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Sample records for objetivo estructurado osce

  1. 40 CFR 300.165 - OSC reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... recommendations within 30 days after the RRT has received the OSC report. (b) The OSC report shall record the... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false OSC reports. 300.165 Section 300.165... Responsibility and Organization for Response § 300.165 OSC reports. (a) As requested by the NRT or RRT, the OSC...

  2. The Psychiatry OSCE: a 20-year retrospective.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Brian D; Hollenberg, Elisa; McNaughton, Nancy; Hanson, Mark D; Regehr, Glenn

    2014-02-01

    Twenty years ago researchers at the University of Toronto launched the Psychiatry Skills Assessment Project (PSAP), a research program exploring Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in psychiatry. Between 1994 and 2005 PSAP produced publications on the feasibility, reliability, validity, ethics, and practical concerns of OSCEs in psychiatry. The current review has two parts: a review of the state of the art of OSCEs in psychiatry 20 years after they were introduced and documentation of the impact of the PSAP research program. A literature search identified all publications on OSCEs and psychiatry. Articles were coded thematically, and locations of agreement and controversies were identified. Bibliometric analysis identified citations of PSAP research papers, which were analyzed thematically. As of May 2013, there were 250 publications related to OSCEs in psychiatry (not including 10 PSAP papers), published in 29 different countries and ten languages. Prominent topics were the validity and acceptability of OSCEs and SPs, systems issues in adopting OSCEs in psychiatry, and the effects on learning. Eighty-eight percent of all publications cited PSAP work (300 citations). Citations were employed for four purposes: as evidence/justification (54 %); to frame replication research (14 %); to support adaptation of OSCEs in other countries and professions (15 %); and for debate (18 %). Over the past 20 years, use of OSCEs has grown steadily in psychiatry, and several national certification organizations have adopted OSCEs. PSAP work, introduced two decades ago, continues to provide a scholarly foundation for psychometric, practical, and ethical issues of interest to this field.

  3. Sequential OSCE based on item response theory.

    PubMed

    Hejri, Sara Mortaz; Jalili, Mohammad

    2017-09-08

    In sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) all students initially take a short screening OSCE. Examinees who pass are excused from further testing, but an additional OSCE will be administered for the remaining examinees. Previous investigations on sequential OSCE were based on the Classical Test Theory. We aimed at designing and evaluating screening OSCEs based on Item Response Theory. We carried out a retrospective observational study. In each of a 10-station OSCE, the students' performance was graded on a Likert-type scale. Since data was polytomous, difficulty and discrimination parameters, and students' ability were calculated by graded response model. To design several screening OSCEs, we identified the five most difficult stations and the five most discriminative ones. Five, four, or three stations were selected for each test. Normal and stringent cut-scores were defined for each test. We compared the results of each 12 screening OSCE to the main OSCE and calculated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), as well as the exam cost. 253 students (95.1%) passed the main OSCE. 72.6% to 94.4% of examinees passed the screening tests. The PPV values ranged from 0.98 to 1.00, and the NPV values ranged from 0.18 to 0.59. Two tests effectively predicted the results of the main exam accurately and could result in 34-40% financial saving. Sequential OSCE, if stations with highest values of IRT-based discrimination and stringent cut-scores are applied to the screening test, can be an efficient and convenient way to conduct an OSCE.

  4. Developing and implementing an OSCE in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Manogue, M; Brown, G

    1998-05-01

    The processes of development, implementation and perceived usefulness of an objective structured clinical examination in restorative dentistry (OSCE(D)) are reported. An OSCE is a system of assessment. It consists of a set of standardised 'stations'. At each station, a student is tested on a specific clinical task. Each student moves from one station to the next so that by the end of the OSCE, every student has completed every station. The primary purpose of this OSCE was to provide feedback to 49 4th year students on their performance in the clinical areas of conservative dentistry, periodontology and prosthetics. Individual profiles were provided to students and the overall results discussed by staff. There were no significant differences in overall performance between genders or between students in the morning and afternoon examinations. There was a significant difference between performance in prosthetics and the other areas and there were some significant differences among the skill clusters of clinical knowledge, procedures, clinical reasoning, history-taking, techniques and communication. Students and staff perceived the OSCE(D) as a valuable tool for providing feedback. The development of the OSCE and the findings described in this paper will be of value to clinical staff who are developing OSCEs in all areas of dentistry.

  5. Temporary tattoos: a novel OSCE assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Gerry; Menary, Allison; Layard, Brooke; Hart, Nigel; McCourt, Collette

    2013-08-01

    There are many issues regarding the use of real patients in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). In dermatology OSCE stations, standardised patients (SPs) with clinical photographs are often used. Temporary transfer tattoos can potentially simulate skin lesions when applied to an SP. This study aims to appraise the use of temporary malignant melanoma tattoos within an OSCE framework. Within an 11-station OSCE, a temporary malignant melanoma tattoo was developed and applied to SPs in a 'skin lesion' OSCE station. A questionnaire captured the opinions of the candidate, SP and examiners, and the degree of perceived realism of each station was determined. Standard post hoc OSCE analysis determined the psychometric reliability of the stations. The response rates were 95.9 per cent of candidates and 100 per cent of the examiners and SPs. The 'skin lesion' station achieved the highest realism score compared with other stations: 89.0 per cent of candidates felt that the skin lesion appeared realistic; only 28 per cent of candidates had ever seen a melanoma before in training. The psychometric performance of the melanoma station was comparable with, and in many instances better than, other OSCE stations. Transfer tattoo technology facilitates a realistic dermatology OSCE station encounter. Temporary tattoos, alongside trained SPs, provide an authentic, standardised and reliable experience, allowing the assessment of integrated dermatology clinical skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) Revisited.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Piyush; Dewan, Pooja; Singh, Tejinder

    2010-11-01

    Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was introduced in 1975 as a standardized tool for objectively assessing clinical competencies - including history-taking, physical examination, communication skills, data interpretation etc. It consists of a circuit of stations connected in series, with each station devoted to assessment of a particular competency using pre-determined guidelines or checklists. OSCE has been used as a tool for both formative and summative evaluation of medical graduate and postgraduate students across the globe. The use of OSCE for formative assessment has great potential as the learners can gain insights into the elements making up clinical competencies as well as feedback on personal strengths and weaknesses. However, the success of OSCE is dependent on adequacy of resources, including the number of stations, construction of stations, method of scoring (checklists and or global scoring), the number of students assessed, and adequate time and money. Lately, OSCE has drawn some criticism for its lack of validity, feasibility, practicality, and objectivity. There is evidence to show that many OSCEs may be too short to achieve reliable results. There are also currently no clear cut standards set for passing an OSCE. It is perceived that OSCEs test the students knowledge and skills in a compartmentalized fashion, rather than looking at the patient as a whole. This article focuses on the issues of validity, objectivity, reliability, and standard setting of OSCE. Presently, the Indian experiences with OSCE are limited and there is a need to sensitise the Indian faculty and students. A cautious approach is desired before it is considered as a supplementary tool to other methods of assessment for the summative examinations in Indian settings.

  7. The validity and reliability of an OSCE in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Brown, G; Manogue, M; Martin, M

    1999-08-01

    The validity and reliability of a newly-developed objective structured clinical examination for 4th year dental students (OSCE(D)) were estimated by a range of quantitative and qualitative methods. The OSCE(D) consisted of 17 stations in conservation, periodontology and prosthetics. A blueprint was used to match the OSCE stations to clinical subject areas and to 7 skill clusters of clinical competence. Repeat measures of skills were undertaken in the OSCE(D) to maximise its validity and reliability. The primary purposes of the OSCE(D) were to assess clinical competence and to provide feedback to students. The results indicate that the OSCE(D) was intrinsically valid and a better predictor of performance in the final examination than either a concurrent 4th-year examination or Advanced-level university entry grades. The OSCE(D) scored relatively highly on internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.68). Intra-domain and inter-domain correlations were high and inter-examiner reliability was relatively high (eta 2 coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.10). There were no significant differences between performances in the morning and afternoon sessions of the examination so reproducibility is assumed to be high. Some improvement in individual stations and in inter-examiner reliability are required. A set of recommendations based on the experience of designing and testing a dental OSCE are provided.

  8. Surveying Students' Attitudes During the OSCE.

    PubMed

    Allen, Ruth; Heard, Jeanne; Savidge, Mildred; Bittergle, Joseph; Cantrell, Mary; Huffmaster, Tim

    1998-01-01

    This study assessed students' attitudes, students' level of confidence and the importance of faculty feedback during an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). A survey was administered as one of 15 OSCE stations to 138 sophomore medical students. Eight of the twelve survey items were Likert type items with a follow-up open-ended question. The remaining four items required only an open-ended response. The five surveyors participated in the design of the questionnaire and in training to insure reliable information acquisition and recording. The OSCE was given in five identical tracks in a single day. Each surveyor interviewed either 27 or 28 students during the four-hour period of the track. The Likert responses to the eight items were analyzed and statistical comparisons made for each question. The open-ended responses were analyzed using qualitative summary techniques and compared to the Likert responses.Statistical analyses of the Likert based items showed students had high levels of confidence in their ability to conduct physical examinations and histories, found faculty feedback helpful and informative, but were nervous throughout the examination. The qualitative analysis provided additional information regarding students' feelings about the OSCE, their levels of confidence, their stress levels and the importance of faculty feedback during the examination.Results of the survey suggest curricular changes which could be made in preparation for the OSCE and for a new Introduction to Clinical Medicine course currently in its first year in the College of Medicine.

  9. Task Demands in OSCEs Influence Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Lafleur, Alexandre; Laflamme, Jonathan; Leppink, Jimmie; Côté, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Models on pre-assessment learning effects confirmed that task demands stand out among the factors assessors can modify in an assessment to influence learning. However, little is known about which tasks in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) improve students' cognitive and metacognitive processes. Research is needed to support OSCE designs that benefit students' metacognitive strategies when they are studying, reinforcing a hypothesis-driven approach. With that intent, hypothesis-driven physical examination (HDPE) assessments ask students to elicit and interpret findings of the physical exam to reach a diagnosis ("Examine this patient with a painful shoulder to reach a diagnosis"). When studying for HDPE, students will dedicate more time to hypothesis-driven discussions and practice than when studying for a part-task OSCE ("Perform the shoulder exam"). It is expected that the whole-task nature of HDPE will lead to a hypothesis-oriented use of the learning resources, a frequent use of adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. In a mixed-methods study, 40 medical students were randomly paired and filmed while studying together for two hypothetical OSCE stations. Each 25-min study period began with video cues asking to study for either a part-task OSCE or an HDPE. In a crossover design, sequences were randomized for OSCEs and contents (shoulder or spine). Time-on-task for discussions or practice were categorized as "hypothesis-driven" or "sequence of signs and maneuvers." Content analysis of focus group interviews summarized students' perception of learning resources, adjustment strategies, and persistence with learning. When studying for HDPE, students allocate significantly more time for hypothesis-driven discussions and practice. Students use resources contrasting diagnoses and report persistence with learning. When studying for part-task OSCEs, time-on-task is reversed, spent on rehearsing a sequence of signs and maneuvers. OSCEs with

  10. 40 CFR 300.165 - OSC reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false OSC reports. 300.165 Section 300.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... situation as it developed, the actions taken, the resources committed, and the problems encountered. ...

  11. 40 CFR 300.165 - OSC reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false OSC reports. 300.165 Section 300.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND... situation as it developed, the actions taken, the resources committed, and the problems encountered. ...

