Science.gov

Sample records for objective evaluation framework

  1. The Sloan-C Pillars and Boundary Objects As a Framework for Evaluating Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Mark; Graham, Charles; Dziuban, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    The authors contend that blended learning represents a boundary object; a construct that brings together constituencies from a variety of backgrounds with each of these cohorts defining the object somewhat differently. The Sloan-C Pillars (learning effectiveness, access, cost effectiveness, student satisfaction, and faculty satisfaction) provide…

  2. A quality assurance framework for the fully automated and objective evaluation of image quality in cone-beam computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Steiding, Christian; Kolditz, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Thousands of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners for vascular, maxillofacial, neurological, and body imaging are in clinical use today, but there is no consensus on uniform acceptance and constancy testing for image quality (IQ) and dose yet. The authors developed a quality assurance (QA) framework for fully automated and time-efficient performance evaluation of these systems. In addition, the dependence of objective Fourier-based IQ metrics on direction and position in 3D volumes was investigated for CBCT. Methods: The authors designed a dedicated QA phantom 10 cm in length consisting of five compartments, each with a diameter of 10 cm, and an optional extension ring 16 cm in diameter. A homogeneous section of water-equivalent material allows measuring CT value accuracy, image noise and uniformity, and multidimensional global and local noise power spectra (NPS). For the quantitative determination of 3D high-contrast spatial resolution, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of centrally and peripherally positioned aluminum spheres was computed from edge profiles. Additional in-plane and axial resolution patterns were used to assess resolution qualitatively. The characterization of low-contrast detectability as well as CT value linearity and artifact behavior was tested by utilizing sections with soft-tissue-equivalent and metallic inserts. For an automated QA procedure, a phantom detection algorithm was implemented. All tests used in the dedicated QA program were initially verified in simulation studies and experimentally confirmed on a clinical dental CBCT system. Results: The automated IQ evaluation of volume data sets of the dental CBCT system was achieved with the proposed phantom requiring only one scan for the determination of all desired parameters. Typically, less than 5 min were needed for phantom set-up, scanning, and data analysis. Quantitative evaluation of system performance over time by comparison to previous examinations was also

  3. Evaluation of maritime object detection methods for full motion video applications using the PASCAL VOC Challenge framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaszewski, Martin; Parameswaran, Shibin; Hallenborg, Eric; Bagnall, Bryan

    2015-03-01

    We present an initial target detection performance evaluation system for the RAPid Image Exploitation Resource (RAPIER) Full Motion Video (RFMV) maritime target tracking software. We test and evaluate four statistical target detection methods using 30 Hz full motion video from aerial platforms. Using appropriate algorithm performance criteria inspired by the PASCAL Visual Object Classes (VOC) Challenge, we address the tradeoffs between detection fidelity and computational speed/throughput.

  4. To what extent do the characteristics of the object of evaluation influence the choice of epistemological framework? The case of universal newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Young, Alys; Tattersall, Helen; Uus, Kai; Bamford, John; McCracken, Wendy

    2004-07-01

    In this article, the authors explore the role that characteristics and circumstances attendant on the object of an evaluation might play in the choice of epistemological framework underpinning research design. They consider examples from the consumer-focused evaluation of the introduction of universal newborn hearing screening in England. In particular, they look at how screen- and program-specific issues exerted influence at the levels of epistemology and method, arguing that these choices are not simply a product of values and questions that underpinned one kind of approach to knowledge production in comparison with another.

  5. Curriculum Development: Philosophy, Objectives, and Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Sally A.; Lawrence, Rena M.

    1983-01-01

    The most critical elements of any nursing curriculum are the philosophy, objectives, conceptual framework, and level objectives. All aspects of each of these elements need to be systematically organized and carefully articulated to provide a firm foundation upon which a curriculum can be developed. (Author)

  6. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, Gordon

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object’s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live data streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer’s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.

  7. Object-oriented Geographic Information System Framework

    2003-03-01

    JeoViewer is an intelligent object-oriented geographic information system (GIS) framework written in Java that provides transparent linkage to any object’s data, behaviors, and optimized spatial geometry representation. Tools are provided for typical GIS functionality, data ingestion, data export, and integration with other frameworks. The primary difference between Jeo Viewer and traditional GIS systems is that traditional GIS systems offer static views of geo-spatial data while JeoViewer can be dynamically coupled to models and live datamore » streams which dynamically change the state of the object which can be immediately represented in JeoViewer. Additionally, JeoViewer’s object-oriented paradigm provides a more natural representation of spatial data. A rich layer hierarchy allows arbitrary grouping of objects based on any relationship as well as the traditional GIS vertical ordering of objects. JeoViewer can run as a standalone product, extended with additional analysis functionality, or embedded in another framework.« less

  8. Object-oriented framework for distributed simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Julia; Carson, John A.; Colley, Martin; Standeven, John; Callaghan, Victor

    1999-06-01

    The benefits of object-oriented technology are widely recognized in software engineering. This paper describes the use of the object-oriented paradigm to create distributed simulations. The University of Essex Robotics and Intelligent Machines group has been carrying out research into distributed vehicle simulation since 1992. Part of this research has focused on the development of simulation systems to assist in the design of robotic vehicles. This paper describes the evolution of these systems, from an early toolkit used for teaching robotics to recent work on using simulation as a design tool in the creation of a new generation of unmanned underwater vehicles. It outlines experiences gained in using PVM, and ongoing research into the use of the emerging High Level Architecture as the basis for these frameworks. The paper concludes with the perceived benefits of adopting object-oriented methodologies as the basis for simulation frameworks.

  9. Optimizations for parallel object oriented frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Basetti, F; Davis, K; Quinlan, D

    1998-09-22

    Application codes reliably under perform the advertised performance of existing architectures, compilers have only limited mechanisms with which to effect sophisticated transformations to arrest this trend. Compilers are forced to work within the broad semantics of the complete language specification and thus can not guarantee correctness of more sophisticated transformations. Object-oriented frameworks provide a level of tailoring of the C++ language to specific, albeit often restricted contexts. But such frameworks traditionally rely upon the compiler for most performance level optimization, often with disappointing results since the compiler must work within the context of the full language rather than the restricted semantics of abstractions introduced within the class library. No mechanism exists to express the restricted semantics of a class library to the compiler and effect correspondingly more sophisticated optimizations. In this paper, the authors explore both a family of transformations/optimizations appropriate to object-oriented frameworks for scientific computing and present a preprocessor mechanism, ROSE, which delivers the more sophisticated transformations automatically from the use of abstractions represented within high level object-oriented frameworks. They have found that these optimizations permit improved performance over FORTRAN 77 by factors of three to four, sufficiently interesting to suggest that higher level abstractions can contain greater semantics and that the greater semantics can be used to drive more sophisticated optimizations than are possible within lower level languages.

  10. Evaluation Framework for NASA's Educational Outreach Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Rick; Booker, Angela; Linde, Charlotte; Preston, Connie

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an evaluation framework for NASA's educational outreach efforts. We focus on public (rather than technical or scientific) dissemination efforts, specifically on Internet-based outreach sites for children.The outcome of this work is to propose both methods and criteria for evaluation, which would enable NASA to do a more analytic evaluation of its outreach efforts. The proposed framework is based on IRL's ethnographic and video-based observational methods, which allow us to analyze how these sites are actually used.

  11. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed

  12. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, suchmore » as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed« less

  13. Rethinking modeling framework design: object modeling system 3.0

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Object Modeling System (OMS) is a framework for environmental model development, data provisioning, testing, validation, and deployment. It provides a bridge for transferring technology from the research organization to the program delivery agency. The framework provides a consistent and efficie...

  14. Matrix evaluation of science objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessen, Randii R.

    1994-01-01

    The most fundamental objective of all robotic planetary spacecraft is to return science data. To accomplish this, a spacecraft is fabricated and built, software is planned and coded, and a ground system is designed and implemented. However, the quantitative analysis required to determine how the collection of science data drives ground system capabilities has received very little attention. This paper defines a process by which science objectives can be quantitatively evaluated. By applying it to the Cassini Mission to Saturn, this paper further illustrates the power of this technique. The results show which science objectives drive specific ground system capabilities. In addition, this process can assist system engineers and scientists in the selection of the science payload during pre-project mission planning; ground system designers during ground system development and implementation; and operations personnel during mission operations.

  15. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  16. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such asmore » time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.« less

  17. A Configurable, Object-Oriented, Transportation System Software Framework

    SciTech Connect

    KELLY,SUZANNE M.; MYRE,JOHN W.; PRICE,MARK H.; RUSSELL,ERIC D.; SCOTT,DAN W.

    2000-08-01

    The Transportation Surety Center, 6300, has been conducting continuing research into and development of information systems for the Configurable Transportation Security and Information Management System (CTSS) project, an Object-Oriented Framework approach that uses Component-Based Software Development to facilitate rapid deployment of new systems while improving software cost containment, development reliability, compatibility, and extensibility. The direction has been to develop a Fleet Management System (FMS) framework using object-oriented technology. The goal for the current development is to provide a software and hardware environment that will demonstrate and support object-oriented development commonly in the FMS Central Command Center and Vehicle domains.

  18. Telehealth success: evaluation framework development.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M

    2001-01-01

    Implementing telehealth applications represents a substantial investment of resources, which is one reason why success is of great interest. Many research and evaluation studies have investigated measures of successful telehealth systems. However, the term "telehealth" represents a wide range of variables including clinical application, characteristics of the information being transmitted, temporal relationships of data transfer and the organizational context. These sources of variability pose many challenges for evaluation as well as for building a cumulative history of research. A conceptual framework is required that assists in categorizing results and drawing conclusions based on an accumulation of findings. One measure of "success" in health care is quality patient care and this reflects a primary reason for ICT investments. For this reason, Donabedian's work in evaluating quality provides the basis for the proposed framework. DeLone and McLean's definitions of IS success assist in conceptualizing Donabedian's structure-outcome-process variables in a telehealth context. Multiple evaluation approaches have been used to address different types of questions. Prior to the technologies being introduced to clinical care, there are usually many studies to demonstrate their effectiveness. Health Technology Assessment examines a broader context than the technology alone, including costs and comparing alternatives that would exist in the absence of telehealth. It considers performance measures; outcomes; summary measures, operational considerations, and other issues. Program Evaluation examines use of the technology to provide a service or deliver a program. Evaluation questions often address whether the program goals have been met and if it is operating as expected. Perhaps of greater concern than the evaluation approach taken is generalizability of findings. Recent studies have given inadequate attention to defining what is done (i.e. comparison of telehealth to most

  19. Framework for Development of Object-Oriented Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Poveda, Gus; Ciavarella, Tony; Nieten, Dan

    2004-01-01

    The Real-Time Control (RTC) Application Framework is a high-level software framework written in C++ that supports the rapid design and implementation of object-oriented application programs. This framework provides built-in functionality that solves common software development problems within distributed client-server, multi-threaded, and embedded programming environments. When using the RTC Framework to develop software for a specific domain, designers and implementers can focus entirely on the details of the domain-specific software rather than on creating custom solutions, utilities, and frameworks for the complexities of the programming environment. The RTC Framework was originally developed as part of a Space Shuttle Launch Processing System (LPS) replacement project called Checkout and Launch Control System (CLCS). As a result of the framework s development, CLCS software development time was reduced by 66 percent. The framework is generic enough for developing applications outside of the launch-processing system domain. Other applicable high-level domains include command and control systems and simulation/ training systems.

  20. Making Just Tenure and Promotion Decisions Using the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitpin, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to utilize the Objective Knowledge Growth Framework (OKGF) to promote a better understanding of the evaluating tenure and promotion processes. Design/Methodology/Approach: A scenario is created to illustrate the concept of using OKGF. Findings: The framework aims to support decision makers in identifying the…

  1. Evaluation Framework for Telemedicine Using the Logical Framework Approach and a Fishbone Diagram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Technological advances using telemedicine and telehealth are growing in healthcare fields, but the evaluation framework for them is inconsistent and limited. This paper suggests a comprehensive evaluation framework for telemedicine system implementation and will support related stakeholders' decision-making by promoting general understanding, and resolving arguments and controversies. Methods This study focused on developing a comprehensive evaluation framework by summarizing themes across the range of evaluation techniques and organized foundational evaluation frameworks generally applicable through studies and cases of diverse telemedicine. Evaluation factors related to aspects of information technology; the evaluation of satisfaction of service providers and consumers, cost, quality, and information security are organized using the fishbone diagram. Results It was not easy to develop a monitoring and evaluation framework for telemedicine since evaluation frameworks for telemedicine are very complex with many potential inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and stakeholders. A conceptual framework was developed that incorporates the key dimensions that need to be considered in the evaluation of telehealth implementation for a formal structured approach to the evaluation of a service. The suggested framework consists of six major dimensions and the subsequent branches for each dimension. Conclusions To implement telemedicine and telehealth services, stakeholders should make decisions based on sufficient evidence in quality and safety measured by the comprehensive evaluation framework. Further work would be valuable in applying more comprehensive evaluations to verify and improve the comprehensive framework across a variety of contexts with more factors and participant group dimensions. PMID:26618028

  2. Organizing and Typing Persistent Objects Within an Object-Oriented Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional operating systems provide little or no direct support for the services required for an efficient persistent object system implementation. We have built a persistent object scheme using a customization and extension of an object-oriented operating system called Choices. Choices includes a framework for the storage of persistent data that is suited to the construction of both conventional file system and persistent object system. In this paper we describe three areas in which persistent object support differs from file system support: storage organization, storage management, and typing. Persistent object systems must support various sizes of objects efficiently. Customizable containers, which are themselves persistent objects and can be nested, support a wide range of object sizes in Choices. Collections of persistent objects that are accessed as an aggregate and collections of light-weight persistent objects can be clustered in containers that are nested within containers for larger objects. Automated garbage collection schemes are added to storage management and have a major impact on persistent object applications. The Choices persistent object store provides extensible sets of persistent object types. The store contains not only the data for persistent objects but also the names of the classes to which they belong and the code for the operation of the classes. Besides presenting persistent object storage organization, storage management, and typing, this paper discusses how persistent objects are named and used within the Choices persistent data/file system framework.

  3. A new framework for the fusion of object and scene based on IHS transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, You-dong; Wei, Xiao-cheng; Pang, Hai-bo; Lan, Jian-liang; Wu, Xue-chun; Shi, Yun-yu

    2011-06-01

    By introducing the concept of IHS transform and intensity modulation, this paper proposes a new framework for the fusion of object and scene. A comparative experiment within the framework using the standard IHS transform fusion technique and wavelet technique as intensity fusion tools respectively has proved its practicality well. Furthermore, regarding the particularity of the fusion of object and scene, we adopt a more appropriate assessment scheme which combines local quality evaluation method with global quality evaluation method to assess the fusion quality objectively besides subjective evaluation.

  4. Etomica: an object-oriented framework for molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Andrew J; Kofke, David A

    2015-03-30

    We describe the design of an object-oriented library of software components that are suitable for constructing simulations of systems of interacting particles. The emphasis of the discussion is on the general design of the components and how they interact, and less on details of the programming interface or its implementation. Example code is provided as an aid to understanding object-oriented programming structures and to demonstrate how the framework is applied.

  5. Etomica: an object-oriented framework for molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Andrew J; Kofke, David A

    2015-03-30

    We describe the design of an object-oriented library of software components that are suitable for constructing simulations of systems of interacting particles. The emphasis of the discussion is on the general design of the components and how they interact, and less on details of the programming interface or its implementation. Example code is provided as an aid to understanding object-oriented programming structures and to demonstrate how the framework is applied. PMID:25565378

  6. An Object Oriented, Finite Element Framework for Linear Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, Joseph M.

    2004-03-01

    This dissertation documents an object oriented framework which can be used to solve any linear wave equation. The linear wave equations are expressed in the differential forms language. This differential forms expression allows a strict discrete interpretation of the system. The framework is implemented using the Galerkin Finite Element Method to define the discrete differential forms and operators. Finite element basis functions including standard scalar Nodal and vector Nedelec basis functions are used to implement the discrete differential forms resulting in a mixed finite element system. Discretizations of scalar and vector wave equations in the time and frequency domains will be demonstrated in both differential forms and vector calculi. This framework conserves energy, maintains physical continuity, is valid on unstructured grids, conditionally stable and second order accurate. Examples including linear electrodynamics, acoustics, elasticity and magnetohydrodynamics are demonstrated.

  7. Evaluating Learning Objects for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haughey, Margaret; Muirhead, Bill

    2005-01-01

    In the K-12 education sector, learning objects are seen as important in providing quality resources for teachers and learners but there has been little formal research on the assessment of learning objects based on the qualities that would be important for K-12 teachers. In this paper we describe the developments in the K-12 sector, the arguments…

  8. Tecolote: An Object-Oriented Framework for Hydrodynamics Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Holian, K.S.; Ankeny, L.A.; Clancy, S.P.; Hall, J.H.; Marshall, J.C.; McNamara, G.R.; Painter, J.W.; Zander, M.E.

    1997-12-31

    Tecolote is an object-oriented framework for both developing and accessing a variety of hydrodynamics models. It is written in C++, and is in turn built on another framework - Parallel Object-Oriented Methods and Applications (POOMA). The Tecolote framework is meant to provide modules (or building blocks) to put together hydrodynamics applications that can encompass a wide variety of physics models, numerical solution options, and underlying data storage schemes, although with only those modules activated at runtime that are necessary. Tecolote has been designed to separate physics from computer science, as much as humanly possible. The POOMA framework provides fields in C++ to Tecolote that are analogous to Fortran-9O-like arrays in the way that they are used, but that, in addition, have underlying load balancing, message passing, and a special scheme for compact data storage. The POOMA fields can also have unique meshes associated with them that can allow more options than just the normal regularly-spaced Cartesian mesh. They also permit one-, two, and three-dimensions to be immediately accessible to the code developer and code user.

  9. An Evaluation Use Framework and Empirical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Laura R.; Gorzalski, Lindsey M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Research on evaluation use focuses on putting evaluation recommendations into practice. Prior theoretical research proposes varied frameworks for understanding the use (or lack) of program evaluation results. Purpose: Our purpose is to create and test a single, integrated framework for understanding evaluation use. This article relies…

  10. Toward Objectivity in Faculty Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, H. W.

    2008-01-01

    The productivity of faculty members often figures prominently in annual evaluations, post-tenure reviews, and decisions about tenure, promotion, merit pay, release time, awards, and other kinds of recognition. Yet the procedures and instruments that institutions use to assess productivity and merit vary, leaving little that unifies the evaluation…

  11. Evaluation of Frameworks for HSCT Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, Ramki

    1998-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of engineering frameworks that could be used to augment, supplement, or replace the existing FIDO 3.5 (Framework for Interdisciplinary Design and Optimization Version 3.5) framework. The report begins with the motivation for this effort, followed by a description of an "ideal" multidisciplinary design and optimization (MDO) framework. The discussion then turns to how each candidate framework stacks up against this ideal. This report ends with recommendations as to the "best" frameworks that should be down-selected for detailed review.

  12. ROSE: Compiler Support for Object-Oriented Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Qainlant, D.

    1999-11-17

    ROSE is a preprocessor generation tool for the support of compile time performance optimizations in Overture. The Overture framework is an object-oriented environment for solving partial differential equations in two and three space dimensions. It is a collection of C++ libraries that enables the use of finite difference and finite volume methods at a level that hides the details of the associated data structures. Overture can be used to solve problems in complicated, moving geometries using the method of overlapping grids. It has support for grid generation, difference operators, boundary conditions, database access and graphics. In this paper we briefly present Overture, and discuss our approach toward performance within Overture and the A++P++ array class abstractions upon which Overture depends, this work represents some of the newest work in Overture. The results we present show that the abstractions represented within Overture and the A++P++ array class library can be used to obtain application codes with performance equivalent to that of optimized C and Fortran 77. ROSE, the preprocessor generation tool, is general in its application to any object-oriented framework or application and is not specific to Overture.

  13. Overture: An Object-Oriented Framework for Overlapping Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W.D.

    2002-04-04

    The Overture framework is an object-oriented environment for solving partial differential equations on over-lapping grids. We describe some of the tools in Overture that can be used to generate grids and solve partial differential equations (PDEs). Overture contains a collection of C++ classes that can be used to write PDE solvers either at a high level or at a lower level for efficiency. There are also a number of tools provided with Overture that can be used with no programming effort. These tools include capabilities to: repair computer-aided-design (CAD) geometries and build global surface triangulations; generate surface and volume grids with hyperbolic grid generation; generate composite overlapping grids; generate hybrid (unstructured) grids; and solve particular PDEs such as the incompressible and compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

  14. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  15. Evaluation Readiness: Improved Evaluation Planning Using a Data Inventory Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alan B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The concept of evaluation readiness complements other evaluation planning approaches. Its basic products are the formal program definition and the data inventory framework. Ways to improve timeliness, appropriateness, and use of evaluation are also discussed. (Author/GDC)

  16. Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation. PMID:24330628

  17. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  18. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed.

  19. The MEPPP Framework: A Framework for Monitoring and Evaluating Participatory Planning Processes.

    PubMed

    Hassenforder, Emeline; Pittock, Jamie; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Ferrand, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating participatory processes, participatory planning processes especially, can be challenging. Due to their complexity, these processes require a specific approach to evaluation. This paper proposes a framework for evaluating projects that have adopted a participatory planning approach: the monitoring and evaluation of participatory planning processes (MEPPP) framework. The MEPPP framework is applied to one case study, a participatory planning process in the Rwenzori region in Uganda. We suggest that this example can serve as a guideline for researchers and practitioners to set up the monitoring and evaluation of their participatory planning process of interest by following six main phases: (1) description of the case, (2) clarification of the M&E viewpoint(s) and definition of the M&E objective(s), (3) identification of the context, process and outputs/outcomes analytical variables, (4) development of the M&E methods and data collection, (5) data analysis, and (6) sharing of the M&E results. Results of the application of the MEPPP framework in Uganda demonstrate the ability of the framework to tackle the complexity of participatory planning processes. Strengths and limitations of the MEPPP framework are also discussed. PMID:26294097

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Supervision Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galassi, John P.; Trent, Pamela J.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts to bridge the gap between the research literature on supervision and its application to evaluating individual supervisor effectiveness. Presents a conceptual framework for making decisions about evaluation, where the decision maker considers the purpose of evalution, the developmental stage of the counselor, and the focus of evaluation,…

  1. REEF: Retainable Evaluator Execution Framework

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Markus; Chen, Yingda; Chun, Byung-Gon; Condie, Tyson; Curino, Carlo; Douglas, Chris; Lee, Yunseong; Majestro, Tony; Malkhi, Dahlia; Matusevych, Sergiy; Myers, Brandon; Narayanamurthy, Shravan; Ramakrishnan, Raghu; Rao, Sriram; Sears, Russell; Sezgin, Beysim; Wang, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Resource Managers like Apache YARN have emerged as a critical layer in the cloud computing system stack, but the developer abstractions for leasing cluster resources and instantiating application logic are very low-level. This flexibility comes at a high cost in terms of developer effort, as each application must repeatedly tackle the same challenges (e.g., fault-tolerance, task scheduling and coordination) and re-implement common mechanisms (e.g., caching, bulk-data transfers). This paper presents REEF, a development framework that provides a control-plane for scheduling and coordinating task-level (data-plane) work on cluster resources obtained from a Resource Manager. REEF provides mechanisms that facilitate resource re-use for data caching, and state management abstractions that greatly ease the development of elastic data processing work-flows on cloud platforms that support a Resource Manager service. REEF is being used to develop several commercial offerings such as the Azure Stream Analytics service. Furthermore, we demonstrate REEF development of a distributed shell application, a machine learning algorithm, and a port of the CORFU [4] system. REEF is also currently an Apache Incubator project that has attracted contributors from several instititutions.1 PMID:26819493

  2. Evaluating the Learning in Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature on the evaluation of learning objects revealed a number of problem areas, including emphasizing technology ahead of learning, an absence of reliability and validity estimates, over-reliance on informal descriptive data, a tendency to embrace general impressions of learning objects rather than focusing on…

  3. A visualization framework for design and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Benjamin J.; Ng, Gary; Pettifer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The creation of compelling visualisation paradigms is a craft often dominated by intuition and issues of aesthetics, with relatively few models to support good design. The majority of problem cases are approached by simply applying a previously evaluated visualisation technique. A large body of work exists covering the individual aspects of visualisation design such as the human cognition aspects visualisation methods for specific problem areas, psychology studies and so forth, yet most frameworks regarding visualisation are applied after-the-fact as an evaluation measure. We present an extensible framework for visualisation aimed at structuring the design process, increasing decision traceability and delineating the notions of function, aesthetics and usability. The framework can be used to derive a set of requirements for good visualisation design and evaluating existing visualisations, presenting possible improvements. Our framework achieves this by being both broad and general, built on top of existing works, with hooks for extensions and customizations. This paper shows how existing theories of information visualisation fit into the scheme, presents our experience in the application of this framework on several designs, and offers our evaluation of the framework and the designs studied.

  4. FOSE: a framework for open science evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Alexander; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-publication peer review of scientific literature in its present state suffers from a lack of evaluation validity and transparency to the community. Inspired by social networks, we propose a framework for the open exchange of post-publication evaluation to complement the current system. We first formulate a number of necessary conditions that should be met by any design dedicated to perform open scientific evaluation. To introduce our framework, we provide a basic data standard and communication protocol. We argue for the superiority of a provider-independent framework, over a few isolated implementations, which allows the collection and analysis of open evaluation content across a wide range of diverse providers like scientific journals, research institutions, social networks, publishers websites, and more. Furthermore, we describe how its technical implementation can be achieved by using existing web standards and technology. Finally, we illustrate this with a set of examples and discuss further potential. PMID:22754522

  5. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  6. Evaluation of Learning Materials: A Holistic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Hansen, Thomas Illum

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic framework for evaluating learning materials and designs for learning. A holistic evaluation comprises investigations of the potential learning potential, the actualised learning potential, and the actual learning. Each aspect is explained and exemplified through theoretical models and definitions. (Contains 3 figures…

  7. Object-oriented data analysis framework for neutron scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Jiro; Nakatani, Takeshi; Ohhara, Takashi; Inamura, Yasuhiro; Yonemura, Masao; Morishima, Takahiro; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Manabe, Atsushi; Otomo, Toshiya

    2009-02-01

    Materials and Life Science Facility (MLF) of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is one of the facilities that provided the highest intensity pulsed neutron and muon beams. The MLF computing environment design group organizes the computing environments of MLF and instruments. It is important that the computing environment is provided by the facility side, because meta-data formats, the analysis functions and also data analysis strategy should be shared among many instruments in MLF. The C++ class library, named Manyo-lib, is a framework software for developing data reduction and analysis softwares. The framework is composed of the class library for data reduction and analysis operators, network distributed data processing modules and data containers. The class library is wrapped by the Python interface created by SWIG. All classes of the framework can be called from Python language, and Manyo-lib will be cooperated with the data acquisition and data-visualization components through the MLF-platform, a user interface unified in MLF, which is working on Python language. Raw data in the event-data format obtained by data acquisition systems will be converted into histogram format data on Manyo-lib in high performance, and data reductions and analysis are performed with user-application software developed based on Manyo-lib. We enforce standardization of data containers with Manyo-lib, and many additional fundamental data containers in Manyo-lib have been designed and developed. Experimental and analysis data in the data containers can be converted into NeXus file. Manyo-lib is the standard framework for developing analysis software in MLF, and prototypes of data-analysis softwares for each instrument are being developed by the instrument teams.

  8. Defining ecological and economical hydropoweroperations: a framework for managing dam releasesto meet multiple conflicting objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams are a flexible source of power, provide flood control, and contribute to the economic growth of local communities through real-estate and recreation. Yet the impoundment of rivers can alter and fragment miles of critical riverine habitat needed for other competing needs such as downstream consumptive water use, fish and wildlife population viability, or other forms of recreation. Multiple conflicting interests can compromise progressive management especially with recognized uncertainties related to whether management actions will fulfill the objectives of policy makers, resource managers and/or facility owners. Decision analytic tools were used in a stakeholder-driven process to develop and implement a template for evaluation and prediction of the effects of water resource management of multiple-use systems under the context provided by R.L. Harris Dam on the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, USA. The approach provided a transparent and structured framework for decision-making and incorporated both existing and new data to meet multiple management objectives. Success of the template has been evaluated by the stakeholder governing body in an adaptive resource management framework since 2005 and is ongoing. Consequences of management of discharge at the dam were evaluated annually relative to stakeholder satisfaction to allow for adjustment of both management scenarios and objectives. This template can be applied to attempt to resolve conflict inherent in many dam-regulated systems where management decisions impact diverse values of stakeholders.

  9. Adapting the Mathematical Task Framework to Design Online Didactic Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Janet; Bezuk, Nadine; Aguilar, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Designing didactic objects involves imagining how students can conceive of specific mathematical topics and then imagining what types of classroom discussions could support these mental constructions. This study investigated whether it was possible to design Java applets that might serve as didactic objects to support online learning where…

  10. Proposal of a Framework for Internet Based Licensing of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Osvaldo A.; Ramos, Fernando M. S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a proposal of a framework whose main objective is to manage the delivery and rendering of learning objects in a digital rights controlled environment. The framework is based on a digital licensing scheme that requires each learning object to have the proper license in order to be rendered by a trusted player. A conceptual model…

  11. Toward Advancing Nano-Object Count Metrology: A Best Practice Framework

    PubMed Central

    Boyko, Volodymyr; Meyers, Greg; Voetz, Matthias; Wohlleben, Wendel

    2013-01-01

    Background: A movement among international agencies and policy makers to classify industrial materials by their number content of sub–100-nm particles could have broad implications for the development of sustainable nanotechnologies. Objectives: Here we highlight current particle size metrology challenges faced by the chemical industry due to these emerging number percent content thresholds, provide a suggested best-practice framework for nano-object identification, and identify research needs as a path forward. Discussion: Harmonized methods for identifying nanomaterials by size and count for many real-world samples do not currently exist. Although particle size remains the sole discriminating factor for classifying a material as “nano,” inconsistencies in size metrology will continue to confound policy and decision making. Moreover, there are concerns that the casting of a wide net with still-unproven metrology methods may stifle the development and judicious implementation of sustainable nanotechnologies. Based on the current state of the art, we propose a tiered approach for evaluating materials. To enable future risk-based refinements of these emerging definitions, we recommend that this framework also be considered in environmental and human health research involving the implications of nanomaterials. Conclusion: Substantial scientific scrutiny is needed in the area of nanomaterial metrology to establish best practices and to develop suitable methods before implementing definitions based solely on number percent nano-object content for regulatory purposes. Strong cooperation between industry, academia, and research institutions will be required to fully develop and implement detailed frameworks for nanomaterial identification with respect to emerging count-based metrics. Citation: Brown SC, Boyko V, Meyers G, Voetz M, Wohlleben W. 2013. Toward advancing nano-object count metrology: a best practice framework. Environ Health Perspect 121:1282–1291;

  12. PICO: An Object-Oriented Framework for Branch and Bound

    SciTech Connect

    ECKSTEIN,JONATHAN; HART,WILLIAM E.; PHILLIPS,CYNTHIA A.

    2000-12-01

    This report describes the design of PICO, a C++ framework for implementing general parallel branch-and-bound algorithms. The PICO framework provides a mechanism for the efficient implementation of a wide range of branch-and-bound methods on an equally wide range of parallel computing platforms. We first discuss the basic architecture of PICO, including the application class hierarchy and the package's serial and parallel layers. We next describe the design of the serial layer, and its central notion of manipulating subproblem states. Then, we discuss the design of the parallel layer, which includes flexible processor clustering and communication rates, various load balancing mechanisms, and a non-preemptive task scheduler running on each processor. We describe the application of the package to a branch-and-bound method for mixed integer programming, along with computational results on the ASCI Red massively parallel computer. Finally we describe the application of the branch-and-bound mixed-integer programming code to a resource constrained project scheduling problem for Pantex.

  13. Optimal object association in theDempster-Shafer framework.

    PubMed

    Denoux, Thierry; El Zoghby, Nicole; Cherfaoui, Véronique; Jouglet, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Object association is a crucial step in target tracking and data fusion applications. This task can be formalized as the search for a relation between two sets (e.g., a sets of tracks and a set of observations) in such a way that each object in one set is matched with at most one object in the other set. In this paper, this problem is tackled using the formalism of belief functions. Evidence about the possible association of each object pair, usually obtained by comparing the values of some attributes, is modeled by a Dempster-Shafer mass function defined in the frame of all possible relations. These mass functions are combined using Dempster's rule, and the relation with maximal plausibility is found by solving an integer linear programming problem. This problem is shown to be equivalent to a linear assignment problem, which can be solved in polynomial time using, for example, the Hungarian algorithm. This method is demonstrated using simulated and real data. The 3-D extension of this problem (with three object sets) is also formalized and is shown to be NP-Hard.

  14. Evaluation of object level change detection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Hugo, Doug; O'Brien, Michael A.

    2007-04-01

    A variety of change detection (CD) methods have been developed and employed to support imagery analysis for applications including environmental monitoring, mapping, and support to military operations. Evaluation of these methods is necessary to assess technology maturity, identify areas for improvement, and support transition to operations. This paper presents a methodology for conducting this type of evaluation, discusses the challenges, and illustrates the techniques. The evaluation of object-level change detection methods is more complicated than for automated techniques for processing a single image. We explore algorithm performance assessments, emphasizing the definition of the operating conditions (sensor, target, and environmental factors) and the development of measures of performance. Specific challenges include image registration; occlusion due to foliage, cultural clutter and terrain masking; diurnal differences; and differences in viewing geometry. Careful planning, sound experimental design, and access to suitable imagery with image truth and metadata are critical.

  15. Adapting the mathematical task framework to design online didactic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Janet; Bezuk, Nadine; Aguilar, Karen

    2011-06-01

    Designing didactic objects involves imagining how students can conceive of specific mathematical topics and then imagining what types of classroom discussions could support these mental constructions. This study investigated whether it was possible to design Java applets that might serve as didactic objects to support online learning where 'discussions' are broadly defined as the conversations students have with themselves as they interact with the dynamic mathematical representations on the screen. Eighty-four pre-service elementary teachers enrolled in hybrid mathematics courses were asked to interact with a series of applets designed to support their understanding of qualitative graphing. The results of the surveys indicate that various design features of the applets did in fact cause perturbations and opportunities for resolutions that enabled the users to 'discuss' their learning by reflecting on their in-class discussions and online activities. The discussion includes four design features for guiding future applet creation.

  16. Depth perception in the framework of General Object Constancy.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiehui; Petrov, Yury

    2013-09-10

    Size constancy is a well-known example of perceptual stabilization accounting for the effect of viewing distance on retinal image size. In a recent study (Qian & Petrov, 2012), we demonstrated a similar stabilization mechanism for contrast perception and suggested that the brain accounts for effects of perceived distance on various other object features in a similar way, a hypothesis that we called General Object Constancy. Here we report a new illusion of depth further supporting this hypothesis. Pairs of disks moved across the screen in a pattern of radial optic flow. A pair comprised a small black disk floating in front of a large white disk, creating the percept of a pencil tip viewed head on. As these "pencils" moved away, they appeared to grow in contrast, in diameter, and also appeared to be getting "sharper." The contrast and size illusions replicated our previous findings, while the depth gradient (sharpness) illusion revealed a depth constancy phenomenon. We discovered that depth and size constancies were related, e.g., the two illusions were strongly correlated across observers. Whereas the illusory diameter increase could not be canceled by any degree of depth modulation, decreasing the diameter of the "pencils" during optic flow motion (thus increasing their disparity gradient) weakened the illusory depth gradient increase. This paradoxical result, as well as our other results, is explained by the General Object Constancy model: Besides using the same scaling factor to account for size, contrast, and depth variations with distance, the brain uses the apparent object size to additionally scale contrast and depth signals.

  17. A Traceability Framework to facilitate model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yiqi; Xia, Jianyang; Hararuk, Sasha; Wang, Ying Ping

    2013-04-01

    Land models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here we introduced a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on their mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss) to (1) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τ_E). The latter τE can be further traced to (2) baseline carbon residence times (τ_(E )^'), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (3) environmental scalars (ξ) including temperature and water scalars, and (4) environmental forcings. We have applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. Our framework could be used to facilitate data-model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon cycle models.

  18. A framework for qualitative reasoning about solid objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E.

    1987-01-01

    Predicting the behavior of a qualitatively described system of solid objects requires a combination of geometrical, temporal, and physical reasoning. Methods based upon formulating and solving differential equations are not adequate for robust prediction, since the behavior of a system over extended time may be much simpler than its behavior over local time. A first-order logic, in which one can state simple physical problems and derive their solution deductively, without recourse to solving the differential equations, is discussed. This logic is substantially more expressive and powerful than any previous AI representational system in this domain.

  19. A Framework for Realistic Modeling and Display of Object Surface Appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, Benjamin A.

    With advances in screen and video hardware technology, the type of content presented on computers has progressed from text and simple shapes to high-resolution photographs, photorealistic renderings, and high-definition video. At the same time, there have been significant advances in the area of content capture, with the development of devices and methods for creating rich digital representations of real-world objects. Unlike photo or video capture, which provide a fixed record of the light in a scene, these new technologies provide information on the underlying properties of the objects, allowing their appearance to be simulated for novel lighting and viewing conditions. These capabilities provide an opportunity to continue the computer display progression, from high-fidelity image presentations to digital surrogates that recreate the experience of directly viewing objects in the real world. In this dissertation, a framework was developed for representing objects with complex color, gloss, and texture properties and displaying them onscreen to appear as if they are part of the real-world environment. At its core, there is a conceptual shift from a traditional image-based display workflow to an object-based one. Instead of presenting the stored patterns of light from a scene, the objective is to reproduce the appearance attributes of a stored object by simulating its dynamic patterns of light for the real viewing and lighting geometry. This is accomplished using a computational approach where the physical light sources are modeled and the observer and display screen are actively tracked. Surface colors are calculated for the real spectral composition of the illumination with a custom multispectral rendering pipeline. In a set of experiments, the accuracy of color and gloss reproduction was evaluated by measuring the screen directly with a spectroradiometer. Gloss reproduction was assessed by comparing gonio measurements of the screen output to measurements of the

  20. A Framework for Including Family Health Spillovers in Economic Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Al-Janabi, Hareth; van Exel, Job; Brouwer, Werner; Coast, Joanna

    2016-02-01

    Health care interventions may affect the health of patients' family networks. It has been suggested that these "health spillovers" should be included in economic evaluation, but there is not a systematic method for doing this. In this article, we develop a framework for including health spillovers in economic evaluation. We focus on extra-welfarist economic evaluations where the objective is to maximize health benefits from a health care budget (the "health care perspective"). Our framework involves adapting the conventional cost-effectiveness decision rule to include 2 multiplier effects to internalize the spillover effects. These multiplier effects express the ratio of total health effects (for patients and their family networks) to patient health effects. One multiplier effect is specified for health benefit generated from providing a new intervention, one for health benefit displaced by funding this intervention. We show that using multiplier effects to internalize health spillovers could change the optimal funding decisions and generate additional health benefits to society.

  1. An evaluation framework for comparing geocoding systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Geocoding, the process of converting textual information describing a location into one or more digital geographic representations, is a routine task performed at large organizations and government agencies across the globe. In a health context, this task is often a fundamental first step performed prior to all operations that take place in a spatially-based health study. As such, the quality of the geocoding system used within these agencies is of paramount concern to the agency (the producer) and researchers or policy-makers who wish to use these data (consumers). However, geocoding systems are continually evolving with new products coming on the market continuously. Agencies must develop and use criteria across a number axes when faced with decisions about building, buying, or maintaining any particular geocoding systems. To date, published criteria have focused on one or more aspects of geocode quality without taking a holistic view of a geocoding system’s role within a large organization. The primary purpose of this study is to develop and test an evaluation framework to assist a large organization in determining which geocoding systems will meet its operational needs. Methods A geocoding platform evaluation framework is derived through an examination of prior literature on geocoding accuracy. The framework developed extends commonly used geocoding metrics to take into account the specific concerns of large organizations for which geocoding is a fundamental operational capability tightly-knit into its core mission of processing health data records. A case study is performed to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of five geocoding platforms currently available in the Australian geospatial marketplace. Results The evaluation framework developed in this research is proven successful in differentiating between key capabilities of geocoding systems that are important in the context of a large organization with significant investments in geocoding

  2. An evaluation framework for participatory modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, T.; Inman, A.; Chilvers, J.

    2012-04-01

    Strong arguments for participatory modelling in hydrology can be made on substantive, instrumental and normative grounds. These arguments have led to increasingly diverse groups of stakeholders (here anyone affecting or affected by an issue) getting involved in hydrological research and the management of water resources. In fact, participation has become a requirement of many research grants, programs, plans and policies. However, evidence of beneficial outcomes of participation as suggested by the arguments is difficult to generate and therefore rare. This is because outcomes are diverse, distributed, often tacit, and take time to emerge. In this paper we develop an evaluation framework for participatory modelling focussed on learning outcomes. Learning encompasses many of the potential benefits of participation, such as better models through diversity of knowledge and scrutiny, stakeholder empowerment, greater trust in models and ownership of subsequent decisions, individual moral development, reflexivity, relationships, social capital, institutional change, resilience and sustainability. Based on the theories of experiential, transformative and social learning, complemented by practitioner experience our framework examines if, when and how learning has occurred. Special emphasis is placed on the role of models as learning catalysts. We map the distribution of learning between stakeholders, scientists (as a subgroup of stakeholders) and models. And we analyse what type of learning has occurred: instrumental learning (broadly cognitive enhancement) and/or communicative learning (change in interpreting meanings, intentions and values associated with actions and activities; group dynamics). We demonstrate how our framework can be translated into a questionnaire-based survey conducted with stakeholders and scientists at key stages of the participatory process, and show preliminary insights from applying the framework within a rural pollution management situation in

  3. Borg: an auto-adaptive many-objective evolutionary computing framework.

    PubMed

    Hadka, David; Reed, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces the Borg multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) for many-objective, multimodal optimization. The Borg MOEA combines ε-dominance, a measure of convergence speed named ε-progress, randomized restarts, and auto-adaptive multioperator recombination into a unified optimization framework. A comparative study on 33 instances of 18 test problems from the DTLZ, WFG, and CEC 2009 test suites demonstrates Borg meets or exceeds six state of the art MOEAs on the majority of the tested problems. The performance for each test problem is evaluated using a 1,000 point Latin hypercube sampling of each algorithm's feasible parameterization space. The statistical performance of every sampled MOEA parameterization is evaluated using 50 replicate random seed trials. The Borg MOEA is not a single algorithm; instead it represents a class of algorithms whose operators are adaptively selected based on the problem. The adaptive discovery of key operators is of particular importance for benchmarking how variation operators enhance search for complex many-objective problems. PMID:22385134

  4. Report on objective ride quality evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wambold, J. C.; Park, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    The correlation of absorbed power as an objective ride measure to the subjective evaluation for the bus data was investigated. For some individual bus rides the correlations were poor, but when a sufficient number of rides was used to give reasonable sample base, an excellent correlation was obtained. The following logarithmical function was derived: S = 1.7245 1n (39.6849 AP), where S = one subjective rating of the ride; and AP = the absorbed power in watts. A six-degree-of-freedom method developed for aircraft data was completed. Preliminary correlation of absorbed power with ISO standards further enhances the bus ride and absorbed power correlation numbers since the AP's obtained are of the same order of magnitude for both correlations. While it would then appear that one could just use ISO standards, there is no way to add the effect of three degrees of freedom. The absorbed power provides a method of adding the effects due to the three major directions plus the pitch and roll.

  5. Objective evaluation of cutaneous thermal sensivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbeaumont, W.

    1972-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining reliable and objective quantitative responses was investigated under conditions where only temperature changes in localized cutaneous areas evoked measurable changes in remote sudomotor activity. Both male and female subjects were studied to evaluate sex difference in thermal sensitivity. The results discussed include: sweat rate responses to contralateral cooling, comparison of sweat rate responses between men and women to contralateral cooling, influence of the menstrual cycle on the sweat rate responses to contralateral cooling, comparison of threshold of sweating responses between men and women, and correlation of latency to threshold for whole body sweating. It is concluded that the quantitative aspects of the reflex response is affected by both the density and activation of receptors as well as the rate of heat loss; men responded 8-10% more frequently than women to thermode cooling, the magnitude of responses being greater for men; and women responded 7-9% more frequently to thermode cooling on day 1 of menstruation, as compared to day 15.

  6. ROSE: The Design of a General Tool for the Independent Optimization of Object-Oriented Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.; Philip, B.; Quinlan, D.

    1999-05-18

    ROSE represents a programmable preprocessor for the highly aggressive optimization of C++ object-oriented frameworks. A fundamental feature of ROSE is that it preserves the semantics, the implicit meaning, of the object-oriented framework's abstractions throughout the optimization process, permitting the framework's abstractions to be recognized and optimizations to capitalize upon the added value of the framework's true meaning. In contrast, a C++ compiler only sees the semantics of the C++ language and thus is severely limited in what optimizations it can introduce. The use of the semantics of the framework's abstractions avoids program analysis that would be incapable of recapturing the framework's full semantics from those of the C++ language implementation of the application or framework. Just as no level of program analysis within the C++ compiler would not be expected to recognize the use of adaptive mesh refinement and introduce optimizations based upon such information. Since ROSE is programmable, additional specialized program analysis is possible which then compliments the semantics of the framework's abstractions. Enabling an optimization mechanism to use the high level semantics of the framework's abstractions together with a programmable level of program analysis (e.g. dependence analysis), at the level of the framework's abstractions, allows for the design of high performance object-oriented frameworks with uniquely tailored sophisticated optimizations far beyond the limits of contemporary serial F0RTRAN 77, C or C++ language compiler technology. In short, faster, more highly aggressive optimizations are possible. The resulting optimizations are literally driven by the framework's definition of its abstractions. Since the abstractions within a framework are of third party design the optimizations are similarly of third party design, specifically independent of the compiler and the applications that use the framework. The interface to ROSE is

  7. Evaluating Student Athletic Trainers with Objective Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosler, Skip

    Evaluation of student athletic trainers is conducted quarterly at Ohio University (Athens). The upperclassmen, along with the head athletic trainer and his assistants, help evaluate the freshmen. The evaluation of the upperclassmen is completed by the senior student trainers and the head trainer. The seniors and juniors working with the coaches in…

  8. A Multi-Component Model for Assessing Learning Objects: The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2008-01-01

    While discussion of the criteria needed to assess learning objects has been extensive, a formal, systematic model for evaluation has yet to be thoroughly tested. The purpose of the following study was to develop and assess a multi-component model for evaluating learning objects. The Learning Object Evaluation Metric (LOEM) was developed from a…

  9. A Framework for the Flexible Content Packaging of Learning Objects and Learning Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukasiak, Jason; Agostinho, Shirley; Burnett, Ian; Drury, Gerrard; Goodes, Jason; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori; Harper, Barry

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a platform-independent method for packaging learning objects and learning designs. The method, entitled a Smart Learning Design Framework, is based on the MPEG-21 standard, and uses IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to provide bibliographic, technical, and pedagogical descriptors for the retrieval and description of learning…

  10. Design of a Model Execution Framework: Repetitive Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (ROSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Justin S.; Briggs, Jeffery L.

    2008-01-01

    The ROSE framework was designed to facilitate complex system analyses. It completely divorces the model execution process from the model itself. By doing so ROSE frees the modeler to develop a library of standard modeling processes such as Design of Experiments, optimizers, parameter studies, and sensitivity studies which can then be applied to any of their available models. The ROSE framework accomplishes this by means of a well defined API and object structure. Both the API and object structure are presented here with enough detail to implement ROSE in any object-oriented language or modeling tool.

  11. An Integrated Object Model and Method Framework for Subject-Centric e-Research Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lohrey, Jason M.; Killeen, Neil E.B.; Egan, Gary F.

    2009-01-01

    A framework that integrates an object model, research methods (workflows), the capture of experimental data sets and the provenance of those data sets for subject-centric research is presented. The design of the Framework object model draws on and extends pre-existing object models in the public domain. In particular the Framework tracks the state and life cycle of a subject during an experimental method, provides for reusable subjects, primary, derived and recursive data sets of arbitrary content types, and defines a user-friendly and practical scheme for citably identifying information in a distributed environment. The Framework is currently used to manage neuroscience Magnetic Resonance and microscopy imaging data sets in both clinical and basic neuroscience research environments. The Framework facilitates multi-disciplinary and collaborative subject-based research, and extends earlier object models used in the research imaging domain. Whilst the Framework has been explicitly validated for neuroimaging research applications, it has broader application to other fields of subject-centric research. PMID:19636389

  12. An efficient two-objective automatic SAR image segmentation framework using artificial immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongdong; Niu, Ruican; Fei, Rong; Jiang, Qiaoyong; Li, Hongye; Cao, Zijian

    2015-12-01

    Here, an efficient multi-objective automatic segmentation framework (MASF) is formulated and applied to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image unsupervised classification. In the framework, three important issues are presented: 1) two reasonable image preprocessing techniques, including spatial filtering and watershed operator, are discussed at the initial stage of the framework; 2)then, an efficient immune multi-objective optimization algorithm with uniform clone, adaptive selection by online nondominated solutions, and dynamic deletion in diversity maintenance is proposed; 3 two very simple, but very efficient conflicting clustering validity indices are incorporated into the framework and simultaneously optimized. Two simulated SAR data and two complicated real images are used to quantitatively validate its effectiveness. In addition, four other state-of-the-art image segmentation methods are employed for comparison.

  13. Objective Criteria for Evaluation of Grading Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    This report compares maximum linear prediction, maximum total correct classifications for a group, and maximum probability of correct classification for an individual as objective criteria for univariate grading scales. Since the goals of valid prediction and valid classification lead to conflicting criteria, it is possible that a compromise…

  14. A framework for evaluation of technology transfer programs. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The objective of this volume is to describe a framework with which DOE can develop a program specific methodology to evaluate it`s technology transfer efforts. This approach could also be applied to an integrated private sector technology transfer organization. Several benefits will be realized from the application of this work. While the immediate effect will be to assist program managers in evaluating and improving program performance, the ultimate benefits will accrue to the producing industry, the states, and the nation in the form of sustained or increased domestic oil production. This benefit depends also, of course, on the effectiveness of the technology being transferred. The managers of the Technology Transfer program, and the larger federal oil and gas R&D programs, will be provided with a means to design and assess the effectiveness of program efforts as they are developed, tested and performed. The framework allows deficiencies in critical aspects of the program to be quickly identified, allowing for timely corrections and improvements. The actual process of developing the evaluation also gives the staff of the Oil R&D Program or Technology Transfer subprogram the opportunity to become oriented to the overall program goals. The structure and focus imposed by the evaluation paradigm will guide program staff in selecting activities which are consistent with achieving the goals of the overall R&D program.

