Evans, William D.
A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.
This article first explores the theoretical bases for why dramatic forms of instruction stimulate student learning and recall. Next, the article considers a practice that systematically applies drama, fun, and fantasy to embed selected content objectives into students' memory. This practical tool, which facilitates instructional reform in the…
Gee, Thomas C.; Rakow, Steven J.
Presents results of a survey of 37 university-level content reading specialists in which the specialists listed teaching practices that content teachers could incorporate into their teaching to help students learn from texts. Recommends: (1) using multiple texts; (2) using study guides; (3) teaching metacognitive strategies; and (4) direct…
Boberić-Krstićev, Danijela; Tešendić, Danijela
The paper elaborates on experiences and lessons learned from the course on object-oriented analyses and design at the Faculty of Sciences, Novi Sad. In the paper we identify a set of issues concerning teaching modeling and UML. It is described experience of teaching UML to students with and without previous knowledge of object-oriented programming.
Cavus, Nadire; Ibrahim, Dogan
The idea of using "Learning Objects" in teaching has become very popular in the last few years. Although the concept of using objects in teaching is not new, the power of the computer technology and the Internet gives educators large opportunities and endless combination of possibilities in applying new theories to web-based education.…
Ward, Phillip; Lehwald, Harry; Lee, Yun Soo
Developing content knowledge in teachers presents a constant challenge for teacher educators. This article introduces a teaching and assessment tool called a "content map," which allows teacher educators, teachers, and coaches to conceptualize the scope, sequence, and relational characteristics of the content being taught. Content maps…
Ortiz-Jaramillo, Benhur; Niño-Castañeda, Jorge; Platiša, Ljiljana; Philips, Wilfried
Since the end-user of video-based systems is often a human observer, prediction of user-perceived video quality (PVQ) is an important task for increasing the user satisfaction. Despite the large variety of objective video quality measures (VQMs), their lack of generalizability remains a problem. This is mainly due to the strong dependency between PVQ and video content. Although this problem is well known, few existing VQMs directly account for the influence of video content on PVQ. Recently, we proposed a method to predict PVQ by introducing relevant video content features in the computation of video distortion measures. The method is based on analyzing the level of spatiotemporal activity in the video and using those as parameters of the anthropomorphic video distortion models. We focus on the experimental evaluation of the proposed methodology based on a total of five public databases, four different objective VQMs, and 105 content related indexes. Additionally, relying on the proposed method, we introduce an approach for selecting the levels of video distortions for the purpose of subjective quality assessment studies. Our results suggest that when adequately combined with content related indexes, even very simple distortion measures (e.g., peak signal to noise ratio) are able to achieve high performance, i.e., high correlation between the VQM and the PVQ. In particular, we have found that by incorporating video content features, it is possible to increase the performance of the VQM by up to 20% relative to its noncontent-aware baseline.
Messinger, Adam M.
Content analysis is a valuable research tool for social scientists that unfortunately can prove challenging to teach to undergraduate students. Published classroom exercises designed to teach content analysis have thus far been predominantly envisioned as lengthy projects for upper-level courses. A brief and engaging exercise may be more…
Holmes, Betty C.; Ammon, Richard I.
Provides rationale for using trade books rather than textbooks for instruction in content areas. Describes a specific teaching strategy, which includes readiness, reading, and responses for encouraging the development of thinking skills and independent learning. (DST)
Teaching content through a foreign language presents students with the double challenge of having to understand new concepts and of doing so through a foreign language. To be successful in meeting this challenge teachers have to adapt their teaching style and the tasks they work on with their students. Often, however, they do not know how to do…
van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.
Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…
Feller, Thomas R., Jr.; Gibbs-Griffith, Brian; D'Acquisto, Linda; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia; Croley, Cynthia B.
Policymakers sometimes view arts education and experiential learning as distractions from the goal of enabling all students to master rigorous content standards. The three school programs described in this article, however, demonstrate that content standards can be integrated into engaging, motivating curriculums based on the arts and authentic…
Frank, Gloria; And Others
This booklet consists of a list of instructional objectives and a content outline for the beginning and intermediate levels of the Montgomery County (Maryland) public ESL program. The publication was prepared to identify performance objectives and to provide guidelines for teachers and administrators, both for teaching and for forming realistic…
Stehle, Sebastian; Spinath, Birgit
In this study the relationship between intended course objectives and teaching effectiveness was investigated. Teaching effectiveness was indexed through student evaluations of teaching (SETs) and lecturer self-evaluations (LSEs), with a focus on course evaluation. Rated learning of intended course objectives was derived by two parallel…
When it comes to content area material, much of what students read and learn is predicated on information they have read before and are supposed to remember. Teachers often use silent reading and round robin reading as preferred reading methods to help students learn content area material. The objective of this study was to test reader's theater…
Crow, Karen, Comp.; Martin, Joan, Ed.
Consumer education course objectives, content analysis, supporting objectives, and content generalizations are presented in this teacher's guide for Consumer Education 1 and 2 for the San Diego Unified School District. Course objectives are aimed at several areas of consumer and family studies: consumer education, cultural awareness, human…
Balatsoukas, Panos; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann
The structure and composite nature of a learning object is still open to interpretation. Although several theoretical studies advocate integrated approaches to the structure and aggregation level of learning objects, in practice, many content specifications, such as SCORM, IMS Content Packaging, and course authoring tools, do not explicitly state…
Thanheiser, Eva; Browning, Christine A.; Moss, Meg; Watanabe, Tad; Garza-Kling, Gina
In this paper the authors present three design principles they use to develop preservice teachers' mathematical content knowledge for teaching in their mathematics content and/or methods courses: (1) building on currently held conceptions, (2) modeling teaching for understanding, (3) focusing on connections between content knowledge and other…
Schwartz, John Pedro
The author calls for incorporating into English classes what he calls museum-based pedagogy, arguing that it enables the teaching of multiple literacies: verbal, visual, technological, social, and critical. In part, this pedagogy consists of classroom instruction that enables students to understand the persuasive nature of museum displays--the…
Feldman, Yishai A.
Computer science students need to learn how to write high-quality software. An important methodology for achieving quality is design-by-contract, in which code is developed together with its specification, which is given as class invariants and method pre- and postconditions. This paper describes practical experience in teaching design-by-contract…
Bruce, Susan M.; Vargas, Claudia
"Object permanence," also known as "object concept" in the field of visual impairment, is one of the most important early developmental milestones. The achievement of object permanence is associated with the onset of representational thought and language. Object permanence is important to orientation, including the recognition of landmarks.…
This paper is about one of the central dilemmas of e-Learning: can we separate content and context, and how should we manage the relationship between the two? Or to put it another way, are Learning Objects just commoditised learning? With the growth of e-Learning over the past few years, learning objects have come into their own. They are the…
Shing, Chien Lee; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.; Loke, Siow Heng
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) was first introduced by Shulman in the 80s. It is defined as the integration or amalgamation of pedagogy and content which basically covers the "what" and "how" of teaching. PCK was considered as the missing paradigm in the study of teaching. This integration of knowledge was long searched by…
Bingman, Richard M., Ed.
Five perspectives are identified for viewing inquiry: "Guiding Principles: (for example the antecedent-consequent principle), Inquiry Factors or logical steps in inquiry, Behavioral Objectives, Affective or Attitudinal Qualities, and Inquiry into Inquiry. Many components of these perspectives are enumerated, together with related student…
Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Devedzic, Vladan
The paper proposes a framework for building ontology-aware learning object (LO) content. Previously ontologies were exclusively employed for enriching LOs' metadata. Although such an approach is useful, as it improves retrieval of relevant LOs from LO repositories, it does not enable one to reuse components of a LO, nor to incorporate an explicit…
The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…
Adeyanju, Thomas K.
Long-term objectives for teaching literature to the student of English as a second language include developing an appreciation for literature and forming a civilized character through the modification and enlargement of values. Short-term objectives are to provide vicarious literary experiences and to reinforce language learning. (SW)
Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud
This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…
Gillis, M. K.; Olson, Mary W.
The study reported in this paper examined the effects of teaching learning strategies integrated with courses content on the study habits, attitudes, and mastery of course content of 122 students. Students enrolled in the experimental section of a freshman level course were taught learning strategies and course content; students in another section…
In this article, the author describes her multimodal teaching practices in her "Adolescent Literacy Methods" course at a graduate university in the United States. By doing so, she highlights content teacher's understanding and use of various multimodal texts to effectively teach adolescents inside the classroom. In lieu of this, she raises…
Doran, Desmond; Hill, Alex; Brown, Steve; Aktas, Emel; Kuula, Markku
This paper explores the relevance to industry's needs of operations management (OM) teaching in higher education, by researching the content of OM modules delivered by UK academics and comparing the results of this research with the views of business practitioners having had first-hand experience of OM teaching on MBA programmes. To determine…
Lyster, Roy; Ballinger, Susan
This article serves as the introduction to this special issue of "Language Teaching Research" on content-based language teaching (CBLT). The article first provides an illustrative overview of the myriad contexts in which CBLT has been implemented and then homes in on the five studies comprising the special issue, each conducted in a…
Cinquetti, Heloisa Chalmers Sisla; de Carvalho, Luiz Marcelo
This paper investigates aspects of content knowledge related to teaching and learning about solid waste, focusing on the processes of learning and teaching by Elementary School teachers in Brazil, in two modalities of continuing education: courses and school-based meetings. We analyse elements of teachers' reflections whilst referring to three…
Attwood, Polly F.
In this article the author examines the experiences of eight teacher educators within a collaborative teaching community as they learned to meet the unique challenges of teaching antiracist content. Such spaces can be powerful places of mentoring and retreat that sustain the legacy of critical multicultural education, yet they remain…
Wang, Shiqi; Gu, Ke; Zeng, Kai; Wang, Zhou; Lin, Weisi
Screen content image (SCI) has recently emerged as an active topic due to the rapidly increasing demand in many graphically rich services such as wireless displays and virtual desktops. Image quality models play an important role in measuring and optimizing user experience of SCI compression and transmission systems, but are currently lacking. SCIs are often composed of pictorial regions and computer generated textual/graphical content, which exhibit different statistical properties that often lead to different viewer behaviors. Inspired by this, we propose an objective quality assessment approach for SCIs that incorporates both visual field adaptation and information content weighting into structural similarity based local quality assessment. Furthermore, we develop a perceptual screen content coding scheme based on the newly proposed quality assessment measure, targeting at further improving the SCI compression performance. Experimental results show that the proposed quality assessment method not only better predicts the perceptual quality of SCIs, but also demonstrates great potentials in the design of perceptually optimal SCI compression schemes.
A considerable amount of experiences in teaching object-oriented concepts using the Java language have been reported to date, some of which describe language pitfalls and concrete learning difficulties. In this paper, a number of additional issues that have been experienced as difficult for students to master, along with approaches intended to…
Dealing with contentious issues is a part of living in a democracy. Controversies in the classroom range from discussions of fairness regarding playground rules to the rules of "just war." Understanding that there are multiple and often competing viewpoints is a prerequisite to being an informed and effective citizen. Teaching students to define…
Wiener, Judith; Costaris, Laurie
The purpose of this article is to discuss the process of teaching graduate students in school psychology to write psychological reports that teachers and parents find readable and that guide intervention. The consensus from studies across four decades of research is that effective psychological reports connect to the client's context; have clear…
Jacobs, Victoria R.; Goldberg, Merryl R.; Bennett, Tom R.
Arts in elementary schools have often been separated from the core curriculum and offered as enrichment activities that are considered beneficial but not essential. This paper highlights how teaching science through the arts can help students more deeply understand core scientific concepts. Specific examples in the paper depict lessons of…
This review examines current research on teaching English Language Learners (ELLs) in four content area subjects: History, math, English, and science. The following topics are examined in each content area: The linguistic, cognitive, and sociocultural features of academic literacy and how this literacy can be taught; general investigations of…
The paradigm has changed from the static transmitted contents to knowledge that is ever renewable and often construed jointly with other learners (Niemi, 2008, p. 12) in a changing multicultural environment. Aim of the research is to analyze efficiency of the process of teaching and learning content applied to enhance students' knowledge in…
Goodhew, Lisa M.; Robertson, Amy D.
In this paper, we begin to explore the role of content knowledge in responsive teaching (RT), using "in situ" data to draw out and speak to a latent disagreement within the literature. We claim that one role that content knowledge plays in RT is to support teachers in eliciting, seeing, and then pursuing disciplinary connections within…
Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Goran, Michael I
The consumption of fructose, largely in the form of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), has risen over the past several decades and is thought to contribute negatively to metabolic health. However, the fructose content of foods and beverages produced with HFCS is not disclosed and estimates of fructose content are based on the common assumption that the HFCS used contains 55% fructose. The objective of this study was to conduct an objective laboratory analysis of the sugar content and composition in popular sugar-sweetened beverages with a particular focus on fructose content. Twenty-three sugar-sweetened beverages along with four standard solutions were analyzed for sugar profiles using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in an independent, certified laboratory. Total sugar content was calculated as well as percent fructose in the beverages that use HFCS as the sole source of fructose. Results showed that the total sugar content of the beverages ranged from 85 to 128% of what was listed on the food label. The mean fructose content in the HFCS used was 59% (range 47-65%) and several major brands appear to be produced with HFCS that is 65% fructose. Finally, the sugar profile analyses detected forms of sugar that were inconsistent with what was listed on the food labels. This analysis revealed significant deviations in sugar amount and composition relative to disclosures from producers. In addition, the tendency for use of HFCS that is higher in fructose could be contributing to higher fructose consumption than would otherwise be assumed.
The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of how preservice science teachers' science teaching orientations, viewed as an interrelated set of beliefs, interact with the other components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Eight preservice science teachers participated in the study. Qualitative data were collected in the form of content representation, responses to an open-ended instrument, and semi-structured interviews. Preservice teachers' orientation and PCK were analyzed deductively. Constant comparison analysis of how their orientation interacted with other PCK components revealed three major themes: (1) one's purpose for science teaching determines the PCK component(s) with which it interacts, (2) a teacher's beliefs about the nature of science do not directly interact with his/her PCK, unless those beliefs relate directly to the purposes of teaching science, and (3) beliefs about science teaching and learning mostly interact with knowledge of instructional strategies. Implications for science teacher education and research are discussed.
Stewart, Taquan Seth
This study, in response to the achievement gap in science and the lack of significant numbers of ethnic minorities in science fields, examined the effects of a Cultural Responsiveness Workshop and intervention on teacher practice, teacher discourse, and student perceptions and connectedness to physics. The sample was comprised of three high school physics teachers---2 teaching five 12th grade sections and one teaching five 9th grade sections of physics---in two separate urban schools in the same section of South Los Angeles. My research design was qualitative and examined eight culturally responsive indicators that, when applied, may increase student engagement and level of connectedness in urban high school physics classrooms: (1) proximity to students, (2) the ways in which they encouraged students, (3) positive reinforcement techniques, (4) modifications for individual learning types, (5) use of children's strengths, (6) scaffolding, (7) displaying an understanding of diverse cultures, and (8) displaying a personal regard for students of diverse cultures. When the study was completed and data was collected, I identified trends in the change in teacher discourse, behaviors, instructional practice, and perceptions of student engagement. My findings, discovered through classroom observations and focus groups, indicated a positive shift in each. Accompanying these shifts were positive shifts in level of student engagement and level of connectedness. There were also the unexpected findings of the need for teachers to receive feedback in a safe collaborative space and the use of culturally responsive teaching as a tool for behavioral management. My study found that there is a definite relationship between the use of the culturally responsive indicators observed, student engagement and student level of connectedness to physics when implemented in urban high school science classrooms.
Yang, X.; Guo, X.; Yu, S.
This study investigates the quality of course content, behavioural patterns of students and learning performance in teaching of student-generated content (SGC). A total of 49 third-year university students in educational technology participated in this study. By combining the methods of questionnaire, lag sequence analysis and interview, the study…
Burton, Megan; Daane, C. J.; Giesen, Judy
This study compared content knowledge for teaching mathematics differences between elementary pre-service teachers in a traditional versus an experimental mathematics methods course. The experimental course replaced 20 minutes of traditional methods, each class, with an intervention of elementary mathematics content. The difference between groups…
Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah Witham
Twenty-four pre-service teachers participated in a workshop designed to provide explicit opportunities to learn what spatial thinking is and how to incorporate it into teaching practice. The objectives of this paper are to: (1) examine the educational effect of the workshop on pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and (2)…
Flynn, Natalie P.
This study developed a survey from the existing literature in an attempt to illuminate the processes, tools, insights, and events that allow university science and mathematics content experts (Ph.D.'s) unpack their expertise in order to teach develop and teach undergraduate students. A pilot study was conducted at an urban university in order to refine the survey. The study consisted of 72 science or mathematics Ph.D. faculty members that teach at a research-based urban university. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 21 volunteer faculty to further explore their methods and tools for developing and implementing teaching within their discipline. Statistical analysis of the data revealed: faculty that taught while obtaining their Ph.D. were less confident in their ability to teach successful and faculty that received training in teaching believed that students have difficult to change misconceptions and do not commit enough time to their course. Student centered textbooks ranked the highest among tools used to gain teaching strategies followed by grading of exams and assignments for gaining insights into student knowledge and difficulties. Science and mathematics education literature and university provided education session ranked the lowest in rating scale for providing strategies for teaching. The open-ended survey questions were sub-divided and analyzed by the number of years of experience to identify the development of teaching knowledge over time and revealed that teaching became more interactive, less lecture based, and more engaging. As faculty matured and gained experience they became more aware of student misconceptions and difficulties often changing their teaching to eliminate such issues. As confidence levels increase their teaching included more technology-based tools, became more interactive, incorporated problem based activities, and became more flexible. This change occurred when and if faculty members altered their thinking about their
Ideas for teaching elementary and secondary students of English as a Second Language (ESL) through a unit on kites and kite-making are offered. First, unit objectives are outlined. These include objectives for cognitive skill development (classification, comparison), psychomotor skills (constructing a kite), mathematical operations (measuring,…
The present comment of mine will dwell mainly on my impressions about the format of teaching. It seems to be very difficult to judge how much classic practical training should be given since for example in histology, it may often go deep into details probably irrelevant for the students. It must be realized, however, that the rapid increase in general knowledge and in the special demands of various medical specialities also impose an ever-increasing stress on the pathologist himself. Therefore it is necessary to define certain limits, however difficult a problem this may be. I have proposed an integrated presentation. The integration should, however, not be made by the clinician as the first and the pathologist as the second violinist. In this case the clinician may misinterpret pathology and may interfere with the pathologist in presenting pathology with appropriate weight and adequate importance. The moderator is the director of the pathology department. No special clinical details are given but those sufficient to ensure a better understanding of the pathological changes presented. Under these conditions the pathologist has full control of the essential views and details given to the student, thus demonstrating the importance of pathology in medicine.
Tsalapatas, Hariklia; Stav, John B.; Kalantzis, Christos
eCMS is a web-based federated content management system for the support of distributed teaching based on an open, distributed middleware architecture for the publication, discovery, retrieval, and integration of educational material. The infrastructure supports the management of both standalone material and structured courses, as well as the…
The purpose of this case study is to delve into the complexities of how preservice science teachers' science teaching orientations, viewed as an interrelated set of beliefs, interact with the other components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). Eight preservice science teachers participated in the study. Qualitative data were collected in the…
One of the central concerns of English as a Second Language (ESL) education within many English-speaking countries has been the relationship between content and language teaching. In Victoria, a state of Australia, the educational policy of mainstreaming ESL is presented as a means of catering to the language learning needs of ESL students within…
Geddis, Arthur N.; And Others
Presents a vignette about Karen, a student teacher in her first attempt at teaching chemical isotopes. Karen focuses on transmitting what she knows. An overview of Schulman's conceptions of pedagogical content knowledge is then provided. Shulman's ideas are employed to frame the experiences of Alan, a student teacher, as he and his cooperating…
Satilmis, Yilmaz; Yakup, Doganay; Selim, Guvercin; Aybarsha, Islam
This study investigates three models of content-based instruction in teaching concepts and terms of natural sciences in order to increase the efficiency of teaching these kinds of concepts in realization and to prove that the content-based instruction is a teaching strategy that helps students understand concepts of natural sciences. Content-based…
Govorov, Michael; Gienko, Gennady
Content development and maintenance of geographic information systems (GIS) related courses, especially designed for distance and online delivery, could be a tedious task even for an experienced instructor. The paper outlines application of abstract instructional design techniques for modeling course structure and developing corresponding course…
Brown, Bryan A.; Ryoo, Kihyun
Our research project was guided by the assumption that students who learn to understand phenomena in everyday terms prior to being taught scientific language will develop improved understanding of new concepts. We used web-based software to teach students using a "content-first" approach that allowed students to transition from everyday…
Phelps, Geoffrey; Weren, Barbara; Croft, Andrew; Gitomer, Drew
This report documents the development of assessments of content knowledge for teaching (CKT) as part of the Measures of Effective Teaching (MET) study, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.The MET study was designed to develop a set of measures that together serve as an accurate indicator of teaching effectiveness. The study was…
Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Pilati, Michelle L.; King, Beverly R.
MERLOT (Multimedia Educational Resource for Learning and Online Teaching) is a free multidisciplinary catalog of digital learning materials, peer reviews, learning assignments, and member comments designed to facilitate faculty instruction. The catalog's goal is to expand the quantity and quality of peer-reviewed online teaching materials. We…
Poindexter, Candace C.
Discusses four reading strategies or teaching techniques (the jigsaw method, anticipation/reaction guides, "What I Know," and self-questioning) found to be key in helping inservice teachers overcome their reluctance to teach reading in content area classes. (RS)
Griffin, Beverly Norris
In the face of declining student reading abilities, content area instructors at community colleges can no longer ignore the gap that exists between student reading levels and the higher levels at which college texts are written. Indeed, these instructors have a responsibility to include reading improvement in course objectives, because: (1) the…
Robertson, Amy D.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Goodhew, Lisa M.; Daane, Abigail R.; Gray, Kara E.; Aker, Leanna B.
"Content knowledge for teaching" is the specialized content knowledge that teachers use in practice the content knowledge that serves them for tasks of teaching such as revoicing students' ideas, choosing an instructional activity to address a student misunderstanding, and evaluating student statements. We describe a methodology for…
Ford, Barbara Ann
Statement of the problem. The problem being studied in this research is the relationship between a specific series of integrated science courses in a science teacher preparation program and the actual needs of the science teacher during the first years of teaching practice. Teachers often report that there is a disconnect between the coursework they have taken in college as pre-service teachers and the reality of their classroom practice during their first years of teaching. The intent of this study was to record the descriptions of three teachers who were members of a cohort and took a series of integrated science courses (NSCI series) during their teacher preparation program as it related to the influence of these courses on their teaching practice. The focus of inquiry is guided by a single question: How do former participants in the series of science courses who are currently novice teachers describe their confidence in their ability to teach science content to their middle school students? The theoretical framework was based on Shulman's (1987) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). PCK involves the teacher understanding the content of science so thoroughly that ways are identified of representing and formulating the subject matter to make it understandable to others. The teacher who has a strong PCK uses powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations and demonstrations that promote personally meaningful student understandings. Novice teachers' reflections on their confidence to teach science content to their middle school students were observed through the lens of PCK. All three novice teachers reported a high confidence level to teach middle school science and attributed their confidence level to a great degree to the integrated science series of courses (NSCI). Method. A qualitative design, specifically a case study, was used for this study. Multiple forms of data collection were employed including a semi structured interview and a focus group
Turley, James David
The purpose of this study was to (1) compile a list of English teaching objectives based upon a study of the literature, (2) discover teachers' attitudes toward these objectives, and (3) compare the attitudes of the teachers grouped according to age, sex, community composition, level of teaching, academic training, college major, longevity, and…
Baldacchino, Donia R
The study unit on 'The spiritual dimension in care'had a Judeo-Christian orientation. It was introduced to the Diploma nursing curriculum at the University of Malta in the academic year 2002-2003. The aim was to increase students' awareness about the essence of spirituality in care so as to enable them to implement holistic care. Spirituality may or may not incorporate religiosity. Thus, believers may have spiritual needs which may include religious needs whilst the atheists and agnostics may still have spiritual needs. While considering secularisation, the Christian culture of Malta was addressed in this study unit. This article describes the content structure of the study unit based on the ASSET model (Narayanasamy, A., 1999. ASSET: a model for actioning spirituality and spiritual care education and training in nursing. Nurse Education Today 19, 274-285) and outlines the various teaching methods used. Following feedback from the first and second cohort groups in 2003 and 2004, respectively, the reviewed study unit was delivered to the third cohort group of students (n=65) in Semester 2 in the academic year 2004-2005. Apart from the use of traditional teaching methods, such as lessons and a seminar, other methods were used constantly throughout the study unit, for example, self-reflection exercises, case-studies and small group discussions to enhance learning. Recommendations are proposed to review the content of this study unit and to introduce other teaching methods for effective learning.
Wolf, Alexander; Akkaraju, Shylaja
Despite the centrality of evolution to the study of biology, the pedagogical methods employed to teach the subject are often instructor-centered and rarely embedded in every topic throughout the curriculum. In addition, students' prior beliefs about evolution are often dismissed rather than incorporated into the classroom. In this article we…
VALETTE, REBECCA M.
AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING METHODS HAVE CREATED THE NEED FOR NEW TESTING TECHNIQUES IN THE FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLS OF LISTENING, SPEAKING, AND WRITING. VARIOUS CURRENT METHODS AND SPECIFIC STANDARDIZED TESTS FOR EVALUATING EACH OF THE SKILLS, INCLUDING PURE SKILLS TESTS WHICH UTILIZE ONLY ONE SKILL IN BOTH STIMULUS AND RESPONSE AND HYBRID SKILLS TESTS…
Bahcivan, Eralp; Cobern, William W.
This study investigated comprehensive science teaching belief systems and their relation to science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and teaching practices. Rokeach's (1968) belief system was used as a framework for representing the hierarchy among in-service teachers' teaching beliefs. This study employed a multiple case study design with…
Buss, Ray R.
The study was conducted to examine preservice, elementary teachers' efficacy for teaching science and mathematics as compared with other elementary content. The instrument assessed efficacy for teaching (EFT) five elementary content areas: science, mathematics, reading, classroom management, and general instruction. Three hundred twenty-five…
This paper describes how improving a teacher's content knowledge changes his teaching practices and its subsequent effects on student learning during a middle school volleyball instructional unit. The study was designed to challenge teacher educators' thinking about the importance of in-depth content knowledge for effective teaching by…
Luzanova, I S; Voznesenskaia, T V; Menitskaia, V I; Pushchinskaia, E V
The authors give a method of determination of the content of lithium in biological objects (liver, kidney) by the method of flame photometry. It is possible to use this method in forensic medicine in cases of acute intoxication.
Glover, Jacob I.
This study extends existing student ratings research by exploring how teaching methods, individually and collectively, influence a minimum standard of student achievement on learning objectives and how class size impacts this influence. Twenty teaching methods were used to predict substantial or exceptional progress on each of 12 learning…
Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard
This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities,…
Sjoer, Ellen; Dopper, Sofia
Learning objects and learning content management systems are considered to be "the next wave in engineering education". The results of experiments with these new trends in ICT in engineering education are described in this paper. The prospects were examined and the concepts of reusability of content for teachers and for personalized…
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Hesse, Doug; Sommers, Nancy; Yancey, Kathleen Blake
Objects are rich sources of inquiry; they invite individuals to observe closely, pose questions, forge connections, and anchor ideas in the concrete. By examining a son's craft project, a family photograph, and an image of tectonic plates, the authors demonstrate how objects can elicit rhetorical invention. While this venture started as a writing…
Price, Jeffery R.
Systems and methods are described for content-based fused off-axis illumination direct-to-digital holography. A method includes calculating an illumination angle with respect to an optical axis defined by a focusing lens as a function of data representing a Fourier analyzed spatially heterodyne hologram; reflecting a reference beam from a reference mirror at a non-normal angle; reflecting an object beam from an object the object beam incident upon the object at the illumination angle; focusing the reference beam and the object beam at a focal plane of a digital recorder to from the content-based off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; and digitally recording the content based off-axis illuminated spatially heterodyne hologram including spatially heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis.
Akpinar, Yavuzz; Simsek, Huseyin
This study designed, implemented and evaluated a learning content management system to facilitate creating both standard based and free style learning objects. The system, BULeCoMas, also enabled users to tag learning objects with usage data and tools supported with components accommodated under a Global Activity Center, are Global Task Pool,…
The Open Content Object (OCO), which was put forward in the author's previous paper, is an object that has the function of requesting services and providing services through the messages-passing mechanism, which relies on the Learning Management System (LMS) as the scheduling center of messages. The OCOs can offer a particular and flexible…
Benito, R. M.; Cámara, M. E.; Arranz, F. J.
In this work we present the results of a Project in educational innovation entitled "Interactive Physics". We have developed resources for teaching Physics for students of Engineering, with an emphasis in conceptual reinforcement and addressing the shortcomings of students entering the University. The resources developed include hypertext, graphics, equations, quizzes and more elaborated problems that cover the customary syllabus in first-year Physics: kinematics and dynamics, Newton laws, electricity and magnetism, elementary circuits… The role of vector quantities is stressed and we also provide help for the most usual mathematical tools (calculus and trigonometric formulas). The structure and level of detail of the resources are fitted to the conceptual difficulties that most of the students find. Some of the most advanced resources we have developed are interactive simulations. These are real simulations of key physical situations, not only animations. They serve as learning objects, in the well known sense of small reusable digital objects that are self-contained and tagged with metadata. In this sense, we use them to link concepts and content through interaction with active engagement of the student. The development of an interactive simulation involves several steps. First, we identify common pitfalls in the conceptual framework of the students and the points in which they stumble frequently. Then we think of a way to make clear the physical concepts using a simulation. After that, we program the simulation (using Flash or Java) and finally the simulation is tested with the students, and we reelaborate some parts of it in terms of usability. In our communication, we discuss the usefulness of these interactive simulations in teaching Physics for engineers, and their integration in a more comprehensive b-learning system.
Kelsey, R. L.
Students learned about object-oriented design concepts and knowledge representation through the use of a set of toy blocks. The blocks represented a limited and focused domain of knowledge and one that was physical and tangible. The blocks helped the students to better visualize, communicate, and understand the domain of knowledge as well as how to perform object decomposition. The blocks were further abstracted to an engineering design kit for water park design. This helped the students to work on techniques for abstraction and conceptualization. It also led the project from tangible exercises into software and programming exercises. Students employed XML to create object-based knowledge representations and Java to use the represented knowledge. The students developed and implemented software allowing a lay user to design and create their own water slide and then to take a simulated ride on their slide.
Holtzman, Caren; Susholtz, Lynn
When Caren Holtzman and Lynn Susholtz look around a classroom, they see "a veritable goldmine of mathematical investigations" involving number, measurement, size, shape, symmetry, ratio, and proportion. They also think of the ways great artists have employed these concepts in their depictions of objects and space--for example, Picasso's use of…
Evtyugina, Alla A.; Hasanova, Irina I.; Kotova, Svetlana S.; Sokolova, Anastasia N.; Svetkina, Irina A.
The relevance of the problem stems from the necessity to distinctly plan educational process and set the goals for successful mastering of Russian language by foreign students in Russian higher educational institutions. The article is aimed at defining the foreign students' objectives for Russian language training, allowing them to get involved…
Acharya, A B
Forensic odontology involves dentists' participation in assisting legal and criminal issues. Formal teaching in forensic odontology has existed for over a 100 years. Over the last century, forensic odontology has evolved and, today, it is an integral part of undergraduate dental training in many countries. Dentists have been trained in the specialty, and dedicated departments established in institutes and universities around the world. A survey undertaken at five universities revealed that these centres have developed detailed curricula in forensic odontology, and a general standard exists in teaching forensic odontology, however, coverage of recent advances in forensic science may be lacking. While recognising that these programmes are not representative of teaching in forensic odontology worldwide, suggestions are made for an alternative approach to teaching the subject. Moreover, it is stressed that teaching be undertaken by qualified forensic odontologists.
Bracci, Stefania; Daniels, Nicky; Op de Beeck, Hans
The dorsal, parietal visual stream is activated when seeing objects, but the exact nature of parietal object representations is still under discussion. Here we test 2 specific hypotheses. First, parietal cortex is biased to host some representations more than others, with a different bias compared with ventral areas. A prime example would be object action representations. Second, parietal cortex forms a general multiple-demand network with frontal areas, showing similar task effects and representational content compared with frontal areas. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we implemented a human neuroimaging study with a stimulus set that dissociates associated object action from object category while manipulating task context to be either action- or category-related. Representations in parietal as well as prefrontal areas represented task-relevant object properties (action representations in the action task), with no sign of the irrelevant object property (category representations in the action task). In contrast, irrelevant object properties were represented in ventral areas. These findings emphasize that human parietal cortex does not preferentially represent particular object properties irrespective of task, but together with frontal areas is part of a multiple-demand and content-rich cortical network representing task-relevant object properties.
Rodrigues, Ashley Blanca
Schools are required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of 2004 (IDEA) to include students with disabilities in the general education classroom. Recently there has been emphasis on co-teaching as a method to comply with this mandate. Co-teaching is a technique geared at utilizing a special education teacher and a content area…
This article discusses the issues of teaching ESP to Ukrainian tertiary students majoring in psychology. The suggested approach is based on teaching English through the content matter of special subjects included in the program of training practical psychologists. The example of an ESP textbook for psychologists is used for demonstrating the…
Victor, Garcia Izaguirre; Luisa, Pier Castello Maria; Eduardo, Arvizu Sanchez
There is a concern that the teaching of subjects is applied not only with support from a set of technological devices, but largely in the proper use of teaching and new technologies. Taking this idea, the authors develop a research and sustainable design that result in educational materials in solid content and technological innovation, also to…
Bair, Sherry L.; Rich, Beverly S.
This article characterizes the development of a deep and connected body of mathematical knowledge categorized by Ball and Bass' (2003b) model of Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching (MKT), as Specialized Content Knowledge for Teaching (SCK) in algebraic reasoning and number sense. The research employed multiple cases across three years from two…
Akkas, Elif Nur; Türnüklü, Elif
Pedagogical content knowledge is consisted of two components: student knowledge and teaching strategies. Teaching strategies was defined under two sub-headings as strategies for specific topics and specific strategies for any topic. The purpose of this study was to examine the method with which quadrilaterals were taught by mathematics teachers…
Hill, Charles H.
Concludes that round robin reading is an accepted and widely used method of teaching science and social studies in the fifth grade in South Dakota, in spite of the fact that administrators and teachers doubt its value. (FL)
de Oliveira, Clara Amelia; Conte, Marcos Fernando; Riso, Bernardo Goncalves
This work presents a proposal for Teaching/Learning, on Object Oriented Programming for Entry Level Courses of Engineering and Computer Science, on University. The philosophy of Object Oriented Programming comes as a new pattern of solution for problems, where flexibility and reusability appears over the simple data structure and sequential…
Leonardelli, C A; Gratz, R R
A clearly stated purpose of basic professional education in occupational therapy provides a base for educational programs to develop learning objectives and identify effective teaching models and behaviors. The primary purpose of professional education should be the development of problem-solving skills, self-awareness, and creative productive thinking, with "hands-on" skills relegated to a secondary purpose. Specific learning objectives and the teaching models that have been developed to meet these objectives are presented. The authors further suggest that there must be a relationship between what occurs in the classroom (implementation of teaching models) and the purpose of professional education. A survey of current occupational therapy faculty members was conducted to identify a) their preparedness in the use of teaching models and b) other factors affecting their classroom behavior (years of experience, educational level, area of concentration). Survey results portray a relatively young faculty in both rank and experience. Other data indicate that although 85% of the respondents had taken at least one education course, only slightly more than half were familiar with teaching models. Most respondents felt that course work in educational methods and models aids in the development of more effective teaching strategies.
Homa, Natalie; Hackathorn, Jana; Brown, Carrie M.; Garczynski, Amy; Solomon, Erin D.; Tennial, Rachel; Sanborn, Ursula A.; Gurung, Regan A. R.
Introductory psychology is one of the most popular undergraduate courses and often serves as the gateway to choosing psychology as an academic major. However, little research has examined the typical structure of introductory psychology courses. The current study examined student learning objectives (SLOs) and course content in introductory…
This paper looks at the teaching of subject discipline content through the medium of a second language. It begins by looking at the globalisation of discipline content teaching through second languages, whereby increasing numbers of academics and students are either teaching or learning in universities across the globe in a language other than…
Rogers, Kimberly Cervello; Steele, Michael D.
Graduate teaching assistants serve as instructors of record for numerous undergraduate courses every semester, including serving as teachers for mathematics content courses for elementary preservice teachers. In this study, we examine 6 teaching assistants' teaching practices in the context of a geometry content course for preservice teachers by…
Spooren, Pieter; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Thijssen, Peter
Structural equation modelling is used to measure the existence of a response style (in particular, acquiescence) behind three balanced Likert scales measuring different concepts in a questionnaire for student evaluation of teaching in higher education. Exploration with one sample (n = 1125) and confirmation in a second sample (n = 710) from a…
Esemuede, Samuel I.
Noting the rapid and large changes in international finance over the past 2 decades, this paper offers suggestions for teaching business education courses on international finance. The paper recommends a combination of computer-assisted instruction and electronic classroom, discussion group, independent study, and lecture. Computer-assisted…
This study suggests the need for complex research approaches that provide richer, contested, and nondichotomous portrayals of classrooms, schooling life, and teachers. Drawing from a qualitative study of Tajik teachers' practices and perspectives (Niyozov, 2001) and studies on teaching conducted in Kyrgyzstan (De Young, Reeves, & Valyaeva ,…
This paper describes how a new pre-service teacher engaged with mathematical content in order to learn it for teaching, during practicum. The results show that the PST learned mathematical content by initiating and carrying out a preparation phase prior to planning. This phase involved searching through internet sites and making notes that were…
Smith, Marvin E.; Swars, Susan L.; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Hart, Lynn C.; Haardorfer, Regine
This longitudinal study examines the effects of changes in an elementary teacher preparation program on mathematics beliefs and content knowledge for teaching of two groups of prospective teachers (N = 276): (1) those who completed a program with three mathematics content courses and two mathematics methods courses and (2) those who completed a…
Fensham, Peter, Ed.; And Others
This book is a result of a workshop where 14 science educators were invited to draft chapters on the implications that the research studies in a specific content area of science have for its teaching. The relations between social forces and perceptions of purpose and content lay behind discussions in the workshop, and influenced the emergence of…
Meyer, Katrina A.; Murrell, Vicki S.
This article presents the results of a national study of 39 higher education institutions that collected information about their practices for faculty development for online teaching and particularly the content and training activities used during 2011-2012. This study found that the most frequently offered training content (97% of the…
Kerridge, Joanna; Kyle, Gaye; Marks-Maran, Diane
Many programmes in further and higher education contain sensitive areas of content, such as diversity, racism, power and privilege, breaking bad news, counselling, sex education and ethical decision making. Team teaching may be a useful method for delivering sensitive areas of course content. This article presents a pilot study that was undertaken…
Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Onwu, Gilbert Oke; de Villiers, Rian
This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base…
In this article, the author shares a content-based English as a Second/Foreign Language (ESL/EFL) workshop that strengthens language acquisition, increases intrinsic motivation, and bridges cultural divides. He uses a rock and roll workshop to introduce an organizational approach with a primary emphasis on cultural awareness content and a…
Mickel, Vesta; Goerss, Betty
The trend in many classrooms is to move away from using a single textbook in content area classrooms and move toward the use of various works of children's literature integrated with and related to a content-area topic. Instead of using a single discipline approach, teachers should use a multidisciplinary approach in which several subject areas…
Wood, Justin N
How does object recognition emerge in the newborn brain? To address this question, I examined the information content of the first visual object representation built by newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus). In their first week of life, chicks were raised in controlled-rearing chambers that contained a single virtual object rotating around a single axis. In their second week of life, I tested whether subjects had encoded information about the identity and viewpoint of the virtual object. The results showed that chicks built object representations that contained both object identity information and view-specific information. However, there was a trade-off between these two types of information: subjects who were more sensitive to identity information were less sensitive to view-specific information, and vice versa. This pattern of results is predicted by iterative, hierarchically organized visual processing machinery, the machinery that supports object recognition in adult primates. More generally, this study shows that invariant object recognition is a core cognitive ability that can be operational at the onset of visual object experience.
Hemby, Brian Franklin
Purpose of the study. The major purpose of this study was to identify and classify objectives for teaching science in secondary schools in the United States during the period 1970--1992. These objectives were identified by objective statements in articles from selected professional periodicals. Procedure. The 1970--1992 period was divided into two subperiods on the basis of major historical events. Selected professional periodicals were searched for statements of objectives of secondary school science teaching. These statements were catalogued into Knowledge, Process, Attitude and Interest, or Cultural Awareness categories. The resulting data were classified within and across the two subperiods according to frequency of occurrence, category, authorship, and year. Findings. The major findings of this investigation included the following: (1) Authors in Higher Education produced the most articles, both research-oriented and nonresearch-oriented, and the most statements in each subperiod. Miscellaneous authors produced the least articles and statements. (2) Statements in the Process category were most frequent in the two subperiods. (3) The "most important" objectives for secondary school science teaching were Philosophical, sociological, and political aspects (from the Cultural Awareness category), Processes, skills, and techniques (from the Process category), and Major facts, principles, or fundamentals (from the Knowledge category). (4) Attitude and Interest objectives were consistently ranked as least important throughout the study. (5) The ranking of "most important" objectives in research-oriented articles generally agreed with the ranking in articles as a whole. Conclusions. Based on the findings of this investigation, the following conclusions were made: (1) The objectives for teaching secondary school science were influenced by historical events, especially the Vietnam War, the Cold War, the AIDS pandemic, and the publication of A Nation at Risk: The
This paper presents a study on thinking and learning processes of mathematics and science in teaching through a foreign language, in Finland. The entity of thinking and content learning processes is, in this study, considered as cognitional development. Teaching through a foreign language is here called Content and Language Integrated Learning or…
Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula
The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…
This paper discusses issues surrounding the development of a learning object repository (FLORE) for teaching and learning French at the postsecondary level. An evaluation based on qualitative and quantitative data was set up in order to better assess how second-language (L2) students in French perceived the integration of this new repository into…
Mwasalwiba, Ernest Samwel
Purpose: This paper aims to take stock of existing publications devoted to entrepreneurship education and assess the alignment existing between its generic objectives, target audience, teaching methods and impact indicators. Design/methodology/approach: A semi-systematic literature review is applied; using six thematically separated excel data…
Aviles, Christopher B.
Teaching and testing for critical thinking can be a challenge for new and experienced social work educators because critical thinking has no operational definition. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is a tool from the wider context of education that can help new and experienced social work educators to think more precisely about what it…
Maita, María Del Rosario; Mareovich, Florencia; Peralta, Olga
Children are exposed to symbolic objects that they have to learn to use very early in life. The authors' aim was to examine whether it is possible to intentionally teach young children the symbolic function of an object. They employed a search task in which children had to use a map to find a toy. Experiment 1 revealed that with no instruction 3-year-, 10-month-old children were quite successful; 3-year-, 6-month-olds showed a divided performance; and 3-year-, 0-month-olds failed. With this baseline, Experiment 2 compared the performance of 3-year-, 0-month-olds in three different conditions: no-instruction, complete instruction (before the task begins), and teaching (complete instruction plus corrective feedback); only children in the teaching condition succeeded. However, children 6 months younger, 2-year-, 6-month-olds, failed despite teaching that was provided (Study 3). This research shows that at some points in development instruction is not enough; intentional teaching in communicative contexts is the mechanism that boosts symbolic understanding in early childhood.
Ziffer, Julie; Nadirli, Orkhan; Rudnick, Benjamin; Pinkham, Sunny; Montgomery, Benjamin
Traditional teaching of Planetary Science requires students to possess well developed spatial reasoning skills (SRS). Recent research has demonstrated that SRS, long known to be crucial to math and science success, can be improved among students who lack these skills (Sorby et al., 2009). Teaching spatial reasoning is particularly valuable to women and minorities who, through societal pressure, often doubt their abilities (Hill et al., 2010). To address SRS deficiencies, our team is developing video games that embed SRS training into Planetary Science content. Our first game, on Moon Phases, addresses the two primary challenges faced by students trying to understand the Sun-Earth-Moon system: 1) visualizing the system (specifically the difference between the Sun-Earth orbital plane and the Earth-Moon orbital plane) and 2) comprehending the relationship between time and the position-phase of the Moon. In our second video game, the student varies an asteroid's rotational speed, shape, and orientation to the light source while observing how these changes effect the resulting light curve. To correctly pair objects to their light curves, students use spatial reasoning skills to imagine how light scattering off a three dimensional rotating object is imaged on a sensor plane and is then reduced to a series of points on a light curve plot. These two games represent the first of our developing suite of high-interest video games designed to teach content while increasing the student's competence in spatial reasoning.
Logerwell, Mollianne G.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a summer science camp teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy, science content knowledge, and understanding of the nature of science. Master's degree students enrolled in the elementary Fairfax Partnership Schools (FPS, n = 21) cohort served as the treatment group, while those enrolled in the Loudoun Partnership Schools (LPS, n = 15) and Professional Development Schools (PDS, n = 24) cohorts at George Mason University served as the control groups. The treatment group planned for and taught a two-week inquiry- and problem-based summer science camp as part of their science methods course, while the control groups did not. The Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument (STEBI), a science content assessment, a personal data questionnaire, and a modified version of the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-C) were administered to the participants at the beginning and end of their science methods course. Analyses revealed significant increases for the FPS group in general science teaching efficacy, personal science teaching efficacy, science teaching outcome expectancy, general science knowledge, biology content knowledge, chemistry content knowledge, and understanding of NOS; the LPS group in general science teaching efficacy, personal science teaching efficacy, chemistry content knowledge, and understanding of NOS; and, the PDS group in general science teaching efficacy, personal science teaching efficacy, and chemistry content knowledge. Additionally, the FPS group had significantly higher general science teaching efficacy than both control groups, personal science teaching efficacy than the PDS group, and understanding of NOS than the LPS group. Overall, the findings indicate that course length is not as important for developing preservice teachers' teaching efficacy and understanding of content as having connected, authentic field-based teaching experiences
Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo
A content-matched (CM) range monitoring query over moving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CM range monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods. PMID:26393613
Jung, HaRim; Song, MoonBae; Youn, Hee Yong; Kim, Ung Mo
A content-matched (CM) rangemonitoring query overmoving objects continually retrieves the moving objects (i) whose non-spatial attribute values are matched to given non-spatial query values; and (ii) that are currently located within a given spatial query range. In this paper, we propose a new query indexing structure, called the group-aware query region tree (GQR-tree) for efficient evaluation of CMrange monitoring queries. The primary role of the GQR-tree is to help the server leverage the computational capabilities of moving objects in order to improve the system performance in terms of the wireless communication cost and server workload. Through a series of comprehensive simulations, we verify the superiority of the GQR-tree method over the existing methods.
Garg, Ramesh C.
A guide to designing a course in international finance and multinational corporations is presented. It offers a rationale for such a course, discusses its primary goals, suggests two possible course orientations (professional or theoretical) and desirable or necessary prerequisites, and recommends specific course content areas and subareas. Types…
Examines how much time is spent in economics and management sciences programs; how much time is allocated among different courses within programs; what common thematic denominators exist; and whether and in what way content in microeconomics and macroeconomics courses differs. (RLH)
Guillén, María Teresa Fleta; Bermejo, María Luisa García
This paper reports on pedagogies that promote language, content and literacy in English by stimulating learners' creativity. The starting point to promote creativity among learners was music and art. There seems to be a natural connection between music, language and thinking which suggests that incorporating musical experiences into daily…
Saeli, Mara; Perrenet, Jacob; Jochems, Wim M. G.; Zwaneveld, Bert
The goal of this literature study is to give some preliminary answers to the questions that aim to uncover the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) of Informatics Education, with focus on Programming. PCK has been defined as the knowledge that allows teachers to transform their knowledge of the subject into something accessible for their students.…
Kenny, Heather A.
In the United States, visits to informal learning environments [ILEs] such as zoos, have historically been considered to be important educational experiences that promote increased student achievement in content-area subjects. Recently, however, funds are more likely to be diverted away from field trip experiences, depriving less-privileged…
Olmedo, Irma M.
The changing demographics of today's urban schools coupled with the corresponding shortage of bilingual teachers to provide an education for language minority students means that monolingual English teachers will have to carry out content area instruction for students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in the foreseeable future. This paper…
Harris, Christopher S.
The semester-long activity described herein uses an integrated instructional approach to media studies to introduce students to the research method of qualitative content analysis and help them become more critically vigilant media consumers. The goal is to increase students' media literacy by guiding them in the design of an exploratory…
Livy, Sharyn; Herbert, Sandra
Understanding the development of pre-service teachers' mathematical content knowledge (MCK) is important for improving primary mathematics' teacher education. This paper reports on a case study, Rose and her opportunities to develop MCK during the four years of her program. Program opportunities to promote MCK when planning and practicing primary…
Tajudin, Nor'ain Mohd.; Kadir, Noor Zarinawaty Abd.
This study aims to identify the level of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) of mathematics trainee teachers at Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) and explore their teaching practices during practical training at school. The study was conducted in two phases using a mix-method research. In the first phase, a survey method using a questionnaire was carried out on 156 trainee teachers of Bachelor of Mathematics Education (AT14) and Bachelor of Science (Mathematics) with Education (AT48). The instrument used was a questionnaire that measures the level of content knowledge, pedagogy, technology and TPCK of mathematics. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, namely the mean. While in the second phase, the interview method involved four trainee teachers were performed. The instrument used was the semi-structured interview protocol to assess the trainee teacher's TPCK integration in their teaching practice. Data were analyzed using the content analysis. The findings showed that the level of knowledge of TPCK among trainee teachers was moderate with overall mean score of 3.60. This level did not show significant differences between the two programs with mean scores of 3.601 for the AT14 group and 3.603 for the AT48 group. However, there was a difference for gender classification such that the female trainees had mean score of 3.58 and male trainees with mean score of 3.72. Although students' TPCK level was moderate, the level of content knowledge (CK), technological knowledge (TK) and pedagogical knowledge (PK), showed a higher level with overall mean scores of 3.75, 3.87 and 3.84 respectively. The findings also showed that in terms of content knowledge, trainee teacher's learning mathematics background was good, but the knowledge of mathematics was limited in the curriculum, philosophy and application aspect. In terms of pedagogical content knowledge, all respondents tend to use lecture and discussion methods in teaching Trigonometry topic
The purpose of this paper is to offer some theoretical as well as empirical examples that describe the interrelations between pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and emotional knowledge in teaching and learning. The argument put forward is that there is a need to expand current conceptions of PCK and acknowledge the role of emotional knowledge. It…
Park, Soonhye; Jang, Jeong-Yoon; Chen, Ying-Chih; Jung, Jinhong
This study tested a hypothesis that focused on whether or not teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a necessary body of knowledge for reformed science teaching. This study utilized a quantitative research method to investigate the correlation between a teacher's PCK level as measured by the PCK rubric (Park et al. 2008) and the degree…
Grounded in theory and best-practices research, this practical text provides teachers with 40 strategies for using fiction and non-fiction trade books to teach in five key content areas: language arts and reading, social studies, mathematics, science, and the arts. Each strategy provides everything a teacher needs to get started: a classroom…
Dawkins, Karen R.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; McKinney, Sueanne E.; Butler, Susan
Content knowledge and pedagogical practices are of particular concern to middle school science instructors teaching density. First introduced in elementary grades with the ideas of floating and sinking, density taught in middle school is geared toward understanding through the use of mathematical formulas. Using a lesson-plan study design, the…
Gersten, Russell; Baker, Scott K.; Smith-Johnson, Joyce; Dimino, Joseph; Peterson, Anne
This study compared two approaches for teaching a history unit on the Civil Rights Movement (1954-1965) to middle school students with learning disabilities (LD) in general education settings. The curriculum was designed to make the content challenging, but accessible. The major text was the documentary, Eyes on the Prize (DeVinney, 1991).…
Guzey, S. Selcen; Roehrig, Gillian H.
This study examines the development of technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK) in four in-service secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program focusing on technology integration into K-12 classrooms to support science as inquiry teaching. In the program, probeware, mind-mapping tools (CMaps),…
This paper discusses the rationale for using sustained content-based instruction (CBI) to teach English for academic purposes to non- native speakers, drawing on recent research and theory and on both personal experience and a small-scale study of college students. Discussion begins with a look at college and graduate students' needs for both…
Drechsler, Michal; Van Driel, Jan
We investigated the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of nine experienced chemistry teachers. The teachers took part in a teacher training course on students' difficulties and the use of models in teaching acid-base chemistry, electrochemistry, and redox reactions. Two years after the course, the teachers were interviewed about their PCK of (1)…
Granite School District, Salt Lake City, UT.
The model outlined in this document describes the development of an integrated approach to teaching content reading skills to teachers. Methods and materials applicable to texts and media currently used in classrooms were produced by inservice teachers of science, math, and social studies at a Salt Lake City junior high school. This document…
Collins, Belva C.; Terrell, Misty; Test, David W.
This investigation used a multiple-probe-across-participants design to examine the effects of using a simultaneous prompting procedure to teach four secondary students with mild intellectual disabilities the employment task of caring for plants in a greenhouse. The instructor also embedded photosynthesis science content as nontargeted information…
Viktória, Heizlerné Bakonyi; Zoltán, Illés; László, Menyhárt
Informatics education is in a special situation. The greatest and quickest changes in technology and content might be in this field. That is why it is a very important question what and how to teach on different education levels. What are the requirements of the European labour market? What trends can be recognized in the field of public…
Describes an approach to teaching first-year law students in an English for academic purposes course on how to write the academic genre of the legal problem answer. Offers students rhetorical tools to translate legal reasoning moves into effective written response to legal problems. The dovetailing of language and content involved considerable…
Davy, Zowie; Amsler, Sarah; Duncombe, Karen
Increasingly, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) health care is becoming an important quality assurance feature of primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare in Britain. While acknowledging these very positive developments, teaching LGBT curricula content is contingent upon having educators understand the complexity of LGBT lives. The…
Oskay, Ozge Ozyalcin; Erdem, Emine; Yilmaz, Ayhan
In this study the relationship between pre-service chemistry teachers' beliefs about teaching and their pedagogical content knowledge were investigated. The sample of the study consists of 99 pre-service chemistry teachers attending Hacettepe University, Faculty of Education. As data collection tools the adapted form of "Beliefs About…
Finn, Jerry; Dillon, Caroline
This paper describes methods for teaching content analysis as part of the Research sequence in social work education. Teaching content analysis is used to develop research skills as well as to promote students' knowledge and critical thinking and about new information technology resources that are being increasingly used by the general public. The…
Ari, Sinan; Ünal, Emre
The need for and employment of qualified teachers have always been in the agenda since the foundation of our country. It is aimed with this study to reveal the convenience of the Content Knowledge Test for Teaching (CKTT), which was first held in 2014, in terms of the content of the classroom teaching undergraduate programs, general competencies…
Robinson, Michael Allen; Cross-Denny, Bronwyn; Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Werkmeister Rozas, Lisa Marie; Yamada, Ann-Marie
Intersectionality has been gaining momentum among social workers as a framework to allow a fuller understanding of the complexity of diverse social identities and the impact of social structures on power, privilege, and oppression. However, the application of intersectionality to teaching in social work education has been relatively absent in the…
Mthethwa-Kunene, Eunice; Oke Onwu, Gilbert; de Villiers, Rian
This study explored the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and its development of four experienced biology teachers in the context of teaching school genetics. PCK was defined in terms of teacher content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of students' preconceptions and learning difficulties. Data sources of teacher knowledge base included teacher-constructed concept maps, pre- and post-lesson teacher interviews, video-recorded genetics lessons, post-lesson teacher questionnaire and document analysis of teacher's reflective journals and students' work samples. The results showed that the teachers' individual PCK profiles consisted predominantly of declarative and procedural content knowledge in teaching basic genetics concepts. Conditional knowledge, which is a type of meta-knowledge for blending together declarative and procedural knowledge, was also demonstrated by some teachers. Furthermore, the teachers used topic-specific instructional strategies such as context-based teaching, illustrations, peer teaching, and analogies in diverse forms but failed to use physical models and individual or group student experimental activities to assist students' internalization of the concepts. The finding that all four teachers lacked knowledge of students' genetics-related preconceptions was equally significant. Formal university education, school context, journal reflection and professional development programmes were considered as contributing to the teachers' continuing PCK development. Implications of the findings for biology teacher education are briefly discussed.
Chan, Kennedy Kam Ho; Yung, Benny Hin Wai
Teaching experience has been identified as an important factor in pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) development. However, little is known about how experienced teachers may draw on their previous experience to facilitate their PCK development. This study examined how two experienced high school biology teachers approached the teaching of a newly introduced topic in the curriculum, polymerase chain reaction and their PCK development from the pre-lesson planning phase through the interactive phase to the post-lesson reflection phase. Multiple data sources included classroom observations, field notes, semi-structured interviews and classroom artefacts. It was found that the teachers' previous experience informed their planning for teaching the new topic, but in qualitatively different ways. This, in turn, had a bearing on their new PCK development. Subject matter knowledge (SMK) can not only facilitate but may also hinder this development. Our findings identify two types of experienced teachers: those who can capitalise on their previous teaching experiences and SMK to develop new PCK and those who do not. The critical difference is whether in the lesson planning stage, the teacher shows the disposition to draw on a generalised mental framework that enables the teacher to capitalise on his existing SMK to develop new PCK. Helping teachers to acquire this disposition should be a focus for teacher training in light of continuous curriculum changes.
Lahinta, A.; Haris, I.; Abdillah, T.
The aim of this paper is to describe a developed application of Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) as a model for improving libraries’ digital content findability on the library web. The study applies XML text-based protocol tools in the collection of data about libraries’ visibility performance in the search results of the book. Model from the integrated Web Service Document Language (WSDL) and Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI) are applied to analyse SOAP as element within the system. The results showed that the developed application of SOAP with multi-tier architecture can help people simply access the website in the library server Gorontalo Province and support access to digital collections, subscription databases, and library catalogs in each library in Regency or City in Gorontalo Province.
The English Geography National Curriculum encourages primary teachers to focus on similarities and differences when teaching distant places. The issues this raises are particularly acute when teaching geography in the context of the Global South. In this article I argue that comparisons based on object-based thinking can lead to views of the…
How Things Work is an unconventional introduction to physics, a course that starts with whole objects and looks inside them to see what makes them work. Effectively ``case-study physics,'' it is designed primarily for non-science students who are unsure of the role of physics in the world and are looking for relevance in their studies. How Things Work is essentially the generalization of context-based introductory courses (Physics of the Human Body, Physics of the Automobile, and Physics of Music) and demonstrates that when physics is taught in the context of ordinary objects, these students are enthusiastic about it, look forward to classes, ask insightful questions, experiment on their own, and find themselves explaining to friends and family how things in their world work. In this talk, I will discuss the concept and structure of a How Things Work course and look briefly at how to teach its objects and assess what students learn from it. Although this course focuses on concepts rather than on calculations, it is rich in physics and requires that students think hard about the world around them. It also teaches problem solving and logical thinking skills, and demands that students face their misconceptions and failures of intuition. Lastly, it is actually quantitative in many respects, though its results are usually more words than numbers: your weight, the battery's voltage, or the acceleration due to gravity.
Powerful programming tools based on the object oriented paradigm are now available for development of advanced educational technology. Two of the most useful are Flash MX2004 Actionscript (also known as Actionscript 2.0) and Java. We have used these technologies to develop a number of reusable tools for a broad range of applications in scientific education. We shall demonstrate some general examples taken from physics, biology, genetics, and astronomy, and report initial results from a new project to develop a suite of interactive animation suitable for teaching cosmology to advanced undergraduate physics majors.
Bentley, Brian S; Hill, Robert V
Reciprocal peer teaching (RPT), wherein students alternate roles as teacher and learner, has been applied in several educational arenas with varying success. Here, we describe the implementation of a reciprocal peer teaching protocol in a human gross anatomy laboratory curriculum. We compared the outcomes of the RPT class with those of previous classes in which RPT was not employed. Objective data (i.e., course grades) show no significant differences in gross anatomy laboratory grades between students in the RPT and non-RPT classes. To subjectively evaluate the relative success of RPT in the laboratory, we analyzed student opinions obtained through anonymous surveys. These data show that a powerful majority of student respondents felt that RPT was beneficial and should be used in future classes. The greatest disadvantage was unreliable quality of teaching from peers; however, most students still felt that RPT should be continued. Students who felt that they had insufficient hands-on experience (by virtue of dissecting only half the time) were significantly more likely to recommend abandoning RPT. These results underscore the importance of active student dissection, and suggest that a modified version of the described RPT protocol may satisfy more of the needs of large, diverse student populations. Several hidden benefits of RPT exist for faculty, administration, and students, including reduced need for large numbers of cadavers, attendant reduction in operating costs, and smaller student-to-teacher ratios.
Logerwell, Mollianne G.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a summer science camp teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers' science teaching efficacy, science content knowledge, and understanding of the nature of science. Master's degree students enrolled in the elementary Fairfax Partnership Schools (FPS, n = 21) cohort served as the…
de Jong, Onno; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico
In this article, we describe the results of a study of the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of preservice chemistry teachers in the context of a postgraduate teacher education program. A group of preservice teachers (n = 12) took part in an experimental introductory course module about the use of particle models to help secondary school students understand the relationship between phenomena (e.g., properties of substances, physical and chemical processes) and corpuscular entities (e.g., atoms, molecules, ions). The module emphasized learning from teaching by connecting authentic teaching experiences with institutional workshops. Research data were obtained from answers to written assignments, transcripts of workshop discussions, and reflective lesson reports, written by the participants. The outcomes of the study revealed that, initially, all participants were able to describe specific learning difficulties, such as problems secondary school students have in relating the properties of substances to characteristics of the constituent particles. Also, at this stage, all preservice teachers acknowledged the potential importance of using models of molecules and atoms to promote secondary school students' understanding of the relationship between phenomena and corpuscular entities. After teaching, all preservice teachers demonstrated a deeper understanding of their students' problems with the use of particle models. In addition, about half of the participants had become more aware of the possibilities and limitations of using particle models in specific teaching situations. Through learning from teaching, the preservice teachers further developed their PCK of using particle models, although this development varied among preservice teachers studied.
Baker, Scott; Lesaux, Nonie; Jayanthi, Madhavi; Dimino, Joseph; Proctor, C. Patrick; Morris, Joan; Gersten, Russell; Haymond, Kelly; Kieffer, Michael J.; Linan-Thompson, Sylvia; Newman-Gonchar, Rebecca
As English learners face the double demands of building knowledge of a second language while learning complex grade-level content, teachers must find effective ways to make challenging content comprehensible for students. This updated English learner practice guide, "Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and…
Arora, Kriti; Hashilkar, Nayana Kamalnayan
Objectives: Current teaching in pharmacology is passive with less emphasis on clinical application. There is a need to incorporate newer instructional designs into pharmacology. Student-led objective tutorial (SLOT) is one of the novel designs to enhance interest among learners, provide opportunities for group learning, and facilitate self-directed learning. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of SLOTs over conventional tutorials (CTs) in pharmacology and to obtain feedback from the students regarding their perceptions about it. Subjects and Methods: The regular batch of MBBS 2nd professional in pharmacology was randomly divided into two groups. Five topics from central nervous system (CNS) were selected. One group received SLOT as the instructional strategy, whereas the other group went through CTs. At the end of the module, a written test was conducted to assess the effectiveness of both strategies. The students provided feedback regarding their experience using a prevalidated questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: The mean scores of both the groups were analyzed using Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the mean scores of the end of the module test. However, the overall passing percentage was significantly higher in the intervention group (P = 0.043). A total of 45.71% students favored it as a future tutorial method and expressed that SLOT enhanced their ability to learn independently. Conclusion: SLOT is an effective teaching–learning method to teach pharmacology to medical undergraduates. It enhances interest among learners and increases the ability to learn independently. PMID:28031615
This study aims to evaluate the consistency of teaching content with teaching approaches in calculus on the basis of lecturers' views. In this sense, the structures of the examples given in two commonly used calculus textbooks, both in traditional and reform classrooms, are compared. The content analysis findings show that the examples in both textbooks are presented in a rather formal language and generally highlight procedural knowledge. And, even though the examples in the reform book chosen are structured using multiple representations, only a small number of them incorporated the usage of instructional technology. The lecturers' views which were gathered indicated that, although, on the one hand, the example structures of the traditional textbook largely overlapped with the characteristics of the traditional approach, the example structures of the reform textbook, on the other hand, were found to be inconsistent with the characteristics of the reform approach, especially with regard to its environment and knowledge components. At the end of the paper, some suggestions for further studies are provided for book authors and researchers.
Crane, Thomas W.
The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.
The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for determining the content and distribution of a thermal neutron absorbing material within an object. Neutrons having an energy higher than thermal neutrons are generated and thermalized. The thermal neutrons are detected and counted. The object is placed between the neutron generator and the neutron detector. The reduction in the neutron flux corresponds to the amount of thermal neutron absorbing material in the object. The object is advanced past the neutron generator and neutron detector to obtain neutron flux data for each segment of the object. The object may comprise a space reactor heat pipe and the thermal neutron absorbing material may comprise lithium.
Mthethwa-Kunene, Khetsiwe Eunice Faith
Recent trends show that learners' enrolment and performance in science at secondary school level is dwindling. Some science topics including genetics in biology are said to be difficult for learners to learn and thus they perform poorly in examinations. Teacher knowledge base, particularly topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), has been identified by many researchers as an important factor that is linked with learner understanding and achievement in science. This qualitative study was an attempt to explore the PCK of four successful biology teachers and how they developed it in the context of teaching genetics. The purposive sampling technique was employed to select the participating teachers based on their schools' performance in biology public examinations and recommendations by science specialists and school principals. Pedagogical content knowledge was used as a theoretical framework for the study, which guided the inquiry in data collection, analysis and discussion of the research findings. The study adopted the case study method and various sources of evidence including concept maps, lesson plans, pre-lesson interviews, lesson observations, post-teaching teacher questionnaire, post-lesson interviews and document analysis were used to collect data on teachers' PCK as well as how PCK was assumed to have developed. The data were analysed in an attempt to determine the individual teachers' school genetics' content knowledge, related knowledge of instructional strategies and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The analysis involved an iterative process of coding data into PCK categories of content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and knowledge of learners' preconceptions and learning difficulties. The findings of the study indicate that the four successful biology teachers generally have the necessary content knowledge of school genetics, used certain topic-specific instructional strategies, but lacked knowledge of
Stasinakis, Panagiotis K.; Athanasiou, Kyriacos
Evolution Teaching (ET) among in-service teachers in Greece was examined in an attempt to evaluate their Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Evolution teaching is a problematic issue. For this purpose, we constructed a questionnaire that was distributed to the target population and to which 181 teachers responded. We used quantitative method to…
Terpstra, Marjorie Ann
This study uses activity theory and current conceptions of knowledge for teaching content with technology to analyze the working knowledge and experience of a group of seven preservice teachers in order to yield insights into how preservice teachers learn to teach with technology. Seven preservice teachers, two secondary and five elementary, who…
Monte-Sano, Chauncey; Budano, Christopher
Using artifacts of teachers' practices, classroom observations, and teacher interviews, we explore the development and enactment of 2 novices' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching history. We identify and track 4 components of PCK that are relevant to teaching history: representing history, transforming history, attending to students'…
Thota, Neena; Whitfield, Richard
This article describes a holistic approach to designing an introductory, object-oriented programming course. The design is grounded in constructivism and pedagogy of phenomenography. We use constructive alignment as the framework to align assessments, learning, and teaching with planned learning outcomes. We plan learning and teaching activities, and media with an understanding of variation theory and the ways in which students learn to program. We outline the implementation of the course, and discuss the findings from the first cycle of an action research study with a small sample of undergraduate students. An investigation of the preferred (deep/surface) learning approaches of the students led us to believe that these approaches can be influenced through course design. Personal constructs of the students, elicited through the repertory grid technique, revealed that rich inventories of learning resources are highly valued. We comment on the transformational processes of the experience of the participants, and identify areas for further refinement and investigation in the next action research cycle.
in higher education. In their effort to share information, higher education institutions would benefit more from a Content Management System in...within the separate domains of naval Education and Training, and provided a prototype of a Content Management System for institutions of higher learning.
Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.; Block, Martin
Teaching object-control skills to students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult due to the unique challenges posed by the individual; however, it is necessary for the students' future success and ability to perform physical activities. Utilizing concepts from dynamic systems theory and Newell's constraint approach, object-control…
Murray, Jeffrey W.
Since its inception in 2009, the Undergraduate Teaching Assistant Program (in the Department of Focused Inquiry at Virginia Commonwealth University) has evolved and expanded into an amalgamation of three distinct but overlapping elements: (i) teaching practicum, (ii) leadership seminar, and (iii) service learning experience. But only recently have…
Belén Borrachero, Ana; Brígido, María; Mellado, Lucía; Costillo, Emilio; Mellado, Vicente
Background:Until recently, the affective components of education had long been undervalued. Today, one finds ever more studies on cognitive and affective interrelationships that are lending support to the idea that affect and cognition are best understood when viewed as independent and complementary mental functions. Purpose:The present work analyses the emotions of prospective secondary education teachers, distinguishing them by gender, in relation to the teaching of Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry in order to contribute to designing subsequent interventions targeted at improving science teachers' occupational health. Sample:The total sample consisted of 178 students (53 male and 125 female) of the post-graduate teaching certificate course at the University of Extremadura, all of whom were prospective secondary school teachers. We also worked with a sub-sample of 66 Science and Engineering graduates (33 male and 33 female). Design and methods:A questionnaire was prepared that includes items on each of the emotions that the prospective teacher might feel when teaching the science content of the proposed courses. The chi-squared test was used to determine whether a relationship exists between emotions and the variable gender when it came to their teaching Biology, Geology, Physics and Chemistry at the compulsory secondary education level. Results:The results showed that the male teachers more frequently report positive emotions than the female. The latter manifested an increase in negative emotions in teaching Geology, Physics and Chemistry content. And the study of the sub-sample showed positive emotions are more frequently reported than negative ones in all four subjects, with this being particularly so in Biology. Conclusions:The study of emotions is vital in the educational formation of prospective secondary teachers. These students will soon face day-to-day life in the classroom, and many of them, especially the women, declare themselves to be
Eikeseth, Svein; Hayward, Diane W
We assessed whether 2 preschoolers with autism learned to discriminate between the sounds of musical instruments more rapidly than the spoken names of the instruments. After the children learned the sound-object relations more rapidly than the name-object relations, we then evaluated a prompt-delay procedure for transferring stimulus control from the sounds to the names of the instruments. The prompt-delay procedure facilitated the acquisition of name-object relations for both children.
Rosenkränzer, Frank; Kramer, Tim; Hörsch, Christian; Schuler, Stephan; Rieß, Werner
The understanding of complex, dynamic and animate systems has a special standing in education for sustainable development and biology. Thus one important role of science teacher education is to promote student teachers' Content Related Knowledge (CRK) for teaching systems thinking, consisting of extensive Content Knowledge (CK) and well formed…
Morse, M. Lynn
This article concerns the use of an historical event to teach interdisciplinary design and reading strategies to content area preservice teachers at a Connecticut state university. The course, a requirement for state certification, seeks to give secondary content area teachers strategies to help struggling readers. Teachers from all subject areas…
Hampton, J.; Simons, R.
Eikeseth, Svein; Hayward, Diane W.
We assessed whether 2 preschoolers with autism learned to discriminate between the sounds of musical instruments more rapidly than the spoken names of the instruments. After the children learned the sound-object relations more rapidly than the name-object relations, we then evaluated a prompt-delay procedure for transferring stimulus control from…
Reading in the Social Studies and Natural Science Content Area: A Phenomenological Study of the Beliefs, Attitudes, and Strategies Sixth and Seventh Grade Content Area Teachers Use to Teach below Grade Level Readers
Clark, Lisa A.
The purposes of this study were to identify the attitudes and beliefs content teachers have concerning teaching reading in the content area to below level readers and to identify specific instructional strategies that are used to teach students who are below grade level the content area material. Twelve participants were selected, using maximum…
Engaging teaching material through performance art and music can improve the long-term retention of scientific content. Additionally, the development of effective performance skills are a powerful tool to communicate scientific concepts and information to a broader audience that can have many positive benefits in terms of career development and the delivery of professional presentations. While arts integration has been shown to increase student engagement and achievement, relevant artistic materials are still required for use as supplemental activities in STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) courses. I will present an original performance poem, "Tectonic Petrameter: A Journey Through Earth History," with instructions for its implementation as a play in pre-university and undergraduate geoscience classrooms. "Tectonic Petrameter" uses a dynamic combination of rhythm and rhyme to teach the geological time scale, fundamental concepts in geology and important events in Earth history. I propose that using performance arts, such as "Tectonic Petrameter" and other creative art forms, may be an avenue for breaking down barriers related to teaching students and the broader non-scientific community about Earth's long and complex history.
Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter
The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs have integrated interprofessional teamwork into their clinical training, there is a gap in the nursing programs where introduction of interprofessional teamwork in clinical training has been limited. Current challenges are related to organizational issues (e.g. lack of institutional collaboration), practical difficulties (e.g. finding time to bring students of various professions together) and possibly managerial issues (e.g. lack of strategic perspective and change management).
Lukasiak, Jason; Agostinho, Shirley; Burnett, Ian; Drury, Gerrard; Goodes, Jason; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori; Harper, Barry
This paper presents a platform-independent method for packaging learning objects and learning designs. The method, entitled a Smart Learning Design Framework, is based on the MPEG-21 standard, and uses IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) to provide bibliographic, technical, and pedagogical descriptors for the retrieval and description of learning…
Baecher, Laura; Farnsworth, Tim; Ediger, Anne
The purpose of this research was to investigate the major patterns in content-based instruction (CBI) lesson plans among practicum teachers at the final stage of an MA TESOL program. One hundred and seven lesson plans were coded according to a typology developed to evaluate clarity and identify areas of potential difficulty in the design of…
Watson, Jason; Ahmed, Pervaiz K.; Hardaker, Glenn
Purpose: This research aims to investigate how a generic web-based ITS can be created which will adapt the training content in real time, to the needs of the individual trainee across any domain. Design/methodology/approach: After examining the various alternatives SCORM was adopted in this project because it provided an infrastructure that makes…
Gauss, Boris; Urbas, Leon
Reports the design and evaluation of a prototype for learning modules compliant to the SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model) standard for use with hypermedia systems in Web-based instruction. Discusses a study of undergraduates that considered relations between individual differences in learner characteristics, including intrinsic…
Carr, D.; Felce, J.
Background: Children who have a combination of language and developmental disabilities with autism often experience major difficulties in learning relations between objects and their graphic representations. Therefore, they would benefit from teaching procedures that minimize their difficulties in acquiring these relations. This study compared two…
XAVIER, PATRICK G.; HENRY, TYSON R.; LAFARGE, ROBERT A.; MEIRANS, LILITA; RAY, LAWRENCE P.
The Geometric Search Engine is a software system for storing and searching a database of geometric models. The database maybe searched for modeled objects similar in shape to a target model supplied by the user. The database models are generally from CAD models while the target model may be either a CAD model or a model generated from range data collected from a physical object. This document describes key generation, database layout, and search of the database.
Ward, Annmarie Rehm
This comparative case study examines the relationship between substantive content knowledge (SCK) of science concepts and inquiry-based teaching of those concepts through fine-grained analysis of the science teaching practice of three elementary student teachers in their final year of teacher preparation carried out within an elementary professional development school program (a partnership between a major northeastern university and a neighboring school district), resulting in numerous similarities in teaching context among the three participants. I examined four elements for each participant followed by cross-case analysis: (1) specific problematic content knowledge-related teaching events that arose during inquiry-based teaching of concepts of sound and light; (2) their level of knowledge of those concepts examined in terms of depth, interconnectedness, organization and understanding of importance of underlying concepts; (3) their individual classroom inquiry style (CIS) described in terms of eight emergent aspects and representing consistencies over multiple lessons in the way each participant implemented classroom inquiry for teaching science concepts; and (4) their orientations toward teaching science (OTS). Key findings indicate (1) the majority of problematic events exhibited by each participant involved choosing and implementing important learning goals; (2) using emergent aspects of CIS to analyze teaching allowed differentiation among the three participants' very similar inquiry-based teaching; (3) patterns of clustering of aspects revealed interrelationships among them; (4) limitations in SCK could account for all of the observed problematic events, however CIS provided alternative and often more plausible explanations, contradicting current literature ascribing limitations in conversationally risky practice to limitations in SCK; (5) Certain aspects of CIS were more consistently associated with SCK, while other aspects were more closely linked to
LabVIEW is a graphic object-oriented computer language developed to facilitate hardware/software communication. LabVIEW is a complete computer language that can be used like Basic, FORTRAN, or C. In LabVIEW one creates virtual instruments that aesthetically look like real instruments but are controlled by sophisticated computer programs. There are several levels of data acquisition VIs that make it easy to control data flow, and many signal processing and analysis algorithms come with the software as premade VIs. In the classroom, the similarity between virtual and real instruments helps students understand how information is passed between the computer and attached instruments. The software may be used in the absence of hardware so that students can work at home as well as in the classroom. This article demonstrates how LabVIEW can be used to control data flow between computers and instruments, points out important features for signal processing and analysis, and shows how virtual instruments may be used in place of physical instrumentation. Applications of LabVIEW to the teaching laboratory are also discussed, and a plausible course outline is given.
Badanelli, Ana Maria
This article aims to give an overview of the use and the meaning of images in two types of school textbooks used in Spain from the early twentieth century until the end of the 1960s: the textbooks "Lecciones de cosas" ("object lessons") and those used for the teaching of religion. For this analysis the iconographic-iconological…
Describes the results of the use of computer-based tutorials to teach the pathology of the cardiovascular system in a veterinary school in the United Kingdom. Concludes that the combined worksheet and computer based learning format is suitable for teaching veterinary pathology. (LRW)
Alkazemi, Basem Y.; Grami, Grami M.
Teaching Polymorphism can be best implemented by using a combination of bottom-up and top-down approaches. However, from our observation and students' self-reporting, the former seems to be the predominant in the Saudi context. We try to investigate whether applying a more balanced approach in teaching the comprehensive concept of Polymorphism…
Supprakob, Surayot; Faikhamta, Chatree; Suwanruji, Potjanart
Pedagogical content knowledge for teaching the nature of science (PCK for NOS) has attracted interest in recent decades. This study investigated the PCK for NOS of six novice chemistry teachers with various educational backgrounds. An interpretive case study was performed. Multiple data sources including classroom observations, field notes,…
Thies, Christian; Schmidt Borreda, Marcel; Seidl, Thomas; Lehmann, Thomas M.
Multiscale analysis provides a complete hierarchical partitioning of images into visually plausible regions. Each of them is formally characterized by a feature vector describing shape, texture and scale properties. Consequently, object extraction becomes a classification of the feature vectors. Classifiers are trained by relevant and irrelevant regions labeled as object and remaining partitions, respectively. A trained classifier is applicable to yet uncategorized partitionings to identify the corresponding region's classes. Such an approach enables retrieval of a-priori unknown objects within a point-and-click interface. In this work, the classification pipeline consists of a framework for data selection, feature selection, classifier training, classification of testing data, and evaluation. According to the no-free-lunch-theorem of supervised learning, the appropriate classification pipeline is determined experimentally. Therefore, each of the steps is varied by state-of-the-art methods and the respective classification quality is measured. Selection of training data from the ground truth is supported by bootstrapping, variance pooling, virtual training data, and cross validation. Feature selection for dimension reduction is performed by linear discriminant analysis, principal component analysis, and greedy selection. Competing classifiers are k-nearest-neighbor, Bayesian classifier, and the support vector machine. Quality is measured by precision and recall to reflect the retrieval task. A set of 105 hand radiographs from clinical routine serves as ground truth, where the metacarpal bones have been labeled manually. In total, 368 out of 39.017 regions are identified as relevant. In initial experiments for feature selection with the support vector machine have been obtained recall, precision and F-measure of 0.58, 0.67, and 0,62, respectively.
Espejo-Trung, Luciana Cardoso; Elian, Silvia Nagib; Luz, Maria Aparecia Alves De Cerqueira
Learning objects (LOs) associated with augmented reality have been used as attractive new technologic tools in the educational process. However, the acceptance of new LOs must be verified with the purpose of using these innovations in the learning process in general. The aim of this study was to develop a new LO and investigate the acceptance of gold onlay in teaching preparation design at a dental school in Brazil. Questionnaires were designed to assess, first, the users' computational ability and knowledge of computers (Q1) and, second, the users' acceptance of the new LO (Q2). For both questionnaires, the internal consistency index was calculated to determine whether the questions were measuring the same construct. The reliability of Q2 was measured with a retest procedure. The LO was tested by dental students (n=28), professors and postgraduate students in dentistry and prosthetics (n=30), and dentists participating in a continuing education or remedial course in dentistry and/or prosthetics (n=19). Analyses of internal consistency (Kappa coefficient and Cronbach's alpha) demonstrated a high degree of confidence in the questionnaires. Tests for simple linear regressions were conducted between the response variable (Q2) and the following explanative variables: the Q1 score, age, gender, and group. The results showed wide acceptance regardless of the subjects' computational ability (p=0.99; R2=0), gender (p=0.27; R2=1.6%), age (p=0.27; R2=0.1%), or group (p=0.53; R2=1.9%). The methodology used enabled the development of an LO with a high index of acceptance for all groups.
Miller, S D W; Butler, M W; Meagher, F; Costello, R W; McElvaney, N G
It can be challenging to teach and assess medical students successfully in the setting of a hospital ward using real patients. We describe a novel method of providing weekly formative clinical assessment and teaching to final year students on an acute medical ward: The Team Objective Structured Bedside Assessment (TOSBA). The TOSBA involves three groups of five students rotating through three ward-based stations (each station consists of an inpatient and facilitator). Each group spends 25 minutes at a bedside station where the facilitator asks consecutive students to perform one of five clinical tasks. Every student receives a standardised grade and is provided with educational feedback at each of the three stations. We report our 15-month experience using the TOSBA format to assess and teach a large number of medical students on a weekly basis. We discuss the advantages and potential drawbacks of our approach.
An investigation into the utilization of a constructivist teaching strategy to improve preservice elementary teachers geological content knowledge: Is there a relationship between intellectual level and content understanding?
White, Orvil L.
In that the topic of geological time and its related concepts is both complex and abstract students, at all levels of education, find it difficult to understand. This study sought to answer four questions about students enrolled in a 300 level science teaching methods course and those enrolled in an introductory (100 level) geoscience course with regard to the teaching and learning about geological time. The students had previous earth science, biology, and geology coursework in high school and college. The questions addressed were; what are the levels of intellectual development of these students, what was their content understanding at the start of the study, would a constructivists style of teaching improve their content understand and is here a relationship between their intellectual level and their content understanding? There were 36 education students and 49 geoscience students, of which 20 were also majoring in education participating in the study. The students were assessed for their intellectual level and given a multiple-choice geology content knowledge assessment (GCKA) pretest dealing with absolute and relative time related questions and were ask to develop a graphic model (timeline) of the geological history of the Earth. Following the pretest the students participated in a lesson on constructivist teaching using geological time as its central theme. This intervention was followed, 56 days later, by a posttest consisting of another assessment of intellectual level, the content knowledge assessment and the graphic timeline. The results were analyzed both in a quantitative and qualitative manner and the data showed a significant increase in content knowledge, for the education students, on the GCKA. However, none of the students improved on their development of the graphic timelines over the course of the study. The most improvement was demonstrated by students at the two lower levels, of four on Perry's (1980), continuum of intellectual development. At
Sasser, Selena Kay
This study examined the effects of differing amounts of structure within the problem based learning instructional model on elementary preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs, including personal science teaching efficacy and science teaching outcome expectancy, and content knowledge acquisition. This study involved sixty (60) undergraduate elementary preservice teachers enrolled in three sections of elementary science methods classes at a large Midwestern research university. This study used a quasi-experimental nonequivalent design to collect and analyze both quantitative and qualitative data. Participants completed instruments designed to assess science teaching efficacy beliefs, science background, and demographic data. Quantitative data from pre and posttests was obtained using the science teaching efficacy belief instrument-preservice (STEBI-B) developed by Enochs and Riggs (1990) and modified by Bleicher (2004). Data collection instruments also included a demographic questionnaire, an analytic rubric, and a structured interview; both created by the researcher. Quantitative data was analyzed by conducting ANCOVA, paired samples t-test, and independent samples t-test. Qualitative data was analyzed using coding and themes. Each of the treatment groups received the same problem scenario, one group experienced a more structured PBL setting, and one group experienced a limited structure PBL setting. Research personnel administered pre and posttests to determine the elementary preservice teachers' science teaching efficacy beliefs. The results show elementary preservice teachers'science teaching efficacy beliefs can be influence by the problem based learning instructional model. This study did not find that the amount of structure in the form of core ideas to consider and resources for further research increased science teaching efficacy beliefs in this sample. Results from the science content knowledge rubric indicated that structure can increase
Clynes, Mary P
The lecture is the most widely used teaching strategy in adult education programmes. While it has advantages, it is criticised for its lack of student engagement and inability to stimulate higher-order thinking. The aim of this paper is to detail a novice teacher's journey using the lecture as a teaching strategy. The use of an action research approach provided the teacher with a framework to research own learning. In addition, the collaborative process inherent in action research resulted in students being invited to evaluate the teaching. The journey takes the teacher from a teacher-centred approach to teaching and learning to a student-centred approach. The influence of the teacher's own educational encounters is explored. In common with many novice teachers, the focus on content delivery and difficulty asking questions are two key issues. The gradual implementation of strategies to allow for more student engagement is discussed and advice is offered to the novice teacher.
Nordin, Razanawati; Eng, Lin Siew
Most learners studying English language feel that their educators use irrelevant, uninteresting, and culturally unfamiliar reading materials for teaching reading. As a result, most of them struggle to comprehend the English language texts used by the teachers. Therefore, the aim of this research is to investigate the genre and content preferences…
Ozturk, Ibrahim Hakki
This paper seeks to explore a web-based teaching activity designed for technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) development in pre-service history teacher education in Turkey. The study is conducted by action research methodology. Using a project-based learning (PBL) approach, the designed activity aims to provide the necessary…
Bergman, Daniel J.; Morphew, Jason
The preparation of elementary teachers to successfully teach science in their classrooms is a central issue in science education. The teacher preparation program at a large Midwestern university was modified to include a new science content course aimed at this need. A pre-/postassessment research model involved participants (N = 154) completing a…
Calik, Muammer; Aytar, Ayse
The principal aim of this study is to determine what the extent of the prospective primary teachers' (PPT) pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is on "effect of human on environment" subject in grade 5 science and technology curriculum before and after "Teaching Practice" course. Within case study research methodology, the study…
Dzoole, Edith Mechelle
This research study examined 394 K-12 teacher interns' incorporation of multicultural content and theory into their teaching practices during a 16-week internship in schools, mostly located within a 30-mile radius of Mississippi State University. The teacher interns had completed all coursework and practicum hours required by their teacher…
Karl, Jennifer; Collins, Belva C.; Hager, Karen D.; Ault, Melinda Jones
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous prompting procedure in teaching four secondary students with moderate intellectual disability to acquire and generalize core content embedded in a functional activity. Data gathered within the context of a multiple probe design revealed that all participants learned the…
Murphy, Cliona; Smith, Greg
Many primary school teachers have insufficient content and pedagogical knowledge of science. This lack of knowledge can often lead to a lack of confidence and competence in teaching science. This article explores the impact of a year-long science methodology (curriculum science) course on second year Bachelor of Education (BEd) students'…
Reutebuch, Colleen K.
This brief describes the literacy coaching that was provided as part of the CREATE research project aimed at improving the teaching and learning of English learners in seventh-grade content areas. Coaching was intended to extend professional development and increase teacher capacity through multiple layers of support that included lesson…
Walter, Emily Marie
This study investigated the influence of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching macroevolution on non-science majors' knowledge of macroevolution and evolution acceptance. The nature and sources of an experienced faculty member's PCK and instruction as enacted PCK (Park & Oliver, 2008) were examined to consider the influence of these…
This study sought to understand the process of change elementary teachers experienced as they participated in mathematics professional development. This investigation explored the impact of mathematics professional development on teachers' content knowledge for teaching, their ability to implement innovative pedagogical practices, and the…
Heinrich, Sara; Collins, Belva C.; Knight, Victoria; Spriggs, Amy D.
Effects of an embedded simultaneous prompting procedure to teach STEM (science, technology, engineering, math) content to three secondary students with moderate intellectual disabilities in an inclusive general education classroom were evaluated in the current study. Students learned discrete (i.e., geometric figures, science vocabulary, or use of…
Meng, Chew Cheng; Sam, Lim Chap
The purpose of this study was to develop pre-service secondary teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) for teaching mathematics with The Geometer's Sketchpad (GSP) through Lesson Study (LS). Specifically, a single-group pretest-posttest design was employed to examine whether there was a significant difference in the…
Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma
Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…
Turkan, Sultan; Croft, Andrew; Bicknell, Jerome; Barnes, Andwatta
This paper offers a chain of evidence collected to identify and verify the domain of teacher knowledge and skills required to teach ELLs content effectively in mathematics, science, reading/English language arts, and social studies. We initially assessed this domain through a review of literature and state standards for nonspecialized teacher…
Grskovic, Janice A.; Trzcinka, Sheila M.
Secondary content teachers are more likely than ever before to be asked to provide instruction for students with disabilities in their classrooms. Despite years of recommendations for curricular reform, general education teachers continue to report feeling ill-prepared to teach students with disabilities. The purpose of this study was to identify…
This article describes experiences from a professional development project designed to prepare in-service eighth-grade mathematics teachers to develop, explore, and advance technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) in the teaching and learning of Algebra I. This article describes the process of the participating teachers' mathematical…
Baser, Derya; Kopcha, Theodore J.; Ozden, M. Yasar
This paper reports the development and validation process of a self-assessment survey that examines technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) among preservice teachers learning to teach English as a foreign language (EFL). The survey, called TPACK-EFL, aims to provide an assessment tool for preservice foreign language teachers that…
Yoon, Hye-Gyoung; Kim, Byoung Sug
The purpose of this study was to explore how Korean preservice elementary teachers' beliefs about nature of science (NOS) and their beliefs about constructivist teaching were structured and related and if any relation was prevalent in the content-specific contexts. As the same format, three versions of questionnaires were developed in three…
Aguirre, Julia M.; Zavala, Maria del Rosario; Katanyoutanant, Tiffany
This study documents and describes efforts to develop robust forms of pre-service teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through a culturally responsive mathematics teaching approach. Embedded in a university K-8 mathematics methods course emphasising the connections among mathematics, children's mathematical thinking, and children's…
Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten
Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation.
Schmitt, J.; Mogk, D.; Swanson, E.; Woolbaugh, W.
With funding from the American Geophysical Union's Linkages Program, faculty from the Departments of Earth Sciences and Education at Montana State University (MSU), and a local master teacher, have endeavored to develop a training program in Geology for future geoscience teachers in Montana. Presently, biology and geoscience are the most common taught secondary science subjects in Montana public schools and yet MSU lacks a pre-service teacher training program in geology. The goal of this degree program is to produce future geoscience teachers capable of applying in-depth understanding of Earth Systems Science, expertise in scientific research design and implementation, and a strong pedagogical foundation to their teaching. Graduates will receive a degree in Earth Sciences and be certified to teach General Science, Physical Science, and Geoscience in Montana schools. The degree program will include geology curricular components that achieve content goals and meet University graduation and State certification requirements, and pedagogical components aimed at instilling excellence in teaching. Majors will develop expertise in Earth System Science, including an understanding of the connections of the geosciences to societal issues and student's everyday lives, as well as an understanding of scientific inquiry through first-hand experience in research design and implementation. Advisors will target students early in their undergraduate career for participation in this 5-year program. Curricula will include 39 credits of Education coursework necessary for certification by the State, 36 credits of geology coursework, 51 credits of allied science and math courses, and 14 credits of University core. Development of this program coincides with a major institution-funded reassessment of the entire undergraduate Earth Sciences curriculum that will result in introduction of skills training and utilization of alternative instructional methods at appropriate curricular levels
Hussain, Riffat Parveen
Routine work in nuclear medicine requires the careful elution of radioactivity and its subsequent, storage and handling. Though all effort is maintained to prevent any "spill" of this radioactivity, accidents are bound to happen. The response to this spill is a methodically worked out a plan that is written and adopted as a "standard operating procedure." This protocol is taught to all involved in the area of working as a mock drill/apprenticeship model. No formal evaluation of learning is in place except for the mock drills. The objectively structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) is a variation on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, which is a form of workplace based assessment. The OSATS is cited in the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education evaluation toolbox on the website as the most desirable evaluation tool for the patient care topics. It is the objective of this paper is to introduce the "OSATS" for teaching, and assessment of the learning, of the protocol for the management of radioactive spill. As a review of the literature on the subject failed to reveal any such teaching protocol/material/document for this important technical skill, we hope that it may act as a landmark for the development of teaching and assessment of other technical skills also.
Nist, Sherrie L.; And Others
Argues that teaching students the process of comprehension and ways to improve their own comprehension helps to develop skills in reluctant or poor readers. Offers teaching ideas that involve a variety of reading materials. (FL)
Alford, John; Brock, Jonathan
Schools of public policy and administration are increasingly adopting interactive case teaching (long used in business schools) as one of their primary pedagogical methods -- not least because of its usefulness in both stimulating engagement by students and helping them turn that engagement into learning. This article and its companion piece…
McKay, Jim; Pearson, Kent
Strategies that may be useful in helping undergraduates develop a critical view of sport are presented in this article. Several ethical problems that may arise from teaching sociology of sport in a way that contradicts typical assumptions about sport are discussed. (Author/DF)
The cumulative tale "the house that Jack built" is used as an analogy for flawed theories. This paper considers how the marketisation of higher education in neoliberal countries like England is affecting teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions. Neoliberal policy approaches resulting in the marketisation of higher education…
Wingenbach, Gary J.; White, Judith McIntosh; Degenhart, Shannon; Pannkuk, Tim; Kujawski, Jenna
Self-efficacy beliefs are defined as context-specific assessments of one's competence to perform specific tasks, influence one's efforts, persistence, and resilience to succeed in a given task. Such beliefs are important determinants when considering agricultural science teachers' subject matter knowledge, teaching comfort levels, and their…
Strelow, Ann C.
A research project was conducted to describe the curricula and teaching methods of senior peer counselor training projects in the United States. Senior peer counselor training projects were identified through contacts with state and territorial agencies on aging and with professionals in aging and mental health centers. Project directors were…
Depradine, Colin; Gay, Glenda
With the strong link between programming and the underlying technology, the incorporation of computer technology into the teaching of a programming language course should be a natural progression. However, the abstract nature of programming can make such integration a difficult prospect to achieve. As a result, the main development tool, the…
The Science Teaching Advancement through Modeling Physical Science (STAMPS) professional development workshop was evaluated for effectiveness in improving teachers' and students' content knowledge. Previous research has shown modeling to be an effective method of instruction for improving student and teacher content knowledge, evidenced by assessment scores. Data includes teacher scores on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI; Hestenes, Wells, & Swackhamer, 1992) and the Chemistry Concept Inventory (CCI; Jenkins, Birk, Bauer, Krause, & Pavelich, 2004), as well as student scores on a physics and chemistry assessment. Quantitative data is supported by teacher responses to a post workshop survey and classroom observations. Evaluation of the data shows that the STAMPS professional development workshop was successful in improving both student and teacher content knowledge. Conclusions and suggestions for future study are also included.
Rinfrette, Elaine S.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Coyle, James P.; Jackson, Kelly F.; Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Shulman, Lawrence
Teaching in higher education is often not addressed in doctoral education, even though many doctoral graduates will eventually teach. This article describes a biweekly teaching workshop, presents pitfalls and challenges that beginning instructors face, and advocates pedagogical training for doctoral students. Led by a well-known social work…
Holec, Stanislav; Pfefferová, Miriam Spodniaková
Paper focuses on issues of physics teaching in primary and secondary schools and secondary vocational education. Physics teaching is discussed in the context of science education with the aim of not increasing the range of knowledge, but with an emphasis on the use of the most effective methods of teaching, for example inquiry-oriented activities by students.
Discussions on history teaching in Turkey indicate that the previous versions of the history curriculum and the pedagogy of history in the country bear many problems and deficiencies. The problems of Turkish history curriculum mainly arise from the perspectives it takes and the selection of its content. Since 2003, there have been extensive…
Bozkurt, Orçun; Kaya, Osman Nafiz
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pedagogical content knowledge of Prospective Science Teachers (PSTs) on the topic of "ozone layer depletion." In order to explore PSTs' subject matter knowledge on ozone layer depletion, they were given a form of multiple-choice test where they needed to write the reasons behind their answers. This test was completed by 140 PSTs in their final year at the College of Education. Individual interviews were carried out with 42 randomly selected PSTs to determine their pedagogical knowledge about ozone layer depletion. Data were obtained from the study which indicate that the PSTs did not have adequate subject matter and pedagogical knowledge to teach the topic of ozone layer depletion to middle school students. It was also evident that the PSTs held various misconceptions related to ozone layer depletion. PSTs' inadequate pedagogical knowledge was found in the areas of the curriculum, learning difficulties of students, and instructional strategies and activities. This study provides some pedagogical implications for the training of science teachers.
Background: Understanding the nature of science (NOS) has been a key objective in teaching sciences for many years. Despite the importance of this goal it is, until this day, a complex challenge that we are far from achieving. Purpose: The study was conducted in order to further the understanding of the NOS amongst preservice teachers. It explores…
Corey, Robert C.
In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology in the classroom demand attention. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand the professional and educational experiences of six English faculty members teaching undergraduate courses at Midwest universities. Using the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- TPACK (Koehler and Mishra 2008), the major focus of the study was to determine how faculty members understood what characterized the nature of teaching with technology in undergraduate classrooms. Results of this study revealed five themes showing how the participants were introduced to technology, how they assimilated it into their pedagogy, and how they integrated it into teaching practice. This study has the potential to impact the nature of illustrating the methods and techniques used by the six participants as they merge technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge and set in motion classroom practices that assist faculty at all levels to develop and teach technology skills necessary for the 21st century and to better prepare students for thinking critically about how to use digital advances.
Somers, Judy L.
This qualitative study examined seven preservice teachers' perceptions of their science content knowledge, teaching practices, and reflective processes through the use of the metacognitive strategy of concept maps. Included in the paper is a review of literature in the areas of preservice teachers' perceptions of teaching, concept development, concept mapping, science content understanding, and reflective process as a part of metacognition. The key questions addressed include the use of concept maps to indicate organization and understanding of science content, mapping strategies to indicate perceptions of teaching practice, and the influence of concept maps on reflective process. There is also a comparison of preservice teachers' perceptions of concept map usage with the purposes and practices of maps as described by experienced teachers. Data were collected primarily through interviews, observations, a pre and post concept mapping activity, and an analysis of those concept maps using a rubric developed for this study. Findings showed that concept map usage clarified students' understanding of the organization and relationships within content area and that the process of creating the concept maps increased participants' understanding of the selected content. The participants felt that the visual element of concept mapping was an important factor in improving content understanding. These participants saw benefit in using concept maps as planning tools and as instructional tools. They did not recognize the use of concept maps as assessment tools. When the participants were able to find personal relevance in and through their concept maps they were better able to be reflective about the process. The experienced teachers discussed student understanding and skill development as the primary purpose of concept map usage, while they were able to use concept maps to accomplish multiple purposes in practice.