  12. Taking OSCE examiner training on the road: reaching the masses

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Katharine; Smallwood, David; Collins, Margo; Sutherland, Ruth; Dodds, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Background To ensure the rigour of objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) in assessing medical students, medical school educators must educate examiners with a view to standardising examiner assessment behaviour. Delivering OSCE examiner training is a necessary yet challenging part of the OSCE process. A novel approach to implementing training for current and potential OSCE examiners was trialled by delivering large-group education sessions at major teaching hospitals. Methods The ‘OSCE Roadshow’ comprised a short training session delivered in the context of teaching hospital ‘Grand Rounds’ to current and potential OSCE examiners. The training was developed to educate clinicians about OSCE processes, clarify the examiners’ role and required behaviours, and to review marking guides and mark allocation in an effort to standardise OSCE processes and encourage consistency in examiner marking behaviour. A short exercise allowed participants to practise marking a mock OSCE to investigate examiner marking behaviour after the training. Results OSCE Roadshows at four metropolitan and one rural teaching hospital were well received and well attended by 171 clinicians across six sessions. Unexpectedly, medical students also attended in large numbers (n=220). After training, participants’ average scores for the mock OSCE clustered closely around the ideal score of 28 (out of 40), and the average scores did not differ according to the levels of clinical experience. Conclusion The OSCE Roadshow demonstrated the potential of brief familiarisation training in reaching large numbers of current and potential OSCE examiners in a time and cost-effective manner to promote standardisation of OSCE processes. PMID:27687287

  13. Using OSCE-based evaluation: curricular impact over time.

    PubMed

    Zartman, Rosemarie R; McWhorter, Alton G; Seale, N Sue; Boone, William John

    2002-12-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is becoming more widely used for performance assessment in dentistry. The department of pediatric dentistry at Baylor College of Dentistry (BCD) began incorporating the OSCE into its curriculum in 1995. This article describes the evolution of the department's use of the OSCE and its impact on teaching and the curriculum. The discussion focuses on logistics and station design, curricular content and order, student anxiety, writing and scoring exams, and curriculum assessment. BCD has found that using an OSCE-based testing format is time-consuming and labor-intensive, but provides unprecedented feedback about students' understanding and pinpoints areas of confusion. The demands of an OSCE-based testing format reveal that students can master, to the level of competency, only a finite amount of information in a given time period. The timed, interactive aspects of the OSCE create high levels of student anxiety that must be addressed. Writing and scoring OSCE items are different from traditional test items. The OSCE is a valuable mechanism to assess the students' progress toward competency. This review of the process of incorporating OSCEs into a curriculum is the foundation for future assessment of the OSCE and its use for curricular improvement.

  14. Electronic acquisition of OSCE performance using tablets.

    PubMed

    Hochlehnert, Achim; Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Möltner, Andreas; Tımbıl, Sevgi; Brass, Konstantin; Jünger, Jana

    2015-01-01

    Hintergrund: OSCE-Prüfungen sind oft mit einem erheblichen Material- und Organisationsaufwand verbunden, da die Leistungserfassung üblicherweise auf Papier durchgeführt wird. Eine elektronisch unterstützte Durchführung stellt hierzu eine Alternative dar, mit der der Verbrauch materieller Ressourcen reduziert werden kann. Insbesondere erscheint hier der Einsatz von Tablets sinnvoll, da diese zudem leicht zu transportieren sind und damit flexibel eingesetzt werden können. Zielsetzung: Die Nutzerakzeptanz der Verwendung von Tablets bei OSCE-Prüfungen wurde bislang allerdings nur wenig untersucht. Ziel dieser Studie war daher eine Evaluation Tablet-basierter OSCE-Prüfungen aus Sicht der Benutzer (Prüfer) und der geprüften Studierenden.Methodik: Bei zwei OSCE-Prüfungen des Faches Innere Medizin der Universität Heidelberg wurde die Nutzerakzeptanz einer Tablet-basierten Durchführung (Zufriedenheit mit der Funktionalität) und die subjektive Anstrengung aus Sicht der Prüfer untersucht. Hierzu wurden standardisierte Fragebögen und halbstandardisierte Interviews eingesetzt (Vollerfassung aller teilnehmenden Prüfer). Zudem wurde bei einer der Prüfungen die subjektive Bewertung dieser Prüfungsvariante an einer Stichprobe teilnehmender Studierender mittels halbstandardisierter Interviews erhoben.Ergebnisse: Die Prüfer waren mit der Tablet-Prüfungsvariante insgesamt sehr zufrieden. Die subjektive Anstrengung der Bedienung der Tablets wurde im Mittel als „kaum anstrengend“ empfunden. In den Interviews wurden insbesondere die einfache Handhabung und die geringe Fehleranfälligkeit von den Prüfern als Vorteile dieser Prüfungsvariante genannt. In der Befragung der geprüften Studierenden zeigte sich ebenfalls eine Akzeptanz der Tablet-Prüfungsvariante. Diskussion: Insgesamt hat sich gezeigt, dass der Einsatz von Tablets in OSCE-Prüfungen sowohl von Prüfern als auch Studierenden gut angenommen wird. Es wird erwartet, dass diese Prüfungsvariante auch

  15. Rasch analysis on OSCE data : An illustrative example.

    PubMed

    Tor, E; Steketee, C

    2011-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a widely used tool for the assessment of clinical competence in health professional education. The goal of the OSCE is to make reproducible decisions on pass/fail status as well as students' levels of clinical competence according to their demonstrated abilities based on the scores. This paper explores the use of the polytomous Rasch model in evaluating the psychometric properties of OSCE scores through a case study. The authors analysed an OSCE data set (comprised of 11 stations) for 80 fourth year medical students based on the polytomous Rasch model in an effort to answer two research questions: (1) Do the clinical tasks assessed in the 11 OSCE stations map on to a common underlying construct, namely clinical competence? (2) What other insights can Rasch analysis offer in terms of scaling, item analysis and instrument validation over and above the conventional analysis based on classical test theory? The OSCE data set has demonstrated a sufficient degree of fit to the Rasch model (Χ(2) = 17.060, DF=22, p=0.76) indicating that the 11 OSCE station scores have sufficient psychometric properties to form a measure for a common underlying construct, i.e. clinical competence. Individual OSCE station scores with good fit to the Rasch model (p > 0.1 for all Χ(2) statistics) further corroborated the characteristic of unidimensionality of the OSCE scale for clinical competence. A Person Separation Index (PSI) of 0.704 indicates sufficient level of reliability for the OSCE scores. Other useful findings from the Rasch analysis that provide insights, over and above the analysis based on classical test theory, are also exemplified using the data set. The polytomous Rasch model provides a useful and supplementary approach to the calibration and analysis of OSCE examination data.

  16. In the Minds of OSCE Examiners: Uncovering Hidden Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahine, Saad; Holmes, Bruce; Kowalewski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) is a widely used method of assessment in medical education. Rater cognition has become an important area of inquiry in the medical education assessment literature generally, and in the OSCE literature specifically, because of concerns about potential compromises of validity. In this study, a novel…

  17. Increased Authenticity in Practical Assessment Using Emergency Case OSCE Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Muller, Michael P.; Junger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In case of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and assessed during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable assessment format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine…

  18. Implementation of an OSCE at Kaohsiung Medical University.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Min; Huang, Chun-Hsiung; Liu, Keh-Min

    2007-04-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), a tool to objectively and fairly assess medical students' clinical competences, has become widely used in medical education worldwide. However, most medical schools in Taiwan have just begun to adopt this assessment method. In 2003, Kaohsiung Medical University (KMU) established the first standardized patient (SP) program in Taiwan and applied SPs with an OSCE. This study reports the process of the implementation of an OSCE at KMU, which includes collecting information, visiting leading clinical skills centers, consulting medical educators from other countries, holding international conferences, establishing an OSCE committee, writing cases, training SPs, administrating the OSCE, and receiving feedback from medical students. Most students were satisfied with the assessment and appreciated the learning experience. Based on the experience in 2003, the OSCE committee decided to incorporate the OSCE into the medical curriculum as a measure to assess medical students' clinical competences. In addition to assessing medical students' clinical competence, the OSCE can also be applied to other professional health education, such as dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy. We are currently sharing our experience with other colleges at KMU.

  19. Increased Authenticity in Practical Assessment Using Emergency Case OSCE Stations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruesseler, Miriam; Weinlich, Michael; Byhahn, Christian; Muller, Michael P.; Junger, Jana; Marzi, Ingo; Walcher, Felix

    2010-01-01

    In case of an emergency, a fast and structured patient management is crucial for patient's outcome. The competencies needed should be acquired and assessed during medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a valid and reliable assessment format to evaluate practical skills. However, traditional OSCE stations examine…

  20. In the Minds of OSCE Examiners: Uncovering Hidden Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chahine, Saad; Holmes, Bruce; Kowalewski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) is a widely used method of assessment in medical education. Rater cognition has become an important area of inquiry in the medical education assessment literature generally, and in the OSCE literature specifically, because of concerns about potential compromises of validity. In this study, a novel…

  1. Cheating in OSCEs: The Impact of Simulated Security Breaches on OSCE Performance.

    PubMed

    Gotzmann, Andrea; De Champlain, André; Homayra, Fahmida; Fotheringham, Alexa; de Vries, Ingrid; Forgie, Melissa; Pugh, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Construct: Valid score interpretation is important for constructs in performance assessments such as objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). An OSCE is a type of performance assessment in which a series of standardized patients interact with the student or candidate who is scored by either the standardized patient or a physician examiner. In high-stakes examinations, test security is an important issue. Students accessing unauthorized test materials can create an unfair advantage and lead to examination scores that do not reflect students' true ability level. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of various simulated security breaches on OSCE scores. Seventy-six 3rd-year medical students participated in an 8-station OSCE and were randomized to either a control group or to 1 of 2 experimental conditions simulating test security breaches: station topic (i.e., providing a list of station topics prior to the examination) or egregious security breach (i.e., providing detailed content information prior to the examination). Overall total scores were compared for the 3 groups using both a one-way between-subjects analysis of variance and a repeated measure analysis of variance to compare the checklist, rating scales, and oral question subscores across the three conditions. Overall total scores were highest for the egregious security breach condition (81.8%), followed by the station topic condition (73.6%), and they were lowest for the control group (67.4%). This trend was also found with checklist subscores only (79.1%, 64.9%, and 60.3%, respectively for the security breach, station topic, and control conditions). Rating scale subscores were higher for both the station topic and egregious security breach conditions compared to the control group (82.6%, 83.1%, and 77.6%, respectively). Oral question subscores were significantly higher for the egregious security breach condition (88.8%) followed by the station topic condition (64.3%), and they were

  2. Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in pharmacy education - a trend

    PubMed Central

    Shirwaikar, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacy education has undergone a radical change as it evolves towards becoming a more patient oriented profession. With a greater emphasis on problem based teaching and competency, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), supported by its reliability and validity became the gold standard for the evaluation of clinical skills of undergraduate students of medicine and pharmacy worldwide. Core competency evaluation has become a mandatory and critical norm for accountability of educational objectives as the traditional testing tools cannot evaluate clinical competence. Interpersonal and communication skills, professional judgment, skills of resolution etc., may be best assessed through a well- structured OSCE in comparison to oral examinations, multiple choice tests and other methods of assessment. Though OSCEs as an objective method of evaluation offer several advantages to both students and teachers, it also has disadvantages and pitfalls in implementation. This article reviews the OSCE as a trend in pharmacy education. PMID:26759616

  3. Democratization in Albania: The OSCE, NATO and the European Union

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    shared liberal democratic values and norms are at the heart of NATO’s legitimacy.”20 Moreover, the Alliance dedicates significant attention to...Albanian political parties. “The agreement between the communists and the opposition parties . . . symbolized a shared determination to prevent the...multinational organizations. D. ESTABLISHING THE OSCE PRESENCE IN ALBANIA Field missions are the major assets of the OSCE helping “the organization

  4. Keeping it real! Enhancing realism in standardised patient OSCE stations.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Gerry; Sterling, Margaret; Menary, Allison; McKeown, Gary

    2012-12-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are a commonly used method of assessing clinical competency in health care education. They can provide an opportunity to observe candidates interacting with patients. There are many challenges in using real patients in OSCEs, and increasingly standardised patients are being used as a preference. However, by using standardised patients there is a risk of making the encounter artificial and removed from actual clinical practice. Efforts made in terms of cognitive, auditory, visual, tactile, psychological and emotional cues can minimise the differences between a simulated and real clinical scenario. However, a number of factors, including feasibility, cost and usability, need to be considered if such techniques are to be practicable within an OSCE framework. This article describes a series of techniques that have been used in our institution to enhance the realism of a standardised patient encounter in an OSCE. Efforts in preparing standardised patient roles, and how they portray these roles, will be considered. A wide variety of equipment can also be used in combination with a patient and the surrounding environment, which can further enhance the authenticity of the simulated scenario. By enhancing the realism in simulated patient OSCE encounters, there is potential to trigger more authentic conscious responses from candidates and implicit reactions that the candidates themselves may be less aware of. Furthermore, using such techniques may allow faculty members to select scenarios that were previously not thought possible in an OSCE. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  5. [Using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) across different levels of pediatric training].

    PubMed

    Di Lalla, Sandra; Manjarin, Mercedes; Torres, Fernando; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Wainsztein, Raquel; Ferrero, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes:Evaluar competencias profesionales es objetivo principal de todo programa de capacitación; el examen clínico objetivo estructurado (ECOE) es una herramienta útil para explorarlas. Objetivo:Describimos la implementación del ECOE en tres instancias de enseñanza de la pediatría (carrera de especialista, módulo pediatría del internado anual rotatorio, materia pediatría en el grado). Métodos: En relación con situaciones y patologías frecuentes en pediatría, se evaluaron conocimiento aplicado, juicio clínico y habilidad comunicacional. Resultados: En el posgrado el ECOE se aplica desde hace 8 años, examinando 330 alumnos, con 60%-82% de aprobación. En el Internado Anual Rotatorio el ECOE se emplea desde hace 2 años, examinando 12 alumnos, con 84% de aprobación. En el grado el ECOE se empleó sólo en una oportunidad, examinando 15 alumnos, con 93,4% de aprobación. Conclusión:En nuestra experiencia, a pesar de desafíos logísticos, la implementación del ECOE fue factible en distintas instancias de enseñanza de la pediatría.

  6. OSCEs in Japanese postgraduate clinical training Hiroshima experience 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, N; Ogawa, T

    2010-11-01

    Hiroshima University Hospital used the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a formative and summative assessment tool to evaluate trainees' competence. To reflect on Hiroshima University Hospital experience of OSCEs in postgraduate training in terms of OSCE structure and trainees' perception of the OSCE they attended. A total 27 OSCEs implemented in Hiroshima University Hospital from 2000 to 2009 were examined. The OSCE in postgraduate training, Hiroshima University Hospital, was influenced by many factors from organisational and pedagogical perspectives, and changed to meet social and curriculum needs. At each OSCE, all examinees were required to answer an anonymous questionnaire, which consisted of ten checklists, just after their experience of OSCE. Five hundred and forty trainees who attended each OSCE were required to answer a questionnaire and 510 were returned (94.4%). In the comparison between formative and summative OSCEs, the number of trainees who answered "the OSCE is meaningful" in formative OSCE was significantly higher than that in summative OSCE (P < 0.001). In the comparison between before and after the 2006/2007 academic year, trainees who indicated that OSCEs were meaningful increased after 2006/2007 (P < 0.05), and trainees who felt they were evaluated appropriately by these OSCEs increased after 2006/2007 (P < 0.01). Trainees viewed OSCEs positively and appreciated their effectiveness from a pedagogical perspective, and OSCE positively affected the trainees' approach to learning. A ten-year process of OSCE change has helped with educational reforms because of its adaptability. Flexible attitudes to change are necessary for stakeholders to achieve the desired reforms. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Detection Learning Style Vark For Out Of School Children (OSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Ali; Desiani, Anita; Hasibuan, MS

    2017-04-01

    Learning style is different for every learner especially for out of school children or OSC. They are not like formal students, they are learners but they don’t have a teacher as a guide for learning. E-learning is one of the solutions to help OSC to get education. E-learning should have preferred learning styles of learners. Data for identifying the learning style in this study were collected with a VARK questionnaire from 25 OSC in junior high school level from 5 municipalities in Palembang. The validity of the questionnaire was considered on basis of experts’ views and its reliability was calculated by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α=0.68). Overall, 55% preferred to use a single learning style (Uni-modal). Of these, 27,76% preferred Aural, 20,57% preferred Reading Writing, 33,33% preferred Kinaesthetic and 23,13% preferred Visual. 45% of OSC preferred more than one style, 30% chose two-modes (bimodal), and 15% chose three-modes (tri-modal). The Most preferred Learning style of OSC is kinaesthetic learning. Kinaesthetic learning requires body movements, interactivities, and direct contacts with learning materials, these things can be difficult to implement in eLearning, but E-learning should be able to adopt any learning styles which are flexible in terms of time, period, curriculum, pedagogy, location, and language.

  8. Why do physicians volunteer to be OSCE examiners?

    PubMed

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Wood, Timothy J; Touchie, Claire

    2005-03-01

    Recruitment of physician examiners for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be difficult. The following study will explore reasons why physicians volunteer their time to be OSCE examiners. A questionnaire was collected from 110 examiners including a fourth year formative student OSCE (SO) (n=49), formative internal medicine OSCE (IM) (n=21) and the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Exam Part II (MCCQE II) (n=40). A 5-point Likert scale was used. Statements with high mean ratings overall included: enjoy being an examiner (4.05), gain insights into learners' skills and knowledge (4.27), and examine out of a sense of duty (4.10). The MCC participants produced higher ratings (p<0.05). Overall, OSCE examiners volunteer their time because they enjoy the experience, feel a sense of duty and gain insight into learners' skills and knowledge. The MCC examiners appear to value the experience more. The ability to provide feedback and the provision of CME credits were not significant factors for increasing examiner satisfaction.

  9. An integrative OSCE methodology for enhancing the traditional OSCE program at Taipei medical university ospital - a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continuous development and use of new technologies and methodologies are key features in improving the learning, performance, and skills of medical students and students of all health care professions. Although significant improvements in teaching methodologies have been made in all areas of medicine and health care, studies reveal that students in many areas of health care taking an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) express difficulties. Thus, this study was planned as a feasibility study to assess the educational effectiveness of an integrated objective structured clinical examination (iOSCE) using both standardized patients and virtual patients. Methods Thirty (30) medical students in their first year of internship at Taipei Medical University volunteered to be part of a feasibility study for demonstrating the concept of iOSCE. They divided themselves into five groups of six students each and were requested to evaluate two cases: 1) a patient with abdominal pain and 2) a patient with headache using a combination of a standardized patient and a virtual patient. For each of the two cases, five stations were designed in which students were given ten minutes per station leading to a final diagnosis and concluded with a debriefing. The five stations were: • Station 1) Interacting with the standardized patient. • Station 2) Writing the patient note and developing a differential diagnosis. • Station 3) Selecting appropriate laboratory and imaging studies. • Station 4) Making a final diagnosis and stating the evidence for it. • Station 5) Having the debriefing. Each group of 6 students was assigned 2 hours per day for each case. All participants completed a survey regarding the usefulness and efficiency of the iOSCE. Results All medical students (30/30; 100%) found the iOSCE program to be very satisfactory, and all expressed that they would like to have further iOSCE experiences if given the opportunity. In terms of ease and

  10. An integrative OSCE methodology for enhancing the traditional OSCE program at Taipei Medical University Hospital--a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Wei; Clinciu, Daniel L; Swartz, Mark H; Wu, Chien-Chih; Lien, Gi-Shih; Chan, Cho-Yu; Lee, Fei-Peng; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-07-26

    Continuous development and use of new technologies and methodologies are key features in improving the learning, performance, and skills of medical students and students of all health care professions. Although significant improvements in teaching methodologies have been made in all areas of medicine and health care, studies reveal that students in many areas of health care taking an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) express difficulties. Thus, this study was planned as a feasibility study to assess the educational effectiveness of an integrated objective structured clinical examination (iOSCE) using both standardized patients and virtual patients. Thirty (30) medical students in their first year of internship at Taipei Medical University volunteered to be part of a feasibility study for demonstrating the concept of iOSCE. They divided themselves into five groups of six students each and were requested to evaluate two cases: 1) a patient with abdominal pain and 2) a patient with headache using a combination of a standardized patient and a virtual patient. For each of the two cases, five stations were designed in which students were given ten minutes per station leading to a final diagnosis and concluded with a debriefing. The five stations were: Station 1) Interacting with the standardized patient. Station 2) Writing the patient note and developing a differential diagnosis. Station 3) Selecting appropriate laboratory and imaging studies. Station 4) Making a final diagnosis and stating the evidence for it. Station 5) Having the debriefing. Each group of 6 students was assigned 2 hours per day for each case. All participants completed a survey regarding the usefulness and efficiency of the iOSCE. All medical students (30/30; 100%) found the iOSCE program to be very satisfactory, and all expressed that they would like to have further iOSCE experiences if given the opportunity. In terms of ease and helpfulness, the students rated the program an average

  11. 40 CFR 300.145 - Special teams and other assistance available to OSCs/RPMs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regarding scientific studies. The SSC strives for a consensus on scientific issues affecting the response... strategies. (3) At the request of the OSC, the SSC may facilitate the OSC's work with the lead administrative...

  12. 40 CFR 300.145 - Special teams and other assistance available to OSCs/RPMs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regarding scientific studies. The SSC strives for a consensus on scientific issues affecting the response... strategies. (3) At the request of the OSC, the SSC may facilitate the OSC's work with the lead administrative...

  13. 40 CFR 300.145 - Special teams and other assistance available to OSCs/RPMs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regarding scientific studies. The SSC strives for a consensus on scientific issues affecting the response... strategies. (3) At the request of the OSC, the SSC may facilitate the OSC's work with the lead administrative...

  14. Evaluating an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) Adapted for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Katz, Ellen; Logie, Carmen; Tufford, Lea; Litvack, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) adapted for social work in a lab course and examine the degree to which it predicts competence in the practicum. Method: 125 Masters students participated in a one-scenario OSCE and wrote responses to standardized reflection questions. OSCE performance and reflections were…

  15. How we give personalised audio feedback after summative OSCEs.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher J; Molyneux, Adrian J; Blackwell, Sara; Wass, Valerie J

    2015-04-01

    Students often receive little feedback after summative objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to enable them to improve their performance. Electronic audio feedback has shown promise in other educational areas. We investigated the feasibility of electronic audio feedback in OSCEs. An electronic OSCE system was designed, comprising (1) an application for iPads allowing examiners to mark in the key consultation skill domains, provide "tick-box" feedback identifying strengths and difficulties, and record voice feedback; (2) a feedback website giving students the opportunity to view/listen in multiple ways to the feedback. Acceptability of the audio feedback was investigated, using focus groups with students and questionnaires with both examiners and students. 87 (95%) students accessed the examiners' audio comments; 83 (90%) found the comments useful and 63 (68%) reported changing the way they perform a skill as a result of the audio feedback. They valued its highly personalised, relevant nature and found it much more useful than written feedback. Eighty-nine per cent of examiners gave audio feedback to all students on their stations. Although many found the method easy, lack of time was a factor. Electronic audio feedback provides timely, personalised feedback to students after a summative OSCE provided enough time is allocated to the process.

  16. OSCE vs. TEM: Different Approaches to Assess Clinical Skills of Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Jelly, Prasuna; Sharma, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Nurses are trained with specific clinical skills, and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) could be a better approach to assess clinical skills of nursing students. A comparative study was conducted by observational checklist regarding antenatal care and opinionnaire on the usefulness of OSCE and tradition evaluation method (TEM) was used to assess the clinical skills and to get opinion. The mean score of OSCE was more than TEM and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The opinion of students regarding the usefulness of OSCE was higher than TEM. The study concluded that implementing OSCE will overweigh the advantages of the TEM.

  17. OSCE vs. TEM: Different Approaches to Assess Clinical Skills of Nursing Students

    PubMed Central

    Jelly, Prasuna; Sharma, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses are trained with specific clinical skills, and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) could be a better approach to assess clinical skills of nursing students. Materials and Methods: A comparative study was conducted by observational checklist regarding antenatal care and opinionnaire on the usefulness of OSCE and tradition evaluation method (TEM) was used to assess the clinical skills and to get opinion. Results: The mean score of OSCE was more than TEM and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The opinion of students regarding the usefulness of OSCE was higher than TEM. Conclusions: The study concluded that implementing OSCE will overweigh the advantages of the TEM.

  18. Reviewing the nursing students’ views toward OSCE test

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyyed Abbas; Fatehi, Nahideh; Eslamian, Jalil; Zamani, Mehrangiz

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the essential components of learning and educational program is evaluation or examination. There are various methods for evaluating clinical skills among which objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been recognized as the most reliable method for evaluation of the clinical skills. METHODS: This was a one-step single-group descriptive study which was conducted through a researcher-made questionnaire. RESULTS: Results indicated that the view of most of the students in OSCE test has been good in terms of equipment and facilities with relative frequency of 59.2 percent, conditions of holding the examination with relative frequency of 50.9% and total test with relative frequency of 55.1%; in terms of physical environment, students’ view was moderate with relative frequency of 469%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study showed that appropriateness of physical environment and equipment and facilities to hold OSCE can directly be involved in enhancing the quality of this test. PMID:23450218

  19. Enhancing OSCE preparedness with video exemplars in undergraduate nursing students. A mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Massey, D; Byrne, J; Higgins, N; Weeks, B; Shuker, M-A; Coyne, E; Mitchell, M; Johnston, A N B

    2017-07-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are designed to assess clinical skill performance and competency of students in preparation for 'real world' clinical responsibilities. OSCEs are commonly used in health professional education and are typically associated with high levels of student anxiety, which may present a significant barrier to performance. Students, including nursing students, have identified that flexible access to exemplar OSCEs might reduce their anxiety and enable them to better prepare for such examinations. To implement and evaluate an innovative approach to preparing students for OSCEs in an undergraduate (registration) acute care nursing course. A set of digitized OSCE exemplars were prepared and embedded in the University-based course website as part of usual course learning activities. Use of the exemplars was monitored, pre and post OSCE surveys were conducted, and qualitative data were collected to evaluate the approach. OSCE grades were also examined. The online OSCE exemplars increased self-rated student confidence, knowledge, and capacity to prepare and provided clarity around assessment expectations. OSCE exemplars were accessed frequently and positively received; but did not impact on performance. Video exemplars aid student preparation for OSCEs, providing a flexible, innovative and clear example of the assessment process. Video exemplars improved self-rated student confidence and understanding of performance expectations, leading to increased engagement and reduced anxiety when preparing for the OSCE, but not overall OSCE performance. Such OSCE exemplars could be used to increase staff capacity and improve the quality of the student learning experience. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): AMEE Guide No. 81. Part II: organisation & administration.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kamran Z; Gaunt, Kathryn; Ramachandran, Sankaranarayanan; Pushkar, Piyush

    2013-09-01

    The organisation, administration and running of a successful OSCE programme need considerable knowledge, experience and planning. Different teams looking after various aspects of OSCE need to work collaboratively for an effective question bank development, examiner training and standardised patients' training. Quality assurance is an ongoing process taking place throughout the OSCE cycle. In order for the OSCE to generate reliable results it is essential to pay attention to each and every element of quality assurance, as poorly standardised patients, untrained examiners, poor quality questions and inappropriate scoring rubrics each will affect the reliability of the OSCE. The validity will also be influenced if the questions are not realistic and mapped against the learning outcomes of the teaching programme. This part of the Guide addresses all these important issues in order to help the reader setup and quality assure their new or existing OSCE programmes.

  1. An implementation strategy for introducing an OSCE into a dental school.

    PubMed

    Schoonheim-Klein, M; Walmsley, A D; Habets, L; van der Velden, U; Manogue, M

    2005-11-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) uses a series of test-stations to test clinical competencies. The introduction of an OSCE in a dental school is always a new experience for both staff and students and may result in a change in assessment methods. As resistance could develop when changes are introduced into an organisation, the use of a strategy for the implementation of such change will help to diminish opposition and may therefore result in the co-operation of staff and their departments. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an implementation strategy by measuring attitudes of both staff and students towards the OSCE as a new form of clinical assessment in a dental school (ACTA). 'Stepwise' behaviour change (with information, participation and commitment as tools) was used as a strategy to minimise protective behaviour to the introduction of an OSCE. After lectures on assessment, 59 staff members participated in a mini-OSCE with eight test-stations, playing both the role of a student and observer. A questionnaire, designed to test attitudes and commitment towards the new OSCE was completed after the examination. Six months later, 22 staff of all departments had developed and run a pilot OSCE for 44 students. A similar questionnaire was answered by staff and students. A year later, another OSCE for all 103 third year students was designed, organised and evaluated with full co-operation of the clinical teaching staff. Staff total attitude grew positively (P = 0.001). Student's total attitude was lower than staff (P < 0.001) The results of the survey after the mini-staff-OSCE and pilot and final OSCE were favourable in terms of the acceptance of use of an OSCE for the assessment of clinical competences. The implementation strategy appears to have been successful. The objective of gaining the co-operation of staff and departments and avoiding resistance to change was achieved.

  2. A comparative analysis of the costs of administration of an OSCE (objective structured clinical examination).

    PubMed

    Cusimano, M D; Cohen, R; Tucker, W; Murnaghan, J; Kodama, R; Reznick, R

    1994-07-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has become an accepted technique for the evaluation of clinical competence in medicine. Although advances have been made in our knowledge of the psychometric aspects of the OSCE, extremely little has been written about feasibility and cost issues. Given the current economic imperative to control costs and the extremely scant literature on the costs of developing and administering an examination in medicine, the authors felt it timely and relevant to explore issues related to the cost of the OSCE. In 1991-92 and in 1992-93, costs and time requirements to implement and administer a structured oral (SO) examination and a six-station OSCE for a surgical clerkship at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine were gathered by review of invoices, interviews with those involved, and perusal of diaries kept by staff. To develop and administer the six-station OSCE, 327.5 hours of staff and faculty time were required for each rotation of surgical clerks (8.2 hours per student). The SO examination required 110 hours of staff and faculty time (2.75 hours per student). Direct expenses for the OSCE amounted to U.S. $6.90 per student per station, compared with no direct expense for the SO examination. The OSCE was more time-consuming and more expensive in human and material costs than the SO examination. However, costs of the OSCE can be substantially reduced from approximately U.S. $35 to U.S. ! per student per station if test developers, standardized patients, support staff, and examiners can donate their time. The authors compare the costs and time requirements of their OSCE with those of other OSCEs reported in the literature, and they provide guidelines to assist educators in deciding whether the costs of an OSCE are justifiable in the educators' individual settings.

  3. Language background and OSCE performance: a study of potential bias.

    PubMed

    Schoonheim-Klein, M; Hoogstraten, J; Habets, L; Aartman, I; Van der Vleuten, C; Manogue, M; Van der Velden, U

    2007-11-01

    To investigate whether Non-Native dental students perceive drawbacks in their education and examination experience because of their lack of language proficiency and to test whether prolonging Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) test-station duration improves their performance. Dental students (n = 345) completed a questionnaire about their native country, their language background and the possible drawback they perceived in dental education and examination because of their language proficiency. Students were marked as 'native', when they were born in the Netherlands with Dutch as native language or 'Non-Native' when they were born outside the Netherlands, raised with a non-Dutch native language, or raised bilingually. A sample of 108 students was assessed by an OSCE testing a periodontal course with nine test-stations. Test-station topics were: (1) history taking, (2) measuring attachment level, (3) educating patients, (4) tracing a radiograph, (5) root-planing, (6) writing a prescription, (7) diagnostics and prognostics, (8) differential diagnostics and (9) writing a referral letter. The first five test-stations mentioned were of 5-min duration. The other four test-stations were provided in two modes: either with a short (5 min) or longer (10 min) version. Every student took at random two long and two short test-stations. In the group of 345 questionnaire responders, Non-Native students (n = 116) perceived significantly more drawback in education and examination than Native students (n = 229) (P < 0.001). When Non-Native students speak Dutch at home, around 38% of them reported perceived drawbacks in education, whereas when they speak their native language at home, around 60% reported perceived drawbacks in education (P = 0.005). In the periodontal OSCE (n = 108), the Native group (n = 70) had significantly higher total scores than the Non-Native (n = 38), (P = 0.009, d = 0.53). The Non-Native group had significantly lower mean scores in the

  4. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of Child Welfare Systems: Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a "priori" measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate…

  5. Quality Control of an OSCE Using Generalizability Theory and Many-Faceted Rasch Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Myford, Carol M.; Downing, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is an effective method for evaluating competencies. However, scores obtained from an OSCE are vulnerable to many potential measurement errors that cases, items, or standardized patients (SPs) can introduce. Monitoring these sources of errors is an important quality control mechanism to ensure…

  6. The use of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for evaluation and instruction in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Sloan, D A; Donnelly, M B; Schwartz, R W; Felts, J L; Blue, A V; Strodel, W E

    1996-06-01

    This study had two purposes: determining the reliability and validity of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in assessing performance by trainees at all levels, including medical students and chief residents; and estimating the impact of providing OSCE participants with immediate feedback about their performance. A comprehensive 210-min OSCE was administered to 53 surgical residents and 6 junior medical students. Faculty experts proctored all patient stations and provided immediate feedback to participants after the patient interaction segments (Part A). The participants then answered questions about the patients seen (Part B). The reliability of the OSCE was high (.91), identical to that of a previous resident OSCE with no feedback. The standard error of measurement for both parts was approximately 4%. At the 95% confidence interval, each participant's actual level of clinical performance (Part A) and clinical knowledge (Part B) could be estimated with an error of +/-8%. Participants showed significant differences in clinical performance (Part A, P < 0.01) and knowledge (Part B, P < 0.01) by level of training. Most participants (74%) rated the OSCE as an above average or outstanding educational method. The OSCE is a valid and reliable test of residents' clinical skills. Feedback to participants during the OSCE was positively received and did not perturb test reliability.

  7. Psychiatric OSCE Performance of Students with and without a Previous Core Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goisman, Robert M.; Levin, Robert M.; Krupat, Edward; Pelletier, Stephen R.; Alpert, Jonathan E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The OSCE has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid method by which to assess students' clinical skills. An OSCE station was used to determine whether or not students who had completed a core psychiatry clerkship demonstrated skills that were superior to those who had not taken the clerkship and which areas discriminated between…

  8. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of Child Welfare Systems: Implications for Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a "priori" measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate…

  9. Psychiatric OSCE Performance of Students with and without a Previous Core Psychiatry Clerkship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goisman, Robert M.; Levin, Robert M.; Krupat, Edward; Pelletier, Stephen R.; Alpert, Jonathan E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The OSCE has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid method by which to assess students' clinical skills. An OSCE station was used to determine whether or not students who had completed a core psychiatry clerkship demonstrated skills that were superior to those who had not taken the clerkship and which areas discriminated between…

  10. The Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Roseanna

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this…

  11. [Quality assurance of assessments using the example of the OSCE examination format: experiences of the Medical School of Heidelberg University].

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jobst-Hendrik; Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Möltner, Andreas; Fischer, Martin R; Jünger, Jana

    2008-01-01

    Quality management of assessment in medical education plays a key role in Germany--owing to, among other factors, the new medical licensing regulations ("Approbationsordnung"). OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination) is a widespread tool to assess clinical competencies. However, the quality of OSCE in terms of reliability as a criterion of a good test is highly debated in the current literature. To improve the reliability of the OSCE three accompanying measures have been implemented at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Heidelberg since the summer of 2006: 1. the application of a checklist for pre- and post-reviews of OSCEs, 2. a specific training of OSCE examiners, 3. an advanced psychometric OSCE test report giving feedback to the item developer. The reliability of the Internal Medicine OSCE at the University of Heidelberg has increased since. Currently Cronbach's alpha of the final OSCE in the summer of 2007 was 0.829.

  12. Medical Students' Perception of OSCE at the Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, KSA.

    PubMed

    Elfaki, Omer Abdelgadir; Al-Humayed, Suliman

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the students' acceptance of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a method of assessment of clinical competence in internal medicine. This cross sectional study was conducted from June to August 2013, at King Khalid University, Abha, KSA, through a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by fourth year medical students, immediately after the OSCE. Student feedback confirmed their acceptance of OSCE. This was encouraging to the department to consider implementing OSCE for graduating students.

  13. Construct Validity of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Psychiatry: Associations with the Clinical Skills Examination and Other Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Robin S.; Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.; Furman, Gail E.; Powell, Jill K.; Mohr, Clinton J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The construct validity of checklist and global process scores for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in psychiatry was assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict psychiatry OSCE scores from the clinical skills examination, an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) OSCE, and the National Board of Medical…

  14. Construct Validity of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Psychiatry: Associations with the Clinical Skills Examination and Other Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Robin S.; Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.; Furman, Gail E.; Powell, Jill K.; Mohr, Clinton J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The construct validity of checklist and global process scores for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in psychiatry was assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict psychiatry OSCE scores from the clinical skills examination, an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) OSCE, and the National Board of Medical…

  15. [Clinical competence evaluation using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in medical internship at UNAM].

    PubMed

    Trejo Mejía, Juan Andrés; Martínez González, Adrián; Méndez Ramírez, Ignacio; Morales López, Sara; Ruiz Pérez, Leobardo C; Sánchez Mendiola, Melchor

    2014-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a widely used measurement tool to assess clinical competence in the health sciences. There is little published evidence of its use in Mexican medical schools. To assess clinical competence in medical students with an OSCE, before and after the Medical Internship. Prospective cohort study, pre- post-test research design. The assessed population was medical students at UNAM Faculty of Medicine in Mexico in their Internship year. The instrument was an 18-stations OSCE, three stations per academic area of the Internship curriculum. We assessed the clinical competence of 278 students in a pretest OSCE when starting the Internship year, and tested them 10 months later with an equivalent post-test OSCE. The sample of students was 30.4% of the total Internship population. Test reliability with Cronbach's alpha was 0.62 in the pre-test and 0.64 in the post-test. The global mean score in the pretest OSCE was 55.6 ± 6.6 and in the post-test 63.2 ± 5.7 (p < 0.001), with a Cohen's d of 1.2. The clinical competence of medical students measured with an OSCE is higher after the medical internship year. This difference suggests that the internship can influence the development of clinical competence in medical students.

  16. How high are the personnel costs for OSCE? A financial report on management aspects.

    PubMed

    Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Liebhardt, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    The OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) was put to the test in order to assess the clinical practical skills of students in medical studies in the medical faculties. For the implementation of an OSCE, a large number of personnel is necessary. In particular for subjects with limited resources, therefore, efficient cost planning is required. In the winter semester 09/10, the Department of Neurology at the Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm introduced the OSCE as a pilot project. A financial report retrospectively shows the personnel expenses. The report is intended as an example for an insight into the resources needed for the OSCE with simulated patients. Included in the calculation of the financial costs of the OSCE were: employment, status of staff involved in the OSCE, subject-matter and temporal dimension of the task. After the exam, acceptance of the examination format was reviewed by a focus group interview with the teachers and students. The total expenses for the personnel involved in the OSCE amounted to 12,468 €. The costing of the clinic's share was calculated at 9,576 €. Tuition fees from the students have been used to the amount of 2.892 €. For conversion of total expenditure to the number of examines the sum of 86 € per student was calculated. Both students and teachers confirmed the validity of the OSCE and recognised the added value in the learning effects. The high acceptance of the OSCE in neurology by both students and teachers favours maintaining the test format. Against the background of the high financial and logistical costs, however, in individual cases it should be assessed how in the long-term efficient examination procedure will be possible.

  17. How high are the personnel costs for OSCE? A financial report on management aspects

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Liebhardt, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) was put to the test in order to assess the clinical practical skills of students in medical studies in the medical faculties. For the implementation of an OSCE, a large number of personnel is necessary. In particular for subjects with limited resources, therefore, efficient cost planning is required. In the winter semester 09/10, the Department of Neurology at the Medical Faculty of the University of Ulm introduced the OSCE as a pilot project. A financial report retrospectively shows the personnel expenses. The report is intended as an example for an insight into the resources needed for the OSCE with simulated patients. Method: Included in the calculation of the financial costs of the OSCE were: employment, status of staff involved in the OSCE, subject-matter and temporal dimension of the task. After the exam, acceptance of the examination format was reviewed by a focus group interview with the teachers and students. Result: The total expenses for the personnel involved in the OSCE amounted to 12,468 €. The costing of the clinic’s share was calculated at 9,576 €. Tuition fees from the students have been used to the amount of 2.892 €. For conversion of total expenditure to the number of examines the sum of 86 € per student was calculated. Both students and teachers confirmed the validity of the OSCE and recognised the added value in the learning effects. Conclusion: The high acceptance of the OSCE in neurology by both students and teachers favours maintaining the test format. Against the background of the high financial and logistical costs, however, in individual cases it should be assessed how in the long-term efficient examination procedure will be possible. PMID:21818228

  18. The reliability, validity, and usefulness of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Roseanna

    This study evaluated the reliability, validity, and educational usefulness of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education. The OSCE was administered to dental students at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine (CDM) before they entered clinical training. Participants in this study included CDM's class of 2010 which consisted of 78 students. The overall reliability of the examination was measured via calculation of Cronbach's alpha. Content validity was examined through evaluation of the OSCE by three experienced clinical faculty members. Predictive validity was evaluated by correlating student grades on the OSCE to future clinical performance as measured by number of clinical points achieved during the third year of training. Student perceptions regarding the educational usefulness of the examination were evaluated through a 12-question Liken-type survey and focus group interviews analyzed using a phenomenological approach. Findings of the study indicated the OSCE was a highly reliable examination (alpha=0.86) with high content validity and a moderately high correlation to future clinical performance (r=.614, p<.0001). Overall, student perceptions of the educational usefulness of the OSCE were positive as based on their responses to a 5-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree and 5=strongly agree). They reported that the exam required the ability to think critically and problem-solve (4.0 +/- 0.85), assessed clinically relevant skills (4.59 +/- 0.69), helped identify clinical weaknesses (4.16 +/- 0.90), and was a learning experience (4.58 +/- 0.84). Findings from the qualitative portion of the study identified four main themes including the student perception that the OSCE is a unique assessment experience that required integration and application of knowledge. Recommendations for the use of the OSCE to improve clinical teaching and the implications of this study relating to the expanded use of

  19. Standardization of Clinical Skill Evaluation in Physical/Occupational Therapist Education -Effects of Introduction of an Education System Using OSCE-.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sugiura, Yoshito; Motoya, Ikuo; Yamada, Masayuki; Tomita, Masao; Naka, Toru; Teranishi, Toshio; Tanabe, Shigeo; Tsujimura, Toru; Okanishi, Tetsuo

    2013-09-01

    [Purpose] A major issue in physical/occupational therapist education is the improvement of students' clinical techniques. In this study, we introduced an education system using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), and made an attempt at standardization of its evaluation. [Subjects] The subjects were 227 students in the classes of 2008 to 2010 who enrolled at our university between 2004 and 2006, before the introduction of the education system using OSCE, and 221 students in the classes of 2011 to 2013 who enrolled between 2007 and 2009, after the introduction. [Methods] Performances in attitude and skills (performance in clinical training and OSCE) were compared between before and after the introduction of OSCE. OSCE results were compared between before and after clinical trainings at each OSCE Level; and the correlation of between performances in clinical training and OSCE was examined. [Results] Performances in OSCE and clinical training (attitude, skills) were improved by the introduction of the education system using OSCE, but no significant correlation was observed in the relationship between performances in OSCE and clinical training. [Conclusion] Further studies should be conducted aiming at the standardization of clinical skill evaluation in postgraduate education to establish an education system using OSCE.

  20. Implementing an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in dental education: effects on students' learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Schoonheim-Klein, M E; Habets, L L M H; Aartman, I H A; van der Vleuten, C P; Hoogstraten, J; van der Velden, U

    2006-11-01

    To investigate the effect of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) on dental students' learning strategies and competence to manage periodontal diseases in patients. The implemented OSCE was expected to be superior to the existing Written Exam in fostering the acquisition of clinical competencies in terms of study strategies that are more oriented towards clinical practice, longer study time, greater clinical proficiency, and more realistic self-assessment. After a clinical course in periodontology, 72 third year dental students were assessed summatively, either using a Written Exam or an OSCE (P-OSCE). The students were informed beforehand about the assessment formats. The self-assessed clinical competence, study time and strategies (i.e. practice with a manikin, peers and patient case) were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. After a comprehensive dental care course, all 72 students were assessed by an overall end-of-year OSCE, in which three periodontal stations were included 'measuring pockets', 'educating patients' and 'tracing an X-ray with bone-loss'. The competence of the previous Written Exam group and the P-OSCE group was investigated by determining the mean scores and pass-fail scores of three periodontal test-stations as well as the total score of the end-of-year OSCE. The degree of realistic self-assessment was studied by correlating the self-assessed competencies as evaluated by means of the questionnaire with the total score of the end-of-year OSCE. Self-assessed clinical competence, study time and study strategies showed no differences between the P-OSCE and the Written Exam-group. The clinical competence determined in the test-station 'measuring pockets' in the end of year overall OSCE was higher for the P-OSCE group (P = 0.05) when compared with the Written Exam group; the two groups performed equally well in the test station 'educating patients', whereas the performance in 'tracing an X-ray with bone-loss' was better in the

  1. [Assessment of communication skills with an OSCE among first year medical students].

    PubMed

    Fischbeck, Sabine; Mauch, Marianne; Leschnik, Elisabeth; Beutel, Manfred E; Laubach, Wilfried

    2011-11-01

    In order to determine if first year medical students of a Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology course have adopted basic physician patient communication skills, we developed an appropriate Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The parcours took place in a pretest condition (n=182) and in the following semester under test condition, now relevant for passing the course (n=181). Reliability of the OSCE reached a medium degree (α=0.55/0.50). Results of written examinations and OSCE scores were weakly correlated. The correlation between task competence and patient-centeredness was higher in the pretest than under test condition. Female students mostly achieved higher scores than male students. Nearly all of the students (92%/97%) were in favor of continuing this examination. Physician-patient communication is a process of high complexity, but it can be tested by OSCE. Relevance for passing the course seems to enhance the learning behaviour.

  2. Competency-based training: objective structured clinical exercises (OSCE) in marriage and family therapy.

    PubMed

    Miller, John K

    2010-07-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess clinical competence. These examinations involve using simulated clinical situations as a tool in conducting summative evaluations of trainee competence. This article describes an adaptation of the OSCE procedures for competency-based training of MFT students. Instead of using the procedures as a summative examination as is typical in medical education, this article proposes how to use them as formative exercises in the development of student competence. The development of the OSCE is discussed, including "blueprinting," focused competencies, procedures, and feedback protocols. The article concludes with suggestions of how to continue the development of the OSCE for evaluation in MFT education.

  3. A procedural skills OSCE: assessing technical and non-technical skills of internal medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J; Wood, Timothy J; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2015-03-01

    Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal medicine (IM) residents to assess their technical and non-technical skills when performing procedures. Thirty-five first to third-year IM residents participated in a 5-station PS-OSCE, which combined partial task models, standardized patients, and allied health professionals. Formal blueprinting was performed and content experts were used to develop the cases and rating instruments. Examiners underwent a frame-of-reference training session to prepare them for their rater role. Scores were compared by levels of training, experience, and to evaluation data from a non-procedural OSCE (IM-OSCE). Reliability was calculated using Generalizability analyses. Reliabilities for the technical and non-technical scores were 0.68 and 0.76, respectively. Third-year residents scored significantly higher than first-year residents on the technical (73.5 vs. 62.2%) and non-technical (83.2 vs. 75.1%) components of the PS-OSCE (p < 0.05). Residents who had performed the procedures more frequently scored higher on three of the five stations (p < 0.05). There was a moderate disattenuated correlation (r = 0.77) between the IM-OSCE and the technical component of the PS-OSCE scores. The PS-OSCE is a feasible method for assessing multiple competencies related to performing procedures and this study provides validity evidence to support its use as an in-training examination.

  4. Can the results of the OSCE predict the results of clinical assessment in dental education?

    PubMed

    Näpänkangas, R; Karaharju-Suvanto, T; Pyörälä, E; Harila, V; Ollila, P; Lähdesmäki, R; Lahti, S

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlation between the results of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and clinical assessment and to test the reliability of OSCE test stations. All 4th year undergraduate dental students (n = 47, 100%) attended the OSCE in April 2010. The students were divided into two groups (morning group, group 1; afternoon group, group 2). Groups 1 and 2 were also divided into two subgroups that attended the stations in two concurrent sessions (A and B). The OSCE included 12 10-min test stations. Clinical assessment was based on long-term observation during the semesters. The disciplines assessed were cross-infection control, endodontics, paediatric dentistry, periodontology, prosthodontics and restorative dentistry. Statistical analysis using Cronbach's alpha indicated good reliability of the OSCE. The correlation between the results of the OSCE and clinical assessment in the 4th year was statistically significant in cross-infection control (ρ = 0.340, P = 0.022), endodontics (ρ = 0.298, P = 0.047), prosthodontics (ρ = 0.296, P = 0.048) and restorative dentistry (ρ = 0.376, P = 0.011). Clinical assessment in the 5th year correlated with the OSCE results statistically significant in restorative dentistry (ρ = 0.522, P = 0.001). Both the OSCE and constant longitudinal assessment are needed in clinical assessment, as they both play an important role in the overall assessment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. OSC in the 1970s: a springboard for a career in optical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, James E.

    2014-09-01

    Anecdotes and recollections from a graduate student at the Optical Sciences Center (OSC) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The early faculty of the OCS fostered an exciting environment where even graduate students served significant roles on major government research contracts. Teamwork and collaboration between research groups was often required to meet the contract goals. This unique learning experience at the OSC almost 50 years ago served as a springboard for a satisfying and rewarding career in Optical Engineering.

  6. Malaysian pharmacy students' assessment of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Abd Rahman, Norny Syafinaz; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Bux Rahman Bux, Siti Halimah; Mohamed Nazar, Nor Ilyani

    2010-03-10

    To implement and determine the effectiveness of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess fourth-year pharmacy students' skills in a clinical pharmacy course. A 13-station OSCE was designed and implemented in the 2007-2008 academic year as part of the assessment methods for a clinical pharmacy course. The broad competencies tested in the OSCE included: patient counseling and communication, clinical pharmacokinetics (CPK), identification and resolution of drug-related problems (DRPs), and literature evaluation/drug information provision. Immediately after all students completed the OSCE, a questionnaire containing items on the clarity of written instructions, difficulty of the tasks, perceived degree of learning gained and needed, and the suitability of the references or literature resources provided was administered. More than 70% of the students felt that a higher degree of learning was needed to accomplish the tasks at the 2 DRP stations and 2 CPK stations and the majority felt the written instructions provided at the phenytoin CPK station were difficult to understand. Although about 60% of the students rated OSCE as a difficult form of assessment, 75% said it should be used more and 81% perceived they learned a lot from it. Although most students felt that the OSCE accurately assessed their skills, a majority felt the tasks required in some stations required a higher degree of learning than they had achieved. This may indicate deficiencies in the students' learning abilities, the course curriculum, or the OSCE station design. Future efforts should include providing clearer instructions at OSCE stations and balancing the complexity of the competencies assessed.

  7. Malaysian Pharmacy Students' Assessment of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)

    PubMed Central

    Abd Rahman, Norny Syafinaz; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Bux Rahman Bux, Siti Halimah; Mohamed Nazar, Nor Ilyani

    2010-01-01

    Objective To implement and determine the effectiveness of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess fourth-year pharmacy students' skills in a clinical pharmacy course. Design A 13-station OSCE was designed and implemented in the 2007-2008 academic year as part of the assessment methods for a clinical pharmacy course. The broad competencies tested in the OSCE included: patient counseling and communication, clinical pharmacokinetics (CPK), identification and resolution of drug-related problems (DRPs), and literature evaluation/drug information provision. Assessment Immediately after all students completed the OSCE, a questionnaire containing items on the clarity of written instructions, difficulty of the tasks, perceived degree of learning gained and needed, and the suitability of the references or literature resources provided was administered. More than 70% of the students felt that a higher degree of learning was needed to accomplish the tasks at the 2 DRP stations and 2 CPK stations and the majority felt the written instructions provided at the phenytoin CPK station were difficult to understand. Although about 60% of the students rated OSCE as a difficult form of assessment, 75% said it should be used more and 81% perceived they learned a lot from it. Conclusion Although most students felt that the OSCE accurately assessed their skills, a majority felt the tasks required in some stations required a higher degree of learning than they had achieved. This may indicate deficiencies in the students' learning abilities, the course curriculum, or the OSCE station design. Future efforts should include providing clearer instructions at OSCE stations and balancing the complexity of the competencies assessed. PMID:20414449

  8. Characterization of stress and methylglyoxal inducible triose phosphate isomerase (OscTPI) from rice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Mustafiz, Ananda; Singla-Pareek, Sneh L.; Shankar Srivastava, Prem; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    As compared with plant system, triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), a crucial enzyme of glycolysis, has been well studied in animals. In order to characterize TPI in plants, a full-length cDNA encoding OscTPI was cloned from rice and expressed in E. coli. The recombinant OscTPI was purified to homogeneity and it showed Km value of 0.1281 ± 0.025 µM, and the Vmax value of 138.7 ± 16 µmol min−1mg−1 which is comparable to the kinetic values studied in other plants. The OscTPI was found to be exclusively present in the cytoplasm when checked with the various methods. Functional assay showed that OscTPI could complement a TPI mutation in yeast. Real time PCR analysis revealed that OscTPI transcript level was regulated in response to various abiotic stresses. Interestingly, it was highly induced under different concentration of methylglyoxal (MG) stress in a concentration dependent manner. There was also a corresponding increase in the protein and the enzyme activity of OscTPI both in shoot and root tissues under MG stress. Our result shows that increases in MG leads to the increase in TPI which results in decrease of DHAP and consequently decrease in the level of toxic MG. PMID:22902706

  9. The introduction and perception of an OSCE with an element of self- and peer-assessment.

    PubMed

    Larsen, T; Jeppe-Jensen, D

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to encourage reflective dental students by performing an educational Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) with an element of self- and peer-assessment. An interdisciplinary OSCE comprising cariology, endodontics and microbiology was set up for all third-year students. A blueprint secured representation of the skills to be tested, i.e. knowledge, interdisciplinary knowledge, communication, clinical reasoning and practical procedures. At each station positive and constructive feedback was given to the students based on predefined criteria. Further, the students received written marks after completion of the OSCE. At one station the feedback and marks were replaced by self- and peer-assessment performed by the students in groups after the OSCE. Afterwards, the 68 students and 8 teachers participating in the OSCE answered a questionnaire on their opinion and perception of the examination. The results showed good correlation between the marks given and the students' perception of task difficulty. Generally, there were no systematic variations in the marks given during the week or by individual assessors at the same station, except for one, as well as agreement with marks of the ordinary clinical assessment. The marks given during self- and peer-assessment differed widely, indicating a need for training in this aspect. The questionnaires revealed a very positive perception of the OSCE from both students and teachers. Thus, the majority found the examination relevant and of educational benefit, capable of improving the learning of the students and useful for assessment purposes. Also, the self- and peer-assessment was found useful by the students. In conclusion, this interdisciplinary OSCE stressing constructive feedback to the students was perceived very positively by students and teachers and recognised for its beneficial possibilities in education and assessment.

  10. Sequential testing in a high stakes OSCE: Determining number of screening tests.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme P; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Cleland, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The sequential objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) is a stand-alone variation of the traditional OSCE whereby all students sit a screening test. Those who pass this initial assessment undergo no further testing while weakly performing students sit an additional (sequential) test to determine their overall pass/fail status. Our aim was to determine outcomes of adopting a sequential OSCE approach using different numbers of screening stations and pass marks. We carried out a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of two cohorts of student outcomes from the final OSCE examination at the University of Aberdeen Medical School. Data were accessed for students (n = 388) who sat the exam in the years 2013-2014. We used Stata simulate program to compare outcomes - in terms of sensitivity and specificity - across 5000 random selections of 6-14 OSCE stations using random selections of groups of 100 students (with different screening test pass marks) versus those obtained across 15 stations. Across 6-14 stations, the sensitivity was ≥87% in 2013 and ≥84% in 2014 while the specificity ranged from 60% to 100% in both years. Specificity generally increased as the number of screening stations increased (with concomitant narrowing of the 95% confidence interval), while sensitivity varied between 84 and 98%. Similar sensitivities and specificities were found with screening pass marks of +1, +2 and +3 standard errors of measurement (SEM). Eight stations as a screening test appeared to be a reasonable compromise in terms of high sensitivity (88-89%) and specificity (83-86%). This research extends current sequential OSCE literature using a novel and robust approach to identify the "ideal" in terms of number of screening stations and pass mark. We discuss the educational and resource implications of our findings and make recommendations for the use of the sequential OSCE in medical education.

  11. Development and pilot testing of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on hoarseness.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C Matthew; Masood, Hamid; Pandian, Vinciya; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Akst, Lee; Francis, Howard W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2010-11-01

    To develop a valid and reliable tool for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) on hoarseness. To pilot-test the feasibility by assessing residents' clinical skills in various core competencies while assessing hoarseness on a standardized patient (SP). Educational tool development. The OSCE checklists were developed using modified Delphi technique after obtaining feedback from faculty involved in providing care to hoarseness patients. SP-based and rest stations were created to assess clinical skills. Twelve Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residents participated in the study. Video recordings of residents' performance and their written documentation were rated by faculty members. The OSCE that we developed is a valid method of assessing residents' clinical skills for evaluating hoarseness. Senior residents performed better in all of the tasks such as obtaining history and performing a physical exam on an SP, ability to perform flexible laryngoscopy on a mannequin, and interpretation of radiologic findings. Internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha as measure of inter-item reliability was 0.92 for laryngoscopic station and 0.95 for radiology station. This OSCE can be effectively used for the objective assessment of clinical competency in hoarseness. Our pilot study evaluated multiple competencies on a single occasion, including medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, and communication and interpersonal skills. Clinical competence in history taking, physical examination, flexible fiber-optic laryngoscopy, and ability to interpret radiologic findings improved with increasing year of training. This OSCE provides targeted assessment of practice-based learning and feedback for improvement of clinical performance.

  12. A core competency-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can predict future resident performance.

    PubMed

    Wallenstein, Joshua; Heron, Sheryl; Santen, Sally; Shayne, Philip; Ander, Douglas

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) administered in the first month of residency to predict future resident performance in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. Eighteen Postgraduate Year 1 (PGY-1) residents completed a five-station OSCE in the first month of postgraduate training. Performance was graded in each of the ACGME core competencies. At the end of 18 months of training, faculty evaluations of resident performance in the emergency department (ED) were used to calculate a cumulative clinical evaluation score for each core competency. The correlations between OSCE scores and clinical evaluation scores at 18 months were assessed on an overall level and in each core competency. There was a statistically significant correlation between overall OSCE scores and overall clinical evaluation scores (R = 0.48, p < 0.05) and in the individual competencies of patient care (R = 0.49, p < 0.05), medical knowledge (R = 0.59, p < 0.05), and practice-based learning (R = 0.49, p < 0.05). No correlation was noted in the systems-based practice, interpersonal and communication skills, or professionalism competencies. An early-residency OSCE has the ability to predict future postgraduate performance on a global level and in specific core competencies. Used appropriately, such information can be a valuable tool for program directors in monitoring residents' progress and providing more tailored guidance. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  13. Development of computer-based OSCE re-examination system for minimizing inter-examiner discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinichi; Kawada, Eiji

    2008-02-01

    The validity of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in evaluating clinical skills has been confirmed in a number of studies. However, inter-examiner reliability has been noted as a concern by many educators. To minimize discrepancy between examiners, in application of the OSCE, we have developed an OSCE attitude and skill test re-examination system. Student performance was digitally, filmed and stored as electronic files. When results showed inter-examiner discrepancy, those items were automatically extracted in the form of a re-examination sheet to allow student re-evaluation by a third examiner in reference to the relevant film files. This system facilitates feedback to each examiner and examinee, offering a potentially useful tool for attitude and skill education.

  14. Assessing the Organizational Social Context (OSC) of child welfare systems: implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J

    2012-09-01

    The study: (1) provides the first assessment of the a priori measurement model and psychometric properties of the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measurement system in a US nationwide probability sample of child welfare systems; (2) illustrates the use of the OSC in constructing norm-based organizational culture and climate profiles for child welfare systems; and (3) estimates the association of child welfare system-level organizational culture and climate profiles with individual caseworker-level job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The study applies confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical linear models (HLM) analysis to a US nationwide sample of 1,740 caseworkers from 81 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Wellbeing (NSCAW II). The participating child welfare systems were selected using a national probability procedure reflecting the number of children served by child welfare systems nationwide. The a priori OSC measurement model is confirmed in this nationwide sample of child welfare systems. In addition, caseworker responses to the OSC scales generate acceptable to high scale reliabilities, moderate to high within-system agreement, and significant between-system differences. Caseworkers in the child welfare systems with the best organizational culture and climate profiles report higher levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Organizational climates characterized by high engagement and functionality, and organizational cultures characterized by low rigidity are associated with the most positive work attitudes. The OSC is the first valid and reliable measure of organizational culture and climate with US national norms for child welfare systems. The OSC provides a useful measure of Organizational Social Context for child welfare service improvement and implementation research efforts which include a focus on child welfare system culture and climate. Copyright © 2012

  15. Evaluation of the OSC-TV iterative reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam optical CT

    SciTech Connect

    Matenine, Dmitri Mascolo-Fortin, Julia; Goussard, Yves

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The present work evaluates an iterative reconstruction approach, namely, the ordered subsets convex (OSC) algorithm with regularization via total variation (TV) minimization in the field of cone-beam optical computed tomography (optical CT). One of the uses of optical CT is gel-based 3D dosimetry for radiation therapy, where it is employed to map dose distributions in radiosensitive gels. Model-based iterative reconstruction may improve optical CT image quality and contribute to a wider use of optical CT in clinical gel dosimetry. Methods: This algorithm was evaluated using experimental data acquired by a cone-beam optical CT system, as well as complementary numerical simulations. A fast GPU implementation of OSC-TV was used to achieve reconstruction times comparable to those of conventional filtered backprojection. Images obtained via OSC-TV were compared with the corresponding filtered backprojections. Spatial resolution and uniformity phantoms were scanned and respective reconstructions were subject to evaluation of the modulation transfer function, image uniformity, and accuracy. The artifacts due to refraction and total signal loss from opaque objects were also studied. Results: The cone-beam optical CT data reconstructions showed that OSC-TV outperforms filtered backprojection in terms of image quality, thanks to a model-based simulation of the photon attenuation process. It was shown to significantly improve the image spatial resolution and reduce image noise. The accuracy of the estimation of linear attenuation coefficients remained similar to that obtained via filtered backprojection. Certain image artifacts due to opaque objects were reduced. Nevertheless, the common artifact due to the gel container walls could not be eliminated. Conclusions: The use of iterative reconstruction improves cone-beam optical CT image quality in many ways. The comparisons between OSC-TV and filtered backprojection presented in this paper demonstrate that OSC-TV can

  16. Evaluation of the OSC-TV iterative reconstruction algorithm for cone-beam optical CT.

    PubMed

    Matenine, Dmitri; Mascolo-Fortin, Julia; Goussard, Yves; Després, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The present work evaluates an iterative reconstruction approach, namely, the ordered subsets convex (OSC) algorithm with regularization via total variation (TV) minimization in the field of cone-beam optical computed tomography (optical CT). One of the uses of optical CT is gel-based 3D dosimetry for radiation therapy, where it is employed to map dose distributions in radiosensitive gels. Model-based iterative reconstruction may improve optical CT image quality and contribute to a wider use of optical CT in clinical gel dosimetry. This algorithm was evaluated using experimental data acquired by a cone-beam optical CT system, as well as complementary numerical simulations. A fast GPU implementation of OSC-TV was used to achieve reconstruction times comparable to those of conventional filtered backprojection. Images obtained via OSC-TV were compared with the corresponding filtered backprojections. Spatial resolution and uniformity phantoms were scanned and respective reconstructions were subject to evaluation of the modulation transfer function, image uniformity, and accuracy. The artifacts due to refraction and total signal loss from opaque objects were also studied. The cone-beam optical CT data reconstructions showed that OSC-TV outperforms filtered backprojection in terms of image quality, thanks to a model-based simulation of the photon attenuation process. It was shown to significantly improve the image spatial resolution and reduce image noise. The accuracy of the estimation of linear attenuation coefficients remained similar to that obtained via filtered backprojection. Certain image artifacts due to opaque objects were reduced. Nevertheless, the common artifact due to the gel container walls could not be eliminated. The use of iterative reconstruction improves cone-beam optical CT image quality in many ways. The comparisons between OSC-TV and filtered backprojection presented in this paper demonstrate that OSC-TV can potentially improve the rendering of

  17. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  18. Effect of Clinically Discriminating, Evidence-Based Checklist Items on the Reliability of Scores from an Internal Medicine Residency OSCE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Vijay J.; Bordage, Georges; Gierl, Mark J.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are used worldwide for summative examinations but often lack acceptable reliability. Research has shown that reliability of scores increases if OSCE checklists for medical students include only clinically relevant items. Also, checklists are often missing evidence-based items that high-achieving…

  19. Medical students review of formative OSCE scores, checklists, and videos improves with student-faculty debriefing meetings.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Aaron W; Ceccolini, Gabbriel; Feinn, Richard; Rockfeld, Jennifer; Rosenberg, Ilene; Thomas, Listy; Cassese, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Performance feedback is considered essential to clinical skills development. Formative objective structured clinical exams (F-OSCEs) often include immediate feedback by standardized patients. Students can also be provided access to performance metrics including scores, checklists, and video recordings after the F-OSCE to supplement this feedback. How often students choose to review this data and how review impacts future performance has not been documented. We suspect student review of F-OSCE performance data is variable. We hypothesize that students who review this data have better performance on subsequent F-OSCEs compared to those who do not. We also suspect that frequency of data review can be improved with faculty involvement in the form of student-faculty debriefing meetings. Simulation recording software tracks and time stamps student review of performance data. We investigated a cohort of first- and second-year medical students from the 2015-16 academic year. Basic descriptive statistics were used to characterize frequency of data review and a linear mixed-model analysis was used to determine relationships between data review and future F-OSCE performance. Students reviewed scores (64%), checklists (42%), and videos (28%) in decreasing frequency. Frequency of review of all metric and modalities improved when student-faculty debriefing meetings were conducted (p<.001). Among 92 first-year students, checklist review was associated with an improved performance on subsequent F-OSCEs (p = 0.038) by 1.07 percentage points on a scale of 0-100. Among 86 second year students, no review modality was associated with improved performance on subsequent F-OSCEs. Medical students review F-OSCE checklists and video recordings less than 50% of the time when not prompted. Student-faculty debriefing meetings increased student data reviews. First-year student's review of checklists on F-OSCEs was associated with increases in performance on subsequent F-OSCEs, however this

  20. A Procedural Skills OSCE: Assessing Technical and Non-Technical Skills of Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal…

  1. Geriatric Medicine Fellows' Experiences and Attitudes toward an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagri, Anita S.; Zaw, Khin M.; Milanez, Marcos N.; Palacios, Juan J.; Qadri, Syeda S.; Bliss, Linda A.; Roos, Bernard A.; Ruiz, Jorge G.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 8 geriatric medicine fellows participated in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessing communication skills and clinical reasoning in common geriatric syndromes. To determine their perceptions about the experience, we conducted surveys and semistructured interviews. We analyzed the survey data using descriptive…

  2. A Procedural Skills OSCE: Assessing Technical and Non-Technical Skills of Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Debra; Hamstra, Stanley J.; Wood, Timothy J.; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Touchie, Claire; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Internists are required to perform a number of procedures that require mastery of technical and non-technical skills, however, formal assessment of these skills is often lacking. The purpose of this study was to develop, implement, and gather validity evidence for a procedural skills objective structured clinical examination (PS-OSCE) for internal…

  3. Geriatric Medicine Fellows' Experiences and Attitudes toward an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagri, Anita S.; Zaw, Khin M.; Milanez, Marcos N.; Palacios, Juan J.; Qadri, Syeda S.; Bliss, Linda A.; Roos, Bernard A.; Ruiz, Jorge G.

    2009-01-01

    A total of 8 geriatric medicine fellows participated in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessing communication skills and clinical reasoning in common geriatric syndromes. To determine their perceptions about the experience, we conducted surveys and semistructured interviews. We analyzed the survey data using descriptive…

  4. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

  5. Dental student perceptions of the educational value of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary OSCE.

    PubMed

    Graham, Roseanna; Zubiaurre Bitzer, Laureen A; Mensah, Felicia Moore; Anderson, O Roger

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine student perceptions of the educational value of a comprehensive, multidisciplinary objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The examination is administered after the second year of the curriculum, prior to the beginning of clinical training at the Columbia University College of Dental Medicine. The quantitative component of the study consisted of a survey administered to students who had taken the OSCE (N=78). Due to the ordinal level of data produced by the Likert-scale survey, statistical analysis was performed through calculation of the median and interquartile range (IQR). Overall, student perceptions of the educational value of the OSCE, as measured using a five-point scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree) were positive, demonstrating students' agreement that the exam required the ability to think critically and problem-solve (median=4, IQR=1), assessed clinically relevant skills (median=5, IQR=1), and was a learning experience (median=5, IQR=1). A statistically significant chi-square value (p<0.001) was found for all questions. The qualitative component consisted of phenomenological examination of student focus group interviews (N=15). Four main themes were identified including that the OSCE was an authentic assessment that required integration and application of knowledge.

  6. Undesired Variance Due to Examiner Stringency/Leniency Effect in Communication Skill Scores Assessed in OSCEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harasym, Peter H.; Woloschuk, Wayne; Cunning, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Physician-patient communication is a clinical skill that can be learned and has a positive impact on patient satisfaction and health outcomes. A concerted effort at all medical schools is now directed at teaching and evaluating this core skill. Student communication skills are often assessed by an Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE).…

  7. 77 FR 22614 - OSC Forms and Survey Renewal for FY 2012-Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... previously approved information collections consisting of three complaint forms and an electronic survey form... OSC Survey expire 9/30/12. We are submitting all three forms and the electronic survey for renewal... Federal agencies, state and local government employees, and the general public are invited to comment on...

  8. M-OSCE as a method to measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E

    2013-04-01

    Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.

  9. Competency-Based Training: Objective Structured Clinical Exercises (OSCE) in Marriage and Family Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John K.

    2010-01-01

    The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…

  10. Functions of OsDof25 in regulation of OsC4PPDK.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Verhoeff, N I; Chen, Z; Chen, S; Wang, Mei; Zhu, Zhen; Ouwerkerk, P B F

    2015-10-01

    Relative little is known about the functions of the so-called Dof zinc factors in plants. Here we report on the analysis of OsDof25 and show a function in regulation of the important C4 photosynthesis gene, OsC4PPDK in rice. Over-expression of OsDof25 enhanced the expression of OsC4PPDK in transient expression experiments by binding in a specific way to a conserved Dof binding site which was confirmed by yeast and in vitro binding studies. Expression studies using promoter GUS plants as well as qPCR experiments showed that OsDof25 expressed in different tissues including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organs and that expression of OsDof25 was partially overlapping with the OsC4PPDK gene. Conclusive evidence for a role of OsDof25 in regulation of C4PPDK came from loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments with transgenic rice, which showed that down-regulation or over-expression of OsDof25 correlated with OsC4PPDK expression and that OsDof25 has functions as transcriptional activator.

  11. Evaluating verbal and non-verbal communication skills, in an ethnogeriatric OSCE.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lauren G; Schrimmer, Anne; Diamond, James; Burke, Janice

    2011-05-01

    Communication during medical interviews plays a large role in patient adherence, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes. Both verbal and non-verbal communication (NVC) skills are central to the development of rapport between patients and healthcare professionals. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of non-verbal and verbal communication skills on evaluations by standardized patients during an ethnogeriatric Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Interviews from 19 medical students, residents, and fellows in an ethnogeriatric OSCE were analyzed. Each interview was videotaped and evaluated on a 14 item verbal and an 8 item non-verbal communication checklist. The relationship between verbal and non-verbal communication skills on interview evaluations by standardized patients were examined using correlational analyses. Maintaining adequate facial expression (FE), using affirmative gestures (AG), and limiting both unpurposive movements (UM) and hand gestures (HG) had a significant positive effect on perception of interview quality during this OSCE. Non-verbal communication skills played a role in perception of overall interview quality as well as perception of culturally competent communication. Incorporating formative and summative evaluation of both verbal and non-verbal communication skills may be a critical component of curricular innovations in ethnogeriatrics, such as the OSCE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of the OSCE to evaluate brief communication skills training for dental students.

    PubMed

    Cannick, Gabrielle F; Horowitz, Alice M; Garr, David R; Reed, Susan G; Neville, Brad W; Day, Terry A; Woolson, Robert F; Lackland, Daniel T

    2007-09-01

    Although communications competency is recommended by the American Dental Education Association, only a few (n=5) dental schools report evaluating students' skills using a competency examination for communication. This study used an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to evaluate dental students' competency in interpersonal and tobacco cessation communication skills. All students were evaluated on their interpersonal communication skills at baseline and at six months post-OSCE by standardized patients and on their tobacco cessation communication skills by two independent raters. First- and second-year dental students (n=104) were randomized to a control or intervention group. One month after the baseline OSCE, students in the intervention group participated in a two-hour training session in which faculty members communicated with a standardized patient during a head and neck examination and counseled the patient about tobacco cessation. There were no statistically significant differences from baseline to post-test between the intervention and control group students as measured by the OSCE. However, among first-year students, both the intervention (n=23) and control (n=21) groups significantly increased in tobacco cessation communication scores. Second-year students in both intervention (n=24) and control (n=28) groups declined in interpersonal communication skills from baseline to post-test. Overall, this one-shot intervention was not successful, and results suggest that a comprehensive communication skills training course may be more beneficial than a single, brief training session for improving dental students' communication skills.

  13. Undesired Variance Due to Examiner Stringency/Leniency Effect in Communication Skill Scores Assessed in OSCEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harasym, Peter H.; Woloschuk, Wayne; Cunning, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Physician-patient communication is a clinical skill that can be learned and has a positive impact on patient satisfaction and health outcomes. A concerted effort at all medical schools is now directed at teaching and evaluating this core skill. Student communication skills are often assessed by an Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE).…

  14. Recommended OSC design and analysis of AMTEC power system for outer-planet missions

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes OSC designs and analyses of AMTEC cells and radioisotope power systems for possible application to NASA{close_quote}s Europa Orbiter and Pluto Kuiper Express missions, and compares their predicted performance with JPL{close_quote}s preliminary mission goals. The latest cell and generator designs presented here were the culmination of studies covering a wide variety of generator configurations and operating parameters. The many steps and rationale leading to OSC{close_quote}s design evolution and materials selection were discussed in earlier publications and will not be repeated here except for a description of OSC{close_quote}s latest design, including a recent heat source support scheme and cell configuration that have not been described in previous publications. As shown, that heat source support scheme eliminates all contact between the heat source and the AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells, which simplifies the generator{close_quote}s structural design as well as its fabrication and assembly procedure. An additional purpose of the paper is to describe a revised cell design and fabrication procedure which represent a major departure from previous OSC designs. Previous cells had a uniform diameter, but in the revised design the cell wall beyond the BASE tubes has a greatly reduced diameter. The paper presents analytical performance predictions which show that the revised ({open_quotes}chimney{close_quotes}) cell design yields substantially higher efficiencies than the previous (cylindrical) design. This makes it possible to meet and substantially exceed the JPL-stipulated EOM power goal with four instead of six General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, resulting in a one-third reduction in the heat source mass, cost, and fuel requirements. OSC{close_quote}s performance predictions were based on its techniques for the coupled thermal, electrical, and fluid flow analyses of AMTEC generators. Those analytical techniques

  15. Design and performance of radioisotope space power systems based on OSC multitube AMTEC converter designs

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper extends the analytical procedure described in another paper in these proceedings to analyze a variety of compact and light-weight OSC-designed radioisotope-heated generators. Those generators employed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and a converter containing sixteen AMTEC cells of OSC`s revised five-tube design with enhanced cell wall reflectivity described in a companion paper in these proceedings. OSC found that the performance of the generator is primarily a function of the thermal insulation between the outside of the generator`s 16 cells and the inside of its wall. After examining a variety of insulation options, it was found that the generator`s performance is optimized by employing a hybrid insulation system, in which the space between the cells is filled with fibrous Min-K insulation, and the generator walls are lined with tapered (i.e., graded-length) multifoil insulation. The OSC design results in a very compact generator, with eight AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack. The choice of the five-tube cells makes it possible to expand the BASE tube diameter without increasing the cell diameter. This is important because the eight cells mate well with the stacked GPHS modules. The OSC generator design includes a compliant heat source support and preload arrangement, to hold the heat source modules together during launch, and to maintain thermal contact conductance at the generator`s interfaces despite creep relaxation of its housing. The BOM and EOM (up to 15 years) performances of the revised generators were analyzed for two and three GPHS modules, both for fresh fuel and for aged fuel left over from a spare RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) fueled in 1982. The resulting power outputs were compared with JPL`s latest EOM power demand goals for the Pluto Express and Europa Orbiter missions, and with the generic goals of DOE`s Advanced Radioisotope Power System (ARPS) study. The OSC AMTEC designs yielded system

  16. Students benefit from developing their own emergency medicine OSCE stations: a comparative study using the matched-pair method.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Wolfgang; Rotzoll, Daisy; Hempel, Gunther; Zupanic, Michaela; Stumpp, Patrick; Kaisers, Udo X; Fischer, Martin R

    2013-10-07

    Students can improve the learning process by developing their own multiple choice questions. If a similar effect occurred when creating OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) stations by themselves it could be beneficial to involve them in the development of OSCE stations. This study investigates the effect of students developing emergency medicine OSCE stations on their test performance. In the 2011/12 winter semester, an emergency medicine OSCE was held for the first time at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Leipzig. When preparing for the OSCE, 13 students (the intervention group) developed and tested emergency medicine examination stations as a learning experience. Their subsequent OSCE performance was compared to that of 13 other students (the control group), who were parallelized in terms of age, gender, semester and level of previous knowledge using the matched-pair method. In addition, both groups were compared to 20 students who tested the OSCE prior to regular emergency medicine training (test OSCE group). There were no differences between the three groups regarding age (24.3 ± 2.6; 24.2 ± 3.4 and 24 ± 2.3 years) or previous knowledge (29.3 ± 3.4; 29.3 ± 3.2 and 28.9 ± 4.7 points in the multiple choice [MC] exam in emergency medicine). Merely the gender distribution differed (8 female and 5 male students in the intervention and control group vs. 3 males and 17 females in the test OSCE group).In the exam OSCE, participants in the intervention group scored 233.4 ± 6.3 points (mean ± SD) compared to 223.8 ± 9.2 points (p < 0.01) in the control group. Cohen's effect size was d = 1.24. The students of the test OSCE group scored 223.2 ± 13.4 points. Students who actively develop OSCE stations when preparing for an emergency medicine OSCE achieve better exam results.

  17. Calibration of communication skills items in OSCE checklists according to the MAAS-Global.

    PubMed

    Setyonugroho, Winny; Kropmans, Thomas; Kennedy, Kieran M; Stewart, Brian; van Dalen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Communication skills (CS) are commonly assessed using 'communication items' in Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) station checklists. Our aim is to calibrate the communication component of OSCE station checklists according to the MAAS-Global which is a valid and reliable standard to assess CS in undergraduate medical education. Three raters independently compared 280 checklists from 4 disciplines contributing to the undergraduate year 4 OSCE against the 17 items of the MAAS-Global standard. G-theory was used to analyze the reliability of this calibration procedure. G-Kappa was 0.8. For two raters G-Kappa is 0.72 and it fell to 0.57 for one rater. 46% of the checklist items corresponded to section three of the MAAS-Global (i.e. medical content of the consultation), whilst 12% corresponded to section two (i.e. general CS), and 8.2% to section one (i.e. CS for each separate phase of the consultation). 34% of the items were not considered to be CS. A G-Kappa of 0.8 confirms a reliable and valid procedure for calibrating OSCE CS checklist items using the MAAS-Global. We strongly suggest that such a procedure is more widely employed to arrive at a stable (valid and reliable) judgment of the communication component in existing checklists for medical students' communication behaviours. It is possible to measure the 'true' caliber of CS in OSCE stations. Students' results are thereby comparable between and across stations, students and institutions. A reliable calibration procedure requires only two raters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Implementation of an objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) into orthopedic surgery residency training.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael J; Beran, Matthew C; Flanigan, David C; Quackenbush, Michael; Van Hoff, Corey; Bishop, Julie Y

    2012-01-01

    While the musculoskeletal (MSK) physical examination (PE) is an essential part of a patient encounter, we believe it is an underemphasized component of orthopedic residency education and that resident PE skills may be lacking. The purpose of this investigation was to (1) assess the attitudes regarding PE teaching in orthopedic residencies today; (2) develop an MSK objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess the MSK PE knowledge and skills of our orthopedic residents. Prospective, uncontrolled, observational. A major Midwestern tertiary referral center and academic medical center. The orthopedic surgery residents in our program. Twenty-two of 24 completed the OSCE. Surveys showed that residents agreed that although learning the PE is important, there is not enough time in clinic to actually observe and critique a resident examining a patient. For the 22 residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 2-5) who participated in the OSCE, the overall score was 66%. Scores were significantly better for the trauma scenario (78%; p < 0.05) than for the shoulder (67%), spine (64%), and knee (59%) encounters. The overall scores for each component of the OSCE were: (1) history 53%; (2) PE 60%; (3) 5-question posttest 64%; and (4) communication skills 90%. We have exposed a deficiency in the PE knowledge and skills of our residents. Clinic time alone may be insufficient to both teach and learn the MSK PE. The use of a MSK OSCE, while novel in orthopedics, will allow more direct observation of our residents MSK PE skills and also allow us to follow resident skills longitudinally through their training. We hope that our efforts will encourage other programs to assess their PE curriculum and perhaps prompt change. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Probing the effect of OSCE checklist length on inter-observer reliability and observer accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Katrina F.; Giffin, Nick A.; Stewart, Samuel A.; Bullock, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a widely employed tool for measuring clinical competence. In the drive toward comprehensive assessment, OSCE stations and checklists may become increasingly complex. The objective of this study was to probe inter-observer reliability and observer accuracy as a function of OSCE checklist length. Method Study participants included emergency physicians and senior residents in Emergency Medicine at Dalhousie University. Participants watched an identical series of four, scripted, standardized videos enacting 10-min OSCE stations and completed corresponding assessment checklists. Each participating observer was provided with a random combination of two 40-item and two 20-item checklists. A panel of physicians scored the scenarios through repeated video review to determine the ‘gold standard’ checklist scores. Results Fifty-seven observers completed 228 assessment checklists. Mean observer accuracy ranged from 73 to 93% (14.6–18.7/20), with an overall accuracy of 86% (17.2/20), and inter-rater reliability range of 58–78%. After controlling for station and individual variation, no effect was observed regarding the number of checklist items on overall accuracy (p=0.2305). