in the control of saccadic eye movements. Intelligent human behavior depends on directing the eyes to goal-relevant objects in the world, yet saccades are very often inaccurate and require correction. We hypothesized that VSTM is used to remember the features of the current saccade target so that it can be rapidly reacquired after an errant saccade, a fundamental task faced by the visual system thousands of times each day. In four experiments, memory-based gaze correction was found to be accurate, fast, automatic, and largely unconscious. In addition, a concurrent VSTM load was found to interfere with memory-based gaze correction, but a verbal short-term memory load did not. These findings demonstrate VSTM plays a direct role in a fundamentally important aspect of visually guided behavior, and they suggest the existence of previously unknown links between VSTM representations and the occulomotor system. PMID:18248135

  4. Multi-object Feature Detection and Error Correction for NIF Automatic Optical Alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2006-07-17

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In any laser beam alignment operation, a beam needs to be aligned to a reference location. Generally, the beam and reference fiducials are composed of separate beams, as a result only a single feature of each beam needs to be identified for determining the position of the beam or reference. However, it is possible to have the same beam image contain both the beam and reference fiducials. In such instances, it is essential to separately identify these features. In the absence of wavefront correction or when image quality is poor, the features of such beams may get distorted making it difficult to distinguish between different fiducials. Error checking and correction mechanism must be implemented to avoid misidentification of one type of feature as the other. This work presents the algorithm for multi-object detection and error correction implemented for such a beam line image in the NIF facility. Additionally, we show how when the original algorithm fails a secondary algorithm takes over and provides required location outputs.

  5. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting a Collar.] Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on sewing collars, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

  6. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting a Collar.] Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on sewing collars, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

  7. An improved dark-object subtraction technique for atmospheric scattering correction of multispectral data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chavez, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Digital analysis of remotely sensed data has become an important component of many earth-science studies. These data are often processed through a set of preprocessing or "clean-up" routines that includes a correction for atmospheric scattering, often called haze. Various methods to correct or remove the additive haze component have been developed, including the widely used dark-object subtraction technique. A problem with most of these methods is that the haze values for each spectral band are selected independently. This can create problems because atmospheric scattering is highly wavelength-dependent in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the scattering values are correlated with each other. Therefore, multispectral data such as from the Landsat Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner must be corrected with haze values that are spectral band dependent. An improved dark-object subtraction technique is demonstrated that allows the user to select a relative atmospheric scattering model to predict the haze values for all the spectral bands from a selected starting band haze value. The improved method normalizes the predicted haze values for the different gain and offset parameters used by the imaging system. Examples of haze value differences between the old and improved methods for Thematic Mapper Bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 are 40.0, 13.0, 12.0, 8.0, 5.0, and 2.0 vs. 40.0, 13.2, 8.9, 4.9, 16.7, and 3.3, respectively, using a relative scattering model of a clear atmosphere. In one Landsat multispectral scanner image the haze value differences for Bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 were 30.0, 50.0, 50.0, and 40.0 for the old method vs. 30.0, 34.4, 43.6, and 6.4 for the new method using a relative scattering model of a hazy atmosphere. ?? 1988.

  8. Collar nut and thrust ring

    DOEpatents

    Lowery, Guy B.

    1991-01-01

    A collar nut comprises a hollow cylinder having fine interior threads at one end for threadably engaging a pump mechanical seal assembly and an inwardly depending flange at the other end. The flange has an enlarged portion with a groove for receiving an O-ring for sealing against the intrusion of pumpage from the exterior. The enlarged portion engages a thrust ring about the pump shaft for crushing a hard O-ring, such as a graphite O-ring. The hard O-ring seals the interior of the mechanical seal assembly and pump housing against the loss of lubricants or leakage of pumpage. The fine threads of the hollow cylinder provide the mechanical advantage for crushing the hard O-ring evenly and easily with a hand tool from the side of the collar nut rather than by tightening a plurality of bolts from the end and streamlines the exterior surface of the mechanical seal. The collar nut avoids the spatial requirements of bolt heads at the end of a seal and associated bolt head turbulence.

  9. Rigid plastic collars for marking geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballou, R.M.; Martin, F.W.

    1964-01-01

    Rigid plastic collars of one to three colors proved useful for recognition of individual Canada geese (Branta canadensis). The collars did not seem to affect the behavior of the geese, and there was little mortality caused by their use. In good light, bright colors are visible through a 20-power spotting scope for more than 1 mile. Retention of collars was about 90 percent for 1 year and more than 80 percent for 2 years.

  10. The "shirt collar sign" of cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Silver, Michael R; Hanfelt, John; Factor, Stewart A

    2017-05-01

    The diagnosis of cervical dystonia (CD) is clinical. We describe a physical examination observation that has been noted in CD patients. There is a tendency for their shirt collars to be shifted to one side. We validated this apparently consistent finding by having blinded evaluators rating the symmetry of the shirt collars in CD and non-cervical dystonia control subjects. A high correlation was found between the physical finding which we call "shirt collar sign" and the diagnosis. "Shirt collar sign" may be a helpful sign in diagnosing CD.

  11. Health and pink-collar work.

    PubMed

    Basu, S; Ratcliffe, G; Green, M

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a decline in the manufacturing sector of the UK economy with a corresponding growth of service-orientated pink-collar jobs in some regions. While the health outcomes of white- and blue-collar workers are well-established, less is known about this emerging pink-collar group. To outline the health of pink-collar workers in comparison to their white-collar counterparts across a range of indicators. Area-level percentages for white-, pink- and blue-collar workers were derived from residents' routinely collected employment data in a northern English town. Area-level health data pertaining to male and female life expectancy, respiratory deaths and deaths from cardiovascular and circulatory causes (all age and under 75 years) were obtained from the local authority and public health observatory. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess relationships between job collar and health. When adjusted for deprivation, areas with higher percentages of pink-collar workers experienced lower rates of death from circulatory disease under the age of 75 in comparison to white-collar workers. Other relationships between collar status and health outcomes were not statistically significant. The reasons underlying the apparent protective effect of pink-collar status for deaths from circulatory disease are uncertain and merit further study. Possibilities include differences in age, exposure to occupational hazards and lifestyle behaviours. Our work has a number of limitations and longitudinal studies with detailed exposure data should assess the long-term health outcomes of these workers using agreed definitions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal-scale duplexing: Correction Geology, v. 23, p. 65 68 (January 1995) The correct Figure 4A, for the loose insert, is given here. See Figure 4A below. Corrected inserts will be available to those requesting copies of the article from the senior author, Gary S. Fuis, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Figure 4A. P-wave velocity model of Brooks Range region (thin gray contours) with migrated wide-angle reflections (heavy red lines) and migreated vertical-incidence reflections (short black lines) superimposed. Velocity contour interval is 0.25 km/s; 4,5, and 6 km/s contours are labeled. Estimated error in velocities is one contour interval. Symbols on faults shown at top are as in Figure 2 caption.

  13. A Collar for Marking Big Game Animals

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Phillips

    1970-01-01

    A Simple, inexpensive collar made of Armor-tite (a vinyl-coated nylon fabric) was designed for marking white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and moose (Alces alces). Field tests showed that the material is easily seen and extrememly durable. It may be suitable for use on other large mammals. The collar can be quickly fitted to individual animals under field...

  14. Gold-Collar Workers. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    The gold-collar worker has problem-solving abilities, creativity, talent, and intelligence; performs non-repetitive and complex work difficult to evaluate; and prefers self management. Gold-collar information technology workers learn continually from experience; recognize the synergy of teams; can demonstrate leadership; and are strategic thinkers…

  15. Collared mice: A model to assess the effects of scratching✩

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Yasukawa, Fumiko; Furue, Masutaka; Katz, Stephen I.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is no current method to precisely assess pruritus despite its importance as a major symptom in many skin diseases. Pruritus induces scratching that worsens various inflammatory skin diseases. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of scratching on allergic skin reactions using murine contact hypersensitivity (CH) as a model and to assess classical “anti-pruritic” agents using this model. Methods We utilized plastic collars which were placed around the necks of mice to prevent them from scratching their ears during the development of CH. This allowed us to assess ear swelling as an index of CH, obviating the effects of scratching that occurs during the development of CH. Results Following elicitation, the ear swelling of these “collared” mice was decreased by approximately 50%, compared to control mice in which collars were not used, suggesting that scratching contributes to the ear swelling that is measured as an index of CH. Using this model, we assessed the anti-pruritic effects of antihistamines, corticosteroids, non-steroidal antiinflammatory and sedative agents. All agents decreased CH when collars were not used. When collars were used, all agents, other than the sedatives, appeared to suppress CH, indicating their antiinflammatory effects. Sedative agents did not decrease CH in collared mice, indicating that their inhibitory effects in CH may be entirely due to their sedative effects. Conclusions This model enables the dissection of the various elements assessed when measuring CH in mice and may provide a simple tool to assess or screen potential anti-pruritic agents. PMID:19896338

  16. Characteristics of electronic training collars for dogs.

    PubMed

    Lines, J A; van Driel, K; Cooper, J J

    2013-03-16

    A wide range of electronic dog training collars (e-collars) is available in the UK, but information enabling purchasers to compare the important characteristics of these collars is not available. In this research, the electrical characteristics of 13 e-collar models were examined, and an approach to ranking the strength of the electrical stimuli was developed. To achieve this, the electrical impedance of dogs' necks were measured so that e-collars could be tested under realistic conditions. This impedance was found to be about 10 kΩ for wet dogs and 640 kΩ for dry dogs. Two replicates of eight e-collar models and single copies of a further five models were then examined. The stimuli generated by these collars comprised sequences of short high-voltage pulses. There were large differences between e-collar models in the energy, peak voltage, number of pulses and duration of the pulses, but little variation between the replicates. The peak voltage varied with the impedance, from 6000V at an impedance of 500 kΩ to 100V at 5 kΩ. The highest voltages were generated for a few millionths of a second. Stimulus energy levels at the maximum strength setting with a 50 kΩ load ranged from 3.3 mJ to 287 mJ. A stimulus strength ranking indicator was then developed to enable the strengths of e-collars with diverse electrical characteristics to be ranked. This ranking shows a wide range in the stimulus strengths of collars, and that the relationships between 'momentary' and 'continuous' stimuli for various models differ significantly.

  17. Corrections.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Lai Y-S, Biedermann P, Ekpo UF, et al. Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis and treatment needs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and geostatistical analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; published online May 22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00066-3—Figure 1 of this Article should have contained a box stating ‘100 references added’ with an arrow pointing inwards, rather than a box stating ‘199 records excluded’, and an asterisk should have been added after ‘1473 records extracted into GNTD’. Additionally, the positioning of the ‘§ and ‘†’ footnotes has been corrected in table 1. These corrections have been made to the online version as of June 4, 2015.

  18. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    In the article by Guessous et al (Guessous I, Pruijm M, Ponte B, Ackermann D, Ehret G, Ansermot N, Vuistiner P, Staessen J, Gu Y, Paccaud F, Mohaupt M, Vogt B, Pechère-Bertschi A, Martin PY, Burnier M, Eap CB, Bochud M. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions. Hypertension. 2015;65:691–696. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512), which published online ahead of print December 8, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed.One of the author surnames was misspelled. Antoinette Pechère-Berstchi has been corrected to read Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi.The authors apologize for this error.

  19. Tool for Torquing Circular Electrical-Connector Collars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaulke, Kathryn; Werneth, Russell; Grunsfeld, John; O'Neill, Patrick; Snyder, Russ

    2006-01-01

    An improved tool has been devised for applying torque to lock and unlock knurled collars on circular electrical connectors. The tool was originally designed for, and used by, astronauts working in outer space on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The tool is readily adaptable to terrestrial use in installing and removing the same or similar circular electrical connectors as well as a wide variety of other cylindrical objects, the tightening and loosening of which entail considerable amounts of torque.

  20. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Alleged mosasaur bite marks on Late Cretaceous ammonites are limpet (patellogastropod) home scars Geology, v. 26, p. 947 950 (October 1998) This article had the following printing errors: p. 947, Abstract, line 11, “sepia” should be “septa” p. 947, 1st paragraph under Introduction, line 2, “creep” should be “deep” p. 948, column 1, 2nd paragraph, line 7, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 1, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 5, “19774” should be “1977)” p. 949, column 1, 4th paragraph, line 7, “in particular” should be “In particular” CORRECTION Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Geology, v. 26, p. 1011 1014 (November 1998) An error appeared in the References Cited. The correct reference appears below: Fricke, H. C., Clyde, W. C., O'Neil, J. R., and Gingerich, P. D., 1998, Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 160, p. 193 208.

  1. Use of cervical collar after whiplash injuries.

    PubMed

    Józefiak-Wójtowicz, Anna; Stolarczyk, Artur; Deszczyński, Jarosław Michał; Materek, Magdalena; Pietras, Marta; Bażant, Katarzyna

    2014-08-08

    Whiplash injuries, also known as neck sprains and strains, are currently some of the most common injuries of the cervical spine. Mechanism of injury is still controversial and current treatment methods do not provide satisfactory results. In this article we present QTF classification of related disorders, epidemiological data and treatment methods. We described basic principles of using a soft collar, goals and effects of collar use and potential complications ensuing from immobilization. Authors reviewed publications comparing the effects of collar use with other methods of treatment and physiotherapy following whiplash injury.

  2. Methods for correcting morphological-based deficiencies in hyperspectral images of round objects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NIR images of curved surfaces contain undesirable artifacts that are a consequence of the morphology, or shape of the sample. A software correction was developed to remove the variation in pixel intensity in hyperspectral images of spherical samples generated on a linescan type imaging system. The c...

  3. Methods for correcting morphological-based deficiencies in hyperspectral images of round objects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NIR images of curved surfaces contain undesirable artifacts that are a consequence of the morphology, or shape of the sample. A software correction was developed to remove the variation in pixel intensity based directly on well known physical effects involving light reflection and intensity. The ide...

  4. Correction to ATel 10128: Spectral Comparison Object SN 1999em -> SN 1999ee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng

    2017-02-01

    We report a correction to the spectroscopic classification announced in ATel #10128. The spectral comparison shows that SN 2017bke is similar to type Ia supernova SN 1999ee (which was incorrectly typed as SN 1999em) at t = -7 days from the maximum light. We apologize for any confusion caused by this typo error.

  5. Dose reduction of cone beam CT scanning for the entire oral and maxillofacial regions with thyroid collars

    PubMed Central

    Qu, XM; Li, G; Sanderink, GCH; Zhang, ZY; Ma, XC

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of thyroid collars on radiation dose during cone beam CT (CBCT) scanning. Methods Average tissue-absorbed dose for a NewTom 9000 CBCT scanner (Quantitative Radiology, Verona, Italy) was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeter chips in a phantom. The scans were carried out with and without thyroid collars. Effective organ dose and total effective dose were derived using International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations. Results The effective organ doses for the thyroid gland and oesophagus were 31.0 µSv and 2.4 µSv, respectively, during CBCT scanning without a collar around the neck. When the thyroid collars were used loosely around the neck, no effective organ dose reduction was observed. When one thyroid collar was used tightly on the front of the neck, the effective organ dose for the thyroid gland and oesophagus were reduced to 15.9 µSv (48.7% reduction) and 1.4 µSv (41.7% reduction), respectively. Similar organ dose reduction (46.5% and 41.7%) was achieved when CBCT scanning was performed with two collars tightly on the front and back of the neck. However, the differences to the total effective dose were not significant among the scans with and without collars around the neck (p = 0.775). Conclusions Thyroid collars can effectively reduce the radiation dose to the thyroid and oesophagus if used appropriately. PMID:22707330

  6. Optimizing depth resolution in confocal Raman microscopy: a comparison of metallurgical, dry corrected, and oil immersion objectives.

    PubMed

    Everall, Neil; Lapham, Jonathan; Adar, Fran; Whitley, Andrew; Lee, Eunah; Mamedov, Sergey

    2007-03-01

    Spherical aberration is probably the most important factor limiting the practical performance of a confocal Raman microscope. This paper suggests some simple samples that can be readily fabricated in any laboratory to test the performance of a confocal Raman microscope under realistic operating conditions (i.e., a deeply buried interface, rather than the often-selected alternative of a bare silicon wafer or a thin film in air). The samples chosen were silicon wafers buried beneath transparent polymeric or glass overlayers, and a polymer laminate buried beneath a cover glass. These samples were used to compare the performance of three types of objectives (metallurgical, oil immersion, and dry corrected) in terms of depth resolution and signal throughput. The oil immersion objective gave the best depth resolution and intensity, followed by a dry corrected (60x, 0.9 numerical aperture) objective. The 100x metallurgical objective was the worst choice, with degradations of approximately 5x and 8x in the depth resolution and signal from a silicon wafer, comparing a bare wafer with one buried under a 150 microm cover glass. In particular, the high signal level obtained makes the immersion objective an attractive choice. Results from the buried laminate were even more impressive; a 30x improvement in spectral contrast was obtained using the oil immersion objective to analyze a thin (19 microm) coating on a PET substrate, buried beneath a 150 microm cover glass, compared with the metallurgical objective.

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms and type A behaviour in blue collar workers.

    PubMed Central

    Flodmark, B T; Aase, G

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--Type A behaviour pattern, characterised by excessive competitiveness, impatience, hostility and time urgency, has been previously investigated as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. There are few studies concerning musculoskeletal symptoms and type A behaviour. Could there be a higher frequency of musculoskeletal symptoms with a more pronounced type A behaviour? DESIGN--A cross sectional retrospective study. Standardised nordic questionnaires were used for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms and the Bortner questionnaire and its subscales (1) speed and (2) hard driving and competitiveness were used to assess type A behaviour. SETTING--Factory based (a manufacturing industry where they make ventilating shafts). SUBJECTS--58 blue collar workers (51 men and seven women). Mean age was 36.9 years. Mean employment time was seven years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Blue collar workers with musculoskeletal symptoms had a more pronounced type A behaviour than those without symptoms. RESULTS--For shoulder symptoms during the past 12 months blue collar workers had a more pronounced type A behaviour (p < 0.001). For symptoms during the past seven days the results were significant for the neck (p < 0.01), the shoulder (p < 0.01), and also for lower back pain (p < 0.05). There were no differences in age, psychosocial factors, or psychosomatic symptoms. According to the Bortner subscales, the speed subscale seems to be more important than the hard driving and competitiveness subscales. CONCLUSIONS--Blue collar workers with a more pronounced type A behaviour seem to have a higher incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms. PMID:1419855

  8. Utility of thyroid collars in cephalometric radiography

    PubMed Central

    Sansare, KP; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-01-01

    Objective A study was carried out to investigate the rationale that use of a thyroid collar (TC) in cephalometric radiography hampers the diagnostic and descriptive quality of lateral cephalogram. Methods A randomized observer blinded study was designed. The study consisted of two groups. The first group data were retrieved from the oral radiology archival system having lateral cephalogram without a TC. The second group was selected from the oral radiology department of patients where lateral cephalogram was taken using a TC. Lateral cephalogram was taken on direct digital system, the Kodak 9000 unit (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY). 2 observers blinded about the aim of the study were appointed to identify 15 sets of landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. Interobserver variance was also analysed for the study. Results 50 lateral cephalograms in each group were studied. Out of 15 sets of landmarks, 12 were identified consistent with the TC group. Three landmarks, namely the hyoid bone, second cervical vertebra and third cervical vertebra could not be identified on the TC group. There was no significant difference in the interobserver markings on lateral cephalogram. Conclusions TCs do mask a few landmarks on the lateral cephalogram. These landmarks are mainly used for analysis of skeletal maturity index (SMI). Lead TCs are probably the most convenient and easily available means to protect the thyroid from unwanted radiation while taking lateral cephalogram. It is therefore encouraged to use a TC during routine cephalometric radiography where SMI information is not needed. PMID:22065795

  9. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens.

    PubMed

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N; Zawadzki, Robert J; Sarunic, Marinko V

    2015-08-24

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images.

  10. Wavefront correction and high-resolution in vivo OCT imaging with an objective integrated multi-actuator adaptive lens

    PubMed Central

    Bonora, Stefano; Jian, Yifan; Zhang, Pengfei; Zam, Azhar; Pugh, Edward N.; Zawadzki, Robert J.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics is rapidly transforming microscopy and high-resolution ophthalmic imaging. The adaptive elements commonly used to control optical wavefronts are liquid crystal spatial light modulators and deformable mirrors. We introduce a novel Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens that can correct aberrations to high order, and which has the potential to increase the spread of adaptive optics to many new applications by simplifying its integration with existing systems. Our method combines an adaptive lens with an imaged-based optimization control that allows the correction of images to the diffraction limit, and provides a reduction of hardware complexity with respect to existing state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens design that we present can correct wavefront aberrations up to the 4th order of the Zernike polynomial characterization. The performance of the Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens is demonstrated in a wide field microscope, using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor for closed loop control. The Multi-actuator Adaptive Lens and image-based wavefront-sensorless control were also integrated into the objective of a Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography system for in vivo imaging of mouse retinal structures. The experimental results demonstrate that the insertion of the Multi-actuator Objective Lens can generate arbitrary wavefronts to correct aberrations down to the diffraction limit, and can be easily integrated into optical systems to improve the quality of aberrated images. PMID:26368169

  11. Neural activation for conceptual identification of correct versus incorrect tool-object pairs.

    PubMed

    Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2010-10-01

    Appropriate tool-object pairing is a natural part of our lives. When preparing to clean our teeth, we know that a toothbrush is useful, but not a screwdriver. The neural correlates of this pairing process remain unclear. We recorded 64-channel electroencephalography to determine neural correlates of identification of tool-object matches and mismatches. Subjects were shown a target tool (e.g. spoon) later paired with an object that was either a conceptual match (e.g. bowl) or mismatch (e.g. wood). To verify that activity was not related to general concept of match-mismatch, in a second condition subjects saw non-tool environmental items (e.g. bird) later paired with a conceptual match (e.g. nest) or mismatch (e.g. spider web). Analysis was focused on time bins after each picture, using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Tool-object match versus mismatch revealed significant differences in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus. These patterns were not present for environmental match versus mismatch. This work suggests a specific network in comprehending tool-based pairings, but not extensive to other pairings. The posterior cingulate, precuneus, insula and superior temporal gyrus preferentially differentiates tool-object matching and mismatching, identifying a potential locus related to impairments in comprehending appropriate and inappropriate tool-object relationships that arise after neural injury. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Training methods in dogs with and without electric training collars].

    PubMed

    Schalke, E; Ott, S; Hackbarth, H

    2008-04-01

    In dog training, the question of preventing unwanted behaviours is lively discussed. On the one hand, many dog owners are faced with the problem to be obliged to interrupt certain behaviours in their dog. On the other hand, uncertainty regarding the use of any form of punishment is widely spread among dog owners. The discussion ranges from the principle question whether punishment should be employed at all, to the question which form of punishment is still adequate and which form is not. When discussing this issue from a more scientific point of view, one has to consider the learning theories in dogs including the different forms of conditioning, the association timing as well as the correct application of reinforcement and punishment. When considering scientific research as regards the use of punishment in dog training, only the use of electric training collars has been assessed with the aid of physiologic data. In this study, no considerable impact on the animals could be observed if these devices were correctly used. Concerning other forms of punishment, studies which include physiologic data as means to measure stress are still non-existing. Such studies are currently carried out at our institute. The results of these surveys should be included in further discussions on whether the use of electric training collars should be permitted in certain areas of dog training.

  13. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary L.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard P.; Thomas, Cristina; Christensen, Eric; DeMeo, Francesca; Person, Michael J.; Polishook, David; Willman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Although they are thought to compose the majority of the Near-Earth object (NEO) population, the small (d < 1 km) near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) have not yet been studied as thoroughly as their larger cousins. Sub-kilometer objects are amongst the most abundant newly discovered NEOs and are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra).Fifty-seven small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using GMOS at Gemini North & South observatories as well as the DeVeny spectrograph at Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope. Archival data of 43 objects from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for NEO Spectral Reconnaissance (PI R. Binzel) were also used. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). Small NEAs are the likely progenitors of meteorites; an improved understanding of the abundance of meteorite parent body types in the NEO population improves understanding of how the two populations are related as well as the biases Earth's atmosphere imposes upon the meteorite collection.We present classifications for these objects as well as results for the debiased distribution of taxa(as a proxy for composition) as a function of object size and compare to the observed fractions of ordinary chondritemeteorites and asteroids with d > 1 km. Amongst the smallest NEOs we find an unexpected distribution of

  14. The Bias-Corrected Taxonomic Distribution of Mission-Accessible Small Near-Earth Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Mary Louise; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Trilling, David; Binzel, Richard; DeMeo, Francesca; Thomas, Cristina; Polishook, David; Person, Michael; Willman, Mark; Christensen, Eric

    2015-08-01

    As relics of the inner solar system's formation, asteroids trace the origins of solar system material. Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are the intermediaries between material that falls to Earth as meteorites and the source regions of those meteorites in the main belt. A better understanding of the physical parameters of NEAs, in particular their compositions, provides a more complete picture of the processes that shaped the inner solar system and that deliver material from the main belt to near-Earth space.Across the entire NEA population, the smallest (d < 1 km) objects have not been well-studied. These very small objects are often targets of opportunity, observable for only a few days to weeks after their discovery. Even at their brightest (V ~ 18), these asteroids are faint enough that they must be observed with large ground-based telescopes.The Mission Accessible Near-Earth Object Survey (MANOS) began in August 2013 as a multi-year physical characterization survey that was awarded survey status by NOAO. MANOS will target several hundred mission-accessible NEOs across visible and near-infrared wavelengths, ultimately providing a comprehensive catalog of physical properties (astrometry, light curves, spectra). Seventy small, mission-accessible NEAs were observed between mid 2013 and mid 2015 using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph at Gemini North & South observatories. Taxonomic classifications were obtained by fitting our spectra to the mean reflectance spectra of the Bus asteroid taxonomy (Bus & Binzel 2002). The smallest near-Earth asteroids are the likely progenitors of meteorites; we expect the observed fraction of ordinary chondrite meteorites to match that of their parent bodies, S-type asteroids. The distribution of the population of small NEAs should also resemble that of their parent bodies, the larger asteroids (d > 1 km). We present classifications for these objects as well as preliminary results for the debiased distribution of taxa (as a proxy for

  15. Modeling the acceleration field and objective lens for an aberration corrected photoemission electron microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, J.; Padmore, H.; Wei, D. H.; Anders, S.; Wu, Y.; Scholl, A.; Robin, D.

    2002-03-01

    The modeling of the optical properties of the acceleration field and objective lens of a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM) is presented. Theory to calculate the aberrations of the extraction field was derived, and extended to include relativistic effects. An analysis of the microscope's electron optical performance and aberrations has been performed using an analytical model as well as a ray tracing method. Ray tracing has the flexibility needed for the assessment of aberrations where the geometry is too complex for analytical methods. This work shows that in the case of a simple PEEM front end of the acceleration gap and objective lens, the all orders ray tracing and full analytical treatments agree to very high precision. This allows us now to use the ray tracing method in situations where analytical methods are difficult, such as an aberration compensating electron mirror.

  16. Modification of a successive corrections objective analysis for improved higher order calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    The use of objectively analyzed fields of meteorological data for the initialization of numerical prediction models and for complex diagnostic studies places the requirements upon the objective method that derivatives of the gridded fields be accurate and free from interpolation error. A modification was proposed for an objective analysis developed by Barnes that provides improvements in analysis of both the field and its derivatives. Theoretical comparisons, comparisons between analyses of analytical monochromatic waves, and comparisons between analyses of actual weather data are used to show the potential of the new method. The new method restores more of the amplitudes of desired wavelengths while simultaneously filtering more of the amplitudes of undesired wavelengths. These results also hold for the first and second derivatives calculated from the gridded fields. Greatest improvements were for the Laplacian of the height field; the new method reduced the variance of undesirable very short wavelengths by 72 percent. Other improvements were found in the divergence of the gridded wind field and near the boundaries of the field of data.

  17. Modification of a successive corrections objective analysis for improved higher order calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    The use of objectively analyzed fields of meteorological data for the initialization of numerical prediction models and for complex diagnostic studies places the requirements upon the objective method that derivatives of the gridded fields be accurate and free from interpolation error. A modification was proposed for an objective analysis developed by Barnes that provides improvements in analysis of both the field and its derivatives. Theoretical comparisons, comparisons between analyses of analytical monochromatic waves, and comparisons between analyses of actual weather data are used to show the potential of the new method. The new method restores more of the amplitudes of desired wavelengths while simultaneously filtering more of the amplitudes of undesired wavelengths. These results also hold for the first and second derivatives calculated from the gridded fields. Greatest improvements were for the Laplacian of the height field; the new method reduced the variance of undesirable very short wavelengths by 72 percent. Other improvements were found in the divergence of the gridded wind field and near the boundaries of the field of data.

  18. Modification of a Successive Corrections Objective Analysis for Improved Derivative Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of objectively analyzed fields of meteorological data for complex diagnostic studies and for the initialization of numerical prediction models places the requirements upon the objective method that derivatives of the gridded fields be accurate and free from interpolation error. A modification of an objective analysis developed by Barnes provides improvements in analyses of both the field and its derivatives. Theoretical comparisons, comparisons between analyses of analytical monochromatic waves, and comparisons between analyses of actual weather data are used to show the potential of the new method. The new method restores more of the amplitudes of desired wavelengths while simultaneously filtering more of the amplitudes of undesired wavelengths. These results also hold for the first and second derivatives calculated from the gridded fields. Greatest improvements were for the Laplacian of the height field; the new method reduced the variance of undesirable very short wavelengths by 72 pct. Other improvements were found in the divergence of the gridded wind field and near the boundaries of the field data.

  19. Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy with GRIN Objective Aberration Correction by Low Order Adaptive Optics

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Favio; Bonoli, Carlotta; Panizzolo, Paolo; Ciubotaru, Catalin D.; Mammano, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Graded Index (GRIN) rod microlenses are increasingly employed in the assembly of optical probes for microendoscopy applications. Confocal, two–photon and optical coherence tomography (OCT) based on GRIN optical probes permit in–vivo imaging with penetration depths into tissue up to the centimeter range. However, insertion of the probe can be complicated by the need of several alignment and focusing mechanisms along the optical path. Furthermore, resolution values are generally not limited by diffraction, but rather by optical aberrations within the endoscope probe and feeding optics. Here we describe a multiphoton confocal fluorescence imaging system equipped with a compact objective that incorporates a GRIN probe and requires no adjustment mechanisms. We minimized the effects of aberrations with optical compensation provided by a low–order electrostatic membrane mirror (EMM) inserted in the optical path of the confocal architecture, resulting in greatly enhanced image quality. PMID:21814575

  20. Design of 15 mm collars for SSC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.

    1986-03-01

    Ten 1-m long dipole magnets of the SSC design ''D'' cross section have been constructed and tested. In each model a collar type structure was used to contain and support the coil assembly at assembly and during operation at 4K. The collar structure must provide enough coil compression to minimize training and guarantee the coil cross section dimensions. Three types of collar designs were used. The behavior, measured and predicted, of two types of 15 mm stainless steel collars used on eight of the ten models is examined. The mechanical measurement of the 15 mm stainless steel collars used on eight 1-m dipole models are given. Observed behavior and preliminary design criteria are discussed. In order to better understand observed collar behavior and to evaluate new designs, finite element analysis of the collar designs was undertaken, and results are correlated with measured behavior. The behavior of alternate collar designs is predicted. 3 refs., 19 figs. (LEW)

  1. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  5. Comparison of Cervical Spine Motion During Application Among 4 Rigid Immobilization Collars

    PubMed Central

    James, Colleen Y.; Munkasy, Barry A.; Joyner, A. Barry

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To quantify the cervical spine range of motion that occurred during application of 4 rigid cervical immobilization collars, the time of application, and the amount of active range of motion available after application. Design and Setting: We evaluated the amount of cervical motion that occurred during application of 4 commonly used collars: NECLOC (NL), StifNeck (SN), StifNeck Select (SNS), and Rapid Form Vacuum Immobilizer (VI). Each clinician applied a properly sized collar to both a small- and medium-size model 3 times. After application, active range-of-motion testing was completed with the subject in the supine and seated positions. Subjects: A total of 17 certified athletic trainers participated. Measurements: We used 3-dimensional kinematic head and thorax data to calculate peak angular displacement, total linear distance, and total angular distance during application and peak angular displacement during supine and seated range-of-motion testing. Application time was calculated during each trial. Results: Significant differences between collars were noted for application time, total linear distance, and total angular distance (P< .01). The SN and SNS were applied significantly faster and with significantly less total linear distance and total angular distance than the NL and the VI collars. The NL was applied significantly faster and with significantly less total linear distance and total angular distance than the VI. During supine and seated active range-of-motion tests, the SN and SNS permitted significantly less cervical flexion-extension, rotation, and lateral flexion than the NL and VI. Conclusions: Of the collars tested, the SN and SNS appear to be the optimal collars for use by certified athletic trainers. They were applied with the least motion in the fastest time and provided superior restriction during active range-of-motion testing. PMID:15173864

  6. Effect of Cervical Collar Removal on the Fracture Load of Anterior Zirconia Crowns.

    PubMed

    Campos, Fernanda; Cardoso, Mayra; de Melo, Renata Marques; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Souza, Rodrigo Oa

    The objective of this study was to assess the influence of the extension of collar and fatigue cycling on the fracture load of anterior zirconia crowns. A total of 60 anterior full-crown preparations (central incisor) were machined in glass fiber-filled epoxy resin. Zirconia copings were designed and milled using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (thickness: buccal = 0.62 mm, lingual = 0.65 mm, incisal = 0.72 mm). The cervical collars (occlusogingival height = 0.8 mm, buccolingual width = 1.0 mm) were totally or partially (buccal face) removed for modified copings. They were randomly allocated to six groups according to the type of cervical collar design and the presence (or not) of fatigue cycling (n = 10). The veneering ceramic layer was pressed, and the crowns were cemented with resin cement. The samples were tested until fracture in a universal testing machine and analyzed by stereomicroscopy. Data were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (5%). Removal of the cervical collar significantly affected the fracture strength of zirconia crowns (P = .000), whereas fatigue cycling did not (P = .428). The mean failure load was lower in the groups with no collar. The most frequent failure modes were cracking of the veneer porcelain in collarless crowns and catastrophic failure in the others. The authors concluded that removal of the vestibular collar of zirconia copings in anterior crowns does not reduce the fracture load of the crowns. However, removal of the entire collar reduces the fracture load and cannot be recommended.

  7. Well casing float shoe or collar

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, H. J.

    1985-08-06

    A well casing float shoe which is adapted for a variety of well installations consists of a tubular metal shoe member filled with cementitious material having a longitudinal bore surrounding and securing in place a tubular metal sleeve. The metal sleeve is threaded at the top and bottom ends to receive a variety of sizes and types of check valves. A well casing float collar has the same construction, but the tubular shoe member is replaced with a tubular metal collar with threaded connections both above and below the cementitious filler material.

  8. Wolves, Canis lupus, carry and cache the collars of radio-collared White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus, they killed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.; Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota cached six radio-collars (four in winter, two in spring-summer) of 202 radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) they killed or consumed from 1975 to 2010. A Wolf bedded on top of one collar cached in snow. We found one collar each at a Wolf den and Wolf rendezvous site, 2.5 km and 0.5 km respectively, from each deer's previous locations.

  9. Evaluating elk habitat interactions with GPS collars

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; Lakhdar Benkobi; Fredrick Lindzey; R. Scott Gamo

    2001-01-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) are likely to revolutionize animal telemetry studies. GPS collars allow biologists to collect systematically scheduled data when VHF telemetry data is difficult or impossible to collect. Past studies have shown that the success of GPS telemetry is greater when animals are standing, or in open habitats. To make effective use of GPS...

  10. Occupations of Federal White-Collar Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Manpower Statistics Div.

    This compilation of information about white-collar personnel employed full-time by the Federal Government in 1968, is intended to assist in analyzing and evaluating manpower utilization and requirements, and in determining policies concerning national manpower resources. It should serve as a basic reference for guidance, counseling, or other…

  11. Evaluating White-Collar Technical Training Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Bob

    1985-01-01

    The author presents suggestions to help the technical trainer overcome the difficulties of analyzing white-collar training requirements. These suggestions involve researching the scope of work, familiarizing yourself with terminology, learning industry codes and standards, gathering and analyzing data, and identifying major job responsibilities.…

  12. Reducing Local Scouring at Bridge Piles Using Collars and Geobags

    PubMed Central

    Akib, Shatirah; Liana Mamat, Noor; Basser, Hossein; Jahangirzadeh, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the use of collars and geobags for reducing local scour around bridge piles. The efficiency of collars and geobags was studied experimentally. The data from the experiments were compared with data from earlier studies on the use of single piles with a collar and with a geobag. The results showed that using a combination of a steel collar and a geobag yields the most significant scour reduction for the front and rear piles, respectively. Moreover, the independent steel collar showed better efficiency than the independent geobag below the sediment level around the bridge piles. PMID:25247201

  13. Generalized collar waves in acoustic logging while drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiu-Ming; He, Xiao; Zhang, Xiu-Mei

    2016-12-01

    Tool waves, also named collar waves, propagating along the drill collars in acoustic logging while drilling (ALWD), strongly interfere with the needed P- and S-waves of a penetrated formation, which is a key issue in picking up formation P- and S-wave velocities. Previous studies on physical insulation for the collar waves designed on the collar between the source and the receiver sections did not bring to a satisfactory solution. In this paper, we investigate the propagation features of collar waves in different models. It is confirmed that there exists an indirect collar wave in the synthetic full waves due to the coupling between the drill collar and the borehole, even there is a perfect isolator between the source and the receiver. The direct collar waves propagating all along the tool and the indirect ones produced by echoes from the borehole wall are summarized as the generalized collar waves. Further analyses show that the indirect collar waves could be relatively strong in the full wave data. This is why the collar waves cannot be eliminated with satisfactory effect in many cases by designing the physical isolators carved on the tool. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11134011 and 11374322) and the Foresight Research Project, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. [The use of a thyroid collar for intraoral radiography].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, K; Velders, X L; van Ginkel, F C; van der Stelt, P F

    1998-06-01

    To determine whether a thyroid collar is a reasonable measure to reduce patient exposure from intraoral radiography (cost benefit analysis). In the thyroid gland of a Rando phantom dose measurements were carried out to determine the effect of a thyroid collar during intraoral radiography. Department of Oral Radiology at ACTA, Amsterdam. Dose measurements were carried out using LTDs. The average absorbed dose to the thyroid gland with and without thyroid collar from intraoral radiography was compared using an analysis of variance. For periapical radiographs the equivalent dose to the thyroid gland was significantly lower (p < 0.05) when a thyroid collar was used. For bitewing radiography there were no significant effects of the thyroid collar (p > 0.05). The cost benefit analysis showed that it takes more than 40 years before the benefits of a thyroid collar exceed the costs. Collective use of thyroid collars therefore does not seem to be a reasonable measure to optimize radiological protection during intraoral radiography.

  15. Personnel Selection and White Collar Criminality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    where capabilities are enlarged by powerful 3 technology. But many studies-use samples too small to test theories or are based on case analyses with no...structure and functioning of personality is essential to theory development; and measures of the broad domains of higher-order factors, such 3 as...conducted with sufficiently large samples of white collar 3 criminals from which to test suggested theories . A second related reason is that frequently

  16. Do cervical collars and cervicothoracic orthoses effectively stabilize the injured cervical spine? A biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Ivancic, Paul C

    2013-06-01

    In vitro biomechanical study. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of cervical collars and cervicothoracic orthoses for stabilizing clinically relevant, experimentally produced cervical spine injuries. Most previous in vitro studies of cervical orthoses used a simplified injury model with all ligaments transected at a single spinal level, which differs from real-life neck injuries. Human volunteer studies are limited to measuring only sagittal motions or 3-dimensional motions only of the head or 1 or 2 spinal levels. Three-plane flexibility tests were performed to evaluate 2 cervical collars (Vista Collar and Vista Multipost Collar) and 2 cervicothoracic orthoses (Vista TS and Vista TS4) using a skull-neck-thorax model with 8 injured cervical spine specimens (manufacturer of orthoses: Aspen Medical Products Inc, Irvine, CA). The injuries consisted of flexion-compression at the lower cervical spine and extension-compression at superior spinal levels. Pair-wise repeated measures analysis of variance (P < 0.05) and Bonferroni post hoc tests determined significant differences in average range of motions of the head relative to the base, C7 or T1, among experimental conditions. RESULTS.: All orthoses significantly reduced unrestricted head/base flexion and extension. The orthoses allowed between 8.4% and 25.8% of unrestricted head/base motion in flexion/extension, 57.8% to 75.5% in axial rotation, and 53.8% to 73.7% in lateral bending. The average percentages of unrestricted motion allowed by the Vista Collar, Vista Multipost Collar, Vista TS, and Vista TS4 were: 14.0, 9.7, 6.1, and 4.7, respectively, for middle cervical spine extension and 13.2, 11.8, 3.3, and 0.4, respectively, for lower cervical spine flexion. Successive increases in immobilization were observed from Vista Collar to Vista Multipost Collar, Vista TS, and Vista TS4 in extension at the injured middle cervical spine and in flexion at the injured lower cervical spine. Our results may assist

  17. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  18. Federal Blue-Collar Employees: A Workforce in Transistion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    should include example, a GAO study of the Mare Island explicit consideration of the needs of the blue-collar downsizing in 1990 noted that the layoff ...setting personnel policies. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15 NUMBER OF PAGES Federal Government, blue-collar workforce, downsizing , performance managem pg...Federal BIW-Colar Emp£lo .: A Workforn in Transition v contents Downsizing in the Blue-Collar W orkforce

  19. Field testing the wildlink capture collar on wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Gese, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Seventeen Wildlink capture collars were tested 61 times on 18 gray wolves (Canis lupus) during 1989-1991 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. Overall success rate was 89%, and most failures were attributable to premature battery expiration. When batteries were changed .ltoreq. every 2 months, 17 of 17 tests succeeded. With an upgraded version of the collar in which batteries lasted longer, 17 of 18 tests succeeded. Over the 2-year study, 6 of the 17 collars were lost. For serially recapturing individuals, the Wildlink collar proved useful and reliable if care was taken to replace batteries at proper intervals.

  20. Teaching picture-to-object relations in picture-based requesting by children with autism: a comparison between error prevention and error correction teaching procedures.

    PubMed

    Carr, D; Felce, J

    2008-04-01

    Children who have a combination of language and developmental disabilities with autism often experience major difficulties in learning relations between objects and their graphic representations. Therefore, they would benefit from teaching procedures that minimize their difficulties in acquiring these relations. This study compared two teaching procedures, an error prevention procedure and an error correction procedure, for teaching relations between objects and pictures. Participants were two groups of children with autism, aged between 3 and 7 years. In the context of picture-to-object requesting, one group was taught using an error correction method and the other group with an error prevention method. The measures for each child were accuracy of correspondences between taught picture and object pairs and accuracy of delayed correspondences in learning outcome tests with all combinations of object and picture pairs presented to them throughout the study. The group receiving the error prevention-based teaching made significantly fewer errors during the teaching phases and in their learning outcome test for correspondences between all combinations of pictures and objects. The error prevention teaching procedure would seem to provide a more efficient and ecologically valid method than the error correction procedure for teaching relations between objects and their graphic-based referents. Improvements in the methodology were suggested for providing a stronger basis for comparison between error correction and error prevention teaching methods.

  1. White collar rhabdomyolysis with acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Bhakthavatsalam, R. K.; Venu, G.; Raju, P. Krishnam; Madhusudan, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome resulting from the disintegration of muscle cell and spillage of toxic intracellular contents into circulation. Strenuous, unaccustomed exercise leads to exertional rhabdomyolysis and cause AKI. We report a 26-year-old female who developed white collar rhabdomyolysis with AKI after performing sit-ups (Super Yoga Brain) for 108 times in temple. She was managed with hemodialysis and supporting therapy. She made a full recovery after 4 weeks. Awareness of this condition and early diagnosis is highlighted. PMID:27942178

  2. Neutron collar calibration for assay of LWR (light-water reactor) fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Pieper, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The neutron-coincidence collar is used for the verification of the uranium content in light-water reactor fuel assemblies. An AmLi neutron source is used to give an active interrogation of the fuel assembly to measure the /sup 235/U content, and the /sup 238/U content is verified from a passive neutron-coincidence measurement. This report gives the collar calibration data of pressurized-water reactor and boiling-water reactor fuel assemblies. Calibration curves and correction factors are presented for neutron absorbers (burnable poisons) and different fuel assembly sizes. The data were collected at Exxon Nuclear, Franco-Belge de Fabrication de Combustibles, ASEA-Atom, and other nuclear fuel fabrication facilities.

  3. Neutron collar calibration and evaluation for assay of LWR fuel assemblies containing burnable neutron absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, P.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Stewart, J.E.; Qiao, S.Z.; Wenz, T.R. ); Verrecchia, G.P.D. . Safeguards Directorate)

    1990-11-01

    The neutron coincidence collar is used to verify the uranium content in light water reactor fuel assemblies. An AmLi neutron source actively interrogates the fuel assembly to measure the {sup 235}U content and the {sup 238}U content can be verified from a passive neutron coincidence measurement. This report gives the collar calibration data for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies both with and without cadmium liners. Calibration curves and correction factors are presented for neutron absorbers (burnable poisons) and various fuel assembly sizes. The data were collected using the Los Alamos BWR and PWR test assemblies as well as fuel assemblies from several fuel fabrication facilities. 11 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  4. Neck Collar with Mild Jugular Vein Compression Ameliorates Brain Activation Changes during a Working Memory Task after a Season of High School Football.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Weihong; Leach, James; Maloney, Thomas; Altaye, Mekibib; Smith, David; Gubanich, Paul J; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher A; Kiefer, Adam W; Myer, Gregory D

    2017-08-15

    Emerging evidence indicates that repetitive head impacts, even at a sub-concussive level, may result in exacerbated or prolonged neurological deficits in athletes. This study aimed to: 1) quantify the effect of repetitive head impacts on the alteration of neuronal activity based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of working memory after a high school football season; and 2) determine whether a neck collar that applies mild jugular vein compression designed to reduce brain energy absorption in head impact through "slosh" mitigation can ameliorate the altered fMRI activation during a working memory task. Participants were recruited from local high school football teams with 27 and 25 athletes assigned to the non-collar and collar group, respectively. A standard N-Back task was used to engage working memory in the fMRI at both pre- and post-season. The two study groups experienced similar head impact frequency and magnitude during the season (all p > 0.05). fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal response (a reflection of the neuronal activity level) during the working memory task increased significantly from pre- to post-season in the non-collar group (corrected p < 0.05), but not in the collar group. Areas displaying less activation change in the collar group (corrected p < 0.05) included the precuneus, inferior parietal cortex, and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, BOLD response in the non-collar group increased significantly in direct association with the total number of impacts and total g-force (p < 0.05). Our data provide initial neuroimaging evidence for the effect of repetitive head impacts on the working memory related brain activity, as well as a potential protective effect that resulted from the use of the purported brain slosh reducing neck collar in contact sports.