Carlson, David Lee; Archambault, Leanna
Although there is a vast research base on the literacy practices of adolescents and the issues surrounding the integration of technology despite current widespread access to tools and the Internet (Cuban, 2003), very little has been completed on the attempts of teacher educators to integrate technology within a specific content area to prepare…
What Works Clearinghouse, 2008
This study examined whether whether teaching scientific concepts using everyday language before introducing scientific terminology improves the understanding of these concepts. The research described in this article is consistent with What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) evidence standards. Strengths: The study is a well implemented randomized…
Teaching programming concepts in a more object-oriented way is a growing trend in Computer Science education. This paper takes the idea of abstraction-first teaching a step further, by using Bloom's Taxonomy to design a course to present factual content early, followed by higher-level cognitive skills. In the course described here, factual content…
The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of what is known about teaching ethics in engineering, science, and related disciplines. Such a summary should provide a useful starting point for preparation of a detailed curriculum for teaching the ethics of geo-coded information systems broadly understood ("GIS ethics" for short).…
This paper presents the use of the ABCD model as a way to train teachers of English to write clear and specific objectives. It is stated here that most of the instructional objectives written by pre-service teachers are inadequately formulated. With this in mind, pre-service teachers (n = 46) were trained in writing instructional objectives…
Mestre, Lori S.; Baures, Lisa; Niedbala, Mona; Bishop, Corinne; Cantrell, Sarah; Perez, Alice; Silfen, Kate
Based on information gathered from two discussion sessions moderated by members of the Education and Behavioral Sciences Section's Online Learning Research Committee a survey was conducted to identify how librarians use course/learning management systems and learning objects to deliver instruction. Objectives of the study were to identify the…
Templin, Carl R.; Christensen, David
This paper reports the results of a ten-year effort to establish ethics as a learning objective for all business students, to assess the effectiveness in achieving that learning objective and to incorporate ethical conduct as a part of the school's organizational culture. First, it addresses the importance of ethics instruction for all business…
Wardrip, Peter; Tobey, Jennifer
Many teachers fall into the pattern of "assumptive teaching" (Herber 1970), assuming that other instructors will teach students the important strategies they need for learning. In this case, tools and strategies may not be taught outside of reading or language arts because a science teacher can say, "It's not my job." However, a sixth-grade team…
Judson, Thomas W.; Leingang, Matthew
Our investigation is concerned with new teachers developing their ability to understand student thinking. We conducted individual interviews with graduate students teaching calculus for the first time, interviewing a representative sample of graduate students before and after their first teaching assignment. The interviews were transcribed and…
Kareva, Veronika; Echevarria, Jana
In this paper we present a comprehensive model of instruction for providing consistent, high quality teaching to L2 students. This model, the SIOP Model (Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol), provides an explicit framework for organizing instructional practices to optimize the effectiveness of teaching second and foreign language learners.…
Rhea, Marilyn; Lucido, Patricia; Gregerson-Malm, Cheryl
These series of lessons uses the process of student inquiry to teach the concepts of force and motion identified in the National Science Education Standards for grades 5-8. The lesson plan also uses technology as a teaching tool through the use of interactive Web sites. The lessons are built on the 5-E format and feature imbedded assessments.
Chinnappan, Mohan; Desplat, Bethany
The teaching of mathematics for the development of numeracy is emerging to be an important goal of recent reforms. In broad terms, numeracy involves the application of mathematical concepts and procedures in the understanding and solution of a range of problems including real-life problems. Teaching for numeracy, thus calls for skills in…
Rogers, Sue F.; Compton, M. Elizabeth
A survey assessed the accomplishments of the first required freshman interdisciplinary studies course at a small, private liberal arts college. In the fall of 1988, 12 instructors from 7 disciplines began teaching the course which included the teaching and application of reading, writing, and study skills. At the end of the 1988-89 academic year,…
da Silva, Karina T. F.
In spite of the increased use of virtual worlds for language teaching and learning, few empirical studies have addressed the teachers' perspectives regarding teaching in these 3D virtual environments. An understanding of how virtual worlds such as Second Life may be beneficial for the design of enriching language learning experiences helps…
Halim, Lilia; Meerah, Subahan Mohd.
Reports on a study that examined Malaysian science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. Concludes that trainee teachers' lack pedagogical content knowledge of conceptual change strategies. (Contains 23 references.) (DDR)
Recent statements from teachers of English and literacy (NCTE, 2007) have voiced the failure of schools to help minority students and ELLs close the literacy achievement gap and the responsibility of all teachers to help with this endeavor. Central to this effort in secondary schools are the content area teachers, as their subjects constitute the bulk of school day instruction. While there have been small studies and field reports of what content teachers are or are not teaching in the way of literacy instruction (Fisher and Ivey, 2005; Verplaste, 1996, 1998; Vacca and Vacca 1989), researchers have not had success measuring the literacy practices of content area teachers in a broad-based study. This study focuses specifically on what many researchers in both the content literacy and ESL fields have emphasized for promoting literacy in the classroom---teaching metacognitive strategies. Twelve metacognitive functions derived from a literacy strategies handbook are employed as a means to ascertain strategy usage within the lessons whether specifically known content strategies are named or not. The initial analysis is performed on over 100 lesson plans hosted at four prominent university science education sites, all within a five year period (2003-7). In addition to the lesson plan analysis, a review of 100 articles taken from five on-line science education journals reveal what the science education field addresses this issue. Findings suggest that while 80% of science teachers include some type of strategic teaching and learning in their lessons, only about 20% of science teachers explicitly utilize strategies as listed in content literacy manuals and promoted by literacy and ESL experts. Rather, most science teachers implicitly include these strategies within their lessons and/or promote their own subject-specific strategies in content teaching. Analysis of science education research and publications shows that there is a focus on literacy and specifically strategic
Valiyov, Boris M.; Yegorenkov, Vladimir D.; Valiyov, Boris M.
An object may appear to contravene Archimedes' principle if it is held in contact with the bottom of a container by suction. Does this mean that the principle should be redefined or is this case beyond its scope?
Lin, Wenwen; Yu, D. Y.; Wang, S.; Zhang, Chaoyong; Zhang, Sanqiang; Tian, Huiyu; Luo, Min; Liu, Shengqiang
In addition to energy consumption, the use of cutting fluids, deposition of worn tools and certain other manufacturing activities can have environmental impacts. All these activities cause carbon emission directly or indirectly; therefore, carbon emission can be used as an environmental criterion for machining systems. In this article, a direct method is proposed to quantify the carbon emissions in turning operations. To determine the coefficients in the quantitative method, real experimental data were obtained and analysed in MATLAB. Moreover, a multi-objective teaching-learning-based optimization algorithm is proposed, and two objectives to minimize carbon emissions and operation time are considered simultaneously. Cutting parameters were optimized by the proposed algorithm. Finally, the analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the optimal solution, which was found to be more environmentally friendly than the cutting parameters determined by the design of experiments method.
Selvam, Kayalvizhi; Vinod Kumar, D. M.; Siripuram, Ramakanth
In this paper, an optimization technique called peer enhanced teaching learning based optimization (PeTLBO) algorithm is used in multi-objective problem domain. The PeTLBO algorithm is parameter less so it reduced the computational burden. The proposed peer enhanced multi-objective based TLBO (PeMOTLBO) algorithm has been utilized to find a set of non-dominated optimal solutions [distributed generation (DG) location and sizing in distribution network]. The objectives considered are: real power loss and the voltage deviation subjected to voltage limits and maximum penetration level of DG in distribution network. Since the DG considered is capable of injecting real and reactive power to the distribution network the power factor is considered as 0.85 lead. The proposed peer enhanced multi-objective optimization technique provides different trade-off solutions in order to find the best compromise solution a fuzzy set theory approach has been used. The effectiveness of this proposed PeMOTLBO is tested on IEEE 33-bus and Indian 85-bus distribution system. The performance is validated with Pareto fronts and two performance metrics (C-metric and S-metric) by comparing with robust multi-objective technique called non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II and also with the basic TLBO.
Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke
Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms, and whether this teaching differs from traditional chemistry lessons, is scarce. This study aims to develop our understanding of what teaching looks like, according to students, in context-based chemistry classrooms compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. As such, it might also provide a better understanding of whether teachers implement and attain the intentions of curriculum developers. To study teacher behaviour we used three theoretical perspectives deemed to be important for student learning: a content perspective, a learning activities perspective, and an interpersonal perspective. Data were collected from 480 students in 24 secondary chemistry classes in the Netherlands. Our findings suggest that, according to the students, the changes in teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms imply a lessening of the emphasis on fundamental chemistry and the use of a teacher-centred approach, compared with traditional chemistry classrooms. However, teachers in context-based chemistry classrooms seem not to display more 'context-based' teaching behaviour, such as emphasizing the relation between chemistry, technology, and society and using a student-centred approach. Furthermore, students in context-based chemistry classrooms perceive their teachers as having less interpersonal control and showing less affiliation than teachers in traditional chemistry classrooms. Our findings should be interpreted in the context of former and daily experiences of both teachers and students. As only chemistry is reformed in the schools in which context-based chemistry is implemented, it is challenging for both students and teachers to
Usak, Muhammet; Ozden, Mustafa; Eilks, Ingo
This paper describes a case study focusing on the subject matter knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and beliefs about science teaching of student teachers in Turkey at the start of their university education. The topic of interest was that of teaching chemical reactions in secondary chemistry education. A written test was developed which…
Provost, Lauren E.
This work investigates middle school teachers' mathematics knowledge for teaching (MKT) as defined by Hill (2007). Within this two-part dissertation, the level of MKT was considered as well as the role of teacher beliefs in actual specialized content knowledge (SCK) use, a specific type of mathematics knowledge for teaching vital in quality…
Al-Najjar, Rana Abdel-Rahman
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate pronunciation teaching with regard to an EFL multi-skills textbook ("English for Palestine 10"). The evaluation was intended to identify the extent to which pronunciation teaching content incorporated in" English for Palestine 10," in addition to the related teachers' competency level match…
Describes an activity that can be used to help middle and secondary school students develop more informed understandings of some important aspects of the nature of science in the context of teaching Rutherford's experiments and atomic structure. (Author/MM)
Tan, Kok Siang; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai
Chemistry teachers face constraints when trying to integrate cognitive and affective objectives, and hence thoughtful lesson planning is required to achieve the goal. Chemistry teachers can educate students to be knowledgeable about chemical concepts, processes and the benefits of responsible practice by the chemical industry, while being aware,…
This guide is intended for all teachers who wish to enhance their curriculum by incorporating objects and photographs into their lesson plans. Kindergarten and elementary, middle, and high school classrooms can all benefit from expanded use of these materials. The guide can be used across a range of subject areas including history, community,…
Rule, Audrey C.; Furletti, Charles
This study compares the use of form and function analogy object boxes to more traditional lecture and worksheet instruction during a 10th-grade unit on human body systems. The study was conducted with two classes (N = 32) of mixed ability students at a high-needs rural high school in central New York State. The study used a pretest/posttest…
Costelloe, Eileen; Sherry, Elizabeth; Magee, Patricia
A collaboration between three higher education institutions in Ireland and two European partners has resulted in the design and development of reusable learning objects for undergraduate programming students that would assist in their learning. This international project conducted extensive research of over 600 students' examination scripts in…
Rojas, Alicia; Arbuckle, Melissa; Cabaniss, Deborah
Objective: The way in which the competencies for psychodynamic psychotherapy specified by the Psychiatry Residency Review Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education translate into the day-to-day work of individual supervision remains unstudied and unspecified. The authors hypothesized that despite the existence of…
American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.
This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…
Teachers are the most important factor in student learning (National Research Council, 1996); yet little is known about the specialized knowledge held by experienced teachers. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to make explicit the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching diffusion and osmosis held by experienced biology teachers and, second, to reveal how topic-specific PCK informs teacher practice. The Magnusson et al. (1999) PCK model served as the theoretical framework for the study. The overarching research question was: When teaching lessons on osmosis and diffusion, how do experienced biology teachers draw upon their topic-specific pedagogical content knowledge? Data sources included observations of two consecutive lessons, three semi-structured interviews, lesson plans, and student handouts. Data analysis indicated five of the six teachers held a constructivist orientation to science teaching and engaged students in explorations of diffusion and osmosis prior to introducing the concepts to students. Explanations for diffusion and osmosis were based upon students' observations and experiences during explorations. All six teachers used representations at the molecular, cellular, and plant organ levels to serve as foci for explorations of diffusion and osmosis. Three potential learning difficulties identified by the teachers included: (a) understanding vocabulary terms, (b) predicting the direction of osmosis, and (c) identifying random molecular motion as the driving force for diffusion and osmosis. Participants used student predictions as formative assessments to reveal misconceptions before instruction and evaluate conceptual understanding during instruction. This study includes implications for teacher preparation, research, and policy.
Spectroscopy is a key tool used in modern astronomical research. But, it's always been a difficult topic to teach or practice because the expense and complexity of the available tools. Over the past few years, there's been somewhat of a revolution in this field as new technologies have applied. In this presentation we'll review some new spectroscopy tools that enable educators, students and citizen scientists to do exciting spectroscopic work. With the addition of a simple, inexpensive grating, it's now possible to capture scientifically significant spectra of astronomical objects with small (6") telescopes and even just a DSLR. See the tools that citizen scientists are using to contribute data to pro-am collaborations around the world. We'll also examine a simple, surprisingly inexpensive, tripod-mounted spectrometer that can be used in the classroom for demonstrations and hands-on labs with gas tubes and other light sources. Both of the above instruments use a software program named RSpec, which is state of the art software suite that is easy to learn and easy to use. In this presentation we'll see these devices in operation and discuss how they can be used by educators to dramatically improve their teaching of this topic. You'll see how these tools can eliminate the frustration of hand-held rainbow foil and plastic spectrometers. And we'll review some exciting examples of astronomical spectra being collected by amateurs and educators.
Most educators feel that it is important to provide novice teachers with in-service training at the beginning of their teaching careers, and to continue with such programs throughout their professional lives. With this in mind, this document outlines a proposed in-service teacher education program for Japan. The paper considers the creation of…
Philip, Christo T.; Unruh, Kenneth P.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech
Translating basic sciences into a clinical framework has been approached through the implementation of various teaching techniques aimed at using a patient case scenario to facilitate learning. These techniques present students with a specific patient case and lead the students to discuss physiological processes through analysis of provided data…
Carlson, Christina V.
The purpose of this study was to address a gap in the research literature by describing the perceptions of Special Education teachers of students with intellectual disabilities (ID), regarding the paradigm shift required in their teaching practices as they strove to implement current educational reform legislation. Knowledge of the lived…
Mncube-Barnes, Fatima Maria
This study was designed to determine whether faculty members utilized collaboration tools within Desire2Learn Inc., in accordance with Chickering and Gamson's (1987) "Seven Principles of Good Practice: A Framework for Evaluating Effective Teaching in Undergraduate Education." The population for this study was faculty members at…
Iguchi, Carolyn M.
This research is an exploratory qualitative investigation into the challenges of teaching religious material to individuals with cognitive disabilities. The study setting was a single large evangelical Christian church known for excellence in ministry to individuals with disabilities and their families. The following issues were explored: (a)…
The article documents an intervention approach with learning disabled students which combines the effectiveness of Direct Instruction and mastery learning with the efficiency of technology (videodiscs and computers). Examples are given of effective technology use to teach earth science/chemistry, fractions, health, reasoning skills, and…
Cheung, Wai Ming
This research employed the Learning Study approach which refers to a blend of Japanese "lesson study" and design-based research to provide support to teachers to teach creatively in Chinese writing. It reports a serendipity finding that remarkable differences in the creativity scores among these classes were noted even though they had the same…
The older adult population in America will significantly increase in the future. Older adults have important needs for recreation and leisure services (Beland, 2002). The author taught a class titled "Leisure Services for Older Adults" for over 24 years at the University of Florida. He has taught gerontology and recreation by teaching about life…
Wallhead, Tristan; O'Sullivan, Mary
Background: Research on Sport Education (SE) has shown the curriculum model to be effective in motivating students to undertake specific role responsibilities and engage in the student-led tasks of the curriculum. Despite this level of engagement, emerging evidence suggests that student leadership within the peer teaching tasks of the curriculum…
Roettinger, Theresa Marie
Kindergarten, first and second grade teachers play an important role in the development of a student's understanding of mathematics. Consequently, in order to improve student achievement in mathematics, it is important to investigate the relationships that may exist among primary teachers' math profile, math teaching efficacy, and math pedagogy…
"Do I really have to teach reading?" This is the question many teachers of adolescents are asking, wondering how they can possibly add a new element to an already overloaded curriculum. And most are finding that the answer is "yes." If they want their students to learn complex new concepts in different disciplines, they often have to help their…
Bull, Kelly Byrne; Dulaney, Margaret; North-Coleman, Cheryl; Kaplan, Jeffrey; Stover, Lois
"Teaching Young Adult Literature" describes innovative methods for engaging students in reading, writing, and discussing contemporary and classic literary texts written for adolescents. Centered around the concept of change, the authors present YA novels that span across various disciplines. Each book presented will help students…
Eble, Michelle F.
Identifies and discusses the effects of single sourcing on the writing process. Provides suggestions for incorporating the teaching of single sourcing into technical communication courses. Concludes that educating students about the process of single sourcing is important if they are to become effective technical communicators in the industry. (SG)
Herga, Nataša Rizman; Grmek, Milena Ivanuš; Dinevski, Dejan
Using a variety of visualization tools for teaching and learning science and chemistry is necessary because pupils better understand chemical phenomena and formulate appropriate mental models. The purpose of the presented study was to determine the importance of a virtual laboratory as a visualization element when addressing chemical contents…
Kizilaslan, Aydin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Yasar, M. Diyaddin
Inquiry-based learning [IBL] enhances students' critical thinking abilities and help students to act as a scientist through using scientific method while learning. Specifically, inquiry as a teaching approach has been defined in many ways, the most important one is referred to nature of constructing knowledge while the individuals possess a…
Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey
Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…
Sankey, Laura L.; Foster, Daniel D.
As our economy calls for improved employment skills, educational institutions must provide quality teaching to prepare students for success. Researchers purport that an important factor in determining student learning is the teacher, and that one of the most prominent factors in student achievement is teacher quality. The search for the…
Kellems, Ryan O.; Edwards, Sean
Practitioners are constantly searching for evidence-based practices that are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). Video modeling (VM) and video prompting have become popular instructional interventions for many students across a wide range of different disability classifications, including those with…
Lin, Yu-Tzu; Yen, Bai-Jang; Chang, Chia-Hu; Lee, Greg C.; Lin, Yu-Chih
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose an indexing and teaching focus mining system for lecture videos recorded in an unconstrained environment. Design/methodology/approach: By applying the proposed algorithms in this paper, the slide structure can be reconstructed by extracting slide images from the video. Instead of applying…
A thematic course called "Climate Change: Chemistry and Controversy" was developed for upper-level non-STEM students. This course used the socioscientific context of climate change to teach chemical principles and the nature of science. Students used principles of agnotology (direct study of misinformation) to debunk climate change…
Alvarado, Clara; Cañada, Florentina; Garritz, Andoni; Mellado, Vicente
The topic of acid-base chemistry is one of the oldest in general chemistry courses and it has been almost continuously in academic discussion. The central purpose of documenting the knowledge and beliefs of a group of ten Mexican teachers with experience in teaching acid-base chemistry in high school was to know how they design, prepare and…
Dupuis, Mary M.; Askov, Eunice N.
Materials developed by teacher participants in the Content Area Reading Project are presented in this appendix to the Project report. The first section provides group informal reading inventories developed for use in adult education, teaching English as a second language, and nine content areas; it then presents cloze tests developed for use in…
Weld, Jeffrey; Funk, Lucas
Inquiry Into Life Science is a content biology course expressly for the fulfillment of the General Education life science laboratory course requirement of elementary education majors at this university. The course is modeled on the Teaching Standards and Content Standards of the National Science Education Standards [National Research Council.…
McDuffie, Kimberly A.
In the last several years, federal legislation has shifted the focus from where students with disabilities are educated to how well they are educated, raising a new issue of academic achievement. However, students with disabilities continue to receive lower standardized test scores and overall grades in science. To meet this challenge, classwide peer tutoring is reported as an effective intervention for teaching students with and without disabilities. Furthermore, numerous models of collaboration in inclusive classrooms have been created to meet the needs of all students, and one of the most common models is co-teaching. Therefore, this study was intended to examine the effects of co-teaching on the academic achievement of 203 seventh grade science students with and without disabilities, through the use of supplementary science activities implemented through classwide peer tutoring. Supplementary science activities included key concepts for five science units. This was examined using a two condition (supplementary science activities with classwide peer tutoring vs. traditional instruction) by two settings (co-teaching vs. non co-teaching) by two types of students (with and without disabilities) repeated measure ANCOVA, with pre-tests as covariates and academic achievement tests as repeated measures, design. Observational data examining teacher-student interactions and instructional methods were also collected. Results indicated that students in co-taught classes statistically outperformed students in non co-taught classes on all academic measures. Students who used supplementary science activities implemented through classwide peer tutoring statistically outperformed students in traditional instruction on academic unit tests but not on cumulative posttests: There were no statistically significant interactions between co-teaching and supplementary science activities implemented through classwide peer tutoring. Observational data revealed that students in non co
Hanuscin, Deborah L.
While teacher educators have had some success in helping prospective teachers understand the nature of science (NOS), they have been less effective in helping prospective teachers teach NOS. Though several studies have alluded to impacts of various interventions on developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS, the nature, source, and development of PCK for NOS has not yet been investigated in any systematic way. This study addresses that gap by identifying critical incidents in the development of PCK for NOS of a prospective elementary teacher as she transitions from her methods course to student teaching. Analysis of data collected over a 2-year period illuminates pedagogical dilemmas faced by the prospective teacher in enacting NOS instruction within a school culture of primarily “traditional” science teaching. Through construction of critical incident vignettes, narrative inquiry is employed to illustrate the changes in her PCK for NOS over time, and the experiences that facilitated these changes. Implications for supporting the development of PCK for NOS within teacher education are discussed.
Recent increased interest in content-based language instruction is due to new developments in second language acquisition theory, and to the need to provide equal educational opportunities to the growing number of immigrant children. Facets of second language learning that need to be developed in content-based instruction include specialized…
Xavier, P.; Annaraja, P.
Multiple Intelligence Based Teaching (MIBT) applies the multiple intelligence theory in the process of teaching and learning. MIBT explores and develops the intelligence of the students. Also, it teaches the content in a multiple way to the students. The objective of the present study is to find out the effectiveness of multiple intelligence based…
Philip, Christo T; Unruh, Kenneth P; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech
Translating basic sciences into a clinical framework has been approached through the implementation of various teaching techniques aimed at using a patient case scenario to facilitate learning. These techniques present students with a specific patient case and lead the students to discuss physiological processes through analysis of provided data supported by independent learning and research. However, no literature exists that describes a reverse teaching methodology in which students are given disease diagnosis and then asked to construct a patient case. This article discusses an explorative learning approach introduced in the gross anatomy course in which students were asked to use clinical skills and reasoning to create a patient case. The online knowledge-sharing portal utilizing MediaWiki provided a necessary base for students in completing their task. Teams were given 4 weeks to complete their written online project with weekly feedback provided by 3rd year teaching assistants using the Wiki discussion page. A survey was performed to assess competence regarding a patient write up and oral presentation. Skills that the teams acquired through the completion of this project will benefit future patient interactions. This project also emphasized and reinforced the importance of effective communication, leadership, and teamwork. This study shows that a clinical anatomy project that incorporates explorative learning can be an effective way of introducing students to the skills needed for patient write ups and oral presentations. Furthermore this approach to learning allows students to excel during their clinical years and to correlate anatomy to clinical diagnoses.
Luzanova, I S; Svetlolobov, D Iu; Zorin, Iu V
The objective of the present work was to continue the studies of the sites of concentration of the chemical elements corresponding to normal homeostasis in human biological objects by mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The study yielded the data on the natural content of 27 elements in the cadaveric liver, kidney, and stomach. It is recommended to use these findings as the reference parameters corresponding to normal homeostasis.
Fernandez, Kevin; Pandve, Harshal T.; Debnath, Dhrubajyoti J.
Background: Tobacco addiction is an important public health issue. It is important for health professional to counsel the tobacco users for cessation. Aim: To enhance communication skills of MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) students in counseling of tobacco users by using interactive teaching methods and examine it by using OSCE. Materials and Methods: It was a before and after comparison study. Communication skills of students were examined by standardized patients (investigators) by objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method before and after intervention. All the students were trained to enhance the communication skills by role play, interactive session, anecdotes. Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results: The difference in scores at all the 3 stations before and after the intervention and also global scores before and after the intervention was statistically highly significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusion and Recommendation: Communication skills of students in counseling tobacco users improved after they were given role play, interactive session, anecdotes. Similar model can be used to improve the communication/counseling skills in other important health hazards. PMID:24083278
Tinsley, Drew C.; And Others
This study investigates the cognitive nature of teacher-pupil questions in "process oriented" and "content oriented" secondary social studies programs. Subjects were five classes selected from a program viewed by both teachers and pupils as process-oriented; five from a program viewed by both teachers and pupils as content…
Spooner, Fred; Knight, Vicki; Browder, Diane; Jimenez, Bree; DiBiase, Warren
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted for articles published between 1985 and May 2009 to (a) examine the degree to which science content was taught to students with severe developmental disabilities and (b) and evaluate instructional procedures in science as evidence-based practices. The review was organized by a conceptual model…
De Jong, Onno; Van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico
In this article, we describe the results of a study of the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of preservice chemistry teachers in the context of a postgraduate teacher education program. A group of preservice teachers (n = 12) took part in an experimental introductory course module about the use of particle models to help secondary school…
Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin
This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…
Harari, Herbert; Jacobson, Adela
Introductory psychology textbooks were analyzed to determine what percentage of space they devoted to the following content areas: experimental/learning, physiological/biological, developmental, social/personality, cognitive, clinical, educational, industrial/organizational, tests and measurements, and other. Results showed a clear preponderance…
This article examined the literature on best practices in content-specific professional development and then aligns this work with the practices of a citywide afterschool chess program run by After School Activities Partnerships (ASAP) in Philadelphia. School teachers, out-of-school time (OST) staff, and youth workers readied themselves to think…
Sutherland, Sue; Stuhr, Paul T.; Ayvazo, Shiri
Background: Many alternative curricular models exist in physical education to better meet the needs of students than the multi-activity team sports curriculum that dominates in the USA. These alternative curricular models typically require different content knowledge (CK) and pedagogical CK (PCK) to implement successfully. One of the complexities…
Liang, Xiaoping; Smith, Sara W.
The present research analyzes instructional strategies used to integrate the learning of content and English as a foreign language in a bilingual physics class at a university in Shanghai, China. It examines how the instructor handles meaning and form of new English science vocabulary in concept-focused physics lectures and the strategies he used…
Becker, Kristin A.
The purpose of this concurrent mixed-method study was to explore how special education intern teachers, placed in an urban secondary special education school setting developed an ability to implement content literacy strategies after completion of a professional development graduate seminar and internship experience. This was done by studying both…
Wolf, Kenneth; Connelly, Mary; Komara, Ann
This is a story of two different assessment rubrics, similar in design but different in content area and pedagogical context. One rubric is from a course in the College of Arts and Media in an advanced painting class; the other is from the College of Architecture and Planning in a landscape architecture studio design class. Each rubric is…
Saint-Hilaire, Line Augustin
This article describes how the incorporation of a writing assignment, creating a book about culture and science, into the syllabus of methods science course for preservice teachers, was used to foster science content learning. Preservice teachers were actively and purposely engaged in science learning through the generation of a book about a…
Evmenova, Anna S.; Behrmann, Michael M.
Teachers are always seeking any visual and/or auditory supports to facilitate students' comprehension and acquisition of difficult concepts associated with academic content. Such supports are even more important for students with intellectual disabilities who regardless of their abilities and needs are required to have access and active…
Bergman, Daniel J.
Schools often struggle to create lasting learning experiences for students. Teachers can enhance instruction by creating and promoting goals that extend beyond content knowledge. The development of long-term traits such as critical thinking, creativity, cooperation, and others adds meaning to student learning and purposeful teacher planning.
Engstrom, Susanne; Gustafsson, Peter; Niedderer, Hans
Understanding energy with a focus on sustainable development requires further knowledge beyond traditional conceptual understanding. This paper presents the result from one main investigation and two smaller follow-up studies. The main study (step 1) consists of an interpreting, iterative analysis of statements made by experts on contents for…
Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Demirdögen, Betül; Akin, Fatma Nur; Tarkin, Aysegul; Aydin-Günbatar, Sevgi
This study combined two important frameworks--teacher self-regulation and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK)--to reveal whether they were related to each other. To fulfill this aim, researchers utilized a case-study design. Data were collected from five preservice chemistry teachers through semi-structured interviews, lesson plans in the form of…
This study describes a collaboration between the American Museum of Natural History and the Bank Street College Reading and Literacy Program. The collaboration is a response to mandated curriculum that emphasizes instruction in basic skills at the expense of content knowledge acquisition. It is designed to demonstrate ways of embedding instruction…
The experience-oriented approach to early childhood learning assumes that the way children see, understand, and conceptualize is more basic than skills and knowledge, and that preschools should systematically work on developing children's awareness of different phenomena in the world around them. Content areas in this approach foster children's:…
Roberts, Charles V.; Cannon, Walter
This paper describes a unified effort at Central College (Pella, Iowa) to insure that graduates in all content areas achieve competency in the communication skills of reading, writing, and speaking. The discussion focuses on how the program was set up, what its components are, how all the faculty contribute, the positive impact of the…
Millican, J. Si
The purpose of this case study was to describe how one band director used pedagogical content knowledge while working with beginning-band students to help them develop the skill of playing brass lip slurs. Data were generated from (1) video recordings of each class over two different weeks during the school year, (2) "think aloud"…
In order to achieve academic success, students must be able to comprehend written material in content-area textbooks. However, a large number of high school students struggle to comprehend science content. Research findings have demonstrated that students make measurable gains in comprehending content-area textbooks when provided quality reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how high school science teachers perceived their responsibility to provide content-related comprehension instruction and 10 high school science teachers were interviewed for this study. Data analysis consisted of open, axial, and selective coding. The findings revealed that 8 out of the 10 participants believed that it is their responsibility to provide reading comprehension. However, the findings also revealed that the participants provided varying levels of reading comprehension instruction as an integral part of their science instruction. The potential for positive social change could be achieved by teachers and administrators. Teachers may use the findings to reflect upon their own personal feelings and beliefs about providing explicit reading comprehension. In addition to teachers' commitment to reading comprehension instruction, administrators could deliberate about professional development opportunities that might improve necessary skills, eventually leading to better comprehension skills for students and success in their education.
Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep
This study investigated whether foreign language lessons coupled with engaging learners in reflective practice facilitates a deeper understanding of second language acquisition (SLA) course content. During this semester-long SLA course, 14 graduate students were taught eight Turkish lessons for 25 minutes at the beginning of each class. As a…
In mathematical activities and in the analysis of mathematics teaching-learning processes, "objects," "signs", and "representations" are often mentioned, where the meaning assigned to those words is sometimes very broad, sometimes limited, other times intuitive, allusive, or not completely clear. On the other hand, as…
Teaching Spanish by Being Responsible for Specific Objectives. Stanislaus County Schools Project for the Development of County Wide Articulation in Foreign Language Instruction Through Common Measurement Procedures.
Smith, Melvin I.
An introduction to this teaching guide briefly explains the underlying theory of language, identifies behavioral objectives, and offers taxonomies of the four language skills. The major portion of the guide is composed of transcripts of Spanish listening comprehension tests. The tests are designed for use with audiolingual materials (ALM) and…
Gonen, Selahattin; Basaran, Bulent
In the present study, a web site including instructional materials such as Whiteboard Movies (WBM), simulations and animations and testing materials such as true-false, fill-in-the-blanks, puzzles, open-ended questions and multiple-choice questions was designed. The study was carried out with 76 students attending Dicle College (DC), Diyarbakir…
Hanover School System, MA.
This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…
Tolbert, Sara E.
This dissertation research project presents the results of a longitudinal study that investigates the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of 13 preservice secondary science teachers participating in a science teacher credentialing/Masters program designed to integrate issues of equity and diversity throughout coursework and seminars. Results are presented in the form of three papers: The first paper describes changes in preservice teacher knowledge about contextualization in science instruction, where contextualization is defined as facilitating authentic connections between science learning and relevant personal, social, cultural, ecological, and political contexts of students in diverse secondary classrooms; the second paper relates changes in the self-efficacy and content-specific beliefs about science, science teaching, diversity, and diversity in science instruction; and the final paper communicates the experiences and abilities of four "social justice advocates" learning to contextualize science instruction in underserved secondary placement classrooms. Results indicate that secondary student teachers developed more sophisticated understandings of how to contextualize science instruction with a focus on promoting community engagement and social/environmental activism in underserved classrooms and how to integrate science content and diversity instruction through student-centered inquiry activities. Although most of the science teacher candidates developed more positive beliefs about teaching science in underrepresented classrooms, many teacher candidates still attributed their minority students' underperformance and a (perceived) lack of interest in school to family and cultural values. The "social justice advocates" in this study were able to successfully contextualize science instruction to varying degrees in underserved placement classrooms, though the most significant limitations on their practice were the contextual factors of their student teaching
Duffy, Aaron M.
Two of the main areas of focus in university academics are research and education. The mission statements of Utah State University and the Department of Biology emphasize both areas, as do the requirements of funding agencies. I attempted to integrate research and education by using tools that I developed to support and inform my biological research projects to teach science. Ferns have a life cycle with alternating haploid and diploid life stages, both of which are free-living and potentially long-lived. The haploid gametophytes of some ferns reproduce asexually and may have different environmental requirements than the diploid sporophytes, so it is possible for populations of gametophytes to exist without sporophytes. This dissertation includes a description of surveys for Hymenophyllum wrightii, a fern with independent gametophytes in the Pacific Northwest, and improves our understanding of the range, distribution, and habitat requirements of these plants which were previously assumed to be rare. It also describes an attempt to explore the population genetics of gametophytes of Crepidomanes intricatum, a widespread fern in the Appalachian Mountains for which no sporophytes have ever been found. To help visualize evolutionary processes in independent gametophyte populations I developed the Virtual Population Genetics Simulator (VPGsim) to simulate populations of ferns in a 3-dimensional environment. This dissertation includes a description of VPGsim, a learning module using it to teach undergraduate genetics, and a study demonstrating its effectiveness at improving students' understanding of science content and confidence in their ability to perform science inquiry. That simulation tool led to a collaboration to find other ways to teach science with simulations, and to the development of a Virtual Plant Community simulator (VPCsim) for teaching middle school students about the effects of the environment and human impacts on living organisms. This dissertation
English education has been officially incorporated into elementary-level education in Taiwan since 2001, with the key objective of reinforcing pupils' oral communication in class. Although oral interaction involves a degree of listening input from interlocutors, listening has unfortunately remained a marginalized area in Taiwanese elementary…
Gao, Su; Wang, Jian
Students' frequent exposure to inquiry-based science teaching is presumed more effective than their exposure to traditional didactic instruction in helping improve competence in content knowledge and problem solving. Framed through theoretical perspectives of inquiry-based instruction and culturally relevant pedagogy, this study examines this…
Burns, Jane A.
The Internet has been the catalyst for the convergence of many subject areas and online platforms. Information professionals such as Archivists, IT developers and especially Librarians have been impacted in the development and promotion of digital humanities content for research, teaching, and learning in the modern academic library. In this case…
Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.; Ferrence, Gregory M.
Parts 1 and 2 of this series described the educational value of experimental three-dimensional (3D) chemical structures determined by X-ray crystallography and retrieved from the crystallographic databases. In part 1, we described the information content of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and discussed a representative teaching subset of…
Rollnick, Marissa; Bennett, Judith; Rhemtula, Mariam; Dharsey, Nadine; Ndlovu, Thandi
This paper presents two South African case studies designed to explore the influence of subject matter knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). In the first case study on teaching the mole in two township schools, the findings illustrate that the participant teachers favoured procedural approaches at the expense of conceptual…
In this paper, I draw on seminal literature from new media researchers to frame the broader implications that user-generated content (UGC), YouTube, and participatory culture have for music learning and teaching in online communities; to illustrate, I use examples from two contrasting online music communities, the Online Academy of Irish…
Stotko, Elaine M.; Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Yerkes, Amy M.
All teacher education programs face the challenge of ensuring that their graduates know their subject matter and can teach it effectively. For graduate level teacher education programs, whose candidates may complete their education in the content area at various institutions, this challenge is even greater. The following article describes one…
Jacobs, Jessica Lynn
Grounded in the Theory of Self-Efficacy and the Theory of Reasoned Action, this quantitative, correlational study examined if participation in literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) predicted both high school teachers' self-efficacy as measured by the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and teachers' attitudes toward teaching reading in the content areas measured by the Scale to Measure Attitudes Toward Teaching Reading in Content Classrooms. This study utilized a convenience sample of content teachers from three high schools in Northeastern Pennsylvania participating in a literacy coaching initiative. The volunteer sample of teachers completed the Likert-type questionnaires. The study used hierarchical regression analysis to determine values for each block of the regression models. The study correlated instances of literacy-based instructional coaching (one-on-one, small group) with the scores on the SMATTRCC and the TSES to examine predictive validity. Gender, years of experience, and content area were control variables in this study. The results of the first model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and attitudes toward teaching reading in the content area with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 9.6% of the variance in scores on the SMATTRCC. The results of the second model indicated that there was a significant relationship between the number of coaching instances and teachers' self-efficacy with participation in instructional coaching accounting for 6.1% of the variance in scores on the TSES.
Jenkins, Lynda L.
I respond to Pike and Dunne by exploring the utilization of citizen science in science education. Their results indicate that students fail to pursue science beyond the secondary level, in part, because of prior educational experiences with science education. Students lack motivation to pursue degrees and careers in science because they feel science is not relevant to their lives or they are simply not good at science. With this understanding, the science education community now needs to move beyond a discussion of the problem and move forward with continued discourse on possible solutions. Science educators need to focus on developing connections between students' everyday lives and science so that they will have tangible reasons for continuing with the lifelong learning of science. In this response, I will show that citizen science as an educational context holds much promise, respectively. Participation in citizen science projects moves scientific content from the abstract to the tangible involving students in hands-on, active learning. In addition, if civic projects are centered within their own communities, then the science becomes relevant to their lives because it is focused on topics in their own backyards.
Hills, D. J.; Ramdeen, S.; Ramapriyan, H. K.
The Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) within the Earth Science Information Partners' (ESIP) Federation helped in part to develop the emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). The focus of PCCS is on the 'what' that needs to be preserved, rather than the 'how.' The input to the development of the PCCS has been based on ESIP members' experience with NASA and NOAA missions. The intent has always been to identify a more comprehensive set of items to evolve a robust standard. PCCS development has primarily focused on satellite remote sensing data. However, the DSC recognizes the need to ensure coverage of other types of geoscience data to expand the applicability of PCCS throughout the geoscience data community. Here, we explore the viability of the current PCCS to application towards physical objects within a core repository. We apply the PCCS as a use case to a subset of the cores housed in the Geological Survey of Alabama's core collection. Although the term 'use case' may be used in different ways, here we are using the term to define an approach to develop the functional specifications of a system. The model or standard is carried through to design and implementation, and then applied to a particular situation to test the standard for applied use. The current PCCS has identified eight high-level categories, with several content items under each category being further defined. Information for these content items includes a definition and description, an indication of why the item needs to be preserved, quality criteria, and priority for preservation of the item. For the use case of applying PCCS to physical objects in a core repository, we examine the aspects of each item for relevance with respect to the collection. For example, under Category 1, Preflight/Pre-operations, currently identified content items include 'Instrument Description' and 'Preflight/pre-operational Calibration Data.' With respect to the GSA core repository, these might be mapped
Lewis, Kadriye O.; Sincan, Murat
In this technologically advanced age, much emphasis is put on collaboration in education at many levels. As a result, faculty co-teaching (collaborative teaching) has grown dramatically. This paper introduces how two instructors from different countries (USA and Turkey), one experienced in online teaching and the other in medical informatics,…
Ngan, Nguyen Thi Chau
The overwhelming weight of emphasis in language analysis in the teaching of English for Accounting (ESP) has been a concern for teachers of English at the College of Finance and Customs (CFC). In the ESP course, the teaching materials teach students to recognize the surface form by means of the specialist texts. The difficulties the students and…
Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha
The Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K) is a multiple-choice test developed by Beichner in 1994 to assess students’ understanding of kinematics graphs. Many of the items on the TUG-K have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ common difficulties with kinematics graphs. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common difficulties of introductory physics students and explicitly take them into account in their instructional design. We evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of first-year physics graduate students enrolled in a teaching assistant training course related to topics covered in the TUG-K. In particular, for each item on the TUG-K, the graduate students were asked to identify which incorrect answer choice they thought would be most commonly selected by introductory physics students if they did not know the correct answer after instruction in relevant concepts. We used the graduate student data and the data from Beichner’s original paper for introductory physics students (which was collected from over 500 college and high school students) to assess this aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of the graduate students, i.e., knowledge of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs as they are revealed by the TUG-K. We find that, although the graduate students, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory student difficulties on the TUG-K, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory students have with graphs in kinematics. In addition, we find that the ability of graduate students to identify the difficulties of introductory students is context dependent and that discussions among the graduate students improved their understanding of student difficulties related to kinematics graphs. Moreover, we find that the ability of American graduate students in identifying common student difficulties is comparable with that
Powell, Sara Davis
Academically sound methods for preparing students for standardized tests include establishing tests' importance, forming preparation teams, gathering information, aligning curricular and test objectives, teaching test-wiseness skills, informing stakeholders, involving students in preparation plans, infusing curriculum with test content, and…
Sickel, Aaron J.; Friedrichsen, Patricia
Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has become a useful construct to examine science teacher learning. Yet, researchers conceptualize PCK development in different ways. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use three analytic lenses to understand the development of three beginning biology teachers' PCK for teaching natural selection simulations. We observed three early-career biology teachers as they taught natural selection in their respective school contexts over two consecutive years. Data consisted of six interviews with each participant. Using the PCK model developed by Magnusson et al. (1999), we examined topic-specific PCK development utilizing three different lenses: (1) expansion of knowledge within an individual knowledge base, (2) integration of knowledge across knowledge bases, and (3) knowledge that explicitly addressed core concepts of natural selection. We found commonalities across the participants, yet each lens was also useful to understand the influence of different factors (e.g., orientation, subject matter preparation, and the idiosyncratic nature of teacher knowledge) on PCK development. This multi-angle approach provides implications for considering the quality of beginning science teachers' knowledge and future research on PCK development. We conclude with an argument that explicitly communicating lenses used to understand PCK development will help the research community compare analytic approaches and better understand the nature of science teacher learning.
Poupa, Christine; Forte, Eddy
Describes the ARIADNE (Alliance of Remote Instructional Authoring and Distribution Networks for Europe) projects (1996-2000), which developed tools and methodologies for producing and managing pedagogical elements, storing them in knowledge pools and building and supporting training curricula. Collaborative teaching with ARIADNE is highlighted,…
At the department of foreign language teaching, a variety of courses are offered in order for students to acquire translation competence. The courses are often carried out by translating a text from one language into the other. Learning by experience is an effective approach. However, it is inevitable that there are some aspects that we need to…
Leong, Kwan Eu; Meng, Chew Cheng; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul
This article seeks to present findings from the analysis of the TEDS-M reports on the mathematical content knowledge (MCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of the pre-service teachers in Malaysia. The main objective of this study was to investigate the level of teaching knowledge attained by the Malaysian pre-service primary and secondary…
Gough, Jenny K.; McCallum, Zoe; Bevan, Catherine; Vance, Alasdair
Objective: The teaching of child psychiatry in Australian medical schools is under review: the content, the placement of the field within medical curricula, and the appropriate teaching and learning methods are all contested. The authors developed a 1-day program in the 9-week child and adolescent health course conducted in the final two semesters…
Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola P.
This classroom tip focuses on sustained-content language teaching. The game described--content wizard-- illustrates a practical technique for incorporating a range of language and academic skills into subject matter lessons for English-as-a-Second-Language learners. (Author/VWL)
Ferguson, Bill L.
Discusses his reasons for objecting to the use of behavioral objectives in education. Article is in response to Robert Blake's article on Behavioral Objectives and the Teaching of English" in English Education, Winter 1971. (RB)
Rule, Audrey C.; Welch, Genne
These science activities for elementary students focus on the external structures and functions of the human eye with hands-on object box activities based on the Montessori theory (1966) of concrete learning through manipulation of objects and focus of attention through touch. Object boxes are sets of items and corresponding cards housed in a box.…
Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke
Context-based curriculum reforms in chemistry education are thought to bring greater diversity to the ways in which chemistry teachers organize their teaching. First and foremost, students are expected to perceive this diversity. However, empirical research on how students perceive their teacher's teaching in context-based chemistry classrooms,…
Abramson, Joseph H
There is no single ideal way of teaching epidemiology. Teaching can take place in different situations, and its techniques and content may differ. A good teaching programme is one that is geared to its students' needs, capacity, interests and preferences, and exploits available teaching situations and techniques to provide learning opportunities that will achieve the educational objectives. This paper reviews some features of the teaching of epidemiology inside and outside the classroom. It starts with a discussion of the main factors that affect the choice of methods and then deals in turn with conventional classroom methods, laboratory teaching (problem-solving and other exercises), self-instruction, problem-oriented projects, and distance learning. Separate consideration is then given to teaching in the hospital and in the field (with special attention to teaching in a community health center).
The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item…
Nivalainen, V.; Asikainen, M. A.; Hirvonen, P. E.
This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers' (n=32) views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The…
In the communities dealing with the design and implementation of on-line teaching and training (higher education, government, industry), SCORM is a hot topic these days. The "Sharable Content Object Reference Model" is a standard for the packaging and deployment of Web-based "learning objects," defined by Bob Banks as "a relatively small, reusable…
Moll, F H
The use of artifacts and objects from scientific medical collections and museums for academic teaching purposes are one of the main qualifying tasks of those institutions. In recent years, this aspect of scientific collections has again become on focus within academics. The collections offer a unique chance for visual and haptic forms of teaching in many fields. Due to the potential of scientific collections, educators in all branches in academic learning should be familiar with handling objects for such purposes.
Egge, Noah; Bell, Randy
If science education can be compared to building a house, then conceptually it can be divided into three parts: content knowledge, process skills, and nature of science or science as a way of thinking. The basis of understanding any discipline begins with the accumulation of facts, theories and concepts. These are the building blocks which are used to construct and strengthen a foundation. Next are the investigatory processes and the methods; these are the tools necessary to create new knowledge and enable students to strengthen and expand their foundation. Closely linked with processes and methods are the values and assumptions that are intertwined with interpretations and conclusions. Students must be taught that science is not infallible or an absolute field. Theories and relationships are created and refuted based on the availability of data, and are heavily laden with personal and cultural bias. Teachers need to emphasize the importance of the different aspects of the nature of science—for example the connection between creativity and science—so that students will know there is not merely a single set of blueprints to build the house but an infinite number that merely await discovery. In the United States, the National Science Education Standards recognize the importance of the nature of science as an instructional objective. As a consequence many states have incorporated the nature of science into their standards. In this presentation we will clarify what is meant by "nature of science" and relate it to the more traditional topics of science content and process skills. The focus of the presentation will be on introducing a sequence of teacher-tested activities designed for middle and secondary school students. These activities address specific aspects of the nature of science; they are designed to be engaging and student-centered and to link abstract concepts of the nature of science to more familiar science process-skills.
Drake, David B.
Explains a descriptive analysis exercise based on Chapter 99 of "Moby Dick." Notes that students are given a description of a coin, asked to draw the coin, and then freewrite about what they and their classmates have drawn. States that the exercise is intended to illustrate the relationship between objective and subjective description.…
Geometry plays an important role in the school mathematics curriculum all around the world. Teaching of geometry varies a lot (Hoyls, Foxman, & Kuchemann, 2001). Many countries revise the objectives, the content, and the approaches to the geometry in school. Studies of the processes show that there are not common trends of these changes…
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Parkhouse, Hillary; Glazier, Jocelyn; Cain, Jessie Montana
Educators today must be able to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student body and to teach all students the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for civic participation in a globalized, pluralist society. While state departments of education and national teacher organizations have begun to adopt global awareness in their teaching…
Pape, Stephen J.; Prosser, Sherri K.; Griffin, Cynthia C.; Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Algina, James; Bae, Jungah
This study sought to identify components of an asynchronous online teacher professional development program, "Prime Online," that potentially affected participants' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT). Twenty-three third- through fifth-grade general education and special education teachers completed a yearlong online teacher…
Jones-Wilson, T. Michelle
In traditional science teaching, teachers expect the average student to implicitly learn and apply subtle concepts and to connect seemingly disjointed information. Teachers expect them to actively assemble the building blocks of critical thinking, often without example (Meyers 1986). The critical analysis of issues and problems is second nature to…
We report on our efforts to support teachers' development of mathematical knowledge for teaching through online professional development focusing on authentic engagement in collaborative mathematical problem solving. In particular, this paper seeks to explore and understand the relationship between teachers' participation in professional…
Schwab, Lynne S.; Clegg, Ambrose A., Jr.
It is assumed that inference is at the heart of thinking and little is known about possible relationships between learners' decision-making styles and teaching strategies. Therefore, it was hypothesized that instructed children score higher on an inference test than those not instructed, and interactions occur between different decision-making…
Kennedy, Michael J.; Newton, Jennier R.; Haines, Shana J.; Walther-Thomas, Christine S.; Kellems, Ryan O.
Those who teach introductory level courses in special education to preservice teacher candidates often face a paradox in terms of whether to use limited instructional time to either focus on characteristics of students with disabilities or emphasize evidence-based practices (EBPs). The issue of limited instructional time is also an issue in other…
The first rationale of the study was not only to determine the topics taught in Turkish early childhood settings but also to define the frequency and time allocation for teaching science (n?=?382). In the second phase, through semi-structured interview questions, the aim was to gain detailed information about Turkish early childhood teachers'…
The objectives of the present study were to 1) assess student attitudes to physiology, 2) evaluate student opinions about the influence of an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) on competence, and 3) assess the validity and reliability of an indigenously designed feedback questionnaire. A structured questionnaire containing 16 item statements, 8 items on an Osgood's 5-point semantic differential scale and 8 items on a Likert's 5-point scale, was used. Options were assigned scores of 1-5 according to weightage. For Osgood's semantic differential scale items, a χ(2)-test was done to analyze student attitudes toward the subject. For Likert scale items, mean score and SD were calculated to analyze student opinions of the OSPE. Item validity was assessed by item analysis, and reliability was assessed by calculating Crohnbach's α. The subject as a whole was interesting to 82% of the students (n = 135). The theory was interesting to 75% of the students (n = 132) but complex to 42% (n = 118). The practical was interesting to 93% of the students (n = 134); 76% of the students (n = 104) felt that the practical was simple, whereas 4% felt it was complex. The OSPE was interesting to 79% of the students (n = 131); 57% of the students (n = 116) felt it was simple, whereas 24% found it complex. Components of the subject, intricateness, and student interests were strongly associated. Students chose options on a higher weight scale, favoring the OSPE. Items were found to be valid and reliable. In conclusion, the subject of physiology was interesting but not simple to understand. Student interests varied with the components of the subject, and the components of the subject had varied intricateness. Students were in favor of the OSPE for assessment. The questionnaire used for the study was valid and reliable.
Alberto, Paul A.; Fredrick, Laura D.
This article presents a five-step sequence for teaching children with disabilities to read pictures. Steps are sequenced for content and complexity of picture, student response requirement, and language demands. They include: (1) identify person, (2) identify object, (3) identify person and object, (4) identify action, and (5) identify sequence.…
The article develops a theory and practice for teaching and learning in a Community of Thinking. According to the theory, the practice of traditional schooling is based on four "atomic pictures": learning is listening; teaching is telling; knowledge is an object; and to be educated is to know valuable content. To change this practice of…
Ayoubi, Zalpha; BouJaoude, Saouma
The purpose of this study was to answer the following questions: 1) How well prepared are chemistry teachers in terms of content and pedagogy, 2) What are chemistry teachers trying to accomplish in their teaching and what activities do they use to meet their objectives and 3) What are the barriers to effective chemistry teaching identified by…
Hawaii Newspaper Agency, Inc., Honolulu.
One of a series prepared by the Hawaii Newspaper Agency, this teaching guide offers suggestions on using the newspaper to teach the disadvantaged child communication and reading skills. The objectives are to acquaint students with the format and contents of the newspaper; to improve vocabulary and comprehension; to encourage students to write…
DelliCarpini, M.; Alonso, O.
DelliCarpini and Alonso's book "Content-Based Instruction" explores different approaches to teaching content-based instruction (CBI) in the English language classroom. They provide a comprehensive overview of how to teach CBI in an easy-to-follow guide that language teachers will find very practical for their own contexts. Topics…
We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…
Guerrero, Lourdes R.
This qualitative research study focused on the eight bilingual, content area high school teachers implementing Project SOL (Secondary Online Learning) in Southern California during the 2008-2009 school year. It documents their effort to integrate an online curriculum from the "Colegio de Bachilleres" in Mexico obtained through the UCLA…
Schwartz, Sydney L.; Copeland, Sherry M.
The most pressing challenge in early childhood education today is to find a way to meet the standards within a developmentally appropriate approach. In this book, two active early childhood educators provide teachers with resources to bring content alive and document it in every-day, action-based pre-K and Kindergarten classrooms. The book…
Engel, Mimi; Claessens, Amy; Finch, Maida A.
Kindergarten mathematics skills are important for subsequent achievement, yet mathematics is underemphasized in kindergarten classrooms. Using nationally representative data, this study explored the relationship between students' school-entry math skills, classroom content coverage, and end-of-kindergarten math achievement. Although the vast…
Pecore, John L.; Kirchgessner, Mandy L.; Carruth, Laura L.
Informal learning environments often host teachers for learning opportunities, but little is known about the impact of these experiences on teacher professional development (PD). This article describes a unique collaborative PD experience between zoological park personnel and university faculty, examining the impact on teacher content knowledge,…
This paper explores the current paradigm shift in the use of technology in the classroom, which is occurring because of technology explosion in society, impact of globalization, necessary reframing, and enlarging of the world view, methods, and content to make business communication classes relevant. The question is whether the classroom should…
Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.
This book of instructional activities for grades nine through twelve contains Delaware's State Content Standards for English Language Arts. The standards were developed in 1985 by a committee of teachers representing all grade levels. Used as a basis for curriculum planning in school districts throughout Delaware, the standards were designed to…
Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.
This book of instructional activities for grades seven through eight contains Delaware's State Content Standards for English Language Arts. The standards were developed in 1985 by a committee of teachers representing all grade levels. Used as a basis for curriculum planning in school districts throughout Delaware, the standards were designed to…
Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.
This book of instructional activities for grades four through six contains Delaware's State Content Standards for English Language Arts. The standards were developed in 1985 by a committee of teachers representing all grade levels. Used as a basis for curriculum planning in school districts throughout Delaware, the standards were designed to guide…
Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.
This book of instructional activities for grades one through three contains Delaware's State Content Standards for English Language Arts. The standards were developed in 1985 by a committee of teachers representing all grade levels. Used as a basis for curriculum planning in school districts throughout Delaware, the standards were designed to…
Iserbyt, Peter; Ward, Phillip; Martens, Jonas
Background: Our understanding of the role in which content knowledge (CK) can strengthen instructional models and how that knowledge matters for professional development is limited. It is contended that mere use of an instructional model is insufficient to impact psychomotor learning in meaningful ways. Purpose: This study was conducted to…
Bandeira de Melo, Gilberto C.; Pinto, Joana Darc da Silva
In this work a tentative approach is described, with the intent of an optimized insertion of the environmental contents in engineering courses, using the existing disciplines, and with a minimal, if any, increase of the disciplines related to environmental protection. The disciplines are firstly classified with regard to the environmental issues…
Lakshmanan, Aruna; Heath, Barbara P.; Perlmutter, Aaron; Elder, Michael
This study examines the impact of standards-based professional development on teacher efficacy and instructional practice of elementary and middle school science teachers. Professional development activities were conducted over a period of 3 years and included content courses as well as teacher involvement in professional learning communities.…
Recent statements from teachers of English and literacy (NCTE, 2007) have voiced the failure of schools to help minority students and ELLs close the literacy achievement gap and the responsibility of all teachers to help with this endeavor. Central to this effort in secondary schools are the content area teachers, as their subjects constitute the…
Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City.
Arranged in two parts, this guide introduces elementary and secondary social studies teachers to a variety of methods for integrating social studies content and basic skills instruction. Chapter I defines basic skills as the skills an individual needs to become a self-directed learner, communicate clearly, and make reasoned decisions, and presents…
Kildan, Abdullah Oguzhan; Incikabi, Lutfi
This study aimed to present early childhood teacher candidates' experiences preparing digital stories and to reveal the resulting changes, if any, in self-reported technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This study was quasi-experimental and indicated that teacher candidates' evaluations of digital storytelling were affected by their…
McRoy, James J.
The content of essays written by randomly selected samples of 1500 U.S. and 500 British secondary students on the topic "What have I learned about Adolf Hitler?" were partitioned into theme-related assertions and analyzed. An experimental group of 150 9th- and 11th-grade male students who had studied the Holocaust also contributed papers…
Aktas, Bilge Cam; Guven, Meral
The current study has aimed to compare the objectives, content, teaching-learning process, and evaluation dimensions of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program (IBDP) Language A1 Course teaching program with those of the teaching programs of high school 12th grade Language and Expression and Turkish Literature courses in relation to…
Thies, Christian; Ostwald, Tamara; Fischer, Benedikt; Lehmann, Thomas M.
The classification and measuring of objects in medical images is important in radiological diagnostics and education, especially when using large databases as knowledge resources, for instance a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The main challenge is the modeling of medical knowledge and the diagnostic context to label the sought objects. This task is referred to as closing the semantic gap between low-level pixel information and high level application knowledge. This work describes an approach which allows labeling of a-priori unknown objects in an intuitive way. Our approach consists of four main components. At first an image is completely decomposed into all visually relevant partitions on different scales. This provides a hierarchical organized set of regions. Afterwards, for each of the obtained regions a set of descriptive features is computed. In this data structure objects are represented by regions with characteristic attributes. The actual object identification is the formulation of a query. It consists of attributes on which intervals are defined describing those regions that correspond to the sought objects. Since the objects are a-priori unknown, they are described by a medical expert by means of an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). This GUI is the fourth component. It enables complex object definitions by browsing the data structure and examinating the attributes to formulate the query. The query is executed and if the sought objects have not been identified its parameterization is refined. By using this heuristic approach, object models for hand radiographs have been developed to extract bones from a single hand in different anatomical contexts. This demonstrates the applicability of the labeling concept. By using a rule for metacarpal bones on a series of 105 images, this type of bone could be retrieved with a precision of 0.53 % and a recall of 0.6%.
Koper, Rob; Pannekeet, Kees; Hendriks, Maaike; Hummel, Hans
In order to reduce overall costs of developing high-quality digital courses (including both the content, and the learning and teaching activities), the exchange of learning objects has been recognized as a promising solution. This article makes an inventory of the issues involved in the exchange of learning objects within a community. It explores…
Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; St. John, K.
This set of undergraduate student-active learning exercises focuses on the status and role of Antarctica in Cenozoic climate change, and builds skills and knowledge required to evaluate sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the ANDRILL Project. Students discover new advances in understanding late Neogene Antarctic glacial history based on recent ANDRILL results. These exercises are part of the larger suite of activities in the project “Building Core Knowledge and Reconstructing Earth History”, which use authentic data to teach foundational concepts of climate change through sediment core archives (NSF Grant # 0737335). The Antarctic exercises involve a review of the composite benthic foraminifer oxygen isotope curve, and of global climate interpretations based in part on this record. Basic geographic and geologic knowledge of Antarctica and cryospheric processes are constructed in order to build the rationale for selecting drillsites in McMurdo Sound. Student attention is then focused on the use of sedimentary facies and depositional environments in core interpretation, with particular attention to the facies associations that are diagnostic of ice-proximal and ice-distal settings in high latitudes. This is constructed through diagrams, geological reasoning, use of core images and core logs, and culminates in the construction of models for ice-retreat and ice-advance sequences. The general climate record of the entire ANDRILL 1-B core log (1285 m) is then interpreted, by characterizing each of the key lithostratigraphic sub-units in terms of the dominant depositional environments represented. Students write a brief history of the late Miocene-Pliocene climatic and environmental conditions in the Ross Sea region. Students conclude by evaluating facies patterns in the ANDRILL 1-B Pliocene sequence completing calculations that lead to interpretations of orbitally paced Pliocene ice sheet oscillations.
Bradford, S. Y.
Examines the difficulty of determining sociology course objectives for the diverse student populations at community colleges. Argues that sociology instructors, in light of this diversity, should use a combination of teaching modalities and should stress content relating to college survival skills, enhanced social awareness, and increased…
What a human rights course should consist of, i.e., the objectives, course content, teaching methods, and evaluation techniques, are discussed. Human rights education must foster attitudes of tolerance and respect, provide knowledge about human rights, and develop students' awareness of how to translate human rights into social and political…
O'Donoghue, A. A.
Students taking my introductory astronomy course have always expressed an interest in learning about the sky. For most of them this means they want to learn to recognize constellations, to learn ``the arrangement of the stars'' the meaning of the Greek roots astro and nemein that became the word astronomy. This interest of students, for many years devalued and ignored, actually provides a perfect opportunity to guide them from casual interest to scientific inquiry in a way similar to the progression of western science from the astronomy of the Greeks through the beginnings of physics with Galileo, Kepler and Newton, to modern astrophysics. I require students to observe and learn the constellations of the season. Initially the constellations are studied as the ``political map'' of the sky. The students learn the names and myths of the characters or objects they represent, and their prominent stars. To build the bridge to science, however, I also require them to perform the time-honored first step of scientific inquiry of accurately sketching what they see in their journal. Also, they must research and learn the ``physical map'' of the sky where each constellation outlines a ``column" of universe filled with stars, perhaps a planet or two, nebulae, galaxies, quasars the CBR, and expanding spacetime. Other observing assignments have students watching the moon wax from new to full with nightly observations, watching the motion of the point of sunset along the western horizon, and watching line from the Big Dipper's Pointer Stars to Polaris sweep out fifteen degrees per hour as Earth rotates on its axis. With each of these they confront the challenge of accurately conveying on two-dimensional paper what they see in the three-dimensional sky, they develop a habit of looking at the sky and noting positions of familiar objects, and they build a foundation of observing experience upon which the models of the universe that astrophysics offers can be built with some stability.
Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.
The material in this programed workbook is divided into three sections. Section one introduces the subject of learning objectives and explains their use and importance. Section two describes a U.S. Navy handbook on writing learning objectives and teaches the student how to use the handbook as a working reference guide. Section three provides the…
A Content Standard for Computational Models; Digital Rights Management (DRM) Architectures; A Digital Object Approach to Interoperable Rights Management: Finely-Grained Policy Enforcement Enabled by a Digital Object Infrastructure; LOCKSS: A Permanent Web Publishing and Access System; Tapestry of Time and Terrain.
Hill, Linda L.; Crosier, Scott J.; Smith, Terrence R.; Goodchild, Michael; Iannella, Renato; Erickson, John S.; Reich, Vicky; Rosenthal, David S. H.
Includes five articles. Topics include requirements for a content standard to describe computational models; architectures for digital rights management systems; access control for digital information objects; LOCKSS (Lots of Copies Keep Stuff Safe) that allows libraries to run Web caches for specific journals; and a Web site from the U.S.…
Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.
This guide for teaching composition in grades 4-6 (1) objectives for a curriculum in written composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrative learning experiences, and (4) units for teaching specific skills. The units for each grade are "Structuring a…
Widdowson, H. G.
Argues against the thesis that a thorough study of the language used in the relevant professional environments is necessary and sufficient to produce adequate instructional materials for special purposes language courses. Maintains that this purely functional approach to language teaching ignores fundamental communication needs and impairs student…
Janz, Kathleen F; Letuchy, Elena M; Francis, Shelby L; Metcalf, Kristen M; Burns, Trudy L; Levy, Steven M
This study examined the association between physical activity (PA) and bone mineral content (BMC; gram) from middle childhood to middle adolescence and compared the impact of vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) over moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA). Participants from the Iowa bone development study were examined at ages 5, 8, 11, 13, and 15 years (n = 369, 449, 452, 410, and 307, respectively). MVPA and VPA (minutes per day) were measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Anthropometry was used to measure body size and somatic maturity. Spine BMC and hip BMC were measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Sex-specific multi-level linear models were fit for spine BMC and hip BMC, adjusted for weight (kilogram), height (centimeter), linear age (year), non-linear age (year(2)), and maturity (pre peak height velocity vs. at/post peak height velocity). The interaction effects of PA × maturity and PA × age were tested. We also examined differences in spine BMC and hip BMC between the least (10th percentile) and most (90th percentile) active participants at each examination period. Results indicated that PA added to prediction of BMC throughout the 10-year follow-up, except MVPA, did not predict spine BMC in females. Maturity and age neither modify the PA effect for males nor females. At age 5, the males at the 90th percentile for VPA had 8.5% more hip BMC than males in the 10th percentile for VPA. At age 15, this difference was 2.0%. Females at age 5 in the 90th percentile for VPA had 6.1% more hip BMC than those in the 10th percentile for VPA. The age 15 difference was 1.8%. VPA was associated with BMC at weight-bearing skeletal sites from childhood to adolescence, and the effect was not modified by maturity or age. Our findings indicate the importance of early and sustained interventions that focus on VPA. Approaches focused on MVPA may be inadequate for optimal bone health, particularly for females.
This paper describes how the web standards Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) are used in teaching at the Vienna University of Technology. SMIL and SVG are used in courses on multimedia authoring. Didactically, the goal is to teach students how to use media objects and timing concepts to build interactive media applications. Additionally, SMIL is applied to generate multimedia content from a database using a content management system. The paper gives background information on the SMIL and SVG standards and sketches how teaching multimedia is organized at the Vienna University of Technology. Courses from the summer term 2003 are described and illustrated in two case studies. General design problems of SMIL-based presentations are modelled as patterns. Additionally, suggestions for improvement in the standards are given and shortcomings of existing user agents are summarized. Our conclusion is that SMIL and SVG are very well suited for teaching multimedia. Currently, the main problem is that all existing SMIL players lack some properties desired for teaching applications (stability, correctness, etc.).
Graduate Student Attitudes toward Professor Pedagogical Content Knowledge, Transformational Teaching Practices, Student-Professor Engagement in Learning, and Student Deep Learning in Worldwide Business and Education Programs
Economos, Jennifer Lynn
Some professors are expected to remain competitive research scholars, as well as teach, particularly in research-intensive universities. It has been argued that some professors spend too much time on research to obtain institutional incentives or promotion, and not enough time on teaching. Consequently, some adjuncts assume the responsibility for…
Mote, F.W., Ed.
The two Chinese Linguistics Conferences held at Princeton in October 1966 and 1967 treated respectively (1) the relevance and specific application of computer methods to the problems of Chinese Linguistics and (2) a series of interrelated problems in teaching Chinese--dictionaries, courses in classical Chinese, and methods of teaching and…
May, William F.
A philosophical overview of the place of technology in higher education and especially in teaching is presented. Research can be viewed as the acquisition of knowledge; teaching as its transmission; and service as its application. Technology affects the transmission of knowledge in both the teaching process and the content of teaching. The…
The main idea of a learning object (LO) is to break educational content down into small chunks that can be reused in various learning environments. When reused, such small chunks of educational content are combined in various ways leading to a great variability of the learning content. We propose using feature diagrams (FDs) for the specification of learning content at different layers of abstraction starting from the organization of teaching material in a lecture down to the specification and demonstration of particular software/hardware components. FDs can be used by (1) designers, teachers, and learners for graphical representation of domain knowledge in LOs; (2) programmers to specify and express variability-commonality relationships of LOs at a higher abstraction level to allow the development and implementation of generative LOs; and (3) researchers as a vehicle for analysis and better understanding of the e-Learning domain itself.
Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert
This study examined the use of form and function analogy object boxes to teach second graders (n = 21) animal adaptations. The study used a pretest-posttest design to examine animal adaptation content learned through focused analogy activities as compared with reading and Internet searches for information about adaptations of animals followed by…
Davenport, Richard; And Others
This Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) catalog provides performance objectives and performance guides (teaching steps) associated with current occupational information relating to the job content of Business Machine Repair. Uses include validation of existing programs, testing of instructional effectiveness,…
It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.
Tishman argues that directing students to closely examine physical objects is an excellent way to motivate and strengthen thinking. Even simple objects reflect the social and physical contexts in which they were created and can spur deeper observations and questions. Teaching thinking through objects appeals to many different kinds of learners and…
The overall objective of this investigation was to explore the views of border history teachers on a wide variety of issues that influence their instructional approaches, curricular content choices, and capacity to teach history more effectively. More specifically, the focus was on identifying factors that affect their ability to utilize…
Froman, Robin D.; Owen, Steven V.; Del Rio-Parent, Lourdes
This research describes the evaluation of a science curriculum newsletter called BioRAP which serves as a vehicle to teach current health science content. The research objectives were to estimate the relationships of socioeconomic status, ethnic group, gender, grade, student ability, and classroom use characteristics with student knowledge and…
This article reports on techniques of teaching abstract algebra which were developed to achieve multiple student objectives: reasoning and communication skills, deep content knowledge, student engagement, independence, and pride. The approach developed included a complementary combination of inquiry-based learning, individual (not group) homework…
Describes structured discovery approach to inquiry teaching which encourages the teacher to select instructional objectives, content, and questions to be answered. The focus is on individual and group activities. A brief outline using this approach to analyze Adolf Hitler is presented. (KC)
Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji
Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…
MAGER, ROBERT F.
THIS PROGRAMED TEXT INCLUDES A SELF-TEST OF ITS CONTENTS AND DEMONSTRATES HOW TO SPECIFY INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES BY BEHAVIOR OBSERVABLE IN A LEARNER, AND HOW TO WRITE OBJECTIVES, DEFINE DESIRED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, AND STATE CRITERIA OF SUCCESSFUL LEARNING. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FOR $1.75 FROM FEARON PUBLISHERS, INC., 2165 PARK BLVD., PALO…
Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis
The creation of the first SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) object offers some challenges and difficulties which go beyond the facilities offered by content generation applications. In particular, the creation of really reusable, searchable learning objects requires a detailed consideration of metadata, where some institutional…
Murti, Kamakshi P.
A course for Business German teaches strategies of textual analysis to develop in the students the reading skills necessary to recognize unfamiliar vocabulary and concepts by using known vocabulary. The course is designed both for students of German without a business background and for business students without knowledge of German. (DJD)
Pivarči, Tomáš; Raganová, Janka
The paper deals with students' life skills which the physics teacher should intentionally develop through physics content. An attention is given not only to the physics content and activities connected with it, but also to the development of responsibility, freedom, ability to make decisions, group cooperation, self-evaluation and experience of success. Three activities implemented in the seventh class of the elementary school are described in the paper. Authors describe reasons for class selection, the physics content and the used methods as well as the skills which they decided to purposely develop. They emphasize the importance of activities requiring students' inquiry-based learning and the need to change organization and philosophy of physics teaching at secondary schools. At the end of the paper authors analyze the achievement of objectives, positives as well as negatives of the implemented approaches and propose changes for a future realization.
Walan, Susanne; Nilsson, Pernilla; Ewen, Birgitta Mc
Studies have shown that there is a need for pedagogical content knowledge among science teachers. This study investigates two primary teachers and their objectives in choosing inquiry- and context-based instructional strategies as well as the relation between the choice of instructional strategies and the teachers' knowledge about of students' understanding and intended learning outcomes. Content representations created by the teachers and students' experiences of the enacted teaching served as foundations for the teachers' reflections during interviews. Data from the interviews were analyzed in terms of the intended, enacted, and experienced purposes of the teaching and, finally, as the relation between intended, enacted, and experienced purposes. Students' experiences of the teaching were captured through a questionnaire, which was analyzed inductively, using content analysis. The results show that the teachers' intended teaching objectives were that students would learn about water. During the enacted teaching, it seemed as if the inquiry process was in focus and this was also how many of the students experienced the objectives of the activities. There was a gap between the intended and experienced objectives. Hardly any relation was found between the teachers' choice of instructional strategies and their knowledge about students' understanding, with the exception that the teacher who also added drama wanted to support her students' understanding of the states of water.
This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…
Communication: Journalism Education Today, 1998
Outlines nine objectives students should be able to accomplish after completing the activities in the unit on typography presented in the previous articles in this journal. Offers eight tips for teaching typography. Includes a short list of books about typography and a list of seven organizations. (SR)
This book presents 16 teaching techniques organized in lessons to be used by teachers who work with adolescents or young adults. The lessons may be used by individuals or in groups to improve instructional skills. A study guide or meeting plan precedes each chapter and suggests objectives, anticipatory set, input and modeling, means to check…
Butterworth, James R.
Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)
Peters, Erin E.
Knowledge about the nature of science has been advocated as an important component of science because it provides a framework on which the students can incorporate content knowledge. However, little empirical evidence has been provided that links nature of science knowledge with content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed method study was to…
Russell, Felice Atesoglu
Content teachers responsible for the instruction of English learner students will perceive myriad challenges when it comes to English learner students in the mainstream. School leaders can play a pivotal role in supporting and mitigating some of these challenges by recognizing what some of the pitfalls and issues might be for content teachers…
This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…
Schmidt, Shelly J.
The objective of this teaching tip is to share with others an idea of how to transform student projects from a dead-end process to a value-added end product, value-added end products that make a meaningful and lasting contribution to course content for use by future students. (Contains 2 tables.)
Health Education (Washington D.C.), 1985
Six articles from health journals since 1898 discuss content in health education: (1) "Mental Health and the Schools" (Cromwell); (2) "You Must Relax--But How?" (Nash); (3) "School Hygiene and the Teaching of Hygiene in the Public Schools" (Egbert); (4) "A Sex Education Program" (Leibee); (5) "Sexual Education" (McCurdy); and (6) "Sex Education"…
Reece, Amanda A.
A program of development of online learning resources should provide content, resources, support and activities to promote excellence and innovation in instructional quality and assessment. This article provides details on five best practices in digital object development for teaching and learning. In addition, an evaluation of the learning object…
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of eight terminal objectives for a basic welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (2 hours daily) course developed to teach the fundamentals of welding shop work, to become familiar with the operation of the welding shop…
Peters, Erin E.
Knowledge about the nature of science has been advocated as an important component of science because it provides a framework on which the students can incorporate content knowledge. However, little empirical evidence has been provided that links nature of science knowledge with content knowledge. The purpose of this mixed method study was to determine if both nature of science knowledge and content knowledge could be increased with an explicit, reflective nature of science intervention utilizing self-regulation over an implicit group. Results showed that the explicit group significantly outperformed the implicit group on both nature of science and content knowledge assessments. Students in the explicit group also demonstrated a greater use of detail in their inquiry work and reported a higher respect for evidence in making conclusions than the implicit group. Implications suggest that science educators could enhance nature of science instruction using goal setting and self-monitoring of student work during inquiry lessons.
Regan-Smith, M G
In recent years, teaching portfolios have been developed as a way teachers can document teaching scholarship and demonstrate their teaching accomplishments, skills, and strategies. Most medical schools reward good teaching, often with promotion on clinician-teacher tracks, thereby acknowledging the contributions made by clinical faculty who serve the academic mission as teachers. Teaching portfolios provide a means for teachers to demonstrate their teaching achievements and display their best work. This article gives recommendations for constructing a teaching portfolio and includes examples of what can be included.
degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154
Xinogalos, Stelios; Satratzemi, Maya; Dagdilelis, Vassilios
The objects-first strategy to teaching programming has prevailed over the imperative-first and functional-first strategies during the last decade. However, the objects-first strategy has created added difficulties to both the teaching and learning of programming. In an attempt to confront these difficulties and support the objects-first strategy…
Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike
Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.
KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…
Barnes, Carol P., Ed.; Goodhue-McWilliams, Kenneth, Ed.
Much of what teachers know about how to teach and how to conceptualize specific academic content is learned from their undergraduate professors. In 1990, California State University, Fullerton, received a grant from the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), Project Teach, to improve the quality of instruction which…
Discusses several practices in teaching physics that are of dubious merit, such as stressing vocabulary and stressing content over process. Suggests several alternate approaches to make physics teaching more interesting. Includes several issues affecting the quality of science education which involve general school policy. (JN)
This book focuses on science teaching at the elementary school level. It includes chapters dealing with various science content areas and teaching processes including: (1) what is science; (2) why teach science; (3) process skills as a foundation for unit and lesson planning; (4) how to plan learning units, daily lessons, and assessment…
Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)
An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.
Khoja, Suleiman; Ventura, Frank
Determines the extent physics textbooks contribute to physics teaching objectives and knowledge acquisition in Libya. Analysis of seventh- through ninth-grade physics textbooks and cognitive demand shows a limited effect of textbook content on knowledge acquisition and educational objectives. Suggestions are made for promoting the acquisition of…
Erickson, Susan, Comp.; Martin, Joan, Ed.
These curriculum materials represent a child care unit in a home management program which is concerned with consumer and family studies. The curriculum unit is designed to help young adolescents work successfully with small children. A career focus, that of baby sitter or child caregiver, forms the unit's conceptual framework. This publication…
McKenzie, Sharon, Comp.; Martin, Joan, Ed.
Family Studies I represents the first part of a consumer and homemaking program focusing on individual and family development, parenting, and the daily tasks of living in a family setting. The course is designed to help students study the family as it exists in day-to-day living and to aid them in understanding themselves in relation to their…
Robertson discusses the "perceived dichotomy" that permeates science teaching: teachers can either stress inquiry learning with lots of hands-on experiences or stress content knowledge and swap hands-on inquiry for direct instruction. Although a curriculum of unstructured hands-on science activities leads to shallow content knowledge, it is…
CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.
In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''
Grober, S.; Jodl, H. -J.
Problems are an important instrument for teachers to mediate physics content and for learners to adopt this content. This collection of problems is not only suited to traditional teaching and learning in lectures or student labs, but also to all kinds of new ways of teaching and learning, such as self-study, long-distance teaching,…
Goethe House, New York, NY.
This instructional booklet for the social studies classroom is a companion to a series about modern day Germany. The materials describe the documents in the series and present correlation charts for content and skills: (1) "A Kid Like Me across the Sea"; (2) "Communities and Regions"; (3) "Overview of Germany"; (4)…
Kandi, Kamala M.
This study examines the effect of a technology-based instructional tool "Geniverse" on the content knowledge gains, Science Self-Efficacy, Technology Self-Efficacy, and Career Goal Aspirations among 283 high school learners. The study was conducted in four urban high schools, two of which have achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and…
Kino, Mary M.; And Others
Item response theory (IRT) has been used extensively to study differential item functioning (dif) and to identify potentially biased items. The use of IRT for diagnostic purposes is less prevalent and has received comparatively less attention. This study addressed differential objective function (dof) to identify potentially biased content units.…
Supiano, Katherine P
While palliative care is best delivered in an interdisciplinary format, courses teaching the interdisciplinary approach to palliative care are rare in healthcare education. This article describes a graduate-level course in palliative care for students in nursing, pharmacy, social work, and gerontology taught by faculty from each discipline. The overarching goals of this course are to convey core palliative care knowledge across disciplines, articulate the essential contribution of each discipline in collaborative care, and to define interdisciplinary processes learners need to understand and navigate interdisciplinary palliative care. Learning outcomes included increased knowledge in palliative care, enhanced attitudes in practice and application of skills to clinical practice settings, increased ability to contribute discipline-specific knowledge to their teams' discussions, and a sense of increasing confidence in participating in the care of complex patients, communicating with families, and contributing to the team as a member of their own discipline.
The author's orientation to psychoanalytic education blends its subjective and objective ways of knowing, its cognitive and experiential aspects. Lear's (2003) definition of psychoanalysis as a subjective category contextualizes psychoanalytic teaching as a lived-out demonstration of its conceptual learning and generates a confident humility in how teachers express theoretical content. The author emphasizes teachers' gut-level psychological impacts on candidates, and the value of teachers conveying psychoanalytic knowledge as an internalized expression of their personal experience and meaning (identification), while simultaneously maintaining an objective perspective. A literature review of psychoanalytic education and discussion of Stanislavski's (1936, 1949) dramatic acting "Method" clarifies the author's pedagogy.
Bergman, Lawrence David (Inventor); Kim, Michelle Yoonk Yung (Inventor); Li, Chung-Sheng (Inventor); Mohan, Rakesh (Inventor); Smith, John Richard (Inventor)
A framework is provided for describing multimedia content and a system in which a plurality of multimedia storage devices employing the content description methods of the present invention can interoperate. In accordance with one form of the present invention, the content description framework is a description scheme (DS) for describing streams or aggregations of multimedia objects, which may comprise audio, images, video, text, time series, and various other modalities. This description scheme can accommodate an essentially limitless number of descriptors in terms of features, semantics or metadata, and facilitate content-based search, index, and retrieval, among other capabilities, for both streamed or aggregated multimedia objects.
Pati, Sanghamitra; Sharma, Anjali; Zodpey, Sanjay
Public health ethics has been receiving increasing attention in recent years. Frequently, public health practitioners have to confront complex decisions, with numerous and often conflicting ethical implications. The objective of this study was to obtain information on the teaching of public health ethics in India by making a detailed examination of the public health and community medicine curricula. The specific areas of interest included the content and structure of the courses and electives available to students. The results of this study indicate that ethics courses are yet to find their rightful place in the teaching of public health in India. The curricula vary across institutes in terms of the time and content devoted to the teaching of public health ethics. It is suggested that public health programmes in India develop and incorporate ethics courses so as to keep pace with the emerging challenges in the field. An interdisciplinary consortium should preferably be formed at the national level to take up this academic endeavour.
Ward, Phillip; Ayvazo, Shiri; Lehwald, Harry
Physical education teachers need to know their content and also how to teach their content. These two forms of knowledge are not the same. They can be distinguished as knowledge needed to perform content, called common content knowledge; and additional knowledge needed to teach the content, called specialized content knowledge. It is clear from…
The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) conceptual framework for teaching mathematics, developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006), emphasises the importance of developing integrated and interdependent understanding of three primary forms of knowledge: technology, pedagogy, and content. The TPACK conceptual framework is based upon the…
Crisp-Han, Holly; Chambliss, R. Bryan; Coverdale, John
Objective: Because there have been no previously published national surveys on teaching psychiatry residents about how to teach, the authors surveyed United States psychiatry program directors on what and how residents are taught about teaching. Methods: All psychiatry training programs across the United States were mailed a semistructured…
If you would like to contribute a teaching note for any of these sections please contact email@example.com Contents: LET'S INVESTIGATE: Bows and arrows STARTING OUT: A late start ON THE MAP: A South African school making a world of difference TECHNICAL TRIMMINGS: May the force be with you an easily constructed force sensor Modelling Ultrasound A-scanning with the Pico Technology ADC-200 Virtual Instrument PHYSICS ON A SHOESTRING: Sugar cube radioactivity models CURIOSITY: Euler's disk MY WAY: Why heavy things don't fall faster
Vellucci, Sherry L.; Hsieh-Yee, Ingrid; Moen, William E.
The networked environment forced a sea change in Library and Information Science (LIS) education. Most LIS programs offer a mixed-mode of instruction that integrates online learning materials with more traditional classroom pedagogical methods and faculty are now responsible for developing content and digital learning objects. The teaching commons…
Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.
Thirty-four classroom games are listed in this self-contained guide for the purpose of teaching civil defense concepts and protective content as an integral part of the K-12 social studies curriculum. Objectives of the games in this book are: to develop an awareness of civil defense; to learn vocabulary used in civil defense functions; and, to…
Lamy, Steven L.; And Others
This teaching guide contains 15 simulation/games for students in grades 6-12 on the topic of global awareness. The overall objective is to help students understand various global concepts and social studies content. Specifically, it gives students the chance to experience and understand international/intercultural situations which involve people…
Hurt, Robert L.
In every way that matters, advising is a form of teaching. Using Bloom's (1956) taxonomy of educational outcomes, I explain how to develop learning objectives within advising contexts. The article also suggests commonly available educational materials, such as university catalogs, as content delivery mechanisms for students; in addition, it offers…
Gertz, Susan E.; Portman, Dwight J.; Sarquis, Mickey
This guide focuses on teaching hands-on, discovery-oriented physical science in the elementary classroom using children's literature. Each lesson is an integrated learning episode with a clearly defined science content objective which is supported and enriched through literature, writing, and mathematics. The three sections are: (1) "Properties of…
Kniffin, Mike; Foley, John; MacDonald, Lynn Couturier; Howarth, Kath
Only a handful of research studies have been conducted to determine whether or not physical educators or pre-service physical education teachers are utilizing learning standards in their teaching. While pre-service teachers are typically required to align lesson objectives and content, their extent of their understanding of how learning standards…
Otero, George G.; Smith, Gary R.
Thirty-three supplementary teaching activities are provided to complement existing curricula related to food. Content covers food production and distribution, nutrition, food shortages, food habits, meal planning, and other topics appropriate for secondary and adult programs. Although the objectives are varied for each lesson, taken as a whole…
Georgia Univ., Athens. English Curriculum Study Center.
This teaching guide for written composition in grades K-3 contains (1) a statement of objectives for a curriculum in composition, (2) sequence charts which relate subject content for each grade to basic understandings about composition, (3) illustrations of ways in which the ordinary experiences of children can become the bases for compositions,…
Teaching creatively in ESP might in certain cases present some appropriate solutions to the teaching situation and, more importantly, boost students' confidence and motivation towards achieving some of the course objectives. Based on a case study, this paper displays some of the results obtained through a limited scope research conducted with…
Nerur, Sridhar; Ramanujan, Sam; Kesh, Someswar
Discusses the need for people with object-oriented (OO) skills, explains benefits of OO in software development, and addresses some of the difficulties in teaching OO. Topics include the evolution of programming languages; differences between OO and traditional approaches; differences from data modeling; and Unified Modeling Language (UML) and…
In this study, a Beliefs About Teaching (BAT) scale was created to examine preservice elementary science teachers’ self-reported comfort level with both traditional and reform-based teaching methods, assessment techniques, classroom management techniques, and science content. Participants included 166 preservice teachers from three different US universities. Analyses revealed significant correlations among participants’ confidence level with assessment techniques, classroom management, teaching methods, and science content and number of science methods and science content courses taken. A significant difference was observed among the students enrolled at each university. Overall, study participants felt more comfortable teaching biology concepts than teaching chemistry concepts, physics concepts, or both.
Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)
Scott, Roger L.
Suggests using the planetarium as an educational resource for all ages. Discusses various planetarium teaching techniques and planetarium programs (with objectives) at Ball State University. They include programs for school children, college students, and the general public. (DH)
Alavarce, Debora Cristina; Pierin, Angela Maria Geraldo
Arterial blood pressure measurement is an essential conduct to evaluate the condition of the cardiovascular system. Digital teaching environment is a powerful tool for the teaching-learning process, because it adds meaning and concreteness to the content to be learned, and it can be useful to instruct this procedure. The objective of this study was to create educational hypermedia for teaching arterial blood pressure measurement, and to describe the steps of that creation process. The pedagogical framework of Robert Gagné was used; and the construction followed the model proposed by Price. The final product presents videos, photos, animations and simulations that demonstrate and teach the procedure. Although hypermedia construction has been difficult to use, it can positively enhance the teaching of nursing procedures.
Kandi, Kamala M.
This study examines the effect of a technology-based instructional tool 'Geniverse' on the content knowledge gains, Science Self-Efficacy, Technology Self-Efficacy, and Career Goal Aspirations among 283 high school learners. The study was conducted in four urban high schools, two of which have achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and two have not. Students in both types of schools were taught genetics either through Geniverse, a virtual learning environment or Dragon genetics, a paper-pencil activity embedded in traditional instructional method. Results indicated that students in all schools increased their knowledge of genetics using either type of instructional approach. Students who were taught using Geniverse demonstrated an advantage for genetics knowledge although the effect was small. These increases were more pronounced in the schools that had been meeting the AYP goal. The other significant effect for Geniverse was that students in the technology-enhanced classrooms increased in science Self-Efficacy while students in the non-technology enhanced classrooms decreased. In addition, students from Non-AYP schools showed an improvement in Science and Technology Self-Efficacy; however the effects were small. The implications of these results for the future use of technology-enriched classrooms were discussed. Keywords: Technology-based instruction, Self-Efficacy, career goals and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP).
Bandeali, Suhair; Chiang, Albert; Ramnanan, Christopher J.
ABSTRACT Objectives: According to the CanMEDS’ Scholar competency, physicians are expected to facilitate the learning of colleagues, patients and other health professionals. However, most medical students are not provided with formal opportunities to gain teaching experience with objective feedback. Methods: To address this, the University’s Medical Education Interest Group (MEIG) created a pilot teaching program in January 2015 entitled ‘MedTalks’. Four 3-hour sessions were held at the University Faculty of Medicine, where first and second year medical students taught clinically oriented topics to undergraduate university students. Each extracurricular session included three 30-minute content lectures, and a 90-minute small group session on physical examination skills. Each medical student-teacher received formal feedback from undergraduate students and from faculty educators regarding teaching style, communication abilities, and professionalism. In addition, medical student-teachers self-evaluated their own teaching experience. Results: Over 50 medical students from the University participated as medical student-teachers. Based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation surveys, 100% of medical students agreed that MedTalks was a useful way to develop teaching skills and 92% gained a greater confidence in individual teaching capabilities, based largely on the opportunity to gain experience (with feedback) in teaching roles. Conclusions: A program designed to give medical students multi-source teaching experience (lecture- and small group-based) and feedback on their teaching (from learners and Faculty observers, in addition to their own self-reflection) can improve medical student confidence and enthusiasm towards teaching. Future studies will clarify if medical student self-perceived enhancements in teaching ability can be corroborated by independent (Faculty, learner) observations of future teaching activity. PMID:28178910
In this paper, which draws on a dissertation in process, one of the issues central to the role of content knowledge for teaching, "pedagogical content knowledge," is examined. This body of knowledge is an amalgam of pedagogy and content and makes teachers different from scholars in a field. General pedagogical knowledge is the teacher's knowledge…
Verdi, Michael P.; Johnson, Janet T.
According to David Berliner (1992), Regents Professor and noted expert in teaching educational psychology, the goal of teaching educational psychology is to influence the practice of teaching. Whether it is teaching preservice teachers how to motivate their students or how to write appropriate behavioral objectives and lesson plans, educational…
Considering the status quo of college English teaching, we implement stratified teaching, which reflects the idea of stratification in terms of teaching objects, teaching management, teaching process and assessment and evaluation, makes each students get development to the greatest extent in interactive teaching practice of teaching and learning…
Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: Teaching Drug Marketers How to Inform Better or Spin Better? Comment on "Trouble Spots in Online Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A Content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters".
Hyosun Kim's report "Trouble Spots in Online Direct to Consumer Prescription Drug Promotion: A content Analysis of FDA Warning Letters" aims to teach marketers how to avoid breaching current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines in their online drug promotion. While Kim hopes to minimise the potential for online promotion to misinform consumers and the study is carefully conducted, teaching drug marketers how to avoid the common mistakes in online drug promotion is more likely to make marketers more adept at spinning information than appropriately balancing it.
Zembal-Saul, Carla; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis
Reports on a study that examines the ways in which three prospective teachers approach representing science content within the context of their student teaching experiences. (Contains 51 references.) (DDR)
Santa, Carol M.; And Others
Discusses ways to get teachers involved in the process of evaluating and changing their methods of instruction--using the example of teaching content material through round robin reading and discussion. (FL)
Mosvold, Reidar; Fauskanger, Janne
In this article, we present and discuss an example of how teachers' discussions of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) items elicited their beliefs about the knowledge needed to teach mathematics. One category of MKT is "horizon content knowledge," and this can be described as mathematical knowledge not directly deployed in…
Yurchuck, E R; Kee, C C
1. As the number of older adults in the US increases, nurse educators must be prepared to teach gerontological nursing to their students. A 3-year project addresses the need for faculty development in gerontological nursing. 2. A major objective of the project is to provide basic knowledge of gerontological nursing to regional nursing faculty through a series of 1-week workshops that include didactic content and clinical observation experiences. 3. All 1990 workshops were filled to capacity, with participants exhibiting wide variation in their gerontological knowledge base.
Nikandrov, Nikolai D.
It has always been difficult to distinguish between tradition and innovation in teaching methods, not least because of the absence of clear-cut criteria. Definitions of teaching methods are also loose rather than binding. Nevertheless a trend towards active participation by studients is noticeable and very often taken as marking `progressive' teaching. Starting from the basic relationship of method and objective, an attempt is made to further relate cognitive activity of students to specific levels of achievement which are considered as teaching objectives. It is suggested, too, that a loose notion of method can for practical purposes be replaced by a more reliable notion of teaching text whether presented orally or given in written form. Then the problem of innovation in teaching methods can be stated a bit more precisely as that of creating a good teaching text. Some suggestions of how this can be achieved are discussed.
Walton, Charles W.
Suggests that six target areas in the teaching of theory and musicianship need more attention and emphasis: listening, analysis, music reading, creativity, music writing, and keyboard harmony. Discusses content and sequence in music theory and presents two sample applications. (SJL)
Das, S. R.
Describes current difficulties in teaching physics in Indian secondary schools, including the existence in all states of India of different syllabi of varying standards and content without the syllabi being related to the conditions and hardware available. (PR)
Gerber, Scott D.
Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)
As teaching artists enter the field of arts education, they are faced with the challenge of distinguishing themselves in the job search--developing a digital presence is one great way to stand out. After conducting thorough research into their local markets, teaching artists can set long-term career goals while honing online content for a…
Piper, Susan; Shaw, Edward Lewis, Jr.
Although the teaching of photosynthesis occurs yearly in elementary classrooms, one thing that makes it challenging is the inclusion of English language learners (ELLs). This article presents several activities for teaching and assessing of photosynthesis in a third grade classroom. The activities incorporate the photosynthesis content, teaching…
Love, Cathleen; And Others
Teaching is a complex act requiring expertise relative to content, students, and the myriad of alternatives available to bring the two together in meaningful ways. This monograph is designed to assist teachers in examining and altering their own teaching practices and in transforming the classroom from a place of "dull sameness" to an…
Pine, Vanderlyn R.; And Others
Development, implementation, and teaching of a college-level course on dying and death are described. The authors review their own experiences in becoming involved with death education and describe teaching methods, problems, and content of their current course in dying and death at the State University of New York, College at New Paltz. Because…
For the past five years, teachers from four Houston-area school districts have joined together in a professional learning community (PLC) to improve their science teaching. Through the University of Houston-Clear Lake (UHCL) Regional Collaborative for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Teaching, the teachers strengthen content knowledge and…
Parrott, T E
Nurse educators often look for alternate teaching strategies to increase students' attention, comprehension, motivation, and retention of content. Frequently, the use of humor has been shown qualitatively to be such a strategy. The author gives some of the theoretical basis for the use of humor in education and some examples of how humor has been used in her own teaching.
As Mr. Goldman empties his backpack, his philosophy of teaching spills out, along with an interesting assortment of odds and ends. In this article Mr. Goldman describes the contents of his L.L. Bean daypack with two large compartments in the back, a smaller forward compartment, and a little zippered pocket in the very front, along with his…
Ljubojevic, Milos; Vaskovic, Vojkan; Stankovic, Srecko; Vaskovic, Jelena
The main objective of this research is to investigate efficiency of use of supplementary video content in multimedia teaching. Integrating video clips in multimedia lecture presentations may increase students' perception of important information and motivation for learning. Because of that, students can better understand and remember key points of…
Allen, Melony; Webb, Angela W.; Matthews, Catherine E.
This article defines the process of adaptive teaching in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). We assert that teachers who possess a well-developed STEM pedagogical content knowledge, a constructivist paradigm of teaching and learning, and an ability to draw on a vision while reflecting on and during teaching to help negotiate…
"Teaching and Learning Strategies" is a practical guide for pre-service teachers who know and understand the content of the curriculum and are looking for additional tools to teach it effectively. This book will help students to develop a comprehensive knowledge of teaching and learning strategies, which is essential in ensuring lessons…
Liston, Daniel P.
Teaching entails the creation of connections among teacher, student, and content so that educational experiences can be had. Powerful teaching engages and recalls a lure of learning. To explore this lure, or love of learning, and its place in teaching, I first evoke a bit of what this attraction feels and looks like. Depicting this lure conveys…
Teaching is a scholarly activity and a life-long learning process with no single method or pedagogy that is always most effective. Applications of teaching pedagogies properly vary from content-based to discipline-based areas. In this paper, various teaching pedagogies, including scaffolding, concept mapping, constructivism, and learning…
Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.
We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.
Acker, Stephen R.
Discusses digital content management in higher education. Highlights include learning objects that make content more modular so it can be used in other courses or by other institutions; and a system at Ohio State University for content management that includes the creation of learner profiles. (LRW)
Rieman, Mary T; Kagan, Richard J
Although there are inherent risks for burn injury associated with the Amish lifestyle, burn prevention is not taught in Amish schools. The purpose of this study was to develop a burn prevention teaching tool for Amish children. An anonymous parental survey was designed to explore the content and acceptability of a teaching tool within an Old Order Amish community. After institutional review board approval, the Amish teacher distributed surveys to 16 families of the 30 children attending the one-room school. Fourteen (88%) of the families responded to identify these burn risks in and around their homes, barns, and shops: lighters, wood and coal stoves, kerosene heaters, gasoline-powered engines, and hot liquids used for canning, butchering, mopping, washing clothes, and making lye soap. All respondents were in favor of teaching familiar safety precautions, fire escape plans, burn first aid, and emergency care to the children. There was some minor objection to more modern devices such as bath tub thermometers (25%), fire extinguishers (19%), and smoke detectors (6%). The teacher was interested in a magnetic teaching board depicting Amish children and typical objects in their home environment. Movable pieces could afford the opportunity to identify hazards and to rearrange them for a safer situation. This survey served to introduce burn prevention to one Amish community and to develop an appropriate teaching tool for the school. It is anticipated that community participation would support its acceptance and eventual utilization within this tenaciously traditional culture.
Kent, Michael L.
Discusses approaches to teaching a mediated public relations course, emphasizing the World Wide Web. Outlines five course objectives, assignments and activities, evaluation, texts, and lecture topics. Argues that students mastering these course objectives will understand ethical issues relating to media use, using mediated technology in public…
Teaching to Make Disciples in a Higher Education Online Learning Environment: A Comparison of the Literature of Online Learning, the Objectives and Practices of Three Christian Colleges, and the Letters of Paul
Morris, Raymond E.
This dissertation explores engaging students in spiritual formation and discipleship in the online environment. This researcher begins with the proposition that the letters of Paul are examples of distance teaching and distance learning. The effectiveness of the letters of Paul in engaging their recipients in spiritual formation and discipleship…
Crime and Criminal Law as a Theme in Education. Paper on the Starting Points, Objectives, and Teaching Matter of a Series of Lessons Called "Crime and Criminal Law," as a Theme for the School Subject of Social and Political Studies.
This series of lessons is intended to help high school students in the Netherlands consider how they look at, react to, and judge criminal events. The first part of the publication discusses different teaching approaches used in the lessons. These include: (1) a business analysis--study of the organization and structure of the criminal…
Scott-Phillips, Thomas C; Sperber, Dan
As Kline envisages, there is an important relationship between cultural attraction and teaching. The very function of teaching is to make the content taught an attractor. Teaching, moreover, typically fulfills its function by exploiting a variety of factors of cultural attraction that help make its content learnable and teachable.
Giauque, Gerald S.
An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…
According to the actuality of Dezhou University, some useful reforms in teaching content, teaching method, and teaching measure are introduced, combining with the characteristics of the course of quantum mechanism in this article.