  15. A Systematic Evaluation of Learning Objects for Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Empirical research evaluating the effectiveness of learning objects is noticeably absent. No formal research has been done on the use of learning objects in secondary schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of learning objects by high school students. The evaluation metric used to assess benefits and quality of learning objects…

  16. A Framework for Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) based on geographic ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, H. Y.; Li, H. T.; Yan, L.; Lu, X. J.

    2015-06-01

    GEOBIA (Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis) is not only a hot topic of current remote sensing and geographical research. It is believed to be a paradigm in remote sensing and GIScience. The lack of a systematic approach designed to conceptualize and formalize the class definitions makes GEOBIA a highly subjective and difficult method to reproduce. This paper aims to put forward a framework for GEOBIA based on geographic ontology theory, which could implement "Geographic entities - Image objects - Geographic objects" true reappearance. It consists of three steps, first, geographical entities are described by geographic ontology, second, semantic network model is built based on OWL(ontology web language), at last, geographical objects are classified with decision rule or other classifiers. A case study of farmland ontology was conducted for describing the framework. The strength of this framework is that it provides interpretation strategies and global framework for GEOBIA with the property of objective, overall, universal, universality, etc., which avoids inconsistencies caused by different experts' experience and provides an objective model for mage analysis.

  17. An Objective Approach to Student Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Kelly

    1978-01-01

    The Rankin Interaction Analysis System, a system of recording behavioral events as they occur between teacher and students is described. Its purpose is to provide a method for teachers and supervisors to evaluate verbal and nonverbal behavior of student teachers in physical education. (Author/MJB)

  18. Quantile equivalence to evaluate compliance with habitat management objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Johnson, Pamela R.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence estimated with linear quantile regression was used to evaluate compliance with habitat management objectives at Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge based on monitoring data collected in upland (5,781 ha; n = 511 transects) and riparian and meadow (2,856 ha, n = 389 transects) habitats from 2005 to 2008. Quantiles were used because the management objectives specified proportions of the habitat area that needed to comply with vegetation criteria. The linear model was used to obtain estimates that were averaged across 4 y. The equivalence testing framework allowed us to interpret confidence intervals for estimated proportions with respect to intervals of vegetative criteria (equivalence regions) in either a liberal, benefit-of-doubt or conservative, fail-safe approach associated with minimizing alternative risks. Simple Boolean conditional arguments were used to combine the quantile equivalence results for individual vegetation components into a joint statement for the multivariable management objectives. For example, management objective 2A required at least 809 ha of upland habitat with a shrub composition ≥0.70 sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), 20–30% canopy cover of sagebrush ≥25 cm in height, ≥20% canopy cover of grasses, and ≥10% canopy cover of forbs on average over 4 y. Shrub composition and canopy cover of grass each were readily met on >3,000 ha under either conservative or liberal interpretations of sampling variability. However, there were only 809–1,214 ha (conservative to liberal) with ≥10% forb canopy cover and 405–1,098 ha with 20–30%canopy cover of sagebrush ≥25 cm in height. Only 91–180 ha of uplands simultaneously met criteria for all four components, primarily because canopy cover of sagebrush and forbs was inversely related when considered at the spatial scale (30 m) of a sample transect. We demonstrate how the quantile equivalence analyses also can help refine the numerical specification of habitat objectives and explore

  19. An Evaluation of the Effects of Experimenter Control of Objects on Individuals' Engagement in Object Stereotypy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangeland, Lindsay A.; Smith, Dean P.; Rapp, John T.

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments, the authors evaluated the extent to which (a) individuals preferred engaging in object stereotypy versus observing an experimenter while the experimenter engaged in object stereotypy and (b) an experimenter's engagement in object stereotypy decreased the participants' engagement in object stereotypy. Results of Experiment 1…

  20. A classification framework for content-based extraction of biomedical objects from hierarchically decomposed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thies, Christian; Schmidt Borreda, Marcel; Seidl, Thomas; Lehmann, Thomas M.

    2006-03-01

    Multiscale analysis provides a complete hierarchical partitioning of images into visually plausible regions. Each of them is formally characterized by a feature vector describing shape, texture and scale properties. Consequently, object extraction becomes a classification of the feature vectors. Classifiers are trained by relevant and irrelevant regions labeled as object and remaining partitions, respectively. A trained classifier is applicable to yet uncategorized partitionings to identify the corresponding region's classes. Such an approach enables retrieval of a-priori unknown objects within a point-and-click interface. In this work, the classification pipeline consists of a framework for data selection, feature selection, classifier training, classification of testing data, and evaluation. According to the no-free-lunch-theorem of supervised learning, the appropriate classification pipeline is determined experimentally. Therefore, each of the steps is varied by state-of-the-art methods and the respective classification quality is measured. Selection of training data from the ground truth is supported by bootstrapping, variance pooling, virtual training data, and cross validation. Feature selection for dimension reduction is performed by linear discriminant analysis, principal component analysis, and greedy selection. Competing classifiers are k-nearest-neighbor, Bayesian classifier, and the support vector machine. Quality is measured by precision and recall to reflect the retrieval task. A set of 105 hand radiographs from clinical routine serves as ground truth, where the metacarpal bones have been labeled manually. In total, 368 out of 39.017 regions are identified as relevant. In initial experiments for feature selection with the support vector machine have been obtained recall, precision and F-measure of 0.58, 0.67, and 0,62, respectively.

  1. Applying a reflexive framework to evaluate a communication skills curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    After creating and delivering an educational curriculum, medical educators must ultimately evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented curriculum. Seasoned educators can benefit from using an established framework to help them structure a thorough, complete curricular evaluation; however, novice educators may have difficulty in transforming the concept of evaluation into a concrete process. The RUFDATA (Reasons and purpose, Uses, Focus, Data and evidence, Audience, Timing, and Agency) framework is one such paradigm. It is a well-recognized tool consisting of a reflexive framework that can guide medical educators to evaluate their own medical education curriculum. Just as important, it enables medical educators to reflect on the reasons behind the evaluation. This insight, in turn, can foster a spirit of evaluation, thus helping to ingrain it into the local educational culture. By using the evaluation of our communication skills curriculum as an example, this article describes how educators can apply the RUFDATA framework to evaluate their own curriculum. PMID:27790053

  2. Open system knowledge framework and its bridge evaluation application

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.T.C.

    1994-06-01

    In this paper, we present OPUS, a framework that provides design guidelines for the systematic building of independent, and potentially heterogeneous, knowledge base programs for the domains of large physical structures. The term open-system refers to the integration of several of these programs to solve problems beyond their individual capabilities. The OPUS framework organizes data and knowledge about the domain into three layers. The kernel layer encodes primary domain knowledge into hierarchies of objects, the scenario layer contains autonomous knowledge programs for specific applications, and the utility layer supports system interface and inference methods. OPUS provides a focus for knowledge organization and rapid prototyping, supports multiple schemes of inference and representation, copes with the maintenance and reuse of knowledge, and enables different levels of abstraction and views of knowledge. An OPUS system BFC has been developed to cover wide-ranging applications in bridge evaluation. Examples are taken from this application to illustrate data constructs and reasoning schemes based on the OPUS framework. 50 refs.

  3. fMRI analysis software tools: an evaluation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedoia, Valentina; Colli, Vittoria; Strocchi, Sabina; Vite, Cristina; Binaghi, Elisabetta; Conte, Leopoldo

    2011-03-01

    Performance comparison of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) software tools is a very difficult task. In this paper, a framework for comparison of fMRI analysis results obtained with different software packages is proposed. An objective evaluation is possible only after pre-processing steps that normalize input data in a standard domain. Segmentation and registration algorithms are implemented in order to classify voxels belonging to brain or not, and to find the non rigid transformation that best aligns the volume under inspection with a standard one. Through the definitions of intersection and union of fuzzy logic an index was defined which quantify information overlap between Statistical Parametrical Maps (SPMs). Direct comparison between fMRI results can only highlight differences. In order to assess the best result, an index that represents the goodness of the activation detection is required. The transformation of the activation map in a standard domain allows the use of a functional Atlas for labeling the active voxels. For each functional area the Activation Weighted Index (AWI) that identifies the mean activation level of whole area was defined. By means of this brief, but comprehensive description, it is easy to find a metric for the objective evaluation of a fMRI analysis tools. Trough the first evaluation method the situations where the SPMs are inconsistent were identified. The result of AWI analysis suggest which tool has higher sensitivity and specificity. The proposed method seems a valid evaluation tool when applied to an adequate number of patients.

  4. 78 FR 52933 - Strengthening the Operating Framework and Furthering the Objectives of Coalition for Accelerating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Strengthening the Operating Framework and Furthering the Objectives of Coalition for Accelerating Standards and Therapies Initiative (U24) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing...

  5. Rubrics for Evaluating Open Education Resource (OER) Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    The rubrics presented in this report represent an evaluation system for objects found within Open Education Resources. An object could include images, applets, lessons, units, assessments and more. For the purpose of this evaluation, any component that can exist as a stand-alone qualifies as an object. The rubrics in this packet can be applied…

  6. Checklist for Evaluating SREB-SCORE Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This checklist is based on "Evaluation Criteria for SREB-SCORE Learning Objects" and is designed to help schools and colleges determine the quality and effectiveness of learning objects. It is suggested that each learning object be rated to the extent to which it meets the criteria and the SREB-SCORE definition of a learning object. A learning…

  7. On the Evaluation of Higher-Order Science Instructional Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Sheehan, Daniel S.

    1977-01-01

    Advocates the use of a free-sort categorization technique for evaluation of higher-order science instructional objectives. An explanation and demonstration of the use of the evaluation technique with 284 ninth-grade science students is provided. (CP)

  8. Toward Fortran 77 performance from object-oriented C++ scientific frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetti, F.; Davis, K.; Quinlan, D.

    1998-12-01

    The use of object-oriented C{sup 2} frameworks has significantly simplified the development of numerous complex parallel scientific applications at Los Alamos National Laboratory and elsewhere. In spite of considerable use of, and commitment to, these frameworks, concerns about performance are nonetheless a significant issue; performance very close to that of FORTRAN 77 with message passing must be realized before the acceptance and use of such frameworks will be truly widespread. This paper identifies the primary source of inefficiency in using C or C{sup 2} for numerical codes with stencil- or stencil-like operations, and demonstrates two solutions--one portable, one not--to give genuine FORTRAN 77 performance.

  9. BioInt: an integrative biological object-oriented application framework and interpreter.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sanket; Burra, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    BioInt, a biological programming application framework and interpreter, is an attempt to equip the researchers with seamless integration, efficient extraction and effortless analysis of the data from various biological databases and algorithms. Based on the type of biological data, algorithms and related functionalities, a biology-specific framework was developed which has nine modules. The modules are a compilation of numerous reusable BioADTs. This software ecosystem containing more than 450 biological objects underneath the interpreter makes it flexible, integrative and comprehensive. Similar to Python, BioInt eliminates the compilation and linking steps cutting the time significantly. The researcher can write the scripts using available BioADTs (following C++ syntax) and execute them interactively or use as a command line application. It has features that enable automation, extension of the framework with new/external BioADTs/libraries and deployment of complex work flows. PMID:26561020

  10. BioInt: an integrative biological object-oriented application framework and interpreter.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sanket; Burra, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    BioInt, a biological programming application framework and interpreter, is an attempt to equip the researchers with seamless integration, efficient extraction and effortless analysis of the data from various biological databases and algorithms. Based on the type of biological data, algorithms and related functionalities, a biology-specific framework was developed which has nine modules. The modules are a compilation of numerous reusable BioADTs. This software ecosystem containing more than 450 biological objects underneath the interpreter makes it flexible, integrative and comprehensive. Similar to Python, BioInt eliminates the compilation and linking steps cutting the time significantly. The researcher can write the scripts using available BioADTs (following C++ syntax) and execute them interactively or use as a command line application. It has features that enable automation, extension of the framework with new/external BioADTs/libraries and deployment of complex work flows.

  11. Implementation of Two-Dimensional Polycrystalline Grains in Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework

    PubMed Central

    Lau, J. W.; McMichael, R. D.; Donahue, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    In response to the growing need for a more accurate micromagnetic model to understand switching phenomenon in nanoscale magnets, we developed the capability to simulate two-dimensional polycrystalline grains using the Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). This addition allows users full flexibility in determining the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and axe in each grain as well as the inter- and intragranular exchange coupling strength. PMID:27504213

  12. Contributions to Objective Measurement and Evaluation of Trainee Competency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonan, William J.

    The purpose of this paper is to lay a basis for and discuss the components of a system, called COMET, designed to objectively measure and evaluate the competency of trainees in military training enterprises. COMET is an acronym for "Computerized Objective Measurement and Evaluation of Trainees." These goals will be accomplished by: (a) describing…

  13. Evaluating Learning Objects across Boundaries: The Semantics of Localization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jerry Z.; Nesbit, John C.; Richards, Griff

    2006-01-01

    Learning object repositories and evaluation tools have the potential to serve as sites for interaction among different cultures and communities of practice. This article outlines Web-based learning object evaluation tools that we have developed, describes our current efforts to extend those tools to a wider range of user communities, and considers…

  14. Objective criteria ranking framework for renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K, Nwofor O.; N, Dike V.

    2016-08-01

    We present a framework that seeks to improve the objectivity of renewable energy policy decisions in Nigeria. It consists of expert ranking of resource abundance, resource efficiency and resource environmental comfort in the choice of renewable energy options for large scale power generation. The rankings are converted to a more objective function called Resource Appraisal Function (RAF) using dependence operators derived from logical relationships amongst the various criteria. The preferred option is that with the highest average RAF coupled with the least RAF variance. The method can be extended to more options, more criteria, and more opinions and can be adapted for similar decisions in education, environment and health sectors.

  15. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Secondary School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; Knaack, Liesel

    2007-01-01

    A learning object is an interactive web-based tool that supports learning by enhancing, amplifying, and guiding the cognitive processes of a learner. To date, no formal research has been done on the use of learning objects in secondary school science classrooms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of learning objects developed for…

  16. A Framework for Outreach Evaluation Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Much importance is now placed upon the evaluation of outreach interventions by higher education institutions (HEIs). Accompanying this focus are requests that HEIs prepare evaluation plans. Yet, whilst some now have plans in place, others do not. One of the challenges for those preparing such documents is that official guidance is not prescriptive…

  17. User's Manual for the Object User Interface (OUI): An Environmental Resource Modeling Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Object User Interface is a computer application that provides a framework for coupling environmental-resource models and for managing associated temporal and spatial data. The Object User Interface is designed to be easily extensible to incorporate models and data interfaces defined by the user. Additionally, the Object User Interface is highly configurable through the use of a user-modifiable, text-based control file that is written in the eXtensible Markup Language. The Object User Interface user's manual provides (1) installation instructions, (2) an overview of the graphical user interface, (3) a description of the software tools, (4) a project example, and (5) specifications for user configuration and extension.

  18. Multi-object segmentation framework using deformable models for medical imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Namías, Rafael; D'Amato, Juan Pablo; Del Fresno, Mariana; Vénere, Marcelo; Pirró, Nicola; Bellemare, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Segmenting structures of interest in medical images is an important step in different tasks such as visualization, quantitative analysis, simulation, and image-guided surgery, among several other clinical applications. Numerous segmentation methods have been developed in the past three decades for extraction of anatomical or functional structures on medical imaging. Deformable models, which include the active contour models or snakes, are among the most popular methods for image segmentation combining several desirable features such as inherent connectivity and smoothness. Even though different approaches have been proposed and significant work has been dedicated to the improvement of such algorithms, there are still challenging research directions as the simultaneous extraction of multiple objects and the integration of individual techniques. This paper presents a novel open-source framework called deformable model array (DMA) for the segmentation of multiple and complex structures of interest in different imaging modalities. While most active contour algorithms can extract one region at a time, DMA allows integrating several deformable models to deal with multiple segmentation scenarios. Moreover, it is possible to consider any existing explicit deformable model formulation and even to incorporate new active contour methods, allowing to select a suitable combination in different conditions. The framework also introduces a control module that coordinates the cooperative evolution of the snakes and is able to solve interaction issues toward the segmentation goal. Thus, DMA can implement complex object and multi-object segmentations in both 2D and 3D using the contextual information derived from the model interaction. These are important features for several medical image analysis tasks in which different but related objects need to be simultaneously extracted. Experimental results on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging show that the proposed

  19. Multi-object segmentation framework using deformable models for medical imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Namías, Rafael; D'Amato, Juan Pablo; Del Fresno, Mariana; Vénere, Marcelo; Pirró, Nicola; Bellemare, Marc-Emmanuel

    2016-08-01

    Segmenting structures of interest in medical images is an important step in different tasks such as visualization, quantitative analysis, simulation, and image-guided surgery, among several other clinical applications. Numerous segmentation methods have been developed in the past three decades for extraction of anatomical or functional structures on medical imaging. Deformable models, which include the active contour models or snakes, are among the most popular methods for image segmentation combining several desirable features such as inherent connectivity and smoothness. Even though different approaches have been proposed and significant work has been dedicated to the improvement of such algorithms, there are still challenging research directions as the simultaneous extraction of multiple objects and the integration of individual techniques. This paper presents a novel open-source framework called deformable model array (DMA) for the segmentation of multiple and complex structures of interest in different imaging modalities. While most active contour algorithms can extract one region at a time, DMA allows integrating several deformable models to deal with multiple segmentation scenarios. Moreover, it is possible to consider any existing explicit deformable model formulation and even to incorporate new active contour methods, allowing to select a suitable combination in different conditions. The framework also introduces a control module that coordinates the cooperative evolution of the snakes and is able to solve interaction issues toward the segmentation goal. Thus, DMA can implement complex object and multi-object segmentations in both 2D and 3D using the contextual information derived from the model interaction. These are important features for several medical image analysis tasks in which different but related objects need to be simultaneously extracted. Experimental results on both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging show that the proposed

  20. Evaluation Framework for Collaborative Educational Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos; Andreas, Konstantinidis; Pomportsis, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we will focus on a specific category of Collaborative Virtual Environments that aims to support Collaborative Learning. We call these environments Collaborative Educational Virtual Environments. Our aim is to analyze the evaluation process through the study of relevant bibliography and by doing so reveal the existing research gap…

  1. Framework for Evaluating Educational Systemic Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegulu, T. Nelson

    This paper describes the implementation of the Holistic Systemic Evaluation (HSE), a component of an Education Systemic Initiative's strategic management. The HSE provides general guidance for the implementation and continual improvement of an Education Systemic Initiative Reform (ESIR). The implementation of the education system initiative plan:…

  2. Evaluation Framework for Dependable Mobile Learning Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensassi, Manel; Laroussi, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the dependability analysis is to predict inconsistencies and to reveal ambiguities and incompleteness in the designed learning scenario. Evaluation, in traditional learning design, is generally planned after the execution of the scenario. In mobile learning, this stage becomes too difficult and expensive to apply due to the complexity…

  3. Developing an evaluation framework for clinical redesign programs: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Premaratne; Dadich, Ann; Fitzgerald, Anneke; Zeitz, Kathryn

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learnt through the development of an evaluation framework for a clinical redesign programme - the aim of which was to improve the patient journey through improved discharge practices within an Australian public hospital. Design/methodology/approach The development of the evaluation framework involved three stages - namely, the analysis of secondary data relating to the discharge planning pathway; the analysis of primary data including field-notes and interview transcripts on hospital processes; and the triangulation of these data sets to devise the framework. The evaluation framework ensured that resource use, process management, patient satisfaction, and staff well-being and productivity were each connected with measures, targets, and the aim of clinical redesign programme. Findings The application of business process management and a balanced scorecard enabled a different way of framing the evaluation, ensuring measurable outcomes were connected to inputs and outputs. Lessons learnt include: first, the importance of mixed-methods research to devise the framework and evaluate the redesigned processes; second, the need for appropriate tools and resources to adequately capture change across the different domains of the redesign programme; and third, the value of developing and applying an evaluative framework progressively. Research limitations/implications The evaluation framework is limited by its retrospective application to a clinical process redesign programme. Originality/value This research supports benchmarking with national and international practices in relation to best practice healthcare redesign processes. Additionally, it provides a theoretical contribution on evaluating health services improvement and redesign initiatives. PMID:27681027

  4. Developing an evaluation framework for clinical redesign programs: lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Premaratne; Dadich, Ann; Fitzgerald, Anneke; Zeitz, Kathryn

    2016-09-19

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learnt through the development of an evaluation framework for a clinical redesign programme - the aim of which was to improve the patient journey through improved discharge practices within an Australian public hospital. Design/methodology/approach The development of the evaluation framework involved three stages - namely, the analysis of secondary data relating to the discharge planning pathway; the analysis of primary data including field-notes and interview transcripts on hospital processes; and the triangulation of these data sets to devise the framework. The evaluation framework ensured that resource use, process management, patient satisfaction, and staff well-being and productivity were each connected with measures, targets, and the aim of clinical redesign programme. Findings The application of business process management and a balanced scorecard enabled a different way of framing the evaluation, ensuring measurable outcomes were connected to inputs and outputs. Lessons learnt include: first, the importance of mixed-methods research to devise the framework and evaluate the redesigned processes; second, the need for appropriate tools and resources to adequately capture change across the different domains of the redesign programme; and third, the value of developing and applying an evaluative framework progressively. Research limitations/implications The evaluation framework is limited by its retrospective application to a clinical process redesign programme. Originality/value This research supports benchmarking with national and international practices in relation to best practice healthcare redesign processes. Additionally, it provides a theoretical contribution on evaluating health services improvement and redesign initiatives.

  5. Monitoring 'monitoring' and evaluating 'evaluation': an ethical framework for monitoring and evaluation in public health.

    PubMed

    Gopichandran, Vijayaprasad; Indira Krishna, Anil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is an essential part of public health programmes. Since M&E is the backbone of public health programmes, ethical considerations are important in their conduct. Some of the key ethical considerations are avoiding conflicts of interest, maintaining independence of judgement, maintaining fairness, transparency, full disclosure, privacy and confidentiality, respect, responsibility, accountability, empowerment and sustainability. There are several ethical frameworks in public health, but none focusing on the monitoring and evaluation process. There is a need to institutionalise the ethical review of M&E proposals. A theoretical framework for ethical considerations is proposed in this paper. This proposed theoretical framework can act as the blueprint for building the capacity of ethics committees to review M&E proposals. A case study is discussed in this context. After thorough field testing, this practical and field-based ethical framework can be widely used by donor agencies, M&E teams, institutional review boards and ethics committees.

  6. A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = Σwiφi(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function φi(ṡ) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

  7. A Framework for Evaluation and Use of Automated Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.; Xi, Xiaoming; Breyer, F. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A framework for evaluation and use of automated scoring of constructed-response tasks is provided that entails both evaluation of automated scoring as well as guidelines for implementation and maintenance in the context of constantly evolving technologies. Consideration of validity issues and challenges associated with automated scoring are…

  8. Framework for the Evaluation of an IT Project Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, W. T.

    2010-01-01

    The basis for evaluating projects in an organizational IT project portfolio includes complexity factors, arguments/criteria, and procedures, with various implications. The purpose of this research was to develop a conceptual framework for IT project proposal evaluation. The research involved using a heuristic roadmap and the mind-mapping method to…

  9. Learning Objects and Virtual Learning Environments Technical Evaluation Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Dagiene, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The main scientific problems investigated in this article deal with technical evaluation of quality attributes of the main components of e-Learning systems (referred here as DLEs--Digital Libraries of Educational Resources and Services), i.e., Learning Objects (LOs) and Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). The main research object of the work is…

  10. Quality in Learning Objects: Evaluating Compliance with Metadata Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, C. Christian; Segura, N. Alejandra; Campos, S. Pedro; Sánchez-Alonso, Salvador

    Ensuring a certain level of quality of learning objects used in e-learning is crucial to increase the chances of success of automated systems in recommending or finding these resources. This paper aims to present a proposal for implementation of a quality model for learning objects based on ISO 9126 international standard for the evaluation of software quality. Features indicators associated with the conformance sub-characteristic are defined. Some instruments for feature evaluation are advised, which allow collecting expert opinion on evaluation items. Other quality model features are evaluated using only the information from its metadata using semantic web technologies. Finally, we propose an ontology-based application that allows automatic evaluation of a quality feature. IEEE LOM metadata standard was used in experimentation, and the results shown that most of learning objects analyzed do not complain the standard.

  11. A New Object-Oriented MODFLOW Framework for Coupling Multiple Hydrologic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, C.; Hughes, J. D.; Panday, S. M.; Banta, E. R.; Niswonger, R. G.

    2014-12-01

    MODFLOW is a popular open-source groundwater flow model distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey. For 30 years, the MODFLOW program has been widely used by academic researchers, private consultants, and government scientists to accurately, reliably, and efficiently simulate groundwater flow. With time, growing interest in surface and groundwater interactions, local refinement with nested and unstructured grids, karst groundwater flow, solute transport, and saltwater intrusion, has led to the development of numerous MODFLOW versions. Although these MODFLOW versions are often based on the core version (presently MODFLOW-2005), there are often incompatibilities that restrict their use with one another. In many cases, development of these alternative versions has been challenging due to the underlying MODFLOW structure, which was designed for simulation with a single groundwater flow model using a rectilinear grid. A new object-oriented framework is being developed for MODFLOW to provide a platform for supporting multiple models and multiple types of models within the same simulation. In the new design, any number of numerical models can be tightly coupled at the matrix level by adding them to the same numerical solution, or they can be iteratively coupled until there is convergence between them. Transfer of information between models is isolated to exchange objects, which allow models to be developed and used independently. For existing MODFLOW users, this means that the program can function in the same way it always has for a single groundwater flow model. Within this new framework, a regional-scale groundwater model may be coupled with multiple local-scale groundwater models. Or, a surface water flow model can be coupled to multiple groundwater flow models. The framework naturally allows for the simulation of solute transport. Presently, unstructured control-volume finite-difference models have been implemented in the framework for three-dimensional groundwater

  12. Long-term Science Data Curation Using a Digital Object Model and Open-Source Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Lenhardt, W.; Wilson, B. E.; Palanisamy, G.; Cook, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Scientific digital content, including Earth Science observations and model output, has become more heterogeneous in format and more distributed across the Internet. In addition, data and metadata are becoming necessarily linked internally and externally on the Web. As a result, such content has become more difficult for providers to manage and preserve and for users to locate, understand, and consume. Specifically, it is increasingly harder to deliver relevant metadata and data processing lineage information along with the actual content consistently. Readme files, data quality information, production provenance, and other descriptive metadata are often separated in the storage level as well as in the data search and retrieval interfaces available to a user. Critical archival metadata, such as auditing trails and integrity checks, are often even more difficult for users to access, if they exist at all. We investigate the use of several open-source software frameworks to address these challenges. We use Fedora Commons Framework and its digital object abstraction as the repository, Drupal CMS as the user-interface, and the Islandora module as the connector from Drupal to Fedora Repository. With the digital object model, metadata of data description and data provenance can be associated with data content in a formal manner, so are external references and other arbitrary auxiliary information. Changes are formally audited on an object, and digital contents are versioned and have checksums automatically computed. Further, relationships among objects are formally expressed with RDF triples. Data replication, recovery, metadata export are supported with standard protocols, such as OAI-PMH. We provide a tentative comparative analysis of the chosen software stack with the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) reference model, along with our initial results with the existing terrestrial ecology data collections at NASA’s ORNL Distributed Active Archive Center for

  13. An Object-Oriented Finite Element Framework for Multiphysics Phase Field Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael R Tonks; Derek R Gaston; Paul C Millett; David Andrs; Paul Talbot

    2012-01-01

    The phase field approach is a powerful and popular method for modeling microstructure evolution. In this work, advanced numerical tools are used to create a phase field framework that facilitates rapid model development. This framework, called MARMOT, is based on Idaho National Laboratory's finite element Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment. In MARMOT, the system of phase field partial differential equations (PDEs) are solved simultaneously with PDEs describing additional physics, such as solid mechanics and heat conduction, using the Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov Method. An object-oriented architecture is created by taking advantage of commonalities in phase fields models to facilitate development of new models with very little written code. In addition, MARMOT provides access to mesh and time step adaptivity, reducing the cost for performing simulations with large disparities in both spatial and temporal scales. In this work, phase separation simulations are used to show the numerical performance of MARMOT. Deformation-induced grain growth and void growth simulations are included to demonstrate the muliphysics capability.

  14. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients’ psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller’s mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study. PMID:27608023

  15. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study.

  16. Web of Objects Based Ambient Assisted Living Framework for Emergency Psychiatric State Prediction.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Golam Rabiul; Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul; Al Ameen, Moshaddique; Hong, Choong Seon

    2016-01-01

    Ambient assisted living can facilitate optimum health and wellness by aiding physical, mental and social well-being. In this paper, patients' psychiatric symptoms are collected through lightweight biosensors and web-based psychiatric screening scales in a smart home environment and then analyzed through machine learning algorithms to provide ambient intelligence in a psychiatric emergency. The psychiatric states are modeled through a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and the model parameters are estimated using a Viterbi path counting and scalable Stochastic Variational Inference (SVI)-based training algorithm. The most likely psychiatric state sequence of the corresponding observation sequence is determined, and an emergency psychiatric state is predicted through the proposed algorithm. Moreover, to enable personalized psychiatric emergency care, a service a web of objects-based framework is proposed for a smart-home environment. In this framework, the biosensor observations and the psychiatric rating scales are objectified and virtualized in the web space. Then, the web of objects of sensor observations and psychiatric rating scores are used to assess the dweller's mental health status and to predict an emergency psychiatric state. The proposed psychiatric state prediction algorithm reported 83.03 percent prediction accuracy in an empirical performance study. PMID:27608023

  17. Change detection of built-up land: A framework of combining pixel-based detection and object-based recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Pengfeng; Zhang, Xueliang; Wang, Dongguang; Yuan, Min; Feng, Xuezhi; Kelly, Maggi

    2016-09-01

    This study proposed a new framework that combines pixel-level change detection and object-level recognition to detect changes of built-up land from high-spatial resolution remote sensing images. First, an adaptive differencing method was designed to detect changes at the pixel level based on both spectral and textural features. Next, the changed pixels were subjected to a set of morphological operations to improve the completeness and to generate changed objects, achieving the transition of change detection from the pixel level to the object level. The changed objects were further recognised through the difference of morphological building index in two phases to indicate changed objects on built-up land. The transformation from changed pixels to changed objects makes the proposed framework distinct with both the pixel-based and the object-based change detection methods. Compared with the pixel-based methods, the proposed framework can improve the change detection capability through the transformation and successive recognition of objects. Compared with the object-based method, the proposed framework avoids the issue of multitemporal segmentation and can generate changed objects directly from changed pixels. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the transformation from changed pixels to changed objects and the successive object-based recognition on improving the detection accuracy, which justify the application potential of the proposed change detection framework.

  18. Quality framework proposal for Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Naomi G.; Arfman, John F.; Limary, Siviengxay

    2008-09-01

    This report proposes the first stage of a Quality Framework approach that can be used to evaluate and document Component Material Evaluation (CME) projects. The first stage of the Quality Framework defines two tools that will be used to evaluate a CME project. The first tool is used to decompose a CME project into its essential elements. These elements can then be evaluated for inherent quality by looking at the subelements that impact their level of quality maturity or rigor. Quality Readiness Levels (QRLs) are used to valuate project elements for inherent quality. The Framework provides guidance for the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders for CME project prerequisites that help to ensure the proper level of confidence in the deliverable given its intended use. The Framework also Provides a roadmap that defined when and how the Framework tools should be applied. Use of these tools allow the Principal Investigator (PI) and stakeholders to understand what elements the project will use to execute the project, the inherent quality of the elements, which of those are critical to the project and why, and the risks associated to the project's elements.

  19. Framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushwaha, Alok Kumar Singh; Srivastava, Rajeev

    2015-09-01

    Moving object segmentation using change detection in wavelet domain under continuous variations of lighting condition is a challenging problem in video surveillance systems. There are several methods proposed in the literature for change detection in wavelet domain for moving object segmentation having static backgrounds, but it has not been addressed effectively for dynamic background changes. The methods proposed in the literature suffer from various problems, such as ghostlike appearance, object shadows, and noise. To deal with these issues, a framework for dynamic background modeling and shadow suppression under rapidly changing illumination conditions for moving object segmentation in complex wavelet domain is proposed. The proposed method consists of eight steps applied on given video frames, which include wavelet decomposition of frame using complex wavelet transform; use of change detection on detail coefficients (LH, HL, and HH), use of improved Gaussian mixture-based dynamic background modeling on approximate coefficient (LL subband); cast shadow suppression; use of soft thresholding for noise removal; strong edge detection; inverse wavelet transformation for reconstruction; and finally using closing morphology operator. A comparative analysis of the proposed method is presented both qualitatively and quantitatively with other standard methods available in the literature for six datasets in terms of various performance measures. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.

  20. Developer Tools for Evaluating Multi-Objective Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuliano, Mark E.; Johnston, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective algorithms for scheduling offer many advantages over the more conventional single objective approach. By keeping user objectives separate instead of combined, more information is available to the end user to make trade-offs between competing objectives. Unlike single objective algorithms, which produce a single solution, multi-objective algorithms produce a set of solutions, called a Pareto surface, where no solution is strictly dominated by another solution for all objectives. From the end-user perspective a Pareto-surface provides a tool for reasoning about trade-offs between competing objectives. From the perspective of a software developer multi-objective algorithms provide an additional challenge. How can you tell if one multi-objective algorithm is better than another? This paper presents formal and visual tools for evaluating multi-objective algorithms and shows how the developer process of selecting an algorithm parallels the end-user process of selecting a solution for execution out of the Pareto-Surface.

  1. A framework for evaluating and utilizing medical terminology mappings.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Sajjad; Sun, Hong; Sinaci, Anil; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Mead, Charles; Gray, Alasdair J G; McGuinness, Deborah L; Prud'Hommeaux, Eric; Daniel, Christel; Forsberg, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Use of medical terminologies and mappings across them are considered to be crucial pre-requisites for achieving interoperable eHealth applications. Built upon the outcomes of several research projects, we introduce a framework for evaluating and utilizing terminology mappings that offers a platform for i) performing various mappings strategies, ii) representing terminology mappings together with their provenance information, and iii) enabling terminology reasoning for inferring both new and erroneous mappings. We present the results of the introduced framework from SALUS project where we evaluated the quality of both existing and inferred terminology mappings among standard terminologies. PMID:25160255

  2. Evaluating genomic tests from bench to bedside: a practical framework.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jennifer S; Thompson, Matthew; Goddard, Katrina A B; Piper, Margaret A; Heneghan, Carl; Whitlock, Evelyn P

    2012-01-01

    The development of genomic tests is one of the most significant technological advances in medical testing in recent decades. As these tests become increasingly available, so does the need for a pragmatic framework to evaluate the evidence base and evidence gaps in order to facilitate informed decision-making. In this article we describe such a framework that can provide a common language and benchmarks for different stakeholders of genomic testing. Each stakeholder can use this framework to specify their respective thresholds for decision-making, depending on their perspective and particular needs. This framework is applicable across a broad range of test applications and can be helpful in the application and communication of a regulatory science for genomic testing. Our framework builds upon existing work and incorporates principles familiar to researchers involved in medical testing (both diagnostic and prognostic) generally, as well as those involved in genomic testing. This framework is organized around six phases in the development of genomic tests beginning with marker identification and ending with population impact, and highlights the important knowledge gaps that need to be filled in establishing the clinical relevance of a test. Our framework focuses on the clinical appropriateness of the four main dimensions of test research questions (population/setting, intervention/index test, comparators/reference test, and outcomes) rather than prescribing a hierarchy of study designs that should be used to address each phase. PMID:23078403

  3. An object-based interaction framework for the operation of multiple field robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Henry Lee, II

    Today's field robots, such as the Sojourner Mars rover or the Predator unmanned aerial vehicle, work alone to accomplish dirty, dull, or dangerous missions. Plans for the next generation of robotic systems call for multiple field robots to conduct these missions cooperatively under the direction of a single operator. This research examines the role of the operator in multiple-robot missions and creates a human-robot interaction framework that supports this role---a vital step toward the successful deployment of these future robots. In a typical user-centered approach to the development of a human-robot interaction framework, the work practices of the robot operator would be observed, characterized, and integrated into the design. Unfortunately, there are no settings where one can study the operator of multiple robots at work because no such systems have been deployed. As an alternative, this research incorporated a surrogate setting that could be used to inform the early interaction design of multiple-robot systems. Police Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams were chosen as this setting, and an ethnographic study of SWAT commanders was conducted. Concepts from the interdisciplinary study of geographically distributed work, including common ground, shared mental models, and information sharing, were used to understand and characterize the ethnographic observations. Using lessons learned from the surrogate setting, an implementation of a new human-robot interaction framework was demonstrated on the Micro Autonomous Rovers (MAR) platform in the Aerospace Robotics Laboratory at Stanford University. This interaction framework, which is based on the sensing and manipulation of physical objects by the robots, was derived from the finding that references to physical objects serve as an essential communication and coordination tool for SWAT commanders. A human-computer interface that utilizes direct manipulation techniques and three-dimensional computer graphics was

  4. A framework to support preceptors' evaluation and development of new nurses' clinical judgment.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Ann; Lasater, Kathie; Stock, Mary

    2016-07-01

    In today's complex, fast-paced world of hospital nursing, new graduate nurses do not have well-developed clinical judgment skills. Nurse preceptors are charged with bridging the gap between new graduates' learning in school and their autonomous practice as RNs. In one large, urban medical center in the U.S., a clinical judgment model and rubric were used as a framework for a new evaluation and orientation process. Preceptors of new graduate nurses who had used the former and new processes described their experiences using the framework. The findings indicated that having a structured framework provided objective ways to evaluate and help develop new graduate nurses' clinical judgment. It is hypothesized that academic clinical supervisors may find such a framework useful to prepare students for transition to practice. PMID:27428698

  5. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages

    PubMed Central

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  6. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework.

  7. Semantic framework for mapping object-oriented model to semantic web languages.

    PubMed

    Ježek, Petr; Mouček, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with and discusses two main approaches in building semantic structures for electrophysiological metadata. It is the use of conventional data structures, repositories, and programming languages on one hand and the use of formal representations of ontologies, known from knowledge representation, such as description logics or semantic web languages on the other hand. Although knowledge engineering offers languages supporting richer semantic means of expression and technological advanced approaches, conventional data structures and repositories are still popular among developers, administrators and users because of their simplicity, overall intelligibility, and lower demands on technical equipment. The choice of conventional data resources and repositories, however, raises the question of how and where to add semantics that cannot be naturally expressed using them. As one of the possible solutions, this semantics can be added into the structures of the programming language that accesses and processes the underlying data. To support this idea we introduced a software prototype that enables its users to add semantically richer expressions into a Java object-oriented code. This approach does not burden users with additional demands on programming environment since reflective Java annotations were used as an entry for these expressions. Moreover, additional semantics need not to be written by the programmer directly to the code, but it can be collected from non-programmers using a graphic user interface. The mapping that allows the transformation of the semantically enriched Java code into the Semantic Web language OWL was proposed and implemented in a library named the Semantic Framework. This approach was validated by the integration of the Semantic Framework in the EEG/ERP Portal and by the subsequent registration of the EEG/ERP Portal in the Neuroscience Information Framework. PMID:25762923

  8. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  9. A framework for developing objective and measurable recovery criteria for threatened and endangered species.

    PubMed

    Himes Boor, Gina K

    2014-02-01

    For species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service are tasked with writing recovery plans that include "objective, measurable criteria" that define when a species is no longer at risk of extinction, but neither the act itself nor agency guidelines provide an explicit definition of objective, measurable criteria. Past reviews of recovery plans, including one published in 2012, show that many criteria lack quantitative metrics with clear biological rationale and are not meeting the measureable and objective mandate. I reviewed how objective, measureable criteria have been defined implicitly and explicitly in peer-reviewed literature, the ESA, other U.S. statutes, and legal decisions. Based on a synthesis of these sources, I propose the following 6 standards be used as minimum requirements for objective, measurable criteria: contain a quantitative threshold with calculable units, stipulate a timeframe over which they must be met, explicitly define the spatial extent or population to which they apply, specify a sampling procedure that includes sample size, specify a statistical significance level, and include justification by providing scientific evidence that the criteria define a species whose extinction risk has been reduced to the desired level. To meet these 6 standards, I suggest that recovery plans be explicitly guided by and organized around a population viability modeling framework even if data or agency resources are too limited to complete a viability model. When data and resources are available, recovery criteria can be developed from the population viability model results, but when data and resources are insufficient for model implementation, extinction risk thresholds can be used as criteria. A recovery-planning approach centered on viability modeling will also yield appropriately focused data-acquisition and monitoring plans and will facilitate a seamless transition

  10. FACET: an object-oriented software framework for modeling complex social behavior patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.; Sydelko, P. J.

    2000-06-30

    The Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET) is a flexible, object-oriented architecture for implementing models of dynamic behavior of multiple individuals, or agents, in a simulation. These agents can be human (individuals or organizations) or animal and may exhibit any type of organized social behavior that can be logically articulated. FACET was developed by Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL) Decision and Information Sciences Division (DIS) out of the need to integrate societal processes into natural system simulations. The FACET architecture includes generic software components that provide the agents with various mechanisms for interaction, such as step sequencing and logic, resource management, conflict resolution, and preemptive event handling. FACET components provide a rich environment within which patterns of behavior can be captured in a highly expressive manner. Interactions among agents in FACET are represented by Course of Action (COA) object-based models. Each COA contains a directed graph of individual actions, which represents any known pattern of social behavior. The agents' behavior in a FACET COA, in turn, influences the natural landscape objects in a simulation (i.e., vegetation, soil, and habitat) by updating their states. The modular design of the FACET architecture provides the flexibility to create multiple and varied simulation scenarios by changing social behavior patterns, without disrupting the natural process models. This paper describes the FACET architecture and presents several examples of FACET models that have been developed to assess the effects of anthropogenic influences on the dynamics of the natural environment.

  11. Real-time framework for tensor-based image enhancement for object classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Bogusław; Smołka, Bogdan

    2016-04-01

    In many practical situations visual pattern recognition is vastly burdened by low quality of input images due to noise, geometrical distortions, as well as low quality of the acquisition hardware. However, although there are techniques of image quality improvements, such as nonlinear filtering, there are only few attempts reported in the literature that try to build these enhancement methods into a complete chain for multi-dimensional object recognition such as color video or hyperspectral images. In this work we propose a joint multilinear signal filtering and classification system built upon the multi-dimensional (tensor) approach. Tensor filtering is performed by the multi-dimensional input signal projection into the tensor subspace spanned by the best-rank tensor decomposition method. On the other hand, object classification is done by construction of the tensor sub-space constructed based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition method applied to the prototype patters. In the experiments we show that the proposed chain allows high object recognition accuracy in the real-time even from the poor quality prototypes. Even more importantly, the proposed framework allows unified classification of signals of any dimensions, such as color images or video sequences which are exemplars of 3D and 4D tensors, respectively. The paper discussed also some practical issues related to implementation of the key components of the proposed system.

  12. An object-oriented framework for magnetic-fusion modeling and analysis codes

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R H; Yang, T Y Brian

    1999-03-04

    The magnetic-fusion energy (MFE) program, like many other scientific and engineering activities, has a need to efficiently develop complex modeling codes which combine detailed models of components to make an integrated model of a device, as well as a rich supply of legacy code that could provide the component models. There is also growing recognition in many technical fields of the desirability of steerable software: computer programs whose functionality can be changed by the user as it is run. This project had as its goals the development of two key pieces of infrastructure that are needed to combine existing code modules, written mainly in Fortran, into flexible, steerable, object-oriented integrated modeling codes for magnetic- fusion applications. These two pieces are (1) a set of tools to facilitate the interfacing of Fortran code with a steerable object-oriented framework (which we have chosen to be based on PythonlW3, an object-oriented interpreted language), and (2) a skeleton for the integrated modeling code which defines the relationships between the modules. The first of these activities obviously has immediate applicability to a spectrum of projects; the second is more focussed on the MFE application, but may be of value as an example for other applications.

  13. Objective measurements to evaluate glottal space segmentation from laryngeal images.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Arriola, J M; Osma-Ruiz, V; Sáenz-Lechón, N; Godino-Llorente, J I; Fraile, R; Arias-Londoño, J D

    2012-01-01

    Objective evaluation of the results of medical image segmentation is a known problem. Applied to the task of automatically detecting the glottal area from laryngeal images, this paper proposes a new objective measurement to evaluate the quality of a segmentation algorithm by comparing with the results given by a human expert. The new figure of merit is called Area Index, and its effectiveness is compared with one of the most used figures of merit found in the literature: the Pratt Index. Results over 110 laryngeal images presented high correlations between both indexes, demonstrating that the proposed measure is comparable to the Pratt Index and it is a good indicator of the segmentation quality.

  14. MObIUS (Massive Object Integrated Universal Store): A Survey Toward a More General Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Sirp, J K; Brugger, S T

    2004-06-07

    General frameworks for distributed computing are slowly evolving out of Grid, Peer Architecture, and Web Services. The following results from a summer long survey into distributing computing practices have revealed three things. One, that Legion and Cactus-G have achieved the most in terms of providing an all-purpose application environment. Two, that extending a local programming environment to operate in a highly distributed fashion can be facilitated with toolkits like Globus. Three, that building a new system from the ground up could be realized, in part, by using some of the following components; an Object Oriented Database, Tapestry, JXTA, BOINC, Globus, component architecture technology, XML and related libraries, Condor-G, Proteus, and ParMETIS.

  15. Development of an Object-Oriented Turbomachinery Analysis Code within the NPSS Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    During the preliminary or conceptual design phase of an aircraft engine, the turbomachinery designer has a need to estimate the effects of a large number of design parameters such as flow size, stage count, blade count, radial position, etc. on the weight and efficiency of a turbomachine. Computer codes are invariably used to perform this task however, such codes are often very old, written in outdated languages with arcane input files, and rarely adaptable to new architectures or unconventional layouts. Given the need to perform these kinds of preliminary design trades, a modern 2-D turbomachinery design and analysis code has been written using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) framework. This paper discusses the development of the governing equations and the structure of the primary objects used in OTAC.

  16. Objective evaluation of oral presentation skills using Inertial Measurement Units.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Salvatore; Kong, Weisheng; Zhang, Di; Cosentino, Sarah; Manawadu, Udara; Kawasaki, Motoji; Thomas, George Thuruthel; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Tsumura, Ryosuke; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentation is considered as one of the most sought after skills by companies and professional organizations and program accreditation agencies. However, both learning process and evaluation of this skill are time demanding and complex tasks that need dedication and experience. Furthermore, the role of the instructor is fundamental during the presentation assessment. The instructor needs to consider several verbal and nonverbal communications cues sent in parallel and this kind of evaluation is often subjective. Even if there are oral presentation rubrics that try to standardize the evaluation, they are not an optimal solution because they do not provide the presenter a real-time feedback. In this paper, we describe a system for behavioral monitoring during presentations. We propose an ecological measurement system based on Inertial Measurement Units to evaluate objectively the presenter's posture through objective parameters. The system can be used to provide a real-time feedback to the presenters unobtrusively. PMID:26736952

  17. Object-oriented fault tree evaluation program for quantitative analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1988-01-01

    Object-oriented programming can be combined with fault free techniques to give a significantly improved environment for evaluating the safety and reliability of large complex systems for space missions. Deep knowledge about system components and interactions, available from reliability studies and other sources, can be described using objects that make up a knowledge base. This knowledge base can be interrogated throughout the design process, during system testing, and during operation, and can be easily modified to reflect design changes in order to maintain a consistent information source. An object-oriented environment for reliability assessment has been developed on a Texas Instrument (TI) Explorer LISP workstation. The program, which directly evaluates system fault trees, utilizes the object-oriented extension to LISP called Flavors that is available on the Explorer. The object representation of a fault tree facilitates the storage and retrieval of information associated with each event in the tree, including tree structural information and intermediate results obtained during the tree reduction process. Reliability data associated with each basic event are stored in the fault tree objects. The object-oriented environment on the Explorer also includes a graphical tree editor which was modified to display and edit the fault trees.

  18. Methodology Evaluation Framework for Component-Based System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Ajantha; Sol, Henk; Stojanovic, Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Explains component-based development (CBD) for distributed information systems and presents an evaluation framework, which highlights the extent to which a methodology is component oriented. Compares prominent CBD methods, discusses ways of modeling, and suggests that this is a first step towards a components-oriented systems development…

  19. The AgMIP Framework to Evaluate Agricultural Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This talk will describe the community and research framework that AgMIP has built to enable evidence-based adaptation investment. We provide expertise on the ground and connect various disciplines in order to allow specific adaptations to be evaluated for their biophysical and socio-economic ramifications.

  20. Evaluating QR Code Case Studies Using a Mobile Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rikala, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Quick Response (QR) codes and mobile devices in the context of Finnish basic education. The feasibility was analyzed through a mobile learning framework, which includes the core characteristics of mobile learning. The study is part of a larger research where the aim is to develop a…

  1. A new objective method of evaluating image sharpness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isono, H.

    1984-02-01

    Our daily lives are filled with a variety of images, including those produced by computer tomography, and supersonic images, as well as photographs and TV pictures, and the image processing technology of computers has progressed greatly. Although the final estimation of image quality must be made as a subjective evaluation by a human observer, the objective evaluation of image quality is extremely important to image technology, so that image transmission systems are designed rationally and image quality improved. Image sharpness is particularly important as a psycho-physical factor affecting the image quality of photographs and TV pictures. Many attempts were made to represent image sharpness using the physical parameters of image transmission systems, and a variety of evaluation methods were proposed for image sharpness. However, conventional sharpness evaluation methods may not fully apply to the evaluation of image sharpness for TV displays new evaluation method incorporating improvements to the calculation of TV image sharpness is proposed.

  2. ESDORA: A Data Archive Infrastructure Using Digital Object Model and Open Source Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Biva; Pan, Jerry; Green, Jim; Palanisamy, Giriprakash; Wei, Yaxing; Lenhardt, W.; Cook, R. Bob; Wilson, B. E.; Leggott, M.

    2011-12-01

    There are an array of challenges associated with preserving, managing, and using contemporary scientific data. Large volume, multiple formats and data services, and the lack of a coherent mechanism for metadata/data management are some of the common issues across data centers. It is often difficult to preserve the data history and lineage information, along with other descriptive metadata, hindering the true science value for the archived data products. In this project, we use digital object abstraction architecture as the information/knowledge framework to address these challenges. We have used the following open-source frameworks: Fedora-Commons Repository, Drupal Content Management System, Islandora (Drupal Module) and Apache Solr Search Engine. The system is an active archive infrastructure for Earth Science data resources, which include ingestion, archiving, distribution, and discovery functionalities. We use an ingestion workflow to ingest the data and metadata, where many different aspects of data descriptions (including structured and non-structured metadata) are reviewed. The data and metadata are published after reviewing multiple times. They are staged during the reviewing phase. Each digital object is encoded in XML for long-term preservation of the content and relations among the digital items. The software architecture provides a flexible, modularized framework for adding pluggable user-oriented functionality. Solr is used to enable word search as well as faceted search. A home grown spatial search module is plugged in to allow user to make a spatial selection in a map view. A RDF semantic store within the Fedora-Commons Repository is used for storing information on data lineage, dissemination services, and text-based metadata. We use the semantic notion "isViewerFor" to register internally or externally referenced URLs, which are rendered within the same web browser when possible. With appropriate mapping of content into digital objects, many

  3. Training Objectives, Transfer, Validation and Evaluation: A Sri Lankan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stratified random sample, this paper examines the training practices of setting objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation in Sri Lanka. The paper further sets out to compare those practices across local, foreign and joint-venture companies based on the assumption that there may be significant differences across companies of different…

  4. Methodology for Evaluating Quality and Reusability of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Bireniene, Virginija; Serikoviene, Silvija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the scientific model and several methods for the expert evaluation of quality of learning objects (LOs) paying especial attention to LOs reusability level. The activities of eQNet Quality Network for a European Learning Resource Exchange (LRE) aimed to improve reusability of LOs of European Schoolnet's LRE…

  5. Evaluating cloud retrieval algorithms with the ARM BBHRP framework

    SciTech Connect

    Mlawer,E.; Dunn,M.; Mlawer, E.; Shippert, T.; Troyan, D.; Johnson, K. L.; Miller, M. A.; Delamere, J.; Turner, D. D.; Jensen, M. P.; Flynn, C.; Shupe, M.; Comstock, J.; Long, C. N.; Clough, S. T.; Sivaraman, C.; Khaiyer, M.; Xie, S.; Rutan, D.; Minnis, P.

    2008-03-10

    Climate and weather prediction models require accurate calculations of vertical profiles of radiative heating. Although heating rate calculations cannot be directly validated due to the lack of corresponding observations, surface and top-of-atmosphere measurements can indirectly establish the quality of computed heating rates through validation of the calculated irradiances at the atmospheric boundaries. The ARM Broadband Heating Rate Profile (BBHRP) project, a collaboration of all the working groups in the program, was designed with these heating rate validations as a key objective. Given the large dependence of radiative heating rates on cloud properties, a critical component of BBHRP radiative closure analyses has been the evaluation of cloud microphysical retrieval algorithms. This evaluation is an important step in establishing the necessary confidence in the continuous profiles of computed radiative heating rates produced by BBHRP at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites that are needed for modeling studies. This poster details the continued effort to evaluate cloud property retrieval algorithms within the BBHRP framework, a key focus of the project this year. A requirement for the computation of accurate heating rate profiles is a robust cloud microphysical product that captures the occurrence, height, and phase of clouds above each ACRF site. Various approaches to retrieve the microphysical properties of liquid, ice, and mixed-phase clouds have been processed in BBHRP for the ACRF Southern Great Plains (SGP) and the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. These retrieval methods span a range of assumptions concerning the parameterization of cloud location, particle density, size, shape, and involve different measurement sources. We will present the radiative closure results from several different retrieval approaches for the SGP site, including those from Microbase, the current 'reference' retrieval approach in BBHRP. At the NSA, mixed-phase clouds and

  6. Evaluating communities of practice and knowledge networks: a systematic scoping review of evaluation frameworks.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Kaileah A; Pitzul, Kristen B; Yi, Juliana Y; Cole, Donald C

    2014-09-01

    Communities of Practice (CoPs) are increasingly considered a part of ecohealth and other sectors such as health care, education, and business. However, there is little agreement on approaches to evaluate the influence and effectiveness of CoPs. The purpose of this review was to understand what frameworks and methods have been proposed or used to evaluate CoPs and/or knowledge networks. The review searched electronic databases in interdisciplinary, health, education, and business fields, and further collected references and forward citations from relevant articles. Nineteen articles with 16 frameworks were included in the synthesis. The purposes of the evaluation frameworks varied; while some focused on assessing the performance of CoPs, several frameworks sought to learn about CoPs and their critical success factors. Nine of the frameworks had been applied or tested in some way, most frequently to guide a case study. With limited applications of the frameworks, strong claims about generalizability could not be made. The review results can inform the development of tailored frameworks. However, there is a need for more detailed and targeted CoP evaluation frameworks, as many imperative CoP evaluation needs would be unmet by the available frameworks.

  7. Ethics and transgenesis: toward a policy framework incorporating intrinsic objections and societal perceptions.

    PubMed

    Gott, Miranda; Monamy, Vaughan

    2004-06-01

    Concerns about the use of transgenic animals can be broadly separated into extrinsic factors, such as risks to human and non-human health, environment, economy and society, and intrinsic factors, such as spiritual, cultural, moral or otherwise personal beliefs about humans, animals and Nature. We examine the bases for making ethical decisions about the use of transgenic animals and the intrinsic beliefs that underpin common objections to their use. We explore the need for a policy framework based on a utilitarian approach to ethical decision-making, which balances costs with benefits, but which also acknowledges the intrinsic beliefs that lie at the core of much opposition to genetic modification of animals. In particular circumstances, intrinsic objections may lead to a society refusing to condone transgenesis regardless of the weight of benefit promised from proposed uses. In sensitive subject areas such as regulating the use of transgenic animals, public policy is hard-pressed to keep up with the rapid pace of technological change. We advocate the use of dynamic processes that are capable of reflecting shifting public attitudes.

  8. A flexible object-oriented software framework for developing complex multimedia simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelko, P. J.; Dolph, J. E.; Christiansen, J. H.

    2002-05-03

    Decision makers involved in brownfields redevelopment and long-term stewardship must consider environmental conditions, future-use potential, site ownership, area infrastructure, funding resources, cost recovery, regulations, risk and liability management, community relations, and expected return on investment in a comprehensive and integrated fashion to achieve desired results. Successful brownfields redevelopment requires the ability to assess the impacts of redevelopment options on multiple interrelated aspects of the ecosystem, both natural and societal. Computer-based tools, such as simulation models, databases, and geographical information systems (GISs) can be used to address brownfields planning and project execution. The transparent integration of these tools into a comprehensive and dynamic decision support system would greatly enhance the brownfields assessment process. Such a system needs to be able to adapt to shifting and expanding analytical requirements and contexts. The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-oriented framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations of a wide variety of application domains. The modeling domain of a specific DIAS-based simulation is determined by (1) software objects that represent the real-world entities that comprise the problem space (atmosphere, watershed, human), and (2) simulation models and other data processing applications that express the dynamic behaviors of the domain entities. Models and applications used to express dynamic behaviors can be either internal or external to DIAS, including existing legacy models written in various languages (FORTRAN, C, etc.). The flexible design framework of DIAS makes the objects adjustable to the context of the problem without a great deal of recoding. The DIAS Spatial Data Set facility allows parameters to vary spatially depending on the simulation context according to any of a number of 1-D, 2-D

  9. An Evaluation of Database Solutions to Spatial Object Association

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V S; Kurc, T; Saltz, J; Abdulla, G M; Kohn, S; Matarazzo, C

    2008-06-24

    Object association is a common problem encountered in many applications. Spatial object association, also referred to as crossmatch of spatial datasets, is the problem of identifying and comparing objects in two datasets based on their positions in a common spatial coordinate system--one of the datasets may correspond to a catalog of objects observed over time in a multi-dimensional domain; the other dataset may consist of objects observed in a snapshot of the domain at a time point. The use of database management systems to the solve the object association problem provides portability across different platforms and also greater flexibility. Increasing dataset sizes in today's applications, however, have made object association a data/compute-intensive problem that requires targeted optimizations for efficient execution. In this work, we investigate how database-based crossmatch algorithms can be deployed on different database system architectures and evaluate the deployments to understand the impact of architectural choices on crossmatch performance and associated trade-offs. We investigate the execution of two crossmatch algorithms on (1) a parallel database system with active disk style processing capabilities, (2) a high-throughput network database (MySQL Cluster), and (3) shared-nothing databases with replication. We have conducted our study in the context of a large-scale astronomy application with real use-case scenarios.

  10. Objective climate classification as a framework for assessing projected climate change in High Mountain Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Nathan; Fowler, Hayley; Pritchard, David; Blenkinsop, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    This study builds upon foundational work by Forsythe et al (2015, doi: 10.5194/esd-6-311-2015) which used principal component analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering to derive objective present climate classifications over High Mountain Asia and adjacent regions (60E to 100E, 20N to 40N) based on global meteorological reanalyses' estimates of the drivers of water resources availability and variability (precipitation, surface shortwave radiation, daily mean near surface air temperature and its diurnal range). This study refines Forsythe et al (2015) by testing the potential for spatially disaggregating coarse global reanalyses (and climate model outputs) using iterative classification and regression processing to achieve a 5km (0.05 decimal degree) horizontal resolution in order better capture the severe topographic range and gradients of the HMA domain. This spatial refinement should allow for better intercomparability of resultant classifications derived from datasets with different native resolutions. This intercomparability is critical because the second stage of this assesses climate change projections from a range regional climate model experiments - UK Hadley Centre RQUMP 25km South Asia perturbed physics ensemble, CORDEX South Asia domain and (pending dataset availability) NextData EC-Earth 15km high resolution HMA domain - using derived objective classifications as a framework for aggregation. By establishing sub-regional units of relative homogeneity, the objective classification approach allows twofold assessment of project future climate scenarios, i.e. change can be quantified not only as perturbation of key variables (e.g. precipitation, temperature, etc) but also in terms of the spatial descriptors (areal extent, surface elevation range and mean, latitudinal and longitudinal bounds) of the identified climate zones. It is expected that this novel approach, and in particular the very high target spatial resolution, will yield important insights into the

  11. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. Methods To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. Results The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. Conclusions The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware

  12. Intermediate Educational Service Agency Evaluation: Levels of Program Objectives and Associated Evaluation Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drezek, Stan; Roecks, Alan L.

    How the "Levels of Program Objectives Model" (LPOM) can be used to carry out objectives-based evaluation is explained. The LPOM explains the relationship between an instructional program of a district and various programs supporting the district program. The evolution of an objective-based evaluation approach within the context of an intermediate…

  13. Objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging.

    PubMed

    Eder, Maximilian; Waldenfels, Fee V; Swobodnik, Alexandra; Klöppel, Markus; Pape, Ann-Kathrin; Schuster, Tibor; Raith, Stefan; Kitzler, Elena; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Machens, Hans-Günther; Kovacs, Laszlo

    2012-04-01

    This study develops an objective breast symmetry evaluation using 3-D surface imaging (Konica-Minolta V910(®) scanner) by superimposing the mirrored left breast over the right and objectively determining the mean 3-D contour difference between the 2 breast surfaces. 3 observers analyzed the evaluation protocol precision using 2 dummy models (n = 60), 10 test subjects (n = 300), clinically tested it on 30 patients (n = 900) and compared it to established 2-D measurements on 23 breast reconstructive patients using the BCCT.core software (n = 690). Mean 3-D evaluation precision, expressed as the coefficient of variation (VC), was 3.54 ± 0.18 for all human subjects without significant intra- and inter-observer differences (p > 0.05). The 3-D breast symmetry evaluation is observer independent, significantly more precise (p < 0.001) than the BCCT.core software (VC = 6.92 ± 0.88) and may play a part in an objective surgical outcome analysis after incorporation into clinical practice.

  14. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  15. An Evaluative Review of Simulated Dynamic Smart 3d Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, H.; Sheth, F.; Pettit, C. J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of plants can be an asset for creating agricultural based visualisation products. The continuum of 3D plants models ranges from static to dynamic objects, also known as smart 3D objects. There is an increasing requirement for smarter simulated 3D objects that are attributed mathematically and/or from biological inputs. A systematic approach to plant simulation offers significant advantages to applications in agricultural research, particularly in simulating plant behaviour and the influences of external environmental factors. This approach of 3D plant object visualisation is primarily evident from the visualisation of plants using photographed billboarded images, to more advanced procedural models that come closer to simulating realistic virtual plants. However, few programs model physical reactions of plants to external factors and even fewer are able to grow plants based on mathematical and/or biological parameters. In this paper, we undertake an evaluation of plant-based object simulation programs currently available, with a focus upon the components and techniques involved in producing these objects. Through an analytical review process we consider the strengths and weaknesses of several program packages, the features and use of these programs and the possible opportunities in deploying these for creating smart 3D plant-based objects to support agricultural research and natural resource management. In creating smart 3D objects the model needs to be informed by both plant physiology and phenology. Expert knowledge will frame the parameters and procedures that will attribute the object and allow the simulation of dynamic virtual plants. Ultimately, biologically smart 3D virtual plants that react to changes within an environment could be an effective medium to visually represent landscapes and communicate land management scenarios and practices to planners and decision-makers.

  16. An ecosystem evaluation framework for global seamount conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Taranto, Gerald H; Kvile, Kristina Ø; Pitcher, Tony J; Morato, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    In the last twenty years, several global targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at global, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize management efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow managers to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their management objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals. PMID:22905190

  17. An ecosystem evaluation framework for global seamount conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Taranto, Gerald H; Kvile, Kristina Ø; Pitcher, Tony J; Morato, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    In the last twenty years, several global targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at global, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize management efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow managers to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their management objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals.

  18. An Ecosystem Evaluation Framework for Global Seamount Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Taranto, Gerald H.; Kvile, Kristina Ø.; Pitcher, Tony J.; Morato, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    In the last twenty years, several global targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at global, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize management efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow managers to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their management objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals. PMID:22905190

  19. Attitudes as Object-Evaluation Associations of Varying Strength

    PubMed Central

    Fazio, Russell H.

    2009-01-01

    Historical developments regarding the attitude concept are reviewed, and set the stage for consideration of a theoretical perspective that views attitude, not as a hypothetical construct, but as evaluative knowledge. A model of attitudes as object-evaluation associations of varying strength is summarized, along with research supporting the model’s contention that at least some attitudes are represented in memory and activated automatically upon the individual’s encountering the attitude object. The implications of the theoretical perspective for a number of recent discussions related to the attitude concept are elaborated. Among these issues are the notion of attitudes as “constructions,” the presumed malleability of automatically-activated attitudes, correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitude, and postulated dual or multiple attitudes. PMID:19424447

  20. Blogging for Evaluating Objectives in an International Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Strang, Sharon; Knopp, Andrea; Schubert, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Nursing educators need to adapt to meet students in new technological spaces and in the increasingly global environment. This article provides background on blogging as an educational tool and the use of a blogging assignment for evaluation of course objectives in an international graduate nursing course. The blog is a part of a study-abroad experience in Kenya, where graduate nursing students learn about Kenyan culture and work in the health care system.

  1. Blogging for Evaluating Objectives in an International Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Strang, Sharon; Knopp, Andrea; Schubert, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Nursing educators need to adapt to meet students in new technological spaces and in the increasingly global environment. This article provides background on blogging as an educational tool and the use of a blogging assignment for evaluation of course objectives in an international graduate nursing course. The blog is a part of a study-abroad experience in Kenya, where graduate nursing students learn about Kenyan culture and work in the health care system. PMID:25888104

  2. A portfolio evaluation framework for air transportation improvement projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baik, Hyeoncheol

    This thesis explores the application of portfolio theory to the Air Transportation System (ATS) improvement. The ATS relies on complexly related resources and different stakeholder groups. Moreover, demand for air travel is significantly increasing relative to capacity of air transportation. In this environment, improving the ATS is challenging. Many projects, which are defined as technologies or initiatives, for improvement have been proposed and some have been demonstrated in practice. However, there is no clear understanding of how well these projects work in different conditions nor of how they interact with each other or with existing systems. These limitations make it difficult to develop good project combinations, or portfolios that maximize improvement. To help address this gap, a framework for identifying good portfolios is proposed. The framework can be applied to individual projects or portfolios of projects. Projects or portfolios are evaluated using four different groups of factors (effectiveness, time-to-implement, scope of applicability, and stakeholder impacts). Portfolios are also evaluated in terms of interaction-determining factors (prerequisites, co-requisites, limiting factors, and amplifying factors) because, while a given project might work well in isolation, interdependencies between projects or with existing systems could result in lower overall performance in combination. Ways to communicate a portfolio to decision makers are also introduced. The framework is unique because (1) it allows using a variety of available data, and (2) it covers diverse benefit metrics. For demonstrating the framework, an application to ground delay management projects serves as a case study. The portfolio evaluation approach introduced in this thesis can aid decision makers and researchers at universities and aviation agencies such as Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DoD), in

  3. A Novel Multiple Objective Optimization Framework for Constraining Conductance-Based Neuron Models by Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Druckmann, Shaul; Banitt, Yoav; Gidon, Albert; Schürmann, Felix; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2007-01-01

    We present a novel framework for automatically constraining parameters of compartmental models of neurons, given a large set of experimentally measured responses of these neurons. In experiments, intrinsic noise gives rise to a large variability (e.g., in firing pattern) in the voltage responses to repetitions of the exact same input. Thus, the common approach of fitting models by attempting to perfectly replicate, point by point, a single chosen trace out of the spectrum of variable responses does not seem to do justice to the data. In addition, finding a single error function that faithfully characterizes the distance between two spiking traces is not a trivial pursuit. To address these issues, one can adopt a multiple objective optimization approach that allows the use of several error functions jointly. When more than one error function is available, the comparison between experimental voltage traces and model response can be performed on the basis of individual features of interest (e.g., spike rate, spike width). Each feature can be compared between model and experimental mean, in units of its experimental variability, thereby incorporating into the fitting this variability. We demonstrate the success of this approach, when used in conjunction with genetic algorithm optimization, in generating an excellent fit between model behavior and the firing pattern of two distinct electrical classes of cortical interneurons, accommodating and fast-spiking. We argue that the multiple, diverse models generated by this method could serve as the building blocks for the realistic simulation of large neuronal networks. PMID:18982116

  4. Evaluating metal-organic frameworks for natural gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, JA; Veenstra, M; Long, JR

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have received significant attention as a new class of adsorbents for natural gas storage; however, inconsistencies in reporting high-pressure adsorption data and a lack of comparative studies have made it challenging to evaluate both new and existing materials. Here, we briefly discuss high-pressure adsorption measurements and review efforts to develop metal-organic frameworks with high methane storage capacities. To illustrate the most important properties for evaluating adsorbents for natural gas storage and for designing a next generation of improved materials, six metal-organic frameworks and an activated carbon, with a range of surface areas, pore structures, and surface chemistries representative of the most promising adsorbents for methane storage, are evaluated in detail. High-pressure methane adsorption isotherms are used to compare gravimetric and volumetric capacities, isosteric heats of adsorption, and usable storage capacities. Additionally, the relative importance of increasing volumetric capacity, rather than gravimetric capacity, for extending the driving range of natural gas vehicles is highlighted. Other important systems-level factors, such as thermal management, mechanical properties, and the effects of impurities, are also considered, and potential materials synthesis contributions to improving performance in a complete adsorbed natural gas system are discussed.

  5. The value of an evaluation framework for telehealth initiatives.

    PubMed

    Scott, R E; Coates, K; McCarthy, G F

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare managers and policy makers will, in the immediate and near future, make major decisions about the allocation of scarce healthcare resources for telehealth 'solutions'. In our haste to capitalize on what technology can do we may be obscuring discussion and research about what technology should do. For example, currently much attention is being paid to standardization for technological aspects of telehealth. In contrast few efforts have been made to seek standardization in regards to a broad evaluation framework for telehealth. A body of opinion believes that missing in our rush into the on-line world is a systematic approach to research into the human, social, cultural, economic, and political factors associated with healthcare. As a result we lack the tools and experience necessary to assess the true value and implications of telehealth 'solutions'. Developing general guidelines for an evaluation framework, from needs assessment through integrated research to post-study assessment, would greatly enhance the quality of decision making by healthcare managers and policy makers. We propose a model--the Telehealth Integrated Research Model (TIRM)--as the first step in encouraging discussion and development of an internationally accepted standardized telehealth evaluation framework.

  6. Consensus: a framework for evaluation of uncertain gene variants in laboratory test reporting

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Accurate interpretation of gene testing is a key component in customizing patient therapy. Where confirming evidence for a gene variant is lacking, computational prediction may be employed. A standardized framework, however, does not yet exist for quantitative evaluation of disease association for uncertain or novel gene variants in an objective manner. Here, complementary predictors for missense gene variants were incorporated into a weighted Consensus framework that includes calculated reference intervals from known disease outcomes. Data visualization for clinical reporting is also discussed. PMID:22640420

  7. Evaluating the inverse reasoning account of object discovery.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christopher D; Kemp, Charles

    2015-06-01

    People routinely make inferences about unobserved objects. A hotel guest with welts on his arms, for example, will often worry about bed bugs. The discovery of unobserved objects almost always involves a backward inference from some observed effects (e.g., welts) to unobserved causes (e.g., bed bugs). The inverse reasoning account, which is typically formalized as Bayesian inference, posits that the strength of a backward inference is closely connected to the strength of the corresponding forward inference from the unobserved causes to the observed effects. We evaluated the inverse reasoning account of object discovery in three experiments where participants were asked to discover the unobserved "attractors" and "repellers" that controlled a "particle" moving within an arena. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that participants often failed to provide the best explanations for various particle motions, even when the best explanations were simple and when participants enthusiastically endorsed these explanations when presented with them. This failure demonstrates that object discovery is critically dependent on the processes that support hypothesis generation-processes that the inverse reasoning account does not explain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that people sometimes generate explanations that are invalid even according to their own forward inferences, suggesting that the psychological processes that support forward and backward inference are less intertwined than the inverse reasoning account suggests. The experimental findings support an alternative account of object discovery in which people rely on heuristics to generate possible explanations.

  8. Evaluating the inverse reasoning account of object discovery.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Christopher D; Kemp, Charles

    2015-06-01

    People routinely make inferences about unobserved objects. A hotel guest with welts on his arms, for example, will often worry about bed bugs. The discovery of unobserved objects almost always involves a backward inference from some observed effects (e.g., welts) to unobserved causes (e.g., bed bugs). The inverse reasoning account, which is typically formalized as Bayesian inference, posits that the strength of a backward inference is closely connected to the strength of the corresponding forward inference from the unobserved causes to the observed effects. We evaluated the inverse reasoning account of object discovery in three experiments where participants were asked to discover the unobserved "attractors" and "repellers" that controlled a "particle" moving within an arena. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that participants often failed to provide the best explanations for various particle motions, even when the best explanations were simple and when participants enthusiastically endorsed these explanations when presented with them. This failure demonstrates that object discovery is critically dependent on the processes that support hypothesis generation-processes that the inverse reasoning account does not explain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that people sometimes generate explanations that are invalid even according to their own forward inferences, suggesting that the psychological processes that support forward and backward inference are less intertwined than the inverse reasoning account suggests. The experimental findings support an alternative account of object discovery in which people rely on heuristics to generate possible explanations. PMID:25824861

  9. A novel objective evaluation method for trunk function

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Masashi; Ishida, Kazunari; Yoneda, Yuki; Naka, Yuta; Kitanishi, Hideyuki; Oyagi, Hirotaka; Hoshino, Yuichi; Shibanuma, Nao

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate whether an objective evaluation method for trunk function, namely the “trunk righting test”, is reproducible and reliable by testing on different observers (from experienced to beginners) and by confirming the test-retest reliability. [Subjects] Five healthy subjects were evaluated in this correlation study. [Methods] A handheld dynamometer was used in the assessments. The motor task was a trunk righting motion by moving the part with the sensor pad 10 cm outward from the original position. During measurement, the posture was held at maximum effort for 5 s. Measurement was repeated three times. Interexaminer reproducibility was examined in two physical therapists with 1 year experience and one physical therapist with 7 years of experience. The measured values were evaluated for reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 1.1) and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2.1). [Results] The test-retest reliability ICC 1.1 and ICC 2.1 were all high. The ICC 1.1 was >0.90. The ICC 2.1 was 0.93. [Conclusion] We developed the trunk righting test as a novel objective evaluation method for trunk function. As the study included inexperienced therapists, the results suggest that the trunk righting test could be used in the clinic, independent of the experience of the therapists. PMID:26157279

  10. The challenge of evaluating complex interventions: a framework for evaluating media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Stead, Martine; Hastings, Gerard; Eadie, Douglas

    2002-06-01

    New health promotion and public health approaches such as media advocacy pose particular evaluation challenges. Evaluation is important to provide feedback to media advocacy practitioners on how to enhance their efforts, and to funders and researchers seeking to assess media advocacy's effectiveness as a health promotion strategy. The media advocacy evaluation literature contains some examples of promising evaluation approaches but is still evolving. A comprehensive framework for the evaluation of media advocacy is presented. Building on existing approaches to evaluation in media advocacy and on current thinking regarding evaluation in health promotion, it proposes a series of indicators and research methods for evaluating media advocacy at the levels of formative, process and outcome evaluation. The framework can be used to encourage strategic reflection on the media advocacy process, to guide evaluation of specific interventions, and to demonstrate to funders the importance and complexity of evaluation in this promising field.

  11. Genetic Counseling Milestones: A Framework for Student Competency Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Guy, Carrie

    2016-08-01

    Graduate medical education has recently increased focus on the development of medical specialty competency milestones to provide a targeted tool for medical resident evaluation. Milestones provide developmental assessment of the attainment of competencies over the course of an educational program. An educational framework is described to explore the development of Genetic Counseling Milestones for the evaluation of the development of genetic counseling competencies by genetic counseling students. The development of Genetic Counseling Milestones may provide a valuable tool to assess genetic counseling students across all program activities. Historical educational context, current practices, and potential benefits and challenges in the development of Genetic Counseling Milestones are discussed.

  12. A Patient-Centered Framework for Evaluating Digital Maturity of Health Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Ryan; Darzi, Ara; Mayer, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital maturity is the extent to which digital technologies are used as enablers to deliver a high-quality health service. Extensive literature exists about how to assess the components of digital maturity, but it has not been used to design a comprehensive framework for evaluation. Consequently, the measurement systems that do exist are limited to evaluating digital programs within one service or care setting, meaning that digital maturity evaluation is not accounting for the needs of patients across their care pathways. Objective The objective of our study was to identify the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity and to create a novel, evidence-based tool for evaluating digital maturity across patient care pathways. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature to find the best methods and metrics for evaluating digital maturity. We searched the PubMed database for all papers relevant to digital maturity evaluation. Papers were selected if they provided insight into how to appraise digital systems within the health service and if they indicated the factors that constitute or facilitate digital maturity. Papers were analyzed to identify methodology for evaluating digital maturity and indicators of digitally mature systems. We then used the resulting information about methodology to design an evaluation framework. Following that, the indicators of digital maturity were extracted and grouped into increasing levels of maturity and operationalized as metrics within the evaluation framework. Results We identified 28 papers as relevant to evaluating digital maturity, from which we derived 5 themes. The first theme concerned general evaluation methodology for constructing the framework (7 papers). The following 4 themes were the increasing levels of digital maturity: resources and ability (6 papers), usage (7 papers), interoperability (3 papers), and impact (5 papers). The framework includes metrics for each of these levels at each

  13. A multi-objective optimization framework to model 3D river and landscape evolution processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzi, Simone; Castelletti, Andrea; Cominola, Andrea; Mason, Emanuele; Paik, Kyungrock

    2013-04-01

    Water and sediment interactions shape hillslopes, regulate soil erosion and sedimentation, and organize river networks. Landscape evolution and river organization occur at various spatial and temporal scale and the understanding and modelling of them is highly complex. The idea of a least action principle governing river networks evolution has been proposed many times as a simpler approach among the ones existing in the literature. These theories assume that river networks, as observed in nature, self-organize and act on soil transportation in order to satisfy a particular "optimality" criterion. Accordingly, river and landscape weathering can be simulated by solving an optimization problem, where the choice of the criterion to be optimized becomes the initial assumption. The comparison between natural river networks and optimized ones verifies the correctness of this initial assumption. Yet, various criteria have been proposed in literature and there is no consensus on which is better able to explain river network features observed in nature like network branching and river bed profile: each one is able to reproduce some river features through simplified modelling of the natural processes, but it fails to characterize the whole complexity (3D and its dynamic) of the natural processes. Some of the criteria formulated in the literature partly conflict: the reason is that their formulation rely on mathematical and theoretical simplifications of the natural system that are suitable for specific spatial and temporal scale but fails to represent the whole processes characterizing landscape evolution. In an attempt to address some of these scientific questions, we tested the suitability of using a multi-objective optimization framework to describe river and landscape evolution in a 3D spatial domain. A synthetic landscape is used to this purpose. Multiple, alternative river network evolutions, corresponding to as many tradeoffs between the different and partly

  14. Benefit From Directional Microphone Hearing Aids: Objective and Subjective Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Sung; Jin, Sun Hwa; Choi, Ji Eun; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to find and compare the effect of directional (DIR) processing of two different hearing aids via both subjective and objective methods, to determine the association between the results of the subjective and objective evaluations, and to find out individual predictive factors influencing the DIR benefit. Methods Twenty-six hearing aid users fitted unilaterally with each two different experimental hearing aid performed modified Korean Hearing in Noise Test (K-HINT) in three DIR conditions; omnidirectional (OMNI) mode, OMNI plus noise reduction feature, fixed DIR mode. In order to determine benefits from DIR benefit within a hearing aid and compare performance of the DIR processing between hearing aids, a subjective questionnaire was administrated on speech quality (SQ) and discomfort in noise (DN) domain. Correlation analysis of factors influencing DIR benefit was accomplished. Results Benefits from switching OMNI mode to DIR mode within both hearing aids in K-HINT were about 2.8 (standard deviation, 3.5) and 2.1 dB SNR (signal to ratio; SD, 2.5), but significant difference in K-HINT results between OMNI and OMNI plus noise reduction algorithm was not shown. The subjective evaluation resulted in the better SQ and DN scores in DIR mode than those in OMNI mode. However, the difference of scores on both SQ and DN between the two hearing aids with DIR mode was not statistically significant. Any individual factors did not significantly affect subjective and objective DIR benefits. Conclusion DIR benefit was found not only in the objective measurement performed in the laboratory but also in the subjective questionnaires, but the subjective results was failed to have significant correlation with the DIR benefit obtained in the K-HINT. Factors influencing individual variation in perceptual DIR benefit were still hard to explain. PMID:26330918

  15. Object-adapted inverse pattern projection: generation, evaluation, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bothe, Thorsten; Li, Wansong; von Kopylow, Christoph; Juptner, Werner P.

    2003-05-01

    Fast and robust 3D quality control as well as fast deformation measurement is of particular importance for industrial inspection. Additionally a direct response about measured properties is desired. Therefore, robust optical techniques are needed which use as few images as possible for measurement and visualize results in an efficient way. One promising technique for this aim is the inverse pattern projection which has the following advantages: The technique codes the information of a preceding measurement into the projected inverse pattern. Thus, it is possible to do differential measurements using only one camera frame for each state. Additionally, the results are optimized straight fringes for sampling which are independent of the object curvature. The ability to use any image for inverse projection enables the use for augmented reality, i.e. any properties can be visualized directly on the object's surface which makes inspections easier than with use of a separated indicating device. The hardware needs are low as just a programmable projector and a standard camera are necessary. The basic idea of inverse pattern projection, necessary algorithms ane found optimizations are demonstrated, roughly. Evaluation techniques were found to preserve a high quality phase measurement under imperfect conditions. The different application fields can be sorted out by the type of pattern used for inverse projection. We select two main topics for presentation. One is the incremental (one image per state) deformation measurement which is a promising technique for high speed deformation measurements. A video series of a wavering flag with projected inverse pattern was evaluated to show the complete deformation series. The other application is the optical feature marking (augmented reality) that allows to map any measured result directly onto the object under investigation. The general ability to straighten any kind of information on 3D surfaces is shown while preserving an exact

  16. MRBrainS Challenge: Online Evaluation Framework for Brain Image Segmentation in 3T MRI Scans.

    PubMed

    Mendrik, Adriënne M; Vincken, Koen L; Kuijf, Hugo J; Breeuwer, Marcel; Bouvy, Willem H; de Bresser, Jeroen; Alansary, Amir; de Bruijne, Marleen; Carass, Aaron; El-Baz, Ayman; Jog, Amod; Katyal, Ranveer; Khan, Ali R; van der Lijn, Fedde; Mahmood, Qaiser; Mukherjee, Ryan; van Opbroek, Annegreet; Paneri, Sahil; Pereira, Sérgio; Persson, Mikael; Rajchl, Martin; Sarikaya, Duygu; Smedby, Örjan; Silva, Carlos A; Vrooman, Henri A; Vyas, Saurabh; Wang, Chunliang; Zhao, Liang; Biessels, Geert Jan; Viergever, Max A

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tissue segmentation in brain MRI scans. The multitude of methods proposed complicates the choice of one method above others. We have therefore established the MRBrainS online evaluation framework for evaluating (semi)automatic algorithms that segment gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on 3T brain MRI scans of elderly subjects (65-80 y). Participants apply their algorithms to the provided data, after which their results are evaluated and ranked. Full manual segmentations of GM, WM, and CSF are available for all scans and used as the reference standard. Five datasets are provided for training and fifteen for testing. The evaluated methods are ranked based on their overall performance to segment GM, WM, and CSF and evaluated using three evaluation metrics (Dice, H95, and AVD) and the results are published on the MRBrainS13 website. We present the results of eleven segmentation algorithms that participated in the MRBrainS13 challenge workshop at MICCAI, where the framework was launched, and three commonly used freeware packages: FreeSurfer, FSL, and SPM. The MRBrainS evaluation framework provides an objective and direct comparison of all evaluated algorithms and can aid in selecting the best performing method for the segmentation goal at hand. PMID:26759553

  17. MRBrainS Challenge: Online Evaluation Framework for Brain Image Segmentation in 3T MRI Scans

    PubMed Central

    Mendrik, Adriënne M.; Vincken, Koen L.; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; Bouvy, Willem H.; de Bresser, Jeroen; Alansary, Amir; de Bruijne, Marleen; Carass, Aaron; El-Baz, Ayman; Jog, Amod; Katyal, Ranveer; Khan, Ali R.; van der Lijn, Fedde; Mahmood, Qaiser; Mukherjee, Ryan; van Opbroek, Annegreet; Paneri, Sahil; Pereira, Sérgio; Rajchl, Martin; Sarikaya, Duygu; Smedby, Örjan; Silva, Carlos A.; Vrooman, Henri A.; Vyas, Saurabh; Wang, Chunliang; Zhao, Liang; Biessels, Geert Jan; Viergever, Max A.

    2015-01-01

    Many methods have been proposed for tissue segmentation in brain MRI scans. The multitude of methods proposed complicates the choice of one method above others. We have therefore established the MRBrainS online evaluation framework for evaluating (semi)automatic algorithms that segment gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) on 3T brain MRI scans of elderly subjects (65–80 y). Participants apply their algorithms to the provided data, after which their results are evaluated and ranked. Full manual segmentations of GM, WM, and CSF are available for all scans and used as the reference standard. Five datasets are provided for training and fifteen for testing. The evaluated methods are ranked based on their overall performance to segment GM, WM, and CSF and evaluated using three evaluation metrics (Dice, H95, and AVD) and the results are published on the MRBrainS13 website. We present the results of eleven segmentation algorithms that participated in the MRBrainS13 challenge workshop at MICCAI, where the framework was launched, and three commonly used freeware packages: FreeSurfer, FSL, and SPM. The MRBrainS evaluation framework provides an objective and direct comparison of all evaluated algorithms and can aid in selecting the best performing method for the segmentation goal at hand. PMID:26759553

  18. SERVAL: a new framework for the evaluation of animal health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Gunn, G; Stärk, K D C

    2015-02-01

    Animal health surveillance programmes may change in response to altering requirements or perceived weaknesses but are seldom subjected to any formal evaluation to ensure that they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. The literature on the evaluation of animal health surveillance systems is sparse, and those that are published may be unstructured and therefore incomplete. To address this gap, we have developed SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework, which is novel and aims to be generic and therefore suitable for the evaluation of any animal health surveillance system. The inclusion of socio-economic criteria ensures that economic evaluation is an integral part of this framework. SERVAL was developed with input from a technical workshop of international experts followed by a consultation process involving providers and users of surveillance and evaluation data. It has been applied to a range of case studies encompassing different surveillance and evaluation objectives. Here, we describe the development, structure and application of the SERVAL framework. We discuss users' experiences in applying SERVAL to evaluate animal health surveillance systems in Great Britain.

  19. Subjective and objective evaluation of veal lean color.

    PubMed

    Lagoda, H L; Wilson, L L; Henning, W R; Flowers, S L; Mills, E W

    2002-07-01

    Because veal lean color continues to be a primary factor that determines veal carcass value and is typically assessed by subjective means, it is important to explore objective methods for color assessment. Objective and subjective evaluations of veal flank and breast lean color were compared as predictors of longissimus lean color at 24 h postmortem. One hundred fifty special-fed Holstein veal calves were Kosher-slaughtered with blood samples collected upon exsanguination and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin content. Lean color was evaluated in the flank and breast at 0, 6, 12, and 24 h postmortem. Color of the longissimus was evaluated at 6 h, when possible, and at 24 h. A panel of three trained individuals used a 5-point color standard developed in the Netherlands to visually evaluate lean color. A Minolta Chromameter CR-300 was used to obtain L*, a*, and b* values. A plant employee assigned packer grades at slaughter. Temperature and pH were also measured at each time period. Hemoglobin was more highly correlated than hematocrit with colorimeter values. Hemoglobin levels correlated well with a* values of the flank at 0 h postmortem (r = 0.52) although the correlation declined at 24 h (r = 0.30). The correlation between packer grades and 24-h visual loin color was r = 0.41. Visual loin color at 24 h postmortem was selected as the predicted variable for regression analysis. Temperature and pH did not contribute significantly to any prediction equations. The equation using breast L*, a*, and b* values at 24 h postmortem to predict 24-h loin color gave a higher prediction coefficient (R2 = 0.44) than the corresponding equation using 0-h breast values (R2 = 0.28). Objective measurement of lean color may be useful in veal carcass grading because it is more precise than subjective methods and would allow for uniformity among processing plants.

  20. Improvement of the R-SWAT-FME framework to support multiple variables and multi-objective functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Application of numerical models is a common practice in the environmental field for investigation and prediction of natural and anthropogenic processes. However, process knowledge, parameter identifiability, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses are still a challenge for large and complex mathematical models such as the hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the previously developed R program language-SWAT-Flexible Modeling Environment (R-SWAT-FME) was improved to support multiple model variables and objectives at multiple time steps (i.e., daily, monthly, and annually). This expansion is significant because there is usually more than one variable (e.g., water, nutrients, and pesticides) of interest for environmental models like SWAT. To further facilitate its easy use, we also simplified its application requirements without compromising its merits, such as the user-friendly interface. To evaluate the performance of the improved framework, we used a case study focusing on both streamflow and nitrate nitrogen in the Upper Iowa River Basin (above Marengo) in the United States. Results indicated that the R-SWAT-FME performs well and is comparable to the built-in auto-calibration tool in multi-objective model calibration. Overall, the enhanced R-SWAT-FME can be useful for the SWAT community, and the methods we used can also be valuable for wrapping potential R packages with other environmental models.

  1. Improvement of the R-SWAT-FME framework to support multiple variables and multi-objective functions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    Application of numerical models is a common practice in the environmental field for investigation and prediction of natural and anthropogenic processes. However, process knowledge, parameter identifiability, sensitivity, and uncertainty analyses are still a challenge for large and complex mathematical models such as the hydrological/water quality model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the previously developed R program language-SWAT-Flexible Modeling Environment (R-SWAT-FME) was improved to support multiple model variables and objectives at multiple time steps (i.e., daily, monthly, and annually). This expansion is significant because there is usually more than one variable (e.g., water, nutrients, and pesticides) of interest for environmental models like SWAT. To further facilitate its easy use, we also simplified its application requirements without compromising its merits, such as the user-friendly interface. To evaluate the performance of the improved framework, we used a case study focusing on both streamflow and nitrate nitrogen in the Upper Iowa River Basin (above Marengo) in the United States. Results indicated that the R-SWAT-FME performs well and is comparable to the built-in auto-calibration tool in multi-objective model calibration. Overall, the enhanced R-SWAT-FME can be useful for the SWAT community, and the methods we used can also be valuable for wrapping potential R packages with other environmental models. PMID:23933430

  2. Marine monitoring: Its shortcomings and mismatch with the EU Water Framework Directive's objectives.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, V N; Elliott, M; Brauer, V S

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to achieve good ecological status across European surface waters by 2015 and as such, it offers the opportunity and thus the challenge to improve the protection of our coastal systems. It is the main example for Europe's increasing desire to conserve aquatic ecosystems. Ironically, since c. 1975 the increasing adoption of EU directives has been accompanied by a decreasing interest of, for example, the Dutch government to assess the quality of its coastal and marine ecosystems. The surveillance and monitoring started in NL in 1971 has declined since the 1980s resulting in a 35% reduction of sampling stations. Given this and interruptions the remaining data series is considered to be insufficient for purposes other than trend analysis and compliance. The Dutch marine managers have apparently chosen a minimal (cost-effective) approach despite the WFD implicitly requiring the incorporation of the system's 'ecological complexity' in indices used to evaluate the ecological status of highly variable systems such as transitional and coastal waters. These indices should include both the community structure and system functioning and to make this really cost-effective a new monitoring strategy is required with a tailor-made programme. Since the adoption of the WFD in 2000 and the launching of the European Marine Strategy in 2002 (and the recently proposed Marine Framework Directive) we suggest reviewing national monitoring programmes in order to integrate water quality monitoring and biological monitoring and change from 'station oriented monitoring' to 'basin or system oriented monitoring' in combination with specific 'cause-effect' studies for highly dynamic coastal systems. Progress will be made if the collected information is integrated and aggregated in valuable tools such as structure- and functioning-oriented computer simulation models and Decision Support Systems. The development of ecological indices

  3. Marine monitoring: Its shortcomings and mismatch with the EU Water Framework Directive's objectives.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, V N; Elliott, M; Brauer, V S

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) is to achieve good ecological status across European surface waters by 2015 and as such, it offers the opportunity and thus the challenge to improve the protection of our coastal systems. It is the main example for Europe's increasing desire to conserve aquatic ecosystems. Ironically, since c. 1975 the increasing adoption of EU directives has been accompanied by a decreasing interest of, for example, the Dutch government to assess the quality of its coastal and marine ecosystems. The surveillance and monitoring started in NL in 1971 has declined since the 1980s resulting in a 35% reduction of sampling stations. Given this and interruptions the remaining data series is considered to be insufficient for purposes other than trend analysis and compliance. The Dutch marine managers have apparently chosen a minimal (cost-effective) approach despite the WFD implicitly requiring the incorporation of the system's 'ecological complexity' in indices used to evaluate the ecological status of highly variable systems such as transitional and coastal waters. These indices should include both the community structure and system functioning and to make this really cost-effective a new monitoring strategy is required with a tailor-made programme. Since the adoption of the WFD in 2000 and the launching of the European Marine Strategy in 2002 (and the recently proposed Marine Framework Directive) we suggest reviewing national monitoring programmes in order to integrate water quality monitoring and biological monitoring and change from 'station oriented monitoring' to 'basin or system oriented monitoring' in combination with specific 'cause-effect' studies for highly dynamic coastal systems. Progress will be made if the collected information is integrated and aggregated in valuable tools such as structure- and functioning-oriented computer simulation models and Decision Support Systems. The development of ecological indices

  4. An Economic Evaluation Framework for Assessing Renewable Energy Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Badiru, Adedeji B

    2012-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly imperative to integrate renewable energy, such as solar and wind, into electricity generation due to increased regulations on air and water pollution and a sociopolitical desire to develop more clean energy sources. This increased spotlight on renewable energy requires evaluating competing projects using either conventional economic analysis techniques or other economics-based models and approaches in order to select a subset of the projects to be funded. Even then, there are reasons to suspect that techniques applied to renewable energy projects may result in decisions that will reject viable projects due to the use of a limited number of quantifiable and tangible attributes about the projects. This paper presents a framework for economic evaluation of renewable energy projects. The framework is based on a systems approach in which the processes within the entire network of the system, from generation to consumption, are accounted for. Furthermore, the framework uses the concept of fuzzy system to calculate the value of information under conditions of uncertainty.

  5. Objective evaluation of the visual acuity in human eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M. A.; López-Olazagasti, E.; Ramírez-Zavaleta, G.; Varillas, G.; Tepichín, E.

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, the quality of the human vision is evaluated by a subjective test in which the examiner asks the patient to read a series of characters of different sizes, located at a certain distance of the patient. Typically, we need to ensure a subtended angle of vision of 5 minutes, which implies an object of 8.8 mm high located at 6 meters (normal or 20/20 visual acuity). These characters constitute what is known as the Snellen chart, universally used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the human eyes. The mentioned process of identification of characters is carried out by means of the eye - brain system, giving an evaluation of the subjective visual performance. In this work we consider the eye as an isolated image-forming system, and show that it is possible to isolate the function of the eye from that of the brain in this process. By knowing the impulse response of the eye´s system we can obtain, in advance, the image of the Snellen chart simultaneously. From this information, we obtain the objective performance of the eye as the optical system under test. This type of results might help to detect anomalous situations of the human vision, like the so called "cerebral myopia".

  6. Perceived Objectivity and the Effects of Evaluative Reinforcement upon Compliance and Self-Evaluation in Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, W. Curtis; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of positive and negative reinforcements upon black college students. The perceived objectivity of white evaluators was compared to that of black evaluators. Perceived objectivity being the social reinforcement likely to be accepted, internalized, and complied with in proportion to the…

  7. A flexible object-based software framework for modeling complex systems with interacting natural and societal processes.

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. H.

    2000-06-15

    The Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS) is a flexible, extensible, object-based framework for developing and maintaining complex multidisciplinary simulations. The DIAS infrastructure makes it feasible to build and manipulate complex simulation scenarios in which many thousands of objects can interact via dozens to hundreds of concurrent dynamic processes. The flexibility and extensibility of the DIAS software infrastructure stem mainly from (1) the abstraction of object behaviors, (2) the encapsulation and formalization of model functionality, and (3) the mutability of domain object contents. DIAS simulation objects are inherently capable of highly flexible and heterogeneous spatial realizations. Geospatial graphical representation of DIAS simulation objects is addressed via the GeoViewer, an object-based GIS toolkit application developed at ANL. DIAS simulation capabilities have been extended by inclusion of societal process models generated by the Framework for Addressing Cooperative Extended Transactions (FACET), another object-based framework developed at Argonne National Laboratory. By using FACET models to implement societal behaviors of individuals and organizations within larger DIAS-based natural systems simulations, it has become possible to conveniently address a broad range of issues involving interaction and feedback among natural and societal processes. Example DIAS application areas discussed in this paper include a dynamic virtual oceanic environment, detailed simulation of clinical, physiological, and logistical aspects of health care delivery, and studies of agricultural sustainability of urban centers under environmental stress in ancient Mesopotamia.

  8. Electronic immunization data collection systems: application of an evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evaluating the features and performance of health information systems can serve to strengthen the systems themselves as well as to guide other organizations in the process of designing and implementing surveillance tools. We adapted an evaluation framework in order to assess electronic immunization data collection systems, and applied it in two Ontario public health units. Methods The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems are broad in nature and serve as an organizational tool to guide the development of comprehensive evaluation materials. Based on these Guidelines, and informed by other evaluation resources and input from stakeholders in the public health community, we applied an evaluation framework to two examples of immunization data collection and examined several system attributes: simplicity, flexibility, data quality, timeliness, and acceptability. Data collection approaches included key informant interviews, logic and completeness assessments, client surveys, and on-site observations. Results Both evaluated systems allow high-quality immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion. However, neither system is currently able to link to other providers’ immunization data or provincial data sources, limiting the comprehensiveness of coverage assessments. We recommended that both organizations explore possibilities for external data linkage and collaborate with other jurisdictions to promote a provincial immunization repository or data sharing platform. Conclusions Electronic systems such as the ones described in this paper allow immunization data to be collected, analyzed, and applied in a rapid fashion, and represent the infostructure required to establish a population-based immunization registry, critical for comprehensively assessing vaccine coverage. PMID:24423014

  9. Approach to proliferation risk assessment based on multiple objective analysis framework

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-07-01

    The approach to the assessment of proliferation risk using the methods of multi-criteria decision making and multi-objective optimization is presented. The approach allows the taking into account of the specifics features of the national nuclear infrastructure, and possible proliferation strategies (motivations, intentions, and capabilities). 3 examples of applying the approach are shown. First, the approach has been used to evaluate the attractiveness of HEU (high enriched uranium)production scenarios at a clandestine enrichment facility using centrifuge enrichment technology. Secondly, the approach has been applied to assess the attractiveness of scenarios for undeclared production of plutonium or HEU by theft of materials circulating in nuclear fuel cycle facilities and thermal reactors. Thirdly, the approach has been used to perform a comparative analysis of the structures of developing nuclear power systems based on different types of nuclear fuel cycles, the analysis being based on indicators of proliferation risk.

  10. Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    The following reports are presented on this project:A first year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; A second year progress report on: Development of a Dynamically Configurable, Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation; An Extensible, Interchangeable and Sharable Database Model for Improving Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design; Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration; and Improving the Aircraft Design Process Using Web-based Modeling and Simulation.

  11. An Evaluation Framework for Obesity Prevention Policy Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2012-01-01

    As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention. PMID:22742594

  12. An evaluation framework for obesity prevention policy interventions.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jennifer; Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2012-01-01

    As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention.

  13. A Scalable Distribution Network Risk Evaluation Framework via Symbolic Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Kai; Liu, Jian; Liu, Kaipei; Tan, Tianyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background Evaluations of electric power distribution network risks must address the problems of incomplete information and changing dynamics. A risk evaluation framework should be adaptable to a specific situation and an evolving understanding of risk. Methods This study investigates the use of symbolic dynamics to abstract raw data. After introducing symbolic dynamics operators, Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Kullback-Leibler relative entropy are used to quantitatively evaluate relationships between risk sub-factors and main factors. For layered risk indicators, where the factors are categorized into four main factors – device, structure, load and special operation – a merging algorithm using operators to calculate the risk factors is discussed. Finally, an example from the Sanya Power Company is given to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. Conclusion Distribution networks are exposed and can be affected by many things. The topology and the operating mode of a distribution network are dynamic, so the faults and their consequences are probabilistic. PMID:25789859

  14. Defining competency-based evaluation objectives in family medicine

    PubMed Central

    Donoff, Michel; Lawrence, Kathrine; Allen, Tim; Brailovsky, Carlos; Crichton, Tom; Bethune, Cheri; Laughlin, Tom; Wetmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To develop and describe observable evaluation objectives for assessing competence in professionalism, which are grounded in the experience of practising physicians. Design Modified nominal group technique. Setting The College of Family Physicians of Canada in Mississauga, Ont. Participants An expert group of 7 family physicians and 1 educational consultant, all of whom had experience in assessing competence in family medicine. Group members represented the Canadian context with respect to region, sex, language, community type, and experience. Methods Using an iterative process, the expert group defined a list of observable behaviours that are indicative of professionalism, or not, in the family medicine setting. Themes relate to professional behaviour in family medicine; specific observable behaviours are those that family physicians believe are indicative of professionalism for each theme. Main findings The expert group identified 12 themes and 140 specific observable behaviours to assist in the observation and discussion of professional behaviour in family medicine workplace settings. Conclusion Competency-based education literature emphasizes the importance of formative evaluation and feedback. Such feedback is particularly challenging in the domain of professionalism because of its personal nature and the potential for emotional reactions. Effective dialogue between learners and teachers begins with clear expectations and reference to descriptions of relevant, specific behaviour. This research has generated a competency-based resource to assist the assessment of professional behaviour in family medicine educational programs. PMID:23064939

  15. A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The object modeling system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental modeling community has historically been concerned with the proliferation of models and the effort associated with collective model development tasks (e.g., code generation, data provisioning and transformation, etc.). Environmental modeling frameworks (EMFs) have been developed to...

  16. Method and apparatus for evaluating multilayer objects for imperfections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Abedin, Nurul (Inventor); Sun, Kuen J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A multilayer object having multiple layers arranged in a stacking direction is evaluated for imperfections such as voids, delaminations and microcracks. First, an acoustic wave is transmitted into the object in the stacking direction via an appropriate transducer/waveguide combination. The wave propagates through the multilayer object and is received by another transducer/waveguide combination preferably located on the same surface as the transmitting combination. The received acoustic wave is correlated with the presence or absence of imperfections by, e.g., generating pulse echo signals indicative of the received acoustic wave, wherein the successive signals form distinct groups over time. The respective peak amplitudes of each group are sampled and curve fit to an exponential curve, wherein a substantial fit of approximately 80-90% indicates an absence of imperfections and a significant deviation indicates the presence of imperfections. Alternatively, the time interval between distinct groups can be measured, wherein equal intervals indicate the absence of imperfections and unequal intervals indicate the presence of imperfections.

  17. Method and Apparatus for Evaluating Multilayer Objects for Imperfections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Abedin, Nurul (Inventor); Sun, Kuen J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A multilayer object having multiple layers arranged in a stacking direction is evaluated for imperfections such as voids, delaminations and microcracks. First. an acoustic wave is transmitted into the object in the stacking direction via an appropriate transducer/waveguide combination. The wave propagates through the multilayer object and is received by another transducer/waveguide combination preferably located on the same surface as the transmitting combination. The received acoustic wave is correlated with the presence or absence of imperfections by, e.g., generating pulse echo signals indicative of the received acoustic wave. wherein the successive signals form distinct groups over time. The respective peak amplitudes of each group are sampled and curve fit to an exponential curve. wherein a substantial fit of approximately 80-90% indicates an absence of imperfections and a significant deviation indicates the presence of imperfections. Alternatively, the time interval between distinct groups can be measured. wherein equal intervals indicate the absence of imperfections and unequal intervals indicate the presence of imperfections.

  18. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-06-15

    Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce.

  19. Evaluation of a performance appraisal framework for radiation therapists in planning and simulation

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jillian; Bridge, Pete; Brown, Elizabeth; Lusk, Ryan; Ferrari-Anderson, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Constantly evolving technology and techniques within radiation therapy require practitioners to maintain a continuous approach to professional development and training. Systems of performance appraisal and adoption of regular feedback mechanisms are vital to support this development yet frequently lack structure and rely on informal peer support. Methods A Radiation Therapy Performance Appraisal Framework (RT-PAF) for radiation therapists in planning and simulation was developed to define expectations of practice and promote a supportive and objective culture of performance and skills appraisal. Evaluation of the framework was conducted via an anonymous online survey tool. Nine peer reviewers and fourteen recipients provided feedback on its effectiveness and the challenges and limitations of the approach. Results Findings from the evaluation were positive and suggested that both groups gained benefit from and expressed a strong interest in embedding the approach more routinely. Respondents identified common challenges related to the limited ability to implement suggested development strategies; this was strongly associated with time and rostering issues. Conclusions This framework successfully defined expectations for practice and provided a fair and objective feedback process that focussed on skills development. It empowered staff to maintain their skills and reach their professional potential. Management support, particularly in regard to provision of protected time was highlighted as critical to the framework's ongoing success. The demonstrated benefits arising in terms of staff satisfaction and development highlight the importance of this commitment to the modern radiation therapy workforce. PMID:26229676

  20. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity. PMID:27606817

  1. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity.

  2. Identifying Anomalous Citations for Objective Evaluation of Scholarly Article Impact.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaomei; Xia, Feng; Lee, Ivan; Zhang, Jun; Ning, Zhaolong

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the impact of a scholarly article is of great significance and has attracted great attentions. Although citation-based evaluation approaches have been widely used, these approaches face limitations e.g. in identifying anomalous citations patterns. This negligence would inevitably cause unfairness and inaccuracy to the article impact evaluation. In this study, in order to discover the anomalous citations and ensure the fairness and accuracy of research outcome evaluation, we investigate the citation relationships between articles using the following factors: collaboration times, the time span of collaboration, citing times and the time span of citing to weaken the relationship of Conflict of Interest (COI) in the citation network. Meanwhile, we study a special kind of COI, namely suspected COI relationship. Based on the COI relationship, we further bring forward the COIRank algorithm, an innovative scheme for accurately assessing the impact of an article. Our method distinguishes the citation strength, and utilizes PageRank and HITS algorithms to rank scholarly articles comprehensively. The experiments are conducted on the American Physical Society (APS) dataset. We find that about 80.88% articles contain contributed citations by co-authors in 26,366 articles and 75.55% articles among these articles are cited by the authors belonging to the same affiliation, indicating COI and suspected COI should not be ignored for evaluating impact of scientific papers objectively. Moreover, our experimental results demonstrate COIRank algorithm significantly outperforms the state-of-art solutions. The validity of our approach is verified by using the probability of Recommendation Intensity. PMID:27606817

  3. Developing a monitoring and evaluation framework to integrate and formalize the informal waste and recycling sector: the case of the Philippine National Framework Plan.

    PubMed

    Serrona, Kevin Roy B; Yu, Jeongsoo; Aguinaldo, Emelita; Florece, Leonardo M

    2014-09-01

    The Philippines has been making inroads in solid waste management with the enactment and implementation of the Republic Act 9003 or the Ecological Waste Management Act of 2000. Said legislation has had tremendous influence in terms of how the national and local government units confront the challenges of waste management in urban and rural areas using the reduce, reuse, recycle and recovery framework or 4Rs. One of the sectors needing assistance is the informal waste sector whose aspiration is legal recognition of their rank and integration of their waste recovery activities in mainstream waste management. To realize this, the Philippine National Solid Waste Management Commission initiated the formulation of the National Framework Plan for the Informal Waste Sector, which stipulates approaches, strategies and methodologies to concretely involve the said sector in different spheres of local waste management, such as collection, recycling and disposal. What needs to be fleshed out is the monitoring and evaluation component in order to gauge qualitative and quantitative achievements vis-a-vis the Framework Plan. In the process of providing an enabling environment for the informal waste sector, progress has to be monitored and verified qualitatively and quantitatively and measured against activities, outputs, objectives and goals. Using the Framework Plan as the reference, this article developed monitoring and evaluation indicators using the logical framework approach in project management. The primary objective is to institutionalize monitoring and evaluation, not just in informal waste sector plans, but in any waste management initiatives to ensure that envisaged goals are achieved.

  4. Objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiyong; Liu, Yahui; Wang, Man; Ji, Run; Ji, Xuewu

    2014-09-01

    The existing research of steering comfort mainly focuses on the subjective evaluation, aiming at designing and optimizing the steering system. In the development of steering system, especially the evaluation of steering comfort, the objective evaluation methods considered the kinematic characteristics of driver steering maneuver are not proposed, which means that the objective evaluation of steering cannot be conducted with the evaluation of kinematic characteristics of driver in steering maneuver. In order to propose the objective evaluation methods of steering comfort, the evaluation of steering movement quality of driver is developed on the basis of the study of the kinematic characteristics of steering maneuver. First, the steering motion trajectories of the driver in both comfortable and certain extreme uncomfortable operation conditions are detected using the Vicon motion capture system. The operation conditions are under the restrictions of the vertical height and horizontal distance between steering wheel center and the H-point of driver, and the steering resisting torque else. Next, the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver is assessed using twelve kinds of evaluation indices based on the kinematic analyses of the steering motion trajectories to propose an objective evaluation method. Finally, an integrated discomfort index of steering maneuver is proposed on the basis of the regression analysis of subjective evaluation rating and the movement quality evaluation indices, including the Jerk, Discomfort and Joint Torque indices. The test results show that the proposed integrated discomfort index gives a good fitting with the subjective evaluation of discomfort, which means it can be used to evaluate or predict the discomfort level of steering maneuver. This paper proposes an objective evaluation method of steering comfort based on the movement quality evaluation of driver steering maneuver.

  5. Objective fidelity evaluation in multisensory virtual environments: auditory cue fidelity in flight simulation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Georg F; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues.

  6. Objective Fidelity Evaluation in Multisensory Virtual Environments: Auditory Cue Fidelity in Flight Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Georg F.; Wong, Li Ting; Timson, Emma; Perfect, Philip; White, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    We argue that objective fidelity evaluation of virtual environments, such as flight simulation, should be human-performance-centred and task-specific rather than measure the match between simulation and physical reality. We show how principled experimental paradigms and behavioural models to quantify human performance in simulated environments that have emerged from research in multisensory perception provide a framework for the objective evaluation of the contribution of individual cues to human performance measures of fidelity. We present three examples in a flight simulation environment as a case study: Experiment 1: Detection and categorisation of auditory and kinematic motion cues; Experiment 2: Performance evaluation in a target-tracking task; Experiment 3: Transferrable learning of auditory motion cues. We show how the contribution of individual cues to human performance can be robustly evaluated for each task and that the contribution is highly task dependent. The same auditory cues that can be discriminated and are optimally integrated in experiment 1, do not contribute to target-tracking performance in an in-flight refuelling simulation without training, experiment 2. In experiment 3, however, we demonstrate that the auditory cue leads to significant, transferrable, performance improvements with training. We conclude that objective fidelity evaluation requires a task-specific analysis of the contribution of individual cues. PMID:22957068

  7. Towards a Framework for Evaluating and Comparing Diagnosis Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia,David; Kuhn, Lukas; deKleer, Johan; vanGemund, Arjan; Feldman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic inference involves the detection of anomalous system behavior and the identification of its cause, possibly down to a failed unit or to a parameter of a failed unit. Traditional approaches to solving this problem include expert/rule-based, model-based, and data-driven methods. Each approach (and various techniques within each approach) use different representations of the knowledge required to perform the diagnosis. The sensor data is expected to be combined with these internal representations to produce the diagnosis result. In spite of the availability of various diagnosis technologies, there have been only minimal efforts to develop a standardized software framework to run, evaluate, and compare different diagnosis technologies on the same system. This paper presents a framework that defines a standardized representation of the system knowledge, the sensor data, and the form of the diagnosis results and provides a run-time architecture that can execute diagnosis algorithms, send sensor data to the algorithms at appropriate time steps from a variety of sources (including the actual physical system), and collect resulting diagnoses. We also define a set of metrics that can be used to evaluate and compare the performance of the algorithms, and provide software to calculate the metrics.

  8. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  9. An Evaluation Framework and Comparative Analysis of the Widely Used First Programming Languages

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  10. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  11. A CORBA-based object framework with patient identification translation and dynamic linking. Methods for exchanging patient data.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Ohe, K

    1999-03-01

    Exchanging and integration of patient data across heterogeneous databases and institutional boundaries offers many problems. We focused on two issues: (1) how to identify identical patients between different systems and institutions while lacking universal patient identifiers; and (2) how to link patient data across heterogeneous databases and institutional boundaries. To solve these problems, we created a patient identification (ID) translation model and a dynamic linking method in the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) environment. The algorithm for the patient ID translation is based on patient attribute matching plus computer-based human checking; the method for dynamic linking is temporal mapping. By implementing these methods into computer systems with help of the distributed object computing technology, we built a prototype of a CORBA-based object framework in which the patient ID translation and dynamic linking methods were embedded. Our experiments with a Web-based user interface using the object framework and dynamic linking-through the object framework were successful. These methods are important for exchanging and integrating patient data across heterogeneous databases and institutional boundaries.

  12. OpenSMOKE++: An object-oriented framework for the numerical modeling of reactive systems with detailed kinetic mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoci, A.; Frassoldati, A.; Faravelli, T.; Ranzi, E.

    2015-07-01

    OpenSMOKE++ is a general framework for numerical simulations of reacting systems with detailed kinetic mechanisms, including thousands of chemical species and reactions. The framework is entirely written in object-oriented C++ and can be easily extended and customized by the user for specific systems, without having to modify the core functionality of the program. The OpenSMOKE++ framework can handle simulations of ideal chemical reactors (plug-flow, batch, and jet stirred reactors), shock-tubes, rapid compression machines, and can be easily incorporated into multi-dimensional CFD codes for the modeling of reacting flows. OpenSMOKE++ provides useful numerical tools such as the sensitivity and rate of production analyses, needed to recognize the main chemical paths and to interpret the numerical results from a kinetic point of view. Since simulations involving large kinetic mechanisms are very time consuming, OpenSMOKE++ adopts advanced numerical techniques able to reduce the computational cost, without sacrificing the accuracy and the robustness of the calculations. In the present paper we give a detailed description of the framework features, the numerical models available, and the implementation of the code. The possibility of coupling the OpenSMOKE++ functionality with existing numerical codes is discussed. The computational performances of the framework are presented, and the capabilities of OpenSMOKE++ in terms of integration of stiff ODE systems are discussed and analyzed with special emphasis. Some examples demonstrating the ability of the OpenSMOKE++ framework to successfully manage large kinetic mechanisms are eventually presented.

  13. Formulating a Curriculum Framework for Bible Study: Creating Course Objectives for Bible Curriculum in Jewish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Eli; Goldstein, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    Bible teachers worldwide lack a shared language with which to describe expectations of what pupils will learn at various stages of their schooling. This article attempts such a language. If defines a framework, formulated with the assistance of twenty-five Bible teachers in Jewish schools in the United Kingdom. It is hoped that this article will…

  14. An Object-Oriented Course Framework for Developing Adaptive Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Su, Jun-Ming; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Hwang, Gwo-Haur; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Tsai, Chang-Jiun

    2008-01-01

    The popularity of web-based learning systems has encouraged researchers to pay attention to several new issues. One of the most important issues is the development of new techniques to provide personalized teaching materials. Although several frameworks or methods have been proposed, it remains a challenging issue to design an easy-to-realize…

  15. Prospective Secondary Teachers Repositioning by Designing, Implementing and Testing Mathematics Learning Objects: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mgombelo, Joyce R.; Buteau, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual framework developed to illuminate how prospective teachers' learning experiences are shaped by didactic-sensitive activities in departments of mathematics. We draw from the experiences of prospective teachers in the Department of Mathematics at our institution in designing, implementing (i.e. computer…

  16. Helping Students Identify Base Words in Indonesian--Linking Learning Objects in an ICLL Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Ingrid; Davison, Janine

    2008-01-01

    For students of Indonesian, learning to identify base words is very important, but can often be quite tricky. This article describes how one of the authors used interactive digital content from The Le@rning Federation (TLF) together with an extensive range of offline activities within an intercultural language learning (ICLL) framework. It helps…

  17. Computing a Pareto-optimal solution for multi-objective flexible linear programming in a bipolar framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Dipti; Chandra, Suresh; Mehra, Aparna

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we study the multi-objective flexible linear programming (MOFLP) problems (or fuzzy multi-objective linear programming problems) in the heterogeneous bipolar framework. Bipolarity allows us to distinguish between the negative and the positive preferences. Negative preferences denote what is unacceptable while positive preferences are less restrictive and express what is desirable. This viewpoint enables us to handle fuzzy sets representing constraints and objective functions separately and combine them in distinct ways. In this paper, a solution concept of Pareto-optimality for MOFLP problems is defined and an approach is proposed to single out such a solution for MOFLP with highest possible degree of feasibility.

  18. The WellingTONNE Challenge Toolkit: Using the RE-AIM Framework to Evaluate a Community Resource Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caperchione, Cristina; Coulson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The RE-AIM framework has been recognized as a tool to evaluate the adoption, delivery, and sustainability of an intervention, and estimate its potential public health impact. In this study four dimensions of the RE-AIM framework (adoption, implementation, effectiveness, and maintenance) were used to evaluate the WellingTONNE Challenge…

  19. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, İlkin; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L*w) and a black background (L*b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. CONCLUSION The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations. PMID:27350851

  20. Expected frontiers: Incorporating weather uncertainty into a policy analysis using an integrated bi-level multi-objective optimization framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Weather is the main driver in both plant use of nutrients and fate and transport of nutrients in the environment. In previous work, we evaluated a green tax for control of agricultural nutrients in a bi-level optimization framework that linked deterministic models. In this study,...

  1. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain. PMID:24461373

  2. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  3. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  4. The ObjECTS: Framework for Integrated Assessment: Hybrid Modeling of Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Son H.; Edmonds, James A.; Lurz, Joshua; Smith, Steven J.; Wise, Marshall A.

    2006-09-01

    Technology is a central issue for the global climate change problem, requiring analysis tools that can examine the impact of specific technologies with a long-term, global context. This paper describes the architecture of the ObjECTS-MiniCAM integrated assessment model, which implements a long-term, global model of energy, economy, agriculture, land-use, atmosphere, and climate change in a framework that allows the flexible incorporation of explicit technology detail. We describe the implementation of a ''bottom-up'' representation of the transportation sector as an illustration of this approach, in which the resulting hybrid model is fully integrated, internally consistent and theoretically compatible with the regional and global modeling framework. The analysis of the transportation sector presented here supports and clarifies the need for a comprehensive strategy promoting advanced vehicle technologies and an economy-wide carbon policy to cost-effectively reduce carbon emissions from the transportation sector in the long-term.

  5. Framework and criteria for program evaluation in the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-30

    This study addresses the development of a framework and generic criteria for conducting program evaluation in the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy. The evaluation process is intended to provide the Assistant Secretary with comprehensive and consistent evaluation data for management decisions regarding policy and strategy, crosscutting energy impacts and resource allocation and justification. The study defines evaluation objectives, identifies basic information requirements (criteria), and identifies a process for collecting evaluation results at the basic program level, integrating the results, and summarizing information upward through the CE organization to the Assistant Secretary. Methods are described by which initial criteria were tested, analyzed, and refined for CE program applicability. General guidelines pertaining to evaluation and the Sunset Review requirements are examined and various types, designs, and models for evaluation are identified. Existing CE evaluation reports are reviewed and comments on their adequacy for meeting current needs are provided. An inventory and status survey of CE program evaluation activities is presented, as are issues, findings, and recommendations pertaining to CE evaluation and Sunset Review requirements. Also, sources of data for use in evaluation and the Sunset Review response are identified. An inventory of CE evaluation-related documents and reports is provided.

  6. Octogenarian and centenarian performance on the Fuld Object Memory Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise; Woodard, John L; Miller, L Stephen; Martin, Peter; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W

    2015-01-01

    The Fuld Object Memory Evaluation (FOME) has considerable utility for cognitive assessment in older adults, but there are few normative data, particularly for the oldest old. In this study, 80 octogenarians and 244 centenarians from the Georgia Centenarian Study completed the FOME. Total and trial-to-trial performance on the storage, retrieval, repeated retrieval, and ineffective reminder indices were assessed. Additional data stratified by age group, education, and cognitive impairment are provided in the Supplemental data. Octogenarians performed significantly better than centenarians on all FOME measures. Neither age group benefitted from additional learning trials beyond Trial 3 for storage and Trial 2 for retention and retrieval. Ineffective reminders showed no change across learning trials for octogenarians, while centenarians improved only between Trials 1 and 2. This minimal improvement past Trial 2 indicates that older adults might benefit from a truncated version of the test that does not include trials three through five, with the added benefit of reducing testing burden in this population.

  7. Virtual Workshop Environment (VWE): A Taxonomy and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) Framework for Modularized Virtual Learning Environments (VLE)--Applying the Learning Object Concept to the VLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsson, Fredrik; Naeve, Ambjorn

    2006-01-01

    Based on existing Learning Object taxonomies, this article suggests an alternative Learning Object taxonomy, combined with a general Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) framework, aiming to transfer the modularized concept of Learning Objects to modularized Virtual Learning Environments. The taxonomy and SOA-framework exposes a need for a clearer…

  8. Toward a multi-objective decision support framework to support regulations of unconventional oil and gas development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, M.; Howard, C.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Ryan, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) using hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling has recently fostered an unprecedented acceleration in energy development. Regulations seek to protect environmental quality of areas surrounding UOGD, while maintaining economic benefits. One such regulation is a setback distance, which dictates the minimum proximity between an oil and gas well and an object such as a residential or commercial building, property line, or water source. In general, most setback regulations have been strongly politically motivated without a clear scientific basis for understanding the relationship between the setback distance and various performance outcomes. This presentation discusses a new decision support framework for setback regulations, as part of a large NSF-funded sustainability research network (SRN) on UOGD. The goal of the decision support framework is to integrate a wide array of scientific information from the SRN into a coherent framework that can help inform policy regarding UOGD. The decision support framework employs multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) optimization coupled with simulation models of air quality and other performance-based outcomes on UOGD. The result of the MOEA optimization runs are quantitative tradeoff curves among different objectives. For example, one such curve could demonstrate air pollution concentrations versus estimates of energy development profits, for different levels of setback distance. Our results will also inform policy-relevant discussions surrounding UOGD such as comparing single- and multi-well pads, as well as regulations on the density of well development over a spatial area.

  9. A Concise and Practical Framework for the Development and Usability Evaluation of Patient Information Websites

    PubMed Central

    Knijnenburg, S.L.; Kremer, L.C.; Jaspers, M.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Website Developmental Model for the Healthcare Consumer (WDMHC) is an extensive and successfully evaluated framework that incorporates user-centered design principles. However, due to its extensiveness its application is limited. In the current study we apply a subset of the WDMHC framework in a case study concerning the development and evaluation of a website aimed at childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Objective To assess whether the implementation of a limited subset of the WDMHC-framework is sufficient to deliver a high-quality website with few usability problems, aimed at a specific patient population. Methods The website was developed using a six-step approach divided into three phases derived from the WDMHC: 1) information needs analysis, mock-up creation and focus group discussion; 2) website prototype development; and 3) heuristic evaluation (HE) and think aloud analysis (TA). The HE was performed by three double experts (knowledgeable both in usability engineering and childhood cancer survivorship), who assessed the site using the Nielsen heuristics. Eight end-users were invited to complete three scenarios covering all functionality of the website by TA. Results The HE and TA were performed concurrently on the website prototype. The HE resulted in 29 unique usability issues; the end-users performing the TA encountered eleven unique problems. Four issues specifically revealed by HE concerned cosmetic design flaws, whereas two problems revealed by TA were related to website content. Conclusion Based on the subset of the WDMHC framework we were able to deliver a website that closely matched the expectancy of the end-users and resulted in relatively few usability problems during end-user testing. With the successful application of this subset of the WDMHC, we provide developers with a clear and easily applicable framework for the development of healthcare websites with high usability aimed at specific medical populations. PMID:26171083

  10. A multi-resolution strategy for a multi-objective deformable image registration framework that accommodates large anatomical differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Bosman, Peter A. N.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bel, Arjan

    2014-03-01

    Currently, two major challenges dominate the field of deformable image registration. The first challenge is related to the tuning of the developed methods to specific problems (i.e. how to best combine different objectives such as similarity measure and transformation effort). This is one of the reasons why, despite significant progress, clinical implementation of such techniques has proven to be difficult. The second challenge is to account for large anatomical differences (e.g. large deformations, (dis)appearing structures) that occurred between image acquisitions. In this paper, we study a framework based on multi-objective optimization to improve registration robustness and to simplify tuning for specific applications. Within this framework we specifically consider the use of an advanced model-based evolutionary algorithm for optimization and a dual-dynamic transformation model (i.e. two "non-fixed" grids: one for the source- and one for the target image) to accommodate for large anatomical differences. The framework computes and presents multiple outcomes that represent efficient trade-offs between the different objectives (a so-called Pareto front). In image processing it is common practice, for reasons of robustness and accuracy, to use a multi-resolution strategy. This is, however, only well-established for single-objective registration methods. Here we describe how such a strategy can be realized for our multi-objective approach and compare its results with a single-resolution strategy. For this study we selected the case of prone-supine breast MRI registration. Results show that the well-known advantages of a multi-resolution strategy are successfully transferred to our multi-objective approach, resulting in superior (i.e. Pareto-dominating) outcomes.

  11. a New Framework for Object-Based Image Analysis Based on Segmentation Scale Space and Random Forest Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadavand, A.; Saadatseresht, M.; Homayouni, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper a new object-based framework is developed for automate scale selection in image segmentation. The quality of image objects have an important impact on further analyses. Due to the strong dependency of segmentation results to the scale parameter, choosing the best value for this parameter, for each class, becomes a main challenge in object-based image analysis. We propose a new framework which employs pixel-based land cover map to estimate the initial scale dedicated to each class. These scales are used to build segmentation scale space (SSS), a hierarchy of image objects. Optimization of SSS, respect to NDVI and DSM values in each super object is used to get the best scale in local regions of image scene. Optimized SSS segmentations are finally classified to produce the final land cover map. Very high resolution aerial image and digital surface model provided by ISPRS 2D semantic labelling dataset is used in our experiments. The result of our proposed method is comparable to those of ESP tool, a well-known method to estimate the scale of segmentation, and marginally improved the overall accuracy of classification from 79% to 80%.

  12. Application of the DIRAC framework to CTA: first evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrabito, L.; Barbier, C.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Khélifi, B.; Komin, N.; Lamanna, G.; Lavalley, C.; Le Flour, T.; Lenain, Jp; Lorca, A.; Renaud, M.; Sterzel, M.; Szepieniec, T.; Vasileiadis, G.; Vuerli, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) - an array of several tens of Cherenkov telescopes - is the next generation of ground-based instrument in the field of very high energy gamma-ray astronomy. The CTA observatory is expected to produce a main data stream for permanent storage of the order of 1-to-5 GB/s for about 1000 hours of observation per year, thus producing a total data volume of the order of several PB per year. The CPU time needed to calibrate and process one hour of data taking will be of the order of some thousands CPU hours with current technology. The high data rate of CTA, together with the large computing power requirements for Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, need dedicated computing resources. Massive MC simulations are needed to study the physics of cosmic-ray atmospheric showers as well as telescope response and performance for different detectors and layout configurations. Given these large storage and computing requirements, the Grid approach is well suited, and a vast number of MC simulations are already running on the European Grid Infrastructure (EGI). In order to optimize resource usage and to handle all production and future analysis activities in a coherent way, a high-level framework with advanced functionalities is desirable. For this purpose we have preliminarly evaluated the DIRAC framework for distributed computing and tested it for the CTA workload and data management systems. In this paper we present a possible implementation of a Distributed Computing Infrastructure (DCI) Computing Model for CTA as well as the benchmark test results of DIRAC.

  13. Polarization distance: a framework for modelling object detection by polarization vision systems.

    PubMed

    How, Martin J; Marshall, N Justin

    2014-02-01

    The discrimination of polarized light is widespread in the natural world. Its use for specific, large-field tasks, such as navigation and the detection of water bodies, has been well documented. Some species of cephalopod and crustacean have polarization receptors distributed across the whole visual field and are thought to use polarized light cues for object detection. Both object-based polarization vision systems and large field detectors rely, at least initially, on an orthogonal, two-channel receptor organization. This may increase to three-directional analysis at subsequent interneuronal levels. In object-based and some of the large-field tasks, the dominant e-vector detection axes are often aligned (through eye, head and body stabilization mechanisms) horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. We develop Bernard and Wehner's 1977 model of polarization receptor dynamics to apply it to the detection and discrimination of polarized objects against differently polarized backgrounds. We propose a measure of 'polarization distance' (roughly analogous to 'colour distance') for estimating the discriminability of objects in polarized light, and conclude that horizontal/vertical arrays are optimally designed for detecting differences in the degree, and not the e-vector axis, of polarized light under natural conditions.

  14. The Effect of Instructional Objectives and General Objectives on Student Self-Evaluation of Psychomotor Performance in Power Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janeczko, Robert John

    The major purpose of this study was to ascertain the relative effects of student exposure to instructional objectives upon student self-evaluation of psychomotor activities in a college-level power mechanics course. A randomized posttest-only control group design was used with two different approaches to the statement of the objectives. Four…

  15. Developing and Evaluating Workshop Frameworks to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyt, K.; Alvord, C.; Joyce, L. A.; Lukas, J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Owen, G.; Udall, B.

    2009-12-01

    A burgeoning need for climate information is rising from a variety of stakeholders. A new federal report encourages federal resource management efforts to consider climate in assessments-leaving agency scientists and resource managers searching for appropriate data and methodologies. At the other end of the spectrum, small-scale decision makers realize the need to develop scientifically-informed climate adaptation plans, but are unclear about what science is relevant. It is becoming necessary to improve the climate literacy across all sectors. However, past examples illustrate that climate science has been insufficiently communicated, resulting in perceptions that misinform decision-making and planning. Given the necessity to include climate science in planning on multiple scales, scientific educators must work with stakeholders to determine how best to improve climate literacy. Doing so will reduce uncertainty in the application of climate data in planning, and thus mitigate vulnerabilities to the impacts of climate change. Here, we present the design and assessment of two workshop frameworks intended to improve the climate literacy of two distinct entities with different climate information needs. This work represents initial steps by the Western Water Assessment, a NOAA- Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) Program, towards the development of a suite of process-oriented frameworks geared toward improving the climate literacy of different users with distinct informational needs. Both workshops focused on water-related climate issues: the first (Dealing with Drought: Climate Change in Colorado) was geared toward an audience with minimal exposure to climate information; the second was for US Forest Service hydrologists and managers with technical backgrounds. In both cases, the workshop format included presentations of relevant climate science, introductions to varied climate tools and products, and a needs-and-gaps assessment. Evaluation of each

  16. Degree Distributions in Sexual Networks: A Framework for Evaluating Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Deven T.; Handcock, Mark S.; Morris, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Objective We present a likelihood based statistical framework to test the fit of power-law and alternative social process models for the degree distribution, and derive the sexually transmitted infection epidemic predictions from each model. Study Design Five surveys from the United States are analyzed. Model fit is formally compared via Akaike Information Criterion and Bayesian Information Criterion, and substantively assessed via the prediction of a generalized epidemic. Results Formal goodness-of-fit tests do not consistently identify any model as the best all around fit to the US data. Power-law models predict a generalized sexually transmitted infection epidemic in the United States, while most alternative models do not. Conclusions Power-law models do not fit the data better than alternative models, and they consistently make inaccurate epidemic predictions. Better models are needed to represent the behavioral basis of sexual networks and the structures that result, if these data are to be used for disease transmission modeling. PMID:18217224

  17. iLOG: A Framework for Automatic Annotation of Learning Objects with Empirical Usage Metadata

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, L. D.; Soh, Leen-Kiat; Samal, Ashok; Nugent, Gwen

    2012-01-01

    Learning objects (LOs) are digital or non-digital entities used for learning, education or training commonly stored in repositories searchable by their associated metadata. Unfortunately, based on the current standards, such metadata is often missing or incorrectly entered making search difficult or impossible. In this paper, we investigate…

  18. WV R-EMAP STUDY: MULTIPLE-OBJECTIVE SAMPLING DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-objective sampling design has been implemented through Regional Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) support of a cooperative agreement with the state of West Virginia. Goals of the project include: 1) development and testing of a temperature-adjusted fish IBI for t...

  19. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion. PMID:25641876

  20. A tiered assessment framework to evaluate human health risk of contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Ben K; Melwani, Aroon R; Bay, Steven M

    2015-07-01

    For sediment contaminated with bioaccumulative pollutants (e.g., PCBs and organochorine pesticides), human consumption of seafood that contain bioaccumulated sediment-derived contaminants is a well-established exposure pathway. Historically, regulation and management of this bioaccumulation pathway has focused on site-specific risk assessment. The state of California (United States) is supporting the development of a consistent and quantitative sediment assessment framework to aid in interpreting a narrative objective to protect human health. The conceptual basis of this framework focuses on 2 key questions: 1) do observed pollutant concentrations in seafood from a given site pose unacceptable health risks to human consumers? and 2) is sediment contamination at a site a significant contributor to seafood contamination? The first question is evaluated by interpreting seafood tissue concentrations at the site, based on health risk calculations. The second question is evaluated by interpreting site-specific sediment chemistry data using a food web bioaccumulation model. The assessment framework includes 3 tiers (screening assessment, site assessment, and refined site assessment), which enables the assessment to match variations in data availability, site complexity, and study objectives. The second and third tiers use a stochastic simulation approach, incorporating information on variability and uncertainty of key parameters, such as seafood contaminant concentration and consumption rate by humans. The framework incorporates site-specific values for sensitive parameters and statewide values for difficult to obtain or less sensitive parameters. The proposed approach advances risk assessment policy by incorporating local data into a consistent region-wide problem formulation, applying best available science in a streamlined fashion.

  1. Viola-Jones based hybrid framework for real-time object detection in multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, E.; Shvets, E.; Nikolaev, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes a method for real-time object detection based on a hybrid of a Viola-Jones cascade with a convolutional neural network. This scheme allows flexible trade-offs between detection quality and computational performance. We also propose a generalization of this method to multispectral images that effectively and efficiently utilizes information from each spectral channel. The new scheme is experimentally compared to traditional Viola-Jones, showing improved detection quality with adjustable performance.

  2. Object Creation and Human Factors Evaluation for Virtual Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Patricia F.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to provide test objects for simulated environments utilized by the recently established Army/NASA Virtual Innovations Lab (ANVIL) at Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Al. The objective of the ANVIL lab is to provide virtual reality (VR) models and environments and to provide visualization and manipulation methods for the purpose of training and testing. Visualization equipment used in the ANVIL lab includes head-mounted and boom-mounted immersive virtual reality display devices. Objects in the environment are manipulated using data glove, hand controller, or mouse. These simulated objects are solid or surfaced three dimensional models. They may be viewed or manipulated from any location within the environment and may be viewed on-screen or via immersive VR. The objects are created using various CAD modeling packages and are converted into the virtual environment using dVise. This enables the object or environment to be viewed from any angle or distance for training or testing purposes.

  3. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social and economic objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or *pillars*) that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three *pillars* that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  4. A nonlinear modeling framework for the detection of underwater objects in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, David B.

    2016-05-01

    The detection of underwater objects of interest (or targets) in hyperspectral imagery is a challenging problem, with a number of complications that are not present in land-based hyperspectral target detection. The main challenge in underwater detection is that, in contrast to land, where the observed spectrum of an associated target is largely independent of the surrounding background (e.g. the signature of a tank looks more or less the same whether it is on a road or in a field of grass), the observed spectrum of an underwater target is a highly nonlinear function of the background - that is, the optical properties of the water body that the object is submerged in, as well as the depth of the target. As a result, the same object in different types of water and/or at different depths will in general have very different observed spectral signatures. In this work, we present a general overview of the various challenges involved in underwater detection, and present a novel approach that fuses forward radiative-transfer modeling, ocean color predictions, and nonlinear mathematical techniques (manifold learning) to model both the background and target signature(s) and perform detection over a wide range of environmental conditions and depths.

  5. Incremental online object learning in a vehicular radar-vision fusion framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Zhengping; Weng, Juyang; Luciw, Matthew; Zeng, Shuqing

    2010-10-19

    In this paper, we propose an object learning system that incorporates sensory information from an automotive radar system and a video camera. The radar system provides a coarse attention for the focus of visual analysis on relatively small areas within the image plane. The attended visual areas are coded and learned by a 3-layer neural network utilizing what is called in-place learning, where every neuron is responsible for the learning of its own signal processing characteristics within its connected network environment, through inhibitory and excitatory connections with other neurons. The modeled bottom-up, lateral, and top-down connections in the network enable sensory sparse coding, unsupervised learning and supervised learning to occur concurrently. The presented work is applied to learn two types of encountered objects in multiple outdoor driving settings. Cross validation results show the overall recognition accuracy above 95% for the radar-attended window images. In comparison with the uncoded representation and purely unsupervised learning (without top-down connection), the proposed network improves the recognition rate by 15.93% and 6.35% respectively. The proposed system is also compared with other learning algorithms favorably. The result indicates that our learning system is the only one to fit all the challenging criteria for the development of an incremental and online object learning system.

  6. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: Environmental, social, and economic objectives.

    PubMed

    Larson, Diane L; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or "pillars") that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three "pillars" that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  7. Development of a Dynamically Configurable,Object-Oriented Framework for Distributed, Multi-modal Computational Aerospace Systems Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Afjeh, Abdollah A.; Reed, John A.

    2003-01-01

    This research is aimed at developing a neiv and advanced simulation framework that will significantly improve the overall efficiency of aerospace systems design and development. This objective will be accomplished through an innovative integration of object-oriented and Web-based technologies ivith both new and proven simulation methodologies. The basic approach involves Ihree major areas of research: Aerospace system and component representation using a hierarchical object-oriented component model which enables the use of multimodels and enforces component interoperability. Collaborative software environment that streamlines the process of developing, sharing and integrating aerospace design and analysis models. . Development of a distributed infrastructure which enables Web-based exchange of models to simplify the collaborative design process, and to support computationally intensive aerospace design and analysis processes. Research for the first year dealt with the design of the basic architecture and supporting infrastructure, an initial implementation of that design, and a demonstration of its application to an example aircraft engine system simulation.

  8. European Healthy Cities evaluation: conceptual framework and methodology.

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Evelyne; Green, Geoff; Dyakova, Mariana; Spanswick, Lucy; Palmer, Nicola

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the methodology, programme logic and conceptual framework that drove the evaluation of the Fifth Phase of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network. Towards the end of the phase, 99 cities were designated progressively through the life of the phase (2009-14). The paper establishes the values, systems and aspirations that these cities sign up for, as foundations for the selection of methodology. We assert that a realist synthesis methodology, driven by a wide range of qualitative and quantitative methods, is the most appropriate perspective to address the wide geopolitical, demographic, population and health diversities of these cities. The paper outlines the rationale for a structured multiple case study approach, the deployment of a comprehensive questionnaire, data mining through existing databases including Eurostat and analysis of management information generation tools used throughout the period. Response rates were considered extremely high for this type of research. Non-response analyses are described, which show that data are representative for cities across the spectrum of diversity. This paper provides a foundation for further analysis on specific areas of interest presented in this supplement.

  9. Comparative analysis of toxicological evaluations for dermal exposure performed under two different EU regulatory frameworks.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, Emma; Schenk, Linda

    2014-02-01

    Dermal exposure to chemicals is highly relevant in relation to the use of cosmetic products, both in consumers and in individuals exposed occupationally. Regulatory frameworks exist within the EU to limit the dermal exposure of the general population and workers to chemicals in general, as well as to limit the use of certain substances in cosmetic products. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare toxicological evaluations of dermal exposure performed under current regulatory frameworks. The publicly disseminated hazard information under the respective regulatory frameworks was compiled and compared for the five substances resorcinol, p-phenylenediamine, p-aminophenol, N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. A low consistency between evaluations was observed in respect to data coverage and cited dose descriptors. No systematic differences over all five substances were identified from the viewpoint of dermal hazard assessment. The critical effect and corresponding systemic effect dose descriptor was identical for two substances, differed somewhat for two other (a factor of 2-2.5). For N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine a critical effect was only identified under REACH.

  10. Smart Objects, Dumb Archives: A User-Centric, Layered Digital Library Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maly, Kurt; Nelson, Michael L.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1999-01-01

    Currently, there exist a large number of superb digital libraries, all of which are, unfortunately, vertically integrated and all presenting a monolithic interface to their users. Ideally, a user would want to locate resources from a variety of digital libraries dealing only with one interface. A number of approaches exist to this interoperability issue exist including: defining a universal protocol for all libraries to adhere to; or developing mechanisms to translate between protocols. The approach we illustrate in this paper is to push down the level of universal protocols to one for digital object communication and for communication for simple archives. This approach creates the opportunity for digital library service providers to create digital libraries tailored to the needs of user communities drawing from available archives and individual publishers who adhere to this standard. We have created a reference implementation based on the hyper text transfer protocol (http) with the protocols being derived from the Dienst protocol. We have created a special class of digital objects called buckets and a number of archives based on a NASA collection and NSF funded projects. Starting from NCSTRL we have developed a set of digital library services called NCSTRL+ and have created digital libraries for researchers, educators and students that can each draw on all the archives and individually created buckets.

  11. A multi-objective optimization framework for surfactant-enhanced remediation of DNAPL contaminations.

    PubMed

    Schaerlaekens, Jan; Mertens, Jan; Van Linden, Jan; Vermeiren, Gert; Carmeliet, Jan; Feyen, Jan

    2006-08-10

    The occurrence of Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) contaminations in the subsurface is a threat for drinkwater resources in the western world. Surfactant-Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR) is widely considered as one of the most promising techniques to remediate DNAPL contaminations in-situ, be it with considerable additional costs compared to classical pump-and-treat remediations. A cost-effective design of the remediation set-up is therefore essential. In this work, a pilot SEAR test is executed at a DNAPL contaminated site in Belgium in order to collect data for the calibration of a multi-phase multi-component model. The calibrated model is used to assess a series of scenario-analyses for the full-scale remediation of the site. The remediation variables that were varied were the injection and extraction rate, the injection and extraction duration, and the surfactant injection concentrations. A constrained multi-objective optimization of the model was applied to obtain a Pareto set of optimal remediation strategies with different weights for the two objectives of the remediation: (i) the maximal removal of DNAPL and (ii) a total minimal cost. These Pareto curves can help decision makers to select an optimal remediation strategy in terms of cost and remediation efficiency. The Pareto front shows a considerable trade-off between the total remediation cost and the removed DNAPL mass.

  12. Objective Situation Awareness Measurement Based on Performance Self-Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.

  13. Evaluation Manual for CIP Courses: Objectives and Implementation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siri, Carmen

    This manual has been designed to guide courses on potato production sponsored by the International Potato Center (CIP) in Lima (Peru). It describes the CIP Course Evaluation System that is presently used and provides guidelines on how to use feedback more effectively for improving training. CIP evaluations are largely formative. The CIP focuses on…

  14. A user-centred evaluation framework for the Sealife semantic web browsers

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Helen; Diallo, Gayo; de Quincey, Ed; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Habermann, Bianca; Kostkova, Patty; Schroeder, Michael; Jupp, Simon; Khelif, Khaled; Stevens, Robert; Jawaheer, Gawesh; Madle, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    Background Semantically-enriched browsing has enhanced the browsing experience by providing contextualised dynamically generated Web content, and quicker access to searched-for information. However, adoption of Semantic Web technologies is limited and user perception from the non-IT domain sceptical. Furthermore, little attention has been given to evaluating semantic browsers with real users to demonstrate the enhancements and obtain valuable feedback. The Sealife project investigates semantic browsing and its application to the life science domain. Sealife's main objective is to develop the notion of context-based information integration by extending three existing Semantic Web browsers (SWBs) to link the existing Web to the eScience infrastructure. Methods This paper describes a user-centred evaluation framework that was developed to evaluate the Sealife SWBs that elicited feedback on users' perceptions on ease of use and information findability. Three sources of data: i) web server logs; ii) user questionnaires; and iii) semi-structured interviews were analysed and comparisons made between each browser and a control system. Results It was found that the evaluation framework used successfully elicited users' perceptions of the three distinct SWBs. The results indicate that the browser with the most mature and polished interface was rated higher for usability, and semantic links were used by the users of all three browsers. Conclusion Confirmation or contradiction of our original hypotheses with relation to SWBs is detailed along with observations of implementation issues. PMID:19796398

  15. OpenHydro: an Object-Oriented Software Framework for the Application of Lumped conceptual Hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Cheng, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Currently, although most of lumped conceptual models have the similar model structures and are calibrated with the similar optimization algorithms and the similar objective functions, it is still difficult and tedious to implement them and their calibration in software package because researchers usually have to develop all the required software modules from scratch rather than to reuse these modules in the existing software packages. In order to help researchers to avoid this 'reinventing the wheel' problem, a software framework, OpenHydro, is developed to provide a general framework for researchers to rapidly implement their own lumped conceptual models, optimization algorithms, and objective functions by utilizing the merits of object- oriented approach. Meanwhile, because the weather data and the gauged streamflow data have become available over the Web in several developed countries, such as Canada, OpenHydro also provides a data preparation module to automatically download the data and to calculate the areal precipitation data with the Thiessen polygon method. Finally, because model calibration is still a time-consuming process, OpenHydro provides a simple distributed computation mechanism to allocate the computation load into multiple computers to mitigate this problem.

  16. The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework for DOE-NE

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J A; Greenberg, H R; Halsey, W G; Jove-Colon, C; Nutt, W M; Sutton, M

    2010-12-15

    The Used Fuel Disposition (UFD) Campaign within DOE-NE is evaluating storage and disposal options for a range of waste forms and a range of geologic environments. For each waste form and geologic environment combination, there are multiple options for repository conceptual design. The Disposal Systems Evaluation Framework (DSEF) is being developed to formalize the development and documentation of options for each waste form and environment combination. The DSEF is being implemented in two parts. One part is an Excel workbook with multiple sheets. This workbook is designed to be user friendly, such that anyone within the UFD Campaign can use it as a guide to develop and document repository conceptual designs that respect thermal, geometric, and other constraints. The other part is an Access relational database file that will be centrally maintained to document the ensemble of conceptual designs developed with individual implementations of the Excel workbook. The DSEF Excel workbook includes sheets for waste form, environment, geometric constraints, engineered barrier system (EBS) design, thermal, performance assessment (PA), materials, cost, and fuel cycle system impacts. Each of these sheets guides the user through the process of developing internally consistent design options, and documenting the thought process. The sheets interact with each other to transfer information and identify inconsistencies to the user. In some cases, the sheets are stand-alone, and in other cases (such as PA), the sheets refer the user to another tool, with the user being responsible to transfer summary results into the DSEF sheet. Finally, the DSEF includes three top-level sheets: inputs & results, interface parameters, and knowledge management (references). These sheets enable users and reviewers to see the overall picture on only a few summary sheets, while developing the design option systematically using the detailed sheets. The DSEF Access relational database file collects the key

  17. Object oriented design provides flexible framework for electrophysiolgy software toolbox - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Charlotte M

    2010-01-01

    This work describes a software platform to support an expandible toolbox for electrophysiology data analysis. The current focus of the toolbox, known as NeuroMAX is spike-sorting and spike-time analysis tools. A key feature of the toolbox is the ability for a user to connect tools into a workspace toolchain in a flexible, intelligent feed-forward manner that allows a tool to use any previously computed data set as input. Tool parameters can be saved and applied to other data sets. Tools and workspaces can be accessed to process data either directly from the MATLAB command line or from the NeuroMAX GUI. This work discusses the object-oriented design of the toolbox, including the data classes, workspace classes, and tool classes created to achieve this functionality. PMID:20467111

  18. Loop transformations for performance and message latency hiding in parallel object-oriented frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetti, F.; Davis, K.; Quinlan, D.

    1998-09-01

    Application codes reliably achieve performance far less than the advertised capabilities of existing architectures, and this problem is worsening with increasingly-parallel machines. For large-scale numerical applications, stencil operations often impose the greater part of the computational cost, and the primary sources of inefficiency are the costs of message passing and poor cache utilization. This paper proposes and demonstrates optimizations for stencil and stencil-like computations for both serial and parallel environments that ameliorate these sources of inefficiency. Additionally, the authors argue that when stencil-like computations are encoded at a high level using object-oriented parallel array class libraries these optimizations, which are beyond the capability of compilers, may be automated.

  19. Evaluation Primary School Students' Achievement of Objectives in English Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan, Senem Seda Sahenk

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this survey is "How far are the specific objectives of English courses achieved by the primary students (4-5 grades) recently in Istanbul?" "Does the first stage state primary school students' achievement level of the specific English courses differ according to students' personal characteristics? Survey…

  20. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects for Improving Calculus Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin; Kletskin, Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Pre-calculus concepts such as working with functions and solving equations are essential for students to explore limits, rates of change, and integrals. Yet many students have a weak understanding of these key concepts which impedes performance in their first year university Calculus course. A series of online learning objects was developed to…

  1. Modified foreground segmentation for object tracking using wavelets in a tensor framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoor, Rajiv; Rohilla, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Subspace-based techniques have become important in behaviour analysis, appearance modelling and tracking. Various vector and tensor subspace learning techniques are already known that perform their operations in offline as well as in an online manner. In this work, we have improved upon a tensor-based subspace learning by using fourth-order decomposition and wavelets so as to have an advanced adaptive algorithm for robust and efficient background modelling and tracking in coloured video sequences. The proposed algorithm known as fourth-order incremental tensor subspace learning algorithm uses the spatio-colour-temporal information by adaptive online update of the means and the eigen basis for each unfolding matrix using tensor decomposition to fourth-order image tensors. The proposed method employs the wavelet transformation to an optimum decomposition level in order to reduce the computational complexity by working on the approximate counterpart of the original scenes and also reduces noise in the given scene. Our tracking method is an unscented particle filter that utilises appearance knowledge and estimates the new state of the intended object. Various experiments have been performed to demonstrate the promising and convincing nature of the proposed method and the method works better than existing methods.

  2. Adaptive Multi-Objective Sub-Pixel Mapping Framework Based on Memetic Algorithm for Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2012-07-01

    Sub-pixel mapping technique can specify the location of each class within the pixels based on the assumption of spatial dependence. Traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms only consider the spatial dependence at the pixel level. The spatial dependence of each sub-pixel is ignored and sub-pixel spatial relation is lost. In this paper, a novel multi-objective sub-pixel mapping framework based on memetic algorithm, namely MSMF, is proposed. In MSMF, the sub-pixel mapping is transformed to a multi-objective optimization problem, which maximizing the spatial dependence index (SDI) and Moran's I, synchronously. Memetic algorithm is utilized to solve the multi-objective problem, which combines global search strategies with local search heuristics. In this framework, the sub-pixel mapping problem can be solved using different evolutionary algorithms and local algorithms. In this paper, memetic algorithm based on clonal selection algorithm (CSA) and random swapping as an example is designed and applied simultaneously in the proposed MSMF. In MSMF, CSA inherits the biologic properties of human immune systems, i.e. clone, mutation, memory, to search the possible sub-pixel mapping solution in the global space. After the exploration based on CSA, the local search based on random swapping is employed to dynamically decide which neighbourhood should be selected to stress exploitation in each generation. In addition, a solution set is used in MSMF to hold and update the obtained non-dominated solutions for multi-objective problem. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperform traditional sub-pixel mapping algorithms, and hence provide an effective option for sub-pixel mapping of hyperspectral remote sensing imagery.

  3. RISE Evaluation and Development System: Student Learning Objectives Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    With the help of teachers and leaders throughout the state, the Indiana Department of Education has developed an optional model teacher evaluation system named RISE. Whether corporations choose to adopt RISE or a model of their own, the department's goal is to assist corporations in developing or adopting models that both comply with IC 20-28-11.5…

  4. Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Hot Flashes: Evaluation by Objective Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germaine, Leonard M.; Freedman, Robert R.

    1984-01-01

    Used latency to hot flash onset under heat stress to evaluate the effects of relaxation treatment or a control procedure in 14 menopausal women. Following treatment, the latency to hot flash onset during heat stress was increased in relaxation subjects. Reported symptom frequency was significantly reduced in relaxation subjects. (BH)

  5. Framework for performance evaluation of face, text, and vehicle detection and tracking in video: data, metrics, and protocol.

    PubMed

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Goldgof, Dmitry; Soundararajan, Padmanabhan; Manohar, Vasant; Garofolo, John; Bowers, Rachel; Boonstra, Matthew; Korzhova, Valentina; Zhang, Jing

    2009-02-01

    Common benchmark data sets, standardized performance metrics, and baseline algorithms have demonstrated considerable impact on research and development in a variety of application domains. These resources provide both consumers and developers of technology with a common framework to objectively compare the performance of different algorithms and algorithmic improvements. In this paper, we present such a framework for evaluating object detection and tracking in video: specifically for face, text, and vehicle objects. This framework includes the source video data, ground-truth annotations (along with guidelines for annotation), performance metrics, evaluation protocols, and tools including scoring software and baseline algorithms. For each detection and tracking task and supported domain, we developed a 50-clip training set and a 50-clip test set. Each data clip is approximately 2.5 minutes long and has been completely spatially/temporally annotated at the I-frame level. Each task/domain, therefore, has an associated annotated corpus of approximately 450,000 frames. The scope of such annotation is unprecedented and was designed to begin to support the necessary quantities of data for robust machine learning approaches, as well as a statistically significant comparison of the performance of algorithms. The goal of this work was to systematically address the challenges of object detection and tracking through a common evaluation framework that permits a meaningful objective comparison of techniques, provides the research community with sufficient data for the exploration of automatic modeling techniques, encourages the incorporation of objective evaluation into the development process, and contributes useful lasting resources of a scale and magnitude that will prove to be extremely useful to the computer vision research community for years to come.

  6. An Application of the Impact Evaluation Process for Designing a Performance Measurement and Evaluation Framework in K-12 Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Lopez, Ingrid; Toker, Sacip

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates the application of the Impact Evaluation Process for the design of a performance measurement and evaluation framework for an urban high school. One of the key aims of this framework is to enhance decision-making by providing timely feedback about the effectiveness of various performance improvement interventions. The…

  7. Evaluation methods for retrieving information from interferograms of biomedical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podbielska, Halina; Rottenkolber, Matthias

    1996-04-01

    Interferograms in the form of fringe patterns can be produced in two-beam interferometers, holographic or speckle interferometers, in setups realizing moire techniques or in deflectometers. Optical metrology based on the principle of interference can be applied as a testing tool in biomedical research. By analyzing of the fringe pattern images, information about the shape or mechanical behavior of the object under study can be retrieved. Here, some of the techniques for creating fringe pattern images were presented along with methods of analysis. Intensity based analysis as well as methods of phase measurements, are mentioned. Applications of inteferometric methods, especially in the field of experimental orthopedics, endoscopy and ophthalmology are pointed out.

  8. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed: A community tool to objectively evaluate aerosol process modules

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D.; Gustafson, William I.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Easter, Richard C.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Grell, Georg; Barth, Mary

    2011-03-02

    This study describes a new modeling paradigm that significantly advances how the third activity is conducted while also fully exploiting data and findings from the first two activities. The Aerosol Modeling Testbed (AMT) is a computational framework for the atmospheric sciences community that streamlines the process of testing and evaluating aerosol process modules over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The AMT consists of a fully-coupled meteorology-chemistry-aerosol model, and a suite of tools to evaluate the performance of aerosol process modules via comparison with a wide range of field measurements. The philosophy of the AMT is to systematically and objectively evaluate aerosol process modules over local to regional spatial scales that are compatible with most field campaigns measurement strategies. The performance of new treatments can then be quantified and compared to existing treatments before they are incorporated into regional and global climate models. Since the AMT is a community tool, it also provides a means of enhancing collaboration and coordination among aerosol modelers.

  9. A taxing environment: evaluating the multiple objectives of environmental taxes.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Hale, Brack W

    2002-12-15

    Environmental taxes have attracted attention in recent years as a tool to internalize environmental externalities. This paper evaluates Sweden's experience with environmental taxes in the energy sector by examining how environmental taxes compare with estimated environmental externalities associated with the use of oil, coal, natural gas, and forest residue fuels. We also analyze how environmental taxes influence fuel choices in the energy sector by comparing the production, environmental, and tax costs for the same fuels. We find that (i) the Swedish environmental taxes correspond imperfectly with environmental costs; (ii) the Swedish tax and subsidy system introduces changes in fuel choice decisions; (iii) the energy users are responding to the incentives created by the tax and subsidy systems in ways that are consistent with economic theory; and (iv) the Swedish experience with environmental taxes and subsidies bears directly on wider evaluations of energy policy approaches internationally.

  10. Emerging technologies with potential for objectively evaluating speech recognition skills.

    PubMed

    Rawool, Vishakha Waman

    2016-01-01

    Work-related exposure to noise and other ototoxins can cause damage to the cochlea, synapses between the inner hair cells, the auditory nerve fibers, and higher auditory pathways, leading to difficulties in recognizing speech. Procedures designed to determine speech recognition scores (SRS) in an objective manner can be helpful in disability compensation cases where the worker claims to have poor speech perception due to exposure to noise or ototoxins. Such measures can also be helpful in determining SRS in individuals who cannot provide reliable responses to speech stimuli, including patients with Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injuries, and infants with and without hearing loss. Cost-effective neural monitoring hardware and software is being rapidly refined due to the high demand for neurogaming (games involving the use of brain-computer interfaces), health, and other applications. More specifically, two related advances in neuro-technology include relative ease in recording neural activity and availability of sophisticated analysing techniques. These techniques are reviewed in the current article and their applications for developing objective SRS procedures are proposed. Issues related to neuroaudioethics (ethics related to collection of neural data evoked by auditory stimuli including speech) and neurosecurity (preservation of a person's neural mechanisms and free will) are also discussed.

  11. A Framework for the Evaluation of CASE Tool Learnability in Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senapathi, Mali

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research is to derive a framework for the evaluation of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool learnability in educational environments. Drawing from the literature of Human Computer Interaction and educational research, a framework for evaluating CASE tool learnability in educational environments is derived. The two main…

  12. Evaluating HIV Prevention: A Framework for National, State, and Local Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugg, Deborah; Buehler, Jim; Renaud, Michelle; Gilliam, Aisha; Heitgerd, Janet; Westover, Bonita; Wright-De Aguero, Linda; Bartholow, Kelly; Swanson, Sue

    1999-01-01

    Describes the 1995-1997 evaluation framework and activities of an evaluation of HIV-prevention efforts. This framework is offered as a platform for future efforts to determine the most effective ways to prevent HIV transmission, and it may be generalizable to other disease-prevention and health-promotion programs. (SLD)

  13. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms. PMID:17202022

  14. Objective and subjective evaluation of the acoustic comfort in classrooms.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Marcon, Carolina Reich

    2007-09-01

    The acoustic comfort of classrooms in a Brazilian public school has been evaluated through interviews with 62 teachers and 464 pupils, measurements of background noise, reverberation time, and sound insulation. Acoustic measurements have revealed the poor acoustic quality of the classrooms. Results have shown that teachers and pupils consider the noise generated and the voice of the teacher in neighboring classrooms as the main sources of annoyance inside the classroom. Acoustic simulations resulted in the suggestion of placement of perforated plywood on the ceiling, for reduction in reverberation time and increase in the acoustic comfort of the classrooms.

  15. Evaluation of the Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework: evidence from Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sound policy, resource allocation and day-to-day management decisions in the health sector require timely information from routine health information systems (RHIS). In most low- and middle-income countries, the RHIS is viewed as being inadequate in providing quality data and continuous information that can be used to help improve health system performance. In addition, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of RHIS strengthening interventions in improving data quality and use. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of the newly developed Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) framework, which consists of a conceptual framework and associated data collection and analysis tools to assess, design, strengthen and evaluate RHIS. The specific objectives of the study are: a) to assess the reliability and validity of the PRISM instruments and b) to assess the validity of the PRISM conceptual framework. Methods Facility- and worker-level data were collected from 110 health care facilities in twelve districts in Uganda in 2004 and 2007 using records reviews, structured interviews and self-administered questionnaires. The analysis procedures include Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency of selected instruments, test-retest analysis to assess the reliability and sensitivity of the instruments, and bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques to assess validity of the PRISM instruments and conceptual framework. Results Cronbach's alpha analysis suggests high reliability (0.7 or greater) for the indices measuring a promotion of a culture of information, RHIS tasks self-efficacy and motivation. The study results also suggest that a promotion of a culture of information influences RHIS tasks self-efficacy, RHIS tasks competence and motivation, and that self-efficacy and the presence of RHIS staff have a direct influence on the use of RHIS information, a key aspect of RHIS performance. Conclusions The study

  16. Orchestration in Learning Technology Research: Evaluation of a Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis P.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Asensio-Pérez, Juan I.; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2015-01-01

    The term "orchestrating learning" is being used increasingly often, referring to the coordination activities performed while applying learning technologies to authentic settings. However, there is little consensus about how this notion should be conceptualised, and what aspects it entails. In this paper, a conceptual framework for…

  17. The objective evaluation of obstructive pulmonary diseases with spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Sevket; Dirican, Adem; Tuna, Tibel

    2016-01-01

    Airway obstruction is variable in asthma, while it is progressive and persistent in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, some of the patients presenting with symptoms of chronic airway diseases have clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The group with “Asthma–COPD Overlap Syndrome” (ACOS) phenotype was characterized by definitely irreversible airway obstruction accompanied by symptoms and signs of reversibility. In this study, we aimed to classify obstructive airway diseases by clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function tests. Patients at Samsun Medical Park Hospital Chest Diseases outpatient clinic were evaluated between January 2013 and April 2016, and a total of 235 patients were included in this study. Mean age of the patients was 55.3±14.5 (15–88) years, and the male/female ratio was 45/190. The baseline pulmonary function test results of the patients were as follows: mean forced vital capacity (FVC) values 2,825±1,108 (710–6,870) mL and 74.3±22.4 (24–155)%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values 1,789±774 (480–4,810) mL and 58.1±20.0 (20–130)%, FEV1/FVC values 62.5±6.8 (39–70)%. Reversibility criteria following bronchodilator treatment were present in 107 (45.5%) patients. We specified five subgroups for patients according to their clinical, radiological, and pulmonary test findings, namely Group 1 (asthma), Group 2 (ACOS), Group 3 (chronic bronchitis), and Group 4 (emphysema). Additionally, a group of patients who had clinical and spirometric features of both asthma and chronic bronchitis in association with underlying emphysema (emphysema with chronic bronchitis and emphysema with asthma) was defined as the undifferentiated obstruction (UNDO) group. Number and percentage distribution of patients by groups were 58 (24.7%) in the asthma group, 70 (29.8%) in the ACOS group, 61 (26%) in the chronic bronchitis group, 32 (13.6%) in the emphysema group, and 14 (6%) in the UNDO group. In conclusion, in our study

  18. The objective evaluation of obstructive pulmonary diseases with spirometry

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya, Sevket; Dirican, Adem; Tuna, Tibel

    2016-01-01

    Airway obstruction is variable in asthma, while it is progressive and persistent in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, some of the patients presenting with symptoms of chronic airway diseases have clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The group with “Asthma–COPD Overlap Syndrome” (ACOS) phenotype was characterized by definitely irreversible airway obstruction accompanied by symptoms and signs of reversibility. In this study, we aimed to classify obstructive airway diseases by clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function tests. Patients at Samsun Medical Park Hospital Chest Diseases outpatient clinic were evaluated between January 2013 and April 2016, and a total of 235 patients were included in this study. Mean age of the patients was 55.3±14.5 (15–88) years, and the male/female ratio was 45/190. The baseline pulmonary function test results of the patients were as follows: mean forced vital capacity (FVC) values 2,825±1,108 (710–6,870) mL and 74.3±22.4 (24–155)%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values 1,789±774 (480–4,810) mL and 58.1±20.0 (20–130)%, FEV1/FVC values 62.5±6.8 (39–70)%. Reversibility criteria following bronchodilator treatment were present in 107 (45.5%) patients. We specified five subgroups for patients according to their clinical, radiological, and pulmonary test findings, namely Group 1 (asthma), Group 2 (ACOS), Group 3 (chronic bronchitis), and Group 4 (emphysema). Additionally, a group of patients who had clinical and spirometric features of both asthma and chronic bronchitis in association with underlying emphysema (emphysema with chronic bronchitis and emphysema with asthma) was defined as the undifferentiated obstruction (UNDO) group. Number and percentage distribution of patients by groups were 58 (24.7%) in the asthma group, 70 (29.8%) in the ACOS group, 61 (26%) in the chronic bronchitis group, 32 (13.6%) in the emphysema group, and 14 (6%) in the UNDO group. In conclusion, in our study

  19. The objective evaluation of obstructive pulmonary diseases with spirometry.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Sevket; Dirican, Adem; Tuna, Tibel

    2016-01-01

    Airway obstruction is variable in asthma, while it is progressive and persistent in chronic bronchitis and emphysema. However, some of the patients presenting with symptoms of chronic airway diseases have clinical features of both asthma and COPD. The group with "Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome" (ACOS) phenotype was characterized by definitely irreversible airway obstruction accompanied by symptoms and signs of reversibility. In this study, we aimed to classify obstructive airway diseases by clinical, radiological, and pulmonary function tests. Patients at Samsun Medical Park Hospital Chest Diseases outpatient clinic were evaluated between January 2013 and April 2016, and a total of 235 patients were included in this study. Mean age of the patients was 55.3±14.5 (15-88) years, and the male/female ratio was 45/190. The baseline pulmonary function test results of the patients were as follows: mean forced vital capacity (FVC) values 2,825±1,108 (710-6,870) mL and 74.3±22.4 (24-155)%, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) values 1,789±774 (480-4,810) mL and 58.1±20.0 (20-130)%, FEV1/FVC values 62.5±6.8 (39-70)%. Reversibility criteria following bronchodilator treatment were present in 107 (45.5%) patients. We specified five subgroups for patients according to their clinical, radiological, and pulmonary test findings, namely Group 1 (asthma), Group 2 (ACOS), Group 3 (chronic bronchitis), and Group 4 (emphysema). Additionally, a group of patients who had clinical and spirometric features of both asthma and chronic bronchitis in association with underlying emphysema (emphysema with chronic bronchitis and emphysema with asthma) was defined as the undifferentiated obstruction (UNDO) group. Number and percentage distribution of patients by groups were 58 (24.7%) in the asthma group, 70 (29.8%) in the ACOS group, 61 (26%) in the chronic bronchitis group, 32 (13.6%) in the emphysema group, and 14 (6%) in the UNDO group. In conclusion, in our study, the types of

  20. A scalable portable object-oriented framework for parallel multisensor data-fusion applications in HPC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Prasad, Guru

    2004-04-01

    Multi-sensor Data Fusion is synergistic integration of multiple data sets. Data fusion includes processes for aligning, associating and combining data and information in estimating and predicting the state of objects, their relationships, and characterizing situations and their significance. The combination of complex data sets and the need for real-time data storage and retrieval compounds the data fusion problem. The systematic development and use of data fusion techniques are particularly critical in applications requiring massive, diverse, ambiguous, and time-critical data. Such conditions are characteristic of new emerging requirements; e.g., network-centric and information-centric warfare, low intensity conflicts such as special operations, counter narcotics, antiterrorism, information operations and CALOW (Conventional Arms, Limited Objectives Warfare), economic and political intelligence. In this paper, Aximetric presents a novel, scalable, object-oriented, metamodel framework for parallel, cluster-based data-fusion engine on High Performance Computing (HPC) Systems. The data-clustering algorithms provide a fast, scalable technique to sift through massive, complex data sets coming through multiple streams in real-time. The load-balancing algorithm provides the capability to evenly distribute the workload among processors on-the-fly and achieve real-time scalability. The proposed data-fusion engine exploits unique data-structures for fast storage, retrieval and interactive visualization of the multiple data streams.

  1. The conceptual framework of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project

    PubMed Central

    Fong, G T; Cummings, K M; Borland, R; Hastings, G; Hyland, A; Giovino, G A; Hammond, D; Thompson, M E

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the conceptual model that underlies the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project), whose mission is to measure the psychosocial and behavioural impact of key policies of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) among adult smokers, and in some countries, among adult non‐smokers and among youth. The evaluation framework utilises multiple country controls, a longitudinal design, and a pre‐specified, theory‐driven conceptual model to test hypotheses about the anticipated effects of specific policies. The ITC Project consists of parallel prospective cohort surveys of representative samples of adult smokers currently in nine countries (inhabited by over 45% of the world's smokers), with other countries being added in the future. Collectively, the ITC Surveys constitute the first‐ever international cohort study of tobacco use. The conceptual model of the ITC Project draws on the psychosocial and health communication literature and assumes that tobacco control policies influence tobacco related behaviours through a causal chain of psychological events, with some variables more closely related to the policy itself (policy‐specific variables) and other variables that are more downstream from the policy, which have been identified by health behaviour and social psychological theories as being important causal precursors of behaviour (psychosocial mediators). We discuss the objectives of the ITC Project and its potential for building the evidence base for the FCTC. PMID:16754944

  2. Towards a simple objective framework for the investigation and treatment of cancer cachexia: the Glasgow Prognostic Score.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Euan; McMillan, Donald C

    2014-07-01

    Progress in the treatment of progressive involuntary weight loss in patients with cancer (cancer cachexia) remains dismally slow. Cancer cachexia and its associated clinical symptoms, including weight loss, altered body composition, poor functional status, poor food intake, and poorer quality of life, have long been recognised as indicators of poorer prognosis in the patient with cancer. In order to make some progress a starting point is to have general agreement on what constitutes cancer cachexia. In recent years a plethora of different definitions and consensus statements have been proposed as a framework for investigation and treatment of this debilitating and terminal condition. However, there are significant differences in the criteria used in these and all include poorly defined or subjective criteria and their prognostic value has not been established. The aim of the present review was to examine the hypothesis that a systemic inflammatory response accounts for most of the effect of cancer cachexia and its associated clinical symptoms on poor outcome in patients with cancer. Furthermore, to put forward the case for the Glasgow Prognostic Score to act a simple objective framework for the investigation and treatment of cancer cachexia.

  3. Case study of evaluations that go beyond clinical outcomes to assess quality improvement diabetes programmes using the Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE)

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Stewart B.; Naqshbandi Hayward, Mariam; Tompkins, Jordan W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Investments in efforts to reduce the burden of diabetes on patients and health care are critical; however, more evaluation is needed to provide evidence that informs and supports future policies and programmes. The newly developed Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE) incorporates the theoretical concepts needed to facilitate the capture of critical information to guide investments, policy and programmatic decision making. The aim of the study is to assess the applicability and value of DEFINE in comprehensive real‐world evaluation. Method Using a critical and positivist approach, this intrinsic and collective case study retrospectively examines two naturalistic evaluations to demonstrate how DEFINE could be used when conducting real‐world comprehensive evaluations in health care settings. Results The variability between the cases and the evaluation designs are described and aligned to the DEFINE goals, steps and sub‐steps. The majority of the theoretical steps of DEFINE were exemplified in both cases, although limited for knowledge translation efforts. Application of DEFINE to evaluate diverse programmes that target various chronic diseases is needed to further test the inclusivity and built‐in flexibility of DEFINE and its role in encouraging more comprehensive knowledge translation. Conclusions This case study shows how DEFINE could be used to structure or guide comprehensive evaluations of programmes and initiatives implemented in health care settings and support scale‐up of successful innovations. Future use of the framework will continue to strengthen its value in guiding programme evaluation and informing health policy to reduce the burden of diabetes and other chronic diseases. PMID:26804339

  4. Measuring the Impact of a Moving Target: Towards a Dynamic Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Adaptive Interactive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Holly; Bender, Jacqueline L; Urowitz, Sara; Wiljer, David; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2009-01-01

    Background Website evaluation is a key issue for researchers, organizations, and others responsible for designing, maintaining, endorsing, approving, and/or assessing the use and impact of interventions designed to influence health and health services. Traditionally, these evaluations have included elements such as content credibility, interface usability, and overall design aesthetics. With the emergence of collaborative, adaptive, and interactive ("Web 2.0") technologies such as wikis and other forms of social networking applications, these metrics may no longer be sufficient to adequately assess the quality, use or impact of a health website. Collaborative, adaptive, interactive applications support different ways for people to interact with health information on the Web, including the potential for increased user participation in the design, creation, and maintenance of such sites. Objective We propose a framework that addresses how to evaluate collaborative, adaptive, and interactive applications. Methods In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive review of a variety of databases using terminology related to this area. Results We present a review of evaluation frameworks and also propose a framework that incorporates collaborative, adaptive, and interactive technologies, grounded in evaluation theory. Conclusion This framework can be applied by researchers who wish to compare Web-based interventions, non-profit organizations, and clinical groups who aim to provide health information and support about a particular health concern via the Web, and decisions about funding grants by agencies interested in the role of social networks and collaborative, adaptive, and interactive technologies technologies to improve health and the health system. PMID:19632973

  5. An application of the Impact Evaluation Process for designing a performance measurement and evaluation framework in K-12 environments.

    PubMed

    Guerra-López, Ingrid; Toker, Sacip

    2012-05-01

    This article illustrates the application of the Impact Evaluation Process for the design of a performance measurement and evaluation framework for an urban high school. One of the key aims of this framework is to enhance decision-making by providing timely feedback about the effectiveness of various performance improvement interventions. The framework design process is guided by the Impact Evaluation Process, and included the participation of key stakeholders including administrative and teaching staff who all contributed to the performance measurement and evaluation framework design process. Key performance indicators at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels were derived from the school vision, and linked to specific interventions to facilitate the continuous evaluation and improvement process.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of dynamic traffic assignment systems: Requirements, framework, and system design

    SciTech Connect

    Miaou, S.-P.; Pillai, R.S.; Summers, M.S.; Rathi, A.K.; Lieu, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    The success of Advanced Traveler Information 5ystems (ATIS) and Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS) depends on the availability and dissemination of timely and accurate estimates of current and emerging traffic network conditions. Real-time Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) systems are being developed to provide the required timely information. The DTA systems will provide faithful and coherent real-time, pre-trip, and en-route guidance/information which includes routing, mode, and departure time suggestions for use by travelers, ATIS, and ATMS. To ensure the credibility and deployment potential of such DTA systems, an evaluation system supporting all phases of DTA system development has been designed and presented in this paper. This evaluation system is called the DTA System Laboratory (DSL). A major component of the DSL is a ground- truth simulator, the DTA Evaluation System (DES). The DES is envisioned to be a virtual representation of a transportation system in which ATMS and ATIS technologies are deployed. It simulates the driving and decision-making behavior of travelers in response to ATIS and ATMS guidance, information, and control. This paper presents the major evaluation requirements for a DTA Systems, a modular modeling framework for the DES, and a distributed DES design. The modeling framework for the DES is modular, meets the requirements, can be assembled using both legacy and independently developed modules, and can be implemented as a either a single process or a distributed system. The distributed design is extendible, provides for the optimization of distributed performance, and object-oriented design within each distributed component. A status report on the development of the DES and other research applications is also provided.

  7. Technology-Assisted Patient Access to Clinical Information: An Evaluation Framework for Blue Button

    PubMed Central

    Nazi, Kim M; Luger, Tana M; Amante, Daniel J; Smith, Bridget M; Barker, Anna; Shimada, Stephanie L; Volkman, Julie E; Garvin, Lynn; Simon, Steven R; Houston, Thomas K

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient access to clinical information represents a means to improve the transparency and delivery of health care as well as interactions between patients and health care providers. We examine the movement toward augmenting patient access to clinical information using technology. Our analysis focuses on “Blue Button,” a tool that many health care organizations are implementing as part of their Web-based patient portals. Objective We present a framework for evaluating the effects that technology-assisted access to clinical information may have on stakeholder experiences, processes of care, and health outcomes. Methods A case study of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) efforts to make increasing amounts of clinical information available to patients through Blue Button. Drawing on established collaborative relationships with researchers, clinicians, and operational partners who are engaged in the VA’s ongoing implementation and evaluation efforts related to Blue Button, we assessed existing evidence and organizational practices through key informant interviews, review of documents and other available materials, and an environmental scan of published literature and the websites of other health care organizations. Results Technology-assisted access to clinical information represents a significant advance for VA patients and marks a significant change for the VA as an organization. Evaluations of Blue Button should (1) consider both processes of care and outcomes, (2) clearly define constructs of focus, (3) examine influencing factors related to the patient population and clinical context, and (4) identify potential unintended consequences. Conclusions The proposed framework can serve as a roadmap to guide subsequent research and evaluation of technology-assisted patient access to clinical information. To that end, we offer a series of related recommendations. PMID:24675395

  8. Analyzing Electronic Question/Answer Services: Framework and Evaluations of Selected Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas, Ed.

    This report develops an analytical framework based on systems analysis for evaluating electronic question/answer or AskA services operated by a wide range of types of organizations, including libraries. Version 1.0 of this framework was applied in June 1999 to a selective sample of 11 electronic question/answer services, which cover a range of…

  9. Beyond the Rhetoric: A Framework for Evaluating Improvements to the Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeanette; Gordon, George

    2009-01-01

    A framework is described to assist institutions in evaluating the extent to which activities described as "quality improvements" or "quality enhancements" are likely to directly improve the student experience. The framework classifies ways of improving the student experience into "coaching improvements", "umpiring improvements", and "facilities…

  10. A Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating Hypotheses about Cultural Bias in Educational Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a working definition of the term "culture," as well as to describe and demonstrate a comprehensive framework for evaluating hypotheses about cultural bias in educational testing. The framework is demonstrated using 5th-grade reading and language arts data from the Terra Nova test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1999).…

  11. Is Student Evaluation of Teaching Worthwhile? An Analytical Framework for Answering the Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To present a framework to facilitate comprehension of research on the effectiveness of the teaching evaluation process. Design/methodology/approach: A comprehensive review of the literature that identifies common categories and factors that can be used to construct an analytical framework. Findings: Identifies student related, course…

  12. The Utility of the Memorable Messages Framework as an Intermediary Evaluation Tool for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in a Nutrition Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, LaShara A.; Morgan, Susan E.; Mobley, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    Additional strategies to evaluate the impact of community nutrition education programs on low-income individuals are needed. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the use of the Memorable Messages Framework as an intermediary nutrition education program evaluation tool to determine what fruit and vegetable messages were reported…

  13. Evaluation framework for nursing education programs: application of the CIPP model.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mina D

    2004-01-01

    It is advised that all nursing education programs conduct program evaluations to address accountability requirements and information for planning and guiding the delivery of the programs. Stufflebeam's CIPP Model, supported by triangulation of multiple modes of data collection provides such a theoretical framework for evaluations. This article proposes a total CIPP evaluation framework for nursing education programs. While this evaluation framework is applicable to any nursing evaluation program, it is practically useful for collaborative nursing programs as it allows a full assessment of each partner in its context. Under the direction of this author, the York-Seneca-Georgian-Durham collaborative BScN Program Evaluation Committee in Ontario developed and utilized a CIPP process evaluation.

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Evaluating Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinta, Ravi; Kebritchi, Mansureh; Ellias, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Performance evaluation is a topic that has been researched and practiced extensively in business organizations but has received scant attention in higher education institutions. A review of literature revealed that context, input, process, product (CIPP) model is an appropriate performance evaluation model for higher education…

  15. Comprehensive Framework for Evaluating e-Learning Systems: Using BSC Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momeni, Mansor; Jamporazmey, Mona; Mehrafrouz, Mohsen; Bahadori, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology (ICT) is changing the way in which people work, communicate and learn. Recently developing and implementing e-learning solutions have increased dramatically. According to heavily investing in this area, it is essential to evaluate its different aspects and understand measures, which…

  16. A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking for scalable coded digital item adaptation attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Deepayan; Abhayaratne, Charith

    2009-02-01

    A framework for evaluating wavelet based watermarking schemes against scalable coded visual media content adaptation attacks is presented. The framework, Watermark Evaluation Bench for Content Adaptation Modes (WEBCAM), aims to facilitate controlled evaluation of wavelet based watermarking schemes under MPEG-21 part-7 digital item adaptations (DIA). WEBCAM accommodates all major wavelet based watermarking in single generalised framework by considering a global parameter space, from which the optimum parameters for a specific algorithm may be chosen. WEBCAM considers the traversing of media content along various links and required content adaptations at various nodes of media supply chains. In this paper, the content adaptation is emulated by the JPEG2000 coded bit stream extraction for various spatial resolution and quality levels of the content. The proposed framework is beneficial not only as an evaluation tool but also as design tool for new wavelet based watermark algorithms by picking and mixing of available tools and finding the optimum design parameters.

  17. A Framework for Design and Evaluation of Internet-Based Distance Learning Courses Phase One--Framework Justification, Design and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Russell K.

    2003-01-01

    Defined in its most basic form, distance learning occurs when the student and the instructor are logistically separated. The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for the development and evaluation of online distance learning courses, based on integrating an adaptation of Tyler's principles within the levels of cognitive learning in…

  18. A framework to evaluate research capacity building in health care

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Jo

    2005-01-01

    Background Building research capacity in health services has been recognised internationally as important in order to produce a sound evidence base for decision-making in policy and practice. Activities to increase research capacity for, within, and by practice include initiatives to support individuals and teams, organisations and networks. Little has been discussed or concluded about how to measure the effectiveness of research capacity building (RCB) Discussion This article attempts to develop the debate on measuring RCB. It highlights that traditional outcomes of publications in peer reviewed journals and successful grant applications may be important outcomes to measure, but they may not address all the relevant issues to highlight progress, especially amongst novice researchers. They do not capture factors that contribute to developing an environment to support capacity development, or on measuring the usefulness or the 'social impact' of research, or on professional outcomes. The paper suggests a framework for planning change and measuring progress, based on six principles of RCB, which have been generated through the analysis of the literature, policy documents, empirical studies, and the experience of one Research and Development Support Unit in the UK. These principles are that RCB should: develop skills and confidence, support linkages and partnerships, ensure the research is 'close to practice', develop appropriate dissemination, invest in infrastructure, and build elements of sustainability and continuity. It is suggested that each principle operates at individual, team, organisation and supra-organisational levels. Some criteria for measuring progress are also given. Summary This paper highlights the need to identify ways of measuring RCB. It points out the limitations of current measurements that exist in the literature, and proposes a framework for measuring progress, which may form the basis of comparison of RCB activities. In this way it could

  19. A framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Pardue, Karen T

    2015-01-01

    The growing emphasis on teamwork and care coordination within health care delivery is sparking interest in interprofessional education (IPE) among nursing and health profession faculty. Faculty often lack firsthand IPE experience, which hinders pedagogical reform. This article proposes a theoretically grounded framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of IPE. Supporting literature and practical advice are interwoven. The proposed framework guides faculty in the successful creation and evaluation of collaborative learning experiences. PMID:25330345

  20. New model framework and structure and the commonality evaluation model. [concerning unmanned spacecraft projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The development of a framework and structure for shuttle era unmanned spacecraft projects and the development of a commonality evaluation model is documented. The methodology developed for model utilization in performing cost trades and comparative evaluations for commonality studies is discussed. The model framework consists of categories of activities associated with the spacecraft system's development process. The model structure describes the physical elements to be treated as separate identifiable entities. Cost estimating relationships for subsystem and program-level components were calculated.

  1. A Decision Support Framework for Evaluation of Engineered Nanomaterials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are currently being developed and applied at rates that far exceed our ability to evaluate their potential for environmental or human health risks. The gap between material development and capacity for assessment grows wider every day. Transforma...

  2. Examining Readers' Evaluations of Objectivity and Bias in News Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Peter; Eisenhart, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Readers' objectivity and bias evaluations of news texts were investigated in order to better understand the process by which readers make these kinds of judgments and the evidence on which they base them. Readers were primed to evaluate news texts for objectivity and bias, and their selections and metacommentary were analyzed. Readers…

  3. The Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Multichannel Expansion in Wide Dynamic Range Compression Hearing Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plyler, Patrick N.; Lowery, Kristy J.; Hamby, Hilary M.; Trine, Timothy D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of multichannel expansion on the objective and subjective evaluation of 20 listeners fitted binaurally with 4-channel, digital in-the-ear hearing instruments were investigated. Method: Objective evaluations were conducted in quiet using the Connected Speech Test (CST) and in noise using the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) at 40,…

  4. Beyond Effectiveness: A Pragmatic Evaluation Framework for Learning and Continuous Quality Improvement of e-Learning Interventions in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Dafalla, Tarig Dafalla Mohamed; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    A pragmatic evaluation framework for evaluating the usability and usefulness of an e-learning intervention for a patient clinical information scheduling system is presented in this paper. The framework was conceptualized based on two different but related concepts (usability and usefulness) and selection of appropriate and valid methods of data collection and analysis that included: (1) Low-Cost Rapid Usability Engineering (LCRUE), (2) Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA), (3) Heuristic Evaluation (HE) criteria for web-based learning, and (4) Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The results of the analysis showed some areas where usability that were related to General Interface Usability (GIU), instructional design and content was problematic; some of which might account for the poorly rated aspects of usability when subjectively measured. This paper shows that using a pragmatic framework can be a useful way, not only for measuring the usability and usefulness, but also for providing a practical objective evidences for learning and continuous quality improvement of e-learning systems. The findings should be of interest to educators, developers, designers, researchers, and usability practitioners involved in the development of e-learning systems in healthcare. This framework could be an appropriate method for assessing the usability, usefulness and safety of health information systems both in the laboratory and in the clinical context. PMID:25676959

  5. Evaluation Framework and Tools for Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gumerman, Etan Z.; Bharvirkar, Ranjit R.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Marnay , Chris

    2003-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 2002 Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) forecast anticipates the need for 375 MW of new generating capacity (or about one new power plant) per week for the next 20 years, most of which is forecast to be fueled by natural gas. The Distributed Energy and Electric Reliability Program (DEER) of the Department of Energy (DOE), has set a national goal for DER to capture 20 percent of new electric generation capacity additions by 2020 (Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy 2000). Cumulatively, this amounts to about 40 GW of DER capacity additions from 2000-2020. Figure ES-1 below compares the EIA forecast and DEER's assumed goal for new DER by 2020 while applying the same definition of DER to both. This figure illustrates that the EIA forecast is consistent with the overall DEER DER goal. For the purposes of this study, Berkeley Lab needed a target level of small-scale DER penetration upon which to hinge consideration of benefits and costs. Because the AEO2002 forecasted only 3.1 GW of cumulative additions from small-scale DER in the residential and commercial sectors, another approach was needed to estimate the small-scale DER target. The focus here is on small-scale DER technologies under 500 kW. The technology size limit is somewhat arbitrary, but the key results of interest are marginal additional costs and benefits around an assumed level of penetration that existing programs might achieve. Berkeley Lab assumes that small-scale DER has the same growth potential as large scale DER in AEO2002, about 38 GW. This assumption makes the small-scale goal equivalent to 380,000 DER units of average size 100 kW. This report lays out a framework whereby the consequences of meeting this goal might be estimated and tallied up. The framework is built around a list of major benefits and a set of tools that might be applied to estimate them. This study lists some of the major effects of an emerging paradigm shift away from central

  6. Framework for springback compensation based on mechanical factor evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Tetsuo; Naoyuki Doke, Naoyuki

    2013-05-01

    Springback is an inevitable phenomenon in sheet metal forming, and many researches on its prediction and compensation method have been presented. The use of high-strength steels is now popular; therefore, the demand for effective springback compensation system is increasing. In this study, a novel approach of springback compensation is presented. The proposed framework consists of a springback solver and design system and optimization process. The springback solver is a finite element procedure in which the degenerated shell element is used instead of the typical shell element. This allows the designer to access directly to the resultant stresses such as the bending moment that is a major cause of springback. By our system, mechanically reasonable springback compensation is possible whereas the conventional compensation method only uses geometrical information that may lead to non-realistic solution. The authors have developed a system based on the proposed procedure to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented strategy and applied it to some forming situations. In this paper, the overview of our approach and the latest progress is reported.

  7. A General Framework for the Evaluation of Clinical Trial Quality

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Vance W.; Alperson, Sunny Y.

    2009-01-01

    Flawed evaluation of clinical trial quality allows flawed trials to thrive (get funded, obtain IRB approval, get published, serve as the basis of regulatory approval, and set policy). A reasonable evaluation of clinical trial quality must recognize that any one of a large number of potential biases could by itself completely invalidate the trial results. In addition, clever new ways to distort trial results toward a favored outcome may be devised at any time. Finally, the vested financial and other interests of those conducting the experiments and publishing the reports must cast suspicion on any inadequately reported aspect of clinical trial quality. Putting these ideas together, we see that an adequate evaluation of clinical quality would need to enumerate all known biases, update this list periodically, score the trial with regard to each potential bias on a scale of 0% to 100%, offer partial credit for only that which can be substantiated, and then multiply (not add) the component scores to obtain an overall score between 0% and 100%. We will demonstrate that current evaluations fall well short of these ideals. PMID:19463104

  8. Teacher Language Competence Description: Towards a New Framework of Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolova, Nataliya

    2012-01-01

    The article is centred around the concept of "language competence of a foreign language (FL) teacher" and the ways it can be evaluated. Though the definition of teacher language competence might sound obvious it has not yet been clearly structured and, therefore, no component has been thoroughly described. I use this fact as a starting point and…

  9. A Framework for Pedagogical Evaluation of Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britain, Sandy; Liber, Oleg

    Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) are learning management software systems that synthesize the functionality of computer-mediated communications software and online methods of delivering course materials. This report focuses on how to evaluate the properties, capabilities and orientation of different systems from an educational perspective, and…

  10. Contextual E-Learning Evaluation: A Preliminary Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Christian; Swatman, Paula M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of solutions is a major unresolved issue for all those involved in e-learning. In this paper we illustrate the importance of context by means of a qualitative comparison of two e-learning prototype implementations--an action research case undertaken in conjunction with a major German insurance company; and a more experimental…

  11. An Evaluation Framework for Sustaining the Impact of Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Pillay, Hitendra; Hudson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Notwithstanding significant efforts by international aid agencies, aid ineffectiveness became apparent in 1990s as the impact of continued development intervention did not endure the expected outcomes. Conventional monitoring and evaluation by those agencies is critiqued for focusing on measuring project outcomes and giving little attention to…

  12. A Human Capabilities Framework for Evaluating Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a human capabilities approach for evaluating student learning and the social and pedagogical arrangements that support equality in capabilities for all students. It outlines the focus on valuable beings and doings in the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen, and Martha Nussbaum's capabilities focus on human flourishing.…

  13. Robust Operation of a System of Reservoir and Desalination Plant using a Multi-Objective Optimization Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, T.; Bhushan, R.

    2013-12-01

    In many cities, the water supply system is under stress due to increased competition for reliable fresh water supplies from population growth and climate uncertainties resulting in water insecurity. One method to augment fresh water supplies is seawater desalination, which converts seawater to fresh water for industrial and domestic potable and non-potable uses. We propose to address this issue of water supply scarcity and uncertainty in coastal metropolitan cities by developing a robust operating policy for the joint operation of a desalination plant with a freshwater reservoir system using a multi-objective optimization framework. Due to the unlimited availability of seawater, desalination has a strong potential as a reliable source of water in coastal cities around the world. However, being an energy intensive and expensive process, its application is limited. Reservoir water, while cheaper due to its relatively small cost of transportation to the cities, is often limited and variable in its availability. We observe that combining the operation of a desalination plant with a water supply reservoir leads to more cost efficient and reliable water production than if both were to be operated separately. We model a joint reservoir-desalination system as a multi-objective optimization problem with risk, resilience, and vulnerability as the objective functions, and cost as a constraint. In our simulations, rule curves determine the release from the reservoir as a function of existing storage level, and the remaining demand that is unmet by the release from the reservoir determines the amount of water produced from desalination. The overall cost of the system is the sum of the cost of transporting reservoir water and the cost of energy of desalinating seawater. We employ a genetic algorithm to find the optimal values of the thresholds of the reservoir rule curves and the maximum operating capacity of the desalination plant. We will discuss the tradeoffs between water

  14. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  15. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VII: The Relief/Recovery Framework.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-04-01

    The principal goal of research relative to disasters is to decrease the risk that a hazard will result in a disaster. Disaster studies pursue two distinct directions: (1) epidemiological (non-interventional); and (2) interventional. Both interventional and non-interventional studies require data/information obtained from assessments of function. Non-interventional studies examine the epidemiology of disasters. Interventional studies evaluate specific interventions/responses in terms of their effectiveness in meeting their respective objectives, their contribution to the overarching goal, other effects created, their respective costs, and the efficiency with which they achieved their objectives. The results of interventional studies should contribute to evidence that will be used to inform the decisions used to define standards of care and best practices for a given setting based on these standards. Interventional studies are based on the Disaster Logic Model (DLM) and are used to change or maintain levels of function (LOFs). Relief and Recovery interventional studies seek to determine the effects, outcomes, impacts, costs, and value of the intervention provided after the onset of a damaging event. The Relief/Recovery Framework provides the structure needed to systematically study the processes involved in providing relief or recovery interventions that result in a new LOF for a given Societal System and/or its component functions. It consists of the following transformational processes (steps): (1) identification of the functional state prior to the onset of the event (pre-event); (2) assessments of the current functional state; (3) comparison of the current functional state with the pre-event state and with the results of the last assessment; (4) needs identification; (5) strategic planning, including establishing the overall strategic goal(s), objectives, and priorities for interventions; (6) identification of options for interventions; (7) selection of the most

  16. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VII: The Relief/Recovery Framework.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-04-01

    The principal goal of research relative to disasters is to decrease the risk that a hazard will result in a disaster. Disaster studies pursue two distinct directions: (1) epidemiological (non-interventional); and (2) interventional. Both interventional and non-interventional studies require data/information obtained from assessments of function. Non-interventional studies examine the epidemiology of disasters. Interventional studies evaluate specific interventions/responses in terms of their effectiveness in meeting their respective objectives, their contribution to the overarching goal, other effects created, their respective costs, and the efficiency with which they achieved their objectives. The results of interventional studies should contribute to evidence that will be used to inform the decisions used to define standards of care and best practices for a given setting based on these standards. Interventional studies are based on the Disaster Logic Model (DLM) and are used to change or maintain levels of function (LOFs). Relief and Recovery interventional studies seek to determine the effects, outcomes, impacts, costs, and value of the intervention provided after the onset of a damaging event. The Relief/Recovery Framework provides the structure needed to systematically study the processes involved in providing relief or recovery interventions that result in a new LOF for a given Societal System and/or its component functions. It consists of the following transformational processes (steps): (1) identification of the functional state prior to the onset of the event (pre-event); (2) assessments of the current functional state; (3) comparison of the current functional state with the pre-event state and with the results of the last assessment; (4) needs identification; (5) strategic planning, including establishing the overall strategic goal(s), objectives, and priorities for interventions; (6) identification of options for interventions; (7) selection of the most

  17. Picasso Paintings, Moon Rocks, and Hand-Written Beatles Lyrics: Adults' Evaluations of Authentic Objects.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Brandy N; Gelman, Susan A; Wilson, Alice; Hood, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Authentic objects are those that have an historical link to a person, event, time, or place of some significance (e.g., original Picasso painting; gown worn by Princess Diana; your favorite baby blanket). The current study examines everyday beliefs about authentic objects, with three primary goals: to determine the scope of adults' evaluation of authentic objects, to examine such evaluation in two distinct cultural settings, and to determine whether a person's attachment history (i.e., whether or not they owned an attachment object as a child) predicts evaluation of authentic objects. We found that college students in the U.K. (N = 125) and U.S. (N = 119) consistently evaluate a broad range of authentic items as more valuable than matched control (inauthentic) objects, more desirable to keep, and more desirable to touch, though only non-personal authentic items were judged to be more appropriate for display in a museum. These patterns were remarkably similar across the two cultural contexts. Additionally, those who had an attachment object as a child evaluated objects more favorably, and in particular judged authentic objects to be more valuable. Altogether, these results demonstrate broad endorsement of "positive contagion" among college-educated adults.

  18. Picasso Paintings, Moon Rocks, and Hand-Written Beatles Lyrics: Adults’ Evaluations of Authentic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Brandy N.; Gelman, Susan A.; Wilson, Alice; Hood, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Authentic objects are those that have an historical link to a person, event, time, or place of some significance (e.g., original Picasso painting; gown worn by Princess Diana; your favorite baby blanket). The current study examines everyday beliefs about authentic objects, with three primary goals: to determine the scope of adults’ evaluation of authentic objects, to examine such evaluation in two distinct cultural settings, and to determine whether a person’s attachment history (i.e., whether or not they owned an attachment object as a child) predicts evaluation of authentic objects. We found that college students in the U.K. (N = 125) and U.S. (N = 119) consistently evaluate a broad range of authentic items as more valuable than matched control (inauthentic) objects, more desirable to keep, and more desirable to touch, though only non-personal authentic items were judged to be more appropriate for display in a museum. These patterns were remarkably similar across the two cultural contexts. Additionally, those who had an attachment object as a child evaluated objects more favorably, and in particular judged authentic objects to be more valuable. Altogether, these results demonstrate broad endorsement of "positive contagion" among college-educated adults. PMID:20631919

  19. Federated Process Framework in a Virtual Enterprise Using an Object-Oriented Database and Extensible Markup Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Kyoung-Il; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Huh, Soon-Young

    2003-01-01

    Discusses process information sharing among participating organizations in a virtual enterprise and proposes a federated process framework and system architecture that provide a conceptual design for effective implementation of process information sharing supporting the autonomy and agility of the organizations. Develops the framework using an…

  20. A Retrospective Evaluation of Remote Pharmacist Interventions in a Telepharmacy Service Model Using a Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Murante, Lori J.; Moffett, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: This retrospective cross-sectional study evaluated a telepharmacy service model using a conceptual framework to compare documented remote pharmacist interventions by year, hospital, and remote pharmacist and across rural hospitals with or without an on-site rural hospital pharmacist. Materials and Methods: Documented remote pharmacist interventions for patients at eight rural hospitals in the Midwestern United States during prospective prescription order review/entry from 2008 to 2011 were extracted from RxFusion® database (a home-grown system, i.e., internally developed program at The Nebraska Medical Center (TNMC) for capturing remote pharmacist-documented intervention data). The study authors conceptualized an analytical framework, mapping the 37 classes of remote pharmacist interventions to three broader-level definitions: (a) intervention, eight categories (interaction/potential interaction, contraindication, adverse effects, anticoagulation monitoring, drug product selection, drug regimen, summary, and recommendation), (b) patient medication management, two categories (therapy review and action), and (c) health system-centered medication use process, four categories (prescribing, transcribing and documenting, administering, and monitoring). Frequencies of intervention levels were compared by year, hospital, remote pharmacist, and hospital pharmacy status (with a remote pharmacist and on-site pharmacist or with a remote pharmacist only) using chi-squared test and univariate logistic regression analyses, as appropriate. Results: For 450,000 prescription orders 19,222 remote pharmacist interventions were documented. Frequency of interventions significantly increased each year (36% in 2009, 55% in 2010, and 7% in 2011) versus the baseline year (2008, 3%) when service started. The frequency of interventions also differed significantly across the eight hospitals and 16 remote pharmacists for the three defined intervention levels and categories

  1. The Social Outcomes of Older Adult Learning in Taiwan: Evaluation Framework and Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the social outcomes of older adult learning in Taiwan. In light of our society's aging population structure, the task of establishing evaluation framework and indicators for the social outcomes of learning (SOL) as applied to older adults is urgent. In order to construct evaluation indicators for older…

  2. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  3. Applying a Framework to Evaluate Assignment Marking Software: A Case Study on Lightwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Eva; Milne, John

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative evaluation on the effect of a specialised software tool on the efficiency and quality of assignment marking. The software, Lightwork, combines with the Moodle learning management system and provides support through marking rubrics and marker allocations. To enable the evaluation a framework has…

  4. Object detection in MOUT: evaluation of a hybrid approach for confirmation and rejection of object detection hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manger, Daniel; Metzler, Jürgen

    2014-03-01

    Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT) require the capability to perceive and to analyze the situation around a patrol in order to recognize potential threats. A permanent monitoring of the surrounding area is essential in order to appropriately react to the given situation, where one relevant task is the detection of objects that can pose a threat. Especially the robust detection of persons is important, as in MOUT scenarios threats usually arise from persons. This task can be supported by image processing systems. However, depending on the scenario, person detection in MOUT can be challenging, e.g. persons are often occluded in complex outdoor scenes and the person detection also suffers from low image resolution. Furthermore, there are several requirements on person detection systems for MOUT such as the detection of non-moving persons, as they can be a part of an ambush. Existing detectors therefore have to operate on single images with low thresholds for detection in order to not miss any person. This, in turn, leads to a comparatively high number of false positive detections which renders an automatic vision-based threat detection system ineffective. In this paper, a hybrid detection approach is presented. A combination of a discriminative and a generative model is examined. The objective is to increase the accuracy of existing detectors by integrating a separate hypotheses confirmation and rejection step which is built by a discriminative and generative model. This enables the overall detection system to make use of both the discriminative power and the capability to detect partly hidden objects with the models. The approach is evaluated on benchmark data sets generated from real-world image sequences captured during MOUT exercises. The extension shows a significant improvement of the false positive detection rate.

  5. A Conceptual Framework for Graduate Teaching Assistant Professional Development Evaluation and Research.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen R; Ridgway, Judith; Gardner, Grant E; Schussler, Elisabeth E; Wischusen, E William

    2016-01-01

    Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are significant contributors to the educational mission of universities, particularly in introductory courses, yet there is a lack of empirical data on how to best prepare them for their teaching roles. This essay proposes a conceptual framework for biology GTA teaching professional development (TPD) program evaluation and research with three overarching variable categories for consideration: outcome variables, contextual variables, and moderating variables. The framework's outcome variables go beyond GTA satisfaction and instead position GTA cognition, GTA teaching practice, and undergraduate learning outcomes as the foci of GTA TPD evaluation and research. For each GTA TPD outcome variable, key evaluation questions and example assessment instruments are introduced to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide GTA TPD evaluation and research plans. A common conceptual framework is also essential to coordinating the collection and synthesis of empirical data on GTA TPD nationally. Thus, the proposed conceptual framework serves as both a guide for conducting GTA TPD evaluation at single institutions and as a means to coordinate research across institutions at a national level. PMID:27193291

  6. Nuclear waste management issues: a multidisciplinary evaluation framework.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, M.

    1980-02-01

    Initially, this paper characterizes the nuclear waste problem that requires analysis to establish the rationale for an interdisciplinary approach to resolve it. The problem characterization also explains why the specific concern with contaminated groundwater and intrusion through drilling has been selected for the focus of the panel meeting. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT), the group process format chosen for the experts' deliberations, is explained in some detail and its value in facilitating the desired dialogue is described. The dialogue is organized around the various issue areas that would be of concern to a program manager dealing with the potential problem of radioactivity escaping to the biosphere through human intrusion into contaminated groundwater. The participants are identified by professional discipline so that the dialogue can be presented in a realistic fashion. Both the content of the dialogue and its format are evaluated. Particular attention is given to their usefulness in generating a cross-section of subissues and factors that should be addressed when analyzing the waste disposal system's adequacy to prevent contaminated groundwater escaping to the biosphere.

  7. Miniature objective lens for array digital pathology: design improvement based on clinical evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Brian; Pierce, Mark; Graviss, Edward A.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

    2016-03-01

    A miniature objective designed for digital detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) was evaluated for diagnostic accuracy. The objective was designed for array microscopy, but fabricated and evaluated at this stage of development as a single objective. The counts and diagnoses of patient samples were directly compared for digital detection and standard microscopy. The results were found to be correlated and highly concordant. The evaluation of this lens by direct comparison to standard fluorescence sputum smear microscopy presented unique challenges and led to some new insights in the role played by the system parameters of the microscope. The design parameters and how they were developed are reviewed in light of these results. New system parameters are proposed with the goal of easing the challenges of evaluating the miniature objective and maintaining the optical performance that produced the agreeable results presented without over-optimizing. A new design is presented that meets and exceeds these criteria.

  8. Subjective Outcome and Objective Outcome Evaluation Findings: Insights from a Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: As there are few studies examining the relationship between subjective and objective outcome evaluation findings, this study investigated the linkage between these two types of outcomes in the Chinese culture. Method: In an experimental study, 3,298 Chinese secondary school students responded to the Chinese Positive Youth Development…

  9. Using a Learning Progression Framework to Assess and Evaluate Student Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Derek C.; Diaz-Bilello, Elena; Peck, Fred; Alzen, Jessica; Chattergoon, Rajendra; Johnson, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the use of a Learning Progression Framework (LPF) to support the Student Learning Objectives (SLO) process. The report highlights a few common threats we currently see in the SLO process implemented at various states and districts, and offers the LPF as a possible solution for addressing these threats. This report was…

  10. Several strategies for evaluating the objectivity of measurements in clinical research and practice

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    1988-01-01

    The objectivity (interexaminer reliability) of measurement in chiropractic provides a basis for judging the quality of information in clinical research and practice. Objectivity may be determined by formal measurement evaluation studies and by sampling within clinical trials. Interpretation of inter-examiner reliability requires descriptive and inferential statistics selected on the basis of the mathematical properties of data, appreciation of the clinical meaning of a particular measure, and recognition of the role of chance. Methods of data analysis include scatter-plots, contingency tables, time-series graphs, and correlational and concordance coefficients. Many kinds of objectivity evaluations are well within the capacities of private practitioners and student clinicians.

  11. Pilot Program on Common Status Measures Objective-Referenced Tests. Colorado Evaluation Project, Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The purpose of the Colorado Evaluation Project was to field test the Common Status Measures at grades four and eleven in conjunction with a statewide assessment program based on objective-referenced testing instruments developed by the Colorado Department of Education for grades kindergarten, three, six, nine, and twelve. The evaluation was…

  12. Evaluation of Conceptual Framework for Recruitment of African American Patients With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Heiney, Sue P.; Adams, Swann Arp; Wells, Linda M.; Johnson, Hiluv

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives To describe the Heiney-Adams Recruitment Framework (H-ARF); to delineate a recruitment plan for a randomized, behavioral trial (RBT) based on H-ARF; and to provide evaluation data on its implementation. Data Sources All data for this investigation originated from a recruitment database created for an RBT designed to test the effectiveness of a therapeutic group convened via teleconference for African American women with breast cancer. Data Synthesis Major H-ARF concepts include social marketing and relationship building. The majority of social marketing strategies yielded 100% participant recruitment. Greater absolute numbers were recruited via Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act waivers. Using H-ARF yielded a high recruitment rate (66%). Conclusions Application of H-ARF led to successful recruitment in an RBT. The findings highlight three areas that researchers should consider when devising recruitment plans: absolute numbers versus recruitment rate, cost, and efficiency with institutional review board–approved access to protected health information. Implications for Nursing H-ARF may be applied to any clinical or population-based research setting because it provides direction for researchers to develop a recruitment plan based on the target audience and cultural attributes that may hinder or help recruitment. PMID:20439201

  13. Evaluation of a new data staging framework for the ARC middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.; Karpenko, D.; Konstantinov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Staging data to and from remote storage services on the Grid for users’ jobs is a vital component of the ARC computing element. A new data staging framework for the computing element has recently been developed to address issues with the present framework, which has essentially remained unchanged since its original implementation 10 years ago. This new framework consists of an intelligent data transfer scheduler which handles priorities and fair-share, a rapid caching system, and the ability to delegate data transfer over multiple nodes to increase network throughput. This paper uses data from real user jobs running on production ARC sites to present an evaluation of the new framework. It is shown to make more efficient use of the available resources, reduce the overall time to run jobs, and avoid the problems seen with the previous simplistic scheduling system. In addition, its simple design coupled with intelligent logic provides greatly increased flexibility for site administrators, end users and future development.

  14. Using a scalable modeling and simulation framework to evaluate the benefits of intelligent transportation systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.; Tentner, A.

    2000-03-21

    A scalable, distributed modeling and simulation framework has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to study Intelligent Transportation Systems. The framework can run on a single-processor workstation, or run distributed on a multiprocessor computer or network of workstations. The framework is modular and supports plug-in models, hardware, and live data sources. The initial set of models currently includes road network and traffic flow, probe and smart vehicles, traffic management centers, communications between vehicles and centers, in-vehicle navigation systems, roadway traffic advisories. The modeling and simulation capability has been used to examine proposed ITS concepts. Results are presented from modeling scenarios from the Advanced Driver and Vehicle Advisory Navigation Concept (ADVANCE) experimental program to demonstrate how the framework can be used to evaluate the benefits of ITS and to plan future ITS operational tests and deployment initiatives.

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Graduate Teaching Assistant Professional Development Evaluation and Research

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Miller, Kristen R.; Ridgway, Judith; Gardner, Grant E.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Wischusen, E. William

    2016-01-01

    Biology graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) are significant contributors to the educational mission of universities, particularly in introductory courses, yet there is a lack of empirical data on how to best prepare them for their teaching roles. This essay proposes a conceptual framework for biology GTA teaching professional development (TPD) program evaluation and research with three overarching variable categories for consideration: outcome variables, contextual variables, and moderating variables. The framework’s outcome variables go beyond GTA satisfaction and instead position GTA cognition, GTA teaching practice, and undergraduate learning outcomes as the foci of GTA TPD evaluation and research. For each GTA TPD outcome variable, key evaluation questions and example assessment instruments are introduced to demonstrate how the framework can be used to guide GTA TPD evaluation and research plans. A common conceptual framework is also essential to coordinating the collection and synthesis of empirical data on GTA TPD nationally. Thus, the proposed conceptual framework serves as both a guide for conducting GTA TPD evaluation at single institutions and as a means to coordinate research across institutions at a national level. PMID:27193291

  16. Setting Healthcare Priorities at the Macro and Meso Levels: A Framework for Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Barasa, Edwine W.; Molyneux, Sassy; English, Mike; Cleary, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Priority setting in healthcare is a key determinant of health system performance. However, there is no widely accepted priority setting evaluation framework. We reviewed literature with the aim of developing and proposing a framework for the evaluation of macro and meso level healthcare priority setting practices. Methods: We systematically searched Econlit, PubMed, CINAHL, and EBSCOhost databases and supplemented this with searches in Google Scholar, relevant websites and reference lists of relevant papers. A total of 31 papers on evaluation of priority setting were identified. These were supplemented by broader theoretical literature related to evaluation of priority setting. A conceptual review of selected papers was undertaken. Results: Based on a synthesis of the selected literature, we propose an evaluative framework that requires that priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels of the health system meet the following conditions: (1) Priority setting decisions should incorporate both efficiency and equity considerations as well as the following outcomes; (a) Stakeholder satisfaction, (b) Stakeholder understanding, (c) Shifted priorities (reallocation of resources), and (d) Implementation of decisions. (2) Priority setting processes should also meet the procedural conditions of (a) Stakeholder engagement, (b) Stakeholder empowerment, (c) Transparency, (d) Use of evidence, (e) Revisions, (f) Enforcement, and (g) Being grounded on community values. Conclusion: Available frameworks for the evaluation of priority setting are mostly grounded on procedural requirements, while few have included outcome requirements. There is, however, increasing recognition of the need to incorporate both consequential and procedural considerations in priority setting practices. In this review, we adapt an integrative approach to develop and propose a framework for the evaluation of priority setting practices at the macro and meso levels that draws from these

  17. Evaluation of Conceptual Frameworks Applicable to the Study of Isolation Precautions Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Catherine; Shang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Aims A discussion of conceptual frameworks applicable to the study of isolation precautions effectiveness according to Fawcett and DeSanto-Madeya’s (2013) evaluation technique and their relative merits and drawbacks for this purpose Background Isolation precautions are recommended to control infectious diseases with high morbidity and mortality, but effectiveness is not established due to numerous methodological challenges. These challenges, such as identifying empirical indicators and refining operational definitions, could be alleviated though use of an appropriate conceptual framework. Design Discussion paper Data Sources In mid-April 2014, the primary author searched five electronic, scientific literature databases for conceptual frameworks applicable to study isolation precautions, without limiting searches by publication date. Implications for Nursing By reviewing promising conceptual frameworks to support isolation precautions effectiveness research, this paper exemplifies the process to choose an appropriate conceptual framework for empirical research. Hence, researchers may build on these analyses to improve study design of empirical research in multiple disciplines, which may lead to improved research and practice. Conclusion Three frameworks were reviewed: the epidemiologic triad of disease, Donabedian’s healthcare quality framework and the Quality Health Outcomes model. Each has been used in nursing research to evaluate health outcomes and contains concepts relevant to nursing domains. Which framework can be most useful likely depends on whether the study question necessitates testing multiple interventions, concerns pathogen-specific characteristics and yields cross-sectional or longitudinal data. The Quality Health Outcomes model may be slightly preferred as it assumes reciprocal relationships, multi-level analysis and is sensitive to cultural inputs. PMID:26179813

  18. Proposed Framework for the Evaluation of Standalone Corpora Processing Systems: An Application to Arabic Corpora

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thubaity, Abdulmohsen; Alqifari, Reem

    2014-01-01

    Despite the accessibility of numerous online corpora, students and researchers engaged in the fields of Natural Language Processing (NLP), corpus linguistics, and language learning and teaching may encounter situations in which they need to develop their own corpora. Several commercial and free standalone corpora processing systems are available to process such corpora. In this study, we first propose a framework for the evaluation of standalone corpora processing systems and then use it to evaluate seven freely available systems. The proposed framework considers the usability, functionality, and performance of the evaluated systems while taking into consideration their suitability for Arabic corpora. While the results show that most of the evaluated systems exhibited comparable usability scores, the scores for functionality and performance were substantially different with respect to support for the Arabic language and N-grams profile generation. The results of our evaluation will help potential users of the evaluated systems to choose the system that best meets their needs. More importantly, the results will help the developers of the evaluated systems to enhance their systems and developers of new corpora processing systems by providing them with a reference framework. PMID:25610910

  19. Objective evaluation of fine motor manipulation-a new clinical tool.

    PubMed

    Andersen Hammond, Elizabeth R; Shay, Barbara L; Szturm, Tony

    2009-01-01

    A new performance-based tool has been developed to accurately and precisely evaluate finger/hand function during manipulation of any object, independent of geometric and surface properties. The objectives of this study were to show test-retest reliability and evaluate criterion validity. Twenty healthy, right-handed participants were recruited. Three objects ranging in weight and size, requiring two or three fingers, were instrumented with a motion sensor that tracked 3D linear/angular motion. A computerized visual-guided tracking task was used to quantify motor performance during object manipulation. Two testing periods, one week apart were performed to evaluate test-retest reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing performance with this tool to performance on commonly used clinical dexterity tests. Global performance, temporal accuracy, and amplitude consistency during manipulation of the objects compared with the reference waveform were highly reliable on the two testing occasions. Low-moderate correlations between the clinical dexterity tests and the task protocol indicate that different aspects of hand function were measured. The task protocol directly measures the ability of the hand to coordinate movement in response to a visual tracking target. Providing effective and objective ways to evaluate manual dexterity and hand function is a critical part of evidence-based practice.

  20. Collaborative Evaluation within a Framework of Stakeholder-Oriented Evaluation Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Rita G.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative Evaluation systematically invites and engages stakeholders in program evaluation planning and implementation. Unlike "distanced" evaluation approaches, which reject stakeholder participation as evaluation team members, Collaborative Evaluation assumes that active, on-going engagement between evaluators and program staff, result in…

  1. Evaluating Action-Learning and Professional Networking as a Framework for Educational Leadership Capacity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Cathy; Lefoe, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the responsive evaluation component of an educational leadership capacity-building initiative developed at one Australian university and implemented by three others. The project aimed to develop, implement and disseminate an innovative framework to address the national strategic goal to increase the pool of qualified…

  2. Editor and Section Editor's Perspective Article: A Look at the Danielson Framework for Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Brian R.; Wills, Fran; Moretti, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this age of teacher accountability, school districts are increasingly interested in using the best possible methods in evaluating their teachers. This interest impacts new alternative certification teachers, as well as traditional teachers. An increasingly popular assessment is the Danielson Framework, which is a set of 22 components of…

  3. Gradually Adaptive Frameworks: Reasonable Disagreement and the Evolution of Evaluative Systems in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "gradually adaptive frameworks" is introduced as a model with the potential to describe the evolution of belief evaluative systems through the consideration of reasonable arguments and evidence. This concept is demonstrated through an analysis of specific points of disagreement between David Elliott's praxial philosophy…

  4. Gradually Adaptive Frameworks: Reasonable Disagreement and the Evolution of Evaluative Systems in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "gradually adaptive frameworks" is introduced as a model with the potential to describe the evolution of belief evaluative systems through the consideration of reasonable arguments and evidence. This concept is demonstrated through an analysis of specific points of disagreement between David Elliott's praxial…

  5. A Conceptual Framework to Help Evaluate the Quality of Institutional Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettunen, Juha

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to present a general conceptual framework which can be used to evaluate quality and institutional performance in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The quality of higher education is at the heart of the setting up of the European Higher Education Area. Strategic management is widely used in higher education…

  6. A Conceptual Framework for the Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of Formal Mentoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskill, LuAnn Ricketts

    1993-01-01

    Data from a survey of executive development directors were the basis for this mentoring program framework, consisting of (1) program development (protege and mentor selection, training, and linkage); (2) implementation (career and psychosocial functions); and (3) evaluation (formal and informal outcomes assessment). (SK)

  7. MODELING FRAMEWORK FOR EVALUATING SEDIMENTATION IN STREAM NETWORKS: FOR USE IN SEDIMENT TMDL ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework that can be used to evaluate sedimentation in stream networks is described. This methodology can be used to determine sediment Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in sediment impaired waters, and provide the necessary hydrodynamic and sediment-related data t...

  8. Revisiting "What Works for Whom?": A Qualitative Framework for Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness in Child Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urwin, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for evaluating the effectiveness of child psychotherapy used by child psychotherapists in an inner city Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS). The Hopes and Expectations for Treatment Approach (HETA) involves using the assessment for psychotherapy that normally precedes treatment to derive a baseline…

  9. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework.

  10. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework. PMID:21441207

  11. Assessing Learning, Quality and Engagement in Learning Objects: The Learning Object Evaluation Scale for Students (LOES-S)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.; Knaack, Liesel

    2009-01-01

    Learning objects are interactive web-based tools that support the learning of specific concepts by enhancing, amplifying, and/or guiding the cognitive processes of learners. Research on the impact, effectiveness, and usefulness of learning objects is limited, partially because comprehensive, theoretically based, reliable, and valid evaluation…

  12. An innovative strategy in evaluation: using a student engagement framework to evaluate a role-based simulation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Morgan; Warland, Jane; Smith, Colleen

    2012-03-01

    Online role-play has the potential to actively engage students in authentic learning experiences and help develop their clinical reasoning skills. However, evaluation of student learning for this kind of simulation focuses mainly on the content and outcome of learning, rather than on the process of learning through student engagement. This article reports on the use of a student engagement framework to evaluate an online role-play offered as part of a course in Bachelor of Nursing and Bachelor of Midwifery programs. Instruments that measure student engagement to date have targeted large numbers of students at program and institutional levels, rather than at the level of a specific learning activity. Although the framework produced some useful findings for evaluation purposes, further refinement of the questions is required to be certain that deep learning results from the engagement that occurs with course-level learning initiatives.

  13. Evaluation of five non-rigid image registration algorithms using the NIREP framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ying; Christensen, Gary E.; Song, Joo Hyun; Rudrauf, David; Bruss, Joel; Kuhl, Jon G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2010-03-01

    Evaluating non-rigid image registration algorithm performance is a difficult problem since there is rarely a "gold standard" (i.e., known) correspondence between two images. This paper reports the analysis and comparison of five non-rigid image registration algorithms using the Non-Rigid Image Registration Evaluation Project (NIREP) (www.nirep.org) framework. The NIREP framework evaluates registration performance using centralized databases of well-characterized images and standard evaluation statistics (methods) which are implemented in a software package. The performance of five non-rigid registration algorithms (Affine, AIR, Demons, SLE and SICLE) was evaluated using 22 images from two NIREP neuroanatomical evaluation databases. Six evaluation statistics (relative overlap, intensity variance, normalized ROI overlap, alignment of calcarine sulci, inverse consistency error and transitivity error) were used to evaluate and compare image registration performance. The results indicate that the Demons registration algorithm produced the best registration results with respect to the relative overlap statistic but produced nearly the worst registration results with respect to the inverse consistency statistic. The fact that one registration algorithm produced the best result for one criterion and nearly the worst for another illustrates the need to use multiple evaluation statistics to fully assess performance.

  14. Formation of the system indicators analytic dependence during bisubject qualimetric evaluation of arbitrary objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents an analytical model of calculating the values of parametric clusters, a matrix of the parameters compliance and a model of the analyzed parameter values calculation allowing to form an analytical matrix of the indicators system during bisubject qualimetric evaluation of arbitrary objects and to identify the quantitative relationship of the parameters values. The results are useful for solving problems of control over both technical and socio-economic systems for evaluating objects using parameter systems generated by different subjects taking into account their performance and priorities of decision-making.

  15. A fuzzy MCDM model with objective and subjective weights for evaluating service quality in hotel industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoraghi, Nima; Amiri, Maghsoud; Talebi, Golnaz; Zowghi, Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (FMCDM) model by integrating both subjective and objective weights for ranking and evaluating the service quality in hotels. The objective method selects weights of criteria through mathematical calculation, while the subjective method uses judgments of decision makers. In this paper, we use a combination of weights obtained by both approaches in evaluating service quality in hotel industries. A real case study that considered ranking five hotels is illustrated. Examples are shown to indicate capabilities of the proposed method.

  16. A Framework for Evaluating and Enhancing Alignment in Self-Regulated Learning Research

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Amy L.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the articles of this special issue with reference to an important yet previously only implicit dimension of study quality: alignment across the theoretical and methodological decisions that collectively define an approach to self-regulated learning. Integrating and extending work by leaders in the field, we propose a framework for evaluating alignment in the way self-regulated learning research is both conducted and reported. Within this framework, the special issue articles provide a springboard for discussing methodological promises and pitfalls of increasingly sophisticated research on the dynamic, contingent, and contextualized features of self-regulated learning. PMID:25825589

  17. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  18. Advancing a Framework to Enable Characterization and Evaluation of Data Streams Useful for Biosurveillance

    PubMed Central

    Margevicius, Kristen J.; Generous, Nicholas; Taylor-McCabe, Kirsten J.; Brown, Mac; Daniel, W. Brent; Castro, Lauren; Hengartner, Andrea; Deshpande, Alina

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, biosurveillance has become the buzzword under which a diverse set of ideas and activities regarding detecting and mitigating biological threats are incorporated depending on context and perspective. Increasingly, biosurveillance practice has become global and interdisciplinary, requiring information and resources across public health, One Health, and biothreat domains. Even within the scope of infectious disease surveillance, multiple systems, data sources, and tools are used with varying and often unknown effectiveness. Evaluating the impact and utility of state-of-the-art biosurveillance is, in part, confounded by the complexity of the systems and the information derived from them. We present a novel approach conceptualizing biosurveillance from the perspective of the fundamental data streams that have been or could be used for biosurveillance and to systematically structure a framework that can be universally applicable for use in evaluating and understanding a wide range of biosurveillance activities. Moreover, the Biosurveillance Data Stream Framework and associated definitions are proposed as a starting point to facilitate the development of a standardized lexicon for biosurveillance and characterization of currently used and newly emerging data streams. Criteria for building the data stream framework were developed from an examination of the literature, analysis of information on operational infectious disease biosurveillance systems, and consultation with experts in the area of biosurveillance. To demonstrate utility, the framework and definitions were used as the basis for a schema of a relational database for biosurveillance resources and in the development and use of a decision support tool for data stream evaluation. PMID:24392093

  19. Developing a Framework for Evaluating Ethical Outcomes of Good Participatory Practices in TB Clinical Drug Trials.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Eley, Natalie T; Frick, Mike; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Chou, Alicia; Seidel, Stephanie S; Hannah, Stacey; Hamilton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for TB Drug Trials (GPP-TB) were issued in 2012, based on similar guidelines for HIV prevention and reflecting growing acceptance of the importance of community engagement and participatory strategies in clinical research. Though the need for such strategies is clear, evaluation of the benefits and burdens are needed. Working with a diverse group of global TB stakeholders including advocates, scientists, and ethicists, we used a Theory of Change approach to develop an evaluation framework for GPP-TB that includes a clearly defined ethical goal, a set of powerful strategies derived from GPP-TB practices for achieving the goal, and outcomes connecting strategies to goal. The framework is a first step in systematically evaluating participatory research in clinical trials. PMID:27368311

  20. An Evaluation Framework for EU Research and Development e-Health Projects' Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridis, Androklis; Katriou, Stamatia-Ann; Koumpis, Adamantios

    Over the past years it has become evident that an evaluation system was necessary for the European Research and Competitive funded projects which are large and complex structures needing constant monitoring. This is especially so for e-Health projects. The race to complete assignments means that this area is usually neglected. A proposed framework for the evaluation of R & D project systems using ATAM, ISO 14598 and ISO 9126 standards is presented. The evaluation framework covers a series of steps which ensures that the offered system satisfies quality, attributes such as operability, usability and maintainability imposed by the end users. The main advantage of this step by step procedure is that faults in the architecture, software or prototype can be recognised early in the development phase and corrected more rapidly. The system has a common set of attributes against which the various project’s deliverables are assessed.

  1. Developing a Framework for Evaluating Ethical Outcomes of Good Participatory Practices in TB Clinical Drug Trials.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Eley, Natalie T; Frick, Mike; Mingote, Laia Ruiz; Chou, Alicia; Seidel, Stephanie S; Hannah, Stacey; Hamilton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    Good Participatory Practice Guidelines for TB Drug Trials (GPP-TB) were issued in 2012, based on similar guidelines for HIV prevention and reflecting growing acceptance of the importance of community engagement and participatory strategies in clinical research. Though the need for such strategies is clear, evaluation of the benefits and burdens are needed. Working with a diverse group of global TB stakeholders including advocates, scientists, and ethicists, we used a Theory of Change approach to develop an evaluation framework for GPP-TB that includes a clearly defined ethical goal, a set of powerful strategies derived from GPP-TB practices for achieving the goal, and outcomes connecting strategies to goal. The framework is a first step in systematically evaluating participatory research in clinical trials.

  2. A critical review of frameworks used for evaluating reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity data: Perspectives for an integrated eco-human decision-making framework.

    PubMed

    Roth, N; Ciffroy, P

    2016-10-01

    Considerable efforts have been invested so far to evaluate and rank the quality and relevance of (eco)toxicity data for their use in regulatory risk assessment to assess chemical hazards. Many frameworks have been developed to improve robustness and transparency in the evaluation of reliability and relevance of individual tests, but these frameworks typically focus on either environmental risk assessment (ERA) or human health risk assessment (HHRA), and there is little cross talk between them. There is a need to develop a common approach that would support a more consistent, transparent and robust evaluation and weighting of the evidence across ERA and HHRA. This paper explores the applicability of existing Data Quality Assessment (DQA) frameworks for integrating environmental toxicity hazard data into human health assessments and vice versa. We performed a comparative analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of eleven frameworks for evaluating reliability and/or relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity hazard data. We found that a frequent shortcoming is the lack of a clear separation between reliability and relevance criteria. A further gaps and needs analysis revealed that none of the reviewed frameworks satisfy the needs of a common eco-human DQA system. Based on our analysis, some key characteristics, perspectives and recommendations are identified and discussed for building a common DQA system as part of a future integrated eco-human decision-making framework. This work lays the basis for developing a common DQA system to support the further development and promotion of Integrated Risk Assessment. PMID:27480485

  3. A Framework for Evaluation of Climate Science Professional Development Projects: A NICE NASA Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comfort, K.; Bleicher, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose of Presentation This research presents the overall logic model for the evaluation plan for a three-year NASA-funded project focused on teacher professional development. This session will highlight how we are using data to continually revise the evaluation plan, and we will also share insights about communication between the external evaluator and the PI. Objectives and Research Questions PEL leverages three NASA NICE projects with a high school district, providing professional development for teachers, learning opportunities for students, parental involvement and interaction with NASA scientists. PEL aims to increase Climate Science literacy in high school students, with a focus on Hispanic students, through scientific argumentation using authentic NASA data. Our research will concentrate on investigating the following questions: 1. What do we know about the alternative conceptions students' hold about climate science and what is challenging for students? 2. Are students developing climate science literacy, especially in the difficult concept areas, after PEL implementation? 3. How effective is PEL in nurturing scientific argumentation skills? 4. How effective are the resources we are providing in PEL? 5. Is there evidence that teachers are establishing stronger leadership capacity in their schools? Theoretical Framework for PEL Evaluation The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation (E-V-C) (Fan, 2011; Wigfield & Eccles, 1994) provides a theoretical foundation for the research. Expectancy is the degree to which a teacher or student has reason to expect that they will be successful in school. Value indicates whether they think that performance at school will be worthwhile to them. Cost is the perceived sacrifices that must be undertaken, or factors that can inhibit a successful performance at school. For students, data from an embedded E-V-C investigation will help articulate how E-V-C factors relate to student interest in science, continuing to

  4. A Usability and Accessibility Design and Evaluation Framework for ICT Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasi, Özge; Leitner, Michael; Tscheligi, Manfred

    This paper introduces a step by step framework for practitioners for combining accessibility and usability engineering processes. Following the discussions towards the needs of more user centeredness in the design of accessible solutions, there is a need for such a practical framework. In general, accessibility has been considered as a topic dealing with "hard facts". But lately terms like semantic and procedural accessibility have been introduced. In the following pages we propose a first sketch of a framework, which shows how to merge both usability and accessibility evaluation methods in the same process in order to guarantee a unified solution for both hard and soft facts of accessibility. We argue that by enhancing the user centered design process as the ISO DIS 9241-210 (revised DIN ISO 13407) describes it, accessibility and usability issues may be covered in one process.

  5. A Benchmark Data Set to Evaluate the Illumination Robustness of Image Processing Algorithms for Object Segmentation and Classification.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Ul Maula; Mikut, Ralf; Reischl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Developers of image processing routines rely on benchmark data sets to give qualitative comparisons of new image analysis algorithms and pipelines. Such data sets need to include artifacts in order to occlude and distort the required information to be extracted from an image. Robustness, the quality of an algorithm related to the amount of distortion is often important. However, using available benchmark data sets an evaluation of illumination robustness is difficult or even not possible due to missing ground truth data about object margins and classes and missing information about the distortion. We present a new framework for robustness evaluation. The key aspect is an image benchmark containing 9 object classes and the required ground truth for segmentation and classification. Varying levels of shading and background noise are integrated to distort the data set. To quantify the illumination robustness, we provide measures for image quality, segmentation and classification success and robustness. We set a high value on giving users easy access to the new benchmark, therefore, all routines are provided within a software package, but can as well easily be replaced to emphasize other aspects.

  6. GRAVITATIONALLY INDUCED DENSITY WAKE OF A CIRCULARLY ORBITING OBJECT AS AN INTERPRETATIVE FRAMEWORK OF UBIQUITOUS SPIRALS AND ARCS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyosun

    2011-10-01

    An orbiting object in a gas-rich environment creates a gravitational density wake containing information about the object and its orbit. Using linear perturbation theory, we analyze the observable properties of the gravitational wake due to the object circularly moving in a static homogeneous gaseous medium, in order to derive the Bondi accretion radius r{sub B} , the orbital distance r{sub p} , and the Mach number M{sub p} of the object. Supersonic motion, producing a wake of spiral-onion shell structure, exhibits a single-armed Archimedes spiral and two-centered circular arcs with respect to the line of sight. The pitch angle, arm width, and spacing of the spiral pattern are entirely determined by the orbital distance r{sub p} and Mach number M{sub p} of the object. The arm-interarm density contrast is proportional to r{sub B} , decreasing as a function of distance with a power index of -1. The background density distribution is globally changed from initially uniform to centrally concentrated. The vertical structure of the wake is manifested as circular arcs with the center at the object location. The angular extent of the arcs is determined by the Mach number M{sub p} of the object motion. Diagnostic probes of nonlinear wakes such as a detached bow shock, the absence of the definite inner arm boundary, the presence of turbulent low-density eddies, and elongated shapes of arcs are explained in the extension of the linear analysis. The density enhancement at the center is always r{sub B} /r{sub p} independent of the nonlinearity, suggesting that massive objects can substantially modify the background distribution.

  7. Correlating objective and subjective evaluation of texture appearance with applications to camera phone imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan B.; Coppola, Stephen M.; Jin, Elaine W.; Chen, Ying; Clark, James H.; Mauer, Timothy A.

    2009-01-01

    Texture appearance is an important component of photographic image quality as well as object recognition. Noise cleaning algorithms are used to decrease sensor noise of digital images, but can hinder texture elements in the process. The Camera Phone Image Quality (CPIQ) initiative of the International Imaging Industry Association (I3A) is developing metrics to quantify texture appearance. Objective and subjective experimental results of the texture metric development are presented in this paper. Eight levels of noise cleaning were applied to ten photographic scenes that included texture elements such as faces, landscapes, architecture, and foliage. Four companies (Aptina Imaging, LLC, Hewlett-Packard, Eastman Kodak Company, and Vista Point Technologies) have performed psychophysical evaluations of overall image quality using one of two methods of evaluation. Both methods presented paired comparisons of images on thin film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD), but the display pixel pitch and viewing distance differed. CPIQ has also been developing objective texture metrics and targets that were used to analyze the same eight levels of noise cleaning. The correlation of the subjective and objective test results indicates that texture perception can be modeled with an objective metric. The two methods of psychophysical evaluation exhibited high correlation despite the differences in methodology.

  8. Breastfeeding interventions in Kansas: a qualitative process evaluation of program goals and objectives.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Lisette T; Wetta, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    Across the state of Kansas, eighteen public health departments received funding through the 2011 Breastfeeding Grant Initiative to start a breastfeeding intervention. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the progress toward program goals and objectives. This study was a process evaluation. Qualitative data were collected from recipient health departments at two time-points during the program year. Structured, open-ended questions were asked through telephone interviews. This study examined: (1) progress toward program goals and objectives, (2) problems encountered during implementation, and (3) evaluation measures employed to assess program impact. All health departments reported making significant progress toward program goals and objectives and reported successful collaboration with other healthcare providers. The use of breast pumps, educational classes, and professional training of staff were reported as providing the best outcome in the promotion of breastfeeding. The majority of respondents did not measure program impact. From a public health perspective, it is important that infants receive breast milk for the first six months of life. It appears that goals and objectives set a priori guided health departments with the administration of their breastfeeding program. Results may be used to enhance and sustain delivery of breastfeeding support programs in Kansas communities.

  9. Real Progress in Maryland: Student Learning Objectives and Teacher and Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnik, William J.; Bugler, Daniel; Liang, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) is making significant strides in guiding and supporting the implementation of Student Learning Objectives (SLOs) as well as a teacher and principal evaluation (TPE) system statewide. MSDE support focuses on helping districts prepare for full SLO implementation by providing technical assistance with…

  10. OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF HYPERACTIVATED MOTILITY IN RAT SPERMATOZA USING COMPUTER-ASSISTED SPERM ANALYSIS (CASA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective evaluation of hyperactivated motility in rat spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis.

    Cancel AM, Lobdell D, Mendola P, Perreault SD.

    Toxicology Program, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

    The aim of this study was t...

  11. Evaluating the Impact of Action Plans on Trainee Compliance with Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aumann, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods research study evaluated the use of technology-based action plans as a way to help improve compliance with the learning objectives of an online training event. It explored how the action planning strategy impacted subjects in a treatment group and compared them to subjects in a control group who did not get the action plan. The…

  12. Implementation and Evaluation of a Course Concept Based on Reusable Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zele, Els; Vandaele, Pieter; Botteldooren, Dick; Lenaerts, Josephina

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a learning objects based computer aided system for an advanced engineering course at Ghent University, Belgium. A new syllabus concept was introduced: students had access to a Web-delivered component and received an identical printed component as two sources of information additional to…

  13. Minimum Objectives: A Measurement System to Provide Evaluation of Special Education in Regular Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Lu S.; McKenzie, Hugh S.

    Discussed is the use of minimum behavioral objectives to provide evaluation of special education in regular classrooms. Literature which supports the mainstreaming of moderately handicapped children is reviewed briefly. Application of the behavioral model of education on the community level is considered in terms of the basic skills which comprise…

  14. A Component Analysis of the Impact of Evaluative and Objective Feedback on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the frequency with which performance feedback interventions are used in organizational behavior management, component analyses of such feedback are rare. It has been suggested that evaluation of performance and objective details about performance are two necessary components for performance feedback. The present study was designed to help…

  15. Objective Evaluation of Muscle Strength in Infants with Hypotonia and Muscle Weakness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reus, Linda; van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; Staal, J. Bart; Janssen, Anjo J. W. M.; Otten, Barto J.; Pelzer, Ben J.; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.

    2013-01-01

    The clinical evaluation of an infant with motor delay, muscle weakness, and/or hypotonia would improve considerably if muscle strength could be measured objectively and normal reference values were available. The authors developed a method to measure muscle strength in infants and tested 81 typically developing infants, 6-36 months of age, and 17…

  16. Evaluating the Use of Learning Objects in Australian and New Zealand Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato; Lake, David; Phillips, Rob; Lowe, Kate; Cummings, Rick; Miller, Erica

    2008-01-01

    The Le@rning Federation, an agency funded by Australian and New Zealand governments, initiated a Field Review project as the start of a long-term research study to evaluate the impact, application and effectiveness of the online digital content developed according to the learning object model. In terms of content, the pilot Field Review found that…

  17. An Evaluation of Learning Objects in Singapore Primary Education: A Case Study Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Tay Pei Lyn; Suan, Ng Peck; Wanzhen, Liaw

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the usability and interface design of e-learning portal developed for primary schools in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: Using Singapore-based learning EDvantage (LEAD) portal as a case study, this paper reviews and analyses the usability and usefulness of embedded learning objects (LOs)…

  18. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  19. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  20. A novel objective sour taste evaluation method based on near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Ayaka; Aoki, Soichiro; Kouno, Emi; Ogasawara, Masashi; Onaka, Takashi; Miura, Yutaka; Mamiya, Kanji

    2014-05-01

    One of the most important themes in the development of foods and drinks is the accurate evaluation of taste properties. In general, a sensory evaluation system is frequently used for evaluating food and drink. This method, which is dependent on human senses, is highly sensitive but is influenced by the eating experience and food palatability of individuals, leading to subjective results. Therefore, a more effective method for objectively estimating taste properties is required. Here we show that salivary hemodynamic signals, as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy, are a useful objective indicator for evaluating sour taste stimulus. In addition, the hemodynamic responses of the parotid gland are closely correlated to the salivary secretion volume of the parotid gland in response to basic taste stimuli and respond to stimuli independently of the hedonic aspect. Moreover, we examined the hemodynamic responses to complex taste stimuli in food-based solutions and demonstrated for the first time that the complicated phenomenon of the "masking effect," which decreases taste intensity despite the additional taste components, can be successfully detected by near-infrared spectroscopy. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate near-infrared spectroscopy as a novel tool for objectively evaluating complex sour taste properties in foods and drinks.

  1. Evaluation of satellite-based precipitation estimates in winter season using an object-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Hsu, K.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sorooshian, S.

    2012-12-01

    Verification has become an integral component of satellite precipitation algorithms and products. A number of object-based verification methods have been proposed to provide diagnostic information regarding the precipitation products' ability to capture the spatial pattern, intensity, and placement of precipitation. However, most object-based methods are not capable of investigating precipitation objects at the storm-scale. In this study, an image processing approach known as watershed segmentation was adopted to detect the storm-scale rainfall objects. Then, a fuzzy logic-based technique was utilized to diagnose and analyze storm-scale object attributes, including centroid distance, area ratio, intersection area ratio and orientation angle difference. Three verification metrics (i.e., false alarm ratio, missing ratio and overall membership score) were generated for validation and verification. Three satellite-based precipitation products, including PERSIANN, CMORPH, 3B42RT, were evaluated against NOAA stage IV MPE multi-sensor composite rain analysis at 0.25° by 0.25° on a daily scale in the winter season of 2010 over the contiguous United States. Winter season is dominated by frontal systems which usually have larger area coverage. All three products and the stage IV observation tend to find large size storm objects. With respect to the evaluation attributes, PERSIANN tends to obtain larger area ratio and consequently has larger centroid distance to the stage IV observations, while 3B42RT are found to be closer to the stage IV for the object size. All evaluation products give small orientation angle differences but vary significantly for the missing ratio and false alarm ratio. This implies that satellite estimates can fail to detect storms in winter. The overall membership scores are close for all three different products which indicate that all three satellite-based precipitation products perform well for capturing the spatial and geometric characteristics of

  2. A fuel cycle framework for evaluating greenhouse gas emission reduction technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, W.B.; Barns, D.W. ); Bradley, R.A. . Office of Environmental Analysis)

    1990-05-01

    Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions arise from a number of fossil fuels, processes and equipment types throughout the full cycle from primary fuel production to end-use. Many technology alternatives are available for reducing emissions based on efficiency improvements, fuel switching to low-emission fuels, GHG removal, and changes in end-use demand. To conduct systematic analysis of how new technologies can be used to alter current emission levels, a conceptual framework helps develop a comprehensive picture of both the primary and secondary impacts of a new technology. This paper describes a broad generic fuel cycle framework which is useful for this purpose. The framework is used for cataloging emission source technologies and for evaluating technology solutions to reduce GHG emissions. It is important to evaluate fuel mix tradeoffs when investigating various technology strategies for emission reductions. For instance, while substituting natural gas for coal or oil in end-use applications to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, natural gas emissions of methane in the production phase of the fuel cycle may increase. Example uses of the framework are given.

  3. Classroom Teacher's Performance-Based Evaluation Form (CTPBEF) for Public Education Schools in the State of Kuwait: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shammari, Zaid; Yawkey, Thomas D.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation using Grounded Theory focuses on developing, designing and testing out an evaluation method used as a framework for this study. This framework evolved into the instrument entitled, "Classroom Teacher's Performance Based Evaluation Form (CTPBEF)". This study shows the processes and procedures used in CTPBEF's development and…

  4. Evaluating Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit using a utilization-focused evaluation framework: successful strategies and prerequisite conditions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Allison M

    2010-05-01

    A utilization-focused evaluation (Patton, 1997) framework was used in 2004-2005 to conduct a pilot evaluation of Canada's newly unveiled Compassionate Care Benefit from a family caregivers' perspective. This paper presents a description of the successful utilization-focused evaluation process. Successful strategies are summarized in three main categories: (1) motivated leadership; (2) regular, planned communication; and (3) consistent and continued commitment of all parties involved. Three main prerequisite conditions for success were found to include: (a) have in place a widely representative Evaluation Taskforce with as many, if not all, key stakeholders represented; (b) have the program of concern and the focus of the evaluation flexible enough to actually accommodate change; and (c) adhere to a pre-determined timeline. PMID:19709748

  5. Testing thermal comfort of trekking boots: an objective and subjective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arezes, P M; Neves, M M; Teixeira, S F; Leão, C P; Cunha, J L

    2013-07-01

    The study of the thermal comfort of the feet when using a specific type of shoe is of paramount importance, in particular if the main goal of the study is to attend to the needs of users. The main aim of this study was to propose a test battery for thermal comfort analysis and to apply it to the analysis of trekking boots. Methodologically, the project involves both objective and subjective evaluations. An objective evaluation of the thermal properties of the fabrics used in the boots was developed and applied. In addition, the thermal comfort provided when using the boots was also assessed both subjective and objectively. The evaluation of the thermal comfort during use, which was simulated in a laboratory environment, included the measurement of the temperature and moisture of the feet. The subjective assessment was performed using a questionnaire. From the results obtained, it was possible to define an optimal combination of fabrics to apply to trekking boots by considering the provided thermal insulation, air permeability and wicking. The results also revealed that the subjective perception of thermal comfort appears to be more related to the increase in temperature of the feet than to the moisture retention inside the boot. Although the evaluation of knits used in the boots indicated that a particular combination of fibres was optimal for use in the inner layer, the subjective and objective evaluation of thermal comfort revealed that the evaluation provided by users did not necessarily match the technical assessment data. No correlation was observed between the general comfort and specific thermal comfort assessments. Finally, the identification of thermal discomfort by specific foot areas would be useful in the process of designing and developing boots.

  6. Well-Being With Objects: Evaluating a Museum Object-Handling Intervention for Older Adults in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Linda J M; Chatterjee, Helen J

    2016-03-01

    The extent to which a museum object-handling intervention enhanced older adult well-being across three health care settings was examined. The program aimed to determine whether therapeutic benefits could be measured objectively using clinical scales. Facilitator-led, 30 to 40 min sessions handling and discussing museum objects were conducted in acute and elderly care (11 one-to-ones), residential (4 one-to-ones and 1 group of five), and psychiatric (4 groups of five) settings. Pre-post measures of psychological well-being (Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule) and subjective wellness and happiness (Visual Analogue Scales) were compared. Positive affect and wellness increased significantly in acute and elderly and residential care though not psychiatric care whereas negative affect decreased and happiness increased in all settings. Examination of audio recordings revealed enhanced confidence, social interaction, and learning. The program allowed adults access to a museum activity who by virtue of age and ill health would not otherwise have engaged with museum objects.

  7. A framework for contexual design and evaluation of health information technology.

    PubMed

    Kuziemsky, Craig; Kushniruk, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Poor contextual fit is a significant cause of health information technology (HIT) implementation issues. While the need for better fit of HIT and context has been well described there is a shortcoming of approaches for how to do it. While the diversity of the contexts where HIT is used prevents us from designing HIT to fit all contexts, if we had better ways of understanding and modelling contexts we could design and evaluate HIT to better fit contexts of use. This paper addresses the above need by developing a framework consisting of a set of terminology and concepts for modelling contextual structures and behaviours to support HIT design. The framework provides a way of binding contextual considerations to allow us to better model contexts as part of HIT design and evaluation.

  8. Object-oriented programming applied to the evaluation of reliability fault trees

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Object-oriented programming techniques are used to implement an algorithm for the direct evaluation of fault trees. A simple bottom-up procedure evaluates independent branches. The identification of dependencies within a branch results in the application of a top-down recursive procedure. A unique approach to modularization enables dynamic modularization of the tree at each step in the reduction process. The algorithm reduces the number of recursive calls required to solve trees with repeated events and calculates intermediate results as well as the solution of the top event. The intermediate results can be reused if part of the tree is modified. The algorithm is implemented on a Texas Instruments Explorer LISP workstation which offers an environment that incorporates an object-oriented system called Flavors with Common LISP. Several example fault trees from the literature are evaluated with the object-oriented algorithm, and the results are compared with conventional reduction techniques. The program includes a graphical tree editor to display the fault tree objects. The graphical display of the tree enables a visual check of the input tree structure.

  9. Land Surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) - A Generalized Framework for Land Surface Model Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Santanello, Joseph; Harrison, Ken; Liu, Yuqiong; Shaw, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Model evaluation and verification are key in improving the usage and applicability of simulation models for real-world applications. In this article, the development and capabilities of a formal system for land surface model evaluation called the Land surface Verification Toolkit (LVT) is described. LVT is designed to provide an integrated environment for systematic land model evaluation and facilitates a range of verification approaches and analysis capabilities. LVT operates across multiple temporal and spatial scales and employs a large suite of in-situ, remotely sensed and other model and reanalysis datasets in their native formats. In addition to the traditional accuracy-based measures, LVT also includes uncertainty and ensemble diagnostics, information theory measures, spatial similarity metrics and scale decomposition techniques that provide novel ways for performing diagnostic model evaluations. Though LVT was originally designed to support the land surface modeling and data assimilation framework known as the Land Information System (LIS), it also supports hydrological data products from other, non-LIS environments. In addition, the analysis of diagnostics from various computational subsystems of LIS including data assimilation, optimization and uncertainty estimation are supported within LVT. Together, LIS and LVT provide a robust end-to-end environment for enabling the concepts of model data fusion for hydrological applications. The evolving capabilities of LVT framework are expected to facilitate rapid model evaluation efforts and aid the definition and refinement of formal evaluation procedures for the land surface modeling community.

  10. Integration of electro-anatomical and imaging data of the left ventricle: An evaluation framework.

    PubMed

    Soto-Iglesias, David; Butakoff, Constantine; Andreu, David; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Berruezo, Antonio; Camara, Oscar

    2016-08-01

    Integration of electrical and structural information for scar characterization in the left ventricle (LV) is a crucial step to better guide radio-frequency ablation therapies, which are usually performed in complex ventricular tachycardia (VT) cases. This integration requires finding a common representation where to map the electrical information from the electro-anatomical map (EAM) surfaces and tissue viability information from delay-enhancement magnetic resonance images (DE-MRI). However, the development of a consistent integration method is still an open problem due to the lack of a proper evaluation framework to assess its accuracy. In this paper we present both: (i) an evaluation framework to assess the accuracy of EAM and imaging integration strategies with simulated EAM data and a set of global and local measures; and (ii) a new integration methodology based on a planar disk representation where the LV surface meshes are quasi-conformally mapped (QCM) by flattening, allowing for simultaneous visualization and joint analysis of the multi-modal data. The developed evaluation framework was applied to estimate the accuracy of the QCM-based integration strategy on a benchmark dataset of 128 synthetically generated ground-truth cases presenting different scar configurations and EAM characteristics. The obtained results demonstrate a significant reduction in global overlap errors (50-100%) with respect to state-of-the-art integration techniques, also better preserving the local topology of small structures such as conduction channels in scars. Data from seventeen VT patients were also used to study the feasibility of the QCM technique in a clinical setting, consistently outperforming the alternative integration techniques in the presence of sparse and noisy clinical data. The proposed evaluation framework has allowed a rigorous comparison of different EAM and imaging data integration strategies, providing useful information to better guide clinical practice in

  11. Towards a Holistic Framework for the Evaluation of Emergency Plans in Indoor Environments

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Emilio; Poveda, Geovanny; Garijo, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    One of the most promising fields for ambient intelligence is the implementation of intelligent emergency plans. Because the use of drills and living labs cannot reproduce social behaviors, such as panic attacks, that strongly affect these plans, the use of agent-based social simulation provides an approach to evaluate these plans more thoroughly. (1) The hypothesis presented in this paper is that there has been little interest in describing the key modules that these simulators must include, such as formally represented knowledge and a realistic simulated sensor model, and especially in providing researchers with tools to reuse, extend and interconnect modules from different works. This lack of interest hinders researchers from achieving a holistic framework for evaluating emergency plans and forces them to reconsider and to implement the same components from scratch over and over. In addition to supporting this hypothesis by considering over 150 simulators, this paper: (2) defines the main modules identified and proposes the use of semantic web technologies as a cornerstone for the aforementioned holistic framework; (3) provides a basic methodology to achieve the framework; (4) identifies the main challenges; and (5) presents an open and free software tool to hint at the potential of such a holistic view of emergency plan evaluation in indoor environments. PMID:24662453

  12. The priority of justice: a framework approach to ethics in program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, Francis J

    2007-11-01

    The situations of evaluation are inevitably complex and various, often involving conflicts between ethical principles as well as among aims or stakeholders. To meet this challenge, evaluators and stakeholders need an interpretive framework to clarify the issues at hand and open the way to workable solutions. This paper provides a three-part framework of justice to guide practitioners in this interpretive task. First, evaluation is instituted to serve the public with fidelity to the values, standards, and ideals that characterize it as a profession and as an office deserving the public trust, here called public justice. Second, these requirements evoke and entail the more general demands of fair process, mutual respect, and right action known as procedural justice. Third, the operations of office and just process must serve the public good, meeting the demands of distributive justice that govern the allocation of goods and benefits. This framework takes as a starting point the priority of justice as articulated by John Rawls: "Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is to thought. A theory however elegant and economical must be rejected or revised if it is untrue; likewise laws and institutions no matter how efficient and well-arranged must be reformed or abolished if they are unjust" (1971, p. 3).

  13. Matching methods evaluation framework for stereoscopic breast x-ray images.

    PubMed

    Rousson, Johanna; Naudin, Mathieu; Marchessoux, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) imaging has been intensively studied in the past few decades. Depth information is an important added value of 3-D systems over two-dimensional systems. Special focuses were devoted to the development of stereo matching methods for the generation of disparity maps (i.e., depth information within a 3-D scene). Dedicated frameworks were designed to evaluate and rank the performance of different stereo matching methods but never considering x-ray medical images. Yet, 3-D x-ray acquisition systems and 3-D medical displays have already been introduced into the diagnostic market. To access the depth information within x-ray stereoscopic images, computing accurate disparity maps is essential. We aimed at developing a framework dedicated to x-ray stereoscopic breast images used to evaluate and rank several stereo matching methods. A multiresolution pyramid optimization approach was integrated to the framework to increase the accuracy and the efficiency of the stereo matching techniques. Finally, a metric was designed to score the results of the stereo matching compared with the ground truth. Eight methods were evaluated and four of them [locally scaled sum of absolute differences (LSAD), zero mean sum of absolute differences, zero mean sum of squared differences, and locally scaled mean sum of squared differences] appeared to perform equally good with an average error score of 0.04 (0 is the perfect matching). LSAD was selected for generating the disparity maps. PMID:26587552

  14. QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS THAT BL LACERTAE OBJECTS ARE QSO REMNANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2014-11-20

    We evaluate with numerical simulations the hypothesis that BL Lacertae objects (BLLs) are the remnants of quasi-stellar objects. This hypothesis is based on their highly peculiar redshift evolution. They have a comoving space density that increases with decreasing redshift, contrary to all other active galactic nuclei. We assume that relativistic jets are below detection in young radio-quiet quasars and increase in strength with cosmic time so that they eventually are detected as BLLs. Our numerical simulations fit very well the observed redshift distributions of BLLs. There are strong indications that only the high-synchrotron-peaked BLLs could be QSO remnants.

  15. Evaluating and Improving Cloud Processes in the Multi-Scale Modeling Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    2015-03-01

    The research performed under this grant was intended to improve the embedded cloud model in the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) for convective clouds by using a 2-moment microphysics scheme rather than the single moment scheme used in all the MMF runs to date. The technical report and associated documents describe the results of testing the cloud resolving model with fixed boundary conditions and evaluation of model results with data. The overarching conclusion is that such model evaluations are problematic because errors in the forcing fields control the results so strongly that variations in parameterization values cannot be usefully constrained

  16. A Framework for Comparative Evaluation of Dosimetric Methods to Triage a Large Population Following a Radiological Event

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Ann Barry; Nicolalde, Roberto J.; Demidenko, Eugene; Williams, Benjamin B.; Shapiro, Alla; Wiley, Albert L.; Swartz, Harold M.

    2011-01-01

    Background To prepare for a possible major radiation disaster involving large numbers of potentially exposed people, it is important to be able to rapidly and accurately triage people for treatment or not, factoring in the likely conditions and available resources. To date, planners have had to create guidelines for triage based on methods for estimating dose that are clinically available and which use evidence extrapolated from unrelated conditions. Current guidelines consequently focus on measuring clinical symptoms (e.g., time-to-vomiting), which may not be subject to the same verification of standard methods and validation processes required for governmental approval processes of new and modified procedures. Biodosimeters under development have not yet been formally approved for this use. Neither set of methods has been tested in settings involving large-scale populations at risk for exposure. Objective To propose a framework for comparative evaluation of methods for such triage and to evaluate biodosimetric methods that are currently recommended and new methods as they are developed. Methods We adapt the NIH model of scientific evaluations and sciences needed for effective translational research to apply to biodosimetry for triaging very large populations following a radiation event. We detail criteria for translating basic science about dosimetry into effective multi-stage triage of large populations and illustrate it by analyzing 3 current guidelines and 3 advanced methods for biodosimetry. Conclusions This framework for evaluating dosimetry in large populations is a useful technique to compare the strengths and weaknesses of different dosimetry methods. It can help policy-makers and planners not only to compare the methods’ strengths and weaknesses for their intended use but also to develop an integrated approach to maximize their effectiveness. It also reveals weaknesses in methods that would benefit from further research and evaluation. PMID:21949481

  17. An evaluation framework for effective public participation in EIA in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeem, Obaidullah; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2011-01-15

    Evaluating the effectiveness of public participation in EIA related decisions is of crucial importance for developing a better understanding of overall EIA effectiveness. This paper aims to contribute to the professional debate by establishing a country specific evaluation framework for Pakistan, which, it is suggested, could also potentially be used in other developing countries. The framework is used to evaluate performance of public participation in EIA in terms of 40 attributes for four selected projects from the province of Punjab. The evaluation is based on interviews with stakeholders, review of EIA reports as well as public hearing proceedings and environmental approval conditions. The evaluation of the selected projects revealed an overall weak influence of public participation on substantive quality of EIA and on the final decision. Overall, EIA public participation has succeeded in providing a more egalitarian environment. Furthermore, it appears fair to say that sufficient time for submitting written comments on EIA reports as well as for raising concerns during public hearings had been given. Also, public consultation was significantly contributing to educating participants. Despite some impediments, it is argued that public participation in EIA is gradually gaining ground in Pakistan. Recommendations to enhance EIA public participation effectiveness in Pakistan include applying a more proactive approach which should take place before EIA is conducted and before site selection for development projects is happening.

  18. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social

  19. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P; Loretti, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    A disaster is a failure of resilience to an event. Mitigating the risks that a hazard will progress into a destructive event, or increasing the resilience of a society-at-risk, requires careful analysis, planning, and execution. The Disaster Logic Model (DLM) is used to define the value (effects, costs, and outcome(s)), impacts, and benefits of interventions directed at risk reduction. A Risk-Reduction Framework, based on the DLM, details the processes involved in hazard mitigation and/or capacity-building interventions to augment the resilience of a community or to decrease the risk that a secondary event will develop. This Framework provides the structure to systematically undertake and evaluate risk-reduction interventions. It applies to all interventions aimed at hazard mitigation and/or increasing the absorbing, buffering, or response capacities of a community-at-risk for a primary or secondary event that could result in a disaster. The Framework utilizes the structure provided by the DLM and consists of 14 steps: (1) hazards and risks identification; (2) historical perspectives and predictions; (3) selection of hazard(s) to address; (4) selection of appropriate indicators; (5) identification of current resilience standards and benchmarks; (6) assessment of the current resilience status; (7) identification of resilience needs; (8) strategic planning; (9) selection of an appropriate intervention; (10) operational planning; (11) implementation; (12) assessments of outputs; (13) synthesis; and (14) feedback. Each of these steps is a transformation process that is described in detail. Emphasis is placed on the role of Coordination and Control during planning, implementation of risk-reduction/capacity building interventions, and evaluation. Birnbaum ML , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP , Loretti A . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part IX: Risk-Reduction Framework. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):309-325. PMID:27033777

  20. Direct evaluation of fault trees using object-oriented programming techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson-Hine, F. A.; Koen, B. V.

    1989-01-01

    Object-oriented programming techniques are used in an algorithm for the direct evaluation of fault trees. The algorithm combines a simple bottom-up procedure for trees without repeated events with a top-down recursive procedure for trees with repeated events. The object-oriented approach results in a dynamic modularization of the tree at each step in the reduction process. The algorithm reduces the number of recursive calls required to solve trees with repeated events and calculates intermediate results as well as the solution of the top event. The intermediate results can be reused if part of the tree is modified. An example is presented in which the results of the algorithm implemented with conventional techniques are compared to those of the object-oriented approach.

  1. Design and evaluation of an ultra-slim objective for in-vivo deep optical biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Sara M.; Liang, Chen; Kester, Robert T.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.; Descour, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 1.6 million breast biopsies are performed in the US each year. In order to provide real-time, in-vivo imaging with sub-cellular resolution for optical biopsies, we have designed an ultra-slim objective to fit inside the 1-mm-diameter hypodermic needles currently used for breast biopsies to image tissue stained by the fluorescent probe proflavine. To ensure high-quality imaging performance, experimental tests were performed to characterize fiber bundle’s light-coupling efficiency and simulations were performed to evaluate the impact of candidate lens materials’ autofluorescence. A prototype of NA = 0.4, 250-µm field of view, ultra-slim objective optics was built and tested, yielding diffraction-limited performance and estimated resolution of 0.9 µm. When used in conjunction with a commercial coherent fiber bundle to relay the image formed by the objective, the measured resolution was 2.5 µm. PMID:20389489

  2. Evaluation of Content-Matched Range Monitoring Queries over Moving Objects in Mobile Computing Environments.

    PubMed

    Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo

    2015-01-01

    A content-matched (CM) rangemonitoring query overmoving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CMrange monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods. PMID:26393613

  3. A preliminary sub-basin scale evaluation framework of site suitability for onshore aquifer-based CO2 storage in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Ying; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Bromhal, Grant

    2013-01-30

    Development of a reliable, broadly applicable framework for the identification and suitability evaluation of potential CO2 storage sites is essential before large scale deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) can commence. In this study, a sub-basin scale evaluation framework was developed to assess the suitability of potential onshore deep saline aquifers for CO2 storage in China. The methodology, developed in consultation with experts from the academia and the petroleum industry in China, is based on a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework that considers four objectives: (1) storage optimization, in terms of storage capacity and injectivity; (2) risk minimization and storage security; (3) environmental restrictions regarding surface and subsurface use; and (4) economic considerations. The framework is designed to provide insights into both the suitability of potential aquifer storage sites as well as the priority for early deployment of CCS with existing CO2 sources. Preliminary application of the framework, conducted using GIS-based evaluation tools revealed that 18% of onshore aquifer sites with a combined CO2 storage capacity of 746 gigatons are considered to exhibit very high suitability, and 11% of onshore aquifer sites with a total capacity of 290 gigatons exhibit very high priority opportunities for implementation. These onshore aquifer sites may provide promising opportunities for early large-scale CCS deployment and contribute to CO2 mitigation in China for many decades.

  4. A preliminary sub-basin scale evaluation framework of site suitability for onshore aquifer-based CO{sub 2} storage in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Ying; Dahowski, Robert T; Davidson, Casie L; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-01-01

    Development of a reliable, broadly applicable framework for the identification and suitability evaluation of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites is essential before large-scale deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) can commence. In this study, a sub-basin scale evaluation framework was developed to assess the suitability of potential onshore deep saline aquifers for CO{sub 2} storage in China. The methodology, developed in consultation with experts from the academia and the petroleum industry in China, is based on a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) framework that considers four objectives: (1) storage optimization, in terms of storage capacity and injectivity; (2) risk minimization and storage security; (3) environmental restrictions regarding surface and subsurface use; and (4) economic considerations. The framework is designed to provide insights into both the suitability of potential aquifer storage sites as well as the priority for early deployment of CCS with existing CO{sub 2} sources. Preliminary application of the framework, conducted using GIS-based evaluation tools revealed that 18% of onshore aquifer sites with a combined CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 746 gigatons are considered to exhibit very high suitability, and 11% of onshore aquifer sites with a total capacity of 290 gigatons exhibit very high priority opportunities for implementation. These onshore aquifer sites may provide promising opportunities for early large-scale CCS deployment and contribute to CO{sub 2} mitigation in China for many decades.

  5. An evaluation of a framework for facilitating and assessing physiotherapy students' reflection on practice.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, Marie; Morss, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Reflective practice is promoted in the health care professions as a developmental process leading to competent and effective practice, although the link between reflection and enhancement of physiotherapy practice remains speculative and conjectural. This article provides evidence that reflection can influence developing practice based on the evaluation of a reflective framework for students on clinical placement. The evaluation explored, in depth, students' experiences and perceptions of its benefits and limitations. Thematic analysis of response data from five focus groups (n = 43) representing three student cohorts resolved significant outcomes-related themes: personal insight, linking reflection to the physiotherapy process, and learning and personal change. Process-related themes focused on strengths and weaknesses of the framework and associated issues. Evidence supports the effectiveness of the framework in facilitating reflection and in linking reflection to higher order cognitive processes such as gaining new insights and understandings, facilitation of systematic enquiry, problem solving, and decision making. Feedback from students indicated that the experience was meaningful and valuable in preparation for practice because they were guided to question themselves and could see the relevance and value of that for their practice. We recommend that educators consider this approach to facilitating reflection in physiotherapy undergraduate education.

  6. Improving scalability with loop transformations and message aggregation in parallel object-oriented frameworks for scientific computing

    SciTech Connect

    Bassetti, F.; Davis, K.; Quinlan, D.

    1998-09-01

    Application codes reliably achieve performance far less than the advertised capabilities of existing architectures, and this problem is worsening with increasingly-parallel machines. For large-scale numerical applications, stencil operations often impose the great part of the computational cost, and the primary sources of inefficiency are the costs of message passing and poor cache utilization. This paper proposes and demonstrates optimizations for stencil and stencil-like computations for both serial and parallel environments that ameliorate these sources of inefficiency. Achieving scalability, they believe, requires both algorithm design and compile-time support. The optimizations they present are automatable because the stencil-like computations are implemented at a high level of abstraction using object-oriented parallel array class libraries. These optimizations, which are beyond the capabilities of today compilers, may be performed automatically by a preprocessor such as the one they are currently developing.

  7. A framework for telepsychiatric training and e-health: Competency-based education, evaluation and implications.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Donald M; Crawford, Allison; Teshima, John; Chan, Steven; Sunderji, Nadiya; Yellowlees, Peter M; Kramer, Greg; O'neill, Patrick; Fore, Chris; Luo, John; Li, Su-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Telepsychiatry (TP; video; synchronous) is effective, well received and a standard way to practice. Best practices in TP education, but not its desired outcomes, have been published. This paper proposes competencies for trainees and clinicians, with TP situated within the broader landscape of e-mental health (e-MH) care. TP competencies are organized using the US Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education framework, with input from the CanMEDS framework. Teaching and assessment methods are aligned with target competencies, learning contexts, and evaluation options. Case examples help to apply concepts to clinical and institutional contexts. Competencies can be identified, measured and evaluated. Novice or advanced beginner, competent/proficient, and expert levels were outlined. Andragogical (i.e. pedagogical) methods are used in clinical care, seminar, and other educational contexts. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation using quantitative and qualitative measures promotes skills development via iterative feedback from patients, trainees, and faculty staff. TP and e-MH care significantly overlap, such that institutional leaders may use a common approach for change management and an e-platform to prioritize resources. TP training and assessment methods need to be implemented and evaluated. Institutional approaches to patient care, education, faculty development, and funding also need to be studied. PMID:26540642

  8. A framework for telepsychiatric training and e-health: Competency-based education, evaluation and implications.

    PubMed

    Hilty, Donald M; Crawford, Allison; Teshima, John; Chan, Steven; Sunderji, Nadiya; Yellowlees, Peter M; Kramer, Greg; O'neill, Patrick; Fore, Chris; Luo, John; Li, Su-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Telepsychiatry (TP; video; synchronous) is effective, well received and a standard way to practice. Best practices in TP education, but not its desired outcomes, have been published. This paper proposes competencies for trainees and clinicians, with TP situated within the broader landscape of e-mental health (e-MH) care. TP competencies are organized using the US Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education framework, with input from the CanMEDS framework. Teaching and assessment methods are aligned with target competencies, learning contexts, and evaluation options. Case examples help to apply concepts to clinical and institutional contexts. Competencies can be identified, measured and evaluated. Novice or advanced beginner, competent/proficient, and expert levels were outlined. Andragogical (i.e. pedagogical) methods are used in clinical care, seminar, and other educational contexts. Cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluation using quantitative and qualitative measures promotes skills development via iterative feedback from patients, trainees, and faculty staff. TP and e-MH care significantly overlap, such that institutional leaders may use a common approach for change management and an e-platform to prioritize resources. TP training and assessment methods need to be implemented and evaluated. Institutional approaches to patient care, education, faculty development, and funding also need to be studied.

  9. A new framework for evaluating the impacts of drought on net primary productivity of grassland.

    PubMed

    Lei, Tianjie; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Xiaohan; Geng, Guangpo; Shao, Changliang; Zhou, Hongkui; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Leizhen

    2015-12-01

    This paper presented a valuable framework for evaluating the impacts of droughts (single factor) on grassland ecosystems. This framework was defined as the quantitative magnitude of drought impact that unacceptable short-term and long-term effects on ecosystems may experience relative to the reference standard. Long-term effects on ecosystems may occur relative to the reference standard. Net primary productivity (NPP) was selected as the response indicator of drought to assess the quantitative impact of drought on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and BIOME-BGC model. The framework consists of six main steps: 1) clearly defining drought scenarios, such as moderate, severe and extreme drought; 2) selecting an appropriate indicator of drought impact; 3) selecting an appropriate ecosystem model and verifying its capabilities, calibrating the bias and assessing the uncertainty; 4) assigning a level of unacceptable impact of drought on the indicator; 5) determining the response of the indicator to drought and normal weather state under global-change; and 6) investigating the unacceptable impact of drought at different spatial scales. We found NPP losses assessed using the new framework were more sensitive to drought and had higher precision than the long-term average method. Moreover, the total and average losses of NPP are different in different grassland types during the drought years from 1961-2009. NPP loss was significantly increased along a gradient of increasing drought levels. Meanwhile, NPP loss variation under the same drought level was different in different grassland types. The operational framework was particularly suited for integrative assessing the effects of different drought events and long-term droughts at multiple spatial scales, which provided essential insights for sciences and societies that must develop coping strategies for ecosystems for such events.

  10. The Framework on Multi-Scale Landslide Hazard Evaluation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. Y.; Liu, C.; Gao, J.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, Landslide has been one of the most frequent and seriously widespread natural hazards all over the world. How landslides can be monitored and predicted is an urgent research topic of the international landslide research community. Particularly, there is a lack of high quality and updated landslide risk maps and guidelines that can be employed to better mitigate and prevent landslide disasters in many emerging regions, including China. This paper considers national and regional scale, and introduces the framework on combining the empirical and physical models for landslide evaluation. Firstly, landslide susceptibility in national scale is mapped based on empirical model, and indicates the hot-spot areas. Secondly, the physically based model can indicate the process of slope instability in the hot-spot areas. The result proves that the framework is a systematic method on landslide hazard monitoring and early warning.

  11. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621

  12. A standardized framework for evaluating the skill of regional climate downscaling techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayhoe, Katharine Anne

    Regional climate impact assessments require high-resolution projections to resolve local factors that modify the impact of global-scale forcing. To generate these projections, global climate model simulations are commonly downscaled using a variety of statistical and dynamical techniques. Despite the essential role of downscaling in regional assessments, there is no standard approach to evaluating various downscaling methods. Hence, impact communities often have little awareness of limitations and uncertainties associated with downscaled projections. To develop a standardized framework for evaluating and comparing downscaling approaches, I first identify three primary characteristics of a distribution directly relevant to impact analyses that can be used to evaluate a simulated variable such as temperature or precipitation at a given location: (1) annual, seasonal, and monthly mean values; (2) thresholds, extreme values, and accumulated quantities such as 24h precipitation or degree-days; and (3) persistence, reflecting multi-day events such as heat waves, cold spells, and wet periods. Based on a survey of the literature and solicitation of expert opinion, I select a set of ten statistical tests to evaluate these characteristics, including measures of error, skill, and correlation. I apply this framework to evaluate the skill of four downscaling methods, from a simple delta approach to a complex asynchronous quantile regression, in simulating daily temperature at twenty stations across North America. Identical global model fields force each downscaling method, and the historical observational record at each location is randomly divided by year into two equal parts, such that each statistical method is trained on one set of historical observations, and evaluated on an entirely independent set of observations. Biases relative to observations are calculated for the historical evaluation period, and differences between projections for the future. Application of the

  13. A Framework for Evaluating the Effects of Degraded Digital I and C Systems on Human Performance

    SciTech Connect

    OHara,J.; Gunther, B.; Hughes, N.; Barnes, V.

    2009-04-09

    New and advanced reactors will use integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems to support operators in their monitoring and control functions. Even though digital systems are typically highly reliable, their potential for degradation or failure could significantly affect operator situation awareness and performance and, consequently, impact plant safety. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a research project to investigate the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and plant operations. The ultimate objective of this project is to develop the technical basis for human factors review guidance for conditions of degraded I&C, including complete failure. Based on the results of this effort, NRC will determine the need for developing new guidance or revising NUREG-0800, NUREG-0711, NUREG-0700 and other pertinent NRC review guidance. This paper reports on the first phase of the research, the development of a framework for linking degraded I&C system conditions to human performance. The framework consists of three levels: I&C subsystems, human-system interfaces, and human performance. Each level is composed of a number of discrete elements. This paper will describe the elements at each level and their integration. In the next phase of the research, the framework will be used to systematically investigate the human performance consequences of various classes of failures.

  14. An overview of ethical frameworks in public health: can they be supportive in the evaluation of programs to prevent overweight?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The prevention of overweight sometimes raises complex ethical questions. Ethical public health frameworks may be helpful in evaluating programs or policy for overweight prevention. We give an overview of the purpose, form and contents of such public health frameworks and investigate to which extent they are useful for evaluating programs to prevent overweight and/or obesity. Methods Our search for frameworks consisted of three steps. Firstly, we asked experts in the field of ethics and public health for the frameworks they were aware of. Secondly, we performed a search in Pubmed. Thirdly, we checked literature references in the articles on frameworks we found. In total, we thus found six ethical frameworks. We assessed the area on which the available ethical frameworks focus, the users they target at, the type of policy or intervention they propose to address, and their aim. Further, we looked at their structure and content, that is, tools for guiding the analytic process, the main ethical principles or values, possible criteria for dealing with ethical conflicts, and the concrete policy issues they are applied to. Results All frameworks aim to support public health professionals or policymakers. Most of them provide a set of values or principles that serve as a standard for evaluating policy. Most frameworks articulate both the positive ethical foundations for public health and ethical constraints or concerns. Some frameworks offer analytic tools for guiding the evaluative process. Procedural guidelines and concrete criteria for solving important ethical conflicts in the particular area of the prevention of overweight or obesity are mostly lacking. Conclusions Public health ethical frameworks may be supportive in the evaluation of overweight prevention programs or policy, but seem to lack practical guidance to address ethical conflicts in this particular area. PMID:20969761

  15. DAKOTA : a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Vigil, Dena M.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bohnhoff, William J.; Adams, Brian M.; Swiler, Laura Painton; Lefantzi, Sophia; Hough, Patricia Diane; Eddy, John P.

    2011-12-01

    The DAKOTA (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a flexible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. DAKOTA contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quantification with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the DAKOTA toolkit provides a flexible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a theoretical manual for selected algorithms implemented within the DAKOTA software. It is not intended as a comprehensive theoretical treatment, since a number of existing texts cover general optimization theory, statistical analysis, and other introductory topics. Rather, this manual is intended to summarize a set of DAKOTA-related research publications in the areas of surrogate-based optimization, uncertainty quantification, and optimization under uncertainty that provide the foundation for many of DAKOTA's iterative analysis capabilities.

  16. Dakota, a multilevel parallel object-oriented framework for design optimization, parameter estimation, uncertainty quantification, and sensitivity analysis :

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Brian M.; Ebeida, Mohamed Salah; Eldred, Michael S.; Jakeman, John Davis; Swiler, Laura Painton; Stephens, John Adam; Vigil, Dena M.; Wildey, Timothy Michael; Bohnhoff, William J.; Eddy, John P.; Hu, Kenneth T.; Dalbey, Keith R.; Bauman, Lara E; Hough, Patricia Diane

    2014-05-01

    The Dakota (Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications) toolkit provides a exible and extensible interface between simulation codes and iterative analysis methods. Dakota contains algorithms for optimization with gradient and nongradient-based methods; uncertainty quanti cation with sampling, reliability, and stochastic expansion methods; parameter estimation with nonlinear least squares methods; and sensitivity/variance analysis with design of experiments and parameter study methods. These capabilities may be used on their own or as components within advanced strategies such as surrogate-based optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, or optimization under uncertainty. By employing object-oriented design to implement abstractions of the key components required for iterative systems analyses, the Dakota toolkit provides a exible and extensible problem-solving environment for design and performance analysis of computational models on high performance computers. This report serves as a user's manual for the Dakota software and provides capability overviews and procedures for software execution, as well as a variety of example studies.

  17. i-SERF: An Integrated Self-Evaluated and Regulated Framework for Deploying Web 2.0 Technologies in the Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karvounidis, Theodoros; Himos, Konstantinos; Bersimis, Sotirios; Douligeris, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we propose i-SERF (integrated-Self Evaluated and Regulated Framework) an integrated self-evaluated and regulated framework, which facilitates synchronous and asynchronous education, focusing on teaching and learning in higher education. The i-SERF framework is a two-layered framework that takes into account various elements of…

  18. Risk Assessment of Physical Hazards in Greek Hospitals Combining Staff's Perception, Experts' Evaluation and Objective Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sourtzi, Panayiota; Kalokairinou, Athina; Sgourou, Evi; Koumoulas, Emmanouel; Velonakis, Emmanouel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The promotion of health and safety (H&S) awareness among hospital staff can be applied through various methods. The aim of this study was to assess the risk level of physical hazards in the hospital sector by combining workers' perception, experts' evaluation and objective measurements. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed using multiple triangulation. Hospital staff (n = 447) filled in an H&S questionnaire in a general hospital in Athens and an oncology one in Thessaloniki. Experts observed and filled in a checklist on H&S in the various departments of the two hospitals. Lighting, noise and microclimate measurements were performed. Results The staff's perception of risk was higher than that of the experts in many cases. The measured risk levels were low to medium. In cases of high-risk noise and lighting, staff and experts agreed. Staff's perception of risk was influenced by hospital's department, hospital's service, years of working experience and level of education. Therefore, these factors should be taken into account in future studies aimed at increasing the participation of hospital workers. Conclusion This study confirmed the usefulness of staff participation in the risk assessment process, despite the tendency for staff to overestimate the risk level of physical hazards. The combination of combining staff perception, experts' evaluation and objective measures in the risk assessment process increases the efficiency of risk management in the hospital environment and the enforcement of relevant legislation. PMID:22953210

  19. A Framework for Evaluating Science and Technology Electronic Reference Books: A Comparison of Five Platforms in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines what is desirable in online reference books in science and technology and outlines a framework for evaluating their interfaces. The framework considers factors unique to these subject areas like chemical structures and numerical data. Criteria in three categories, navigability, searchability, and results, were applied to five…

  20. Objective evaluation of surgical competency for minimally invasive surgery with a collection of simple tests

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Neira, Eliana Maria; Jimenez-Mendoza, Claudia Patricia; Rugeles-Quintero, Saul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at determining if a collection of 16 motor tests on a physical simulator can objectively discriminate and evaluate practitioners' competency level, i.e. novice, resident, and expert. Methods: An experimental design with three study groups (novice, resident, and expert) was developed to test the evaluation power of each of the 16 simple tests. An ANOVA and a Student Newman-Keuls (SNK) test were used to analyze results of each test to determine which of them can discriminate participants' competency level. Results: Four of the 16 tests used discriminated all of the three competency levels and 15 discriminated at least two of the three groups (α= 0.05). Moreover, other two tests differentiate beginners' level from intermediate, and other seven tests differentiate intermediate level from expert. Conclusion: The competency level of a practitioner of minimally invasive surgery can be evaluated by a specific collection of basic tests in a physical surgical simulator. Reduction of the number of tests needed to discriminate the competency level of surgeons can be the aim of future research. PMID:27226664

  1. Objective and quantitative evaluation of motor function in a monkey model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Hidemoto; Hayashi, Takuya; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Jun

    2010-07-15

    Monkeys treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) are currently the best animal model for Parkinson's disease (PD) and have been widely used for physiological and pharmacological investigations. However, objective and quantitative assessments have not been established for grading their motor behaviors. In order to develop a method for an unbiased evaluation, we performed a video-based assessment, used qualitative rating scales, and carried out an in vivo investigation of dopamine (DA) transporter binding in systemically MPTP-treated monkeys. The video-based analysis of spontaneous movement clearly demonstrated a significant correlation with the qualitative rating score. The assessment of DA transporter (DAT) function by [(11)C]-CFT-PET showed that, when compared with normal animals, the MPTP-treated animals exhibited decreased CFT binding in the bilateral striatum, particularly in the dorsal part in the putamen and caudate. Among the MPTP-treated monkeys, an unbiased PET analysis revealed a significant correlation between CFT binding in the midbrain and qualitative rating scores or the amount of spontaneous movements. These results indicate that a video-based analysis can be a reliable tool for an objective and quantitative evaluation of motor dysfunction of MPTP-treated monkeys, and furthermore, that DAT function in the midbrain may also be important for the evaluation.

  2. The Use of Covariates and Random Effects in Evaluating Predictive Biomarkers Under a Potential Outcome Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Nie, Lei; Soon, Guoxing; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-01-01

    Predictive or treatment selection biomarkers are usually evaluated in a subgroup or regression analysis with focus on the treatment-by-marker interaction. Under a potential outcome framework (Huang, Gilbert and Janes [Biometrics 68 (2012) 687–696]), a predictive biomarker is considered a predictor for a desirable treatment benefit (defined by comparing potential outcomes for different treatments) and evaluated using familiar concepts in prediction and classification. However, the desired treatment benefit is un-observable because each patient can receive only one treatment in a typical study. Huang et al. overcome this problem by assuming monotonicity of potential outcomes, with one treatment dominating the other in all patients. Motivated by an HIV example that appears to violate the monotonicity assumption, we propose a different approach based on covariates and random effects for evaluating predictive biomarkers under the potential outcome framework. Under the proposed approach, the parameters of interest can be identified by assuming conditional independence of potential outcomes given observed covariates, and a sensitivity analysis can be performed by incorporating an unobserved random effect that accounts for any residual dependence. Application of this approach to the motivating example shows that baseline viral load and CD4 cell count are both useful as predictive biomarkers for choosing antiretroviral drugs for treatment-naive patients. PMID:26779295

  3. Climate services for society: origins, institutional arrangements, and design elements for an evaluation framework

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Catherine; Dessai, Suraje

    2014-01-01

    Climate services involve the generation, provision, and contextualization of information and knowledge derived from climate research for decision making at all levels of society. These services are mainly targeted at informing adaptation to climate variability and change, widely recognized as an important challenge for sustainable development. This paper reviews the development of climate services, beginning with a historical overview, a short summary of improvements in climate information, and a description of the recent surge of interest in climate service development including, for example, the Global Framework for Climate Services, implemented by the World Meteorological Organization in October 2012. It also reviews institutional arrangements of selected emerging climate services across local, national, regional, and international scales. By synthesizing existing literature, the paper proposes four design elements of a climate services evaluation framework. These design elements include: problem identification and the decision-making context; the characteristics, tailoring, and dissemination of the climate information; the governance and structure of the service, including the process by which it is developed; and the socioeconomic value of the service. The design elements are intended to serve as a guide to organize future work regarding the evaluation of when and whether climate services are more or less successful. The paper concludes by identifying future research questions regarding the institutional arrangements that support climate services and nascent efforts to evaluate them. PMID:25798197

  4. Antimicrobial stewardship: a review of prospective audit and feedback systems and an objective evaluation of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Chung, Gladys W; Wu, Jia En; Yeo, Chay Leng; Chan, Douglas; Hsu, Li Yang

    2013-02-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship is an emerging field currently defined by a series of strategies and interventions aimed toward improving appropriate prescription of antibiotics in humans in all healthcare settings. The ultimate goal is the preservation of current and future antibiotics against the threat of antimicrobial resistance, although improving patient safety and reducing healthcare costs are important concurrent aims. Prospective audit and feedback interventions are probably the most widely practiced of all antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Although labor-intensive, they are more easily accepted by physicians compared with formulary restriction and preauthorization strategies and have a higher potential for educational opportunities. Objective evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship is critical for determining the success of such programs. Nonetheless, there is controversy over which outcomes to measure and there is a pressing need for novel study designs that can objectively assess antimicrobial stewardship interventions despite the limitations inherent in the structure of most such programs.

  5. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  6. A Catchment-Based Land Surface Model for GCMs and the Framework for its Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ducharen, A.; Koster, R. D.; Suarez, M. J.; Kumar, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new GCM-scale land surface modeling strategy that explicitly accounts for subgrid soil moisture variability and its effects on evaporation and runoff is now being explored. In a break from traditional modeling strategies, the continental surface is disaggregated into a mosaic of hydrological catchments, with boundaries that are not dictated by a regular grid but by topography. Within each catchment, the variability of soil moisture is deduced from TOP-MODEL equations with a special treatment of the unsaturated zone. This paper gives an overview of this new approach and presents the general framework for its off-line evaluation over North-America.

  7. Applying a resources framework to analysis of the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Trevor I.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2008-12-01

    We suggest one redefinition of common clusters of questions used to analyze student responses on the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. Our goal is to propose a methodology that moves beyond an analysis of student learning defined by correct responses, either on the overall test or on clusters of questions defined solely by content. We use the resources framework theory of learning to define clusters within this experimental test that was designed without the resources framework in mind. We take special note of the contextual and representational dependence of questions with seemingly similar physics content. We analyze clusters in ways that allow the most common incorrect answers to give as much, or more, information as the correctness of responses in that cluster. We show that false positives can be found, especially on questions dealing with Newton’s third law. We apply our clustering to a small set of data to illustrate the value of comparing students’ incorrect responses which are otherwise identical on a correct or incorrect analysis. Our work provides a connection between theory and experiment in the area of survey design and the resources framework.

  8. Optimized metal-organic-framework nanospheres for drug delivery: evaluation of small-molecule encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Jia; Kuo, Chun-Hong; Chou, Lien-Yang; Liu, De-Yu; Weerapana, Eranthie; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2014-03-25

    We have developed a general synthetic route to encapsulate small molecules in monodisperse zeolitic imid-azolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) nanospheres for drug delivery. Electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis show that the small-molecule-encapsulated ZIF-8 nanospheres are uniform 70 nm particles with single-crystalline structure. Several small molecules, including fluorescein and the anticancer drug camptothecin, were encapsulated inside of the ZIF-8 framework. Evaluation of fluorescein-encapsulated ZIF-8 nanospheres in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line demonstrated cell internalization and minimal cytotoxicity. The 70 nm particle size facilitates cellular uptake, and the pH-responsive dissociation of the ZIF-8 framework likely results in endosomal release of the small-molecule cargo, thereby rendering the ZIF-8 scaffold an ideal drug delivery vehicle. To confirm this, we demonstrate that camptothecin encapsulated ZIF-8 particles show enhanced cell death, indicative of internalization and intracellular release of the drug. To demonstrate the versatility of this ZIF-8 system, iron oxide nanoparticles were also encapsulated into the ZIF-8 nanospheres, thereby endowing magnetic features to these nanospheres.

  9. Evaluating ecommerce websites cognitive efficiency: an integrative framework based on data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Storto, Corrado

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an integrative framework to evaluate ecommerce website efficiency from the user viewpoint using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This framework is inspired by concepts driven from theories of information processing and cognition and considers the website efficiency as a measure of its quality and performance. When the users interact with the website interfaces to perform a task, they are involved in a cognitive effort, sustaining a cognitive cost to search, interpret and process information, and experiencing either a sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction for that. The amount of ambiguity and uncertainty, and the search (over-)time during navigation that they perceive determine the effort size - and, as a consequence, the cognitive cost amount - they have to bear to perform their task. On the contrary, task performing and result achievement provide the users with cognitive benefits, making interaction with the website potentially attractive, satisfying, and useful. In total, 9 variables are measured, classified in a set of 3 website macro-dimensions (user experience, site navigability and structure). The framework is implemented to compare 52 ecommerce websites that sell products in the information technology and media market. A stepwise regression is performed to assess the influence of cognitive costs and benefits that mostly affect website efficiency. PMID:23697624

  10. Evaluating ecommerce websites cognitive efficiency: an integrative framework based on data envelopment analysis.

    PubMed

    Lo Storto, Corrado

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an integrative framework to evaluate ecommerce website efficiency from the user viewpoint using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). This framework is inspired by concepts driven from theories of information processing and cognition and considers the website efficiency as a measure of its quality and performance. When the users interact with the website interfaces to perform a task, they are involved in a cognitive effort, sustaining a cognitive cost to search, interpret and process information, and experiencing either a sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction for that. The amount of ambiguity and uncertainty, and the search (over-)time during navigation that they perceive determine the effort size - and, as a consequence, the cognitive cost amount - they have to bear to perform their task. On the contrary, task performing and result achievement provide the users with cognitive benefits, making interaction with the website potentially attractive, satisfying, and useful. In total, 9 variables are measured, classified in a set of 3 website macro-dimensions (user experience, site navigability and structure). The framework is implemented to compare 52 ecommerce websites that sell products in the information technology and media market. A stepwise regression is performed to assess the influence of cognitive costs and benefits that mostly affect website efficiency.

  11. Identification, Interpretation—Evaluation, Response: An alternative framework for analyzing teacher discourse in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Tzialli, Dora

    2012-08-01

    Although research has come to recognize the importance of studying classroom-based student-teacher discourse in science, the emphasis remains largely on teachers' abilities to ask questions and provide students with feedback, or on students' abilities to ask questions or engage in argumentative discourse. Consequently, little research has focused on the discourse elements relating to teacher-student discourse interactions. In this article, we argue for a shift of research attention toward describing what the teacher is responding to (Identification of student inquiry), the process of deciding how to respond (Interpretation-Evaluation of student inquiry), and how the teacher is responding (Response to student inquiry). We propose a new methodological approach for studying teacher discourse, which involves a framework we developed while analyzing 1,385 minutes of fifth grade, whole-class science conversations covering a 2-year period and facilitated by an experienced science teacher. Then, as a case in point, we applied our framework to the teacher discourse data of the study, aiming to show that the framework can be a useful tool for examining how a teacher supports students' inquiry.

  12. Objective assessment methodology and evaluation of low-rate digital voice processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimolitsas, Spiros; Corcoran, Franklin L.; Baraniecki, Marion; Phipps, John G., Jr.

    Methods and results are presented for an objective-instrumentation evaluation of 16 kbit/sec-operation source-encoding algorithms, which aimed to ascertain whether 'toll quality' performance with nonvoice signals is possible at such an operating rate. It is found that while 16-kbit/sec source encoding is unable to accommodate voiceband data rates in excess of 2.4 kbit/sec with acceptable quality, satisfactory performance is obtainable with signaling. The 16 kbit/sec voice coding technology is therefore judged to be suitable for public-switched telephone network applications where alternative facilities for voiceband data traffic are provided.

  13. Implementing accountability for reasonableness framework at district level in Tanzania: a realist evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the growing importance of the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework in priority setting worldwide, there is still an inadequate understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying its influence on legitimacy and fairness, as conceived and reflected in service management processes and outcomes. As a result, the ability to draw scientifically sound lessons for the application of the framework to services and interventions is limited. This paper evaluates the experiences of implementing the A4R approach in Mbarali District, Tanzania, in order to find out how the innovation was shaped, enabled, and constrained by the interaction between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Methods This study draws on the principles of realist evaluation -- a largely qualitative approach, chiefly concerned with testing and refining programme theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual interviews, non-participant observation, and document reviews. A thematic framework approach was adopted for the data analysis. Results The study found that while the A4R approach to priority setting was helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability, stakeholder engagement, and fairness, the efforts at integrating it into the current district health system were challenging. Participatory structures under the decentralisation framework, central government's call for partnership in district-level planning and priority setting, perceived needs of stakeholders, as well as active engagement between researchers and decision makers all facilitated the adoption and implementation of the innovation. In contrast, however, limited local autonomy, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, inadequate accountability mechanisms, and limited local resources were the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation. Conclusion This study

  14. Evaluation of Genetic Algorithm Concepts using Model Problems. Part 1; Single-Objective Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    A genetic-algorithm-based optimization approach is described and evaluated using a simple hill-climbing model problem. The model problem utilized herein allows for the broad specification of a large number of search spaces including spaces with an arbitrary number of genes or decision variables and an arbitrary number hills or modes. In the present study, only single objective problems are considered. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and extremely reliable, providing optimal results for all problems attempted. The most difficult problems - those with large hyper-volumes and multi-mode search spaces containing a large number of genes - require a large number of function evaluations for GA convergence, but they always converge.

  15. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  16. Physiological and subjective evaluation of a human-robot object hand-over task.

    PubMed

    Dehais, Frédéric; Sisbot, Emrah Akin; Alami, Rachid; Causse, Mickaël

    2011-11-01

    In the context of task sharing between a robot companion and its human partners, the notions of safe and compliant hardware are not enough. It is necessary to guarantee ergonomic robot motions. Therefore, we have developed Human Aware Manipulation Planner (Sisbot et al., 2010), a motion planner specifically designed for human-robot object transfer by explicitly taking into account the legibility, the safety and the physical comfort of robot motions. The main objective of this research was to define precise subjective metrics to assess our planner when a human interacts with a robot in an object hand-over task. A second objective was to obtain quantitative data to evaluate the effect of this interaction. Given the short duration, the "relative ease" of the object hand-over task and its qualitative component, classical behavioral measures based on accuracy or reaction time were unsuitable to compare our gestures. In this perspective, we selected three measurements based on the galvanic skin conductance response, the deltoid muscle activity and the ocular activity. To test our assumptions and validate our planner, an experimental set-up involving Jido, a mobile manipulator robot, and a seated human was proposed. For the purpose of the experiment, we have defined three motions that combine different levels of legibility, safety and physical comfort values. After each robot gesture the participants were asked to rate them on a three dimensional subjective scale. It has appeared that the subjective data were in favor of our reference motion. Eventually the three motions elicited different physiological and ocular responses that could be used to partially discriminate them.

  17. Evaluation of subjective and objective cyclodeviation following oblique muscle weakening procedures

    PubMed Central

    Thanikachalam, S; Kedar, Sachin; Bhola, Rahul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the subjective and objective cyclodeviational changes following different weakening procedures on superior and inferior oblique muscles Design: Comparative case series Materials and Methods: In a prospective institution based study, 16 cases of A pattern horizontal strabismus having superior oblique overaction were randomized to superior oblique weakening procedures: either silicon expander or translational-recession. Similarly, 20 cases of V pattern horizontal strabismus with inferior oblique overaction were randomized for inferior oblique weakening procedures: either 10 mm Fink′s recession or modified Elliot and Nankin′s anteropositioning. Cyclodeviation was assessed subjectively with the synoptophore and objectively using the fundus photograph before surgery and 3 months postoperatively. Change in cyclodeviation was measured by subjective and objective methods. The index of surgical effect (ISE) was defined as the net torsional change postoperatively. Results: The difference between the extorsional change induced by the two superior oblique procedures, silicone expander (-6°) and translational recession (-11.3°), was statistically significant (P=0.001). Translational recession caused more extorsional change (ISE=296%) than silicone expander surgery (ISE=107%). The two inferior oblique weakening procedures, Fink′s recession (+2.5°) and modified Elliot and Nankin′s anteropositioning (+4.7°) produced equitable amount of intorsional shift with no statistical difference (P=0.93). Objective measurements were significantly more than the subjective measurements. Conclusions: Different weakening procedures on oblique muscles produce different changes in cyclodeviation, which persists even up to 3 months. Subjective cyclodeviation is less than the objective measurements indicating partial compensation by sensorial adaptations. PMID:18158402

  18. Framework for Optimizing the Evaluation of Data From Contaminated Soil in Sweden

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Swedish guidelines for the evaluation of data for the purpose of a risk assessment at contaminated sites are of a qualitative character, as opposed to the USEPA’s Data Quality Objective Process. In Sweden, this can sometimes be a problem because the demands on data quality ar...

  19. An Ex Post Facto Evaluation Framework for Place-Based Police Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Anthony A.; Hureau, David M.; Papachristos, Andrew V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A small but growing body of research evidence suggests that place-based police interventions generate significant crime control gains. While place-based policing strategies have been adopted by a majority of U.S. police departments, very few agencies make a priori commitments to rigorous evaluations. Objective: Recent methodological…

  20. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Human feeding of wildlife is a world-wide phenomenon with very diverse effects on conservation, animal welfare and public safety. From a review of the motivations, types and consequences of wildlife feeding, an evaluative framework is presented to assist policy-makers, educators and managers to make ethical- and biologically-based decisions about the appropriateness of feeding wildlife in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and recreation. Abstract Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable. PMID:26479747

  1. Developing a clinical utility framework to evaluate prediction models in radiogenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yirong; Liu, Jie; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Page, David C.; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Peissig, Peggy; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2015-03-01

    Combining imaging and genetic information to predict disease presence and behavior is being codified into an emerging discipline called "radiogenomics." Optimal evaluation methodologies for radiogenomics techniques have not been established. We aim to develop a clinical decision framework based on utility analysis to assess prediction models for breast cancer. Our data comes from a retrospective case-control study, collecting Gail model risk factors, genetic variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms-SNPs), and mammographic features in Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) lexicon. We first constructed three logistic regression models built on different sets of predictive features: (1) Gail, (2) Gail+SNP, and (3) Gail+SNP+BI-RADS. Then, we generated ROC curves for three models. After we assigned utility values for each category of findings (true negative, false positive, false negative and true positive), we pursued optimal operating points on ROC curves to achieve maximum expected utility (MEU) of breast cancer diagnosis. We used McNemar's test to compare the predictive performance of the three models. We found that SNPs and BI-RADS features augmented the baseline Gail model in terms of the area under ROC curve (AUC) and MEU. SNPs improved sensitivity of the Gail model (0.276 vs. 0.147) and reduced specificity (0.855 vs. 0.912). When additional mammographic features were added, sensitivity increased to 0.457 and specificity to 0.872. SNPs and mammographic features played a significant role in breast cancer risk estimation (p-value < 0.001). Our decision framework comprising utility analysis and McNemar's test provides a novel framework to evaluate prediction models in the realm of radiogenomics.

  2. Social Studies Objectives, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Six objectives which form the framework of a K-12 social studies program of Department of Defense Dependents Schools are outlined. The objectives are to evaluate the relationship between human beings and their social, natural, and man-made environment; analyze the origins and interrelationships of beliefs, values, and behavior patterns; solve…

  3. A systematic framework for evaluating standard cell middle-of-line (MOL) robustness for multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2015-03-01

    Multiple patterning (triple and quadruple patterning) is being considered for use on the Middle-Of-Line (MOL) layers at the 10nm technology node and beyond.1 For robust standard cell design, designers need to improve the inter-cell compatibility for all combinations of cells and cell placements. Multiple patterning colorability checks break the locality of traditional rule checking and N-wise checks are strongly needed to verify the multiple patterning colorability for layout interaction across cell boundaries. In this work, a systematic framework is proposed to evaluate the library-level robustness over multiple patterning from two perpectives, including illegal cell combinations and full chip interactions. With efficient N-wise checks, the vertical and horizontal boundary checks are explored to predict illegal cell combinations. For full chip interactions, random benchmarks are generated by cell shifting and tested to evaluate the placement-level efforts needed to reduce the quadruple patterning to triple patterning for the MOL layer.

  4. Maslow's needs hierarchy as a framework for evaluating hospitality houses' resources and services.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Mary Katherine Waibel; Blugis, Ann

    2011-08-01

    As hospitality houses welcome greater numbers of families and families requiring longer stays, they do so in the absence of a widely accepted theory to guide their understanding of guests' needs and evaluations of how well they meet those needs. We propose A. Maslow's (1970) Hierarchy of Needs as a conceptual framework for understanding what makes a hospitality house a home for families of pediatric patients and for guiding the activities of hospitality houses' boards of directors, staff, volunteers, and donors. This article presents findings from a theory-driven evaluation of one hospitality house's ability to meet guests' needs, describes the house's best practice standards for addressing guests' needs, and suggests areas for future research.

  5. Evaluation for coastal reclamation feasibility using a comprehensive hydrodynamic framework: A case study in Haizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; He, Jia; Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Bian, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Coastal reclamation (CR) is a prevailing approach to solve the contradiction between the land shortage and the growing demand of living space for human beings. In general, environmental impact assessment (EIA) focuses on evaluating the feasibility of individual coastal reclamation project (CRP). However, few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of multiple CRPs on surrounding environment. In this study, an integrated framework based on coastal hydrodynamics was established, and then applied to the feasibility evaluation of multiple CRPs for future coastal management in Haizhou Bay, China. The results indicated that three out of five reclamation projects were feasible and the remaining two were forbidden in the study area, whereas EIA approves of all the CRPs. It provides a scientific reference for effective management of coastal reclamation and future environmental impact researches when new CRPs are proposed.

  6. Maslow's needs hierarchy as a framework for evaluating hospitality houses' resources and services.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Mary Katherine Waibel; Blugis, Ann

    2011-08-01

    As hospitality houses welcome greater numbers of families and families requiring longer stays, they do so in the absence of a widely accepted theory to guide their understanding of guests' needs and evaluations of how well they meet those needs. We propose A. Maslow's (1970) Hierarchy of Needs as a conceptual framework for understanding what makes a hospitality house a home for families of pediatric patients and for guiding the activities of hospitality houses' boards of directors, staff, volunteers, and donors. This article presents findings from a theory-driven evaluation of one hospitality house's ability to meet guests' needs, describes the house's best practice standards for addressing guests' needs, and suggests areas for future research. PMID:21726782

  7. Evaluation for coastal reclamation feasibility using a comprehensive hydrodynamic framework: A case study in Haizhou Bay.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; He, Jia; Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Bian, Fangyuan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-11-15

    Coastal reclamation (CR) is a prevailing approach to solve the contradiction between the land shortage and the growing demand of living space for human beings. In general, environmental impact assessment (EIA) focuses on evaluating the feasibility of individual coastal reclamation project (CRP). However, few studies have investigated the cumulative effect of multiple CRPs on surrounding environment. In this study, an integrated framework based on coastal hydrodynamics was established, and then applied to the feasibility evaluation of multiple CRPs for future coastal management in Haizhou Bay, China. The results indicated that three out of five reclamation projects were feasible and the remaining two were forbidden in the study area, whereas EIA approves of all the CRPs. It provides a scientific reference for effective management of coastal reclamation and future environmental impact researches when new CRPs are proposed. PMID:26364204

  8. A framework for the damage evaluation of acoustic emission signals through Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siracusano, Giulio; Lamonaca, Francesco; Tomasello, Riccardo; Garescì, Francesca; Corte, Aurelio La; Carnì, Domenico Luca; Carpentieri, Mario; Grimaldi, Domenico; Finocchio, Giovanni

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) is a powerful and potential nondestructive testing method for structural monitoring in civil engineering. Here, we show how systematic investigation of crack phenomena based on AE data can be significantly improved by the use of advanced signal processing techniques. Such data are a fundamental source of information that can be used as the basis for evaluating the status of the material, thereby paving the way for a new frontier of innovation made by data-enabled analytics. In this article, we propose a framework based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform for the evaluation of material damages that (i) facilitates the systematic employment of both established and promising analysis criteria, and (ii) provides unsupervised tools to achieve an accurate classification of the fracture type, the discrimination between longitudinal (P-) and traversal (S-) waves related to an AE event. The experimental validation shows promising results for a reliable assessment of the health status through the monitoring of civil infrastructures.

  9. An evaluation of objective measures for intelligibility prediction of time-frequency weighted noisy speech.

    PubMed

    Taal, Cees H; Hendriks, Richard C; Heusdens, Richard; Jensen, Jesper

    2011-11-01

    Existing objective speech-intelligibility measures are suitable for several types of degradation, however, it turns out that they are less appropriate in cases where noisy speech is processed by a time-frequency weighting. To this end, an extensive evaluation is presented of objective measure for intelligibility prediction of noisy speech processed with a technique called ideal time frequency (TF) segregation. In total 17 measures are evaluated, including four advanced speech-intelligibility measures (CSII, CSTI, NSEC, DAU), the advanced speech-quality measure (PESQ), and several frame-based measures (e.g., SSNR). Furthermore, several additional measures are proposed. The study comprised a total number of 168 different TF-weightings, including unprocessed noisy speech. Out of all measures, the proposed frame-based measure MCC gave the best results (ρ = 0.93). An additional experiment shows that the good performing measures in this study also show high correlation with the intelligibility of single-channel noise reduced speech. PMID:22087929

  10. Breast Retraction Assessment: an objective evaluation of cosmetic results of patients treated conservatively for breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Pezner, R.D.; Patterson, M.P.; Hill, L.R.; Vora, N.; Desai, K.R.; Archambeau, J.O.; Lipsett, J.A.

    1985-03-01

    Breast Retraction Assessment (BRA) is an objective evaluation of the amount of cosmetic retraction of the treated breast in comparison to the untreated breast in patients who receive conservative treatment for breast cancer. A clear acrylic sheet supported vertically and marked as a grid at 1 cm intervals is employed to perform the measurements. Average BRA value in 29 control patients without breast cancer was 1.2 cm. Average BRA value in 27 patients treated conservatively for clinical Stage I or II unilateral breast cancer was 3.7 cm. BRA values in breast cancer patients ranged from 0.0 to 8.5 cm. Patients who received a local radiation boost to the primary tumor bed site had statistically significantly less retraction than those who did not receive a boost. Patients who had an extensive primary tumor resection had statistically significantly more retraction than those who underwent a more limited resection. In comparison to qualitative forms of cosmetic analysis, BRA is an objective test that can quantitatively evaluate factors which may be related to cosmetic retraction in patients treated conservatively for breast cancer.

  11. Hortonian overland flow closure relations in the Representative Elementary Watershed Framework evaluated with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannametee, E.; Karssenberg, D.; Hendriks, M. R.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the closure relation for Hortonian runoff that explicitly accounts for sub-REW process heterogeneity and scale effects, proposed in Vannametee et al. (2012). We apply the closure relation, which is embedded in an event-based rainfall-runoff model developed under the REW framework, to a 15 km2 catchment in the French Alps. The scaling parameters in the closure relation are directly estimated using local and thus observable REW properties and rainstorm characteristics. Evaluation of the simulation results against the observed discharge indicates good performance in reproducing the hydrograph and discharge volume, even without calibration. The discharge prediction exhibits a significant improvement when the closure relation is calibrated with catchment-scale runoff. Our closure relation also yields better predictions when compared with results from a benchmark closure relation that does not consider scale effects. Calibration is done by only changing one of the REW observables, i.e. hydraulic conductivity, as that determines the scaling parameters, using a single prefactor for the entire catchment. This enables the calibration of the (semi)distributed modelling framework in this study to use only a single parameter. The results without calibration suggest that, in the absence of discharge observations, reasonable estimates of catchment-scale runoff responses are possibly based on observations at the sub-REW (i.e. plot) scale. Thus, our study provides a platform for the future development of low-dimensional and robust semi-distributed, physically-based discharge models in ungauged catchments.

  12. Evaluating a Web-Based Educational Module on Oral Cancer Examination Based on a Behavioral Framework.

    PubMed

    Wee, Alvin G; Zimmerman, Lani M; Pullen, Carol H; Allen, Carl M; Lambert, Paul M; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-03-01

    Patients at risk of developing oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are more likely to see primary care providers (PCPs) than a dentist. Many PCPs do not regularly perform oral cancer examination (OCE). The purpose of this study was to design a web-based educational program based on a behavioral framework to encourage PCPs to conduct OCE. PCPs were solicited to provide feedback on the program and to evaluate their short-term knowledge. The integrated behavioral model was used to design the program. Fifteen PCPs (five in each group: physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) reviewed the program and took a posttest: (1) index of knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer (RiskOC) and (2) index of knowledge of diagnostic procedures for oral cancer (DiagOC). Findings from the process evaluation were mainly positive, with comments on the length of the program comprising the ten negative comments. No significant difference among groups of PCPs (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) was detected for DiagOC (p = 0.43) or RiskOC (p = 0.201). A program on OPC for PCPs should be less than 40 min. Postviewing knowledge outcomes were similar for all PCPs. The web-based program on OPC based on a behavioral framework could have similar short-term knowledge outcomes for all PCPs and may increase the number of PCPs performing OCEs. PMID:25572460

  13. The design of a contextualized responsive evaluation framework for fishery management in Benin.

    PubMed

    Kouévi, A T; Van Mierlo, B; Leeuwis, C; Vodouhê, S D

    2013-02-01

    The main question addressed by this article is how to adapt the responsive evaluation (RE) approach to an intervention context characterized by repetition of ineffective interventions, ambiguous intervention action theories among stakeholders, and high complexity. The context is Grand-Popo, a fishing municipality located on Benin's southwest Atlantic coast. The fishery management interventionists and the fishing communities in the municipality all espoused concern for the sustainable improvement of fishing actors' livelihood conditions, but differed about the reasons for this livelihood impairment, and about what should be done, when, where, and by whom. Given this ambiguity, we identified RE as a promising action research approach to facilitate dialogue and mutual learning, and consequently to improve stakeholders' ability to resolve problems. However, this approach seems to have some shortcomings in the Grand-Popo context, regarding the repetitive ineffectiveness of interventions, high complexity, and uncertainty. Therefore, based on our empirical study, we add three dimensions to the existing RE framework: historical analysis to deal with routine interventions, exploration and discussion of incongruities of action theories to trigger double-loop learning, and system analysis to deal with complexity and uncertainty. This article does not intend to address the implications or impact of this adapted RE framework. Instead, we suggest some criteria and indicators for evaluating whether the proposed amended RE approach has assisted in resolving the fishery problems in Grand-Popo after the approach has been applied.

  14. Attachment Based Treatments for Adolescents: The Secure Cycle as a Framework for Assessment, Treatment and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Herres, Joanna; KrauthamerEwing, E. Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of ABTs for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: 1) the child or adult’s IWM of the caregiver; 2) emotionally attuned communication; and 3) the caregiver’s IWM of the child or adult. We briefly review Bowlby, Ainsworth, and Main’s contributions to defining the components of the secure cycle and discuss how this framework can be adapted for understanding the process of change in ABTs. For clinicians working with adolescents, our model can be used to identify how deviations from the secure cycle (attachment injuries, empathic failures and mistuned communication) contribute to family distress and psychopathology. The secure cycle also provides a way of describing the ABT elements that have been used to revise IWMs or improve emotionally attuned communication. For researchers, our model provides a guide for conceptualizing and measuring change in attachment constructs and how change in one component of the interpersonal cycle should generalize to other components. PMID:25744572

  15. Systematic framework for evaluating standard cell middle-of-line robustness for multiple patterning lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Cline, Brian; Yeric, Greg; Yu, Bei; Pan, David Z.

    2016-04-01

    For robust standard cell design, designers need to improve the intercell compatibility for all combinations of cells and cell placements. Multiple patterning lithography colorability check breaks the locality of traditional rule check, and N-wise checks are strongly needed to verify the colorability for layout interactions across cell boundaries. A systematic framework is proposed to evaluate the library-level robustness over multiple patterning lithography from two perspectives, including complete checks on two-row combinations of cells and long-range interactions. With complete checks on two-row combinations of cells, the vertical and horizontal boundary checks are explored to predict illegal cell combinations. For long-range interactions, random benchmarks are generated by cell shifting and tested to evaluate the placement-level efforts needed to reduce the manufacturing complexity from quadruple patterning lithography to triple patterning lithography for the middle-of-line (MOL) layers. Our framework is tested on the MOL layers but can be easily adapted to other critical layers with multiple patterning lithography constraints.

  16. Framework for Evaluating Water Quality of the New England Crystalline Rock Aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    Little information exists on regional ground-water-quality patterns for the New England crystalline rock aquifers (NECRA). A systematic approach to facilitate regional evaluation is needed for several reasons. First, the NECRA are vulnerable to anthropogenic and natural contaminants such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), arsenic, and radon gas. Second, the physical characteristics of the aquifers, termed 'intrinsic susceptibility', can lead to variable and degraded water quality. A framework approach for characterizing the aquifer region into areas of similar hydrogeology is described in this report and is based on hypothesized relevant physical features and chemical conditions (collectively termed 'variables') that affect regional patterns of ground-water quality. A framework for comparison of water quality across the NECRA consists of a group of spatial variables related to aquifer properties, hydrologic conditions, and contaminant sources. These spatial variables are grouped under four general categories (features) that can be mapped across the aquifers: (1) geologic, (2) hydrophysiographic, (3) land-use land-cover, and (4) geochemical. On a regional scale, these variables represent indicators of natural and anthropogenic sources of contaminants, as well as generalized physical and chemical characteristics of the aquifer system that influence ground-water chemistry and flow. These variables can be used in varying combinations (depending on the contaminant) to categorize the aquifer into areas of similar hydrogeologic characteristics to evaluate variation in regional water quality through statistical testing.

  17. Developing a utility decision framework to evaluate predictive models in breast cancer risk estimation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yirong; Abbey, Craig K.; Chen, Xianqiao; Liu, Jie; Page, David C.; Alagoz, Oguzhan; Peissig, Peggy; Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Burnside, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Combining imaging and genetic information to predict disease presence and progression is being codified into an emerging discipline called “radiogenomics.” Optimal evaluation methodologies for radiogenomics have not been well established. We aim to develop a decision framework based on utility analysis to assess predictive models for breast cancer diagnosis. We garnered Gail risk factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), and mammographic features from a retrospective case-control study. We constructed three logistic regression models built on different sets of predictive features: (1) Gail, (2) Gail + Mammo, and (3) Gail + Mammo + SNP. Then we generated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for three models. After we assigned utility values for each category of outcomes (true negatives, false positives, false negatives, and true positives), we pursued optimal operating points on ROC curves to achieve maximum expected utility of breast cancer diagnosis. We performed McNemar’s test based on threshold levels at optimal operating points, and found that SNPs and mammographic features played a significant role in breast cancer risk estimation. Our study comprising utility analysis and McNemar’s test provides a decision framework to evaluate predictive models in breast cancer risk estimation. PMID:26835489

  18. An interdisciplinary framework to evaluate bioshield plantations: Insights from peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nibedita; Dahdouh-Guebas, Farid; Koedam, Nico; Shanker, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Bioshields or coastal vegetation structures are currently amongst the most important coastal habitat modification activities in south-east Asia, particularly after the December 2004 tsunami. Coastal plantations have been promoted at a large scale as protection against severe natural disasters despite considerable debate over their efficacy as protection measures. In this paper, we provide an interdisciplinary framework for evaluating and monitoring coastal plantations. We then use this framework in a case study in peninsular India. We conducted a socio-ecological questionnaire-based survey on government and non-government organizations directly involved in coastal plantation efforts in three 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami affected states in mainland India. We found that though coastal protection was stated to be the primary cause, socio-economic factors like providing rural employment were strong drivers of plantation activities. Local communities were engaged primarily as daily wage labour for plantation rather than in the planning or monitoring phases. Application of ecological criteria has been undermined during the establishment and maintenance of plantations and there was a general lack of awareness about conservation laws relating to coastal forests. While ample flow of international aid has fuelled the plantation of exotics in the study area particularly after the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, the long term ecological consequences need further evaluation and rigorous monitoring in the future.

  19. Attachment based treatments for adolescents: the secure cycle as a framework for assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Roger; Zajac, Kristyn; Herres, Joanna; Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of attachment-based treatments (ABTs) for adolescents highlights the need to more clearly define and evaluate these treatments in the context of other attachment based treatments for young children and adults. We propose a general framework for defining and evaluating ABTs that describes the cyclical processes that are required to maintain a secure attachment bond. This secure cycle incorporates three components: (1) the child or adult's IWM of the caregiver; (2) emotionally attuned communication; and (3) the caregiver's IWM of the child or adult. We briefly review Bowlby, Ainsworth, and Main's contributions to defining the components of the secure cycle and discuss how this framework can be adapted for understanding the process of change in ABTs. For clinicians working with adolescents, our model can be used to identify how deviations from the secure cycle (attachment injuries, empathic failures and mistuned communication) contribute to family distress and psychopathology. The secure cycle also provides a way of describing the ABT elements that have been used to revise IWMs or improve emotionally attuned communication. For researchers, our model provides a guide for conceptualizing and measuring change in attachment constructs and how change in one component of the interpersonal cycle should generalize to other components. PMID:25744572

  20. A framework to observe and evaluate the sustainability of human-natural systems in a complex dynamic context.

    PubMed

    Satanarachchi, Niranji; Mino, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the prominent implications of the process of observing complex dynamics linked to sustainability in human-natural systems and to propose a framework for sustainability evaluation by introducing the concept of sustainability boundaries. Arguing that both observing and evaluating sustainability should engage awareness of complex dynamics from the outset, we try to embody this idea in the framework by two complementary methods, namely, the layer view- and dimensional view-based methods, which support the understanding of a reflexive and iterative sustainability process. The framework enables the observation of complex dynamic sustainability contexts, which we call observation metastructures, and enable us to map the contexts to sustainability boundaries.

  1. Relationships between objective acoustic indices and acoustic comfort evaluation in nonacoustic spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian

    2001-05-01

    Much attention has been paid to acoustic spaces such as concert halls and recording studios, whereas research on nonacoustic buildings/spaces has been rather limited, especially from the viewpoint of acoustic comfort. In this research a series of case studies has been carried out on this topic, considering various spaces including shopping mall atrium spaces, library reading rooms, football stadia, swimming spaces, churches, dining spaces, as well as urban open public spaces. The studies focus on the relationships between objective acoustic indices such as sound pressure level and reverberation time and perceptions of acoustic comfort. The results show that the acoustic atmosphere is an important consideration in such spaces and the evaluation of acoustic comfort may vary considerably even if the objective acoustic indices are the same. It is suggested that current guidelines and technical regulations are insufficient in terms of acoustic design of these spaces, and the relationships established from the case studies between objective and subjective aspects would be useful for developing further design guidelines. [Work supported partly by the British Academy.

  2. Remedy Evaluation Framework for Inorganic, Non-Volatile Contaminants in the Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2013-05-01

    Contaminants in the vadose zone may act as a potential long-term source of groundwater contamination and need to be considered in remedy evaluations. In many cases, remediation decisions for the vadose zone will need to be made all or in part based on projected impacts to groundwater. Because there are significant natural attenuation processes inherent in vadose zone contaminant transport, remediation in the vadose zone to protect groundwater is functionally a combination of natural attenuation and use of other remediation techniques, as needed, to mitigate contaminant flux to groundwater. Attenuation processes include both hydrobiogeochemical processes that serve to retain contaminants within porous media and physical processes that mitigate the rate of water flux. In particular, the physical processes controlling fluid flow in the vadose zone are quite different and generally have a more significant attenuation impact on contaminant transport relative to those within the groundwater system. A remedy evaluation framework is presented herein that uses an adaptation of the established EPA Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) evaluation approach and a conceptual model based approach focused on identifying and quantifying features and processes that control contaminant flux through the vadose zone. A key concept for this framework is to recognize that MNA will comprise some portion of all remedies in the vadose zone. Thus, structuring evaluation of vadose zone waste sites to use an MNA-based approach provides information necessary to either select MNA as the remedy, if appropriate, or to quantify how much additional attenuation would need to be induced by a remedial action (e.g., technologies considered in a feasibility study) to augment the natural attenuation processes and meet groundwater protection goals.

  3. Evaluating Academic Scientists Collaborating in Team-Based Research: A Proposed Framework.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Madhu; Messinger, Shari; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goldberg, Judith D; Lindsell, Christopher J; Morton, Sally C; Pollock, Brad H; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Welty, Leah J; Parker, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Criteria for evaluating faculty are traditionally based on a triad of scholarship, teaching, and service. Research scholarship is often measured by first or senior authorship on peer-reviewed scientific publications and being principal investigator on extramural grants. Yet scientific innovation increasingly requires collective rather than individual creativity, which traditional measures of achievement were not designed to capture and, thus, devalue. The authors propose a simple, flexible framework for evaluating team scientists that includes both quantitative and qualitative assessments. An approach for documenting contributions of team scientists in team-based scholarship, nontraditional education, and specialized service activities is also outlined. Although biostatisticians are used for illustration, the approach is generalizable to team scientists in other disciplines.The authors offer three key recommendations to members of institutional promotion committees, department chairs, and others evaluating team scientists. First, contributions to team-based scholarship and specialized contributions to education and service need to be assessed and given appropriate and substantial weight. Second, evaluations must be founded on well-articulated criteria for assessing the stature and accomplishments of team scientists. Finally, mechanisms for collecting evaluative data must be developed and implemented at the institutional level. Without these three essentials, contributions of team scientists will continue to be undervalued in the academic environment. PMID:25993282

  4. Evaluating Academic Scientists Collaborating in Team-Based Research: A Proposed Framework.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Madhu; Messinger, Shari; Finkelstein, Dianne M; Goldberg, Judith D; Lindsell, Christopher J; Morton, Sally C; Pollock, Brad H; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Welty, Leah J; Parker, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Criteria for evaluating faculty are traditionally based on a triad of scholarship, teaching, and service. Research scholarship is often measured by first or senior authorship on peer-reviewed scientific publications and being principal investigator on extramural grants. Yet scientific innovation increasingly requires collective rather than individual creativity, which traditional measures of achievement were not designed to capture and, thus, devalue. The authors propose a simple, flexible framework for evaluating team scientists that includes both quantitative and qualitative assessments. An approach for documenting contributions of team scientists in team-based scholarship, nontraditional education, and specialized service activities is also outlined. Although biostatisticians are used for illustration, the approach is generalizable to team scientists in other disciplines.The authors offer three key recommendations to members of institutional promotion committees, department chairs, and others evaluating team scientists. First, contributions to team-based scholarship and specialized contributions to education and service need to be assessed and given appropriate and substantial weight. Second, evaluations must be founded on well-articulated criteria for assessing the stature and accomplishments of team scientists. Finally, mechanisms for collecting evaluative data must be developed and implemented at the institutional level. Without these three essentials, contributions of team scientists will continue to be undervalued in the academic environment.

  5. [The correlation between subjective and objective voice evaluation in organic and functional larynx disorders].

    PubMed

    Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bozena; Pruszewicz, Antoni; Obrebowski, Andrzej; Swidziński, Piotr

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and introduce into phoniatric diagnostic procedures the complex methodology of vocal function assessment, on the basis of comparison of subjective and objective voice estimation. The set of complex voice evaluation ought to include perceptual examination of the voice quality with quantitative GRBAS scale as a subjective method, vocal folds vibrations in videostroboscopy as a quasi-objective method and acoustic voice estimation in Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) as an objective method. The basic assumption of this report is to prove correlation existence for vocal folds vibration quality in videostroboscopy, parameters describing acoustic wave generating by vibration system in larynx (MDVP) and perceptual subjective voice assessment (GRBAS scale) in organic and functional voice disorders. Research was conducted on 100 subjects (65 with organic and 35 with functional voice disorder), aged 7-74 years randomly chosen from population of patients treated at the Department of Phoniatrics and Audiology, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences in Poznań in 1996-2001 and 60 subjects as a control group without any voice disorders according to phoniatric examination. The research methodology include perceptual voice evaluation based on Japanese (Hirano) GRBAS scale adapted to Polish language, in scale 0 to 3 as well as the vibrations of vocal folds in videostroboscopy with attempt at quantification (scale 1 to 3) of selected measure and for acoustic analysis of Multi Dimensional Voice Program (MDVP) for 17 estimated parameters. Due to results and statistic analysis the own, new scale of dysphonia severity was introduced.

  6. Evaluation of activity images in dynamics speckle in search of objective estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño Montecinos, Marcos; Mora Canales, Victor; Cap, Nelly; Grumel, Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo; Baradit, Erik

    2015-08-01

    We explore the performance of two algorithms to screen loci of equal activity in dynamic speckle images. Dynamic speckle images are currently applied to several applications in medicine, biology, agriculture and other disciplines. Nevertheless, no objective standard has been proposed so far to evaluate the performance of the algorithms, which must be then relied on subjective appreciations. We use two case studies of activity that do not bear the biologic inherent variability to test the methods: "Generalized Differences" and "Fujii", looking for a standard to evaluate their performance in an objective way. As study cases, we use the drying of paint on an (assumed) unknown topography, namely the surface of a coin, and the activity due to pre heating a piece of paper that hides writings in the surface under the paper. A known object of simple topography is included in the image, besides of the painted coin, consisting in a paint pool where the depth is a linear function of its position. Both algorithms are applied to the images and the intensity profile of the results along the linear region of the pool activity is used to estimate the depth of the geometric topography hidden under paint in the coin. The accuracy of the result is used as a merit estimation of the corresponding algorithm. In the other experiment, a hidden dark bar printed on paper is covered with one or two paper leaves, slightly pre heated with a lamp and activity images registered and processed with both algorithms. The intensity profile of the activity images is used to estimate which method gives a better description of the bar edges images and their deterioration. Experimental results are shown.

  7. A conceptual framework for Lake Michigan coastal/nearshore ecosystems, with application to Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelbach, Paul W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Bunnell, David Bo; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) within the Great Lakes region are examples of broad-scale, collaborative resource-management efforts that require a sound ecosystems approach. Yet, the LaMP process is lacking a holistic framework that allows these individual actions to be planned and understood within the broader context of the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this paper we (1) introduce a conceptual framework that unifies ideas and language among Great Lakes managers and scientists, whose focus areas range from tributary watersheds to open-lake waters, and (2) illustrate how the framework can be used to outline the geomorphic, hydrologic biological, and societal processes that underlie several goals of the Lake Michigan LaMP, thus providing a holistic and fairly comprehensive roadmap for tackling these challenges. For each selected goal, we developed a matrix that identifies the key ecosystem processes within the cell for each lake zone and each discipline; we then provide one example where a process is poorly understood and a second where a process is understood, but its impact or importance is unclear. Implicit in these objectives was our intention to highlight the importance of the Great Lakes coastal/nearshore zone. Although the coastal/nearshore zone is the important linkage zone between the watershed and open-lake zones—and is the zone where most LaMP issues are focused--scientists and managers have a relatively poor understanding of how the coastal/nearshore zone functions. We envision follow-up steps including (1) collaborative development of a more detailed and more complete conceptual model of how (and where) identified processes are thought to function, and (2) a subsequent gap analysis of science and monitoring priorities.

  8. How Much Are Harry Potter's Glasses Worth? Children's Monetary Evaluation of Authentic Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Susan A.; Frazier, Brandy N.; Noles, Nicholaus S.; Manczak, Erika M.; Stilwell, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Adults attach special value to objects that link to notable people or events--authentic objects. We examined children's monetary evaluation of authentic objects, focusing on four kinds: celebrity possessions (e.g., Harry Potter's glasses), original creations (e.g., the very first teddy bear), personal possessions (e.g., your…

  9. A strategy to objectively evaluate the necessity of correcting detected target deviations in image guided radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2007-11-15

    Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup

  10. MAGE (M-file/Mif Automatic GEnerator): A graphical interface tool for automatic generation of Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework configuration files and Matlab scripts for results analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chęciński, Jakub; Frankowski, Marek

    2016-10-01

    We present a tool for fully-automated generation of both simulations configuration files (Mif) and Matlab scripts for automated data analysis, dedicated for Object Oriented Micromagnetic Framework (OOMMF). We introduce extended graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for fast, error-proof and easy creation of Mifs, without any programming skills usually required for manual Mif writing necessary. With MAGE we provide OOMMF extensions for complementing it by mangetoresistance and spin-transfer-torque calculations, as well as local magnetization data selection for output. Our software allows for creation of advanced simulations conditions like simultaneous parameters sweeps and synchronic excitation application. Furthermore, since output of such simulation could be long and complicated we provide another GUI allowing for automated creation of Matlab scripts suitable for analysis of such data with Fourier and wavelet transforms as well as user-defined operations.

  11. Evaluating Snow Data Assimilation Framework for Streamflow Forecasting Applications Using Hindcast Verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, M. G.; Hogue, T. S.; Franz, K. J.; He, M.

    2012-12-01

    Snow water equivalent (SWE) estimation is a key factor in producing reliable streamflow simulations and forecasts in snow dominated areas. However, measuring or predicting SWE has significant uncertainty. Sequential data assimilation, which updates states using both observed and modeled data based on error estimation, has been shown to reduce streamflow simulation errors but has had limited testing for forecasting applications. In the current study, a snow data assimilation framework integrated with the National Weather System River Forecasting System (NWSRFS) is evaluated for use in ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP). Seasonal water supply ESP hindcasts are generated for the North Fork of the American River Basin (NFARB) in northern California. Parameter sets from the California Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC), the Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm and the Multistep Automated Calibration Scheme (MACS) are tested both with and without sequential data assimilation. The traditional ESP method considers uncertainty in future climate conditions using historical temperature and precipitation time series to generate future streamflow scenarios conditioned on the current basin state. We include data uncertainty analysis in the forecasting framework through the DREAM-based parameter set which is part of a recently developed Integrated Uncertainty and Ensemble-based data Assimilation framework (ICEA). Extensive verification of all tested approaches is undertaken using traditional forecast verification measures, including root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE), volumetric bias, joint distribution, rank probability score (RPS), and discrimination and reliability plots. In comparison to the RFC parameters, the DREAM and MACS sets show significant improvement in volumetric bias in flow. Use of assimilation improves hindcasts of higher flows but does not significantly improve performance in the mid flow and

  12. Multi-attribute subjective evaluations of manual tracking tasks vs. objective performance of the human operator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siapkaras, A.

    1977-01-01

    A computational method to deal with the multidimensional nature of tracking and/or monitoring tasks is developed. Operator centered variables, including the operator's perception of the task, are considered. Matrix ratings are defined based on multidimensional scaling techniques and multivariate analysis. The method consists of two distinct steps: (1) to determine the mathematical space of subjective judgements of a certain individual (or group of evaluators) for a given set of tasks and experimental conditionings; and (2) to relate this space with respect to both the task variables and the objective performance criteria used. Results for a variety of second-order trackings with smoothed noise-driven inputs indicate that: (1) many of the internally perceived task variables form a nonorthogonal set; and (2) the structure of the subjective space varies among groups of individuals according to the degree of familiarity they have with such tasks.

  13. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.

  14. Simultaneous objective and subjective evaluation of meclofenamate sodium in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Powell, J R

    1987-09-01

    Eighteen patients participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, crossover study of meclofenamate sodium in women with primary dysmenorrhea. Simultaneous evaluations of pain intensity and pain relief, sampling of continuous intrauterine pressure recording, and monitoring of blood meclofenamate levels were carried out. Improvements in pain intensity and pain relief were observed at 45 minutes and reached statistical significance at and beyond 1 hour 45 minutes after meclofenamate therapy. Ten of 14 uterine pressure parameters showed statistically significant responses after drug therapy and 12 of the 14 parameters showed statistically significant differences in time-response patterns. Statistically significant changes were noted as early as 45 minutes after meclofenamate therapy. Statistically significant correlations were found between and among the parameters of blood drug level and the subjective and objective measures. No drug-related adverse effects were found.

  15. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  16. The fuld object-memory evaluation: development and validation of an alternate form.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Miele, Andrea S; Dunnam, Mina

    2013-01-01

    The Fuld Object-Memory Evaluation (FOME) uses multisensory (tactile, visual, and verbal) encoding of objects for assessing memory, with particular clinical and research application in older adults. This preliminary study reports the first known psychometric data on the development of an alternate form of the FOME. Data were drawn from 102 independent-living older adults participating in a larger clinical trial. Seventy participants completed three versions of the shortened administration of the FOME, and comparability of forms was established by significant, moderate intraclass correlation coefficients for immediate and delayed recall scores. Reliable change indexes indicate the new alternate form performs well, with minimal practice or learning effects. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity was documented using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, category fluency task, and North American Adult Reading Test. Normative data are provided stratified by age for participants completing at least one of three time points (n = 96). Results of this preliminary study provide evidence for the comparability and construct validity of a new alternate form of the FOME with prior forms. An additional well-validated form of the FOME has practical implications for serial testing often required in clinical practice and research design. PMID:23373678

  17. The social-devaluation effect: interactive evaluation deteriorates likeability of objects based on daily relationship

    PubMed Central

    Ariga, Atsunori

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has explored the effects of discussion on optimal and collective group outcomes, it is unclear how an individual’s preference for an object is modulated by discussion with others. This study investigated the determinants of likeability ratings under two conditions. In Experiment 1, pairs of participants consisting of friends evaluated various photographic images. Under the interactive condition, the participants discussed their impressions of each image for 30 s and then independently rated how much they liked it. Under the non-interactive condition, the participants did not interact with each other but instead only thought about their impressions of each image for 30 s before rating its likeability. The results indicate that the exchange of impressions between the participants affected the individual likeability ratings of objects. More specifically, the interactive participants generally rated the images as less likeable than did the non-interactive participants (social-devaluation effect). However, in Experiment 2, the effect was eliminated when the pairs consisted of strangers. These findings suggest that shared information modulates individual preferences but only when a daily relationship exists within a group. PMID:25620947

  18. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Georgia L.; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled. PMID:24157507

  19. A Framework to Evaluate Wildlife Feeding in Research, Wildlife Management, Tourism and Recreation.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Sara; Fraser, David

    2013-01-01

    Feeding of wildlife occurs in the context of research, wildlife management, tourism and in opportunistic ways. A review of examples shows that although feeding is often motivated by good intentions, it can lead to problems of public safety and conservation and be detrimental to the welfare of the animals. Examples from British Columbia illustrate the problems (nuisance animal activity, public safety risk) and consequences (culling, translocation) that often arise from uncontrolled feeding. Three features of wildlife feeding can be distinguished: the feasibility of control, the effects on conservation and the effects on animal welfare. An evaluative framework incorporating these three features was applied to examples of feeding from the literature. The cases of feeding for research and management purposes were generally found to be acceptable, while cases of feeding for tourism or opportunistic feeding were generally unacceptable. The framework should allow managers and policy-makers to distinguish acceptable from unacceptable forms of wildlife feeding as a basis for policy, public education and enforcement. Many harmful forms of wildlife feeding seem unlikely to change until they come to be seen as socially unacceptable.

  20. Evaluation of the 29-km Eta Model. Part 1; Objective Verification at Three Selected Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutter, Paul A.; Manobianco, John; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an objective verification of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 29-km eta model from May 1996 through January 1998. The evaluation was designed to assess the model's surface and upper-air point forecast accuracy at three selected locations during separate warm (May - August) and cool (October - January) season periods. In order to enhance sample sizes available for statistical calculations, the objective verification includes two consecutive warm and cool season periods. Systematic model deficiencies comprise the larger portion of the total error in most of the surface forecast variables that were evaluated. The error characteristics for both surface and upper-air forecasts vary widely by parameter, season, and station location. At upper levels, a few characteristic biases are identified. Overall however, the upper-level errors are more nonsystematic in nature and could be explained partly by observational measurement uncertainty. With a few exceptions, the upper-air results also indicate that 24-h model error growth is not statistically significant. In February and August 1997, NCEP implemented upgrades to the eta model's physical parameterizations that were designed to change some of the model's error characteristics near the surface. The results shown in this paper indicate that these upgrades led to identifiable and statistically significant changes in forecast accuracy for selected surface parameters. While some of the changes were expected, others were not consistent with the intent of the model updates and further emphasize the need for ongoing sensitivity studies and localized statistical verification efforts. Objective verification of point forecasts is a stringent measure of model performance, but when used alone, is not enough to quantify the overall value that model guidance may add to the forecast process. Therefore, results from a subjective verification of the meso-eta model over the Florida peninsula are

  1. A framework for the analysis and evaluation of optical imaging systems with arbitrary response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhipeng

    The scientific applications and engineering aspects of multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems have been studied extensively. The traditional geometric spectral imaging system model is specifically developed aiming at spectral sensors with spectrally non-overlapping bands. Spectral imaging systems with overlapping bands also exist. For example, the quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) for midwave- and longwave-infrared (IR) imaging systems exhibit highly overlapping spectral responses tunable through the bias voltages applied. This makes it possible to build spectrally tunable imaging system in IR range based on single QDIP. Furthermore, the QDIP based system can be operated as being adaptive to scenes. Other optical imaging systems like the human eye and some polarimetric sensing systems also have overlapping bands. To analyze such sensors, a functional analysis-based framework is provided in this dissertation. The framework starts from the mathematical description of the interaction between sensor and the radiation from scene reaching it. A geometric model of the spectral imaging process is provided based on the framework. The spectral response functions and the scene spectra are considered as vectors inside an 1-dimensional spectral space. The spectral imaging process is abstracted to represent a projection of scene spectrum onto sensor. The projected spectrum, which is the least-square error reconstruction of the scene vectors, contains the useful information for image processing. Spectral sensors with arbitrary spectral response functions are can be analyzed with this model. The framework leads directly to an image pre-processing algorithm to remove the data correlation between bands. Further discussion shows that this model can also serve the purpose of sensor evaluation, and thus facilitates comparison between different sensors. The spectral shapes and the Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNR) of different bands are seen to influence the sensor

  2. Evaluation of Genetic Algorithm Concepts Using Model Problems. Part 2; Multi-Objective Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    A genetic algorithm approach suitable for solving multi-objective optimization problems is described and evaluated using a series of simple model problems. Several new features including a binning selection algorithm and a gene-space transformation procedure are included. The genetic algorithm is suitable for finding pareto optimal solutions in search spaces that are defined by any number of genes and that contain any number of local extrema. Results indicate that the genetic algorithm optimization approach is flexible in application and extremely reliable, providing optimal results for all optimization problems attempted. The binning algorithm generally provides pareto front quality enhancements and moderate convergence efficiency improvements for most of the model problems. The gene-space transformation procedure provides a large convergence efficiency enhancement for problems with non-convoluted pareto fronts and a degradation in efficiency for problems with convoluted pareto fronts. The most difficult problems --multi-mode search spaces with a large number of genes and convoluted pareto fronts-- require a large number of function evaluations for GA convergence, but always converge.

  3. Evaluation of the objective posturo-locomotor-manual method in patients with parkinsonian syndromes.

    PubMed

    Zackrisson, Theresa; Bergquist, Filip; Holmberg, Björn; Johnels, Bo; Thorlin, Thorleif

    2013-01-01

    Objective methods for quantifying patients' movement capacity would be useful in evaluating progression and interventions in neurodegenerative diseases. The Posturo-Locomotor-Manual (PLM) test is a standardized automated movement test developed to measure hypokinetic movements in patients with Parkinsonism. Our hypotheses were that the PLM movement time (MT) correlates with the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS III) motor section, and that the components of the PLM test correlate with the corresponding constructed domains of UPDRS III. We also evaluated the coherence between the results of the two assessment methods after a test dose of levodopa (l-DOPA). We assessed motor function using the PLM method and UPDRS III in parallel, in the absence of medication and after administration of 200 mg l-DOPA, in 73 patients with moderate to advanced Parkinsonism: 47 with Parkinson's disease (PD), 17 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), and 9 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). There was a fair correlation between the two assessment tools in the PD patients but not in the MSA or PSP patients. In the full dataset, there was a fair to good correlation between UPDRS III and the PLM MT. At group level, the UPDRS III l-DOPA test differentiated PD from MSA/PSP, whereas the PLM l-DOPA test differentiated between all three diagnoses.

  4. Angiogenesis in tissue-engineered nerves evaluated objectively using MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-kui; Wang, Ya-xian; Xue, Cheng-bin; Li, Zhen-mei-yu; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Ya-hong; Yang, Yu-min; Gu, Xiao-song

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in regenerative medicine generally, as well as in the specific field of nerve regeneration. However, no convenient and objective method for evaluating the angiogenesis of tissue-engineered nerves has been reported. In this study, tissue-engineered nerves were constructed in vitro using Schwann cells differentiated from rat skin-derived precursors as supporting cells and chitosan nerve conduits combined with silk fibroin fibers as scaffolds to bridge 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats. Four weeks after surgery, three-dimensional blood vessel reconstructions were made through MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning, and parameter analysis of the tissue-engineered nerves was performed. New blood vessels grew into the tissue-engineered nerves from three main directions: the proximal end, the distal end, and the middle. The parameter analysis of the three-dimensional blood vessel images yielded several parameters, including the number, diameter, connection, and spatial distribution of blood vessels. The new blood vessels were mainly capillaries and microvessels, with diameters ranging from 9 to 301 μm. The blood vessels with diameters from 27 to 155 μm accounted for 82.84% of the new vessels. The microvessels in the tissue-engineered nerves implanted in vivo were relatively well-identified using the MICROFIL perfusion and micro-CT scanning method, which allows the evaluation and comparison of differences and changes of angiogenesis in tissue-engineered nerves implanted in vivo. PMID:26981108

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Processing Time for the Synchronization of XML-Based Business Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameling, Michael; Wolf, Bernhard; Springer, Thomas; Schill, Alexander

    Business objects (BOs) are data containers for complex data structures used in business applications such as Supply Chain Management and Customer Relationship Management. Due to the replication of application logic, multiple copies of BOs are created which have to be synchronized and updated. This is a complex and time consuming task because BOs rigorously vary in their structure according to the distribution, number and size of elements. Since BOs are internally represented as XML documents, the parsing of XML is one major cost factor which has to be considered for minimizing the processing time during synchronization. The prediction of the parsing time for BOs is an significant property for the selection of an efficient synchronization mechanism. In this paper, we present a method to evaluate the influence of the structure of BOs on their parsing time. The results of our experimental evaluation incorporating four different XML parsers examine the dependencies between the distribution of elements and the parsing time. Finally, a general cost model will be validated and simplified according to the results of the experimental setup.

  6. A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.

    PubMed

    Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial. PMID:25121810

  7. An Evaluation of the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a Framework for NASA Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Michael R.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Architecture (HLA) is a current US Department of Defense and an industry (IEEE-1516) standard architecture for modeling and simulations. It provides a framework and set of functional rules and common interfaces for integrating separate and disparate simulators into a larger simulation. The goal of the HLA is to reduce software costs by facilitating the reuse of simulation components and by providing a runtime infrastructure to manage the simulations. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HLA as a technology for NASA space mission simulations, a Simulations Group at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) conducted a study of the HLA and developed a simple prototype HLA-compliant space mission simulator. This paper summarizes the prototyping effort and discusses the potential usefulness of the HLA in the design and planning of future NASA space missions with a focus on risk mitigation and cost reduction.

  8. A Framework for Evaluating the Impact of Obesity Prevention Strategies on Socioeconomic Inequalities in Weight

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-01-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento–structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento–structural type interventions, remains crucial. PMID:25121810

  9. Design framework for a simple robotic ankle evaluation and rehabilitation device.

    PubMed

    Syrseloudis, Christos E; Emiris, Ioannis Z; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Lilas, Theodoros E

    2008-01-01

    This paper juxtaposes simple yet sufficiently general robotic mechanisms for ankle function evaluation, measurement and physiotherapy. For the choice, design and operation of the mechanism, a kinematics model of foot is adopted from biomechanics, based on the hypothesis that foot kinematics are similar to a 2R serial robot. We undertake experiments, using a 3D scanner and an inertial sensor in order to fully specify the design framework by studying a larger sample of healthy subjects. Our experimental analysis confirms and enhances the 2R foot model, and leads us to the choice of the specific mechanism. We compute the required workspace and thus address the issues required for a complete and efficient design. The robot must be capable to perform several multi-axis motions and sustain a significant range of forces and torques. We compare mechanisms based on serial and parallel robots, and choose a parallel tripod with an extra rotation axis for its simplicity, accuracy and generality.

  10. A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.

    PubMed

    Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

    2014-10-01

    We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial.

  11. Promoting ethical and objective practice in the medicolegal arena of disability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Martelli, M F; Zasler, N D; Johnson-Greene, D

    2001-08-01

    As providers of medical information and testimony, clinicians have ultimate responsibility for ethical conduct as it relates to this information. The authors offer the following recommendations for enhancing ethical relationships between expert clinicians and the courts. 1. Avoid or resist attorney efforts at enticement into joining the attorney-client team. Such compromises of scientific boundaries and ethical principles exist on a continuum ranging from standard attorney-client advocacy at the beginning of the expert consultation phase (e.g., promotional information at the forefront of retaining an expert, with either provision of selective or incomplete records or less than enthusiastic efforts to produce all records) and extending to completion of evaluation, when requests for changes in reports and documentation might be made. 2. Respect role boundaries and do not mix conflicting roles. Remember that the treating doctor possesses a bond with the patient but does not as a rule obtain complete preinjury and postinjury information in the context of assessing causality and apportionment. In contrast, the expert witness must conduct a thorough and multifaceted case analysis sans the physician-patient relationship in order to facilitate objectivity and allow optimum diagnostic formulations. Finally, the trial consultant's function in this adversarial process is to assist with critically scrutinizing and attacking positions of experts for the opposing side. These roles all represent inherently different interests, and mixing them can only reduce objectivity. 3. Insist on adequate time for thorough record review, evaluation, and report generation. Also insist on sufficient time and preparation for deposition and court appearances. 4. Work at building a reputation for general objectivity, reliance on multiple data sources, reaching opinions only after reviewing complete information from both sides, and completing the evaluation. 5. Spend a good amount of time actually

  12. Ober: A Program for Objective Based Evaluation in Reading at the Newport-Mesa Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Robert C.

    OBER is the acronym coined by the Newport-Mesa Unified School District to describe its utilization of the System for Objective Based Evaluation-Reading (SOBE-R) developed by the Center for the Study of Evaluation at UCLA. OBER consists of three major components that are designed to facilitate the development and evaluation of the reading programs…

  13. A spatial assessment framework for evaluating flood risk under extreme climates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Liu, Rui; Barrett, Damian; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Mingwei; Renzullo, Luigi; Emelyanova, Irina

    2015-12-15

    Australian coal mines have been facing a major challenge of increasing risk of flooding caused by intensive rainfall events in recent years. In light of growing climate change concerns and the predicted escalation of flooding, estimating flood inundation risk becomes essential for understanding sustainable mine water management in the Australian mining sector. This research develops a spatial multi-criteria decision making prototype for the evaluation of flooding risk at a regional scale using the Bowen Basin and its surroundings in Queensland as a case study. Spatial gridded data, including climate, hydrology, topography, vegetation and soils, were collected and processed in ArcGIS. Several indices were derived based on time series of observations and spatial modeling taking account of extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, stream flow, potential soil water retention, elevation and slope generated from a digital elevation model (DEM), as well as drainage density and proximity extracted from a river network. These spatial indices were weighted using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and integrated in an AHP-based suitability assessment (AHP-SA) model under the spatial risk evaluation framework. A regional flooding risk map was delineated to represent likely impacts of criterion indices at different risk levels, which was verified using the maximum inundation extent detectable by a time series of remote sensing imagery. The result provides baseline information to help Bowen Basin coal mines identify and assess flooding risk when making adaptation strategies and implementing mitigation measures in future. The framework and methodology developed in this research offers the Australian mining industry, and social and environmental studies around the world, an effective way to produce reliable assessment on flood risk for managing uncertainty in water availability under climate change.

  14. A spatial assessment framework for evaluating flood risk under extreme climates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Liu, Rui; Barrett, Damian; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Mingwei; Renzullo, Luigi; Emelyanova, Irina

    2015-12-15

    Australian coal mines have been facing a major challenge of increasing risk of flooding caused by intensive rainfall events in recent years. In light of growing climate change concerns and the predicted escalation of flooding, estimating flood inundation risk becomes essential for understanding sustainable mine water management in the Australian mining sector. This research develops a spatial multi-criteria decision making prototype for the evaluation of flooding risk at a regional scale using the Bowen Basin and its surroundings in Queensland as a case study. Spatial gridded data, including climate, hydrology, topography, vegetation and soils, were collected and processed in ArcGIS. Several indices were derived based on time series of observations and spatial modeling taking account of extreme rainfall, evapotranspiration, stream flow, potential soil water retention, elevation and slope generated from a digital elevation model (DEM), as well as drainage density and proximity extracted from a river network. These spatial indices were weighted using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and integrated in an AHP-based suitability assessment (AHP-SA) model under the spatial risk evaluation framework. A regional flooding risk map was delineated to represent likely impacts of criterion indices at different risk levels, which was verified using the maximum inundation extent detectable by a time series of remote sensing imagery. The result provides baseline information to help Bowen Basin coal mines identify and assess flooding risk when making adaptation strategies and implementing mitigation measures in future. The framework and methodology developed in this research offers the Australian mining industry, and social and environmental studies around the world, an effective way to produce reliable assessment on flood risk for managing uncertainty in water availability under climate change. PMID:26318687

  15. Evaluation of a subject-specific musculoskeletal modelling framework for load prediction in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenxian; Zhang, Zhifeng; Wang, Ling; Li, Dichen; Zhang, Yuanzhi; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-08-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) multibody dynamics (MBD) models have been used to predict in vivo biomechanics in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, a full lower limb MSK MBD modelling approach for TKA that combines subject-specific skeletal and prosthetic knee geometry has not yet been applied and evaluated over a range of patients. This study evaluated a subject-specific MSK MBD modelling framework for TKA using force-dependent kinematics (FDK) and applied it to predict knee contact forces during gait trials for three patients implanted with instrumented prosthetic knees. The prediction accuracy was quantified in terms of the mean absolute deviation (MAD), root mean square error (RMSE), Pearson correlation coefficient (ρ), and Sprague and Geers metrics of magnitude (M), phase (P) and combined error (C). Generally good agreements were found between the predictions and the experimental measurements from all patients for the medial contact forces (150 N < MAD <178 N, 174 N < RMSE < 224 N, 0.87 < ρ < 0.95, -0.04 < M < 0.20, 0.06 < P < 0.09, 0.08 < C < 0.22) and the lateral contact force (113 N < MAD <195 N, 131 N < RMSE < 240 N, 0.41 < ρ < 0.82, -0.25 < M < 0.34, 0.08 < P < 0.22, 0.13 < C < 0.36). The results suggest that the subject-specific MSK MBD modelling framework for TKA using FDK has potential as a powerful tool for investigating the functional outcomes of knee implants.

  16. Evaluating Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling Framework at Different fv-GCM Grid Spacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, J.; Matsui, T.; Shen, B.; Tao, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) is based on the coupling of the two-dimensional Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model and the finite-volume GCM (fv-GCM). Thus MMF enables explicit resolution of stochastic moist convection process by embedded GCE simulations, unlike traditional GCMs that rely on convection parameterization. At each fv-GCM column, the fv-GCM provides mean atmospheric conditions and large-scale temperature and moisture advection to drive the 2D GCE models, which feedback the tendencies of thermodynamic parameter and cloud statistics to the fv-GCM. Earlier investigations show that the Goddard MMF simulates better cloudiness (high and low), single ITCZ and a more realistic diurnal variation of rainfall than traditional GCMs. Another advantages of using the Goddard MMF is that the resolution of GCE-simulated clouds is compatible to satellite observations, while traditional GCM requires disaggregation of grid-volume feature to compare with high-resolution satellite observations. Thus, satellite instrumental simulator can be directly applied to translate MMF simulations into the satellite instrumental signals in straightforward way. In this year, we examine the sensitivity of the Goddard MMF simulation at different fv-GCM grid spacing, and evaluated performances against the TRMM satellite. Previously, fv-GCM was run at 2x2.5 degree horizontal lat-lon grid spacing, and we are currently running fv-GCM at 1x1.25 degree. We examine the performance of the Goddard MMF at different fv-GCM grid spacing with respect to rainfall frequency, rain structure, and microphysics using multi-sensor radiance-based evaluation method, known as the TRMM Triple-Sensor Three-step Evaluation Framework (T3EF). T3EF utilizes multi-sensor satellite simulators, Goddard Satellite Data Simulation Unit, and novel statistics of multi-sensor radiance and backscattering signals observed from the TRMM satellite. Specifically, T3EF compares GCE and satellite observations in

  17. They're Happy, But Did They Make a Difference? Applying Kirkpatrick's Framework to the Evaluation of a National Leadership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Scott; Moss, Gwenna

    2003-01-01

    Examined the Kirkpatrick evaluation framework (D. Kirkpatrick, 1959) through a case study of a national leadership development program, the Canadian Agriculture Lifetime Leadership Program. Draws conclusions about using the Kirkpatrick framework to evaluate noncredit educational programs, and shows how the framework enabled productive formative…

  18. Development and evaluation of an active instructional framework for undergraduate biology education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysne, Steven John

    my student interviews suggested, I found that engaging students by way of innovative instructional approaches is a major theme in science education. I conclude by arguing for the development of collaborative learning communities and the use of cognitive apprenticeships in science classrooms. In Chapter 4 I presented the development and initial evaluation of an instructional framework for undergraduate biology classrooms. I found that student satisfaction as measured by end-of-course iv evaluations increased compared to my previous instructional model. I concluded that the instructional framework was efficacious and proceeded to evaluate the model in the context of knowledge acquisition and retention. Chapter 5 is the culmination of the work I conducted for the research presented in Chapters 2 through 4. In Chapter 5 I formally test the hypotheses that my instructional framework presented in Chapter 4 results in no greater knowledge acquisition or retention compared to a more traditional lecture model of instruction. I failed to reject these hypotheses which runs contrary to much published literature; the implications of my findings are discussed.

  19. Objective and Subjective Evaluation of Reflecting and Diffusing Surfaces in Auditoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Trevor John

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The performance of reflectors and diffusers used in auditoria have been evaluated both objectively and subjectively. Two accurate systems have been developed to measure the scattering from surfaces via the cross correlation function. These have been used to measure the scattering from plane panels, curved panels and quadratic residue diffusers (QRDs). The scattering measurements have been used to test theoretical prediction methods based on the Helmholtz-Kirchhoff integral equation. Accurate prediction methods were found for all surfaces tested. The limitations of the more approximate methods have been defined. The assumptions behind Schroeder's design of the QRD have been tested and the local reacting admittance assumption found to be valid over a wide frequency range. It was found that the QRD only produces uniform scattering at low frequencies. For an on-axis source the scattering from a curved panel was as good as from a QRD. For an oblique source the QRD produced much more uniform scattering than the curved panel. The subjective measurements evaluated the smallest perceivable change in the early sound field, the part most influenced by reflectors and diffusers. A natural sounding simulation of a concert hall field within an anechoic chamber was used. Standard objective parameters were reasonable values when compared to values found in real halls and subjective preference measurements. A difference limen was measured for early lateral energy fraction (.048 +/-.005); inter aural cross correlation (.075 +/-.008); clarity index (.67 +/-.13 dB); and centre time (8.6 +/- 1.6 ms). It was found that: (i) when changes are made to diffusers and reflectors, changes in spatial impression will usually be larger than those in clarity; and (ii) acousticians can gain most by paying attention to lateral sound in auditoria. It was also found that: (i) diffuse reflections in the early sound field

  20. Evaluation of Capacity-Building Program of District Health Managers in India: A Contextualized Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, N. S.; Marchal, Bruno; Kegels, Guy; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Performance of local health services managers at district level is crucial to ensure that health services are of good quality and cater to the health needs of the population in the area. In many low- and middle-income countries, health services managers are poorly equipped with public health management capacities needed for planning and managing their local health system. In the south Indian Tumkur district, a consortium of five non-governmental organizations partnered with the state government to organize a capacity-building program for health managers. The program consisted of a mix of periodic contact classes, mentoring and assignments and was spread over 30 months. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework in the form of a refined program theory to understand how such a capacity-building program could bring about organizational change. A well-formulated program theory enables an understanding of how interventions could bring about improvements and an evaluation of the intervention. In the refined program theory of the intervention, we identified various factors at individual, institutional, and environmental levels that could interact with the hypothesized mechanisms of organizational change, such as staff’s perceived self-efficacy and commitment to their organizations. Based on this program theory, we formulated context–mechanism–outcome configurations that can be used to evaluate the intervention and, more specifically, to understand what worked, for whom and under what conditions. We discuss the application of program theory development in conducting a realist evaluation. Realist evaluation embraces principles of systems thinking by providing a method for understanding how elements of the system interact with one another in producing a given outcome. PMID:25121081