  5. A merging scheme for constructing daily precipitation analyses based on objective bias-correction and error estimation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Suping; Luo, Yong; Wu, Tongwen; Shi, Xueli; Wang, Zaizhi

    2015-09-01

    A new merging scheme (referred to as HL-OI) was developed to combine daily precipitation data from high-resolution gauge (HRG) observations, The Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) satellite estimates, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical simulations over China to perform reliable high-resolution daily precipitation analyses. The scheme is designed using a three-step strategy of removing systemic biases, reducing random errors, quantitatively estimating error variances, and combining useful information from each data source. First, a cumulative distribution function matching procedure is adopted to reduce biases and provide unbiased background fields for the following merging processes. Second, the developed error estimation algorithm is implemented to quantify both the background and observation errors from the background departures. Third, the bias-corrected NCEP and CMORPH data are combined with the HRG data using the optimal interpolation (OI) objective analysis technique. The magnitudes and spatial structures of both observation errors and background errors can be estimated successfully. Results of cross-validation experiments show that the HL-OI scheme effectively removes most of systemic biases and random errors in the background fields compared to the independent gauge observations and is robust even with imperfect background fields. The HL-OI merging scheme significantly improves the temporal variations, agreements between the spatial patterns, frequency, and locations of daily precipitation occurrences. When information from gauge observations, satellite estimates, and model simulations are combined simultaneously, the merged multisource analyses perform better than dual-source analyses. These results indicate that each independent information source of daily precipitation contributes to improving the quality of the final merged analyses under the framework of HL-OI scheme.

  6. OBSTACLES TO BLUE-COLLAR PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONDON, JACK; WENKERT, ROBERT

    WITH THE INCREASING LEISURE TIME OF BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS, CONCERN IS GROWING OVER THEIR LOW PARTICIPATION IN ADULT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MYTHS ABOUT BLUE-COLLAR WORKERS WHICH STAND IN THEIR WAY INCLUDE--LOWER CLASS APATHY, INCAPABILITY OF SUSTAINED INTELLECTUAL EFFORT, AND LACK OF APPRECIATION OF THE VALUE OF EDUCATION. OBSTACLES INHERING IN SOCIAL…

  7. 30 CFR 56.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not be collared in bootlegs. Rotary...

  8. A self-adjusting expandable GPS collar for male elk

    Treesearch

    Brian L. Dick; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to use collars on male cervids because their neck size can increase substantially during the rut and also because of growth as the animal matures. We describe how to build a self-adjusting expandable collar for yearling or adult male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to which very high frequency transmitters and global...

  9. US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, HARTZ RABON COLLAR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2011-04-14

    ... cats), do not replace collar until the (puppies are at ... Contains one collar (for all size dogs, cats) Fits ... i~g~tJ~:4~1~~~(~E~~~~~iQ,~;~~pma@)i$jm'i) ...

  10. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22, 7304.23... receipt of a petition filed with the Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX;...

  11. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings 7304... Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX;...

  12. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phase investigation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on drill pipe and drill collars... remanding certain aspects of the Commission's affirmative threat determination in Drill Pipe and...

  13. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drill pipe and drill... defined the subject merchandise as steel drill pipe, and steel drill collars, whether or not conforming...

  14. Sphaeropsis Collar Rot of Red and Jack Pines

    Treesearch

    Glen Stanosz; Linda Haugen; Joseph O' Brien

    2002-01-01

    Sphaeropsis collar rot has been detected in red and jack pines in Wisconsin and Michigan, and it could be affecting pines in other states. This disease may be less familiar than Sphaeropsis shoot blight, but both the incidence and the distribution of collar rot appear to be increasing.

  15. Ergonomic assessment of enhanced protection under body armour combat shirt neck collars.

    PubMed

    Breeze, John; Granger, C J; Pearkes, T D; Clasper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Combat neck injury due to explosively propelled fragments is a significant cause of mortality and long-term morbidity in UK soldiers deployed on current operations. Reinforcing the collar of the existing under body armour combat shirt (UBACS) has been suggested as a potential method for reducing the incidence of combat neck injury. 20 soldiers serving in Afghanistan objectively compared three designs of enhanced protection UBACS (EP-UBACS) using 10 representative military tasks against a baseline of a standard UBACS. Each EP-UBACS design was trialled using three constituent materials: two layers of para-aramid felt, one layer of ultra high molecule weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) felt or two layers of a silk fabric. Subjective assessment of these nine configurations in terms of comfort, heat dissipation and overall acceptability were compared with the standard UBACS using a χ² test. All military tasks could be performed with all nine configurations of EP-UBACS. Although silk was the most comfortable material, it was not functionally practical in any of the three designs. Crossover collars incorporating UHMWPE or para-aramid were the only two of the nine configurations to demonstrate similar user acceptability to a standard UBACS. The EP-UBACS has the potential to provide neck protection without reducing performance incorporating materials analogous to either of the felts assessed in this study. The collar should provide stand-off from the skin to improve heat dissipation and comfort, which can be maximised by changing the current UBACS collar shape to one that crosses over at the front. Should a zip be desired, it should be moved to one side of the midline to reduce rubbing on the chin and be covered with ballistic protective material. Additional semi-circles of silk beneath the collar at the front and back would improve protection without affecting comfort.

  16. [Investigation of the compliance of cervical collar therapy in 73 patients with Hirayama disease].

    PubMed

    Fu, Y; Qin, W; Sun, Q L; Fan, D S

    2016-11-22

    Objective: To summarize the therapeutic approaches of patients with Hirayama disease and investigate the patient's compliance to cervical collar therapy and its influencing factors. Methods: This was a retrospectively study.The clinical data of 73 patients was collected from Peking university 3(rd) hospital between 2010 and 2014. Results: (1)Of the 73 patients, 10 patients received surgery, 36 patients received collar therapy , and 27 patients received other conservative therapy at first visit.(2)The mean collar wearing time was from 0.3 to 36 months (means was 7±11 months). 28 patients (77.8%) wore less than 6 months, only 8 patients (22.2%) wore for more than 1 year. (3)The influencing factors were affecting appearance (33.3%), inconvenience to work (22.2%), surgical treatment performed after the exacerbation of symptoms(14.3%), illness stabilization (9.5%), choosing other conservative therapy (9.5%), personally feeling not seriously (8%) and discomfort while wearing (3.2%). (4)The patients with younger age of onset and treatment were more likely to choose neck care, while patients with older age of onset and treatment tended to choose more conservative treatment(P<0.05). Conclusions: As Hirayama disease can cause disability, application of a cervical collar to minimize neck flexion can prevent progressive muscular weakness in the early stages of the disease. But from our study, the compliance to cervical collar therapy is unsatisfactory.Multiple factors influence the compliance.Education for patients must be enhanced, and other methods to promote the therapeutic compliance should also be developed.

  17. Does the Laser-Microtextured Short Implant Collar Design Reduce Marginal Bone Loss in Comparison with a Machined Collar?

    PubMed Central

    Sirali, Ali; Gultekin, Pinar; Yalcin, Serdar; Mijiritsky, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare marginal bone loss between subgingivally placed short-collar implants with machined collars and those with machined and laser-microtextured collars. Materials and Methods. The investigators used a retrospective study design and included patients who needed missing posterior teeth replaced with implants. Short-collar implants with identical geometries were divided into two groups: an M group, machined collar; and an L group, machined and laser-microtextured collar. Implants were evaluated according to marginal bone loss, implant success, and probing depth (PD) at 3 years of follow-up. Results. Sixty-two patients received 103 implants (56 in the M group and 47 in the L group). The cumulative survival rate was 100%. All implants showed clinically acceptable marginal bone loss, although bone resorption was lower in the L group (0.49 mm) than in the M group (1.38 mm) at 3 years (p < 0.01). A significantly shallower PD was found for the implants in the L group during follow-up (p < 0.01). Conclusions. Our results suggest predictable outcomes with regard to bone loss for both groups; however, bone resorption was less in the L group than in the M group before and after loading. The laser-microtextured collar implant may provide a shallower PD than the machined collar implant. PMID:27660765

  18. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  19. Prison Field Trips: Can White-Collar Criminals Positively Affect the Ethical and Legal Behavior of Marketing and MBA Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    Marketing educators bear some responsibility for teaching ethics and legal issues to their students. Visits to white-collar criminals in a federal prison camp are one method of achieving this task. This article develops and empirically assesses ten objectives for such a visit by MBA and undergraduate marketing classes. Undergraduates rated the…

  20. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  1. Analysis of head impact exposure and brain microstructure response in a season-long application of a jugular vein compression collar: a prospective, neuroimaging investigation in American football.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Yuan, Weihong; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; Smith, David; Leach, James; Kiefer, Adam W; Dicesare, Chris; Adams, Janet; Gubanich, Paul J; Kitchen, Katie; Schneider, Daniel K; Braswell, Daniel; Krueger, Darcy; Altaye, Mekibib

    2016-10-01

    Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season. A prospective longitudinal controlled trial was employed to evaluate the effects of collar wearing (n=32) relative to controls (CTRL; n=30) during one competitive football season (age: 17.04±0.67 years). Impact exposure was collected using helmet sensors and white matter (WM) integrity was quantified based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serving as the primary outcome. With similar overall g-forces and total head impact exposure experienced in the two study groups during the season (p>0.05), significant preseason to postseason changes in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity in the WM integrity were noted in the CTRL group (corrected p<0.05) but not in the collar group (p>0.05). The CTRL group demonstrated significantly larger preseason to postseason DTI change in multiple WM regions compared with the collar group (corrected p<0.05). Reduced WM diffusivity alteration was noted in participants wearing a neck collar after a season of competitive football. Collar wearing may have provided a protective effect against brain microstructural changes after repetitive head impacts. NCT02696200. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Analysis of head impact exposure and brain microstructure response in a season-long application of a jugular vein compression collar: a prospective, neuroimaging investigation in American football

    PubMed Central

    Myer, Gregory D; Yuan, Weihong; Barber Foss, Kim D; Thomas, Staci; Smith, David; Leach, James; Kiefer, Adam W; Dicesare, Chris; Adams, Janet; Gubanich, Paul J; Kitchen, Katie; Schneider, Daniel K; Braswell, Daniel; Krueger, Darcy; Altaye, Mekibib

    2016-01-01

    Background Historical approaches to protect the brain from outside the skull (eg, helmets and mouthpieces) have been ineffective in reducing internal injury to the brain that arises from energy absorption during sports-related collisions. We aimed to evaluate the effects of a neck collar, which applies gentle bilateral jugular vein compression, resulting in cerebral venous engorgement to reduce head impact energy absorption during collision. Specifically, we investigated the effect of collar wearing during head impact exposure on brain microstructure integrity following a competitive high school American football season. Methods A prospective longitudinal controlled trial was employed to evaluate the effects of collar wearing (n=32) relative to controls (CTRL; n=30) during one competitive football season (age: 17.04±0.67 years). Impact exposure was collected using helmet sensors and white matter (WM) integrity was quantified based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) serving as the primary outcome. Results With similar overall g-forces and total head impact exposure experienced in the two study groups during the season (p>0.05), significant preseason to postseason changes in mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity in the WM integrity were noted in the CTRL group (corrected p<0.05) but not in the collar group (p>0.05). The CTRL group demonstrated significantly larger preseason to postseason DTI change in multiple WM regions compared with the collar group (corrected p<0.05). Discussion Reduced WM diffusivity alteration was noted in participants wearing a neck collar after a season of competitive football. Collar wearing may have provided a protective effect against brain microstructural changes after repetitive head impacts. Trial registration number NCT02696200. PMID:27307271

  3. Heterotropic brain tissue presenting as bald cysts with a collar of hypertrophic hair. The 'hair collar' sign.

    PubMed

    Commens, C; Rogers, M; Kan, A

    1989-09-01

    We report the cases of two children who were each noted at birth to have a single bald compressible nodule on the scalp that was surrounded by a collar of hypertrophic hair. One of the mothers had taken doxylamine succinate during pregnancy. Extensive investigations and, finally, surgery revealed that the lesions were heterotropic brain tissue without connection to the brain. Encephaloceles may also have a "hair collar." The presence of a hair collar around any cutaneous lesion should alert the clinician to the possibility of a neuroectodermal defect. All procedures on these lesions should be delayed until appropriate investigations have excluded any connection with the underlying nervous system.

  4. Unintentional strangulation by a cervical collar after attempted suicide by hanging.

    PubMed

    Lemyze, Malcolm; Palud, Aurore; Favory, Raphael; Mathieu, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    We report the case of a young man who attempted suicide by hanging and whose neurological status deteriorated until the cervical collar, that had been correctly placed by the prehospital team, was removed. We discuss the physiopathological mechanisms leading to death in hanging that is, a blockage of the blood stream to the brain leading to vasogenic and cytotoxic cerebral edema rather than asphyxia or spinal fracture. Our case supports the early removal of neck stabilization devices that can dangerously harm the patient after an attempted suicide by hanging, by increasing intracerebral pressure.

  5. FLAT MARBLE MARKER WITH CONCRETE COLLAR – JOHN C. DURBIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLAT MARBLE MARKER WITH CONCRETE COLLAR – JOHN C. DURBIN (ONLY CONFEDERATE BURIAL IN CEMETERY) IN SECTION 1. VIEW TO EAST. - Danville National Cemetery, 1900 East Main Street, Danville, Vermilion County, IL

  6. Why Do We Put Cervical Collars On Conscious Trauma Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Benger, Jonathan; Blackham, Julian

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fracture, unless their conscious level deteriorates or they find the short-term support of a cervical collar helpful. Despite the historical and cultural barriers that exist, the potential benefits are such that this hypothesis merits rigorous testing in well-designed research trials. PMID:19765308

  7. Why do we put cervical collars on conscious trauma patients?

    PubMed

    Benger, Jonathan; Blackham, Julian

    2009-09-18

    In this commentary we argue that fully alert, stable and co-operative trauma patients do not require the application of a semi-rigid cervical collar, even if they are suspected of underlying cervical spine fracture, unless their conscious level deteriorates or they find the short-term support of a cervical collar helpful. Despite the historical and cultural barriers that exist, the potential benefits are such that this hypothesis merits rigorous testing in well-designed research trials.

  8. Political Correctness--Correct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)

  9. Evaluation of Implant Collar Surfaces for Marginal Bone Loss: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. It is important to understand the influence of different collar designs on peri-implant marginal bone loss, especially in the critical area. Objectives. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare dental implants with different collar surfaces, evaluating marginal bone loss and survival rates of implants. Methods. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials, and prospective and retrospective studies, which evaluated dental implants with different collar surface in the same study. Results. Twelve articles were included, with a total of 492 machined, 319 rough-surfaced, and 352 rough-surfaced microthreaded neck implants. There was less marginal bone loss at implants with rough-surfaced and rough-surfaced microthreaded neck than at machined-neck implants (difference in means: 0.321, 95% CI: 0.149 to 0.493; p < 0.01). Conclusion. Rough and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants are considered a predictable treatment for preserving early marginal bone loss. PMID:27493957

  10. Use of cervical collar in temporomandibular dislocation.

    PubMed

    Jaisani, Mehul R; Pradhan, Leeza; Sagtani, Alok

    2015-06-01

    Dislocation of the temporomandibular joint represents 3 % of all reported dislocated joints. In the last 3 decades many cases of TMJ dislocation have been reported with a wide variety of treatment options ranging from non-surgical conservative approaches to open joint procedures. The question remains whether one method is superior to the others. Conservative treatments are still the option in this part of the continent due to financial constraints and as well as due to availability of skilled manpower. A variety of conservative techniques have been described for reducing dislocations, all of which require 10-14 days of immobilization of the jaw post reduction so as to prevent further episodes of dislocation. Immobilization of the jaw can be done in the form of barrel bandage, barton bandage, head chin cap or maxillomandibular fixation using arch bars. We suggest the use of a cervical collar as a form of post reduction immobilization technique to overcome the inherent disadvantages of conventional forms of immobilization techniques.

  11. Does Abutment Collar Length Affect Abutment Screw Loosening After Cyclic Loading?

    PubMed

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Pirmoazen, Salma; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2015-07-01

    A significant vertical space that is corrected with vertical ridge augmentation may necessitate selection of longer abutments, which would lead to an increased vertical cantilever. This study investigated the influence of different abutment collar heights on single-unit dental implant screw-loosening after cyclic loading. Fifteen implant-abutment assemblies each consisted of an internal hexagonal implant were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Group1, consisting of 5 abutments with 1.5 mm gingival height (GH); Group2, 5 abutments with 3.5 mm GH; and Group3, 5 abutments with 5.5 mm GH. Each specimen was mounted in transparent auto-polymerizing acrylic resin block, and the abutment screw was tightened to 35 Ncm with an electric torque wrench. After 5 minutes, initial torque loss (ITL) was recorded for all specimens. Metal crowns were fabricated with 45° occlusal surface and were placed on the abutments. A cyclic load of 75 N and frequency of 1 Hz were applied perpendicular to the long axis of each specimen. After 500 000 cycles, secondary torque loss (STL) was recorded. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate the effects of abutment collar height before and after cyclic loading. One-way ANOVA showed that ITL among the groups was not significantly different (P = .52), while STL was significantly different among the groups (P = .008). Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests showed that STL values were significantly different between the abutments with 1.5 mm GH (Group1) and with 5.5 mm GH (Group3) (P = .007). A paired comparison t-test showed that cyclic loading significantly influenced the STL in comparison with the ITL in each group. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that increase in height of the abutment collar could adversely affect the torque loss of the abutment screw.

  12. Companies Agree to Stop Selling Pet Collars Containing Pesticide to Protect Children

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sergeant's Pet Care Products, Inc. and Wellmark International have agreed to stop producing pet collars containing the pesticide propoxur. This decision resulted from discussions about how to reduce children’s exposure to propoxur in pet collars.

  13. White-collar crime: corporate and securities and commodities fraud.

    PubMed

    Price, Marilyn; Norris, Donna M

    2009-01-01

    In this era of increased interest in white-collar crime, forensic psychiatrists are in a key position to study the individual characteristics of offenders. While a comprehensive theory of high-level white-collar crime should consider societal and organizational contributions, there is value in understanding the personal traits that place an individual at high risk for offending. As the impact of the criminal acts of this group has been increasingly felt by larger groups from all socioeconomic strata, there is less willingness by the public to view these crimes as victimless and harmless.

  14. Shielding effect of thyroid collar for digital panoramic radiography.

    PubMed

    Han, G-S; Cheng, J-G; Li, G; Ma, X-C

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the shielding effect of thyroid collar for digital panoramic radiography. 4 machines [Orthopantomograph(®) OP200 (Instrumentarium Dental, Tuusula, Finland), Orthophos CD (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Bensheim, Germany), Orthophos XG Plus (Sirona Dental Systems GmbH) and ProMax(®) (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland)] were used in this study. Average tissue-absorbed doses were measured using thermoluminescent dosemeter chips in an anthropomorphic phantom. Effective organ and total effective doses were derived according to the International Commission of Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations. The shielding effect of one collar in front and two collars both in front and at the back of the neck was measured. The effective organ doses of the thyroid gland obtained from the 4 panoramic machines were 1.12 μSv for OP200, 2.71 μSv for Orthophos CD, 2.18 μSv for Orthophos XG plus and 2.20 μSv for ProMax, when no thyroid collar was used. When 1 collar was used in front of the neck, the effective organ doses of the thyroid gland were 1.01 μSv (9.8% reduction), 2.45 μSv (9.6% reduction), 1.76 μSv (19.3% reduction) and 1.70 μSv (22.7% reduction), respectively. Significant differences in dose reduction were found for Orthophos XG Plus and ProMax. When two collars were used, the effective organ doses of the thyroid gland were also significantly reduced for the two machines Orthophos XG Plus and ProMax. The same trend was observed in the total effective doses for the four machines. Wearing a thyroid collar was helpful when the direct digital panoramic imaging systems were in use, whereas for the indirect digital panoramic imaging systems, the thyroid collar did not have an extra protective effect on the thyroid gland and whole body.

  15. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-11-19

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies.

  16. Prolonged Sitting is Associated with Attenuated Heart Rate Variability during Sleep in Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Hallman, David M; Sato, Tatiana; Kristiansen, Jesper; Gupta, Nidhi; Skotte, Jørgen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged sitting is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. However, research into the physiological determinants underlying this relationship is still in its infancy. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which occupational and leisure-time sitting are associated with nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) in blue-collar workers. The study included 138 blue-collar workers (mean age 45.5 (SD 9.4) years). Sitting-time was measured objectively for four days using tri-axial accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) worn on the thigh and trunk. During the same period, a heart rate monitor (Actiheart) was used to sample R-R intervals from the electrocardiogram. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were only derived during nighttime sleep, and used as markers of cardiac autonomic modulation. Regression analyses with multiple adjustments (age, gender, body mass index, smoking, job-seniority, physical work-load, influence at work, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) were used to investigate the association between sitting time and nocturnal HRV. We found that occupational sitting-time was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with time and frequency domain HRV indices. Sitting-time explained up to 6% of the variance in HRV, independent of the covariates. Leisure-time sitting was not significantly associated with any HRV indices (p > 0.05). In conclusion, objectively measured occupational sitting-time was associated with reduced nocturnal HRV in blue-collar workers. This indicates an attenuated cardiac autonomic regulation with increasing sitting-time at work regardless of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The implications of this association for cardiovascular disease risk warrant further investigation via long-term prospective studies and intervention studies. PMID:26610534

  17. 76 FR 34978 - Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... AGENCY Petition Supplement Requesting Cancellation of Propoxur Pet Collar Uses; Notice of Availability... pet collar uses for the pesticide propoxur. The petitioner, NRDC, initially requested these cancellations based on their belief that EPA failed to adequately assess residential exposures to pet collars...

  18. An object-specific and dose-sparing scatter correction approach for a dedicated cone-beam breast CT system using a parallel-hole collimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Burkett, George, Jr.; Boone, John M.

    2012-03-01

    X-ray scatter is a common cause of image artifacts for cone-beam CT systems due to the expanded field of view and degrades the quantitative accuracy of measured Hounsfield Units (HU). Due to the strong dependency of scatter on the object being scanned, it is crucial to measure the scatter signal for each object. We propose to use a beam pass array (BPA) composed of parallel-holes within a tungsten plate to measure scatter for a dedicated breast CT system. A complete study of the performance of the BPA was conducted. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of measuring and compensating for the scatter signal for each individual object. Different clinical study schemes were investigated, including a full rotation scan with BPA and discrete projections acquired with BPA followed by interpolation for full rotation. Different sized cylindrical phantoms and a breast shaped polyethylene phantom were used to test for the robustness of the proposed method. Physically measured scatter signals were converted into scatter to primary ratios (SPRs) at discrete locations through the projection image. A complete noise-free 2D SPR was generated from these discrete measurements. SPR results were compared to Monte Carlo simulation results and scatter corrected CT images were quantitatively evaluated for "cupping" artifact. With the proposed method, a reduction of up to 47 HU of "cupping" was demonstrated. In conclusion, the proposed BPA method demonstrated effective and accurate objectspecific scatter correction with the main advantage of dose-sparing compared to beam stop array (BSA) approaches.

  19. Field comparison of tolerance of a collar containing 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin (Seresto) and a placebo collar placed on cats.

    PubMed

    Fink, Heidi; Wennogle, Sara; Davis, Wendell L; Von Simson, Cristiano; Lappin, Michael R

    2016-12-01

    A collar containing 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin (Seresto; Bayer Animal Health) controls flea and tick infestations for 8 months and is effective in preventing transmission of Bartonella henselae and Cytauxzoon felis among cats. The purpose of this study was to compare tolerance of client-owned cats for the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar or a physically identical placebo collar. A total of 96 client-owned cats were enrolled in the study. Cats that were systemically ill, of hairless breed or declawed in all four limbs were excluded. Cats were randomized by household to wear a placebo collar for 14 days followed by the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar for 14 days or the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar for 28 days. Examinations by a veterinarian were performed on days 0, 14 and 28. Owners recorded daily systemic and local health observations. All but two cats, including one that entrapped the mandible in the collar and one that developed local pyodermatitis (10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar), completed the 28 day study. The majority of the local lesions or licking associated with the collars occurred in the first 14 days, and licking (but not skin lesions) was more common in cats wearing the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collars. No local lesions were reported for placebo cats after switching to the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar, and only one cat wearing the 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collar had reports of licking after day 14. Housing status, single or multiple cat household, and whether a collar had been worn previously were not associated with side effects. Adverse events detected for cats wearing 10.0% imidacloprid/4.5% flumethrin collars were similar to those for cats wearing placebo collars and to cats wearing identification collars in a separate study. The data suggest that most cats originally intolerant of collars become receptive over time. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Imidacloprid 10 % / flumethrin 4.5 % collars (Seresto®, Bayer) successfully prevent long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Fourie, Josephus J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the empirical efficacy of imidacloprid 10 %/flumethrin 4.5 % (Seresto®) collars in preventing long-term transmission of Ehrlichia canis by infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks to dogs. The study was a parallel group design, single centre, randomised, non-blinded, controlled, long-term efficacy study. The treatment group of 8 dogs was fitted with Seresto® collars, the untreated control group of 8 dogs received no collars. Ehrlichia canis-infected ticks were released into the dogs sleeping quarters at 14-day intervals up to Day +378. Control group dogs infected with E. canis were continuously replaced to keep the control sample size constant, and a total of 39 control dogs were required. The final clinical examination and blood sampling occurred on Day +420. The primary assessment criterion was the number of dogs infected with E. canis, as confirmed by IFA and PCR, and the secondary criterion was the acaricidal efficacy based on tick counts. All scheduled blood samples taken were subject to analyses for both PCR and IFA, but only positive cases are discussed. Up to Day +378, none of the collar-treated dogs were infected with E. canis, whereas 34 of the 35 untreated dogs enrolled before Day +371 were infected. The acaricidal efficacy of the collar ranged from 90 % to 100 % for the duration of the assessment period.

  1. Female white-collar workers remain at higher risk of breast cancer after adjustments for individual risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Cecilia; Selander, Jenny; Albin, Maria; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to investigate the variation in risk of breast cancer between occupational groups with a focus on white-collar and blue-collar workers and to investigate to what extent the differences were explained by risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Methods Between 1991 and 1996, 14 119 women born between 1923 and 1950 and residents of Malmö, Sweden, were included in this cohort study. Individual data on risk factors (eg, age, parity, age at first child, months of breast feeding per child, hormonal replacement therapy, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, height and body mass index) and occupational history were assessed using a questionnaire. First-time diagnoses of invasive breast cancer were identified through the Swedish Cancer Registry up until 31 December 2013. Results A total of 897 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Analyses adjusted for age showed an increased risk for white-collar workers compared with blue-collar workers and indicated higher risks in the occupational categories: professionals, administrative and bookkeeping than among women in sales, transportation, production and service work. This difference was only marginally attenuated after adjustment for an extensive set of risk factors related to reproduction and lifestyle. Conclusion Reproductive and lifestyle factors explain only a minor part of the increased risk of breast cancer in white-collar workers. Further studies are needed to investigate the remaining factors for the difference in risk between occupational groups. PMID:28456763

  2. The Educational Potential of Blue-Collar Workers in Udmurtia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    A strategically essential area for Russia's economy in the transition to market relations and the unequal development of the sectorial structure is the development of the sphere of production, which is now in a state of instability. The forecasted decline of manpower resources, the aging of blue-collar cadres, and the slump in the number of those…

  3. The Origin of Black Smock and White Collar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesapcioglu, Muhsin; Meseci Giorgetti, Filiz

    2009-01-01

    Although there are many empirical studies on the functions of school uniform, studies which focus on the origins of school uniform are neglected. Purpose of this study is to reveal historical origins of black smock and white collar. To achieve this purpose, a qualitative research method was adopted. As a result of the research, it was determined…

  4. Dynamics of Segregation and Earnings in Brown-Collar Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzarite, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Los Angeles census data showed that recently immigrated Latinos were concentrated in poorly paid, irregular occupations. Their marginalization in these "brown-collar" occupations was accompanied by depreciation in median pay for both immigrant and native workers in these jobs. (Contains 100 references.) (SK)

  5. Turning Blue-Collar Workers into Knowledge Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusimano, James M.

    1995-01-01

    A training approach developed by Management Technology Strategies makes blue-collar employees responsible for their own learning. The adaptable system follows three phases: (1) data and design; (2) documentation; and (3) training. The organization provides trainers, tools, and resources, but employees must be proactively involved in using them.…

  6. Frogmen on Apollo command module boilerplate flotation collar during recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Apollo command module boilerplate floats in the Atlantic Ocean during a practice recovery exercise. Frogmen in a liferaft and on the flotation collar secure the command module boilerplate for hoisting onto a nearby recovery ship. The exercise was conducted in preparation for the forthcoming Apollo-Saturn 201 (AS-201) mission.

  7. Navy frogmen attach flotation collar to Apollo 7 command module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    U.S. Navy frogmen attach a flotation collar to the Apollo 7 command module during recovery operations in the Atlantic. The Apollo 7 spacecraft splashed down at 7:11 a.m., October 22, 1968, approximately 200 nautical miles south-southwest of Bermuda.

  8. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  9. Filter holder assembly having extended collar spacer ring

    DOEpatents

    Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald J.

    2002-01-01

    A filter holder assembly is provided that utilizes a fail-safe regenerator unit with an annular spacer ring having an extended metal collar for containment and positioning of a compliant ceramic gasket used in the assembly. The filter holder assembly is disclosed for use with advanced composite, filament wound, and metal candle filters.

  10. Performance of a beryllium copper nonmagnetic drill collar alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlevey, F.

    1984-09-01

    Laboratory characterization and field testing show the advantages of beryllium copper Alloy 25 for use in non-magnetic drill collars, stabilizers, and subs. Beryllium copper is resistant to stress corrosion cracking failures at elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and dissolved chloride solutions. The alloy is more resistant than stainless steel to galling failure in threaded joints.

  11. Hydrodynamic analysis of elastic floating collars in random waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Yun-peng; Dong, Guo-hai; Li, Yu-cheng

    2015-06-01

    As the main load-bearing component of fish cages, the floating collar supports the whole cage and undergoes large deformations. In this paper, a mathematical method is developed to study the motions and elastic deformations of elastic floating collars in random waves. The irregular wave is simulated by the random phase method and the statistical approach and Fourier transfer are applied to analyze the elastic response in both time and frequency domains. The governing equations of motions are established by Newton's second law, and the governing equations of deformations are obtained based on curved beam theory and modal superposition method. In order to validate the numerical model of the floating collar attacked by random waves, a series of physical model tests are conducted. Good relationship between numerical simulation and experimental observations is obtained. The numerical results indicate that the transfer function of out-of-plane and in-plane deformations increase with the increasing of wave frequency. In the frequency range between 0.6 Hz and 1.1 Hz, a linear relationship exists between the wave elevations and the deformations. The average phase difference between the wave elevation and out-of-plane deformation is 60° with waves leading and the phase between the wave elevation and in-plane deformation is 10° with waves lagging. In addition, the effect of fish net on the elastic response is analyzed. The results suggest that the deformation of the floating collar with fish net is a little larger than that without net.

  12. 30 CFR 57.7056 - Collaring in bootlegs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7056 Collaring in bootlegs. Holes shall not...

  13. Occupations of Federal Blue-Collar Workers. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Manpower Statistics Div.

    The booklet presents the results of the Civil Service Commission's survey of full-time Federal civilian employment as of October 31, 1970. Personnel were reported in almost 1,400 separate occupations and combined into 53 specific job family groups and a "Miscellaneous Occupations" job family. The blue-collar employees made up slightly over 22% of…

  14. The Educational Potential of Blue-Collar Workers in Udmurtia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    A strategically essential area for Russia's economy in the transition to market relations and the unequal development of the sectorial structure is the development of the sphere of production, which is now in a state of instability. The forecasted decline of manpower resources, the aging of blue-collar cadres, and the slump in the number of those…

  15. Histological organization of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) lip.

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Silva, A F; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2007-06-01

    Collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) belongs to the Tayassuidae family that is characterized by a dorsal scent gland located in the middle of the hump. It can be found from south-west United States to Argentina. It is a very well-adapted animal that can survive different environments, having a varied diet. Very little morphological information of the animal is available, except that concerning the reproductive tract. This study describes the histological organization of the collared peccary lip. The lip marks the junction between the integument and digestive system. It is lined by skin on the outer surface and mucosa on the inner surface. Skin appendages such as hair follicles and glands are usually found on the outer surface. The collared peccary's lip shows, on the outer surface, simple and sinus hair follicles as well as sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands. No salivary gland is found on the inner surface, and deep in the connective tissue pacinian corpuscles can be found. The connective tissue is rich in collagen and elastic fibres. The collared peccary's lip may be used not only for food prehension but also functions as a sensitive structure giving tactile input to the central nervous system.

  16. Comparison of Aerosol Delivery by Face Mask and Tracheostomy Collar.

    PubMed

    Bugis, Alaa A; Sheard, Meryl M; Fink, James B; Harwood, Robert J; Ari, Arzu

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a tracheostomy collar, Wright mask, and aerosol mask attached to a jet nebulizer in facilitating aerosolized medication delivery to the lungs. We also compared albuterol delivery with open versus closed fenestration and determined the effect of inspiratory-expiratory ratio (I:E) on aerosol delivery. Albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered to an in vitro model consisting of an adult teaching mannequin extrathoracic and upper airway with stoma intubated with an 8-mm fenestrated tracheostomy tube. The cuff was deflated. A collecting filter at the level of the bronchi was connected to a breathing simulator at a tidal volume of 400 mL, breathing frequency of 20 breaths/min, and I:E of 2:1 and 1:2. A jet nebulizer was operated with O2 at 8 L/min. Each interface was tested in triplicate. The flow was discontinued at the end of nebulization. For each test, the nebulizer was attached to a tracheostomy collar with the fenestration open or closed, a Wright mask, or an aerosol mask. Drug was analyzed by spectrophotometry (276 nm). A paired t test and analysis of variance were performed (P < .05). The mean ± SD percent albuterol dose delivered distal to the bronchi was greater with the tracheostomy collar with a closed fenestration (9.4 ± 1.5%) compared with an open fenestration (7.0 ± 0.8%). The doses delivered with the Wright mask (4.1 ± 0.6%) and aerosol mask (3.5 ± 0.04%) were both less than with the tracheostomy collar under either condition (P < .05). Increasing the I:E from 1:2 to 2:1 increased aerosol delivery by 2.5-4%, with significance for the tracheostomy collar with an open fenestration (11.6 ± 1.4%), Wright mask (7.2 ± 0.6%), and aerosol mask (6.1 ± 0.5%). In an adult tracheostomy model, the tracheostomy collar delivered more aerosol to the bronchi than the Wright or aerosol mask. An I:E of 2:1 caused greater aerosol deposition compared with an I:E of 1:2. During aerosol administration via a

  17. The Effect of Soft and Rigid Cervical Collars on Head and Neck Immobilization in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Barati, Kourosh; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Vameghi, Roshanak; Abdoli, Ali; Farmani, Farzad

    2017-06-01

    Whiplash injury is a prevalent and often destructive injury of the cervical column, which can lead to serious neck pain. Many approaches have been suggested for the treatment of whiplash injury, including anti-inflammatory drugs, manipulation, supervised exercise, and cervical collars. Cervical collars are generally divided into two groups: soft and rigid collars. The present study aimed to compare the effect of soft and rigid cervical collars on immobilizing head and neck motion. Many studies have investigated the effect of collars on neck motion. Rigid collars have been shown to provide more immobilization in the sagittal and transverse planes compared with soft collars. However, according to some studies, soft and rigid collars provide the same range of motion in the frontal plane. Twenty-nine healthy subjects aged 18-26 participated in this study. Data were collected using a three-dimensional motion analysis system and six infrared cameras. Eight markers, weighing 4.4 g and thickened 2 cm(2) were used to record kinematic data. According to the normality of the data, a paired t-test was used for statistical analyses. The level of significance was set at α=0.01. All motion significantly decreased when subjects used soft collars (p<0.01). According to the obtained data, flexion and lateral rotation experienced the maximum (39%) and minimum (11%) immobilization in all six motions using soft collars. Rigid collars caused maximum immobilization in flexion (59%) and minimum immobilization in the lateral rotation (18%) and limited all motion much more than the soft collar. This study showed that different cervical collars have different effects on neck motion. Rigid and soft cervical collars used in the present study limited the neck motion in both directions. Rigid collars contributed to significantly more immobilization in all directions.

  18. Home Matters: Work and household predictors of smoking and cessation among blue-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Okechukwu, CA; Dutra, LM; Bacic, J.; El Ayadi, A.; Emmons, KM.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined the joint influence of work- and household-related variables on smoking behavior among a population representative sample of blue-collar workers with live-in partners. Methods The study used data on 1,389 blue-collar workers from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the United States Current Population Survey 2002 to 2003 longitudinal overlap sample. Unadjusted and adjusted logistical regression analyses, which employed sampling and replicate weights to account for sampling design, were run to estimate independent and joint effects of the predictors. Results In adjusted analyses, partner smoking (OR=4.97, 95%CI=3.02–8.18) and complete and partial home smoking policy (OR=0.16, 95%CI=0.09–0.29 and OR=0.39, 95%CI=0.23–0.68, respectively) were significant predictors of smoking status, but worksite smoking policies and presence of a young child under 5 in the household were not (p>0.05). Baseline complete home smoking ban was a significant predictor of subsequent cessation (OR=3.49, 95%CI=1.19–10.23), while partner smoking status, workplace smoking policy, and the presence of a young child in the home did not predict cessation (p>0.05). Conclusion Household-related variables were significant predictors of smoking status and cessation among blue-collar workers. Current efforts to decrease smoking in this group, which are mostly focused on work-related risk factors, should consider how to incorporate household risk factors. PMID:23262360

  19. Men's mobility into management from blue collar and white collar jobs: race differences across the early work-career.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Maume, David

    2014-07-01

    Within the context of the "particularistic mobility thesis" we examine racial differences in the incidence, and determinants of, as well as timing to, mobility into management across the critical early career years at a refined level, namely, when groups share similar white collar and blue collar jobs. Findings from a Panel Study of Income Dynamics sample of men support theory and indicate that from both job levels a racial hierarchy exists: African Americans have the lowest rate of mobility, reach management through a route that is relatively formal and structured by a traditional range of stratification-based causal factors and take longest to reach management. Whites, in contrast, have the highest mobility rate, reach management through a relatively informal path that is less structured by traditional stratification-based factors, and reach management the quickest, and, across all three issues Latinos occupy an intermediate ground between African Americans and Latinos. Further, as predicted by theory, racial differences, particularly, relative to whites, are greater among those tracked from blue collar jobs than white collar jobs. Discussed are implications of the findings for understanding racial disadvantage in the American labor market across the work-career and on an inter-generational basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Level of education, lifestyle, and morbidity in two groups of white collar workers.

    PubMed Central

    Leclerc, A; Pietri, F; Boitel, L; Chastang, J F; Carval, P; Blondet, M

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to examine the relationship between level of education, lifestyle, and morbidity in two groups of male white collar workers, and to determine whether any differences found could be related to objective differences in working conditions. DESIGN--The study was a survey of a random sample of commercial travellers and a sample of men with sedentary occupations, representing two different groups of white collar workers. Survey interviews were conducted during the annual compulsory medical examination. Subjects were classified into three levels of education and differences according to level of education were studied in relation to 40 frequent health problems, lifestyle variables, body mass index, height, and working conditions. SUBJECTS--There were 1364 men in the commercial traveller group, mean age 39.5 years, and 525 men in the sedentary group, mean age 36.2 years. There were 22 exclusions because of unclassifiable levels of education and four refused to be interviewed. SETTING--The study took place in 11 towns in France. MAIN RESULTS--When age was taken into account there were only minor differences in the prevalence of health disorders. Lifestyle variables and height were clearly related to the level of education. Observed differences could not be explained by constraints or declared difficulties in working conditions. CONCLUSIONS--Differences in health practices related to level of education are observed even in groups that are relatively homogeneous socially. Lifestyle may be important as an intermediate determinant of health disorders among less educated people. PMID:1431717

  1. Comparative activity in dogs of deltamethrin- and diazinon-impregnated collars against Ctenocephalides felis.

    PubMed

    Franc, M; Cadiergues, M C

    1998-01-01

    To compare effectiveness of deltamethrin- and diazinon-impregnated collars against fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) in an experimental infestation. 30 Beagles. Dogs were housed in separate cages. Dogs were infested with 50 fleas each, and fleas were counted 24 hours later. Dogs were then fitted with a collar containing 4% deltamethrin (group 1) or 15% diazinon (group 2). Dogs in group 3 were controls. Fleas were counted 24 and 48 hours after collars were applied, and fleas were then removed. Dogs were reinfested with fleas on days 7, 14, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 210. Fleas were counted 24 and 48 hours after each reinfestation. 48 hours after applying collars, flea counts were not notably decreased. Effectiveness in groups 1 and 2 was 24 and 29%, respectively. Infestation on day 7 was controlled, to a comparable extent, by both insecticides (effectiveness approx 85%). Effectiveness > 97% was obtained after collars had been worn for 14 days. Between days 14 and 91, both collars had comparable effectiveness (> 93%) that did not differ significantly. After day 91, effectiveness of the collar containing diazinon decreased sharply, whereas that of the collar containing deltamethrin remained > 90% until day 152. The collar containing deltamethrin controlled flea populations on dogs beginning 14 days after application and continuing until day 150. The collar containing diazinon controlled infestation for 90 days. Deltamethrin-impregnated collars are a new formulation that can be introduced into a program to easily control fleas.

  2. Use of tapered key collars in dipole models for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.; Mirk, K.; Wandesforde, A.; Taylor, C.

    1987-09-01

    Three one-meter SSC type dipole magnet models have been constructed and tested using tapered keys to lock interleaving aluminum alloy collars around the coils. This design enables the coil prestress to be created by hoop tention in the collars as the keys are pressed in. This method minimizes the high coil overstress required to insert traditional non-tapered keys. In particular, collaring may be accomplished without exceeding 10,000 psi coil pressure while producing in excess of 7500 psi coil pressure after collaring. Significantly, this design enables aluminum collars to be used with their advantage of maintaining coil prestress during cooldown. Coil prestress measured during and after the collaring of the three one-meter models will be given. A description of the design, including FEA analysis, and the forces required to key the collars, will be given.

  3. Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck–shoulder pain? A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck–shoulder pain across 1 year in blue-collar workers. Methods Data were analysed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPHACTO) cohort study (2012–2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0–10) in the neck–shoulder region was registered for 1 year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear mixed models were used to determine the relationship between per cent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck–shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity. Results More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12 months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027). Conclusions In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favourable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behaviour among blue-collar workers can be developed. PMID:28186937

  4. Numerical study of the collar wave characteristics and the effects of grooves in acoustic logging while drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yufeng; Guan, Wei; Hu, Hengshan; Xu, Minqiang

    2017-05-01

    Large-amplitude collar wave covering formation signals is still a tough problem in acoustic logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements. In this study, we investigate the propagation and energy radiation characteristics of the monopole collar wave and the effects of grooves on reducing the interference to formation waves by finite-difference calculations. We found that the collar wave radiates significant energy into the formation by comparing the waveforms between a collar within an infinite fluid, and the acoustic LWD in different formations with either an intact or a truncated collar. The collar wave recorded on the outer surface of the collar consists of the outward-radiated energy direct from the collar (direct collar wave) and that reflected back from the borehole wall (reflected collar wave). All these indicate that the significant effects of the borehole-formation structure on collar wave were underestimated in previous studies. From the simulations of acoustic LWD with a grooved collar, we found that grooves broaden the frequency region of low collar-wave excitation and attenuate most of the energy of the interference waves by multireflections. However, grooves extend the duration of the collar wave and convert part of the collar-wave energy originally kept in the collar into long-duration Stoneley wave. Interior grooves are preferable to exterior ones because both the low-frequency and the high-frequency parts of the collar wave can be reduced and the converted inner Stoneley wave is relatively difficult to be recorded on the outer surface of the collar. Deeper grooves weaken the collar wave more greatly, but they result in larger converted Stoneley wave especially for the exterior ones. The interference waves, not only the direct collar wave but also the reflected collar wave and the converted Stoneley waves, should be overall considered for tool design.

  5. Song discrimination by nestling collared flycatchers during early development

    PubMed Central

    Söderberg, Axel; Wheatcroft, David; Qvarnström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Pre-zygotic isolation is often maintained by species-specific signals and preferences. However, in species where signals are learnt, as in songbirds, learning errors can lead to costly hybridization. Song discrimination expressed during early developmental stages may ensure selective learning later in life but can be difficult to demonstrate before behavioural responses are obvious. Here, we use a novel method, measuring changes in metabolic rate, to detect song perception and discrimination in collared flycatcher embryos and nestlings. We found that nestlings as early as 7 days old respond to song with increased metabolic rate, and, by 9 days old, have increased metabolic rate when listening to conspecific when compared with heterospecific song. This early discrimination between songs probably leads to fewer heterospecific matings, and thus higher fitness of collared flycatchers living in sympatry with closely related species. PMID:27405379

  6. Catechin content and consumption ratio of the collared lemming.

    PubMed

    Berg, Thomas B

    2003-04-01

    Chemical- plant defences as mechanisms affecting herbivore populations have been debated during the past decade. Several authors have questioned the hypothesis, but the present study shows that collared lemmings ( Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) in northeast Greenland prefer food plants with a lower catechin content. Dicrostonyx species are known to have specialised on shrubs, especially Dryas spp. and Salix spp., rather than graminoids like other related microtines. Bioassays were conducted using food material from Dryas spp., Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum, Kobresia myosuroides and Poa glauca. Enclosures with the first three species mentioned were further treated by clipping to simulate herbivory in order to induce the production of the plant defence compound catechin. Treatment increased the catechin content in Dryas spp., S. arctica (females only) and V. uliginosum significantly compared with the catechin concentration in untreated plants. These elevated catechin concentrations had a significantly negative effect on the consumption rate of Dryas spp. and female S. arctica by collared lemmings.

  7. Performance of differential GPS collars in temperate mountain forest.

    PubMed

    Janeau, Georges; Adrados, Christophe; Joachim, Jean; Gendner, Jean-Paul; Pépin, Dominique

    2004-12-01

    To determine the performance of Global Positioning System (GPS) for habitat studies in free-ranging animals, we tested differential 6- and 8-channel GPS collars under six representative canopies and one open-field reference site in the 'Parc national des Cévennes', southern France. The proportion of successful locations decreased under taller trees and worsened with snow accumulation in mixed coniferous habitats. The mean location success of seven free-ranging red deer fitted with 6-channel GPS collars in the same study area increased with a shorter interval between location attempts and during the leaf-off period. Our data suggested that the differences in location success between leaf-on and leaf-off periods might reflect shifts in habitat use rather than a leaf effect under deciduous trees.

  8. Ultrafine cement seals slow leak in casing collar

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Eachern, D. ); Young, S.C. )

    1992-09-07

    This paper reports that an ultrafine cement squeeze effectively sealed a difficult casing collar leak in the protective casing in a deep, high-temperature well in Mobile Bay. The leak was sealed in one operation without perforating the casing, giving greater confidence in casing integrity and allowing the well to be drilled to total depth (TD). Restoring pressure integrity of the casing with this procedure saved approximately $250,000.

  9. Fix success and accuracy of GPS radio collars in old-growth temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sager-Fradkin, Kimberly A.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Hoffman, Robert L.; Happe, P.; Beecham, J.; Wright, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry is used extensively to study animal distribution and resource selection patterns but is susceptible to biases resulting from data omission and spatial inaccuracies. These data errors may cause misinterpretation of wildlife habitat selection or spatial use patterns. We used both stationary test collars and collared free-ranging American black bears (Ursus americanus) to quantify systemic data loss and location error of GPS telemetry in mountainous, old-growth temperate forests of Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. We developed predictive models of environmental factors that influence the probability of obtaining GPS locations and evaluated the ability of weighting factors derived from these models to mitigate data omission biases from collared bears. We also examined the effects of microhabitat on collar fix success rate and examined collar accuracy as related to elevation changes between successive fixes. The probability of collars successfully obtaining location fixes was positively associated with elevation and unobstructed satellite view and was negatively affected by the interaction of overstory canopy and satellite view. Test collars were 33% more successful at acquiring fixes than those on bears. Fix success rates of collared bears varied seasonally and diurnally. Application of weighting factors to individual collared bear fixes recouped only 6% of lost data and failed to reduce seasonal or diurnal variation in fix success, suggesting that variables not included in our model contributed to data loss. Test collars placed to mimic bear bedding sites received 16% fewer fixes than randomly placed collars, indicating that microhabitat selection may contribute to data loss for wildlife equipped with GPS collars. Horizontal collar errors of >800 m occurred when elevation changes between successive fixes were >400 m. We conclude that significant limitations remain in accounting for data loss and error inherent in using

  10. Evaluation of 3 radio transmitters and collar designs for Amazona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    I evaluated 3 radio transmitter attachments and designs for adult parrots. Two of the transmitters and attachments were similar to those used previously in the study on fledgling and adult parrots. I designed, in collaboration with the manufacturer, a third transmitter and attachment that provided protection of key areas from chewing and eventual destruction of the attachment or transmitter. This design was used successfully to radio-track parrots an average of 43.4 weeks (range = 35.9-51.6 weeks). It was the only transmitter of the 3 tested to operate without failure (>36 weeks) caused by chewing damage to the transmitter, antenna, collar, or attachment mechanism (Fisher's exact test, 3 df, P = 0.0003). Its adjustable collar, made from 59 kg-test stainless steel wire covered with plastic heat-shrink tubing, was sturdy and easy to apply. Transmitters for parrots should be enclosed in a protective metal case (brass) and have metal crimped tubes (brass or copper) protecting key areas, such as the base of the antenna and mechanism for attachment of the collar.

  11. A new fast neutron collar for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low enriched uranium fuel assemblies containing burnable poison rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Louise G.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Schwalbach, Peter; Baere, Paul De; Browne, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Safeguards inspection measurements must be performed in a timely manner in order to detect the diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material. A shorter measurement time can increase the number of items that a nuclear safeguards inspector can reliably measure during a period of access to a nuclear facility. In turn, this improves the reliability of the acquired statistical sample, which is used to inform decisions regarding compliance. Safeguards inspection measurements should also maintain independence from facility operator declarations. Existing neutron collars employ thermal neutron interrogation for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh fuel assemblies. A new fast neutron collar has been developed for safeguards inspection measurements of fresh low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel assemblies containing gadolinia (Gd2O3) burnable poison rods. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC) was designed with high neutron detection efficiency to make a fast (Cd) mode measurement viable whilst meeting the high counting precision and short assay time requirements of the Euratom safeguards inspectorate. A fast mode measurement reduces the instrument sensitivity to burnable poison rod content and therefore reduces the applied poison correction, consequently reducing the dependence on the operator declaration of the poison content within an assembly. The EFC non-destructive assay (NDA) of typical modern European pressurized water reactor (PWR) fresh fuel assembly designs have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-particle extended transport code (MCNPX) simulations. Simulations predict that the EFC can achieve 2% relative statistical uncertainty on the doubles neutron counting rate for a fast mode measurement in an assay time of 600 s (10 min) with the available 241AmLi (α,n) interrogation source strength of 5.7×104 s-1. Furthermore, the calibration range of the new collar has been extended to verify 235U content in variable PWR fuel designs in the presence of up to 32

  12. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  13. [White-collar criminals--a homogenous offender population? Reflections on typical and atypical "white-collar criminals"].

    PubMed

    Knecht, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Little has been written in German scientific literature on the personality structure of white-collar criminals. Often, the relevance of this level of investigation has downright been denied. Conventional psychopathology does not seem to be an appropriate approach to these character problems since there are not only deficits but also competences to be found which are useful while making a professional career. The author points out the inhomogeneity of this offender population and presents a case report of an atypical white-collar criminal. Over and above that, he introduces two psychological concepts which are apt to better describe the peculiarities of these individuals: Machiavellian intelligence is often the core competence when it comes to rising in hierarchies, whereas the newly defined psychopathy concept according to R. D. Hare makes plausible the moral and ethical failure of these offenders in their professional settings.

  14. Increased Executive Functioning, Attention, and Cortical Thickness in White-Collar Criminals

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S.; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W.

    2011-01-01

    Very little is known on white collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared to offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared to controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals It is hypothesized that white collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings. PMID:22002326

  15. Increased executive functioning, attention, and cortical thickness in white-collar criminals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Laufer, William S; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W

    2012-12-01

    Very little is known on white-collar crime and how it differs to other forms of offending. This study tests the hypothesis that white-collar criminals have better executive functioning, enhanced information processing, and structural brain superiorities compared with offender controls. Using a case-control design, executive functioning, orienting, and cortical thickness was assessed in 21 white-collar criminals matched with 21 controls on age, gender, ethnicity, and general level of criminal offending. White-collar criminals had significantly better executive functioning, increased electrodermal orienting, increased arousal, and increased cortical gray matter thickness in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and the temporal-parietal junction compared with controls. Results, while initial, constitute the first findings on neurobiological characteristics of white-collar criminals. It is hypothesized that white-collar criminals have information-processing and brain superiorities that give them an advantage in perpetrating criminal offenses in occupational settings.

  16. Field testing of commercially manufactured capture collars on white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Chapman, R.C.; Kreeger, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    We conducted 31 tests of commercially manufactured capture collars on female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, under temperatures from -37C to 22C. Deer were recaptured in 28 of the 31 tests; in the 3 failures, we remotely released the collars from the deer. Communication with the collars was achieved from up to 3.0 km on the ground and 26.5 km from the air.

  17. Chagas disease control: deltamethrin-treated collars reduce Triatoma infestans feeding success on dogs.

    PubMed

    Reithinger, Richard; Ceballos, Leonardo; Stariolo, Raúl; Davies, Clive R; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2005-07-01

    Dogs are domestic reservoir hosts of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Using an experimental set-up mimicking rural mud-and-thatch houses, we evaluated the effect of deltamethrin-treated dog collars on the feeding success and survival of Triatoma infestans, the main T. cruzi vector in Latin America. Seven collared and three uncollared control dogs were exposed to colonized T. infestans at day 0 (i.e. before attachment of collars), at 15 days, and then monthly for 3 months post collar attachment. Following overnight exposure to uncollared dogs, 96% (1473/1538) of bugs fed, of which 51% (746/1473) fully engorged. Feeding rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs for up to 1 month post collar attachment with the lowest rates of 91% (551/604) observed at day 30 (P<0.05). Amongst those bugs that fed, engorgement rates were significantly reduced on collared dogs throughout the trial, during which average rates were 31% (543/1768) (P<0.001). No collar effect on individual bug survival was observed. Although observed effects on feeding and engorgement were limited, the strong association between blood-feeding, blood meal size and T. cruzi transmission suggests that deltamethrin-treated dog collars could help to control canine (and possibly human) T. cruzi infection.

  18. A beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to nutria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; White, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an approximately 85-g beaded collar for dual micro GPS/VHF transmitter attachment to semi-aquatic nutria (Myocastor coypus). Prototype collars were tested on captive nutria and refined during field trials. Central to the design was novel use of the VHF transmitter antenna as a collar. A circular collar was formed by passing the 44-cm antenna cable through a pre-made hole in the transmitter, leaving an approximately 16-cm upright antenna. GPS units were mounted separately via a hole in the base of each unit. For good satellite contact, GPS units (28 g) were maintained at the nape of the neck by counterbalance of the heavier VHF transmitters (50 g) positioned under the neck. To reduce friction, we lined the collar with alternate-sized plastic and, later, more durable nylon beads. The final collar configuration was worn for approximately 1 month deployments with only minor neck abrasion; one collar was worn successfully for 5 months. Foot entanglement remained the greatest risk of injury from the collar. By fitting collars tightly, we reduced the incidence of foot entanglement to 2 of 33 deployments (6%). Successful GPS tracks were acquired on 29 of 33 deployments (88%).

  19. Organizational justice is related to heart rate variability in white-collar workers, but not in blue-collar workers-findings from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Herr, Raphael M; Bosch, Jos A; van Vianen, Annelies E M; Jarczok, Marc N; Thayer, Julian F; Li, Jian; Schmidt, Burkhard; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2015-06-01

    Perceived injustice at work predicts coronary heart disease. Vagal dysregulation represents a potential psychobiological pathway. We examined associations between organizational justice and heart rate variability (HRV) indicators. Grounded in social exchange and psychological contract theory, we tested predictions that these associations are more pronounced among white-collar than among blue-collar workers. Cross-sectional data from 222 blue-collar and 179 white-collar men were used. Interactional and procedural justice were measured by questionnaire. Ambulatory HRV was assessed across 24 h. Standardized regression coefficients (β) were calculated. Among white-collar workers, interactional justice showed positive relationships with 24-h HRV, which were strongest during sleeping time (adjusted βs≥0.26; p values≤0.01). No associations were found for blue-collar workers. A comparable but attenuated pattern was observed for procedural justice. Both dimensions of organizational injustice were associated with lowered HRV among white-collar workers. The impact of justice and possibly its association with health seems to differ by occupational groups.

  20. Ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary, Pecari tajacu (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Diva Anelie; de Garcia, Sylvia Cristina Garcia; Ferreira, Maria Auxiliadora Pantoja; da Silva, Suleima do Socorro Bastos; de Albuquerque, Natália Inagaki; Le Pendu, Yvonnick

    2012-03-01

    The sustainability and production of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) has been studied in the last few years; however, further information on its reproduction is necessary for breeding systems success. Understanding folliculogenesis aspects will contribute to effective reproductive biotechniques, which are useful in the preservation and production of wildlife. The aim of this study was-to evaluate the ovarian folliculogenesis in collared peccary. Ovaries from six adult females of collared peccary were obtained through ovariectomy and analyzed. These were fixed in aqueous Bouin's solution and sectioned into 7 microm slices, stained with hematoxilin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. The number of pre-antral and antral follicles per ovary was estimated using the Fractionator Method. The follicles, oocytes and oocyte nuclei were measured using an ocular micrometer. Results showed that the length, width, thickness, weight, and the gross anatomy of the right and left ovaries were not significantly different. However, the mean number of corpora lutea was different between the phases of the estrous cycle (p<0.05), with the highest mean in the luteal phase. Primordial follicles were found in the cortex; the oocytes were enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells. In the primary follicles, proliferation of the follicular cells gave rise to cuboidal cells (granulosa cells). The secondary follicle was characterized by two or more concentric layers of cuboidal cells (granulosa), beginning of antrum formation, and the presence of pellucid zone and theca cells. Antral follicles were characterized by a central cavity (antrum), the presence of cumulus oophorus and theca layers (interna and externa). In the right ovary, the values of the primordial and primary follicles were similar, but significantly different from the secondary ones (p<0.05). In the left ovary, significant differences were observed between all follicles in the follicular phase (p<0.05); the

  1. Performance of a beryllium copper nonmagnetic drill collar alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlevey, F.

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory characterization and extensive field service show the advantages of beryllium copper Brush Alloy 25 for use in nonmagnetic drill collars (NMDC)'s, stabilizers, and subs. Beryllium copper is resistant to stress-corrosion-cracking (SCC) failures at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of H/sub 2/S and dissolved chloride solutions. The alloy is more resistant than stainless steel to galling failure in threaded joints. Its magnetic permeability is lower than stainless steel and is unaffected by service conditions.

  2. Iliopsoas tendonitis caused by overhang of a collared femoral prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Brew, Christopher J; Stockley, Ian; Grainger, Andrew J; Stone, Martin H

    2011-04-01

    Pain after total hip arthroplasty can be due to a variety of causes, one of the less common being iliopsoas tendonitis. We report an unusual case of iliopsoas tendonitis caused by overhang of the femoral calcar by a collared femoral prosthesis resulting in impingement on the iliopsoas tendon. An ultrasound-guided corticosteroid and local anesthetic diagnostic injection to the site of impingement confirmed the diagnosis with temporary symptom relief. Revision of the femoral stem to a collarless prosthesis resulted in immediate and complete resolution of symptoms.

  3. Hypospadias repair with the glanular-frenular collar (GFC) technique.

    PubMed

    Özbey, Hüseyin; Etker, Şeref

    2017-02-01

    In the normal human penis, the glans wings merge in the midline ventrally, but are separated by the 'septum glandis' in conjunction with the frenulum. The frenulum is also included in the formation of the distal (glanular and subcoronal) urethra, which has a special part known as the 'fossa navicularis'. This has inspired a hypospadias repair technique that simulates the development of the glanular and subcoronal urethra, which can be incorporated into the repair of all cases of hypospadias. A total of 121 patients with varying degrees of hypospadias underwent surgery with the described technique: a Y-V plasty was used to dissect the inner foreskin, in a fashion that allowed for its ventral mobilization as a frenular mucosal collar. After tubularization of the proximal urethra, a partial spongioplasty was performed that extended up to the subcoronal level. The glans wings were approximated only at their outermost convexities, with a couple of subepithelial sutures, leaving a slit for the meatus. The cleft-like area between the split wings of the glans penis was filled with the terminal ends of the spongiosum and the dartos of the mucosal collar, which converged to form a septum and a neo-frenulum (glanular-frenular collar, GFC). The midline skin closure of the ventral collar and the circumferential foreskin closure was completed as usual. At a mean follow-up of 10 months, two patients developed urethral fistula (2%), six had meatal stenosis (5%), and two had glans dehiscence (2%) that resulted in meatal retraction. Overall, patients had a cosmetically satisfying appearance (Figure). Forty-one received secondary circumcision; the parents of 80 (66%) patients were satisfied with the final foreskin appearance obtained with this method. The split wings of the glans penis or so-called ventral cleft between the glans wings that accommodate the frenulum is part of normal anatomy. Hence, in hypospadias surgery, the approximated glans wings should allow for ventral support

  4. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing Boron-10 Lined Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Jeremy L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-09-18

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of a 3He proportional counter alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a system based upon 10B-lined proportional tubes in a configuration typical for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. This report, providing results for model development of Alternative Boron-Based Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (ABUNCL) designs, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project.

  5. The company man: a case of white-collar crime.

    PubMed

    Brottman, Mikita

    2009-06-01

    Insider trading scandals on Wall Street have focused public attention on the abuse of money and power in the service of greed. The analytic situation described in this paper involves a patient who was involved in a major white-collar crime in the 1990s and imprisoned on charges of fraud. Release from prison brought his anxieties about money, work, and masculinity into sharp focus. The paper explores the some of the emotional conflicts and confusion around corporate success and failure, and the particular issues that arise when people identify themselves with the company they work for, something that corporate culture has always encouraged.

  6. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas and ticks on cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objectives of the studies listed here were to ascertain the therapeutic and sustained efficacy of 10% imidacloprid (w/w) and 4.5% flumethrin (w/w) incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against laboratory-infestations of fleas and ticks on cats. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, and the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Amblyomma americanum and Rhipicephalus turanicus. The number of studies was so large that only a general overview can be presented in this abstract. Methods Preventive efficacy was evaluated by infesting groups of cats (n = 8-10) with C. felis felis and/or I. ricinus, A. americanum or R. turanicus at monthly intervals at least, for a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after infestation, and against ticks at 6 h (repellent) or 48 h (acaricidal) after infestation. Efficacy against flea larvae was evaluated over a period of 8 months by incubating viable flea eggs on blanket samples after cat contact. In all cases efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95% until study termination. In vitro efficacy against flea larvae exceeded 92% until Day 90 and then declined to 67% at the conclusion of the study on Day 230. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy over a period of eight months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus from Day 2 after treatment, 100% against A. americanum, except for 98.5% and 97.7% at two time-points, and between 94% and 100% against R. turanicus. From Day 2 until 8 months after treatment the repellent (6 h), efficacy was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and between 54.8% and 85.4% against R. turanicus. Conclusion The rapid insecticidal and acaricidal properties of the medicated collars against newly- acquired infestations of fleas and ticks and their sustained high levels of preventive efficacy have been clearly demonstrated

  7. The Accumulation of Educational Capital among Young Blue-Collar Workers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on young blue-collar workers in Russia indicates that a large percentage of them continue to improve their educational qualifications during the first five years of employment, but that it declines after that time. The two most frequent reasons for upgrading their skills are a desire to leave blue-collar employment, and to increase the…

  8. Research Note: Assessing the Perceived Seriousness of White-Collar and Street Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…

  9. Career and Technical Education: Pursuing a Pipeline for the New Green-Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy; Varela, Erika

    2009-01-01

    As the white- and blue-collar jobs are thinning because of the economic downturn, the economy is being rejuvenated by a new color of collar jobs--green. Green jobs encompass a range of skills, educational backgrounds and occupational profiles. The green industry has been recognized as a high-growth workforce sector because of the demand for…

  10. Research Note: Assessing the Perceived Seriousness of White-Collar and Street Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Carmichael, Stephanie; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Controversy surrounds the ranking of crime seriousness of white-collar crimes relative to street crimes, with early research suggesting the general public is indifferent to crimes of the elite, whereas more recent research indicates that the public thinks certain types of white-collar crime are serious. Building on prior research limitations and…

  11. The Accumulation of Educational Capital among Young Blue-Collar Workers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherednichenko, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on young blue-collar workers in Russia indicates that a large percentage of them continue to improve their educational qualifications during the first five years of employment, but that it declines after that time. The two most frequent reasons for upgrading their skills are a desire to leave blue-collar employment, and to increase the…

  12. White-Collar Crime, Legal Sanctions, and Social Control: "Idols of the Theatre" in Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, John C., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Recent literature on the control of white-collar crime has often glossed over the sociolegal effect of the attitudes held by persons charged with the responsibility of determining criminal guilt. On many occasions, the factually guilty white-collar offender is not regarded by trial jurors as an offender. (Author)

  13. GPS radio collar 3D performance as influenced by forest structure and topography

    Treesearch

    R. Scott Gamo; Mark A. Rumble; Fred Lindzey; Matt Stefanich

    2000-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry enables biologists to obtain accurate and systematic locations of animals. Vegetation can block signals from satellites to GPS radio collars. Therefore, a vegetation dependent bias to telemetry data may occur which if quantified, could be accounted for. We evaluated the performance of GPS collars in 6 structural stage...

  14. 78 FR 23592 - Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Bark Control Collars, Termination of the Investigation AGENCY: U.S....usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket... certain electronic bark control collars by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5...

  15. Prophylactic treatment of flea-infested dogs with an imidacloprid / flumethrin collar (Seresto®, Bayer) to preempt infection with Dipylidium caninum.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Crafford, Dionne; Horak, Ivan G; Stanneck, Dorothee

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the sustained effectiveness of 10 % imidacloprid and 4.5 % flumethrin, incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, in preventing Dipylidium caninum infection in dogs after repeated laboratory infestations with fleas infected with metacestodes of this tapeworm. Efficacy against infection with D. caninum was evaluated by infesting 16 dogs with cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) on study days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42, from batches suitably infected with D. caninum metacestodes. Prior to each post-treatment infestation the D. caninum infection rate for the fleas was determined by microscopically examining 100 fleas for D. caninum metacestodes. The D. caninum prevalence in the fleas used for infestations ranged from 23 % to 52 %. Medicated collars were fitted to 8 of the dogs on study day 0. The weight of the IVP collars varied between 35.48 g and 38.48 g (average 37.16 g), whilst animal weight varied between 12.20 kg and 17.98 kg (treated group, n = 8, average 14.79 kg). Seven days later infestation of each of the 16 dogs with 250 fleas commenced. Infestations continued at weekly intervals until Day 42 with efficacy against fleas evaluated 24 hours after each infestation. From Days 21 to 74, infection of the dogs with D. caninum was verified (daily examination of faeces and cages for the presence of expelled proglottids). Calculation of prophylactic effectiveness of the collars in preventing infection with D. caninum was based on the difference in geometric mean numbers of scoleces between groups at necropsy on Day 75. Effective prevention of infection with D. caninum was found to be 96.6 %. Efficacy of the collars against fleas was ≥ 99.9 % for the duration of the assessment period. Newly acquired infestations of fleas are rapidly eliminated by the insecticidal components of the medicated collars over a period of several months. In the event of fleas being infected with metacestodes, with D. caninum can be prevented in

  16. White-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinxin; Iwakiri, Kazuyuki; Sotoyama, Midori

    2017-08-08

    In the present study, two investigations were conducted at a communication center, to examine white-collar workers' hemodynamic responses during working hours. In investigation I, hemodynamic responses were measured on a working day; and in investigation II, cardiovascular responses were verified on both working and non-working days. In investigation I, blood pressure, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, and total peripheral resistance were measured in 15 workers during working hours (from 9:00 am to 18:00 pm) on one working day. Another 40 workers from the same workplace participated in investigation II, in which blood pressure and heart rate were measured between the time workers arose in the morning until they went to bed on 5 working days and 2 non-working days. The results showed that blood pressure increased and remained at the same level during working hours. The underlying hemodynamics of maintaining blood pressure, however, changed between the morning and the afternoon on working days. Cardiac responses increased in the afternoon, suggesting that cardiac burdens increase in the afternoon on working days. The present study suggested that taking underlying hemodynamic response into consideration is important for managing the work-related cardiovascular burden of white-collar workers.

  17. Social structure of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu): does relatedness matter?

    PubMed

    Biondo, Cibele; Izar, Patrícia; Miyaki, Cristina Y; Bussab, Vera S R

    2014-11-01

    Relatedness is considered an important factor in shaping social structure as the association among kin might facilitate cooperation via inclusive fitness benefits. We addressed here the influence of relatedness on the social structure of a Neotropical ungulate, the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu). As peccaries are highly social and cooperative, live in stable cohesive herds and show certain degree of female philopatry and high mean relatedness within herds, we hypothesized that kin would be spatially closer and display more amicable and less agonistic interactions than non-kin. We recorded spatial association patterns and rates of interactions of two captive groups. Pairwise relatedness was calculated based on microsatellite data. As predicted, we found that kin were spatially closer than non-kin, which suggests that relatedness is a good predictor of spatial association in peccaries. However, relatedness did not predict the rates of social interactions. Although our results indirectly indicate some role of sex, age and familiarity, further studies are needed to clarify the factors that shape the rates of interactions in collared peccaries. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour.

  18. A case control study: White-collar defendants compared with defendants charged with other nonviolent theft.

    PubMed

    Poortinga, Ernest; Lemmen, Craig; Jibson, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    We examined the clinical, criminal, and sociodemographic characteristics of all white-collar crime defendants referred to the evaluation unit of a state center for forensic psychiatry. With 29,310 evaluations in a 12-year period, we found 70 defendants charged with embezzlement, 3 with health care fraud, and no other white-collar defendants (based on the eight crimes widely accepted as white-collar offenses). In a case-control study design, the 70 embezzlement cases were compared with 73 defendants charged with other forms of nonviolent theft. White-collar defendants were found to have a higher likelihood of white race (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) = 4.51), more years of education (adj. OR = 3471), and a lower likelihood of substance abuse (adj. OR = .28) than control defendants. Logistic regression modeling showed that the variance in the relationship between unipolar depression and white-collar crime was more economically accounted for by education, race, and substance abuse.

  19. Prehospital Use of Cervical Collars in Trauma Patients: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Asbjørnsen, Helge; Habiba, Samer; Sunde, Geir Arne; Wester, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The cervical collar has been routinely used for trauma patients for more than 30 years and is a hallmark of state-of-the-art prehospital trauma care. However, the existing evidence for this practice is limited: Randomized, controlled trials are largely missing, and there are uncertain effects on mortality, neurological injury, and spinal stability. Even more concerning, there is a growing body of evidence and opinion against the use of collars. It has been argued that collars cause more harm than good, and that we should simply stop using them. In this critical review, we discuss the pros and cons of collar use in trauma patients and reflect on how we can move our clinical practice forward. Conclusively, we propose a safe, effective strategy for prehospital spinal immobilization that does not include routine use of collars. PMID:23962031

  20. Masked hypertension and effort-reward imbalance at work among 2369 white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Boucher, P; Gilbert-Ouimet, M; Trudel, X; Duchaine, C S; Milot, A; Brisson, C

    2017-10-01

    Hypertension is an important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide. Adverse effects of psychosocial factors at work might increase the risk of masked hypertension, but evidences are still scarce. The objective of this study is then to determine whether adverse psychosocial work factors from the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model are associated with the prevalence of masked hypertension in a population of white-collar workers. White-collar workers were recruited from three public organizations. Blood pressure was measured at the workplace for manually operated measurements (mean of the first three readings taken by a trained assistant) followed by ambulatory measurements (mean of all subsequent readings taken during the working day). Masked hypertension was defined as manually operated BP<140/90 mm Hg and ambulatory BP ⩾135/85 mm Hg. ERI exposure at work was measured using Siegrist's validated questionnaire. Blood pressure readings were obtained from 2369 workers (participation proportion: 85%). ERI exposure (OR: 1.53 (95% CI: 1.16-2.02) and high efforts at work (OR: 1.61 (95% CI: 1.13-1.29) were associated with masked hypertension, after adjusting for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Workers exposed to an imbalance between efforts spent at work and reward had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension. High efforts at work might be of particular importance in explaining this association. Future studies should be designed to investigate how clinicians can include questions on psychosocial work factors to screen for masked hypertension and how workplace interventions can decrease adverse psychosocial exposures to lower BP.

  1. Gender differences in work–home interplay and symptom perception among Swedish white‐collar employees

    PubMed Central

    Berntsson, L; Lundberg, U; Krantz, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse gender differences in paid and unpaid workload and symptoms in matched groups of Swedish white‐collar workers with children. Design and setting Paid and unpaid workload and perceived stress from paid work, conflict between demands and control over household work were measured by a total workload (TWL) questionnaire. Some symptoms were rated with regard to frequency and severity as a measure of health. Cross‐sectional analyses were performed. Participants Matched groups of male (n = 440) and female (n = 529) well‐educated white‐collar workers in full‐time employment, aged 32–58 years and living with children in the home. Results Women in higher positions in Sweden are healthier than the average population of women, but report more symptoms than men in the same position as well as more stress from paid work, more conflict between demands and a greater TWL. However, women also reported more control over household duties and TWL was not associated with more symptoms. The men were mainly focused on their paid work role and perhaps even more so than men in the general population as they were fairly resistant to feelings of conflicting demands. Conclusion Even among matched groups of full‐time employed, well‐educated men and women, traditional gender differences in division of responsibilities and time allocation were found. Even though the women were healthy at this stage, they might risk future ill health, owing to high workload, stress and feelings of conflicting demands. PMID:17108304

  2. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head, neck, shoulder, and arm muscles reproduces pain symptoms in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Gröbli, Christian; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fischer, Christine Stebler; Boesch, Daniel; Froidevaux, Philippe; Stocker, Lilian; Weissmann, Richard; González-Iglesias, Javier

    2012-07-01

    To describe the prevalence and referred pain area of trigger points (TrPs) in blue-collar (manual) and white-collar (office) workers, and to analyze if the referred pain pattern elicited from TrPs completely reproduces the overall spontaneous pain pattern. Sixteen (62% women) blue-collar and 19 (75% women) white-collar workers were included in this study. TrPs in the temporalis, masseter, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, oblique capitis inferior, levator scapulae, scalene, pectoralis major, deltoid, infraspinatus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and longus, extensor digitorum communis, and supinator muscles were examined bilaterally (hyper-sensible tender spot within a palpable taut band, local twitch response with snapping palpation, and elicited referred pain pattern with palpation) by experienced assessors blinded to the participants' condition. TrPs were considered active when the local and referred pain reproduced any symptom and the patient recognized the pain as familiar. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomic maps, digitized, and measured. Blue-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 3) active and 10 (SD: 5) latent TrPs, whereas white-collar workers had a mean of 6 (SD: 4) active and 11 (SD: 6) latent TrPs (P>0.548). No significant differences in the distribution of active and latent TrPs in the analyzed muscles between groups were found. Active TrPs in the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, levator scapulae, and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles were the most prevalent in both groups. Significant differences in referred pain areas between muscles (P<0.001) were found; pectoralis major, infraspinatus, upper trapezius, and scalene muscles showed the largest referred pain areas (P<0.01), whereas the temporalis, masseter, and splenius capitis muscles showed the smallest (P<0.05). The combination of the referred pain from TrPs reproduced the overall clinical pain area in all participants. Blue-collar and white-collar workers

  3. Use and perception of collars for companion cats in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harrod, M; Keown, A J; Farnworth, M J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the use and utility of collars for companion cats in New Zealand, and to explore public perception of collar use. An online questionnaire was distributed using emails and social media to members of the general public in New Zealand. The questionnaire collected details of respondents, cat ownership status, and responses to a number of questions regarding collar use in cats. A total of 511 responses were collected. Of these, 393/511 (76.9%) reported owning ≥1 cat at the time of the survey, and 141/393 (35.9%) stated that ≥1 of their cats wore collars and 211/393 (53.7%) had ≥1 of their cats micro-chipped. Of the respondents with a pet cat, 351/393 (89.3%) allowed their cats some outdoor access. Respondents mainly used collars for identification and to reduce predation. Reasons for not using collars included cat intolerance of collars, repeated collar loss and concern over collar safety. Differences were found between cat owners and non-owners regarding whether they agreed that cats were important for pest control (43 vs. 25%, p<0.001); that not all cats will tolerate collars (81 vs. 64%, p<0.001); that cats should be kept indoors at night (37 vs. 58%, p<0.001); or disagreed that well fed cats will not catch birds (60 vs. 70%, p=0.04); and disagreed that a cat without a collar was likely to be a stray (85 vs. 76%, p<0.001). Respondents most trusted veterinarians and the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals as sources of pet care information. Collar use within this sample of cat owners in New Zealand appeared to be low, with more using microchips for identification. The majority of cat owners in this study indicated their cats had some outdoor access, with collars being used for cat identification and to reduce hunting behaviour. Significant differences existed in opinions on cat management between cat owners and non-owners in this study. It should be noted that this preliminary exploration was based on a self-selected group of

  4. Friction and wear in threaded surfaces of rotary drill collars

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, H.R. ); Bailey, E.I. ); Williamson, J.S. )

    1993-03-01

    Two surfaces, under high normal stress, in sliding contact provide the basis for friction and wear studies within rotary drill collars. Flat and ring specimens, considering three different contact areas, were rotated to determine the effect of surface finish, coatings, lubricants and normal stress on friction and wear. The 4145 steel specimens were heat-treated to a yield strength of 124,000 lb/in[sup 2] (855 MPa) and a R[sub c] hardness of 28. The torque required to rotate the ring specimen was measured as a function of the rotation angle. The friction coefficient was calculated. Seizure and galling were common for metal-to-metal contact. Rust and phosphate coatings break down under the high normal stress. Metal-filled lubricants produce static coefficients of friction between 0.03 and 0.25 and dynamic coefficients between 0.04 and 0.26. Seizure and galling were not observed.

  5. Fabrication and Test of 90-mm Nb3Sn Quadrupole Model Based on Dipole-type Collar

    SciTech Connect

    Bossert, R.; Andreev, N.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; Nobrega, F.; Novitski, I.; Tartaglia, M.; Velev, G.; Zlobin, A.V.; /Fermilab

    2010-07-29

    A series of 90-mm TQC quadrupole models with a collar-based mechanical structure has been fabricated and tested within the framework of the US-LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) using quadrupole-symmetric stainless steel collar laminations. This paper describes the design features, construction and test of TQC02Eb, the first TQC made with dipole-type collar and collaring techniques. Magnet test includes quench performance and field quality measurements at 4.5 and 1.9 K. Results of model performance for TQC quadrupoles based on dipole-type and quadrupole-type collars are compared and discussed.

  6. Monitoring distances travelled by horses using GPS tracking collars.

    PubMed

    Hampson, B A; Morton, J M; Mills, P C; Trotter, M G; Lamb, D W; Pollitt, C C

    2010-05-01

    The aims of this work were to (1) develop a low-cost equine movement tracking collar based on readily available components, (2) conduct preliminary studies assessing the effects of both paddock size and internal fence design on the movements of domestic horses, with and without foals at foot, and (3) describe distances moved by mares and their foals. Additional monitoring of free-ranging feral horses was conducted to allow preliminary comparisons with the movement of confined domestic horses. A lightweight global positioning system (GPS) data logger modified from a personal/vehicle tracker and mounted on a collar was used to monitor the movement of domestic horses in a range of paddock sizes and internal fence designs for 6.5-day periods. In the paddocks used (0.8-16 ha), groups of domestic horses exhibited a logarithmic response in mean daily distance travelled as a function of increasing paddock size, tending asymptotically towards approximately 7.5 km/day. The distance moved by newborn foals was similar to their dams, with total distance travelled also dependent on paddock size. Without altering available paddock area, paddock design, with the exception of a spiral design, did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled. Feral horses (17.9 km/day) travelled substantially greater mean daily distances than domestic horses (7.2 km/day in 16-ha paddock), even when allowing for larger paddock size. Horses kept in stables or small yards and paddocks are quite sedentary in comparison with their feral relatives. For a given paddock area, most designs did not significantly affect mean daily distance travelled.

  7. Gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Tudor, C; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Pantu, H; Nica, A; Dascalu, A M; Masoumeh, B; Tudor, A S; Oprescu, S M; Serban, D

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The present study aimed to perform a medico-surgical comparative analysis of the 2 most widely used techniques: gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, based on the vast clinical experience in an Upper Digestive Surgery Clinic. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between January 2010 and January 2015 on the patients admitted for a surgical solution for feeding. The indications, preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results. Out of the 94 cases admitted for a surgical solution for feeding, 67 underwent gastrostomy with peritoneal collar (GPC) and in 27 cases percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed. The indications for GPC were benign or malign causes of dysphagia, the most frequent being malign tumors of tongue, pharynx and larynx (47.76%), advanced inoperable esophageal or eso-cardiac cancers (26,86%), post-caustic esophageal stenosis (10.44%). PEG was performed in patients with functional difficulties of swallowing: sequelae of cerebral vascular accidents (44.44%), low Glasgow Coma Scale Score (29.62%) of different etiologies, Parkinson disease (18.51%) advanced dementia (7.4%), early nasopharyngeal cancer (2 cases). The intraoperatory and postoperatory complications were few and of minor importance in both techniques, but PEG allowed an immediate retake of alimentation (vs. at least 48 hours wait in GPC), with less gastric stasis, biliary reflux and aspiration related respiratory problems. Conclusions. Both techniques are easy and safe to perform, but an appropriate selection is required according to the cause of the swallowing difficulty. In cases with permeable digestive tube, PEG may be an excellent minimally invasive solution, but the costs and availability of the PEG kit and prehydrolyzed nutritive solution, as well as the co-existence of an upper digestive endoscopy service were limitations that had to be taken into account.

  8. Gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Tudor, C; Branescu, C; Savlovschi, C; El-Khatib, A; Pantu, H; Nica, A; Dascalu, AM; Masoumeh, B; Tudor, AS; Oprescu, SM; Serban, D

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The present study aimed to perform a medico-surgical comparative analysis of the 2 most widely used techniques: gastrostomy with peritoneal collar versus percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, based on the vast clinical experience in an Upper Digestive Surgery Clinic. Materials and method. A retrospective study was carried out between January 2010 and January 2015 on the patients admitted for a surgical solution for feeding. The indications, preoperative preparation, surgical techniques, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Results. Out of the 94 cases admitted for a surgical solution for feeding, 67 underwent gastrostomy with peritoneal collar (GPC) and in 27 cases percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) was performed. The indications for GPC were benign or malign causes of dysphagia, the most frequent being malign tumors of tongue, pharynx and larynx (47.76%), advanced inoperable esophageal or eso-cardiac cancers (26,86%), post-caustic esophageal stenosis (10.44%). PEG was performed in patients with functional difficulties of swallowing: sequelae of cerebral vascular accidents (44.44%), low Glasgow Coma Scale Score (29.62%) of different etiologies, Parkinson disease (18.51%) advanced dementia (7.4%), early nasopharyngeal cancer (2 cases). The intraoperatory and postoperatory complications were few and of minor importance in both techniques, but PEG allowed an immediate retake of alimentation (vs. at least 48 hours wait in GPC), with less gastric stasis, biliary reflux and aspiration related respiratory problems. Conclusions. Both techniques are easy and safe to perform, but an appropriate selection is required according to the cause of the swallowing difficulty. In cases with permeable digestive tube, PEG may be an excellent minimally invasive solution, but the costs and availability of the PEG kit and prehydrolyzed nutritive solution, as well as the co-existence of an upper digestive endoscopy service were limitations that had to be taken into account

  9. Augmenting the osseointegration of endoprostheses using laser-sintered porous collars: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Mumith, A; Coathup, M; Chimutengwende-Gordon, M; Aston, W; Briggs, T; Blunn, G

    2017-02-01

    Massive endoprostheses rely on extra-cortical bone bridging (ECBB) to enhance fixation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of selective laser sintered (SLS) porous collars in augmenting the osseointegration of these prostheses. The two novel designs of porous SLS collars, one with small pores (Ø700 μm, SP) and one with large pores (Ø1500 μm, LP), were compared in an ovine tibial diaphyseal model. Osseointegration of these collars was compared with that of a clinically used solid, grooved design (G). At six months post-operatively, the ovine tibias were retrieved and underwent radiological and histological analysis. Porous collars provided a significantly greater surface (p < 0.001) for the ingrowth of bone than the standard grooved design. Significantly greater extracortical pedicle formation was seen radiologically around the grooved design (length p = 0.002, thickness p < 0.001, surface area p = 0.002) than around the porous collars. However, the ingrowth of bone occurred from the transection site into the porous structure of both types of collar. A fivefold increase in integration was seen with the SP and a threefold increase in the LP design when compared with G (p < 0.001). SLS porous collars allow the direct ingrowth of more bone and are better than current designs which rely on surface ongrowth and ECBB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:276-82. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Is prolonged sitting at work associated with the time course of neck-shoulder pain? A prospective study in Danish blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Hallman, David M; Gupta, Nidhi; Heiden, Marina; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Korshøj, Mette; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-11-10

    This study aimed to determine the extent to which objectively measured sitting time at work is associated with the course of neck-shoulder pain across 1 year in blue-collar workers. Data were analysed from 625 blue-collar workers in the Danish PHysical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPHACTO) cohort study (2012-2013). Objective data on sitting time were collected at baseline using accelerometry. Self-reported pain intensity (numeric rating scale 0-10) in the neck-shoulder region was registered for 1 year using repeated text messages (14 in total). Linear mixed models were used to determine the relationship between per cent time in sitting at work and trajectories of neck-shoulder pain, with and without adjustment for demographic, occupational and lifestyle factors, and baseline pain intensity. More sitting time at work was associated with a faster decline in pain intensity over 12 months, as indicated by a statistically significant effect of sitting on pain trajectories in the crude (p=0.020) and fully adjusted models (p=0.027). In blue-collar workers, more sitting time at work was associated with a favourable development of pain intensity over time. The relationship between sitting at work and pain needs further investigation before explicit recommendations and guidelines on sedentary behaviour among blue-collar workers can be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Phylogenetic divisions among Collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) detected using mitochondrial and nuclear sequences.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Morales, Socorro; Bernal, Jaime Eduardo; Moran, Chris

    2006-10-01

    The Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) is one of the three extant recognised species of the family Tayassuidae, living in the Americas. To understand phylogenetic relationships among Collared peccaries, the entire mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome b as well as partial nuclear GPIP and PRE-1 P27, PRE-1 P642 and TYR sequences from specimens from Colombia, Argentina, Bolivia, Mexico, United States and Australian zoo animals of unknown origin were analysed. Separate and combined analyses of the mitochondrial sequences provided good resolution of Collared peccary relationships. Nuclear sequences were partially informative when combined sequence analyses were performed. Maximum Likelihood analyses of mitochondrial sequences showed that Collared peccaries clustered in two major clades, representing North-Central American and South American specimens. Collared peccaries from Colombia are paraphyletic. Statistical Parsimony analysis of combined nuclear sequences showed a distribution of DNA variants consistent with mitochondrial sequence analyses. However, there is an uncoupling of nuclear and mitochondrial sequence variation in two specimens from Colombia. The present study suggests the recent contact of isolated populations within Colombia and possible mitochondrial introgression between the North/Central clade and the South clade. Pairwise genetic distances comparison of mitochondrial sequences show that divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was higher and comparable respectively with that within and between the other two recognised peccary species. Divergence between the two major clades of the Collared peccary was also higher than that observed within and even between recognised species of the Suidae family. The divergence within the major clades of the Collared peccary showed comparable values with those observed within the other two species of Tayassuidae and within six species of Suidae. The results show that the geographically

  12. Lifetime offspring production in relation to breeding lifespan, attractiveness, and mating status in male collared flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Herényi, Márton; Hegyi, Gergely; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hargitai, Rita; Michl, Gábor; Rosivall, Balázs; Török, János

    2012-12-01

    As a comprehensive fitness parameter, lifetime reproductive success (LRS) is influenced by many different environmental and genetic factors, among which longevity is one of the most important. These factors can be reflected in secondary sexual characters, which may affect the life histories of individuals via social relations with conspecifics. Facultative polygyny in birds is another conspicuous reproductive trait that potentially increases male reproductive success, but lifetime success data in relation to polygyny are scarce. Here, we used 17 years of breeding data to quantify the LRS of male collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) on the basis of lifetime recruitment of offspring. Breeding lifespan showed a positive relationship with LRS, and it was also significantly associated with mean recruitment of offspring per breeding year. Body size and sexually selected forehead patch size did not predict the number of recruits. Polygyny was positively associated with LRS, but when we corrected for lifespan, this relationship disappeared. Our results demonstrate that the relationship between longevity and LRS is not explained by the higher number of reproductive attempts when living longer, and question the adaptive value of polygyny in this population. The lack of association between forehead patch size and recruitment suggests that forehead patch is a poor indicator of phenotypic quality in our birds.

  13. Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women’s greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men’s and women’s odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women. PMID:27818522

  14. Manufacturing Gender Inequality in the New Economy: High School Training for Work in Blue-Collar Communities.

    PubMed

    Sutton, April; Bosky, Amanda; Muller, Chandra

    2016-08-01

    Tensions between the demands of the knowledge-based economy and remaining, blue-collar jobs underlie renewed debates about whether schools should emphasize career and technical training or college-preparatory curricula. We add a gendered lens to this issue, given the male-dominated nature of blue-collar jobs and women's greater returns to college. Using the ELS:2002, this study exploits spatial variation in school curricula and jobs to investigate local dynamics that shape gender stratification. Results suggest a link between high school training and jobs in blue-collar communities that structures patterns of gender inequality into early adulthood. Although high school training in blue-collar communities reduced both men's and women's odds of four-year college enrollment, it had gender-divergent labor market consequences. Men in blue-collar communities took more blue-collar courses, had higher rates of blue-collar employment, and earned similar wages relative to otherwise comparable men from non-blue-collar communities. Women were less likely to work and to be employed in professional occupations, and they suffered severe wage penalties relative to their male peers and women from non-blue-collar communities. These relationships were due partly to high schools in blue-collar communities offering more blue-collar and fewer advanced college-preparatory courses. This curricular tradeoff may benefit men, but it appears to disadvantage women.

  15. In-field Calibration of a Fast Neutron Collar for the Measurement of Fresh PWR Fuel Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; De Baere, Paul

    2015-04-17

    A new neutron collar has been designed for the measurement of fresh LEU fuel assemblies. This collar uses “fast mode” measurement to reduce the effect of burnable poison rods on the assay and thus reduce the dependence on the operator’s declaration. The new collar design reduces effect of poison rods considerably. Instead of 12 pins of 5.2% Gd causing a 20.4% effect, as in the standard thermal mode collar, they only cause a 3.2% effect in the new collar. However it has higher efficiency so that reasonably precise measurements can be made in 25 minutes, rather than the 1 hour of previous collars. The new collar is fully compatible with the use of the standard data collection and analysis code INCC. This report describes the calibration that was made with a mock-up assembly at Los Alamos National Laboratory and with actual assemblies at the AREVA Fuel fabrication Plant in Lingen, Germany.

  16. Radio-triggered anesthetic-dart collar for recapturing large mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Chapman, R.C.; Cochran, W.W.; Simmons, L.; Seal, U.S.

    1984-01-01

    A re-usable, radio-triggered, anesthetic-dart collar costing about $1,200 has been developed for recapturing large, free-ranging mammals. The collar was tested successfully on captive gray wolves, white-tailed deer, a mountain lion, a black bear, and a tiger, and on wild wolves, a bear, and deer after periods of up to 32 days. The main advantage of the capture collar is that it allows frequent recapture of individuals at will and thus enhances opportunities for new physiological monitoring of wild animals.

  17. Correction of MR image distortions induced by metallic objects using a 3D cubic B-spline basis set: application to stereotactic surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Skare, S; Andersson, J L R

    2005-07-01

    Metallic implants in MRI cause spin-echo (SE) images to be distorted in the slice and frequency-encoding directions. Chang and Fitzpatrick (IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1992;11:319-329) proposed a distortion correction method (termed the CF method) based on the magnitude images from two SE acquisitions that differ only in the polarity of the frequency-encoding and slice-selection gradients. In the present study we solved some problems with the CF method, primarily by modeling the field inhomogeneities as a single 3D displacement field built by 3D cubic B-splines. The 3D displacement field was applied in the actual distortion direction in the slice/frequency-encoding plane. To account for patient head motion, a 3D rigid body motion correction was also incorporated in the model. Experiments on a phantom containing an aneurysm clip showed that the knot spacing between the B-splines is a very important factor in both the final image quality and the processing speed. Depending on the knot spacing and the image volume size, the number of unknowns range from a few thousands to over 100,000, leading to processing times ranging from minutes to days. Optimal knot spacing, a means of increasing the processing speed, and other parameters are investigated and discussed.

  18. Teaching Picture-to-Object Relations in Picture-Based Requesting by Children with Autism: A Comparison between Error Prevention and Error Correction Teaching Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, D.; Felce, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children who have a combination of language and developmental disabilities with autism often experience major difficulties in learning relations between objects and their graphic representations. Therefore, they would benefit from teaching procedures that minimize their difficulties in acquiring these relations. This study compared two…

  19. Factors associated with blue-collar workers' risk perception of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Won Ju; Hong, Oisaeng; Kim, Mi Ja

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, as well as, individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors as predictors of CVD risk perception among Korean blue-collar workers. The participants were 238 Korean blue-collar workers who worked in small companies. Data were collected through a survey; anthropometric and blood pressure measures; and blood sampling for lipid levels. Blue-collar workers had high actual CVD risk and low CVD risk perception. The significant predictors of risk perception included perceived health status, alcohol consumption, knowledge of CVD risk, actual CVD risk, decision latitude, and shift work. The model explained 26% of the variance in CVD risk perception. The result suggests when occupational health nurses are giving routine health examination in small companies, they can enhance CVD risk perception in blue-collar workers by providing essential information about CVD risk factors and personal counseling on the individual worker's CVD risk status.

  20. [Training of dogs--legal assessment of the use of electric collars].

    PubMed

    Bloch, Margaretha

    2008-03-01

    The use of an electric collar for training dogs is fundamentally forbidden. The verdict of the Federal German Administrative Court dated February 23, 2006 (ref. 3 C 14.05) provides legal clarity and indicates the approach to be taken to enable exceptions from the fundamental ban on electric collars. It is particularly to prevent the misuse of electric collars in the interests of animal welfare that federal legislation should further develop the approach specified in 1998 by including Article 3, No. 11 of the German act on the prevention of cruelty to animals (TierSchG). In this context, it is recommended to continue intensive specialist debate on the question of whether and, where applicable, to what extent the use of electric collars may be permitted, e.g. within the context of training dogs.

  1. When should a cervical collar be used to treat neck pain?

    PubMed

    Muzin, Stefan; Isaac, Zacharia; Walker, Joseph; Abd, Omar El; Baima, Jennifer

    2008-06-01

    Neck pain is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems in the United States. It remains a complex, subjective experience with a variety of musculoskeletal causes. Although, cervical collars are a seemingly benign intervention, they can have adverse effects, especially when used for longer periods of time. It is feared that a long period of immobilization, can result in atrophy-related secondary damage. Many physicians cite anecdotal evidence of their clinical utility and soft cervical collars are often prescribed by convention for patients complaining of neck pain. The use of cervical collars to treat neck pain is an area of controversy. This review article examines the current evidence and studies related to recommending cervical collars for neck pain of a variety of etiologies.

  2. Assembly mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1 at the flagellar pocket collar.

    PubMed

    Vidilaseris, Keni; Lesigang, Johannes; Morriswood, Brooke; Dong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The flagellar pocket is a bulb-like invagination of the plasma membrane that encloses the base of the single flagellum in trypanosomes. It is the site of all endo- and exocytic activity in the parasite and has thus been proposed to be a therapeutic target. At the neck of the flagellar pocket is an electron-dense cytoskeletal structure named the flagellar pocket collar. The protein BILBO1 was the first characterized and remains the only known component of the flagellar pocket collar, with essential functions in the biogenesis of both the flagellar pocket and flagellar pocket collar. We recently reported that the filamentous assembly of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1 (TbBILBO1) is mediated by its central coiled coil domain and C-terminal leucine zipper. Here, we discuss how TbBILBO1 might assemble at the flagellar pocket collar in T. brucei.

  3. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Landsberg, G M; Beck, A; Lopez, A; Deniaud, M; Araujo, J A; Milgram, N W

    2015-09-12

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across 'during' and 'post' thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Dog-appeasing pheromone collars reduce sound-induced fear and anxiety in beagle dogs: a placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Landsberg, G. M.; Beck, A.; Lopez, A.; Deniaud, M.; Araujo, J. A.; Milgram, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of a dog-appeasing pheromone (DAP) collar in reducing sound-induced fear and anxiety in a laboratory model of thunderstorm simulation. Twenty-four beagle dogs naïve to the current test were divided into two treatment groups (DAP and placebo) balanced on their fear score in response to a thunderstorm recording. Each group was then exposed to two additional thunderstorm simulation tests on consecutive days. Dogs were video-assessed by a trained observer on a 6-point scale for active, passive and global fear and anxiety (combined). Both global and active fear and anxiety scores were significantly improved during and following thunder compared with placebo on both test days. DAP significantly decreased global fear and anxiety across ‘during’ and ‘post’ thunder times when compared with baseline. There was no significant improvement in the placebo group from baseline on the test days. In addition, the DAP group showed significantly greater use of the hide box at any time with increased exposure compared with the placebo group. The DAP collar reduced the scores of fear and anxiety, and increased hide use in response to a thunder recording, possibly by counteracting noise-related increased reactivity. PMID:26311736

  5. Nuclear and mitochondrial evolutionary analyses of Collared, White-lipped, and Chacoan peccaries (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The three extant peccary species, the Chacoan (Catagonus wagneri), the White-lipped (Tayassu pecari) and the Collared (Pecari tajacu), are morphologically and chromosomally distinct and confined to the New World. There is ongoing paleontological, cytogenetic, and molecular debate about phylogenetic relationships among them. To contribute to the understanding of Tayassuidae phylogeny, three mitochondrial (control region, cytochrome b, and 12S rRNA) and five nuclear (K-casein, thyrotropin, tyrosinase, and swine short interspersed nuclear elements PRE-1 P27 and P642) peccary DNA fragments were amplified, cloned and sequenced from Chacoan, White-lipped, and Collared peccaries. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining methods. K-casein, thyrotropin, and tyrosinase sequences did not resolve the phylogeny, while control region, cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and PRE-1 P27 and P642 sequences were more informative in deciphering phylogenetic relationships. When pig and warthog were used as an outgroup, Chacoan and White-lipped peccaries clustered distinct from Collared peccaries. Furthermore, control region and cytochrome b sequence variation within Collared peccaries was as extreme as that between White-lipped and Chacoan peccaries, supporting subspecific and possibly even specific variation within the widely distributed Collared peccary. This study supports the existence of two independent genera within the Tayassuidae family consisting of Collared and Chacoan/White-lipped peccaries, in contrast with classical morphological taxonomy which clusters White-lipped and Collared peccaries in the genus Tayassu or which alternatively clusters the Collared peccary in the genus Dicotyles as a related sister clade of the Chacoan peccary (genus Catagonus).

  6. Description and performance characteristics for the neutron Coincidence Collar for the verification of reactor fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.

    1981-08-01

    An active neutron interrogation method has been developed for the measurement of /sup 235/U content in fresh fuel assemblies. The neutron Coincidence Collar uses neutron interrogation with an AmLi neutron source and coincidence counting the induced fission reaction neutrons from the /sup 235/U. This manual describes the system components, operation, and performance characteristics. Applications of the Coincidence Collar to PWR and BWR types of reactor fuel assemblies are described.

  7. Effect of hunter selectivity on harvest rates of radio-collared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buderman, Frances E.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, C.S.; Wallingford, Bret D.; Long, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Radio transmitters are a commonly used tool for monitoring the fates of harvested species, although little research has been devoted to whether a visible radio transmitter changes a hunters' willingness to harvest that animal. We initially surveyed deer hunters to assess their willingness to harvest radio-collared deer and predicted radio collars were unlikely to affect the harvest of antlerless deer, but hunters may be less willing to harvest small-antlered males with radio collars compared to large-antlered males. We fitted white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with radio collars that were visible to hunters or with ear-tag transmitters or ear-tags that were difficult to detect visually and estimated if harvest rates differed among marking methods. For females, the best model failed to detect an effect of radio collars on harvest rates. Also, we failed to detect a difference between male deer fitted with radio collars and ear-tag transmitters. When we compared males fitted with radio collars versus ear tags, we found harvest rate patterns were opposite to our predictions, with lower harvest rates for adult males fitted with radio collars and higher harvest rates for yearling males fitted with radio collars. Our study suggests that harvest rate estimates generated from a sample of deer fitted with visible radio collars can be representative of the population of inference. 

  8. Collar height and heel counter-stiffness for ankle stability and athletic performance in basketball.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Wu, Zitian; Lam, Wing-Kai

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of collar height and heel counter-stiffness of basketball shoes on ankle stability during sidestep cutting and athletic performance. 15 university basketball players wore customized shoes with different collar heights (high and low) and heel counter-stiffness (regular, stiffer and stiffest) for this study. Ankle stability was evaluated in sidestep cutting while athletic performance evaluated in jumping and agility tasks. All variables were analysed using two-way repeated ANOVA. Results showed shorter time to peak ankle inversion for both high collar and stiff heel counter conditions (P < 0.05), while smaller initial ankle inversion angle, peak inversion velocity and total range of inversion for wearing high collar shoes (P < 0.05). No shoe differences were found for performance variables. These findings imply that the collar height might play a larger role in lateral stability than heel counter-stiffness, while both collar height and counter-stiffness have no effect on athletic performance.

  9. The evolution of the ozone collar in the Antarctic lower stratosphere during early August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotti, A.; Mechoso, C.R.; Legras, B.; Daniel, V.

    2000-02-01

    The ozone evolution in the lower stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere during the period 5--10 August 1994 is analyzed. The analysis focuses on the ozone collar (the band of maximum values in ozone mixing ratio around the Antarctic ozone hole at these altitudes) and the development of collar filaments. Ozone mixing ratios provided by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and by an ER-2 aircraft participating in the Airborne Southern Hemisphere Ozone Experiment/Measurements for Assessing the Effects of stratospheric Aircraft campaign are compared with values at corresponding locations in high-resolution isentropic maps obtained by using the numerical scheme of contour advection with surgery (CAS). The CAS reconstructed ozone maps provide a view of the way in which air masses are exported from the outskirts of the collar to form the tongues of higher mixing ratios observed at lower latitudes on MLS synoptic maps. There is an overall consistency between the datasets insofar as the collar location is concerned. This location seems to be primarily defined by the local properties of the flow. Nevertheless the CAS reconstructed collar tends to become weaker than that depicted by MLS data. By means of radioactive calculation estimates, it is argued that diabatic descent may be responsible for maintaining the ozone concentration approximately constant in the collar while filaments isentropically disperse collarlike mixing ratios from this region toward lower latitudes.

  10. [Disability by cervical sprain I and II and the use of neck collar].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Sousa, Martha Guadalupe; Sánchez-Avendaño, María Eugenia; Solís-Rodríguez, Annel; Yáñez-Estrada, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la incidencia del esguince cervical ocasiona altos costos en atención médica, incapacidades y ausencias laborales. El objetivo fue demostrar que los días de incapacidad por esguince cervical grados I y II son menores sin el uso de collarín. Métodos: estudio transversal en 100 pacientes que acudieron a la consulta de urgencias por esguince cervical grados I y II. Se evaluó el uso de collarín y los días de incapacidad laboral. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: fueron tratados con collarín más antiinflamatorio 68 % de los pacientes y 32 %, solamente con antiinflamatorio; 86 % requirió incapacidad laboral, con 11.75 días en promedio. De los pacientes incapacitados, 74.4 % utilizó collarín; de los 14 pacientes que no requirieron incapacidad, 28.6 % utilizó collarín (χ(2) = 11.63, p < 0.001). Conclusiones: los días de incapacidad y recuperación fueron menores en los pacientes que no utilizaron collarín.

  11. Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar Model Utilizing 3He

    SciTech Connect

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Rogers, Jeremy L.; Schweppe, John E.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-07-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in a configuration typically used for 3He-based coincidence counter applications. The specific application selected for boron-lined tube replacement in this project was one of the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) designs. This report, providing results for model development of a UNCL, is a deliverable under Task 2 of the project. The current UNCL instruments utilize 3He tubes. As the first step in developing and optimizing a boron-lined proportional counter based version of the UNCL, models of eight different 3He-based UNCL detectors currently in use were developed and evaluated. A comparison was made between the simulated results and measured efficiencies for those systems with values reported in the literature. The reported experimental measurements for efficiencies and die-away times agree to within 10%.

  12. Abdominal exploration in captive collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, G C X; Oliveira, I R S; Alves, N D; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    This study determines the morphology and ultrasound features of the abdominal organs in male, nestling and healthy collared peccaries. The bladder wall is hyperechogenic, with a thickness of 0.2 ± 0.08 cm. The kidneys present a well-defined cortex, medulla and pelvis, and the dimensions are 2.56 ± 0.3 × 4.6 ± 0.8 cm for the left and 2.51 ± 0.4 × 4.86 ± 1.1 cm for the right kidney. The spleen has a uniform echotexture over its entire surface. The largest dimensions of the liver are 2.0 ± 0.57 cm for the left lobe and 1.42 ± 0.66 cm for the caudate lobe. The liver presents a homogeneous echotexture in the majority of cases, but sometimes some hyperechoic spots are present. The stomach wall has a thickness of 0.42 ± 0.28 cm. The bowel loops show alternate hyperechoic and hypoechoic layers with a uniform diameter and a wall thickness of 0.19 ± 0.07 cm. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (P<0.05). Regarding post-thaw semen variables, no differences were verified between freezing curves when the same straw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (P<0.05), both in the use of 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL straws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (P<0.05). In conclusion, we recommend the use of a fast freezing curve that reduces the time spent on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen, which could be packaged both in 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL straws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min.

  14. Testosterone and Haemosporidian Parasites Along a Tropical Elevational Gradient in Rufous-Collared Sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis).

    PubMed

    Escallón, Camilo; Weinstein, Nicole M; Tallant, James A; Wojtenek, Winfried; Rodríguez-Saltos, Carlos A; Bonaccorso, Elisa; Moore, Ignacio T

    2016-10-01

    Elevation has been proposed as a dominant ecological variable shaping life history traits and subsequently their underlying hormonal mechanisms. In an earlier meta-analysis of tropical birds, elevation was positively related to testosterone levels. Furthermore, parasitism by avian haemosporidians should vary with elevation as environmental conditions affect vector abundance, and while testosterone is needed for breeding, it is hypothesized to be immunosuppressive and thus could exacerbate haemosporidian infection. Our objective in this study was to examine the relationships between elevation, testosterone levels, and parasitism by avian haemosporidians. We surveyed breeding male rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) across a wide elevational range along the equator. We measured baseline testosterone levels, haemosporidian infection at four elevations spanning the species' natural range in the Ecuadorian Andes (600, 1500, 2100, 3300 m). Testosterone levels from breeding males were not related to elevation, but there was high intrapopulation variability. Testosterone levels were not related to the probability of parasitism, but our results from one population suggested that the likelihood of being infected by haemosporidian parasites was greater when in breeding condition. In conclusion, even though there is variation in life history strategies among the studied populations, wider divergence in seasonality and life history traits would probably be needed to detect an effect of elevation on testosterone if one exists. Additionally, our results show that variation in testosterone is not related to infection risk of haemosporidians, thus other factors that take a toll on energetic resources, such as reproduction, should be looked at more closely. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-huei

    2016-01-01

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. PMID:27420085

  16. Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huan-Cheng; Wang, Mei-Chin; Liao, Hung-Chang; Cheng, Shu-Fang; Wang, Ya-Huei

    2016-07-13

    Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers' agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies' role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method-grounded theory-to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies' role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers.

  17. External Immobilization of Odontoid Fractures: A Systematic Review to Compare the Halo and Hard Collar.

    PubMed

    Waqar, Mueez; Van-Popta, Dmitri; Barone, Damiano G; Sarsam, Zaid

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to compare the halo and hard collar in the management of adult odontoid fractures. Systematic and independent searches on MEDLINE (PubMed) and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Inclusion criteria included studies 1) with clinical outcomes, 2) in adults (18 years of age or order), 3) with odontoid fractures, 4) with patients immobilized using a halo or hard collar, and 5) in multiple (more than 5) patients. Treatment failure rates were calculated as the proportion requiring operative intervention. There were 714 cases included, who were managed in a halo (60%) or collar (40%). The mean age was 66 years (range, 18-96 years). Type 2 odontoid fractures were the most common (83%). There was no significant difference in failure rates between the halo and collar in patients with type 2 odontoid fractures (P = 0.111). This was also true in elderly (older than 65 years of age) patients (P = 0.802). The collar had a higher failure rate in type 3 odontoid fractures, though numbers were small (P = 0.035). Fibrous malunion occurred in 56 patients, and only 7% failed. There was only 1 case of neurological deterioration. Although mortality rates were similar between the collar and halo (P = 0.173), the halo was associated with a significantly higher complication rate (P < 0.001). For the most common clinical scenario, the halo and collar have similar failure rates, such that the higher morbidity associated with the halo may not be justified, especially in elderly patients. Malunion usually represents a stable clinical outcome, and surgery is rarely required. Prospective randomized studies are needed to more definitively compare the devices. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of hair and clothing on neck immobilization using a cervical collar.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Fong-Gong; Tsai, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chun-Hsiang; Stern, Susan A

    2005-05-01

    An important step during spine immobilization is application of a cervical collar. Clothing or hair covering the neck may impinge on this process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clothing and hair covering the neck on immobilization using a cervical collar. Study participants were 18 female volunteers with long hair aged 20 to 28 years. Cervical range of motion (ROM) was tested in 6 directions (flexion, extension, right and left lateral bending, right and left axial rotation) using a cervical ROM (CROM) device. After measuring unrestricted ROM (no cervical collar), a 1-piece rigid cervical collar was placed the neck (1) covered by hair and clothing; (2) covered by clothing; (3) covered by hair; or (4) uncovered. Range of motion was retested under all 4 conditions. Data were compared using crossover-design analysis of variance (P<.05 statistically significant). Range of motion in all directions was significantly restricted by cervical collar placement under all conditions. Unrestricted ROM in all directions ranged from 41.50 degrees (7.25 degrees) to 70.76 degrees (15.4 degrees). In contrast, ROM with a cervical collar under the 4 conditions in all directions ranged from 10.80 degrees (5.10 degrees) to 18.81 degrees (7.37 degrees). We were unable to detect any significant differences in ROM between the 4 conditions. Our data suggest that long hair and clothing, which cover the neck, do not alter the effectiveness of cervical collar immobilization as measured by the cervical ROM device.

  19. A comparison of neck movement in the soft cervical collar and rigid cervical brace in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Whitcroft, Katherine L; Massouh, Laura; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Bannister, Gordon C

    2011-02-01

    The soft cervical collar has been prescribed for whiplash injury but has been shown to be clinically ineffective. As some authors report superior results for managing whiplash injury with a cervical brace, we were interested in comparing the mechanical effectiveness of the soft collar with a rigid cervical brace. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure ranges of motion in subjects without neck pain using a soft cervical collar and a rigid brace compared with no orthosis. Fifty healthy subjects (no neck or shoulder pain) aged 22 to 67 years were recruited for this study. Neck movement was measured using a cervical range of motion goniometer. Active flexion, extension, right and left lateral flexion, and right and left rotation were assessed in each subject under 3 conditions: no collar, a soft collar, and a rigid cervical brace. The soft collar and rigid brace reduced neck movement compared with no brace or collar, but the cervical brace was more effective at reducing motion. The soft collar reduced movement on average by 17.4%; and the cervical brace, by 62.9%. The effect of the orthoses was not affected by age, although older subjects had stiffer necks. Based on the data of the 50 subjects presented in this study, the soft cervical collar did not adequately immobilize the cervical spine. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Motion generated in the unstable cervical spine during the application and removal of cervical immobilization collars.

    PubMed

    Prasarn, Mark L; Conrad, Bryan; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Rechtine, Glenn R

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have compared the restriction of motion that immobilization collars provide to the injured victim. No previous investigation has assessed the amount of motion that is generated during the fitting and removal process. The purpose of this study was to compare the three-dimensional motion generated when one-piece and two-piece cervical collars are applied and removed from cadavers intact and with unstable cervical spine injuries. Five fresh, lightly embalmed cadavers were tested three times each with either a one-piece or two-piece cervical collar in the supine position. Testing was performed in the intact state, following creation of a global ligamentous instability at C5-C6. The amount of angular motion resulting from the collar application and removal was measured using a Fastrak, three-dimensional, electromagnetic motion analysis device (Polhemus Inc., Colchester, VT). The measurements recorded in this investigation included maximum values for flexion/extension, axial rotation, medial/lateral flexion, anterior/posterior displacement, axial distraction, and medial/lateral displacement at the level of instability. There was statistically more motion observed with application or removal of either collar following the creation of a global instability. During application, there was a statistically significant difference in flexion/extension between the one-piece (1.8 degrees) and two-piece (2.6 degrees) collars, p = 0.009. There was also a statistically significant difference in anterior/posterior translation between the one-piece (3.6 mm) and two-piece (3.4 mm) collars, p = 0.015. The maximum angulation and displacement during the application of either collar was 3.4 degrees and 4.4 mm. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the one-piece and two-piece collars during the removal process. The maximum angulation and displacement during removal of either collar type was 1.6 degrees and 2.9 mm. There were statistically significant

  1. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs.

    PubMed

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  2. Structural Analysis of the SHMS Cosine Theta Superconducting Dipole Force Collar

    SciTech Connect

    S.R. Lassiter, P.D. Brindza, M.J. Fowler, E. Sun, G. Markham

    2009-06-01

    Jefferson Laboratory is developing a set of innovative superconducting magnets for the 12 GeV upgrade in JLAB Hall C. We will report on the finite element analysis (FEA) of the force collar for the Super High Momentum Spectrometer Cosine Theta Dipole magnet. The force collar is designed with an interference fit and intended to provide enough pressure after cool down to operating temperature to counteract Lorentz forces acting on the dipole coil during operation. By counteracting the Lorentz forces and keeping the coil pack in overall compression, movement of the coils is expected to be minimized. The dimensional geometry of the cold mass is maintained in the commercial solid modeling code UG/I-DEAS while the magnetic field design is maintained in the commercial TOSCA code from Vector Fields. The three dimensional FEA was conducted in the commercial codes ANSYS and IDEAS. The method for converting the models and calculating the loads transferred to the structure is discussed. The results show the cold mass response to: force collar assembly preload, differential thermal contraction, and operational Lorentz loads. Evaluations are made for two candidate force collar materials and two candidate force collar designs.

  3. Trapping and displacement of liquid collars and plugs in rough-walled tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2017-09-01

    A liquid film wetting the interior of a long circular cylinder redistributes under the action of surface tension to form annular collars or occlusive plugs. These equilibrium structures are invariant under axial translation within a perfectly smooth uniform tube and therefore can be displaced axially by very weak external forcing. We consider how this degeneracy is disrupted when the tube wall is rough, and determine threshold conditions under which collars or plugs resist displacement under forcing. Wall roughness is modeled as a nonaxisymmetric Gaussian random field of prescribed correlation length and small variance, mimicking some of the geometric irregularities inherent in applications such as lung airways. The thin film coating this surface is modeled using lubrication theory. When the roughness is weak, we show how the locations of equilibrium collars and plugs can be identified in terms of the azimuthally averaged tube radius; we derive conditions specifying equilibrium collar locations under an externally imposed shear flow, and plug locations under an imposed pressure gradient. We use these results to determine the probability of external forcing being sufficient to displace a collar or plug from a rough-walled tube, when the tube roughness is defined only in statistical terms.

  4. An evaluation of the accuracy and performance of lightweight GPS collars in a suburban environment.

    PubMed

    Adams, Amy L; Dickinson, Katharine J M; Robertson, Bruce C; van Heezik, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    The recent development of lightweight GPS collars has enabled medium-to-small sized animals to be tracked via GPS telemetry. Evaluation of the performance and accuracy of GPS collars is largely confined to devices designed for large animals for deployment in natural environments. This study aimed to assess the performance of lightweight GPS collars within a suburban environment, which may be different from natural environments in a way that is relevant to satellite signal acquisition. We assessed the effects of vegetation complexity, sky availability (percentage of clear sky not obstructed by natural or artificial features of the environment), proximity to buildings, and satellite geometry on fix success rate (FSR) and location error (LE) for lightweight GPS collars within a suburban environment. Sky availability had the largest affect on FSR, while LE was influenced by sky availability, vegetation complexity, and HDOP (Horizontal Dilution of Precision). Despite the complexity and modified nature of suburban areas, values for FSR (mean= 90.6%) and LE (mean = 30.1 m) obtained within the suburban environment are comparable to those from previous evaluations of GPS collars designed for larger animals and within less built-up environments. Due to fine-scale patchiness of habitat within urban environments, it is recommended that resource selection methods that are not reliant on buffer sizes be utilised for selection studies.

  5. Effect of Low-Dose Vitamin D Supplementation on Serum 25(OH)D in School Children and White-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Muyiduli, Xiamusiye; Su, Danting; Zhou, Biao; Fang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Shuying; Wang, Shuojia; Huang, Lichun; Mo, Minjia; Li, Minchao; Shao, Bule; Yu, Yunxian

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Our study aimed to investigate the nutritional vitamin D status of school children aged 9–15 years and white-collar workers in Zhejiang province, and evaluate the efficacy of low-dose-oral vitamin D supplementation in both populations. Methods: We conducted a prospective controlled trial during March 2014 to November 2015, comparing the efficacy of vitamin D supplements (400 IU/day) with non-intervention for 18 months in school children aged 9–15 years. Meanwhile, a before-after study was conducted among white-collar workers for 1 year. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was measured at baseline and after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Results: At the baseline, 95% of school children and 84% of adult participants had vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL). In school children, no difference was observed between the intervention and control groups with regard to anthropometric data. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of the school children intervention group, school children control group and white-collar workers were 12.77 ± 3.01 ng/mL, 14.17 ± 3.59 ng/mL and 16.58 ± 3.66 ng/mL at baseline and increased to 17.34 ± 3.78 ng/mL, 18.04 ± 4.01 ng/mL and 17.75 ± 5.36 ng/mL after vitamin D supplementation, respectively. Although, after adjusting for potential confounders, the 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration in school children (β = 0.81, p = 0.0426) as well as in white-collar workers (p = 0.0839), the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was still very high among school children (79.23% in intervention group and 72.38% in control group) and white-collar workers (76.00%). Conclusions: High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was common in these two study populations. Daily doses of 400 IU oral vitamin D supplementation was not able to adequately increase serum 25(OH)D concentrations. A suitable recommendation regarding the level of vitamin D supplementation is required for this Chinese population. PMID:28513555

  6. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  7. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  8. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  9. White-collar workers' self-reported physical symptoms associated with using computers.

    PubMed

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our work was to study the physical symptoms of upper- and lower-level white-collar workers using a questionnaire. The study was cross-sectional with a questionnaire posted to 15 000 working-age persons. The responses (6121) included 970 upper- and 1150 lower-level white-collar workers. In the upper- and lower-level white-collar worker groups, 45.7 and 56.0%, respectively, had experienced pain, numbness and aches in the neck either pretty often or more frequently. When comparing daily computer users and nonusers, there were significant differences in pain, numbness and aches in the neck or in the shoulders. In addition, age and gender influenced some physical symptoms. In the future, it is essential to take into account that working with computers can be especially associated with physical symptoms in the neck and in the shoulders when workers use computers daily.

  10. Habitat use by Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) in a Cerrado in southeastern Brazil: implications for management.

    PubMed

    Kanegae, M F; Levy, G; Freitas, S R

    2012-11-01

    The Collared Crescentchest (Melanopareia torquata) is a small insectivore endemic to the Cerrado. We examine the habitat use of this bird in a preserved Cerrado area in southeastern Brazil. Despite its occurrence in grassland with shrubs, the species used these areas less frequently than expected. The Collared Crescentchest mainly used areas of campo cerrado, but it was not recorded in a disturbed one. The common occurrence of exotic grass (U. decumbens) and cattle grazing may have brought about factors for its occurrence. However, the preference for native grasses may indicate an adverse indirect relationship against its occurence as there is competition between native and exotic grasses in the Cerrado. The presence of the Collared Crescentchest included the highest density of tall shrubs (>1 m) and native grasses. Conservation of the species should involve preserved areas of campo cerrado with a dominance of native grasses and tall shrubs.

  11. Genetic studies on collar rot resistance in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Dhawan, Om Prakash; Tiwari, Rajesh Kumar; Sattar, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The collar rot disease has been reported recently and occurs at the 10-12-leaf stage of plants of opium poppy. Infected plants topple down and dry prematurely due to fast rotting at the collar region. The inoculum for this study was multiplied on the cornmeal-sand culture. Genetic ratios were calculated by the chi-square test. Inheritance studies on this disease show a monogenic pattern of segregation with the ratio of 3 : 1 at F2, 1 : 2 : 1 at F3 and 1 : 1 at the backcross. Such genetic ratios clearly indicate that a single recessive gene (rs-1) is responsible for disease resistance in opium poppy. The inference drawn on the basis of the present study will be a great help in the future breeding programme of opium poppy for collar rot resistance.

  12. Beaded-chain collars: A new method to radiotag kangaroo rats for short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.

  13. Coordinate action of distinct sequence elements localizes checkpoint kinase Hsl1 to the septin collar at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, Gregory C.; Sterling, Sarah M.; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N.; Sargsyan, Aspram; Garcia, Galo; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle requires processes that are tightly regulated both spatially and temporally. Surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) exert quality control and impose order on the timing and organization of downstream events by impeding cell cycle progression until the necessary components are available and undamaged and have acted in the proper sequence. In budding yeast, a checkpoint exists that does not allow timely execution of the G2/M transition unless and until a collar of septin filaments has properly assembled at the bud neck, which is the site where subsequent cytokinesis will occur. An essential component of this checkpoint is the large (1518-residue) protein kinase Hsl1, which localizes to the bud neck only if the septin collar has been correctly formed. Hsl1 reportedly interacts with particular septins; however, the precise molecular determinants in Hsl1 responsible for its recruitment to this cellular location during G2 have not been elucidated. We performed a comprehensive mutational dissection and accompanying image analysis to identify the sequence elements within Hsl1 responsible for its localization to the septins at the bud neck. Unexpectedly, we found that this targeting is multipartite. A segment of the central region of Hsl1 (residues 611–950), composed of two tandem, semiredundant but distinct septin-associating elements, is necessary and sufficient for binding to septin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. However, in addition to 611–950, efficient localization of Hsl1 to the septin collar in the cell obligatorily requires generalized targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, a function normally provided by the C-terminal phosphatidylserine-binding KA1 domain (residues 1379–1518) in Hsl1 but that can be replaced by other, heterologous phosphatidylserine-binding sequences. PMID:27193302

  14. Coordinate action of distinct sequence elements localizes checkpoint kinase Hsl1 to the septin collar at the bud neck in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Sterling, Sarah M; Duvalyan, Angela; Liao, Elizabeth N; Sargsyan, Aspram; Garcia, Galo; Nogales, Eva; Thorner, Jeremy

    2016-07-15

    Passage through the eukaryotic cell cycle requires processes that are tightly regulated both spatially and temporally. Surveillance mechanisms (checkpoints) exert quality control and impose order on the timing and organization of downstream events by impeding cell cycle progression until the necessary components are available and undamaged and have acted in the proper sequence. In budding yeast, a checkpoint exists that does not allow timely execution of the G2/M transition unless and until a collar of septin filaments has properly assembled at the bud neck, which is the site where subsequent cytokinesis will occur. An essential component of this checkpoint is the large (1518-residue) protein kinase Hsl1, which localizes to the bud neck only if the septin collar has been correctly formed. Hsl1 reportedly interacts with particular septins; however, the precise molecular determinants in Hsl1 responsible for its recruitment to this cellular location during G2 have not been elucidated. We performed a comprehensive mutational dissection and accompanying image analysis to identify the sequence elements within Hsl1 responsible for its localization to the septins at the bud neck. Unexpectedly, we found that this targeting is multipartite. A segment of the central region of Hsl1 (residues 611-950), composed of two tandem, semiredundant but distinct septin-associating elements, is necessary and sufficient for binding to septin filaments both in vitro and in vivo. However, in addition to 611-950, efficient localization of Hsl1 to the septin collar in the cell obligatorily requires generalized targeting to the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane, a function normally provided by the C-terminal phosphatidylserine-binding KA1 domain (residues 1379-1518) in Hsl1 but that can be replaced by other, heterologous phosphatidylserine-binding sequences.

  15. Ontogeny of the collar cord: neurulation in the hemichordate Saccoglossus kowalevskii.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sabrina; Stach, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    The chordate body plan is characterized by a central notochord, a pharynx perforated by gill pores, and a dorsal central nervous system. Despite progress in recent years, the evolutionary origin of each of theses characters remains controversial. In the case of the nervous system, two contradictory hypotheses exist. In the first, the chordate nervous system is derived directly from a diffuse nerve net; whereas, the second proposes that a centralized nervous system is found in hemichordates and, therefore, predates chordate evolution. Here, we document the ontogeny of the collar cord of the enteropneust Saccoglossus kowalevskii using transmission electron microscopy and 3D-reconstruction based on completely serially sectioned stages. We demonstrate that the collar cord develops from a middorsal neural plate that is closed in a posterior to anterior direction. Transversely oriented ependymal cells possessing myofilaments mediate this morphogenetic process and surround the remnants of the neural canal in juveniles. A mid-dorsal glandular complex is present in the collar. The collar cord in juveniles is clearly separated into a dorsal saddle-like region of somata and a ventral neuropil. We characterize two cell types in the somata region, giant neurons and ependymal cells. Giant neurons connect via a peculiar cell junction that seems to function in intercellular communication. Synaptic junctions containing different vesicle types are present in the neuropil. These findings support the hypotheses that the collar cord constitutes a centralized element of the nervous system and that the morphogenetic process in the ontogeny of the collar cord is homologous to neurulation in chordates. Moreover, we suggest that these similarities are indicative of a close phylogenetic relationship between enteropneusts and chordates.

  16. Comparing the comfort and potential military performance restriction of neck collars from the body armor of six different countries.

    PubMed

    Breeze, John; Watson, Celia H; Horsfall, Ian; Clasper, Jon

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this trial was to undertake an assessment of ballistic neck collars to assess comfort and potential military performance restriction. Neck collars from six different countries were procured with 71 U.K. servicemen assessing two randomly allocated collars to rate one against the other. 58% of participants had worn UK neck collars previously on exercise, but only 6% had used them on operational tours. Body armor with shorter and thinner collars was rated the most comfortable, despite lying close to the neck. It was easier to aim a rifle wearing collars with overlapping segments, especially when in the prone position. Although higher and more rigid collars fared worse overall, this could potentially be offset by the higher levels of ballistic protection they provide. There is a need to evaluate other methods of protecting the neck such as nape protectors and ballistic scarves in combination with the use of backpacks and biometric data collection. Currently, there exists no agreed method of performing ergonomic (or human factor) assessments of the varying components of military body armor systems. Published standards for the minimum military performance requirements of the various components of body armor, including neck collars, need to be established.

  17. Use of an Electron Beam Melting Manufactured Titanium Collared Cementless Femoral Stem to Resist Subsidence After Canine Total Hip Replacement.

    PubMed

    Liska, William D; Doyle, Nancy D

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of a collared electron beam melting (EBM)-manufactured titanium cementless femoral stem on implant subsidence after total hip replacement (THR). Prospective study Dogs (n = 26); 33 THR. Records were maintained on the first 110 consecutive THR using an EBM collared femoral stem. Radiographs on the first 33 THR that had 6-months follow-up were evaluated for implant subsidence. These results were compared to 27 dogs with subsidence after THR with a Co Cr collarless stem. Dogs that had EBM collared stem THR had a mean body weight of 35.4 kg, body condition score (BCS) of 6.21, and mean canal flare index (CFI) of 1.56. EBM stem sizes used (number implanted) were #7 (13), #8 (10), #9 (8), and #10 (2). Subsidence of collared stems did not occur if the collar was in contact with cortical bone during surgery. Subsidence of 1-3 mm occurred closing a gap between the collar and bone if contact was not made during surgery, but subsidence stopped once contact was made. No major complications directly related to the EBM collared stem were encountered. A collar on a cementless femoral stem in contact with cortical bone resists subsidence. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Inflammatory reaction to fabric collars from percutaneous antennas attached to intracoelomic radio transmitters implanted in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Burek, K.A.; Esler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    In wild birds implanted intracoelomically with radio transmitters, a synthetic fabric collar placed around the base of a percutaneous antenna is believed to function as a barrier to contamination of the coelom. We examined 13 fabric collars recovered from percutaneous antennas of radio transmitters implanted intracoelomically in harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) 12 months earlier. Both the transmitters and antenna collars were encapsulated in fibrous connective tissue, with adhesions to internal organs. Histologically, bacteria were evident at the fabric-plastic interface in 8 of 10 collars examined in cross section and along the length of the collar in 3 collars examined longitudinally. Bacteria were confined within the fibrotic sheath surrounding the transmitter and the antenna collar in all birds. No evidence of chronic systemic effects secondary to implantation was present on hematologic or serum biochemical testing. These findings indicate that antenna collars do not prevent the entry of bacteria along the percutaneous antenna but may help stabilize the antenna and minimize coelomic contamination. We conclude that radio transmitters implanted into the coelom of harlequin ducks do not appear to cause significant health problems for at least 1 year after implantation.

  19. Sensitivity enhancement in flameless atomization systems by use of a rigid tungsten collar.

    PubMed

    Wall, C D

    1977-12-01

    Sensitivity enhancement was achieved in a flameless atomization system by the insertion of a rigid tungsten "collar" 1 cm long and 0.5 mm thick. With such a collar the electrical and thermal properties of the furnace were essentially those of the original tube, and the existing power pack could be used without modification. A significant improvement in sensitivity was found for the majority of the sixteen elements studied. The system did not appear to suffer from the deformation problems associated with other systems of atomization from metal surfaces.

  20. Collar grids for intersecting geometric components within the Chimera overlapped grid scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Steven J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chan, William M.; Steger, Joseph L.

    1991-01-01

    A method for overcoming problems with using the Chimera overset grid scheme in the region of intersecting geometry components is presented. A 'collar grid' resolves the intersection region and provides communication between the component grids. This approach is validated by comparing computed and experimental data for a flow about a wing/body configuration. Application of the collar grid scheme to the Orbiter fuselage and vertical tail intersection in a computation of the full Space Shuttle launch vehicle demonstrates its usefulness for simulation of flow about complex aerospace vehicles.

  1. Plastic debris collars on juvenile carcharhinid sharks (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) in southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Sazima, Ivan; Gadig, Otto B F; Namora, Rafael C; Motta, Fábio S

    2002-10-01

    Three juvenile Brazilian sharpnose sharks (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) caught in gillnets in southeast Brazil, southwest Atlantic, were found with plastic debris rings around their gill or mouth region. The rings caused severe abrasion on the sharks' tissues as the animal grew, the collars probably hampering normal feeding and/or ventilation since two of the collared individuals were emaciated. The rings were identified as detachable lid parts from plastic bottles, likely thrown overboard by fishery and/or recreation boats. As several carcharhinid shark species dwells and reproduce in shallow waters, the impact of discarded plastic debris likely is greater on this shark type.

  2. Clinical and radiological profile of Hirayama disease: A flexion myelopathy due to tight cervical dural canal amenable to collar therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, K. M.; Sahni, Hirdesh; Jha, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hirayama disease (HD) is benign focal amyotrophy of the distal upper limbs, often misdiagnosed as motor neuron disease. Routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often reported normal. Objective: To study the clinicoradiological profile of hand wasting in young males. Materials and Methods: Patients presenting with insidious-onset hand wasting from March 2008 to May 2011 were evaluated electrophysiologically. Cervical MRI in neutral position was done in 11 patients and flexion contrast imaging was done in 10 patients. Results: All patients were males less than 25 years of age, with median age 23 years, except one patient who was 50 years old. Duration of illness was 3 months to 3 years. All (100%) had oblique amyotrophy, four (36%) cold paresis, 10 (91%) minipolymyoclonus and three (27%) had fasciculations. Regional reflexes were variably absent. Two patients (18%) had brisk reflexes of lower limbs with flexor plantars. Electromyography (EMG) showed chronic denervation in the C7-T1 myotomes. Neutral position MRI showed loss of cervical lordosis in 10/11 (91%), localized lower cervical cord atrophy in 9/11 (82%), asymmetric cord flattening in 11/11 (100%) and intramedullary hyperintensity in 2/11 (18%); flexion study showed loss of dural attachment, anterior displacement of dorsal dura, epidural flow voids in 9/10 (90%) and enhancing epidural crescent in 10/10 (100%). Clinical profile, imaging and electrophysiological findings of the patient aged 50 years will be described in detail as presentation at this age is exceptional. Collar therapy slowed progression in most cases. Conclusion: Clinical features of HD corroborated well with electrophysiological diagnosis of anterior horn cell disease of lower cervical cord. While dynamic contrast MRI is characteristic, routine studies have a high predictive value for diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis is important to institute early collar therapy. PMID:22566723

  3. White-collar sign as a predictor of outcome after endovascular treatment for cerebral aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Kenji; Higashi, Toshio; Okawa, Masakazu; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Yoshioka, Tsutomu; Inoue, Tooru

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE The white-collar sign (WCS) is known as a thick neointimal tissue formation at the aneurysm neck after endovascular coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms, which may prevent aneurysm recanalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors involved in the appearance of WCS and to identify radiological and clinical outcomes of treated aneurysms with WCS. METHODS The study included 140 patients with 149 aneurysms in which it was possible to confirm the aneurysm neck between the aneurysm sac and parent artery by using conventional angiography. The WCS was defined as a radiolucent band at the aneurysm neck on the angiogram at 6 months after initial embolization. The radiological outcome was evaluated using MR angiography. RESULTS In 23 of 149 aneurysms (15.4%), a WCS appeared. The WCS-positive group had a significantly smaller neck size (3.3 ± 0.8 mm vs 4.2 ± 1.1 mm, p < 0.001) and smaller aneurysm size (4.3 ± 0.9 mm vs 6.0 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001) than the WCS-negative group. Multivariate analysis revealed that WCS appearance was associated with small neck size (OR 0.376, 95% CI 0.179-0.787; p = 0.009). In 106 of 149 aneurysms, the rate of complete occlusion was significantly higher in the WCS-positive group (18/18, 100%) than in the WCS-negative group (n = 54/88, 61.4%; p = 0.001) in the mean follow-up period of 31.0 ± 9.7 months (range 5-52 months). Neither major recanalization nor rupture of the aneurysm occurred in the WCS-positive group. CONCLUSIONS Appearance of the WCS was associated with complete occlusion and good clinical outcome after endovascular coil embolization. The WCS would help to determine the prognosis of cerebral aneurysms after endovascular treatment.

  4. Association of overtime work with cellular immune markers among healthy daytime white-collar employees.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Takahashi, Masaya; Irie, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Even though overtime work has been suspected to be a risk factor for ill health, little research has been done to determine the underlying immunological mechanisms. This study investigated the association between overtime work and cellular immunity among Japanese white-collar workers. A total of 306 healthy, full-time, non-shift, daytime employees (165 men and 141 women), aged 22-69 (mean 36) years, provided a blood sample for the measurement of circulating immune [natural killer (NK), B, and T] cells and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and completed a questionnaire survey including overtime/month. Blood samples were collected between 09.00-11.00 hours during working days and participants completed the questionnaire within the two weeks prior to the blood sampling. Stepwise linear regression analyses controlling for confounders were carried out to examine the relationship between overtime work and immune markers. Overtime work was mainly related to short sleep duration, increased weight, and reduced job satisfaction, and it was more prevalent among men than women and among younger and married employees. Amount of overtime was inversely associated with NK (CD3-CD56+) cell counts (β=-0.145; P =0.032) but was not associated with NKCC, NKCC/NK cell ratio, or T or B cells. The NK cell is a lymphocyte that possesses killer activity against tumor and virus-infected cells and constitutes a major component of the innate immune system. A decrease of NK cell counts from overtime work suggests a dampened innate immune defense. However, the finding needs to be further validated with a well-designed study using objective overtime measures.

  5. The impact of posture on wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers: the San Francisco study.

    PubMed

    Harris-Adamson, Carisa; You, Doohee; Eisen, Ellen A; Goldberg, Robert; Rempel, David

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of wrist posture on incidence of wrist tendinosis in a prospective cohort of blue-collar workers. Previous studies have identified awkward wrist posture as a risk factor for wrist tendinosis, though the magnitude of the relationship is unclear. Workers (N = 413) at four industries were followed for up to 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every 4 months. Individualized exposure assessments of wrist posture were based on video analysis to determine the wrist extension/flexion angle for up to four tasks. Posture measures were calculated while in "heavy pinch" (> 1 kg force), "heavy power grip" (> 4 kg force), and across "all grips." A proportional hazards model estimated the relationship between time-weighted average posture measures and incidence of dominant-side wrist tendinosis. In a model based on tertiles of exposure, adjusted for age, gender, hand force, and repetition of exertions, risk of tendinosis more than doubled in the highest category (HR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.01-7.21) across all grips. The relative risk was highest during heavy pinch (HR = 5.03, 95% CI = 0.74-34.05), though not statistically significant. Increased median wrist extension while in heavy power grip was protective (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = 0.06-0.94). In this study of production workers, median wrist flexion of more than 70, across all grips, was associated with an increased risk of tendinosis. The protective findings on median wrist extension during power grip deserve further investigation. Work tasks and tools should be designed to prevent sustained wrist flexion, especially during tasks involving forceful pinch.

  6. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  7. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  8. Minimizing capture-related stress on white-tailed deer with a capture collar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Kunkel, K.E.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1990-01-01

    We compared the effect of 3 capture methods for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on blood indicators of acute excitement and stress from 1 February to 20 April 1989. Eleven adult females were captured by Clover trap or cannon net between 1 February and 9 April 1989 in northeastern Minnesota [USA]. These deer were fitted with radio-controlled capture collars, and 9 deer were recaptured 7-33 days later. Trapping method affected serum cortisol (P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (Hb) (P < 0.06), and packed cell volume (PCV) (P < 0.07). Cortisol concentrations were lower (P < 0.0001) in capture-collared deer (0.54 .+-. 0.07 [SE] .mu.g/dL) compared to Clover-trapped (4.37 .+-. 0.69 .mu.g/dL) and cannon-netted (3.88 .+-. 0.82 .mu.g/dL) deer. Capture-collared deer were minimally stressed compared to deer captured by traditional methods. Use of the capture collar should permit more accurate interpretation of blood profiles of deer for assessement of condition and general health.

  9. Causes and consequences of timing errors associated with global positioning system collar accelerometer activity monitors

    Treesearch

    Adam J. Gaylord; Dana M. Sanchez

    2014-01-01

    Direct behavioral observations of multiple free-ranging animals over long periods of time and large geographic areas is prohibitively difficult. However, recent improvements in technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) collars equipped with motion-sensitive activity monitors, create the potential to remotely monitor animal behavior. Accelerometer-equipped...

  10. Blue-Collar Affluence in a Remote Mining Town: Challenging the Modernist Myth of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on research in Karratha, a remote resource town in Western Australia, this paper explores the ways in which blue-collar affluence disturbs the meritocratic mythology of formal education. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century Karratha was one of Australia's most affluent towns, yet its adult population was characterised by a level…

  11. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  12. Blue-Collar Affluence in a Remote Mining Town: Challenging the Modernist Myth of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on research in Karratha, a remote resource town in Western Australia, this paper explores the ways in which blue-collar affluence disturbs the meritocratic mythology of formal education. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century Karratha was one of Australia's most affluent towns, yet its adult population was characterised by a level…

  13. Navy frogmen attach flotation collar to Mercury-Atlas 9 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    A U.S. Navy frogman team attaches a flotation collar to the Mercury-Atlas 9 'Faith 7' spacecraft during recovery operations in the central Pacific near Midway Island. The Mercury-Atlas spacecraft with Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot, still inside, was hoisted aboard the U.S.S. Kearnage.

  14. Surviving Unemployment: Economic Resources and Job Loss Duration in Blue Collar Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Esther

    1995-01-01

    Examines the economic resources of displaced blue-collar workers (n=324) coping with job loss for varying lengths of time. Data revealed the pivotal role of unemployment benefits in maintaining a household's economic viability. Findings suggest that the service needs of unemployed workers may become much greater as their economic plight deepens.…

  15. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  16. White Collar Crime. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Materials. Business Issues in the Classroom. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    One of a series of units on business issues designed for secondary school students, this packet examines white collar crime. Teacher and student materials are provided in two separate sections. The teacher's guide contains four lesson plans as well as research project recommendations, student handouts, answer keys, and suggestions for using a…

  17. Socializing Messages in Blue-Collar Families: Communicative Pathways to Social Mobility and Reproduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    This study explicitly links processes of anticipatory socialization to social mobility and reproduction. An examination of the socializing messages exchanged between blue-collar parents (n = 41) and their children (n = 25) demonstrate that family-based messages about work and career seldom occur in straightforward, unambiguous ways. Instead,…

  18. Agreement on Intimate Partner Violence among a Sample of Blue-Collar Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Bersamin, Melina; Ames, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed agreement level about the occurrence of past-year male-to-female partner violence (MFPV) and female-to-male partner violence (FMPV) among a sample of 897 blue-collar couples. Intimate partner violence (IPV) was measured with the Physical Assault subscale of the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Agreement level was…

  19. An Examination of Blue- versus White-Collar Workers' Conceptualizations of Job Satisfaction Facets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiaoxiao; Kaplan, Seth; Dalal, Reeshad S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which blue- versus white-collar workers differentially conceptualize various job facets, namely the work itself, co-workers, supervisors, and pay. To examine these potential differences, we conducted a series of analyses on job satisfaction ratings from two samples of university workers. Consistent with the study…

  20. Career Opportunity and Organizational Attachment in a Blue-Collar Unionized Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, J. Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Surveys completed by a random sample of 1,884 blue-collar unionized workers showed that perceived role enhancement opportunities (more task complexity and autonomy) were positively related to attitudes associated with promotion opportunities (commitment, work involvement, career opportunity satisfaction). This was especially true for workers with…

  1. The Association between Training and Organizational Commitment among White-Collar Workers in Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Kamarul Zaman; Bakar, Raida Abu

    2003-01-01

    Responses from 204 of 300 Malaysian white-collar workers were analyzed for the association between training variables (availability of support, benefits, motivation, environment) and four types of organizational commitment. All training variables were significantly correlated with affective, normative, and overall commitment. Availability of…

  2. Why "Working Smarter" Isn't Working: White-Collar Productivity Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the productivity and work days of white collar workers. Topics include productivity improvement; task analysis; the amount of time spent reading, and how to reduce it by improving writing skills; time spent in meetings; empowered time management; and sustaining a climate for change. (LRW)

  3. Mind over matter: exploring job stress among female blue-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Griffin-Blake, C Shannon; Tucker, Pattie J; Liburd, Leandris

    2006-12-01

    Although overall health has been defined holistically as the integration of a person's optimal mental, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual well-being, a mental health focus remains on the fringe of many public health efforts. This report describes recent efforts by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to explore job stress among female blue-collar workers. Using a more holistic approach to understand its impact on blue-collar women's overall health, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was used to assess optimal human performance. Attempting to encapsulate how overall health affects one's ability to participate and fulfill daily personal/professional tasks, HRQOL yields a broader understanding of the interaction between psychological well-being (mind) and physical functioning (matter). Embedding CDC HRQOL-4 measures into a questionnaire used as part of a larger mixed methods project, blue-collar women responded to questions about their health, including both mental and physical. For these female workers, mental health appeared to be of greater consequence, which could be interpreted as mind being more significant than matter. This paper highlights the findings related to HRQOL issues experienced by these female blue-collar workers and summarizes recommendations for effective individual and organizational approaches to address job stress.

  4. White-Collar Crime and the Law: An Annotated Bibliography. Teaching Resource Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Robert

    This annotated bibliography of materials concerning white collar crime is directed at undergraduate students and instructors. Materials are organized into eight subject headings: (1) theoretical statements; (2) data sources; (3) financial institutions fraud; (4) environmental crimes; (5) workplace safety; (6) computer crimes; (7) miscellaneous…

  5. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  6. Chinese White-Collar Workers and Multilingual Creativity in the Diaspora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Xiaoye

    2011-01-01

    The nearly universal requirement of English study in colleges has afforded the language an unprecedented institutional status and given rise to an increasingly large English-literate public in the Expanding Circle countries. Adopting the lens of domestic diaspora, the present study explores Chinese white-collar workers' multilingual creativity…

  7. Victims of fraud: comparing victims of white collar and violent crime.

    PubMed

    Ganzini, L; McFarland, B; Bloom, J

    1990-01-01

    Mental health professionals have focused attention on the psychiatric sequelae of criminal victimization. This article compares the experience of white collar and violent crime victims on several parameters including statistical risk of victimization and psychiatric outcome after victimization. Emphasis is given to data obtained from interviewing 77 victims of a fraudulent financial scheme.

  8. Don't Let White Collar Crime Smudge Your School's Reputation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, G. Donald

    1979-01-01

    To ensure that administrators have efficient controls in the school system--controls designed to cut back on the number of opportunities for white collar crimes--the author provides a list of a school system's highest risk areas. (Author/IRT)

  9. Collar Osteophytes Mimicking Osteonecrosis in Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Usefulness of SPECT/CT Images.

    PubMed

    Juang, Jr-Jian; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Tsai, Shih-Chuan; Lin, Wan-Yu

    2017-03-01

    The use of prednisolone is one major risk factor for osteonecrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bone scintigraphy can be a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis. We present a case who had collar osteophytes at the bilateral femoral heads, which mimicked osteonecrosis in the planar bone scintigram. An SPECT/CT scan avoided this pitfall and increased the diagnostic accuracy for osteonecrosis.

  10. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  11. Model Curriculum And Trainer's Guide for Programs to Combat White-Collar Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Clifford L.

    This model curriculum is addressed to the training needs of personnel working in general white-collar crime assignments located in state and local police or prosecutors' offices. It is designed intentionally to orient personnel to the requirements of building a case as it moves along the enforcement process. Materials on trainer use and…

  12. Assessing intermittent pesticide exposure from flea control collars containing the organophosphorus insecticide tetrachlorvinphos.

    PubMed

    Davis, M Keith; Boone, J Scott; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W; Chambers, Janice E

    2008-11-01

    Fleas are a persistent problem for pets that require implementation of control measures. Consequently, pesticide use by homeowners for flea control is common and may increase pesticide exposure for adults and children. Fifty-five pet dogs (23 in study 1; 22 in study 2) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP). During study 1, fur of treated dogs was monitored for transferable TCVP residues using cotton gloves to pet the dogs during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was also measured in treated dogs. Average amounts of TCVP transferred from the fur of the neck (rubbing over the collar) and from the back to gloves at 3 days post-collar application were 23,700+/-2100 and 260+/-50 microg/glove, respectively. No inhibition of plasma ChE was observed. During study 2, transferable TCVP residues to cotton gloves were monitored during 5-min rubbings post-collar application. Transferable residues were also monitored on cotton tee shirts worn by children and in the first morning urine samples obtained from adults and children. Average amounts of TCVP transferred to gloves at 5 days post-collar application from the neck (over the collar) and from the back were 22,400+/-2900 and 80+/-20 microg/glove, respectively. Tee shirts worn by children on days 7-11 contained 1.8+/-0.8 microg TCVP/g shirt. No significant differences were observed between adults and children in urinary 2,4,5-trichloromandelic acid (TCMA) levels; however, all TCMA residues (adults and children) were significantly greater than pretreatment concentrations (alpha=0.05). The lack of ChE inhibition in dogs and the low acute toxicity level of TCVP (rat oral LD(50) of 4-5 g/kg) strongly suggest that TCVP is rapidly detoxified and excreted and therefore poses a very low toxicological risk, despite these high residues.

  13. Minimizing radiation exposure from patients treated with iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism using a lead collar: a simple and effective approach.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Issa; Sakr, Mohamed; Al-Shummari, Awatef M

    2003-01-01

    To construct a lead collar useful for shielding the electromagnetic radiation from the thyroid of patients treated with radioiodine (131)I for hyperthyroidism, thereby reducing the radiation emitted from these patients. A specially designed cervical lead collar was used to shield radiation exposure from 'hot thyroids' of 20 patients treated with iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. The collar was made of lead strips stacked together around a plastic neck support fastened around the patient's neck. Measurements of the radiation exposure rate were obtained at increasing distances from the patients (50, 100, 200 cm), with and without the lead collar, at various times after (131)I treatment. Radiation exposure measurements over 3 weeks showed relatively high exposure rates in the first week after treatment. The radiation exposure from the patients wearing the lead collar was half that found in the same patients not wearing the collar. The use of the lead collar significantly reduced the radiation exposure of patients' surroundings. It was particularly useful in patients who could not abide strictly to the standard restrictive protocols after treatment with (131)I. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. Results A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P <  0.001) (P-value for heterogeneity: 0.885, I2: 0.000% = no heterogeneity). WMD (95% CI) between microgaps placed either at or below the bone crest amounted to −0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P <  0.001) (P-value for heterogeneity: 0.333, I2: 12.404% = low heterogeneity). Only two studies compared different implant–abutment configurations. Due to a high heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Conclusions While the positioning of the machined neck and microgap may limit crestal bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant–abutment connection lacks documentation. PMID:23782338

  15. Effect of verapamil on intimal thickening and vascular reactivity in the collared carotid artery of the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Ustünes, L.; Yasa, M.; Kerry, Z.; Ozdemir, N.; Berkan, T.; Erhan, Y.; Ozer, A.

    1996-01-01

    1. Intimal thickening is a common site for atherosclerosis. Therefore, we investigated whether the calcium entry blocker verapamil (10 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, s.c.) can retard intimal thickening and changes in vascular reactivity induced by a non-occlusive, silicone collar positioned around the left carotid artery of rabbits. The contralateral carotid artery was sham-operated and served as a control. 2. Verapamil and placebo (saline 0.1 ml kg-1, day-1, s.c.) treatments were initiated 7 days before placing the collar and lasted 3 weeks. Thereafter, segments were cut from collared and sham-treated arteries for histology and isometric tension recording. 3. The intima/media (I/M ratio increased after 14 days of collar treatment, but intimal thickening was not inhibited by verapamil (I/M ratio placebo 0.31 +/- 0.07, verapamil 0.32 +/- 0.09). 4. The collar decreased the capacity to develop force, as indicated by the response to a supramaximal concentration of KCl, decreased the sensitivity (pD2) to acetylcholine (ACh) and phenylephrine (Phe), but increased the sensitivity to 5-hydroxytryamine (5-HT). 5. Although verapamil did not affect intimal thickening, it normalized the hypersensitivity to 5-HT in collared arteries. 6. The contraction to the supramaximal concentration of KCl was not affected by verapamil. Verapamil decreased the Emax of ACh, but this was only seen in collar-treated arteries. Verapamil also decreased the sensitivity to ACh and Phe, in both sham- and collar-treated arteries. 7. We conclude that verapamil, without preventing thickening of the intima, can modify collar-induced changes in vascular reactivity. PMID:8842432

  16. Corrective work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Leslie A.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses some general principles for planning corrective instruction and exercises in English as a second language, and follows with examples from the areas of phonemics, phonology, lexicon, idioms, morphology, and syntax. (IFS/WGA)

  17. Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) movements and behavior around a kill site and implications for GPS collar studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) radio-collars are increasingly used to estimate Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) kill rates. In interpreting results from this technology, researchers make various assumptions about wolf behavior around kills, yet no detailed description of this behavior has been published. This article describes the behavior of six wolves in an area of constant daylight during 30 hours, from when the pack killed a Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calf and yearling on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, to when they abandoned the kill remains. Although this is only a single incident, it demonstrates one possible scenario of pack behavior around a kill. Combined with the literature, this observation supports placing a radio-collar on the breeding male to maximize finding kills via GPS collars and qualifying results depending on whatever other information is available about the collared wolf's pack.

  18. On the Relationship between White-Collar Crime and Political Sociology: A Suggestion and Resource for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jurg; Fritsch, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a college-level student research project on white-collar crime and its relationship to political sociology. Provides suggestions for adapting the activity to other classrooms. Includes recommended resources that can be found in most college libraries. (CFR)

  19. On the Relationship between White-Collar Crime and Political Sociology: A Suggestion and Resource for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Jurg; Fritsch, Eric J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a college-level student research project on white-collar crime and its relationship to political sociology. Provides suggestions for adapting the activity to other classrooms. Includes recommended resources that can be found in most college libraries. (CFR)

  20. The Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway Allows Tracheal Intubation When the Cervical Spine Is Immobilized by a Rigid Collar

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Ryu; Nagata, Osamu; Kamata, Kotoe; Yamagata, Katsuyuki; Sessler, Daniel I.; Ozaki, Makoto

    2005-01-01

    Summary An intubating laryngeal mask airway (ILMA) facilitates tracheal intubation with the neck in neutral position, which is similar to the neck position maintained by a rigid cervical collar. However, a cervical collar virtually obliterates neck movement, even the small movements that normally facilitate airway insertion. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the ILMA facilitates tracheal intubation even in patients wearing a rigid cervical collar. In 50 cervical spine surgery patients with a rigid Philadelphia collar in place and 50 general surgery patients under general anaesthesia, we performed blind tracheal intubation via an ILMA. The time required for intubation, intubation success rate, and numbers and type of adjusting manoeuvres employed were recorded. Inter-incisor distance was significantly smaller (4.1 [0.8] cm vs. 4.6 [0.7] cm, mean [SD], P<0.01) and Mallampati scores were significantly greater (P<0.001) in the collared patients. ILMA insertion took longer (30 [25] vs. 22 [6] seconds), more patients required 2 insertion attempts (15 vs. 3; P<0.005), and ventilation adequacy with ILMA was worse (P<0.05) in collared patients. However, there were no significant differences between the collared and control patients in terms of total time required for intubation (60 [41] vs. 50 [30] seconds), number of intubation attempts, overall intubation success rate (96 vs. 98%), or the incidence of intubation complications. Blind intubation through an ILMA is thus a reasonable strategy for controlling the airway in patients who are immobilized with a rigid cervical collar, especially when urgency precludes a fiberoptic approach. PMID:15321932

  1. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Handcock, Rebecca N.; Swain, Dave L.; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J.; Patison, Kym P.; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle. PMID:22412327

  2. Roles for WHITE COLLAR-1 in circadian and general photoperception in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwangwon; Dunlap, Jay C; Loros, Jennifer J

    2003-01-01

    The transcription factors WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1) and WHITE COLLAR-2 (WC-2) interact to form a heterodimeric complex (WCC) that is essential for most of the light-mediated processes in Neurospora crassa. WCC also plays a distinct non-light-related role as the transcriptional activator in the FREQUENCY (FRQ)/WCC feedback loop that is central to the N. crassa circadian system. Although an activator role was expected for WC-1, unanticipated phenotypes resulting from some wc-1 alleles prompted a closer examination of an allelic series for WC-1 that has uncovered roles for this central regulator in constant darkness and in response to light. We analyzed the phenotypes of five different wc-1 mutants for expression of FRQ and WC-1 in constant darkness and following light induction. While confirming the absolute requirement of WC-1 for light responses, the data suggest multiple levels of control for light-regulated genes. PMID:12586700

  3. Coanda-Assisted Spray Manipulation Collar for a Commercial Plasma Spray Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, K.; Smith, B. L.; Whichard, G.; McKechnie, T.

    2011-06-01

    A Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) collar was retrofitted to a Praxair SG-100 plasma spray gun. The CSM device makes it possible to change the direction of (vector) the plasma jet and powder without moving the gun. The two-piece retrofit device replaces the standard faceplate. Two separate collars were tested: one designed for small vector angles and one for larger vector angles. It was demonstrated that the small-angle device could modify the trajectory of zirconia powder up to several degrees. Doing so could realign the plasma with the powder resulting in increased powder temperature and velocity. The large-angle device was capable of vectoring the plasma jet up to 45°. However, the powder did not vector as much. Under large-angle vectoring, the powder velocity and temperature decreased steadily with vector angle. Both devices were tested using a supersonic configuration to demonstrate that CSM is capable of vectoring supersonic plasmas.

  4. Monitoring Animal Behaviour and Environmental Interactions Using Wireless Sensor Networks, GPS Collars and Satellite Remote Sensing.

    PubMed

    Handcock, Rebecca N; Swain, Dave L; Bishop-Hurley, Greg J; Patison, Kym P; Wark, Tim; Valencia, Philip; Corke, Peter; O'Neill, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Remote monitoring of animal behaviour in the environment can assist in managing both the animal and its environmental impact. GPS collars which record animal locations with high temporal frequency allow researchers to monitor both animal behaviour and interactions with the environment. These ground-based sensors can be combined with remotely-sensed satellite images to understand animal-landscape interactions. The key to combining these technologies is communication methods such as wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We explore this concept using a case-study from an extensive cattle enterprise in northern Australia and demonstrate the potential for combining GPS collars and satellite images in a WSN to monitor behavioural preferences and social behaviour of cattle.

  5. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2015-08-01

    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  6. Using Collar worn Sensors to Forecast Thermal Strain in Military Working Dogs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-22

    Using Collar-worn Sensors to Forecast Thermal Strain in Military Working Dogs James R. Williamson, Austin R. Hess, Christopher J. Smalt, Delsey M...Medicine Natick, MA 01760 Abstract—Military working dogs (MWDs) are at high risk of heat strain both during training and missions. Body heat in MWD...correlation of r=0.49 between actual and predicted Tc. I. INTRODUCTION Military Working Dogs (MWDs), working in a team with a handler, are susceptible

  7. The horse-collar aurora - A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Evans, D. S.; Newell, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The frequent appearance of the 'horse-collar aurora' pattern in quiet-time DE 1 images is reported, presenting a two-hour image sequence that displays the basic features and shows that it sometimes evolves toward the theta configuration. There is some evidence for interplanetary magnetic field B(y) influence on the temporal development of the pattern. A preliminary statistical analysis finds the pattern appearing in one-third or more of the image sequences recorded during quiet times.

  8. The horse-collar aurora - A frequent pattern of the aurora in quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hones, E. W., Jr.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Evans, D. S.; Newell, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    The frequent appearance of the 'horse-collar aurora' pattern in quiet-time DE 1 images is reported, presenting a two-hour image sequence that displays the basic features and shows that it sometimes evolves toward the theta configuration. There is some evidence for interplanetary magnetic field B(y) influence on the temporal development of the pattern. A preliminary statistical analysis finds the pattern appearing in one-third or more of the image sequences recorded during quiet times.

  9. Evaluating home range techniques: use of Global Positioning System (GPS) collar data from chacma baboons.

    PubMed

    Pebsworth, Paula A; Morgan, Hanna R; Huffman, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) collars have revolutionized the field of spatial ecology, but to date, few primate studies have used them. We fitted a free-ranging, semi-habituated, juvenile male chacma baboon (Papio hamadryas ursinus) with an automatic self-releasing GPS collar and tracked his movements for 359 days. The collar captured 4254 fixes out of 5719 programmed opportunities, a 74.4 % acquisition rate, suggesting that the collar effectively tracked this baboon in a variety of habitat types. Of the data points captured, 73.7 % were three-dimensional fixes, and of these fixes, 66.9 % were highly accurate, having a dilution of precision of less than four. We calculated home range using three protocols with three estimation methods: minimum convex polygon, fixed kernel-density estimation (KDE), and fixed r local convex hull. Using all data points and the 95 % contour, these methods created home range estimations ranging from 10.8 to 23.1 km(2) for this baboon troop. Our results indicate that the KDE output using all data locations most accurately represented our data set, as it created a continuous home range boundary that excluded unused areas and outlying, potentially exploratory data points while including all seven sleeping sites and a movement corridor. However, home range estimations generated from KDE varied from 15.4 to 18.8 km(2) depending on the smoothing parameter used. Our results demonstrated that the ad hoc smoothing parameter selection technique was a better method for our data set than either the least squares cross-validation or biased cross-validation techniques. Our results demonstrate the need for primatologists to develop a standardized reporting method which documents the tool, screening protocol, and smoothing parameter used in the creation of home range estimations in order to make comparisons that are meaningful.

  10. Results of "elephant trunk" total aortic arch replacement using a multi-branched, collared graft prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan R B; Dell'Aquila, Angelo M; Akil, Ali; Schlarb, Dominik; Panuccio, Guiseppe; Martens, Sven; Rukosujew, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We report on our experience with a simplified elephant trunk (ET) procedure with a multi-branched prosthesis (Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft). It consists of a proximal portion (20 cm) with prefabricated side branches, a collar and a distal portion (30 cm). The collar, which can be trimmed into any desired diameter, constitutes the suture portion to the descending aorta. Radiopaque markers in the distal portion indicate the landing zone. Between January 2011 and June 2013, 20 consecutive patients (10 women; mean age, 66 ± 9.3 years) underwent ET procedure, including 6 re-do cases. Underlying aortic diseases were acute dissection (n = 6), chronic dissection (n = 4), aneurysm (n = 8) and PAU (n = 2). Mean preoperative diameter of the descending aorta was 49.1 ± 12.9 mm (range 74.7-29.7 mm). Concomitant procedures included ascending aortic replacement in 16 patients; root replacement in 2; AVR in 2, CABG in 3 and mitral repair in 1 patient. CPB time was 263 ± 94 min; mean duration of ACP was 65 ± 14 min. Two patients died on POD 8 and 78, respectively. Major adverse events included stroke (n = 1), resternotomy for bleeding (n = 2), renal failure requiring temporary dialysis (n = 1) and recurrent nerve paresis (n = 2). After a mean follow-up of 10 ± 8 months, all discharged patients were alive. Seven patients underwent stent-graft implantation of the descending aorta and one patient underwent open descending aortic replacement. The last generation of multi-branched arch prosthesis and especially the Vascutek(®) Siena™ Collared Graft make ET procedure a reasonable treatment option even in patients with acute aortic dissection.

  11. Developing Departmental Measures of Performance in a White-Collar Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Richard L. and Richard M. Steers. Organizations: A Micro/Macro Approach. New York: Scott, Foresman, and Company, 1986. 7. Emory, C. William. Business...Research Methods. Homewood IL: Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1985. 8. Feldman, Elliot J. A Practical Guide to the Conduct of Field Research in the Social...Olson, Val. White Collar Waste: Gain the Productivity Edge. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983. 15. Schonberger, Richard J. and Edward M, Knod, Jr

  12. The effect of a cervical collar on the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme™: a prospective, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Mann, V; Spitzner, T; Schwandner, T; Mann, S T W; Müller, M; Ahlbrandt, J; Weigand, M A; Röhrig, R

    2012-11-01

    For personnel inexperienced in airway management, supraglottic airway devices may be the first choice in an emergency. Changing head position is known to reduce the seal pressure of a laryngeal mask airway. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the use of a cervical collar improves the stability of airways secured with the LMA Supreme™ (The Laryngeal Mask Company Limited, Mahé, Seychelles). In this crossover trial, the primary endpoint was the difference in the seal pressure of the LMA Supreme in anaesthetised patients in maximum passive extension of the neck, with and without a cervical collar. The median (IQR [range]) seal pressure was 18 (13.8-22.1 [0-30]) cmH(2) O in maximum passive extension without a cervical collar. With a cervical collar in place, the seal pressure increased to 28 (22.8-30 [17-30]) cmH(2) O (p<0.001). In the neutral head position, the seal pressure was 22 (17.6-24.5 [12-30]) cmH(2) O without and 27 (22-30 [12-30]) cmH(2) O with a cervical collar in place (p<0.001). We found that a cervical collar stabilises the airway with an LMA Supreme in place and we recommend this combination for (pre-hospital) emergency cases.

  13. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession.

    PubMed

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected.

  14. Increased lung function decline in blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Thaon, Isabelle; Demange, Valérie; Herin, Fabrice; Touranchet, Annie; Paris, Christophe

    2012-07-01

    There is no consensus at the present time about the effect of welding on lung function decline. This study compared lung function decline between blue-collar workers exposed and not exposed to welding fumes in a French longitudinal cohort of 21,238 subjects aged 37 to 52 years at inclusion. Medical data, occupation, sector of activity, and spirometry were recorded twice by occupational physicians in 1990 and 1995. A job-exposure matrix was used to identify 503 male blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes and 709 control subjects and to define the weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes. Baseline lung function parameters were higher in workers exposed to welding fumes than in control subjects. After a 5-year follow-up, welding-fume exposure was associated with a nonsignificant decline in FVC (P = .06) and FEV(1) (P = .07) after adjustment for age, pack-years, BMI, and baseline value of the parameter. A significant accelerated decline in FEV(1) (P = .046) was also observed in never smokers exposed to welding fumes. An “exposure-response” relationship was observed between FEV(1) decline and weekly duration of exposure to welding fumes in nonsmokers but not in smokers. Blue-collar workers exposed to welding fumes showed accelerated decline in lung function, which, in nonsmokers, was related to weekly duration of exposure.

  15. Testing the Level of Social Desirability During Job Interview on White-Collar Profession

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Mejzlíková, Tereza; Rudá, Adéla; Krámský, David; Pitáková, Jindra

    2015-01-01

    Social desirability as a tendency to present oneself in a better light rather than in a truthful manner is common feature presented during job interviews. Previous studies mainly focused on blue-collar professions and therefore authors researched contrary set of white-collar professions in three sub-studies with four different participant groups (legal professions; police officers; controls and university students influenced by scenarios; overall N = 636). It was hypothesized that candidates for legal profession would show similar tendency toward social desirability, when compared with controls. Furthermore, police officers were hypothesized to show similar levels of social desirability as legal professions. Lastly, participants in the instruction manipulation condition were hypothesized to show increased levels of social desirability in tender situation as compared to the honest situation. All groups were tested with balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR, Paulhus, 1984). Statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences for both subscales of BIDR when comparing legal professions and control group. Similarly, increased levels of social desirability were detected in police officer candidates as well as in university students in the tender situation compared with students in the honest situation. The overall results indicated that it is typical for white-collar candidates to adapt to the testing situation and it cannot be expected to see different behavior from legal profession candidates as was originally expected. PMID:26696944

  16. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Methods Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7–10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Results Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis. Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus. Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water. The collars eliminated

  17. Satellite Telemetry of Large Mammals in Mongolia: What Expectations Should We Have for Collar Function?

    PubMed

    Kaczensky, P; Ito, T Y; Walzer, C

    2010-12-01

    The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 98 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos (n = 29) or the global positioning system (GPS; n = 69), on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus), 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), 15 Przewalski's horses (E. ferus przewalskii), eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus), and two wolves (Canis lupus). Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 98 collars deployed, only 29 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 69 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 12), with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1), or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12). Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10), software bugs (n = 7), mechanical failures (n = 5), poor GPS performance (n = 1) and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21). The better performance of Argos only collars on Mongolian gazelles and of collars not attached to an animal suggest that a large body mass reduces the Argos signal below a critical threshold. Consequently, we presently would not recommend the use of collars depending on an Argos unit for data collection or transfer on large bodied ungulates in central Asia. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This implies logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the

  18. Simulations of a PSD Plastic Neutron Collar for Assaying Fresh Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Newby, Jason; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2016-11-01

    The potential performance of a notional active coincidence collar for assaying uranium fuel based on segmented detectors constructed from the new PSD plastic fast organic scintillator with pulse shape discrimination capability was investigated in simulation. Like the International Atomic Energy Agency s present Uranium Neutron Collar for LEU (UNCL), the PSD plastic collar would also function by stimulating fission in the 235U content of the fuel with a moderated 241Am/Li neutron source and detecting instances of induced fission via neutron coincidence counting. In contrast to the moderated detectors of the UNCL, the fast time scale of detection in the scintillator eliminates statistical errors due to accidental coincidences that limit the performance of the UNCL. However, the potential to detect a single neutron multiple times historically has been one of the properties of organic scintillator detectors that has prevented their adoption for international safeguards applications. Consequently, as part of the analysis of simulated data, a method was developed by which true neutron-neutron coincidences can be distinguished from inter-detector scatter that takes advantage of the position and timing resolution of segmented detectors. Then, the performance of the notional simulated coincidence collar was evaluated for assaying a variety of fresh fuels, including some containing burnable poisons and partial defects. In these simulations, particular attention was paid to the analysis of fast mode measurements. In fast mode, a Cd liner is placed inside the collar to shield the fuel from the interrogating source and detector moderators, thereby eliminating the thermal neutron flux that is most sensitive to the presence of burnable poisons that are ubiquitous in modern nuclear fuels. The simulations indicate that the predicted precision of fast mode measurements is similar to what can be achieved by the present UNCL in thermal mode. For example, the statistical accuracy of a

  19. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks, mites and lice on dogs.

    PubMed

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Kruedewagen, Eva M; Fourie, Josephus J; Horak, Ivan G; Davis, Wendell; Krieger, Klemens J

    2012-05-30

    The studies reported here were conducted to ascertain the efficacy of imidacloprid/flumethrin incorporated in a slow-release matrix collar, against infestations of dogs by fleas, ticks, mites and lice. Efficacy was evaluated against the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis, the ticks Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor reticulatus and Dermacentor variabilis, the mite Sarcoptes scabiei and the biting louse Trichodectes canis. Groups of collar-treated dogs (n = 7-10) were infested with fleas and/or ticks at monthly intervals at least, over a period of up to 8 months. Efficacy against fleas was evaluated 24 to 48 h after treatment and 24 h after each re-infestation. Efficacy against ticks was evaluated at 48 h (acaricidal), 6 h (repellent) and 48 h (sustained) after infestation. The effect of regular shampooing or immersion in water on the efficacy of the collars was also tested. Efficacy against flea larvae was assessed by incubating blanket samples after dog contact with viable flea eggs. Effectiveness against lice and mites was evaluated after treatment of naturally infested animals. With the exception of the mites, efficacy was calculated by comparison with untreated negative control groups. Efficacy against fleas (24 h) generally exceeded 95%, and against flea larvae it exceeded 99% for 8 months. Sustained acaricidal (48 h) efficacy, covering a period of 8 months was 100% against I. ricinus, starting 2 days after treatment (in vivo), and 100% against I. scapularis (in vitro), above 97% against R. sanguineus, generally above 97% against D. reticulatus and above 90% for D. variabilis.Repellent (6 h) efficacy 2 days after treatment and continuing for 8 months was consistently 100% against I. ricinus, and above 90% against R. sanguineus.Regular shampooing affected efficacy against fleas and ticks to a lesser extent than regular immersion in water.The collars eliminated Trichodectes canis within 2 days and Sarcoptes scabiei within 3

  20. Satellite Telemetry of Large Mammals in Mongolia: What Expectations Should We Have for Collar Function?

    PubMed Central

    Kaczensky, P.; Ito, T.Y.; Walzer, C.

    2011-01-01

    The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 98 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos (n = 29) or the global positioning system (GPS; n = 69), on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus), 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), 15 Przewalski’s horses (E. ferus przewalskii), eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus), and two wolves (Canis lupus). Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 98 collars deployed, only 29 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 69 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 12), with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1), or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12). Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10), software bugs (n = 7), mechanical failures (n = 5), poor GPS performance (n = 1) and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21). The better performance of Argos only collars on Mongolian gazelles and of collars not attached to an animal suggest that a large body mass reduces the Argos signal below a critical threshold. Consequently, we presently would not recommend the use of collars depending on an Argos unit for data collection or transfer on large bodied ungulates in central Asia. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This implies logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the

  1. Jitter Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waegell, Mordecai J.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Jitter_Correct.m is a MATLAB function that automatically measures and corrects inter-frame jitter in an image sequence to a user-specified precision. In addition, the algorithm dynamically adjusts the image sample size to increase the accuracy of the measurement. The Jitter_Correct.m function takes an image sequence with unknown frame-to-frame jitter and computes the translations of each frame (column and row, in pixels) relative to a chosen reference frame with sub-pixel accuracy. The translations are measured using a Cross Correlation Fourier transformation method in which the relative phase of the two transformed images is fit to a plane. The measured translations are then used to correct the inter-frame jitter of the image sequence. The function also dynamically expands the image sample size over which the cross-correlation is measured to increase the accuracy of the measurement. This increases the robustness of the measurement to variable magnitudes of inter-frame jitter

  2. New Directions in Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A picture of the American prison situation in the past and in its present changing form is presented. The object of the correctional community is becoming more and more that of successfully reintegrating the ex-offender into the social community from which he has been separated. It is predicted that within the next five years: (1) Every state will…

  3. Vertical Drop of 44-BWR Waste Package With Lifting Collars

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2005-08-23

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a waste package (WP) dropped flat on its bottom from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 44-Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensities. The Uncanistered Waste Disposal Container System is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 4, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 16). AP-3. 12Q, Design Calculations and Analyses (Ref. 11) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design of the type of 44-BWR WP considered in this calculation and provides the potential dimensions and materials for that design.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of different shapes of collars on the reduction of scour around a single bridge pier.

    PubMed

    Jahangirzadeh, Afshin; Basser, Hossein; Akib, Shatirah; Karami, Hojat; Naji, Sareh; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin

    2014-01-01

    The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream's bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Different Shapes of Collars on the Reduction of Scour around a Single Bridge Pier

    PubMed Central

    Jahangirzadeh, Afshin; Basser, Hossein; Akib, Shatirah; Karami, Hojat; Naji, Sareh; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin

    2014-01-01

    The scour phenomenon around bridge piers causes great quantities of damages annually all over the world. Collars are considered as one of the substantial methods for reducing the depth and volume of scour around bridge piers. In this study, the experimental and numerical methods are used to investigate two different shapes of collars, i.e, rectangular and circular, in terms of reducing scour around a single bridge pier. The experiments were conducted in hydraulic laboratory at university of Malaya. The scour around the bridge pier and collars was simulated numerically using a three-dimensional, CFD model namely SSIIM 2.0, to verify the application of the model. The results indicated that although, both types of collars provides a considerable decrease in the depth of the scour, the rectangular collar, decreases scour depth around the pier by 79 percent, and has better performance compared to the circular collar. Furthermore, it was observed that using collars under the stream’s bed, resulted in the most reduction in the scour depth around the pier. The results also show the SSIIM 2.0 model could simulate the scour phenomenon around a single bridge pier and collars with sufficient accuracy. Using the experimental and numerical results, two new equations were developed to predict the scour depth around a bridge pier exposed to circular and rectangular collars. PMID:24919065

  6. Correction of ocular dystopia.

    PubMed

    Janecka, I P

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine results with elective surgical correction of enophthalmos. The study was a retrospective assessment in a university-based referral practice. A consecutive sample of 10 patients who developed ocular dystopia following orbital trauma was examined. The main outcome measures were a subjective evaluation by patients and objective measurements of patients' eye position. The intervention was three-dimensional orbital reconstruction with titanium plates. It is concluded that satisfactory correction of enophthalmos and ocular dystopia can be achieved with elective surgery using titanium plates. In addition, intraoperative measurements of eye position in three planes increases the precision of surgery.

  7. Discovery of a second population of white-collared seedeaters, Sporophila torqueola (Passeriformes: emberizidae) along the Rio Grande of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodin, Marc C.; Skoruppa, Mary K.; Blacklock, Gene W.; Hickman, Graham C.

    1999-01-01

    The range of the white-collared seedeater (Sporophila torqueola), a tropical grassland species, extends from Central America northward along both coasts of Mexico (Eitniear, 1997), including Tamaulipas and Nuevo Leon (Howell and Webb, 1995). White-collared seedeaters historically occurred commonly in extreme southern Texas (Oberholser, 1974; Rappole and Blacklock, 1994). However, since about 1950, white-collared seedeaters have undergone a precipitous decline in south Texas. Studies during 1994-1996 identified only seven to nine breeding pairs in the only population known to occur in Texas, located ca. 55 km downriver of Laredo, Texas, in Zapata Co. (Eitniear, 1997). Outside of the historical range, very few records are documented. Oberholser (1974) reported that three white-collared seed- eater specimens were collected in 1948 in Webb Co., northwest of Laredo, and Arnold (1980) also collected a white-collared seedeater in Webb Co. Vagrants also have been sighted as far afield as Corpus Christi (Blacklock, 1964), ca. 200 km north of the Rio Grande (Fig. 1).

  8. The influence of urea feeding on the bacterial and archaeal community in the forestomach of collared peccary (Artiodactyla, Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, E G; Santos, A C F; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P; Nogueira-Filho, S L G; Gross, E

    2009-11-01

    This study was carried out to test whether bacterial and archaeal populations, and products of fermentation in each compartment of collared peccary stomach, vary significantly with urea feeding. Bacteria and archaeal population variation among the four stomach compartments were also compared. Archaeal and bacterial communities in the forestomach of four individuals per treatment - peccaries fed diets with and without urea - were analysed at molecular level using PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Volatile fatty acids profiles in the three different compartments of the forestomach were also compared. The bacterial community composition varied considerably among each compartment and with urea provision, but no variation was observed between archaeal populations. Differences in bacterial communities between treatments - with and without urea - were greater than amongst stomach compartments. The acetate: propionate proportion decreased with urea provision in diet. Some differences in bacterial but not archaeal community composition were observed in each compartment of the collared peccary forestomach. There are some differences in bacterial but not archaeal populations in each compartment of collared peccary stomach. Use of urea in the diet of peccary can substantially modify the profile of volatile fatty acids released in its forestomach, but does not influence the archaeal community composition. Urea has an important effect on bacterial population DGGE profile present in the peccary's forestomach. These results demonstrate the ability of the collared peccary to use urea as source of nonprotein nitrogen, and confirm a hypothesis that the collared peccary has a digestive physiology more similar to ruminant than nonruminant animals.

  9. Prevention of transmission of Babesia canis by Dermacentor reticulatus ticks to dogs treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar.

    PubMed

    Fourie, Josephus J; Stanneck, Dorothee; Jongejan, Frans

    2013-02-18

    A group of 8 dogs was treated with an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto(®)) 28 days prior to infestation with adult Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, infected with Babesia canis. The ability of the collar to prevent transmission of B. canis in the treated group was compared to an untreated control group. All 8 dogs in the untreated control group became infected with B. canis parasites, which were detected in blood smears as early as day 6 post tick-application. All control dogs developed clinical signs of babesiosis and were rescue-treated with imidocarb dipropionate. These dogs also developed specific B. canis antibodies as identified by serology (IFA test) and were confirmed PCR/RLB positive. None of the 8 dogs treated with the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar became infected with B. canis, which was confirmed by the absence of specific B. canis antibodies and babesial DNA as confirmed by PCR/RLB. The collar caused 96.02% of the ticks to die within 48h post challenge and this increased to 100% within 4 days. Although a high percentage of 44% of the Dermacentor ticks were infected with B. canis, they were unable to transmit the infection to the treated group. Hence, the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar effectively prevented transmission of B. canis 1 month after application onto the dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Range expansion and population dynamics of an invasive species: the Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto).

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Spencer N; Hurlbert, Allen H

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35-48% and 41-46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models.

  11. C2 Body Fracture: Report of Cases Managed Conservatively by Philadelphia Collar

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghian, Homa

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Purpose To present results of conservative management in patients with pure C2 body fractures. Overview of Literature Axis body fractures, a less common subgroup of C2 fractures, are commonly classified as vertical coronal, vertical sagittal, and transverse subtypes. While the treatment paradigm for other C2 fractures is clear, there is insufficient evidence to support treatment guidelines for C2 body fractures. Methods Eleven patients with pure C2 body fractures were managed with external immobilization and followed thereafter. Results All neurologic examinations were normal. In computed tomography (CT) scans, four, two, three, and two patients had a coronal, sagittal, horizontal, and burst fracture, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed hematoma and partial rupture in the anterior longitudinal ligament in four patients, posterior ligamentous complex injury in one, and normal ligamentous structure in six. All fractures were managed conservatively using the Philadelphia collar, which was continued until complete disappearance of symptoms (within 1–3 months in all patients). The decision to discontinue the neck collar was made by a dynamic neck X-ray and CT scan that showed complete bony fusion. All patients were then followed for an additional 1.5 years (mean follow-up of 21 months for all patients). No patient showed any neurologic symptoms or deficits during the follow-up period. Conclusions In patients with pure C2 body fracture, non-operative management with Philadelphia neck collar is a safe and efficacious option, even in the presence of some sort of ligamentous injury. PMID:27790321

  12. Evaluating methods for estimating home ranges using GPS collars: A comparison using proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus)

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Ian P.; Ramirez Saldivar, Diana A.; Nathan, Senthilvel K. S. S.; Goossens, Benoit

    2017-01-01

    The development of GPS tags for tracking wildlife has revolutionised the study of home ranges, habitat use and behaviour. Concomitantly, there have been rapid developments in methods for estimating habitat use from GPS data. In combination, these changes can cause challenges in choosing the best methods for estimating home ranges. In primatology, this issue has received little attention, as there have been few GPS collar-based studies to date. However, as advancing technology is making collaring studies more feasible, there is a need for the analysis to advance alongside the technology. Here, using a high quality GPS collaring data set from 10 proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus), we aimed to: 1) compare home range estimates from the most commonly used method in primatology, the grid-cell method, with three recent methods designed for large and/or temporally correlated GPS data sets; 2) evaluate how well these methods identify known physical barriers (e.g. rivers); and 3) test the robustness of the different methods to data containing either less frequent or random losses of GPS fixes. Biased random bridges had the best overall performance, combining a high level of agreement between the raw data and estimated utilisation distribution with a relatively low sensitivity to reduced fixed frequency or loss of data. It estimated the home range of proboscis monkeys to be 24–165 ha (mean 80.89 ha). The grid-cell method and approaches based on local convex hulls had some advantages including simplicity and excellent barrier identification, respectively, but lower overall performance. With the most suitable model, or combination of models, it is possible to understand more fully the patterns, causes, and potential consequences that disturbances could have on an animal, and accordingly be used to assist in the management and restoration of degraded landscapes. PMID:28362872

  13. 454 sequencing reveals extreme complexity of the class II Major Histocompatibility Complex in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Because of their functional significance, the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I and II genes have been the subject of continuous interest in the fields of ecology, evolution and conservation. In some vertebrate groups MHC consists of multiple loci with similar alleles; therefore, the multiple loci must be genotyped simultaneously. In such complex systems, understanding of the evolutionary patterns and their causes has been limited due to challenges posed by genotyping. Results Here we used 454 amplicon sequencing to characterize MHC class IIB exon 2 variation in the collared flycatcher, an important organism in evolutionary and immuno-ecological studies. On the basis of over 152,000 sequencing reads we identified 194 putative alleles in 237 individuals. We found an extreme complexity of the MHC class IIB in the collared flycatchers, with our estimates pointing to the presence of at least nine expressed loci and a large, though difficult to estimate precisely, number of pseudogene loci. Many similar alleles occurred in the pseudogenes indicating either a series of recent duplications or extensive concerted evolution. The expressed alleles showed unambiguous signals of historical selection and the occurrence of apparent interlocus exchange of alleles. Placing the collared flycatcher's MHC sequences in the context of passerine diversity revealed transspecific MHC class II evolution within the Muscicapidae family. Conclusions 454 amplicon sequencing is an effective tool for advancing our understanding of the MHC class II structure and evolutionary patterns in Passeriformes. We found a highly dynamic pattern of evolution of MHC class IIB genes with strong signals of selection and pronounced sequence divergence in expressed genes, in contrast to the apparent sequence homogenization in pseudogenes. We show that next generation sequencing offers a universal, affordable method for the characterization and, in perspective, genotyping of MHC systems of

  14. Range Expansion and Population Dynamics of an Invasive Species: The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto)

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Spencer N.; Hurlbert, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species offer ecologists the opportunity to study the factors governing species distributions and population growth. The Eurasian Collared-Dove (Streptopelia decaocto) serves as a model organism for invasive spread because of the wealth of abundance records and the recent development of the invasion. We tested whether a set of environmental variables were related to the carrying capacities and growth rates of individual populations by modeling the growth trajectories of individual populations of the Collared-Dove using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data. Depending on the fit of our growth models, carrying capacity and growth rate parameters were extracted and modeled using historical, geographical, land cover and climatic predictors. Model averaging and individual variable importance weights were used to assess the strength of these predictors. The specific variables with the greatest support in our models differed between data sets, which may be the result of temporal and spatial differences between the BBS and CBC. However, our results indicate that both carrying capacity and population growth rates are related to developed land cover and temperature, while growth rates may also be influenced by dispersal patterns along the invasion front. Model averaged multivariate models explained 35–48% and 41–46% of the variation in carrying capacities and population growth rates, respectively. Our results suggest that widespread species invasions can be evaluated within a predictable population ecology framework. Land cover and climate both have important effects on population growth rates and carrying capacities of Collared-Dove populations. Efforts to model aspects of population growth of this invasive species were more successful than attempts to model static abundance patterns, pointing to a potentially fruitful avenue for the development of improved invasive distribution models. PMID:25354270

  15. Low survival rates of Swan Geese (Anser cygnoides) estimated from neck-collar resighting and telemetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Chang-Yong; Lee, Ki-Sup; Poyarkov, Nikolay D.; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Hansoo; Takekawa, John; Smith, Lacy M.; Ely, Craig R.; Wang, Xin; Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony D.; Goroshko, Oleg; Batbayar, Nyambayar; Prosser, Diann J.; Xiao, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Waterbird survival rates are a key component of demographic modeling used for effective conservation of long-lived threatened species. The Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) is globally threatened and the most vulnerable goose species endemic to East Asia due to its small and rapidly declining population. To address a current knowledge gap in demographic parameters of the Swan Goose, available datasets were compiled from neck-collar resighting and telemetry studies, and two different models were used to estimate their survival rates. Results of a mark-resighting model using 15 years of neck-collar data (2001–2015) provided age-dependent survival rates and season-dependent encounter rates with a constant neck-collar retention rate. Annual survival rate was 0.638 (95% CI: 0.378–0.803) for adults and 0.122 (95% CI: 0.028–0.286) for first-year juveniles. Known-fate models were applied to the single season of telemetry data (autumn 2014) and estimated a mean annual survival rate of 0.408 (95% CI: 0.152–0.670) with higher but non-significant differences for adults (0.477) vs. juveniles (0.306). Our findings indicate that Swan Goose survival rates are comparable to the lowest rates reported for European or North American goose species. Poor survival may be a key demographic parameter contributing to their declining trend. Quantitative threat assessments and associated conservation measures, such as restricting hunting, may be a key step to mitigate for their low survival rates and maintain or enhance their population.

  16. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, Vicente; Mech, L. David

    2010-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study.

  17. STS-55 Pilot Henricks with baroreflex collar in SL-D2 module onboard OV-102

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-05-06

    STS055-233-019 (26 April-6 May 1993) --- Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, STS-55 pilot, wears a special collar for a space adaptation experiment in the science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia. The Baroreflex (BA) experiment is designed to investigate the theory that light-headedness and a reduction in blood pressures upon standing after landing may arise because the normal reflex system regulating blood pressure behaves differently after having adapted to a microgravity environment. These space-based measurements of the baroreflex will be compared to ground measurements to determine if microgravity affects the reflex.

  18. Results of Temperature and Collar Surveys in EE-2 – November 16-17, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Murhpy, Hugh D.; Dash, Zora V.

    1983-11-21

    The purpose of these surveys was to remove the ambiguities in fracture locations from the Experiment 2035 surveys which were run the previous week without a collar locator. It was confirmed that a major fracture, taking about 50% of the injected water, exists right at, or within 10 to 20 feet below , the casing shoe. Another large fracture, taking about 30% of the flow, occurs at 11,900 feet, 320 feet below the shoe. During these surveys we detected small, about 0.6°C,

  19. Reducing Social Disparities in Tobacco Use: A Social-Contextual Model for Reducing Tobacco Use Among Blue-Collar Workers

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Glorian; Barbeau, Elizabeth; Hunt, Mary Kay; Emmons, Karen

    2004-01-01

    In the United States in 1997, the smoking prevalence among blue-collar workers was nearly double that among white-collar workers, underscoring the need for new approaches to reduce social disparities in tobacco use. These inequalities reflect larger structural forces that shape the social context of workers’ lives. Drawing from a range of social and behavioral theories and lessons from social epidemiology, we articulate a social-contextual model for understanding ways in which socioeconomic position, particularly occupation, influences smoking patterns. We present applications of this model to worksite-based smoking cessation interventions among blue-collar workers and provide empirical support for this model. We also propose avenues for future research guided by this model. PMID:14759932

  20. Characteristics of combustion flame sprayed nickel aluminum using a Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar for off-normal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, Reid S.

    A novel flame spray collar called the Coanda Assisted Spray Manipulation collar (CSM) has been tested for use on the Sulzer Metco 5P II combustion flame spray gun. A comparison study of the stock nozzle and the CSM has been performed by evaluating the porosity, surface roughness, microhardness, tensile strength and microscopy of normal and off-normal sprayed NiAl deposits. The use of the CSM collar resulted in the need to position the sprayed coupons closer to the gun, which in turn affected the particle impact energy and particle temperatures of the NiAl powder. For the CSM, porosities had a larger scatterband, surface roughness was comparably the same, microhardness was lower, and tensile strength was higher. The microscopy analysis revealed a greater presence of unmelted particles and steeper intersplat boundaries for the CSM. For both processes, the porosity and surface roughness increased and the microhardness decreased as the spray angle decreased.

  1. Australian blue-collar men's health and well-being: contextual issues for workplace health promotion interventions.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Karin; Cronin, David; Corney, Tim; Green, Emma

    2013-09-01

    In Australia, blue-collar workers are predominantly male and form a unique and large (approximately 30%) subset of the Australian workforce. They exhibit particular health-related issues and, in comparison to other groups, often a lack of health promoting behavior. This article briefly discusses the Australian context and some of the key health issues blue-collar men face, in particular as it relates to construction workers. It reviews the impact of gender and socioeconomic factors in designing workplace health promotion interventions. This article considers practice strategies for health promoters in a specific workplace setting: it looks at meta-factors and industry-based contextual factors, including barriers to implementation and participation, while addressing common misconceptions about Australian blue-collar workers.

  2. The effects of criminal justice contact on employment stability for white-collar and street-level offenders.

    PubMed

    Kerley, Kent R; Copes, Heith

    2004-02-01

    Criminologists increasingly have studied the effects of criminal justice contact on a broad range of offenders' adult outcomes. However, virtually all of this research focuses exclusively on street-level offenders. With the use of a unique data set that includes street-level and white-collar offenders, we investigated the odds of regaining steady employment following criminal justice contact by offender type. Specifically, we investigated the effects of age of onset, number of prior arrests, total time sentenced, timing of first arrest, and timing of first incarceration on employment stability for both types of offenders, while controlling for family background factors, race, educational attainment, and age. Overall, we found that white-collar offenders are better able to rebound following contact with the criminal justice system. However, when the accrue multiple arrests and are arrested or incarcerated before the age of 24, white-collar offenders face the same obstacles to employment stability as their street-level counterparts.

  3. Improving the accuracy of estimates of animal path and travel distance using GPS drift-corrected dead reckoning.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Evans, Hannah K; Roskilly, Kyle; Harvey, Richard J; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Route taken and distance travelled are important parameters for studies of animal locomotion. They are often measured using a collar equipped with GPS. Collar weight restrictions limit battery size, which leads to a compromise between collar operating life and GPS fix rate. In studies that rely on linear interpolation between intermittent GPS fixes, path tortuosity will often lead to inaccurate path and distance travelled estimates. Here, we investigate whether GPS-corrected dead reckoning can improve the accuracy of localization and distance travelled estimates while maximizing collar operating life. Custom-built tracking collars were deployed on nine freely exercising domestic dogs to collect high fix rate GPS data. Simulations were carried out to measure the extent to which combining accelerometer-based speed and magnetometer heading estimates (dead reckoning) with low fix rate GPS drift correction could improve the accuracy of path and distance travelled estimates. In our study, median 2-dimensional root-mean-squared (2D-RMS) position error was between 158 and 463 m (median path length 16.43 km) and distance travelled was underestimated by between 30% and 64% when a GPS position fix was taken every 5 min. Dead reckoning with GPS drift correction (1 GPS fix every 5 min) reduced 2D-RMS position error to between 15 and 38 m and distance travelled to between an underestimation of 2% and an overestimation of 5%. Achieving this accuracy from GPS alone would require approximately 12 fixes every minute and result in a battery life of approximately 11 days; dead reckoning reduces the number of fixes required, enabling a collar life of approximately 10 months. Our results are generally applicable to GPS-based tracking studies of quadrupedal animals and could be applied to studies of energetics, behavioral ecology, and locomotion. This low-cost approach overcomes the limitation of low fix rate GPS and enables the long-term deployment of lightweight GPS collars.

  4. Objective and Subjective Improvement of Hearing in Noise After Surgical Correction of Unilateral Congenital Aural Atresia in Pediatric Patients: A Prospective Study Using the Hearing in Noise Test, the Sound-Spatial-Quality Questionnaire, and the Glasgow Benefit Inventory.

    PubMed

    Byun, Hayoung; Moon, Il Joon; Woo, Sook-Young; Jin, Sun Hwa; Park, Heesung; Chung, Won-Ho; Hong, Sung Hwa; Cho, Yang-Sun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the objective and subjective long-term binaural benefits of surgical correction in children with unilateral congenital aural atresia, using an open-set sentence test in noise and subjective questionnaires. A prospective study was performed between August 2010 and February 2013. This study included pediatric patients who had unilateral conductive hearing loss (normal bone conduction hearing) on the atretic side but normal air conduction hearing on the normal side and were scheduled to undergo a primary canaloplasty. Pure-tone audiometry, the hearing in noise test (HINT), and questionnaires (Sound-Spatial-Qualities of Hearing Scale; Glasgow Benefit Inventory [GBI]) were administered preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Among 34 consecutive patients who initially met enrollment criteria, 26 subjects (23 boys and 3 girls) aged 10 to 16 years (mean 12.3 years) completed this study. Canaloplasty and hearing restoration procedures were performed uneventfully in all patients. The mean air conduction thresholds were significantly improved from 63.9 to 35.0 dB (6 months) and 39.4 dB (12 months) after surgery (p < 0.001). In HINT, speech understanding in noise that was presented toward the newly opened atretic ear significantly improved at 1 year postoperatively (p = 0.014). In noise toward the normal ear, speech understanding significantly improved after surgery, from -0.1 dB preoperatively to -2.0 dB at 6 months (p = 0.002) and -1.8 dB at 12 months (p = 0.005) (p for quadratic trend = 0.036). The composite score improved from -2.6 dB preoperatively to -3.4 dB at 6 months and -3.6 dB at 12 months (p = 0.045; p for linear trend = 0.005). The Sound-Spatial-Qualities of Hearing Scale scores in all domains significantly improved 1 year after surgery (p < 0.034). The mean GBI scores in each domain ranged from 14.2 to 49.4. Total GBI score was correlated with better signal to noise ratio in noise toward the atretic ear as

  5. The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jonathan J.; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4–5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward

  6. The welfare consequences and efficacy of training pet dogs with remote electronic training collars in comparison to reward based training.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jonathan J; Cracknell, Nina; Hardiman, Jessica; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the welfare consequences of training dogs in the field with manually operated electronic devices (e-collars). Following a preliminary study on 9 dogs, 63 pet dogs referred for recall related problems were assigned to one of three Groups: Treatment Group A were trained by industry approved trainers using e-collars; Control Group B trained by the same trainers but without use of e-collars; and Group C trained by members of the Association of Pet Dog Trainers, UK again without e-collar stimulation (n = 21 for each Group). Dogs received two 15 minute training sessions per day for 4-5 days. Training sessions were recorded on video for behavioural analysis. Saliva and urine were collected to assay for cortisol over the training period. During preliminary studies there were negative changes in dogs' behaviour on application of electric stimuli, and elevated cortisol post-stimulation. These dogs had generally experienced high intensity stimuli without pre-warning cues during training. In contrast, in the subsequent larger, controlled study, trainers used lower settings with a pre-warning function and behavioural responses were less marked. Nevertheless, Group A dogs spent significantly more time tense, yawned more often and engaged in less environmental interaction than Group C dogs. There was no difference in urinary corticosteroids between Groups. Salivary cortisol in Group A dogs was not significantly different from that in Group B or Group C, though Group C dogs showed higher measures than Group B throughout sampling. Following training 92% of owners reported improvements in their dog's referred behaviour, and there was no significant difference in reported efficacy across Groups. Owners of dogs trained using e-collars were less confident of applying the training approach demonstrated. These findings suggest that there is no consistent benefit to be gained from e-collar training but greater welfare concerns compared with positive reward based

  7. Prevalence and Health Correlates of Work-Life Conflict among Blue- and White-Collar Workers from Different Economic Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Hämmig, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The research on work-life conflict (WLC) is largely neglected in occupational medicine and public health and typically limited to white-collar workers and public servants. This study therefore aims to explore possible differences in the prevalence of WLC and its association with health outcomes between white- and blue-collar workers from different work environments in Switzerland. Cross-sectional survey data collected in 2007 in the service sector and in 2010 in the industrial sector were used for statistical analyses. A subsample of university graduates employed by large service companies (N = 1,170) from the first survey’s population was taken and compared with a subsample of low or unskilled industrial and construction workers with no or only compulsory education (N = 489) from the second survey’s population. The results show almost consistently, and particularly in women, a lower prevalence of time- and strain-based forms and both causal directions of WLC in blue-collar workers. However, associations between different WLC measures and general, physical and mental health outcomes were found to be equally strong or even stronger among blue-collar workers compared to white-collar workers. Low or unskilled industrial and construction workers are less frequently affected by higher degrees of WLC but are then at no lower risk of suffering poor self-rated health or severe backaches and sleep disorders than university graduates working in the service sector with comparable exposure to WLC. In conclusion, it can be stated that WLC turned out to be much less prevalent but equally or even more detrimental to health in blue-collar workers, who therefore need to be considered in future studies. PMID:25426483

  8. Fine structural and immunohistochemical detection of collar enamel in the teeth of Polypterus senegalus, an actinopterygian fish.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, I; Yokosuka, H; Ishiyama, M; Mikami, M; Shimokawa, H; Uchida, T

    2012-02-01

    This is the first detailed report about the collar enamel of the teeth of Polypterus senegalus. We have examined the fine structure of the collar enamel and enamel organ of Polypterus during amelogenesis by light and transmission electron microscopy. An immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody against bovine amelogenin, an antiserum against porcine amelogenin and region-specific antibodies or antiserum against the C-terminus, middle region and N-terminus of porcine amelogenin has also been performed to examine the collar enamel matrix present in these teeth. Their ameloblasts contain fully developed Golgi apparatus, rough endoplasmic reticulum and secretory granules. During collar enamel formation, an amorphous fine enamel matrix containing no collagen fibrils is found between the dentin and ameloblast layers. In non-demineralized sections, the collar enamel (500 nm to 1 μm thick) is distinguishable from dentin, because of its higher density and differences in the arrangement of its crystals. The fine structural features of collar enamel in Polypterus are similar to those of tooth enamel in Lepisosteus (gars), coelacanths, lungfish and amphibians. The enamel matrix shows intense immunoreactivity to the antibody and antiserum against mammalian amelogenins and to the middleregion- and C-terminal-specific anti-amelogenin antibodies. These findings suggest that the proteins in the enamel of Polypterus contain domains that closely resemble those of bovine and porcine amelogenins. The enamel matrix, which exhibits positive immunoreactivity to mammalian amelogenins, extends to the cap enameloid surface, implying that amelogenin-like proteins are secreted by ameloblasts as a thin matrix layer that covers the cap enameloid after enameloid maturation.

  9. Different parts, different stories: climate sensitivity of growth is stronger in root collars vs. stems in tundra shrubs.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Pascale; Angers-Blondin, Sandra; Gagnon, Marianne; Myers-Smith, Isla H; Lévesque, Esther; Boudreau, Stéphane

    2017-08-01

    Shrub densification has been widely reported across the circumpolar arctic and subarctic biomes in recent years. Long-term analyses based on dendrochronological techniques applied to shrubs have linked this phenomenon to climate change. However, the multi-stemmed structure of shrubs makes them difficult to sample and therefore leads to non-uniform sampling protocols among shrub ecologists, who will favor either root collars or stems to conduct dendrochronological analyses. Through a comparative study of the use of root collars and stems of Betula glandulosa, a common North American shrub species, we evaluated the relative sensitivity of each plant part to climate variables and assessed whether this sensitivity is consistent across three different types of environments in northwestern Québec, Canada (terrace, hilltop and snowbed). We found that root collars had greater sensitivity to climate than stems and that these differences were maintained across the three types of environments. Growth at the root collar was best explained by spring precipitation and summer temperature, whereas stem growth showed weak and inconsistent responses to climate variables. Moreover, sensitivity to climate was not consistent among plant parts, as individuals having climate-sensitive root collars did not tend to have climate-sensitive stems. These differences in sensitivity of shrub parts to climate highlight the complexity of resource allocation in multi-stemmed plants. Whereas stem initiation and growth are driven by microenvironmental variables such as light availability and competition, root collars integrate the growth of all plant parts instead, rendering them less affected by mechanisms such as competition and more responsive to signals of global change. Although further investigations are required to determine the degree to which these findings are generalizable across the tundra biome, our results indicate that consistency and caution in the choice of plant parts are a key

  10. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  11. The Only Thing We Have to Fear Is Fear Itself: Investigating the Relationship between Fear of Falling and White-Collar Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper

    2012-01-01

    Criminologists have long been interested in understanding why people commit crime. Perhaps an even more interesting question is what accounts for the offending of individuals who occupy white-collar positions. Most explanations of white-collar offending have relied on extant criminological theories that have been developed to account for street or…

  12. Accidental hanging by a T-shirt collar in a man with morphine intoxication: an unusual case.

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Alagiyawanna, Ramesh

    2011-09-01

    Accidental hanging is rare across all age groups, and it is even rarer in the adult population except in autoerotic asphyxia. Few cases have been reported in the literature, which describe unusual patterns of accidental hanging. This article focuses on an unusual pattern of accidental hanging of a 25-year-old man, who was in a state of morphine-induced central nervous system depression and found dead in a sitting position with the collar of his T-shirt hanging off a jutting-out root of a tree. The hanged collar acted as a ligature compressing the neck.

  13. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  14. Histology of palate and soft palate tonsil of collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Teófilo, T S; Morais, M R P T; Dias, G F; Diniz, A N; Chaves, H S A; Fontenele-Neto, J D

    2014-10-01

    Peccaries are characterized by a prominent skin gland, known as scent gland, which is located in the middle of the rump. These animals are able to survive in a great variety of habitats, from humid tropical forests to semi-arid areas. They are omnivorous animals, and their diet includes fibrous material, vegetables, fruits, small vertebrates and insects. Collared peccary hard palate and soft palate tonsils were studied, macroscopic morphometric data were collected and tissue samples were paraffin-embedded. Sections were stained with HE, Gomori's trichrome and von Kossa; the first two were used to study general organization and the latter to detect calcium deposits. The hard palate showed one incisive papilla followed by several rugae united by a distinct raphe. The hard palate is lined by a keratinised squamous epithelium resting on a dense connective, whereas in the soft palate, the epithelium is parakeratinised and showed lymphocyte infiltration. The palate showed several pacinian corpuscles in the propria-submucosa. Two ovoid-shaped tonsils were found in the soft palate, and several crypts were observed on its surface. The epithelium was highly infiltrated by lymphocytes, and within the crypts, tonsilloliths were frequently observed. The study showed that the general organization of collared peccary palate is similar to other species, but in its oropharynx, only the soft palate tonsil was present and the pacinian corpuscles formed small aggregates. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Physiological responses in rufous-collared sparrows to thermal acclimation and seasonal acclimatization.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Karin Evelyn; Cavieres, Grisel; Veloso, Claudio; Canals, Mauricio; Sabat, Pablo

    2009-04-01

    A large number of physiological acclimation studies assume that flexibility in a certain trait is both adaptive and functionally important for organisms in their natural environment; however, it is not clear how an organism's capacity for temperature acclimation translates to the seasonal acclimatization that these organisms must accomplish. To elucidate this relationship, we measured BMR and TEWL rates in both field-acclimatized and laboratory-acclimated adult rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis). Measurements in field-acclimatized birds were taken during the winter and summer seasons; in the laboratory-acclimated birds, we took our measurements following 4 weeks at either 15 or 30 degrees C. Although BMR and TEWL rates did not differ between winter and summer in the field-acclimatized birds, laboratory-acclimated birds exposed to 15 degrees C exhibited both a higher BMR and TEWL rate when compared to the birds acclimated to 30 degrees C and the field-acclimatized birds. Because organ masses seem to be similar between field and cold-acclimated birds whereas BMR is higher in cold-acclimated birds, the variability in BMR cannot be explained completely by adjustments in organ masses. Our findings suggest that, although rufous-collared sparrows can exhibit thermal acclimation of physiological traits, sparrows do not use this capacity to cope with minor to moderate fluctuations in environmental conditions. Our data support the hypothesis that physiological flexibility in energetic traits is a common feature of avian metabolism.

  16. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region of a pattern referred to as 'horse-collar' aurora (Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use the Dynamics Explorer data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager, while at the same time DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. Our analysis shows that, in general, there is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. In many instances, over scales ranging from tens to a few hundred kilometers, electron precipitation features and upward field-aligned currents are observed at locations where the plasma flow gradients indicate negative V-average x E. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  17. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread poleward to very high latitudes, (the type of a pattern referred to as a 'horse-collar' aurora by Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use a DE data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager while at the same time the DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. There is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2-D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  18. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region of a pattern referred to as 'horse-collar' aurora (Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use the Dynamics Explorer data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager, while at the same time DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. Our analysis shows that, in general, there is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. In many instances, over scales ranging from tens to a few hundred kilometers, electron precipitation features and upward field-aligned currents are observed at locations where the plasma flow gradients indicate negative V-average x E. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  19. Dynamics Explorer measurements of particles, fields, and plasma drifts over a horse-collar auroral pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharber, J. R.; Hones, E. W., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.; Craven, J. D.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Slavin, J. A.; Birn, J.

    1992-01-01

    As shown from ground-based measurements and satellite-borne imagers, one type of global auroral pattern characteristic of quiet (usually northward IMF) intervals is that of a contracted but thickened emission region in which the dawn and dusk portions can spread poleward to very high latitudes, (the type of a pattern referred to as a 'horse-collar' aurora by Hones et al., 1989). In this report we use a DE data set to examine a case in which this horse-collar pattern was observed by the DE-1 auroral imager while at the same time the DE-2, at lower altitude, measured precipitating particles, electric and magnetic fields, and plasma drifts. There is close agreement between the optical signatures and the particle precipitation patterns. The particle, plasma, and field measurements made along the satellite track and the 2-D perspective of the imager provide a means of determining the configuration of convective flows in the high-latitude ionosphere during this interval of northward IMF. Recent mapping studies are used to relate the low-altitude observations to possible magnetospheric source regions.

  20. Dispersal of Warren root collar weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in three types of habitat.

    PubMed

    Machial, Laura A; Lindgren, B Staffan; Steenweg, Robin W; Aukema, Brian H

    2012-06-01

    Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood, is a native, flightless insect distributed throughout the boreal forest of North America. It is an emerging problem in young plantings of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia, in western Canada, where larval feeding can kill young trees by girdling the root collar. Susceptible plantings are becoming more abundant following salvage harvesting and replanting activities in the wake of an ongoing epidemic of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopkins). Previous studies using mark-trap-recapture methods found that movement rates of adult H. warreni were elevated in areas with high numbers of dead trees, consistent with a hypothesis that the insects immigrate from stands with high mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality to young plantings in search of live hosts. Sampling methods were necessarily biased to insects captured in traps; however, potentially missing individuals that had died, left the study area, or simply remained stationary. Here, we used harmonic radar to examine weevil movement in three different habitats: open field, forest edge, and within a forest. We were able to reliably monitor all but two of 36 insects initially released, over 96 h (4 d). Weevils released in the open field had the highest rates of movement, followed by weevils released at the forest edge, then weevils released within the forest. Movement declined with decreasing ambient air temperature. Our results suggest that weevils tend to be relatively stationary in areas of live hosts, and hence may concentrate in a suitable area once such habitat is found.

  1. Immobilization of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa) with Telazol and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Gabor, T M; Hellgren, E C; Silvy, N J

    1997-01-01

    A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine hydrochloride (100 mg of Telazol and 100 mg of xylazine per ml) was used to immobilize wild collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and feral hogs (Sus scrofa); mean (+/-SD) intramuscular dosage rate was 4.73 +/- 0.86 mg/kg and 4.35 +/- 0.68 mg/kg for peccaries (n = 107) and hogs (n = 49), respectively. Mean (+/-SD) induction time (time from injection until complete immobilization) was 4.6 +/- 2.5 minutes for collared peccaries and 4.4 +/- 1.9 for hogs. Peccaries became conscious at 64 +/- 29 minutes and first stood at 92 +/- 33 minutes after initial injection. Hogs became conscious at 54 +/- 26 minutes and first stood at 78 +/- 38 minutes after initial injection. A 1:1 mg mixture of Telazol and xylazine provided an effective and safe method to immobilize both species and provided adequate analgesia and anesthesia for short surgical procedures.

  2. Design of a cervical collar device to facilitate and accelerate implementation of first aid.

    PubMed

    Işık, Hakan; Saraçoğlu, Esra; Harmanci, Hüseyin; Güler, Inan

    2010-08-01

    Frequently there are disasters all over the world-fires, earthquakes, or even some unexpected shocking catastrophes. Hence people injured, or even died. Lifesaving actions begin with the initiation of the chain of survival. With every minute that passes without medical action being taken, the probability of being able to save the patients life decreases by ten percent. After 10 min there is normally no chance of resuscitation being successful. First aid is emergency treatment given before regular medical aid can be obtained. And it is a concept of first hands-on measures performed in a medical emergency by laypersons. The major aim of this study is to develop an easy-feasible cervical collar, for facilitating and accelerating implementation of first aid especially in case of collective injuries. The developed device is different from the cervical collars which are used to treat the neck pain. In the present study, the heartbeat is obtained by detecting pulse with the stethoscope that is a part of the developed device and fixed on the carorid artery. The obtained heartbeat signal has been processed by the electronic control circuit and the used LED has given light according to the patient's life signal. Although there are some disadvantages of the developed system, the precautions for these cases have been taken and the system has been tried to design in order to operate sensibly.

  3. Immobilization of wild collared anteaters with ketamine- and xylazine-hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Fournier-Chambrillon, C; Fournier, P; Vié, J C

    1997-10-01

    Collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) were immobilized for clinical procedures as part of a wildlife rescue during the filling of a hydroelectric dam (Petit Saut, French Guiana) from March 1994 to March 1995. Two doses of ketamine hydrochloride (KH) (group I mean +/- SD = 11.2 +/- 1.4 mg/kg, group II = 19.7 +/- 1.3 mg/kg) in combination with xylazine hydrochloride (XH) (1.0 +/- 0.1 mg/kg) were evaluated in seven and 10 collared anteaters, respectively. Induction time did not differ between the two groups. Immobilization time was significantly longer in group II than in group I (48.3 +/- 15.8 min and 35.0 +/- 9.5 min, respectively), without lengthening the recovery process. Adverse effects were not observed. The degree of anesthesia and the muscle relaxation were better in group II than in group I. Rectal temperature decreased in both groups and was significantly higher in group II than in group I. Heart rate was significantly higher in group II than in group I at 5 min post-injection and decreased in group II. No effects on respiratory rate were observed. We recommend the 20 mg/kg KH -1 mg/kg XH combination, especially for manipulations longer than 30 to 40 min and for minor surgery procedures.

  4. Variation at work: alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks in blue-collar occupations.

    PubMed

    Jahncke, Helena; Hygge, Staffan; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David; Mixter, Susanna; Lyskov, Eugene

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this questionnaire study were to describe the occurrence and desired number of alternations between mental and physical tasks in industrial and non-industrial blue-collar work, and determine to which extent selected personal and occupational factors influence these conditions. On average, the 122 participating workers (55 females) reported to have close to four alternations per day between mental and physical tasks, and to desire more alternations than they actually had. They also expressed a general preference for performing a physical task after a mental task and vice versa. In univariate regression models, the desired change in task alternations was significantly associated with gender, age, occupation, years with current work tasks and perceived job control, while occupation was the only significant determinant in a multiple regression model including all factors. Our results suggest that alternations between productive physical and mental tasks could be a viable option in future job rotation. Practitioner Summary: We addressed attitudes among blue-collar workers to alternations between physically and mentally demanding tasks. More alternations were desired than those occurring in the job, and workers preferred performing a physical task after a mental and vice versa. Alternating physical and mental tasks could, thus, be a viable option in job rotation.

  5. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungjin; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jae Oh

    2017-02-07

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-SF). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions to examine associations between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In comparison with the reference group, which worked 40-44 hours per week, the crude odds ratio (OR) of the respondents who worked 60 or more hours was 4.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55-8.15) in terms of psychosocial stress responses. After adjusting for demographic variables, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 5.61 (95% CI, 3.01-10.47). After adjusting for both demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 3.25 (95% CI, 1.56-6.79). This study found that long working hours are significantly related to psychosocial stress responses among white-collar workers in one Korean company.

  6. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch.

  7. 77 FR 72199 - Technical Corrections; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 171 RIN 3150-AJ16 Technical Corrections; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... corrections, including updating the street address for the Region I office, correcting authority citations and... rule. DATES: The correction is effective on December 5, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  8. Cryopreservation of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) semen using a powdered coconut water (ACP-116c) based extender plus various concentrations of egg yolk and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Lima, G L; Bezerra, J A B; Campos, L B; Paiva, A L C; Paula, V V; Silva, A R

    2012-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effectiveness of a powdered coconut water-based extender (ACP-116c), plus various concentrations of egg-yolk and glycerol, as an alternative for cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were apportioned into aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus 10% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, or in ACP-116c plus 10 or 20% egg yolk and 1.5 or 3% glycerol. Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and, after 1 mo, thawed at 37 °C for 1 min. After thawing, samples were evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for sperm membrane integrity (fluorescent probes) and kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). Results were presented as means ± SEM. Freezing and thawing decreased sperm characteristics relative to fresh semen. Overall, ACP-116c plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol provided better (P < 0.05) sperm motility and kinetic rating (48 ± 6.1% and 2.8 ± 0.2, respectively) after thawing than Tris extender (30.4 ± 5.7% and 2.4 ± 0.2). However, there were no differences (P > 0.05) among treatments with regard to the other sperm characteristics. Based on computerized motion analysis, total (26.5 ± 5.9%) and progressive (8.1 ± 2.2%) motility were best preserved (P < 0.05) with the above-mentioned treatment. In conclusion, a coconut water-based extender, ACP-116c, plus 20% egg yolk and 3% glycerol, was effective for cryopreservation of semen from collared peccaries.

  9. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  10. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  11. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  12. Cap'n'collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Coulcher, Joshua F; Telford, Maximilian J

    2012-11-01

    The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap'n'collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap'n'collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible.We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc-cnc expression in the

  13. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Marnewick, Kelly; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust’s Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. New information This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes. PMID:28325981

  14. Tracking data from nine free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) collared in the Thabazimbi area, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Marnewick, Kelly; Page-Nicholson, Samantha; Roxburgh, Lizanne; Somers, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners. The data were collected between September 2003 and November 2008, resulting in a total of 3165 location points (65 points from VHF collars and 3100 from GPS collars) for nine individual Cheetahs. This dataset provides distribution information about this Vulnerable species occurring outside of protected areas within South Africa. The dataset has been published to the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (www.GBIF.org) and provides the largest dataset on Cheetahs thus far, and, although it is spatially limited to a relatively small region on the African continent, it is the first study of its kind within South Africa. Also of significance is that the fate of 6 of the 9 collared Cheetahs is known, all except one of which died of anthropogenic causes.

  15. Informing Tobacco Cessation Benefit Use Interventions for Unionized Blue-Collar Workers: A Mixed-Methods Reasoned Action Approach.

    PubMed

    Yzer, Marco; Weisman, Susan; Mejia, Nicole; Hennrikus, Deborah; Choi, Kelvin; DeSimone, Susan

    2015-08-01

    Blue-collar workers typically have high rates of tobacco use but low rates of using tobacco cessation resources available through their health benefits. Interventions to motivate blue-collar tobacco users to use effective cessation support are needed. Reasoned action theory is useful in this regard as it can identify the beliefs that shape tobacco cessation benefit use intentions. However, conventional reasoned action research cannot speak to how those beliefs can best be translated into intervention messages. In the present work, we expand the reasoned action approach by adding additional qualitative inquiry to better understand blue-collar smokers' beliefs about cessation benefit use. Across three samples of unionized blue-collar tobacco users, we identified (1) the 35 attitudinal, normative, and control beliefs that represented tobacco users' belief structure about cessation benefit use; (2) instrumental attitude as most important in explaining cessation intention; (3) attitudinal beliefs about treatment options' efficacy, health effects, and monetary implications of using benefits as candidates for message design; (4) multiple interpretations of cessation beliefs (e.g., short and long-term health effects); and (5) clear implications of these interpretations for creative message design. Taken together, the findings demonstrate how a mixed-method reasoned action approach can inform interventions that promote the use of tobacco cessation health benefits.

  16. Estimating root collar diameter growth for multi-stem western woodland tree species on remeasured forest inventory and analysis plots

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Thompson; Maggie. Toone

    2012-01-01

    Tree diameter growth models are widely used in many forestry applications, often to predict tree size at a future point in time. Also, there are instances where projections of past diameters are needed. An individual tree model has been developed to estimate diameter growth of multi-stem woodland tree species where the diameter is measured at root collar. The model was...

  17. Evaluation of the role of pin fixation versus collar and cuff immobilisation in supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J G; El Abed, K; Soffe, K; Kearns, S; Mulcahy, D; Condon, F; Moore, D; Dowling, F; Fogarty, E

    2000-04-01

    Long term results of children with supracondylar humeral fractures treated with manipulation and strapping and manipulation followed by pin fixation were evaluated. Forty patients were regarded as Gartland type II injuries. 33 of these were treated with closed reduction and collar and cuff immobilisation and 7 with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Two cases of cubitus varus were reported one from each treatment modality. Forty-four patients were included as Gartland type III injuries. Of these 14 were treated with closed reduction and collar and cuff immobilisation, 25 with closed reduction and percutaneous pinning and five with open reduction and pinning. There were two cases of cubitus varus and one case of cubitus valgus following pin fixation. In addition one case of extension lag and one significant ulnar nerve neurapraxia was recorded following pin fixation. One case of cubitus varus was seen following manipulation and collar and cuff treatment. There was no statistical difference between either treatment modality in terms of predicting a better outcome (p0.05). We conclude that pin fixation has no advantages over simple immobilisation in certain Gartland II and III type injuries. Although pin fixation is beneficial in unstable injuries collar and cuff immobilisation continues to have an important role in the treatment of stable supracondylar fractures.

  18. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    PubMed

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01 and P<0.05) among males than females, while the CPK concentration was significantly lower (P<0.05) in males. There were no significant differences in of all of the measured parameters between male and female eagles. These finding suggested that HCT and plasma chemistry values of raptors vary individually according to species and sex. Our results provide the 1st available reference data for ranges of plasma values in adult captive collared scops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  19. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk

    PubMed Central

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-01-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission–fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate. PMID:24455148

  20. Underestimating the frequency, strength and cost of antipredator responses with data from GPS collars: an example with wolves and elk.

    PubMed

    Creel, Scott; Winnie, John A; Christianson, David

    2013-12-01

    Field studies that rely on fixes from GPS-collared predators to identify encounters with prey will often underestimate the frequency and strength of antipredator responses. These underestimation biases have several mechanistic causes. (1) Step bias: The distance between successive GPS fixes can be large, and encounters that occur during these intervals go undetected. This bias will generally be strongest for cursorial hunters that can rapidly cover large distances (e.g., wolves and African wild dogs) and when the interval between GPS fixes is long relative to the duration of a hunt. Step bias is amplified as the path travelled between successive GPS fixes deviates from a straight line. (2) Scatter bias: Only a small fraction of the predators in a population typically carry GPS collars, and prey encounters with uncollared predators go undetected unless a collared group-mate is present. This bias will generally be stronger for fission-fusion hunters (e.g., spotted hyenas, wolves, and lions) than for highly cohesive hunters (e.g., African wild dogs), particularly when their group sizes are large. Step bias and scatter bias both cause underestimation of the frequency of antipredator responses. (3) Strength bias: Observations of prey in the absence of GPS fix from a collared predator will generally include a mixture of cases in which predators were truly absent and cases in which predators were present but not detected, which causes underestimation of the strength of antipredator responses. We quantified these biases with data from wolves and African wild dogs and found that fixes from GPS collars at 3-h intervals underestimated the frequency and strength of antipredator responses by a factor >10. We reexamined the results of a recent study of the nonconsumptive effects of wolves on elk in light of these results and confirmed that predation risk has strong effects on elk dynamics by reducing the pregnancy rate.

  1. Efficacy of an imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against fleas, ticks and tick-borne pathogens in dogs.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Capelli, Gioia; Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Cantacessi, Cinzia; de Caprariis, Donato; De Tommasi, Anna Sara; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Lacasella, Vita; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Qurollo, Barbara; Breitschwerdt, Edward; Stanneck, Dorothee; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-08-23

    Tick-borne diseases comprise a group of maladies that are of substantial medical and veterinary significance. A range of tick-borne pathogens, including diverse species of bacteria and protozoa, can infect both dogs and humans. Hence, the control of tick infestations is pivotal to decrease or prevent tick-borne pathogen transmission. Therefore, different commercial products with insecticidal, repellent or both properties have been developed for use on dogs. Recently, a collar containing a combination of imidacloprid 10% and flumethrin 4.5% has proven effective to prevent tick and flea infestations in dogs under field conditions and the infection by some vector-borne pathogens they transmit under laboratory-controlled conditions. From March 2011 to April 2012, a field study was conducted in a private shelter in southern Italy to assess the efficacy of the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar against tick and flea infestations and to determine if this strategy would decrease tick-borne pathogen transmission in young dogs. A total of 122 animals were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to group A (n = 64; collared) or group B (n = 58; untreated controls). Dogs were examined monthly for ticks and fleas and systematically tested for selected tick-borne pathogens. Compared to controls, the collar provided overall efficacies of 99.7% and 100% against tick and flea infestation, respectively. The overall efficacy for the prevention of tick-borne pathogens (i.e., Anaplasma platys and Babesia vogeli) was 91.6%. This study demonstrates that the imidacloprid/flumethrin collar is efficacious against flea and tick infestation as well as tick-borne pathogen transmission to dogs under field conditions.

  2. Influence of climate warming on arctic mammals? New insights from ancient DNA studies of the collared lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus.

    PubMed

    Prost, Stefan; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fedorov, Vadim B; Sommer, Robert S; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-05-27

    Global temperature increased by approximately half a degree (Celsius) within the last 150 years. Even this moderate warming had major impacts on Earth's ecological and biological systems, especially in the Arctic where the magnitude of abiotic changes even exceeds those in temperate and tropical biomes. Therefore, understanding the biological consequences of climate change on high latitudes is of critical importance for future conservation of the species living in this habitat. The past 25,000 years can be used as a model for such changes, as they were marked by prominent climatic changes that influenced geographical distribution, demographic history and pattern of genetic variation of many extant species. We sequenced ancient and modern DNA of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), which is a key species of the arctic biota, from a single site (Pymva Shor, Northern Pre Urals, Russia) to see if climate warming events after the Last Glacial Maximum had detectable effects on the genetic variation of this arctic rodent species, which is strongly associated with a cold and dry climate. Using three dimensional network reconstructions we found a dramatic decline in genetic diversity following the LGM. Model-based approaches such as Approximate Bayesian Computation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference show that there is evidence for a population decline in the collared lemming following the LGM, with the population size dropping to a minimum during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (Bølling/Allerød) warming phase at 14.5 kyrs BP. Our results show that previous climate warming events had a strong influence on genetic diversity and population size of collared lemmings. Due to its already severely compromised genetic diversity a similar population reduction as a result of the predicted future climate change could completely abolish the remaining genetic diversity in this population. Local population extinctions of collared lemmings would have severe

  3. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Erin L.; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data collected from 608 employees of a white-collar organization before and after a workplace initiative was implemented, we investigate whether the initiative affects work-family conflict and fit, whether schedule control mediates these effects, and whether work demands, including long hours, moderate the initiative’s effects on work-family outcomes. Analyses clearly demonstrate that the workplace initiative positively affects the work-family interface, primarily by increasing employees’ schedule control. This study points to the importance of schedule control for our understanding of job quality and for management policies and practices. PMID:21580799

  4. Problems with studying wolf predation on small prey in summer via global positioning system collars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palacios, V.; Mech, L.D.

    2011-01-01

    We attempted to study predation on various-sized prey by a male and female wolf (Canis lupus) with global positioning system (GPS) collars programmed to acquire locations every 10 min in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota. During May to August 2007, we investigated 147 clusters of locations (31% of the total) and found evidence of predation on a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn and yearling, a beaver (Castor canadensis), ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus), and fisher (Martes pennanti) and scavenging on a road-killed deer and other carrion. However, we missed finding many prey items and discuss the problems associated with trying to conduct such a study. ?? 2010 US Government.

  5. Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Schlinger, Barney A; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2013-08-01

    Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male's courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors.

  6. Field test and evaluation of the passive neutron coincidence collar for prototype fast reactor fuel subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, H.O.; Keddar, A.

    1982-08-01

    The passive neutron Coincidence Collar, which was developed for the verification of plutonium content in fast reactor fuel subassemblies, has been field tested using Prototype Fast Reactor fuel. For passive applications, the system measures the /sup 240/Pu-effective mass from the spontaneous fission rate, and in addition, a self-interrogation technique is used to determine the fissile content in the subassembly. Both the passive and active modes were evaluated at the Windscale Works in the United Kingdom. The results of the tests gave a standard deviation 0.75% for the passive count and 3 to 7% for the active measurement for a 1000-s counting time. The unit will be used in the future for the verification of plutonium in fresh fuel assemblies.

  7. Case report: nonoperative treatment of an unstable Jefferson fracture using a cervical collar.

    PubMed

    Haus, Brian M; Harris, Mitchel B

    2008-05-01

    The treatment of unstable burst fractures of the atlas (Jefferson fractures) is controversial. Unstable Jefferson fractures have been managed successfully with either immobilization, typically halo traction or halo vest, or surgery. We report a patient with an unstable Jefferson fracture treated nonoperatively with a cervical collar, frequent clinical examinations, and flexion-extension radiographs. Twelve months after treatment, the patient achieved painless union of his fracture. The successful treatment confirms prior studies reporting unstable Jefferson fractures have been treated nonoperatively. The outcome challenges the clinical relevance of treatment algorithms that rely on the "rules of Spence" to guide treatment of unstable Jefferson fractures and illustrates instability may not necessarily be present in patients with considerable lateral mass widening. Additionally, it emphasizes a more reliable way of assessing C1-C2 stability in unstable Jefferson fractures is by measuring the presence and extent of anterior subluxation on lateral flexion and extension views.

  8. Hormones and the neuromuscular control of courtship in the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Barney A.; Barske, Julia; Day, Lainy; Fusani, Leonida; Fuxjager, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many animals engage in spectacular courtship displays, likely recruiting specialized neural, hormonal and muscular systems to facilitate these performances. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform physically elaborate courtship displays that include novel forms of visual and acoustic signaling. We study the behavioral neuroendocrinology of this male’s courtship, combining field behavioral observations with anatomical, biochemical and molecular laboratory-based studies. Seasonally, male courtship is activated by testosterone with little correspondence between testosterone levels and display intensity. Females prefer males whose displays are exceptionally frequent, fast and accurate. The activation of androgen receptors (AR) is crucial for optimal display performance, with AR expressed at elevated levels in several neuromuscular tissues. Apparently, courtship enlists an elaborate androgen-dependent network that includes spinal motoneurons, skeletal muscles and somatosensory systems. This work highlights the value of studying non-traditional species to illuminate physiological adaptations and, hopefully, stimulates future research on other species with complex behaviors. PMID:23624091

  9. The Euratom Fast Collar (EFC): A Safeguards Instrument Design to Address Future Fuel Measurement Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Menlove, Howard O.; Browne, Michael C.

    2012-08-13

    Summary of this presentation: (1) EFC instrument design for {sup 235}U verification measurements issued to EURATOM to issue a call for commercial tender; (2) Achieved a fast (Cd mode) measurement with less than 2% relative uncertainty in the doubles neutron counting rate in 10 minutes using a standard source strength; (3) Assay time in fast mode consistent with the needs of an inspector; (4) Extended to realistic calibration range for modern fuel designs - Relatively insensitive to gadolinia content for fuel designs with up to 32 burnable poison rods and 15 wt % gadolinia concentration, which is a realistic maximum for modern PWR fuel; (5) Improved performance over the standard thermal neutron collar with greater than twice the efficiency of the original design; (6) Novel tube pattern to reduce the impact of accidental pile-up; and (7) Joint test of prototype unit - EURATOM-LANL.

  10. An efficient flat-surface collar-free grafting method for Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grafting procedures are an excellent tool to study long range signalling processes within a plant. In the last decade, suitable flat-surface grafting procedures for young Arabidopsis seedlings using a collar to support the graft have been developed, allowing the study of long-range signals from a molecular perspective. Results In the modification presented here, scion and stock are put together on the medium without supporting elements, while cotyledons are removed from the scion, resulting in increased grafting success that can reach up to 100%. At the same time, the protocol enables to process as many as 36 seedlings per hour, which combined with the high success percentage represents increased efficiency per time unit. Conclusions Growing cotyledons usually push the scion and the rootstock away in the absence of a supporting element. Removing them at the grafting step greatly improved success rate and reduced post-grafting manipulations. PMID:23641687

  11. Relationships between internal morphology and body mass in the developing, nursling collared peccary, Tayassu tajacu (Tayassuidae).

    PubMed

    Lochmiller, R L; Hellgren, E C; Grant, W E

    1985-01-01

    Morphological characteristics that reflect size differences due to dietary conditions are in wide use to assess nutritional status of many wild ungulates. This study was designed to provide baseline information on the development of internal visceral and endocrine structures of nursling collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from birth to six weeks of age (weaning). A high energy-high protein ration was fed ad libitum to lactating females, and absolute and relative mass of selected visceral organ, endocrine, and fat depots were measured in various aged nurslings. Linear measurements were also obtained on components of the gastrointestinal tract. Allometric growth coefficients (b) varied considerably among the various organs and glands examined, ranging from below (brain, b = 0.26) to well above (thymus, b = 1.61) unity.

  12. Leptospira and Brucella antibodies in collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) in Brazilian zoos.

    PubMed

    Sales, Indiara dos Santos; Folly, Márcio Manhães; Garcia, Luize Néli Nunes; Ramos, Tatiane Mendes Varela; da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Pereira, Martha Maria

    2012-12-01

    The presence of Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. antibodies was investigated in serum samples from 28 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla) kept in seven Brazilian zoos. Sera were tested against 19 Leptospira serovars using microscopic agglutination. Samples reacted to the following serovars: two (7.14%) to Patoc, three (10.71%) to Tarrasovi, three (10.71%) to both Patoc and Tarrasovi, two (7.14%) to Wolffi, and one (3.57%) to Australis. Two (7.14%) samples reacted to the buffered Brucella antigen test, but no confirmatory reaction occurred using the 2-mercaptoethanol slow slide agglutination test. No sample was reactive in the agar gel immunodiffusion test for rugose species of Brucella. The presence of anti-leptospira agglutinins in captive T. tetradactyla serum indicates that this species may be susceptible to infection by these bacteria.

  13. Changing Workplaces to Reduce Work-Family Conflict: Schedule Control in a White-Collar Organization.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin L; Moen, Phyllis; Tranby, Eric

    2011-04-01

    Work-family conflicts are common and consequential for employees, their families, and work organizations. Can workplaces be changed to reduce work-family conflict? Previous research has not been able to assess whether workplace policies or initiatives succeed in reducing work-family conflict or increasing work-family fit. Using longitudinal data collected from 608 employees of a white-collar organization before and after a workplace initiative was implemented, we investigate whether the initiative affects work-family conflict and fit, whether schedule control mediates these effects, and whether work demands, including long hours, moderate the initiative's effects on work-family outcomes. Analyses clearly demonstrate that the workplace initiative positively affects the work-family interface, primarily by increasing employees' schedule control. This study points to the importance of schedule control for our understanding of job quality and for management policies and practices.

  14. Effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment, and cellular immune measures among white-collar employees.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Akinori; Takahashi, Masaya; Irie, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether chronic job stress, i.e., effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment is associated with cellular immunity among 190 male and 157 female white-collar daytime employees (mean age 38; range 22-69 years). Participants provided a blood sample for the measurement of circulating immune (natural killer (NK), B, and T) cell counts and NK cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and completed a questionnaire survey during April to June 2002. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that NK cells were associated with effort (β=-.230; p=.013), reward (β=.169; p=.047), and ERI (β=-.182; p=.047) scores but not with overcommitment in men; reward score was positively associated with NKCC (β=.167; p=.049) and inversely associated with B cells (β=-.181; p=.030). No significant associations were found in women. Although the picture remains less clear in women, our findings suggest a potential immunological pathway linking adverse working conditions and stress-related disorders in men.

  15. 78 FR 75449 - Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

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  16. Synchronous genetic turnovers across Western Eurasia in Late Pleistocene collared lemmings.

    PubMed

    Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Baca, Mateusz; Abramson, Natalia I; Sablin, Mikhail; Socha, Paweł; Nadachowski, Adam; Prost, Stefan; Germonpré, Mietje; Kosintsev, Pavel; Smirnov, Nickolay G; Vartanyan, Sergey; Ponomarev, Dmitry; Nyström, Johanna; Nikolskiy, Pavel; Jass, Christopher N; Litvinov, Yuriy N; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Grigoriev, Semyon; Fadeeva, Tatyana; Douka, Aikaterini; Higham, Thomas F G; Ersmark, Erik; Pitulko, Vladimir; Pavlova, Elena; Stewart, John R; Węgleński, Piotr; Stankovic, Anna; Dalén, Love

    2016-05-01

    Recent palaeogenetic studies indicate a highly dynamic history in collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.), with several demographical changes linked to climatic fluctuations that took place during the last glaciation. At the western range margin of D. torquatus, these changes were characterized by a series of local extinctions and recolonizations. However, it is unclear whether this pattern represents a local phenomenon, possibly driven by ecological edge effects, or a global phenomenon that took place across large geographical scales. To address this, we explored the palaeogenetic history of the collared lemming using a next-generation sequencing approach for pooled mitochondrial DNA amplicons. Sequences were obtained from over 300 fossil remains sampled across Eurasia and two sites in North America. We identified five mitochondrial lineages of D. torquatus that succeeded each other through time across Europe and western Russia, indicating a history of repeated population extinctions and recolonizations, most likely from eastern Russia, during the last 50 000 years. The observation of repeated extinctions across such a vast geographical range indicates large-scale changes in the steppe-tundra environment in western Eurasia during the last glaciation. All Holocene samples, from across the species' entire range, belonged to only one of the five mitochondrial lineages. Thus, extant D. torquatus populations only harbour a small fraction of the total genetic diversity that existed across different stages of the Late Pleistocene. In North American samples, haplotypes belonging to both D. groenlandicus and D. richardsoni were recovered from a Late Pleistocene site in south-western Canada. This suggests that D. groenlandicus had a more southern and D. richardsoni a more northern glacial distribution than previously thought. This study provides significant insights into the population dynamics of a small mammal at a large geographical scale and reveals a rather complex

  17. Preventive Chair Massage with Algometry to Maintain Psychosomatic Balance in White-Collar Workers.

    PubMed

    Cabak, Anna; Mikicin, Mirosław; Łyp, Marek; Stanisławska, Iwona; Kaczor, Ryszard; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2017-07-19

    People working at computers often suffer from overload-related muscle pain, and physical and mental discomfort. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chair massage, conducted in the workplace among white-collar workers, in relieving symptoms of musculoskeletal strain related to prolonged sitting posture. The study was conducted in 124 white-collar workers, 55 women and 69 men, aged 33.7 ± 7.6 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to three groups: chair massage program, relaxing music sessions, and a control group, each of four-week duration. Each group was evaluated before and after the program completion. Pain perception was assessed algometrically as a threshold for compression pain of neck muscles, measured in kg/cm(2). The relaxation level was assessed from the heart rate variability. We found that the chair massage increased both the pain threshold in all tested muscles (p < 0.001) and the relaxation level from 31.9% to 41.6% (p < 0.05). In the group with music sessions, muscle pain threshold remained unchanged, except for the trapezoid muscle where it decreased (p < 0.05), while the relaxation level increased from 26.0% to 33.3% (p < 0.05). In both massage and relaxing music groups, there was a significant decrease in muscle tension (p < 0.01). Changes in the control group were inappreciable. We conclude that the chair massage performed in the workplace is an effective method for prevention of musculoskeletal overstrain related to prolonged sitting posture. The program seems worth implementing in various occupational environments.

  18. Breeding Experience and the Heritability of Female Mate Choice in Collared Flycatchers

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Wilson, Alastair J.; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Rosivall, Balázs; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2010-01-01

    Background Heritability in mate preferences is assumed by models of sexual selection, and preference evolution may contribute to adaptation to changing environments. However, mate preference is difficult to measure in natural populations as detailed data on mate availability and mate sampling are usually missing. Often the only available information is the ornamentation of the actual mate. The single long-term quantitative genetic study of a wild population found low heritability in female mate ornamentation in Swedish collared flycatchers. One potentially important cause of low heritability in mate ornamentation at the population level is reduced mate preference expression among inexperienced individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Applying animal model analyses to 21 years of data from a Hungarian collared flycatcher population, we found that additive genetic variance was 50 percent and significant for ornament expression in males, but less than 5 percent and non-significant for mate ornamentation treated as a female trait. Female breeding experience predicted breeding date and clutch size, but mate ornamentation and its variance components were unrelated to experience. Although we detected significant area and year effects on mate ornamentation, more than 85 percent of variance in this trait remained unexplained. Moreover, the effects of area and year on mate ornamentation were also highly positively correlated between inexperienced and experienced females, thereby acting to remove difference between the two groups. Conclusions/Significance The low heritability of mate ornamentation was apparently not explained by the presence of inexperienced individuals. Our results further indicate that the expression of mate ornamentation is dominated by temporal and spatial constraints and unmeasured background factors. Future studies should reduce unexplained variance or use alternative measures of mate preference. The heritability of mate preference in the wild

  19. Malaria-Infected Female Collared Flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) Do Not Pay the Cost of Late Breeding

    PubMed Central

    Kulma, Katarzyna; Low, Matthew; Bensch, Staffan; Qvarnström, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that the trade-off between parasite defense and other costly traits such as reproduction may be most evident when resources are scarce. The strength of selection that parasites inflict on their host may therefore vary across environmental conditions. Collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis) breeding on the Swedish island Öland experience a seasonal decline in their preferred food resource, which opens the possibility to test the strength of life-history trade-offs across environmental conditions. We used nested-PCR and quantitative-PCR protocols to investigate the association of Haemosporidia infection with reproductive performance of collared flycatcher females in relation to a seasonal change in the external environment. We show that despite no difference in mean onset of breeding, infected females produced relatively more of their fledglings late in the season. This pattern was also upheld when considering only the most common malaria lineage (hPHSIB1), however there was no apparent link between the reproductive output and the intensity of infection. Infected females produced heavier-than-average fledglings with higher-than-expected recruitment success late in the season. This reversal of the typical seasonal trend in reproductive output compensated them for lower fledging and recruitment rates compared to uninfected birds earlier in the season. Thus, despite different seasonal patterns of reproductive performance the overall number of recruits was the same for infected versus uninfected birds. A possible explanation for our results is that infected females breed in a different microhabitat where food availability is higher late in the season but also is the risk of infection. Thus, our results suggest that another trade-off than the one we aimed to test is more important for explaining variation in reproductive performance in this natural population: female flycatchers appear to face a trade-off between the risk of infection and

  20. Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay for collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Coradello, Mara Adriana; Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Roper, James; Spercoski, Katherinne Maria; Massuda, Thiago; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira Cunha; Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama

    2012-06-01

    The possibility of assessing endogenous adrenal activity in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) was tested by using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in a fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) assay. Feces were collected from 12 captive adult male peccaries beginning 48 hr prior to challenge; six of these animals received the challenge as an ACTH injection and the other six were injected with saline solution. Feces collection ended 120 hr after injections. As a control, feces were collected for eight consecutive days from another six adult male peccaries that remained in their original mixed-sex herds in semiconfined paddocks. All feces samples were freeze-dried, extracted by an ethanol vortex method, and assayed for glucocorticoids by means of an enzyme immunoassay. FGM concentrations were compared between the treatments by a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc Tukey test. The assay is reliable but, instead of the usual proportion of 1:50 in ethanol (fecal mass:solvent), 1:10 is recommended for best extraction of FGM. Baseline FGM concentrations were similar among the ACTH, saline, and control treatments (29.7 +/- 11.2 ng/g(-1) dry feces) during the 48 hr before the challenge. The ACTH group reached an FGM excretion peak at 24 hr post-treatment, followed by a decline, while in the control and saline groups FGM levels remained relatively constant. Therefore, the fecal glucocorticoid metabolite assay reflects endogenous adrenal activity in the collared peccary and is a powerful tool for noninvasive stress monitoring in peccaries.

  1. Breeding experience and the heritability of female mate choice in collared flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Gergely; Herényi, Márton; Wilson, Alastair J; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Rosivall, Balázs; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2010-11-04

    Heritability in mate preferences is assumed by models of sexual selection, and preference evolution may contribute to adaptation to changing environments. However, mate preference is difficult to measure in natural populations as detailed data on mate availability and mate sampling are usually missing. Often the only available information is the ornamentation of the actual mate. The single long-term quantitative genetic study of a wild population found low heritability in female mate ornamentation in Swedish collared flycatchers. One potentially important cause of low heritability in mate ornamentation at the population level is reduced mate preference expression among inexperienced individuals. Applying animal model analyses to 21 years of data from a Hungarian collared flycatcher population, we found that additive genetic variance was 50 percent and significant for ornament expression in males, but less than 5 percent and non-significant for mate ornamentation treated as a female trait. Female breeding experience predicted breeding date and clutch size, but mate ornamentation and its variance components were unrelated to experience. Although we detected significant area and year effects on mate ornamentation, more than 85 percent of variance in this trait remained unexplained. Moreover, the effects of area and year on mate ornamentation were also highly positively correlated between inexperienced and experienced females, thereby acting to remove difference between the two groups. The low heritability of mate ornamentation was apparently not explained by the presence of inexperienced individuals. Our results further indicate that the expression of mate ornamentation is dominated by temporal and spatial constraints and unmeasured background factors. Future studies should reduce unexplained variance or use alternative measures of mate preference. The heritability of mate preference in the wild remains a principal but unresolved question in evolutionary ecology.

  2. Association between long working hours and sleep problems in white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Motoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ishizaki, Masao; Kido, Teruhiko; Naruse, Yuchi; Suwazono, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Hideaki

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between long work hours and sleep disturbance among white-collar workers. We evaluated 1510 male white-collar full-time employees, between the ages of 18 and 59 years, using a comprehensive sleep quality questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). All subjects worked in a light metal products factory in Japan. The mean number of monthly overtime work hours was determined using data from the previous 6 months from timecard records. Subjects were divided into five groups based on quintiles of the mean number of monthly overtime work hours: <26 h month(-1); ≥26 but <40; ≥40 but <50; ≥50 but <63; and >63. Leisure time physical activity, drinking habits just before sleep, presence of family/partner and health status were used as confounding factors in the multiple regression model. The prevalence of short sleep hours, impairment of sleep efficiency and daytime dysfunction among seven components of PSQI increased, in a dose-response relationship, with overtime work hours. The prevalence of high global score (>5.5 points) was highest in workers with overtime hours ≥50 h week(-1). The odds ratios after adjustment for confounding factors for high global score using less than 26 h as a reference group were 1.67 for workers with ≥50 h and <63 h, and 1.87 for workers with 63 h and more. To conclude, the present results suggest that long work hours correlate with reduced sleep quality in a dose-response manner. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Urban primate ranging patterns: GPS-collar deployments for Macaca fascicularis and M. sylvanus.

    PubMed

    Klegarth, Amy R; Hollocher, Hope; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Shaw, Eric; Lee, Benjamin P Y-H; Feeney, Tessa; Holmes, Damian; Laguea, Dale; Fuentes, Agustín

    2017-05-01

    The global increase in urbanization is leading to heavier interface between humans and wildlife. Within these anthropogenic landscapes, little is known about ranging patterns, particularly with regard to urban primates. Here we present the results of the first long-term deployment of multiple GPS collars on two species of macaques to investigate the impacts of urbanization on urban primate ranging patterns in Singapore and Gibraltar. Collars data acquisition were excellent with respect to the amount, quality, and accuracy of data collected; however, remote connectivity and drop-off functionality was poor across all deployments. Analyses highlighted high variability in ranging patterns between individuals within each species that aligned with access to human food resources and patterns of tourism. Individuals from troops with less access to human food had much larger home, core, and day ranges relative to those with regular provisioning or raiding opportunities. Almost no temporal range overlap was observed between any focal individuals at either site and spatial overlap was low for all but two troops at each site. We found no relationship between anthropogenic schedules and changes in ranging patterns. Significant seasonal variation existed for daily path length and day range size for both the Singapore long-tailed and the Gibraltar Barbary macaques, with long-tailed macaques increasing their range during the equatorial monsoon season and Barbary macaques increasing their range during drier, summer months. This study highlights how the behavioral plasticity found within the genus Macaca is reflected in ranging pattern variability within urban environments. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  5. Cervical Spine Collar Removal by Emergency Room Nurses: A Quality Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Guillaume; Forgione, Massimo; Lusignan, Francis; Lanoue, Marc-André; Drouin, Simon

    2017-08-22

    The Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) is a clinical decision aid to facilitate the safe removal of cervical collars in the alert, orientated, low-risk adult trauma patient. Few health care settings have assessed initiatives to train charge nurses to use the CCR. This practice improvement project conducted in a secondary trauma center in Canada aimed to (1) train charge nurses of the emergency room to use the CCR, (2) monitor its use throughout the project period, and (3) compare the assessments of the charge nurses with those of emergency physicians. The project began with the creation of an interdisciplinary team. Clinical guidelines were established by the interdisciplinary project team. Nine charge nurses of the emergency room were then trained to use the CCR (3 on each 8-hour shift). The use of the CCR was monitored throughout the project period, from June 1 to October 5, 2016. The 3 aims of this practice improvement project were attained successfully. Over a 5-month period, 114 patients were assessed with the CCR. Charge nurses removed the cervical collars for 54 of 114 patients (47%). A perfect agreement rate (114 of 114 patients, 100%) was attained between the assessments of the nurses and those of physicians. This project shows that the charge nurses of a secondary trauma center can use the CCR safely on alert, orientated, and low-risk adult trauma patients as demonstrated by the agreement in the assessments of emergency room nurses and physicians. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  7. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  8. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. Results An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these parasites. The release kinetics of

  9. The synergistic action of imidacloprid and flumethrin and their release kinetics from collars applied for ectoparasite control in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Stanneck, Dorothee; Ebbinghaus-Kintscher, Ulrich; Schoenhense, Eva; Kruedewagen, Eva M; Turberg, Andreas; Leisewitz, Andrew; Jiritschka, Wolfgang; Krieger, Klemens J

    2012-04-12

    The control of tick and flea burdens in dogs and cats has become essential to the control of important and emerging vector borne diseases, some of which are zoonoses. Flea worry and flea bite hypersensitivity are additionally a significant disease entity in dogs and cats. Owner compliance in maintaining the pressure of control measures has been shown to be poor. For these reasons efforts are continuously being made to develop ectoparasiticides and application methods that are safe, effective and easy to apply for pet owners. A new polymer matrix collar has recently been developed which is registered for 8 months use in cats and dogs. The basic properties of this collar have been investigated in several in vitro and in vivo studies. The effects of imidacloprid, flumethrin and the combination were evaluated in vitro by means of whole cell voltage clamp measurement experiments conducted on isolated neuron cells from Spodoptera frugiperda. The in vitro efficacy of the two compounds and the combination against three species of ticks and their life stages and fleas were evaluated in a dry surface glass vial assay. The kinetics of the compounds over time in the collar were evaluated by the change in mass of the collar and measurement of the surface concentrations and concentrations of the actives in the collar matrix by HPLC. Hair clipped from collar treated dogs and cats, collected at various time points, was used to assess the acaricidal efficacy of the actives ex vivo. An in vitro isolated insect nerve model demonstrated the synergistic neurotoxic effects of the pyrethroid flumethrin and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. An in vitro glass vial efficacy and mortality study against various life stages of the ticks Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor reticulatus and against the flea (Ctenocephalides felis) demonstrated that the combination of these products was highly effective against these parasites. The release kinetics of these actives from a neck

  10. Agile Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  11. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  12. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  13. Cognitive Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting on obsessional play objects of infants, Hodgkin suggests that a proper understanding of these "transitional" or "cognitive" objects could lead to an educational model of a "learner" involving a number of human competencies, all developing synergistically. Contends that such a model may be truer to life than…

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-26

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Nevada Test Site's Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (Corrective Action Unit 342) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for Corrective Action Unit 342. The scope of this document consists of the following: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for the Corrective Action Unit.

  15. The genus Atoxoplasma (Garnham 1950) as a junior objective synonym of the genus Isospora (Schneider 1881) species infecting birds and resurrection of Cystoisospora (Frenkel 1977) as the correct genus for Isospora species infecting mammals.

    PubMed

    Barta, J R; Schrenzel, M D; Carreno, R; Rideout, B A

    2005-06-01

    Molecular and morphological data permit a rational subdivision of the paraphyletic Isospora into 2 apparently monophyletic groups of parasites, i.e., Isospora and Cystoisospora. Atoxoplasma was determined to be a junior objective synonym for Isospora. Tetrasporozoic, diplosporocystic oocysts possessing Stieda bodies in their sporocysts belong to Isospora (Eimeriidae) and have been described principally from the feces of birds. Tetrasporozoic, diplosporocystic oocysts without Stieda bodies in their sporocysts belong to Cystoisospora (Sarcocystidae).

  16. Efficacy of a slow-release imidacloprid (10%)/flumethrin (4.5%) collar for the prevention of canine leishmaniosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The efficacy of a slow-release insecticidal and repellent collar containing 10% imidacloprid and 4.5% flumethrin (Seresto, Bayer Animal Health) in preventing Leishmania infantum infection was evaluated in a large population of dogs living in a hyper-endemic area of Sicily (Italy). Methods A total of 219 dogs, negative for L. infantum were enrolled in a multicentre, controlled study. Dogs were divided into two homogeneous groups, defined as G1 (n = 102) and G2 (n = 117). Before the start of the sand fly season, dogs in G1 were treated with the collar while animals in G2 were left untreated, serving as negative controls. Dogs were serially sampled on day D90, D180, D210 and D300 in order to assess Leishmania infection by IFAT, PCR on skin (D210-D300) and bone marrow (D300) and cytology on bone marrow aspirate (D300). Results Three dogs (2.9%) in G1 and 41 (40.2%) in G2 became positive for L. infantum in at least one of the diagnostic tests employed in the study. The number of seropositive dogs in G2 increased in the course of the study from 15 (D90) to 41 (D300), with some of them also positive in other diagnostic tests. Eight (19.6%) of the seropositive dogs in G2 showed an increase in antibody titers ranging from 1:160 to 1:1,280. At the last follow-up, some of dogs in G2 displayed overt clinical signs suggestive of leishmaniosis. The mean incidence density rate at the final follow-up was 4.0% for G1 and 60.7% for G2, leading to a mean efficacy of the collar in protecting dogs at both sites of 93.4%. Conclusions The slow-release collar tested in this study was shown to be safe and highly effective in preventing L. infantum infection in a large population of dogs. Protection conferred by a single collar (up to eight months) spanned an entire sand fly season in a hyper-endemic area of southern Italy. The regular use of collars, at least during the sand fly season, may represent a reliable and sustainable strategy for the prevention of leishmaniosis

  17. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  18. DARHT Radiographic Grid Scale Correction

    SciTech Connect

    Warthen, Barry J.

    2015-02-13

    Recently it became apparent that the radiographic grid which has been used to calibrate the dimensional scale of DARHT radiographs was not centered at the location where the objects have been centered. This offset produced an error of 0.188% in the dimensional scaling of the radiographic images processed using the assumption that the grid and objects had the same center. This paper will show the derivation of the scaling correction, explain how new radiographs are being processed to account for the difference in location, and provide the details of how to correct radiographic image processed with the erroneous scale factor.

  19. The use of radio-collars for monitoring wildlife diseases: a case study from Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    PubMed

    Alasaad, Samer; Granados, José E; Fandos, Paulino; Cano-Manuel, Francisco-Javier; Soriguer, Ramón C; Pérez, Jesús M

    2013-08-22

    Wildlife radio tracking has gained popularity during the recent past. Ecologists and conservationists use radio-collars for different purposes: animal movement monitoring, home range, productivity, population estimation, behaviour, habitat use, survival, and predator-prey interaction, among others. The aim of our present study is to highlight the application of radio-collars for wildlife diseases monitoring. The spread of wildlife diseases and the efficacy of management actions for controlling them propose serious challenges for ecologists and conservationists, since it is difficult to re-capture (or simply observe) the same animal in pre-determined temporal interval, but such difficulty is overcome by the use of gps-gsm radio collars. In the present study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of radio-collars in the monitoring of Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada mountain range, Spain. Twenty-five moderate or slightly mangy animals were radio-collared between 2006 and 2013. The radio-collars allowed us to confirm the presence of resistance to S. scabiei within Iberian ibex population. Twenty (80%) of the collared animals recovered totally from mange, while the disease progressed in the other five Iberian ibex (20% of the collared animals) and the animals died. The average estimated recovery time of the resistant animals was 245 ± 277 days, and the estimated average survival time of the non-resistant Iberian ibex was 121 ± 71 days. Non-resistant animals survived at least 100 days, while all of them died with less than 200 days. Sixty per cent of the resistant animals were recovered with less than 200 days. We report, for the first time, the successful use of radio collars for wildlife diseases monitoring using Iberian ibex/S. scabiei as a model. By using radio collars we documented that most of the Sarcoptes-infected Iberian ibex are resistant to this disease, and we estimated the average time for Iberian ibex

  20. The use of radio-collars for monitoring wildlife diseases: a case study from Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wildlife radio tracking has gained popularity during the recent past. Ecologists and conservationists use radio-collars for different purposes: animal movement monitoring, home range, productivity, population estimation, behaviour, habitat use, survival, and predator-prey interaction, among others. The aim of our present study is to highlight the application of radio-collars for wildlife diseases monitoring. The spread of wildlife diseases and the efficacy of management actions for controlling them propose serious challenges for ecologists and conservationists, since it is difficult to re-capture (or simply observe) the same animal in pre-determined temporal interval, but such difficulty is overcome by the use of gps-gsm radio collars. Methods In the present study we report, for the first time to our knowledge, the use of radio-collars in the monitoring of Iberian ibex affected by Sarcoptes scabiei in Sierra Nevada mountain range, Spain. Twenty-five moderate or slightly mangy animals were radio-collared between 2006 and 2013. Results The radio-collars allowed us to confirm the presence of resistance to S. scabiei within Iberian ibex population. Twenty (80%) of the collared animals recovered totally from mange, while the disease progressed in the other five Iberian ibex (20% of the collared animals) and the animals died. The average estimated recovery time of the resistant animals was 245 ± 277 days, and the estimated average survival time of the non-resistant Iberian ibex was 121 ± 71 days. Non-resistant animals survived at least 100 days, while all of them died with less than 200 days. Sixty per cent of the resistant animals were recovered with less than 200 days. Conclusions We report, for the first time, the successful use of radio collars for wildlife diseases monitoring using Iberian ibex/S. scabiei as a model. By using radio collars we documented that most of the Sarcoptes-infected Iberian ibex are resistant to this disease, and we

  1. An exploratory clustering approach for extracting stride parameters from tracking collars on free-ranging wild animals.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Oliver P; Roskilly, Kyle; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Jordan, Neil R; Golabek, Krystyna A; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2017-02-01

    Changes in stride frequency and length with speed are key parameters in animal locomotion research. They are commonly measured in a laboratory on a treadmill or by filming trained captive animals. Here, we show that a clustering approach can be used to extract these variables from data collected by a tracking collar containing a GPS module and tri-axis accelerometers and gyroscopes. The method enables stride parameters to be measured during free-ranging locomotion in natural habitats. As it does not require labelled data, it is particularly suitable for use with difficult to observe animals. The method was tested on large data sets collected from collars on free-ranging lions and African wild dogs and validated using a domestic dog. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Multiple glacial refugia in the North American Arctic: inference from phylogeography of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus).

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Vadim B; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2002-10-22

    Cryptic northern refugia beyond the ice limit of the Pleistocene glaciations may have had significant influence on the current pattern of biodiversity in Arctic regions. In order to evaluate whether northern glacial refugia existed in the Canadian Arctic, we examined mitochondrial DNA phylogeography in the northernmost species of rodents, the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) sampled across its range of distribution in the North American Arctic and Greenland. The division of the collared lemming into the Canadian Arctic and eastern Beringia phylogroups does not support postglacial colonization of the North American Arctic from a single eastern Beringia refugium. Rather, the phylogeographical structure and sparse fossil records indicate that, during the last glaciation, some biologically significant refugia and important sources of postglacial colonization were located to the northwest of the main ice sheet in the Canadian Arctic.

  3. Conservation of somatic tissue derived from collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu Linnaeus, 1758) using direct or solid-surface vitrification techniques.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alana Azevedo; Lima, Gabriela Liberalino; de Queiroz Neta, Luiza Bento; Santos, Maria Valéria de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; Pereira, Alexsandra Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Cryopreservation of somatic tissue can be applied in biodiversity conservation, especially for wild species as collared peccary. We aimed to evaluate the effect of vitrification techniques of ear tissue of collared peccary [direct vitrification in cryovials (DVC) or solid-surface vitrification (SSV)] on the layers of epidermis and dermis by conventional histology and cell ability during the in vitro culture. Thus, both the vitrification methods were able to maintain normal patterns of the epidermis as the cornea and granular layers, furthermore the intercellular space and dermal-epidermal junction of the spinous layer when compared to fresh control. Nevertheless, DVC and SSV percentage of normality decreased in the morphological integrity of cytoplasm (37.5 and 25.0%) of spinous layer, respectively, as compared to the fresh fragments (100%, p < 0.05). Moreover, other differences between the fresh control (100%) and DVC tissues were verified in the intra-epidermal cleavage of the spinous (37.5%) and basal (37.5%) layers. In general, DVC and SSV techniques were efficient for the recovery of the somatic cells according to most of the evaluated parameters for the in vitro culture (p > 0.05). In addition, only at time of 72 h (D3), in the growth curve, DVC fragments showed a reduced cell concentration than fresh control. In conclusion, SSV was found to be a more efficient method for vitrifying collared peccary skin tissue when compared to DVC. These results are relevant for the tissue cryopreservation from collared peccary and could also be useful for mammals with phylogenetic relationships.

  4. Novel use of the Elizabethan collar as a "hoop-skirt" for protecting wounds and catheters in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, N A; Hewett, T A; Fortman, J D

    2000-09-01

    This article describes the novel use of an Elizabethan collar, which is attached to a primate jacket to create a tamper-proof "hoop-skirt" for protecting wounds and catheters. We successfully have used this hoop-skirt to manage juvenile male rhesus monkeys with Foley catheters for 10 days post-prostatectomy. In addition, our hoop-skirt has been used to manage wounds on the hindlimbs of both macaques and baboons.

  5. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    2016-09-01

    To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain was explored. Observational. Level one trauma centre in the Netherlands. Adult trauma patients admitted to the Emergency Department in an extrication collar combined with headblocks. Between January and December 2013, 342 patients were included. Study outcomes were incidence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain. The following dependent variables were collected: time in the cervical collar and headblocks, Glasgow Coma Scale, Mean Arterial Pressure, haemoglobin, Injury Severity Score, gender, age, and Body Mass Index. 75.4% of the patients developed a category 1 and 2.9% a category 2 pressure ulcer. Indentation marks were observed in 221 (64.6%) patients; 96 (28.1%) had severe indentation marks. Pressure ulcers and indentation marks were observed most frequently at the back, shoulders and chest. 63.2% experienced pain, of which, 38.5% experienced severe pain. Pain was mainly located at the occiput. Female patients experienced significantly more pain (NRS>3) compared to male patients (OR=2.14, 95% CI 1.21-3.80) None of the investigated variables significantly increased the probability of developing PUs or indentation marks. The high incidence of category 1 pressure ulcers and severe indentation marks indicate an increased risk for pressure ulcer development and may well lead to more severe PU lesions. Pain due to the application of the extrication collar and headblocks may lead to undesirable movement (in order to relieve the pressure) or to bias clinical examination of the cervical spine. It is necessary to revise the current practice of cervical spine immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of genetic variability in the collared peccary Pecari tajacu and the white-lipped peccary Tayassu pecari by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the microsatellite technique was used to evaluate the genetic variability in populations of collared and white-lipped peccaries kept in captivity. Six primers developed for domestic pigs were used and amplified in both species. They revealed the presence of five polymorphic loci and one monomorphic locus. The polymorphic loci included 4 of the 16 alleles in collared peccaries, and 3 of the 10 alleles in the white-lipped peccaries. Polymorphic information content (PIC) in both species and all the loci was highly informative. The probability of paternity exclusion (PEC), if one of the parents is known, was almost as high in white-lipped peccaries (95.53%) as in the collared (99,48%). The Fst values for collared (0.042) and white-lipped (0.1387) peccaries showed that both populations are not structured. The Fis values for all loci, except ACTG2 in white-lipped peccaries (-0.0275) and in both species (0.1985 to 0.9284 in collared peccaries and 0.3621 to 0.4754 in the white-lipped), revealed a high level of homozygosis, probably caused by inbreeding. Data on heterologous amplification and genetic variability in collared and white-lipped peccaries are presented for the first time. PMID:21637606

  7. Evaluation of habitat use by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in north-central New Mexico using global positioning system radio collars

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-04-01

    In 1996 the authors initiated a study to identify habitat use in north-central New Mexico by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. They collared six elk in the spring of 1996 with GPS radio collars programmed to obtain locational fixes every 23 h. Between April 1, 1996 and January 7, 1997, they collected >1,200 fixes with an approximately 70% observation rate. They have interfaced GPS locational fixes of elk and detailed vegetation maps using the geographical information system to provide seasonal habitat use within mountainous regions of north-central New Mexico. Based on habitat use and availability analysis, use of grass/shrub and pinon/juniper habitats was generally higher than expected during most seasons and use of forested habitats was lower than expected. Most of the collared elk remained on LANL property year-round. The authors believe the application of GPS collars to elk studies in north-central New Mexico to be a more efficient and effective method than the use of VHF (very-high frequency) radio collars.

  8. Acute joint pain in the emerging green collar workforce: Evidence from the linked National Health Interview Survey and Occupational Information Network (O*NET).

    PubMed

    Huntley, Samuel R; Lee, David J; LeBlanc, William G; Arheart, Kristopher L; McClure, Laura A; Fleming, Lora E; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J

    2017-06-01

    Green jobs are a rapidly emerging category of very heterogeneous occupations that typically involve engagement with new technologies and changing job demands predisposing them to physical stressors that may contribute to the development of joint pain. We estimated and compared the prevalence of self-reported acute (past 30 days) joint pain between green and non-green collar workers using pooled 2004-2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data linked to the Occupational Information Network Database (O*NET). Green collar workers have a higher prevalence of acute joint pain as compared to non-green collar workers. Green collar workers with pain in the upper extremity joints were significantly greater than in the non-green collar workforce, for example, right shoulder [23.2% vs 21.1%], right elbow [13.7% vs 12.0%], left shoulder [20.1% vs 18.2%], and left elbow [12.0% vs 10.7%]. Acute joint pain reported by the emerging green collar workforce can assist in identifying at risk worker subgroups for musculoskeletal pain interventions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Shoe collar height effect on athletic performance, ankle joint kinematics and kinetics during unanticipated maximum-effort side-cutting performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Gilbert Wing Kai; Park, Eun Jung; Lee, Ki-Kwang; Cheung, Jason Tak-Man

    2015-01-01

    Side-step cutting manoeuvres comprise the coordination between planting and non-planting legs. Increased shoe collar height is expected to influence ankle biomechanics of both legs and possibly respective cutting performance. This study examined the shoe collar height effect on kinematics and kinetics of planting and non-planting legs during an unanticipated side-step cutting. Fifteen university basketball players performed maximum-effort side-step cutting to the left 45° direction or a straight ahead run in response to a random light signal. Seven successful cutting trials were collected for each condition. Athletic performance, ground reaction force, ankle kinematics and kinetics of both legs were analysed using paired t-tests. Results indicated that high-collar shoes resulted in less ankle inversion and external rotation during initial contact for the planting leg. The high-collar shoes also exhibited a smaller ankle range of motion in the sagittal and transverse planes for both legs, respectively. However, no collar effect was found for ankle moments and performance indicators including cutting performance time, ground contact time, propulsion ground reaction forces and impulses. These findings indicated that high-collar shoes altered ankle positioning and restricted ankle joint freedom movements in both legs, while no negative effect was found for athletic cutting performance.

  10. Topologically correct reconstruction of tortuous contour forests

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, John; Bajaj, Chandrajit

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the need for correct and robust 3D models of neuronal processes, we present a method for reconstruction of spatially realistic and topologically correct models from planar cross sections of multiple objects. Previous work in 3D reconstruction from serial contours has focused on reconstructing one object at a time, potentially producing inter-object intersections between slices. We have developed a robust algorithm that removes these intersections using a geometric approach. Our method not only removes intersections but can guarantee a given minimum separation distance between objects. This paper describes the algorithm for geometric adjustment, proves correctness, and presents several results of our high-fidelity modeling. PMID:22003256

  11. Strange Birds: Ornithology and the Advent of the Collared Dove in Post-World War II Germany.

    PubMed

    Lachmund, Jens

    2015-06-01

    In this paper I study the engagement of German ornithologists with the Collared Dove, a bird species of Asian origin that spread massively throughout Central Europe in the 1940s and 1950s. Never before had the spread of a single species attracted so much attention from European ornithologists. Ornithologists were not only fascinated by the exotic origin of the bird, but even more so by the unprecedented rapidity of its expansion. As it is argued in the paper, the advent of the bird created an outstanding opportunity for ornithologists to study the process of biogeographic range expansion. The paper traces how knowledge on the dove's expansion took shape in the social, discursive, and material practices of a large-scale observation campaign of German ornithologists (both amateurs and academics). The paper also argues that ornithologists' observation practices have contributed to the construction of a benevolent cultural image of the Collared Dove. This sets the case of the Collared Dove apart from many recent debates in which newly arriving species have been framed as a threat to biodiversity. The paper contributes both to a historical understanding of scientific fieldwork as well as of the role of scientific knowledge in the shaping of cultural meanings of animals.

  12. Progesterone and estradiol-17β as a potential method for pregnancy diagnosis in the collared peccary (Pecari tajacu).

    PubMed

    Mayor, Pedro; Guimarães, Diva Anelie; López-Béjar, Manel

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the period of pregnancy of nine collared peccary females has been monitored through the analysis of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β profiles. Serum concentrations of progesterone increased by Day 4 after conception, reaching concentrations of 33.4±5.6 ng/mL on Day 10. Between Days 10 and 130 progesterone values were maintained between 20 and 60 ng/mL. In the collared peccary, embryonic estradiol synthesis is first observed in the systemic circulation by Day 15 of pregnancy. Between Days 0 and 50 of pregnancy, average estradiol-17β concentrations were between 0 and 30 pg/mL. From Day 75 of pregnancy onwards, estradiol concentrations were constantly increasing, reaching maximum concentrations (131.4±40.8 pg/mL) on the day of parturition. The combined study of serum progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations as a potential method for early pregnancy diagnosis presented the best overall accuracy (73%) when the threshold was established at 20 ng/mL serum progesterone and 20 pg/mL serum estradiol. Nevertheless, the accuracy for diagnosing pregnancy of females at mid and late pregnancy was 78% and 95%, respectively. The analysis of the sexual hormones during pregnancy could be a useful tool as a potential pregnancy diagnosis and an efficient predictor of the day of parturition in the captive collared peccary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosing cervical spine instability: role of the post-computed tomography scan out-of-collar lateral radiograph.

    PubMed

    Ding, Alexander; Abujudeh, Hani; Novelline, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    Cervical spine injuries may have devastating neurological consequences, which makes accurate diagnosis of injury a key part of the trauma evaluation. Imaging plays a significant role in making the diagnosis and guiding management. Current American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria guidelines recommend computed tomography (CT) of the cervical spine with multi-planar reformats as the highest-rated imaging examination for patients meeting clinical criteria, without subsequent need for further imaging with a negative scan in a neurologically intact and non-obtunded patient. Although CT is fast and accurate for evaluation of bony injury, it may overlook ligamentous injury. We report a case in which ligamentous instability was demonstrated as subluxation with an out-of-collar lateral radiograph after a CT scan showed no subluxation or fracture in a patient without neurological deficits. Our Radiology Department routinely performs an out-of-collar lateral radiograph after a negative CT scan, and this case suggests that there may be an important role for this practice. Magnetic resonance is the optimal study for soft tissue and ligamentous evaluation; however, a simple lateral out-of-collar radiograph after CT clearance, in an otherwise neurologically intact and non-obtunded patient, may be a quick and cost-effective means to assess for instability of the cervical spine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic parameters and correlations of collar rot resistance with important biochemical and yield traits in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Mala; Tiwari, Rajesh K; Dhawan, Om P

    2006-01-01

    Collar rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is one of the most severe fungal diseases of opium poppy. In this study, heritability, genetic advance and correlation for 10 agronomic, 1 physiological, 3 biochemical and 1 chemical traits with disease severity index (DSI) for collar rot were assessed in 35 accessions of opium poppy. Most of the economically important characters, like seed and capsule straw yield per plant, oil and protein content of seeds, peroxidase activity in leaves, morphine content of capsule straw and DSI for collar rot showed high heritability as well as genetic advance. Highly significant negative correlation between DSI and seed yield clearly shows that as the disease progresses in plants, seed yield declines, chiefly due to premature death of infected plants as well as low seed and capsule setting in the survived population of susceptible plants. Similarly, a highly significant negative correlation between peroxidase activity and DSI indicated that marker-assisted selection of disease-resistant plants based on high peroxidase activity would be effective and survived susceptible plants could be removed from the population to stop further spread.

  15. Arabidopsis Villins Promote Actin Turnover at Pollen Tube Tips and Facilitate the Construction of Actin Collars[W

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaolu; Zhang, Hua; Xie, Yurong; Wang, Juan; Chen, Naizhi; Huang, Shanjin

    2013-01-01

    Apical actin filaments are crucial for pollen tube tip growth. However, the specific dynamic changes and regulatory mechanisms associated with actin filaments in the apical region remain largely unknown. Here, we have investigated the quantitative dynamic parameters that underlie actin filament growth and disappearance in the apical regions of pollen tubes and identified villin as the major player that drives rapid turnover of actin filaments in this region. Downregulation of Arabidopsis thaliana VILLIN2 (VLN2) and VLN5 led to accumulation of actin filaments at the pollen tube apex. Careful analysis of single filament dynamics showed that the severing frequency significantly decreased, and the lifetime significantly increased in vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. These results indicate that villin-mediated severing is critical for turnover and departure of actin filaments originating in the apical region. Consequently, the construction of actin collars was affected in vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. In addition to the decrease in severing frequency, actin filaments also became wavy and buckled in the apical cytoplasm of vln2 vln5 pollen tubes. These results suggest that villin confers rigidity upon actin filaments. Furthermore, an observed decrease in skewness of actin filaments in the subapical region of vln2 vln5 pollen tubes suggests that villin-mediated bundling activity may also play a role in the construction of actin collars. Thus, our data suggest that villins promote actin turnover at pollen tube tips and facilitate the construction of actin collars. PMID:23715472

  16. Differences in hybrid iii and thornt neck response in extension using matched tests with football neck collars.

    PubMed

    Rowson, Steven; McNeely, David E; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-01-01

    Anthropometric test devices have been used in sports injury biomechanics research. This study addresses the differences in the head and neck response of the Hybrid III and THOR-NT 50th percentile male crash test dummies when used to evaluate the load limiting capabilities of football neck collars. 24 matched tests were performed with the Hybrid III and THOR-NT; in which they were equipped with shoulder pads, a helmet, and various neck collars. The dummies were then impacted on the front of the helmet using a pneumatic linear impactor to promote extension of the neck. Results from these tests indicate that the Hybrid III generates greater loads than the THOR-NT due to its stiffer neck. The Hybrid III was also more sensitive to impact velocity. The neck collars had different effects on each dummy, typically affecting the Hybrid III's response more. Even though this study looks at a specific application, it highlights differences in neck response between the Hybrid III and THOR-NT.

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  18. The Trypanosome Flagellar Pocket Collar and Its Ring Forming Protein—TbBILBO1

    PubMed Central

    Perdomo, Doranda; Bonhivers, Mélanie; Robinson, Derrick R.

    2016-01-01

    Sub-species of Trypanosoma brucei are the causal agents of human African sleeping sickness and Nagana in domesticated livestock. These pathogens have developed an organelle-like compartment called the flagellar pocket (FP). The FP carries out endo- and exocytosis and is the only structure this parasite has evolved to do so. The FP is essential for parasite viability, making it an interesting structure to evaluate as a drug target, especially since it has an indispensible cytoskeleton component called the flagellar pocket collar (FPC). The FPC is located at the neck of the FP where the flagellum exits the cell. The FPC has a complex architecture and division cycle, but little is known concerning its organization. Recent work has focused on understanding how the FP and the FPC are formed and as a result of these studies an important calcium-binding, polymer-forming protein named TbBILBO1 was identified. Cellular biology analysis of TbBILBO1 has demonstrated its uniqueness as a FPC component and until recently, it was unknown what structural role it played in forming the FPC. This review summarizes the recent data on the polymer forming properties of TbBILBO1 and how these are correlated to the FP cytoskeleton. PMID:26950156

  19. Nutritional correlates and mate acquisition role of multiple sexual traits in male collared flycatchers.

    PubMed

    Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllosi, Eszter; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Török, János; Eens, Marcel; Garamszegi, László Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The information content of a sexual signal may predict its importance in a multiple signal system. Many studies have correlated sexual signal expression with the absolute levels of nutrient reserves. In contrast, the changes of nutrient reserves associated with signal expression are largely unknown in the wild due to technical limitations although they are important determinants of signal information content. We compared two visual and eight acoustic sexual traits in male collared flycatchers to see whether the nutritional correlates of expression predict the role of the signal in sexual selection. We used single point assays of plasma lipid metabolites to estimate short-term changes in nutritional state in relation to sexual trait expression during courtship. As a measure of sexual selection, we estimated the relationship with pairing latency after arrival in a 4-year dataset. Males which found a mate rapidly were characterized by large wing and forehead patches, but small song strophe complexity and small figure repertoire size. Traits more strongly related to pairing latency were also more closely related to changes in nutrient reserves. This indicates a link between signal role and information content. Small wing patches and, surprisingly, complex songs seemed to indicate poor phenotypic quality and were apparently disfavoured at mate acquisition in our population. Future studies of the information content of sexual traits, especially dynamic traits such as song, may benefit from the use of plasma metabolite profiles as non-invasive indicators of short-term changes in body condition.

  20. Factors affecting the helminth community structure of adult collared peccaries in southern Texas.

    PubMed

    Corn, J L; Pence, D B; Warren, R J

    1985-07-01

    Four species of nematodes (Gongylonema pulchrum, Parabronema pecariae, Texicospirura turki, and Physocephalus sexalatus) and one species of cestode (Moniezia sp.) comprised the helminth fauna of adult collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) from the plains in southern Texas. The community structure of the helminth fauna of peccaries from this region was basically dissimilar to that from the more humid Gulf coastal prairies of southern Texas in composition (by the conspicuous absence of certain species) and relative abundance of shared species. The distributions of each of the three common species of helminths (G. pulchrum, T. turki, and P. sexalatus) were overdispersed. The effects of selected habitat variables operating across host subpopulations (delineated by condition and sex) and of the extrinsic variable of season on the dispersion patterns of the three common species of helminths were examined. The hypothesis that heterogeneity within the host population, rather than across the collective host population, is the main factor generating overdispersion in natural parasite populations was not confirmed for the three common species of helminths. Overdispersion in P. sexalatus resulted from seasonal changes across the collective host population, with the greatest abundances occurring during the cool season. Aggregated abundances of G. pulchrum resulted from variation generated across host sex subpopulations, while the dispersion patterns of T. turki appeared to be unaffected by the habitat variables examined in this study.

  1. Technical basis for the use of a correlated neutron source in the uranium neutron coincidence collar

    DOE PAGES

    Root, Margaret A.; Menlove, Howard Olsen; Lanza, Richard C.; ...

    2017-01-16

    Active neutron coincidence systems are commonly used by international inspectorates to verify a material balance across the various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. The Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL) is one such instrument; it is used to measure the linear density of 235U (g 235U/cm of active length in assembly) in fresh light water reactor fuel in nuclear fuel fabrication facilities. The UNCL and other active neutron interrogation detectors have historically relied on americium lithium (241AmLi) sources to induce fission within the sample in question. Californium-252 is under consideration as a possible alternative to the traditional 241AmLi source. Finally,more » this work relied upon a combination of experiments and Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate the technical basis for the replacement of 241AmLi sources with 252Cf sources by evaluating the statistical uncertainty in the measurements incurred by each source and assessing the penetrability of neutrons from each source for the UNCL.« less

  2. Trends in abundance of collared lemmings near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Regular, multiannual cycles observed in the population abundance of small mammals in many arctic and subarctic ecosystems have stimulated substantial research, particularly among population ecologists. Hypotheses of mechanisms generating regular cycles include predator-prey interactions, limitation of food resources, and migration or dispersal, as well as abiotic factors such as cyclic climatic variation and environmental stochasticity. In 2004 and 2005, we used indirect methods to estimate trends in population size of Richardson's collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) retrospectively, and evaluated the extent of synchrony between lemming populations at 2 coastal tundra study areas separated by approximately 60 km near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We collected scars on willow plants (Salix) resulting from lemming feeding. Ages of scars ranged from 0 to 13 years at both study areas. Scar-age frequency appeared cyclic and we used nonlinear Poisson regression to model the observed scar-age frequency. Lemming populations cycled with 2.8-year periodicity and the phase of the cycle was synchronous between the 2 study areas. We suggest that our approach could be applied in multiple settings and may provide the most efficient way to gather data on small mammals across both space and time in a diversity of landscapes. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  3. Chemical and surgical interventions to alleviate intraspecific aggression in male collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris).

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Gina M; Becker, Kris K; Wheaton, Catharine J; Fontenot, Deidre; Bettinger, Tammie

    2011-06-01

    To reduce male-male aggression in collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) at Disney's Animal Kingdom, a clinical trial of leuprolide acetate (Depo-Lupron) injections through one breeding season (24 wk), followed by surgical castration after the breeding season was implemented. Daily behavioral observations to record occurrences of aggression were conducted before and during the injection period, as well as after castration. Fecal sample collection began 2 wk before the first injection and continued throughout the clinical trial to determine testosterone metabolite concentration. Samples were collected 3 times per week. Fecal collection and behavioral observation continued for 5 mo after castration. Fecal samples from 3 intact males from other institutions were obtained to compare testosterone values. While the lemurs were treated with Depo-Lupron, testosterone concentrations spiked immediately after injection, and then returned to pretreatment, nonbreeding-season levels after varying lengths of time. Analysis of the behavioral data indicated that aggression was not significantly reduced with Depo-Lupron treatment. However, after castration, contact aggression and wounding decreased to zero. Although the sample is small, this study presents the first documented data on the effects that chemical treatment with Depo-Lupron and surgical castration have upon hormone levels and aggressive behavior in eulemurs.

  4. Geographic variation in the association between exploratory behavior and physiology in rufous-collared sparrows.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Karin; van Dongen, Wouter F D; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Sabat, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Increasing research has attempted to clarify the links between animal personality and physiology. However, the mechanisms driving this association remain largely unknown, and knowledge of how ecological factors may affect its direction and strength is scant. In this study, we quantified variation in the association between exploratory behavior, basal metabolic rate (BMR), and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) inhabiting desert, Mediterranean, and cold-temperate climates. We found that the exploratory behavior score was highest in birds from the cold-temperate site, which was characterized by a moderate level of ecological variability (seasonality). Moreover, the association between exploratory behavior and physiological variables differed among localities. Only birds from the Mediterranean site showed a positive correlation between exploratory behavior and BMR. We found no association between exploration and TEWL at any study site. Our findings suggest that differences in the ecological conditions experienced by each sparrow population result in a particular combination of behavioral and physiological traits. An understanding of this intraspecific variation along ecological gradients provides unique insights into how specific ecological conditions affect the coupling of behavioral and physiological traits and the mechanisms underlying that relationship.

  5. The chloride stress corrosion cracking behavior of beryllium copper and other nonmagnetic drill collar alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Turn, J.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmagnetic drill collars and other structural components are used to provide a region in the bottom hole assembly near the bit in which sensitive magnetic measurements can be made. Beryllium copper, Cl7200, is paramagnetic with low magnetic permeability which makes it aptly suited for nonmagnetic components. Not only are the magnetic properties of the alloys for these components important, but the integrity of the alloys under dynamic loading in a range of hostile drilling fluids is critical as well. Chlorides in certain drilling muds can cause unpredictable stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of susceptible alloys. In a standard test for chloride SCC, ASTM G 36-73, beryllium copper, Cl7200, showed no failure after 1000 hr of exposure to boiling 45 weight percent magnesium chloride solution. The applied stresses were 100 percent of the 0.2 percent offset yield strength for the alloy. Failures for austenitic stainless steels generally occurred in less than 200 hr in this environment at applied stresses of 25 percent of the yield strength. Although benefits can be obtained by controlling the environment and introducing residual compressive stresses to austenitic stainless steel components, these remedies cannot permanently eliminate the underlying susceptibility of these alloys to chloride SCC. Beryllium copper is immune to chloride SCC.

  6. Stress-Activated Cap’n’collar Transcription Factors in Aging and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sykiotis, Gerasimos P.; Bohmann, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Cap’n’collar (Cnc) transcription factors are conserved in metazoans and have important developmental and homeostatic functions. The vertebrate Nrf1, Nrf2, and Nrf3, the Caenorhabditis elegans SKN-1, and the Drosophila CncC comprise a subgroup of Cnc factors that mediate adaptive responses to cellular stress. The most studied stress-activated Cnc factor is Nrf2, which orchestrates the transcriptional response of cells to oxidative stressors and electrophilic xenobiotics. In rodent models, signaling by Nrf2 defends against oxidative stress and aging-associated disorders, such as neurodegeneration, respiratory diseases, and cancer. In humans, polymorphisms that decrease Nrf2 abundance have been associated with various pathologies of the skin, respiratory system, and digestive tract. In addition to preventing disease in rodents and humans, Cnc factors have lifespan-extending and anti-aging functions in invertebrates. However, despite the pro-longevity and antioxidant roles of stress-activated Cnc factors, their activity paradoxically declines in aging model organisms and in humans suffering from progressing respiratory disease or neurodegeneration. We review the roles and regulation of stress-activated Cnc factors across species, present all reported instances in which their activity is paradoxically decreased in aging and disease, and discuss the possibility that the pharmacological restoration of Nrf2 signaling may be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. PMID:20215646

  7. Determination of the wingsnap sonation mechanism of the golden-collared manakin (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Bodony, Daniel J; Day, Lainy; Friscia, Anthony R; Fusani, Leonida; Karon, Aharon; Swenson, George W; Wikelski, Martin; Schlinger, Barney A

    2016-05-15

    Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus), small suboscine passeriform birds of Panamanian forests, communicate acoustically using a variety of non-vocal sonations. The most prominent sonations are single or multiple intense 'wingsnaps' with a dominant acoustic frequency around 5 kHz. Several hypotheses have been proposed addressing the source of the sound, ranging from purely aerodynamic origins (due to a rapid jet of air formed by the wings or by a 'whiplike' motion) to purely structural origins (such as physical contact of the wings), but without definitive assessment. Using anatomical analysis as well as high-speed video and synchronized audio recordings, we show that compared with related species, M. vitellinus radii are morphologically unique and confirm that they collide over the back of the bird at the moment (±1 ms) the wingsnap is produced. Using aeroacoustic theory, we quantitatively estimate the acoustic signatures from several sonation mechanisms. We conclude that only the physical contact hypothesis, wherein the wing collisions create the sound, is consistent with the measured sonation.

  8. Group display in the socially monogamous Northern Double-collared Sunbird (Cinnyris reichenowi).

    PubMed

    Riegert, Jan; Antczak, Marcin; Fainová, Drahomíra; Blažková, Pavla

    2014-03-01

    Several sunbird species (Nectariniidae) exhibit group display, but the function of this behaviour still remains unclear. We test two hypotheses (reproductive tactic and joint territory defence) to explain the function of this behaviour using data gathered on Northern Double-collared Sunbirds (Cinnyris reichenowi) from the Cameroon Mountains. Sunbirds exhibited group display throughout the breeding cycle. Groups of birds were mainly comprised of neighbouring pairs aggregated at territory boundaries. The frequency of group displays varied significantly among individuals and over the breeding cycle, with the highest frequency during the pre-breeding period and the lowest during egg-laying (∼female's fertile period). Time spent on group display was significantly longer at the end of breeding. Off-territory forays were recorded for both males and females, males significantly increased the time spent on these forays during incubation. Extra-pair copulations were recorded only in five cases for females (4%) suggesting that most off-territory forays were motivated by feeding on nectar in neighbouring territories. Therefore, we suggest that the behaviour is used for joint territory defence rather than as an information centre for choosing mates for extra-pair copulations. Its function for choosing primary mates is also unlikely, because group displays were mainly observed in complete pairs.

  9. Kodiak brown bears surf the salmon red wave: direct evidence from GPS collared individuals.

    PubMed

    Deacy, William; Leacock, William; Armstrong, Jonathan B; Stanford, Jack A

    2016-05-01

    A key constraint faced by consumers is achieving a positive energy balance in the face of temporal variation in foraging opportunities. Recent work has shown that spatial heterogeneity in resource phenology can buffer mobile consumers from this constraint by allowing them to track changes in resource availability across space. For example, salmon populations spawn asynchronously across watersheds, causing high-quality foraging opportunities to propagate across the landscape, prolonging the availability of salmon at the regional scale. However, we know little about how individual consumers integrate across phenological variation or the benefits they receive by doing so. Here, we present direct evidence that individual brown bears track spatial variation in salmon phenology. Data from 40 GPS collared brown bears show that bears visited multiple spawning sites in synchrony with the order of spawning phenology. The number of sites used was correlated with the number of days a bear exploited salmon, suggesting the phenological variation in the study area influenced bear access to salmon, a resource which strongly influences bear fitness. Fisheries managers attempting to maximize harvest while maintaining ecosystem function should strive to protect the population diversity that underlies the phenological variation used by wildlife consumers.

  10. A sexual conflict in collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis: early male moult reduces female fitness

    PubMed Central

    Hemborg, C.; Meril, J.

    1998-01-01

    A sexual conflict over levels of parental care occurs in most animals with biparental care, and studies of sexual differences in levels of parental care have usually focused on its intra-annual fitness consequences. We investigated inter-annual fitness consequences of a sexual difference in timing of feather replacement (moult) in collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis). In this study, males overlapped reproduction and moult more often than females, they also initiated their moult at an earlier stage of breeding than females. Females mated to males with a moult-breeding overlap had significantly lowered survival chances than females mated with males initiating moult after breeding. Furthermore, females mated with moulting males risked a lowered future fecundity in terms of a delayed start to breeding in the following season. However, early moulting males achieved a similar reproductive success as males initiating moult after breeding. Likewise, male survival probability to the following breeding season did not differ between early and late moulting individuals, nor was there any evidence that males gained or lost in future mating advantages by moulting early. These results show not only that a sexual conflict over timing of moult may operate, but also that it can impose severe fitness consequences, in terms of reduced future fecundity and survival probability, upon the 'losing' sex.

  11. Whole-body vibration transmissibility in supine humans: effects of board litter and neck collar.

    PubMed

    Meusch, John; Rahmatalla, Salam

    2014-05-01

    Whole-body vibration has been identified as a stressor to supine patients during medical transportation. The transmissibility between the input platform acceleration and the output acceleration of the head, sternum, pelvis, head-sternum, and pelvis-sternum of eight supine subjects were investigated. Vibration files were utilized in the fore-aft, lateral, and vertical directions. The power spectral density across the bandwidth of 0.5-20 Hz was approximately flat for each file. A comparison between a baseline rigid-support and a support with a long spinal board strapped to a litter has shown that the latter has considerable effects on the transmitted motion in all directions with a double magnification in the vertical direction around 5 Hz. The results also showed that the neck-collar has increased the relative head-sternum flexion-extension because of the input fore-aft vibration, but reduced the head-sternum extension-compression due to the input vertical vibration.

  12. Ancient DNA supports southern survival of Richardson's collared lemming (Dicrostonyx richardsoni) during the last glacial maximum.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Tara L; Norris, Ryan W; Graham, Russell W; Semken, Holmes A; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-05-01

    Collared lemmings (genus Dicrostonyx) are circumpolar Arctic arvicoline rodents associated with tundra. However, during the last glacial maximum (LGM), Dicrostonyx lived along the southern ice margin of the Laurentide ice sheet in communities comprising both temperate and boreal species. To better understand these communities and the fate of these southern individuals, we compare mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence data from three LGM-age Dicrostonyx fossils from south of the Laurentide ice sheet to sequences from modern Dicrostonyx sampled from across their present-day range. We test whether the Dicrostonyx populations from LGM-age continental USA became extinct at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition ~11000 years ago or, alternatively, if they belong to an extant species whose habitat preferences can be used to infer the palaeoclimate along the glacial margin. Our results indicate that LGM-age Dicrostonyx from Iowa and South Dakota belong to Dicrostonyx richardsoni, which currently lives in a temperate tundra environment west of Hudson Bay, Canada. This suggests a palaeoclimate south of the Laurentide ice sheet that contains elements similar to the more temperate shrub tundra characteristic of extant D. richardsoni habitat, rather than the very cold, dry tundra of the Northern Arctic. While more data are required to determine whether or not the LGM southern population is ancestral to extant D. richardsoni, it seems most probable that the species survived the LGM in a southern refugium.

  13. Predictable invasion dynamics in North American populations of the Eurasian collared dove Streptopelia decaocto.

    PubMed

    Ingenloff, Kathryn; Hensz, Christopher M; Anamza, Tashitso; Barve, Vijay; Campbell, Lindsay P; Cooper, Jacob C; Komp, Ed; Jimenez, Laura; Olson, Karen V; Osorio-Olvera, Luis; Owens, Hannah L; Peterson, A Townsend; Samy, Abdallah M; Simões, Marianna; Soberón, Jorge

    2017-09-13

    Species invasions represent a significant dimension of global change yet the dynamics of invasions remain poorly understood and are considered rather unpredictable. We explored interannual dynamics of the invasion process in the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) and tested whether the advance of the invasion front of the species in North America relates to centrality (versus peripherality) within its estimated fundamental ecological niche. We used ecological niche modelling approaches to estimate the dimensions of the fundamental ecological niche on the Old World distribution of the species, and then transferred that model to the New World as measures of centrality versus peripherality within the niche for the species. Although our hypothesis was that the invasion front would advance faster over more favourable (i.e. more central) conditions, the reverse was the case: the invasion expanded faster in areas presenting less favourable (i.e. more peripheral) conditions for the species as it advanced across North America. This result offers a first view of a predictive approach to the dynamics of species' invasions, and thereby has relevant implications for the management of invasive species, as such a predictive understanding would allow better anticipation of coming steps and advances in the progress of invasions, important to designing and guiding effective remediation and mitigation efforts. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Phylogeography of the circumpolar Paranoplocephala arctica species complex (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) parasitizing collared lemmings (Dicrostonyx spp.).

    PubMed

    Wickström, L M; Haukisalmi, V; Varis, S; Hantula, J; Fedorov, V B; Henttonen, H

    2003-12-01

    The Paranoplocephla arctica complex (Cyclophyllidea, Anoplocephalidae), host-specific cestodes of collared lemmings Dicrostonyx, include two morphospecies P. arctica and P. alternata, whose taxonomical status now must be considered ambiguous. The genetic population structure and phylogeography of the P. arctica complex was studied from 83 individuals sampled throughout the Holarctic distribution range using 600 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogeny divides the species complex into one main Nearctic and one main Palaearctic phylogroup, corresponding to the main phylogenetic division of the hosts. In the Palearctic phylogroup, the parasite clades correspond to the host clades although the parasites from Wrangel Island form an exception as the host on this island, D. groenlandicus, belongs to the Nearctic phylogroup. In the Nearctic, northern refugia beyond the ice limit of the Pleistocene glaciations are proposed for the hosts. All reconstructions of parasite phylogeny show a genetically differentiated population structure that in the Canadian Arctic lacks strict congruence between phylogeny and geography. The parasite phylogeny does not show complete congruence with host relationships, suggesting a history of colonization and secondary patterns of dispersal from Beringia into the Canadian Arctic, an event not proposed by the host phylogenies alone.

  15. Nutritional correlates and mate acquisition role of multiple sexual traits in male collared flycatchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Török, János; Eens, Marcel; Garamszegi, László Zsolt

    2010-06-01

    The information content of a sexual signal may predict its importance in a multiple signal system. Many studies have correlated sexual signal expression with the absolute levels of nutrient reserves. In contrast, the changes of nutrient reserves associated with signal expression are largely unknown in the wild due to technical limitations although they are important determinants of signal information content. We compared two visual and eight acoustic sexual traits in male collared flycatchers to see whether the nutritional correlates of expression predict the role of the signal in sexual selection. We used single point assays of plasma lipid metabolites to estimate short-term changes in nutritional state in relation to sexual trait expression during courtship. As a measure of sexual selection, we estimated the relationship with pairing latency after arrival in a 4-year dataset. Males which found a mate rapidly were characterized by large wing and forehead patches, but small song strophe complexity and small figure repertoire size. Traits more strongly related to pairing latency were also more closely related to changes in nutrient reserves. This indicates a link between signal role and information content. Small wing patches and, surprisingly, complex songs seemed to indicate poor phenotypic quality and were apparently disfavoured at mate acquisition in our population. Future studies of the information content of sexual traits, especially dynamic traits such as song, may benefit from the use of plasma metabolite profiles as non-invasive indicators of short-term changes in body condition.

  16. Job demand and cardiovascular disease risk factor in white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyu; Lee, Kang Koo; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul; Koo, Jung-Wan

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether job demand played a role as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases by comparing changes of blood pressure, heart rate and rate pressure product (RPP) showing myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) according to levels of job demand. This cross-sectional study divided 177 male white-collar workers without a cardiovascular or metabolic disease according to their job demand and analyzed their body composition and results of graded exercise testing. There was no significant difference in height, body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage according to job demand. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT) also did not show a significant difference. However, systolic blood pressures at the seventh and eighth stages over AT during exercise were significantly different and RPP was found to have a significant difference overall according to the job demand (p<0.05). These results meant that job demand affected systolic pressure in physical activities or at exercise intensity over AT and reduced energy efficiency of myocardium during physical activities. The results suggest that high job demand may be a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. What is a 'good' job? Modelling job quality for blue collar workers().

    PubMed

    Jones, Wendy; Haslam, Roger; Haslam, Cheryl

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of job quality, developed from interviews with blue collar workers: bus drivers, manufacturing operatives and cleaners (n  =  80). The model distinguishes between core features, important for almost all workers, and 'job fit' features, important to some but not others, or where individuals might have different preferences. Core job features found important for almost all interviewees included job security, personal safety and having enough pay to meet their needs. 'Job fit' features included autonomy and the opportunity to form close relationships. These showed more variation between participants; priorities were influenced by family commitments, stage of life and personal preference. The resulting theoretical perspective indicates the features necessary for a job to be considered 'good' by the person doing it, whilst not adversely affecting their health. The model should have utility as a basis for measuring and improving job quality and the laudable goal of creating 'good jobs'. Practitioner Summary: Good work can contribute positively to health and well-being, but there is a lack of agreement regarding the concept of a 'good' job. A model of job quality has been constructed based on semi-structured worker interviews (n  =  80). The model emphasises the need to take into account variation between individuals in their preferred work characteristics.

  18. 77 FR 2435 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...- Free Treatment Under the Generalized System of Preferences and for Other Purposes Correction In... following correction: On page 407, the date following the proclamation number should read ``December...

  19. 78 FR 2193 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement and for Other Purposes Correction In Presidential document... correction: On page 66507, the proclamation identification heading on line one should read...

  20. Corrections Officer Physical Abilities Report. Standards and Training for Corrections Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Board of Corrections, Sacramento.

    A study examined the physical ability requirements for entry-level corrections officers in the California. The study, which was undertaken at the request of the California Board of Corrections, had the following objectives: statewide job analysis of the requirements of three entry-level positions in county agencies--corrections officer, probation…

  1. Influence of Climate Warming on Arctic Mammals? New Insights from Ancient DNA Studies of the Collared Lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus

    PubMed Central

    Prost, Stefan; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Sommer, Robert S.; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Global temperature increased by approximately half a degree (Celsius) within the last 150 years. Even this moderate warming had major impacts on Earth's ecological and biological systems, especially in the Arctic where the magnitude of abiotic changes even exceeds those in temperate and tropical biomes. Therefore, understanding the biological consequences of climate change on high latitudes is of critical importance for future conservation of the species living in this habitat. The past 25,000 years can be used as a model for such changes, as they were marked by prominent climatic changes that influenced geographical distribution, demographic history and pattern of genetic variation of many extant species. We sequenced ancient and modern DNA of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), which is a key species of the arctic biota, from a single site (Pymva Shor, Northern Pre Urals, Russia) to see if climate warming events after the Last Glacial Maximum had detectable effects on the genetic variation of this arctic rodent species, which is strongly associated with a cold and dry climate. Results Using three dimensional network reconstructions we found a dramatic decline in genetic diversity following the LGM. Model-based approaches such as Approximate Bayesian Computation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference show that there is evidence for a population decline in the collared lemming following the LGM, with the population size dropping to a minimum during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (Bølling/Allerød) warming phase at 14.5 kyrs BP. Conclusion Our results show that previous climate warming events had a strong influence on genetic diversity and population size of collared lemmings. Due to its already severely compromised genetic diversity a similar population reduction as a result of the predicted future climate change could completely abolish the remaining genetic diversity in this population. Local population extinctions of collared

  2. Impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Results Placing the smooth part of the implant below the alveolar crest may lead to bone loss. Despite a more pronounced bone remodeling, the subcrestal positioning of the microgap may help to retain the bony coverage of the rough surface. Crestal bone remodeling has been observed for either internal and external, or conical and butt–joint connections. There was a trend favoring the platform switching concept to prevent or minimize peri-implant marginal bone loss. Conclusions Future research should consider an uniform and comparable study design, either excluding or exactly documenting possible confounding factors. PMID:24147913

  3. A Parallel-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Effects of a Far-Infrared-Emitting Collar on Neck Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Hung, Kuo-Sheng; Liau, Ben-Yi; Yang, Chih-Hui; Yang, Aiga; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the beneficial effects of a far-infrared-emitting collar (FIRC) on the management of neck disorders. A neck disorder is generalized as neck muscle pain and its relative mental disorders because the etiologies of the neck’s multidimensional syndrome are either muscle impairment or psychiatric distress. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of a FIRC by evaluating objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and single-blinded design. In this trial, 60 participants with neck disorders were observed at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to the placebo group after a 30-min intervention, the FIRC demonstrated a statistically significant biological effect in elevating skin temperature and promoting blood circulation with p-values 0.003 and 0.020, respectively. In addition, FIRC application significantly reduced neck muscle tension, relieved pain, ameliorated fatigue, improved depression, and decreased anxiety. The FIRC could therefore be a potential treatment for neck disorders. PMID:28793539

  4. Object Recognition Using Range Images.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Modeling the Dropouts in Range Images 28 Repairing the Pixel Dropouts 33 III. Recognizing Objects from Range Scenes 38 Using Range Geometry for Scene...well as possible methods of correcting for these effects. Other factors af- fecting the correlation coefficient that were considered were pixel dropouts ...and the beam spot size of the laser. Pixel dropouts were shown to be detrimental to a range image’s correlation coefficient, but could be corrected

  5. TPX correction coil studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, J.D.

    1994-11-03

    Error correction coils are planned for the TPX (Tokamak Plasma Experiment) in order to avoid error field induced locked modes and disruption. The FT (Fix Tokamak) code is used to evaluate the ability of these correction coils to remove islands caused by symmetry breaking magnetic field errors. The proposed correction coils are capable of correcting a variety of error fields.

  6. Turbulence compressibility corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1994-01-01

    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  7. Risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging and cervical collar in comatose, blunt trauma patients with negative comprehensive cervical spine computed tomography and no apparent spinal deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C Michael; Brocker, Brian P; Collier, B David; Gemmel, David J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In blunt trauma, comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 8) with a negative comprehensive cervical spine (CS) computed tomography assessment and no apparent spinal deficit, CS clearance strategies (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and prolonged cervical collar use) are controversial. Methods We conducted a literature review to delineate risks for coma, CS instability, prolonged cervical collar use, and CS MRI. Results Based on our search of the literature, the numbers of functional survivor patients among those who had sustained blunt trauma were as follows: 350 per 1,000 comatose unstable patients (increased intracranial pressure [ICP], hypotension, hypoxia, or early ventilator-associated pneumonia); 150 per 1,000 comatose high-risk patients (age > 45 years or Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 5); and 600 per 1,000 comatose stable patients (not unstable or high risk). Risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable, high-risk, and stable patients were as follows: 2.5% for CS instability; 26.2% for increased intensive care unit complications with prolonged cervical collar use; 9.3% to 14.6% for secondary brain injury with MRI transportation; and 20.6% for aspiration during MRI scanning (supine position). Additional risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable patients were as follows: 35.8% for increased ICP with cervical collar; and 72.1% for increased ICP during MRI scan (supine position). Conclusion Blunt trauma coma functional survivor (independent living) rates are alarming. When a comprehensive CS computed tomography evaluation is negative and there is no apparent spinal deficit, CS instability is unlikely (2.5%). Secondary brain injury from the cervical collar or MRI is more probable than CS instability and jeopardizes cerebral recovery. Brain injury severity, probability of CS instability, cervical collar risk, and MRI risk assessments are essential when deciding whether CS MRI is appropriate and for determining the timing of

  8. Survival rates of radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Durner, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Polar bears are hunted throughout most of their range. In addition to hunting, polar bears of the Beaufort Sea region are exposed to mineral and hydrocarbon extraction and related human activities such as shipping, road building, and seismic testing. As human populations increase and demands for polar bears and other arctic resources escalate, reliable estimates of survivorship of polar bears are needed to predict and manage the impacts of those activities. We used the Kaplan-Meier model to estimate annual survival (with 95% confidence intervals) for radio-collared female polar bears and their dependent young that were followed during a 12-year study in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. Survival of adult female polar bears was higher than had been previously thought: S = 0.969 (range 0.952-0.983). If human-caused mortalities were deleted, the computed survival rate was 0.996 (0.990-1.002). Survival of young from den exit to weaning was 0.676 (0.634-0.701). Survival during the second year of life, 0.860 (0.751-0.903), was substantially higher than during the first year, 0.651 (0.610-0.675). Shooting by local hunters accounted for 85% of the documented deaths of adult female polar bears. Conversely, 90% of documented losses of young were independent of litter size (P = 0.36), indicating that parental investment in single cubs was not different from investment in litters of two or more. Precise estimates of the survival of independent juveniles and adult males still need to be developed.

  9. Sexually dimorphic neural phenotypes in golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Day, Lainy B; Fusani, Leonida; Kim, Carol; Schlinger, Barney A

    2011-01-01

    Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform a high-speed acrobatic courtship display punctuated by loud 'snaps' produced by the wings. Females join males on display courts to select individuals for copulation; females follow displaying males but do not perform acrobatics or make wing snaps. Sexually dimorphic courtship displays such as those performed by manakins are the result of intense sexual selection and suggest that differences between sexes exist at neural levels as well. We examined sex differences in the volume of brain areas that might be involved in the male manakin courtship display and in the female assessment of this display. We found that males had a larger hippocampus (HP, spatial learning) and arcopallium (AP, motor and limbic areas) than females when adjusted for the size of the telencephalon (TELE) minus the target area. Females had a larger ventrolateral mesopallium (MVL) both when adjusting for the size of the remaining TELE and by direct comparison. The entopallium (E) was not sexually dimorphic. The E is part of the avian tectofugal pathway and the MVL is linked to this pathway by reciprocal connections. The MVL likely modulates visually guided behavior via descending brainstem pathways. We found no sex differences in the volume of the cerebellum or cerebellar nuclei. We speculate that the HP is important to males for cross-season site fidelity and for local spatial memory, the AP for sexually driven motor patterns that are complex in males, and that the MVL facilitates female visual processing in selecting male display traits. These results are consistent with the idea that sexual selection has acted to select sex-specific behaviors in manakins that have neural correlates in the brain.

  10. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus).

    PubMed

    Barske, J; Fusani, L; Wikelski, M; Feng, N Y; Santos, M; Schlinger, B A

    2014-02-07

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a 'slow pace of life' metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d(-1)) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d(-1) for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end.

  11. Energetics of the acrobatic courtship in male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus)

    PubMed Central

    Barske, J.; Fusani, L.; Wikelski, M.; Feng, N. Y.; Santos, M.; Schlinger, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    In lek mating systems, females choose mates through indicators of quality, which males may exhibit by their performance of courtship displays. In temperate regions, displaying seasons are brief (one to two months), whereas in the tropics courtship seasons may be prolonged. Moreover, in temperate-breeding animals lekking behaviour can be energetically demanding, but little is known about the energy costs of lekking in tropical animals. Daily, over the course of a nearly seven-month-long breeding season, male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) of Panamanian rainforests perform acrobatic courtship displays that markedly elevate heart rates, suggesting that they require high energy investment. Typically, animals of tropical lowland forests (such as manakins) exhibit a ‘slow pace of life’ metabolic strategy. We investigated whether male manakin courtship is indeed metabolically costly or whether the birds retain a low daily energy expenditure (DEE), as seen in other tropical species. To assess these questions, we calibrated manakin heart rate against metabolic rate, examined daily lek activity and, using telemetry, obtained heart rates of individual wild, lekking male manakins. Although metabolic rates peak during courtship displays, we found that males actually invest minimal time (only approx. 5 min d−1) performing displays. As a consequence, the DEE of approximately 39 kJ d−1 for male manakins is comparable to other lowland tropical species. The short, intense bursts of courtship by these birds make up only approximately 1.2% of their total DEE. Presumably, this cost is negligible, enabling them to perform daily at their arenas for months on end. PMID:24352944

  12. Impact of congenital narrowing of the bulbar urethra (Cobb's collar) and its transurethral incision in children.

    PubMed

    Nonomura, K; Kanno, T; Kakizaki, H; Koyama, T; Yamashita, T; Koyanagi, T

    1999-08-01

    We described the clinical manifestation and outcome after transurethral incision (TUI) of a congenital narrowing of the bulbar urethra (Cobb's collar). Over a period of 11 years a total of 74 boys, from 3 months to 16 years old with a mean age of 5 years, were subjected to TUI. A febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) was the most common symptom in 40 cases, enuresis in 15, urinary incontinence in 11, hematuria in 9, antenatally diagnosed dilated urinary tract in 4 and others in 9. Concurrent bladder instability was detected by cystometry in 27/31 boys older than 3 years with suspicious bladder urgency. When the bulbar narrowing was detected by cystourethroscopy under 8 Fr, the lesion was simultaneously incised by using an infantile resectoscope (Olympus 10 Fr with a knife electrode or Storz 10 F with a cold knife). Vesicoureteral refluxes (VURs) occurred in 39 cases (53%) and it was diminished in 11 and improved in 25 after TUI. Of the 40 cases, 38 (95%) were free from UTI after TUI. For enuresis and urinary incontinence, 14/15 and all 11, respectively, thrived after TUI and the anticholinergic supplement. Although 61 cases were primarily cured with no complications, insufficient cutting and recurrence of the stricture required an additional TUI in 13 cases for whom the knife electrode was mostly used. Overall clinical improvement was obtained in 71/74 (93%) cases after TUI. Meticulous cystourethroscopy is indispensable for detecting a clinically significant bulbar narrowing. TUI of the lesion is useful as a primary treatment in the majority of cases even with concurrent VUR and unstable bladder. A cold knife is preferable to electrocautery in incising this fine anterior urethral lesion.

  13. The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher.

    PubMed

    Garamszegi, László Z; Mueller, Jakob C; Markó, Gábor; Szász, Eszter; Zsebők, Sándor; Herczeg, Gábor; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that the genetic architecture of exploration behavior includes the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). Such a link implies that the within-individual consistency in the same behavior has a genetic basis. Behavioral consistency is also prevalent in the form of between-individual correlation of functionally different behaviors; thus, the relationship between DRD4 polymorphism and exploration may also be manifested for other behaviors. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their behavioral displays during the courtship period. In completely natural conditions, we assayed novelty avoidance, aggression and risk-taking, traits that were previously shown repeatable over time and correlate with each other, suggesting that they could have a common mechanistic basis. We identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP554 and SNP764) in the exon 3 of the DRD4 gene by sequencing a subsample, then we screened 202 individuals of both sexes for these SNPs. Focusing on the genotypic variation in courting males, we found that "AC" heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common "AA" homozygotes (the "CC" homozygotes were not represented in our subsample of males). We also found a considerable effect size for the relationship between SNP554 polymorphism and novelty avoidance. Therefore, in addition to exploration, DRD4 polymorphisms may also be associated with the regulation of behaviors that may incur fear or stress. Moreover, polymorphisms at the two SNPs were not independent indicating a potential role for genetic constraints or another functional link, which may partially explain behavioral correlations.

  14. Weight change affects serum leptin and corticosterone in the collared lemming.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Maria S; Onorato, David P; Gower, Barbara A; Nagy, Tim R

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether photoperiod-induced changes in body and fat mass are accompanied by changes in leptin and corticosterone concentrations in collared lemmings. At weaning, eighty male lemmings were maintained in either long photoperiod (LD, n = 40 ) or short photoperiod (SD, n = 40 ). Ten weeks post-weaning lemmings were weighed and assigned to a secondary photoperiod that consisted of either remaining in the same photoperiod or being transferred to the alternate photoperiod (LD-LD, LD-SD, SD-SD, and SD-LD; n = 20 per group). Ten days post-switch, half the animals from each group were sacrificed. The remaining animals were sacrificed on day 21 post-switch. Blood was collected for determination of serum leptin and corticosterone, and carcasses were analyzed for body composition. LD-SD lemmings gained the most weight, whilst SD-LD lemmings lost weight. SD-LD lemmings had significantly lower leptin levels relative to fat mass than SD-SD lemmings. Corticosterone levels were higher in the SD-LD than SD-SD lemmings on both days 10 and 21. Levels were not significantly different between LD-LD and LD-SD lemmings; however by day 21 the levels were slightly lower in the LD-SD lemmings. Discussion. Lemmings showed seasonally appropriate body weight changes in response to the changing photoperiod. Weight loss was associated with higher corticosterone, and lower leptin levels adjusted for fat mass. Neither relative leptin levels, nor corticosterone levels changed significantly with weight gain. Our results indicate that corticosterone and leptin are associated more with seasonal weight loss than weight gain in lemmings.

  15. The relationship between DRD4 polymorphisms and phenotypic correlations of behaviors in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    Garamszegi, László Z; Mueller, Jakob C; Markó, Gábor; Szász, Eszter; Zsebők, Sándor; Herczeg, Gábor; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the genetic architecture of exploration behavior includes the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4). Such a link implies that the within-individual consistency in the same behavior has a genetic basis. Behavioral consistency is also prevalent in the form of between-individual correlation of functionally different behaviors; thus, the relationship between DRD4 polymorphism and exploration may also be manifested for other behaviors. Here, in a Hungarian population of the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis, we investigate how males with distinct DRD4 genotypes differ in the consistent elements of their behavioral displays during the courtship period. In completely natural conditions, we assayed novelty avoidance, aggression and risk-taking, traits that were previously shown repeatable over time and correlate with each other, suggesting that they could have a common mechanistic basis. We identified two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP554 and SNP764) in the exon 3 of the DRD4 gene by sequencing a subsample, then we screened 202 individuals of both sexes for these SNPs. Focusing on the genotypic variation in courting males, we found that “AC” heterozygote individuals at the SNP764 take lower risk than the most common “AA” homozygotes (the “CC” homozygotes were not represented in our subsample of males). We also found a considerable effect size for the relationship between SNP554 polymorphism and novelty avoidance. Therefore, in addition to exploration, DRD4 polymorphisms may also be associated with the regulation of behaviors that may incur fear or stress. Moreover, polymorphisms at the two SNPs were not independent indicating a potential role for genetic constraints or another functional link, which may partially explain behavioral correlations. PMID:24834341

  16. Adaptable Neighbours: Movement Patterns of GPS-Collared Leopards in Human Dominated Landscapes in India

    PubMed Central

    Odden, Morten; Athreya, Vidya; Rattan, Sandeep; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the nature of the interactions between humans and wildlife is of vital importance for conflict mitigation. We equipped five leopards with GPS-collars in Maharashtra (4) and Himachal Pradesh (1), India, to study movement patterns in human-dominated landscapes outside protected areas. An adult male and an adult female were both translocated 52 km, and exhibited extensive, and directional, post release movements (straight line movements: male  = 89 km in 37 days, female  = 45 km in 5 months), until they settled in home ranges of 42 km2 (male) and 65 km2 (female). The three other leopards, two adult females and a young male were released close to their capture sites and used small home ranges of 8 km2 (male), 11 km2 and 15 km2 (females). Movement patterns were markedly nocturnal, with hourly step lengths averaging 339±9.5 m (SE) during night and 60±4.1 m during day, and night locations were significantly closer to human settlements than day locations. However, more nocturnal movements were observed among those three living in the areas with high human population densities. These visited houses regularly at nighttime (20% of locations <25 m from houses), but rarely during day (<1%). One leopard living in a sparsely populated area avoided human settlements both day and night. The small home ranges of the leopards indicate that anthropogenic food resources may be plentiful although wild prey is absent. The study provides clear insights into the ability of leopards to live and move in landscapes that are extremely modified by human activity. PMID:25390067

  17. Cervical spine injuries in civilian victims of explosions: Should cervical collars be used?

    PubMed

    Klein, Yoram; Arieli, Izhar; Sagiv, Shaul; Peleg, Kobi; Ben-Galim, Peleg

    2016-06-01

    Semirigid cervical collars (SRCCs) are routinely applied to victims of explosions as part of the prehospital trauma protocols. Previous studies have shown that the use of SRCC in penetrating injuries is not justified because of the scarcity of unstable cervical spine injuries and the risk of obscuring other neck injuries. Explosion can inflict injuries by fragments penetration, blast injury, blunt force, and burns. The purpose of the study was to determine the occurrence of cervical spine instability without irreversible neurologic deficit and other potentially life-threatening nonskeletal neck injuries among victims of explosions. The potential benefits and risks of SRCC application in explosion-related injuries were evaluated. This is a retrospective cohort study of all explosion civilian victims admitted to Israeli hospitals during the years 1998 to 2010. Data collection was based on the Israeli national trauma registry and the hospital records and included demographic, clinical, and radiologic details of all patients with documented cervical spine injuries. The cohort included 2,267 patients. All of them were secondary to terrorist attacks. SRCC was applied to all the patients at the scene. Nineteen patients (0.83%) had cervical spine fractures. Nine patients (0.088%) had unstable cervical spine injury. All but one had irreversible neurologic deficit on admission. A total of 151 patients (6.6%) had potentially life-threatening penetrating nonskeletal neck injuries. Unstable cervical spine injuries secondary to explosion are extremely rare. The majority of unstable cervical spine fractures were secondary to penetrating injuries, with irreversible neurologic deficits on admission. The application of SRCC did not seem to be of any benefit in these patients and might pose a risk of obscuring other neck injuries. We recommend that SRCC will not be used in the prehospital management of victims of explosions. Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III.

  18. 46 CFR 201.148 - Corrections of transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Corrections of transcript. 201.148 Section 201.148...) § 201.148 Corrections of transcript. Motions made at the hearing to correct the record will be acted... approval of the presiding officer, be changed to reflect such corrections. If objections are received,...

  19. 46 CFR 201.148 - Corrections of transcript.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Corrections of transcript. 201.148 Section 201.148...) § 201.148 Corrections of transcript. Motions made at the hearing to correct the record will be acted... approval of the presiding officer, be changed to reflect such corrections. If objections are received,...

  20. Automated Confocal Microscope Bias Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorval, Thierry; Genovesio, Auguste

    2006-10-01

    Illumination artifacts systematically occur in 2D cross-section confocal microscopy imaging . These bias can strongly corrupt an higher level image processing such as a segmentation, a fluorescence evaluation or even a pattern extraction/recognition. This paper presents a new fully automated bias correction methodology based on large image database preprocessing. This method is very appropriate to the High Content Screening (HCS), method dedicated to drugs discovery. Our method assumes that the amount of pictures available is large enough to allow a reliable statistical computation of an average bias image. A relevant segmentation evaluation protocol and experimental results validate our correction algorithm by outperforming object extraction on non corrupted images.

  1. Effect of a collar on subsidence and local micromotion of cementless femoral stems: in vitro comparative study based on micro-computerised tomography.

    PubMed

    Malfroy Camine, Valérie; Rüdiger, Hannes A; Pioletti, Dominique P; Terrier, Alexandre

    2017-06-07

    The aim of this study is to quantitatively compare the difference in primary stability between collarless and collared versions of the same femoral stem. Specifically, we tested differences in subsidence and micromotion. Collarless and collared versions of the same cementless femoral stem were implanted in two groups of six fresh-frozen cadaveric femurs. Each implanted femur was then subsequently tested for axial compressive and torsional loadings. A micro-CT based technique was applied to quantify implant subsidence and compute the map of local micromotion around the femoral stems. Micromotion of collarless and collared stems was compared in each Gruen zone. Subsidence was higher but not significantly (p = 0.352) with collarless (41.0 ± 29.9 μm) than with collared stems (37.0 ± 44.6 μm). In compression, micromotion was lower (p = 0.257) with collarless (19.5 ± 5 μm) than with collared stems (43.3 ± 33.1 μm). In torsion, micromotion was also lower (p = 0.476) with collarless (96.9 ± 59.8 μm) than collared stems (118.7 ± 45.0 μm). Micromotion was only significantly lower (p = 0.001) in Gruen zone 1 and for compression with collarless (7.0 ± 0.6 μm) than with collared stems (22.6 ± 25.5 μm). Primary stability was achieved for both stem designs, with a mean micromotion below the osseointegration threshold. Under loading conditions similar to those observed in normal daily activity and with good press-fit, the collar had no influence on subsidence or micromotion. Further studies are required to test the potential advantage of collar with higher loads, undersized stems, or osteoporotic femurs.

  2. Functional outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and fracture healing in 58 consecutive patients with geriatric odontoid fracture treated with cervical collar or posterior fusion.

    PubMed

    Molinari, William J; Molinari, Robert W; Khera, Oner A; Gruhn, William L

    2013-03-01

    Controversy exists as to the most effective management option for elderly patients with type II odontoid fractures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes associated with rigid cervical collar and posterior fusion surgery. Patients with ≥ 50% odontoid displacement were treated with posterior fusion surgery including C1-2 (PSF group, n = 25, average age = 80 years). Patients with < 50% odontoid displacement were treated with a rigid cervical collar for 12 weeks (collar group, n = 33, average age = 83 years). These inhomogeneous groups were followed for an average of 14 months. Fracture healing rates were higher in the operative group (28% versus 6%). Neck Disability Index scores were slightly lower in the nonoperative group (13 versus 18.3, p = 0.23). Analogue pain scores were also slightly lower in the nonoperative group (1.3 versus 1.9, p = 0.26). The mortality rate was 12.5% in the collar group and 20% in the operative group. Complications were higher in the operative group (24% versus 6%). Rates of type II odontoid facture healing and stability appear to be higher in geriatric patients treated with posterior fusion surgery. Fracture healing and stability did not correlate with improved outcomes with respect to levels of pain, function, and satisfaction. Mortality and complication rates are lower in those patients with lesser-displaced fractures who are treated with a cervical collar and early mobilization.

  3. Real object use facilitates object recognition in semantic agnosia.

    PubMed

    Morady, Kamelia; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we show that, in patients with poor semantic representations, the naming of real objects can improve when naming takes place after patients have been asked to use the objects, compared with when they name the objects either from vision or from touch alone, or together. In addition, the patients were strongly affected by action when required to name objects that were used correctly or incorrectly by the examiner. The data suggest that actions can be cued directly from sensory-motor associations, and that patients can then name on the basis of the evoked action.

  4. Influence of collar design on peri-implant tissue healing around immediate implants: A pilot study in Foxhound dogs.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Guirado, José Luis; López-López, Patricia Jara; Maté Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Mareque-Bueno, Javier; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Romanos, Georgios E

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to assess the soft tissue level (STL) and crestal bone level (CBL), of titanium dental implants with different mixed collar abutments configurations. This study included 48 implants with the same dimensions. They were divided into two groups of 24 implants each one: implants with a polished collar of 2 mm plus a roughened area of 0.8 mm (CONTROL) and implants with a polished collar of 0.8 mm plus a micro-threated and roughened area of 2 mm (TEST). The implants were inserted randomly in the post-extraction sockets of P2, P3, P4, and M1 bilaterally in the lower jaw of six foxhound dogs. STL and CBL were evaluated after 8 and 12 weeks by histology and histometry. All implants were clinically and histologically osseointegrated. Healing patterns examined microscopically at 8 and 12 weeks for both groups yielded similar qualitative findings for the STL evaluation, without significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). CBL was significantly higher in the buccal side in comparison with the lingual side for both groups (P < 0.05); the comparison between groups at 8 weeks showed IS-B (distance from the implant shoulder to the top of the bony crest) and IS-C (distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone-to-implant contact) values significantly higher for control group in comparison with test (P < 0.05). At 12 weeks, CBL showed increased values for both groups that were higher in controls group in comparison with test (P < 0.05). Bony crest resorption could not be avoided both at test and control sites. However, the neck conformation at the test sites reduced the buccal bone resorption. Soft tissue dimensions were similar both at the test and control sites. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of Climate Warming on Arctic Mammals? New Insights from Ancient DNA Studies of the collared lemming Dicrostonyx torquatus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, Stefan; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fedorov, Vadim B.; Sommer, Robert S.; Stiller, Mathias; Nagel, Doris; Knapp, Michael; Hofreiter, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Global temperature increased by approximately half a degree (Celsius) within the last 150 years. Even this moderate warming had major impacts on Earth's ecological and biological systems, especially in the Arctic where the magnitude of abiotic changes even exceeds those in temperate and tropical biomes. Therefore, understanding the biological consequences of climate change on high latitudes is of critical importance for future conservation of the species living in this habitat. The past 25,000 years can be used as a model for such changes, as they were marked by prominent climatic changes that influenced geographic distribution, demographic history and pattern of genetic variation of many extant species. We sequenced ancient and modern DNA of the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus), which is a key species of the arctic biota, from a single site (Pymva Shor, Northern Pre Urals, Russia) to see if climate warming events after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) had detectable effects on the genetic variation of this arctic rodent species, which is strongly associated with cold and dry climate. Using three dimensional network reconstruction and model-based approaches such as Approximate Bayesian Computation and Markov Chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference we show that there is evidence for a population decline in the collared lemming following the LGM, with the population size dropping to a minimum during the Greenland Interstadial 1 (Blling/Allerd) warming phase at 14.5 kyrs BP. Our results show that previous climate warming events had a strong influence on collard lemming populations. A similar population reduction due to predicted future climate change would have severe effects on the arctic ecosystem, as collared lemmings are a key species in the trophic interactions and ecosystem processes in the Arctic.

  6. Collar-type osteophyte of the femur in young adults: is it a harbinger of intra-articular osteoid osteoma?

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Bozkurt, Yalcin

    2013-09-01

    Variable clinical and radiological findings for intra-articular osteoid osteoma (OO) of the hip joint make its diagnosis difficult. Because radiographs commonly do not identify the nidus, MR imaging becomes the second line of study. However, because the appearance varies, findings on MR images can be confusing. We found "collar type osteophyte" of the femur i.e. an osteophyte rim around the femoral neck, to be a conspicuous finding of intra-articular OO. Here, this feature will be emphasized and intra-articular OOs will be discussed, with a review of the literature.

  7. 75 FR 18747 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2010 Correction In Presidential... correction: On page 15601, the first line of the heading should read ``Proclamation 8485 of March 24,...

  8. 77 FR 45469 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Respect to the Former Liberian Regime of Charles Taylor Correction In Presidential document 2012-17703 beginning on page 42415 in the issue of Wednesday, July 18, 2012, make the following correction: On...

  9. 78 FR 7255 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Unobligated Funds Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Correction In Presidential document... correction: On page 70883, the document identification heading on line one should read ``Notice of...

  10. 75 FR 68413 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Correction In Presidential document 2010-27676 beginning on page 67019 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On page 67019, the Presidential Determination number should...

  11. 75 FR 1013 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... Correction In Presidential document E9-31418 beginning on page 707 in the issue of Tuesday, January 5, 2010, make the following correction: On page 731, the date line below the President's signature should...

  12. 75 FR 68409 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding In Pakistan Correction In Presidential document 2010-27673 beginning on page 67015 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On page...

  13. 78 FR 73377 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ...--Continuation of U.S. Drug Interdiction Assistance to the Government of Colombia Correction In Presidential... correction: On page 51647, the heading of the document was omitted and should read ``Continuation of...

  14. 77 FR 60037 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Commit, Threaten To Commit, or Support Terrorism Correction In Presidential document 2012-22710 beginning on page 56519 in the issue of Wednesday, September 12, 2012, make the following correction: On...

  15. 75 FR 68407 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan Correction In Presidential document 2010-27672 beginning on page 67013 in the issue of Monday, November 1, 2010, make the following correction: On...

  16. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  17. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  18. Effects of a canine Elizabethan collar on ambulatory electrocardiogram recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activities measured continuously by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Tokuriki, M

    2000-05-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recorded in dogs wearing a jacket to protect a Holter recording system, but the jacket was often damaged by dogs. We compared ECG recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activity measured by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs with or without an Elizabethan collar. There were few significant differences in mean values (per hr) of the heart rate and the amount of spontaneous activity between dogs with or without the Elizabethan collar. Mean values (per 23 hr) of them had no significant difference between them. We concluded that the Elizabethan collar did not have any effect on ambulatory ECG and canine movements and was effective to protect the recording apparatus.

  19. Resolution of a periodontoid rheumatoid pannus mass in an elderly patient treated with a rigid cervical collar: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Oseni, Abidemi; Kakavas, Georg; Scholz, Martin; Petridis, Athanasios

    2016-06-17

    In patients with C2 rheumatoid pannus with spinal cord compression the treatment of choice is extensive surgery either through a transoral resection of the dens axis or a dorsal stabilisation, or both. We present a case of an 11-mm rheumatoid pannus with significant compression of the spinal cord, which failed surgical treatment with respect to dorsal stabilisation. Therefore, rigid cervical collar for 8 weeks followed by soft collar for another 4 weeks was chosen as a treatment option. During the follow-up period of 1 year, the pannus reduced significantly and the spinal cord decompressed. In cases where surgery is not an option or is technically very demanding, the alternative of cervical collar immobilisation is a satisfying option.

  20. Regular structures of the lunar Orientale Basin: ring spacing and beads-like collars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2013-09-01

    The NASA's GRAIL mission produced unprecedented detailed gravity maps of the lunar subsurface as its measurements (from very low orbits - 55 -23 kilometers) included some depths of the satellite (down to the core?). However, one might say that these maps have repeated in some aspects the principal gravity pattern acquired earlier by Clementine [1] and Kaguya missions (Fig. 3), which shows the surface densely "peppered" by evensized "craters" about 100 km in diameter. The wave planetology admits that many of them are of an impact origin but a bulk is due to an intersection of standing waves produced by the two elliptical orbit of the body (Fig. 2). The lunar community should realize that one of bases of the Moon's geology - crater size -frequency curve is of a complex nature. Impacts surely contribute to this curve but a significant part of it is due to ring structures of non-impact origin. Ring structures can be produced by an interference of standing inertiagravity waves of four directions (ortho- and diagonal) warping any rotating celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit (Fig. 2) [2]. Many ring structures observed on solid and gaseous planetary spheres are of such profound nature. They form regular grids of shoulder-to-shoulder even ring structures (Fig. 1-3). Their sizes depend on orbiting frequencies: the higher frequency- the smaller "rings", and vice versa. Satellites having two orbiting frequencies in the Solar system are particularly "peppered" with rings as a low frequency modulates a high one producing along with the main ring populations the side populations [3]. Recent MOONKAM lunar images (GRAIL mission) at the first time show so clearly intersecting planetary scale lineations (imprint of standing waves) producing chains and grids of ring features (Fig. 5-6; a theoretical model-Fig. 2). This wave woven pattern with spacing and beads has to be compared with a real gravity pattern of Fig. 1. Multi-ring spacing with the factor of √ 2 and collars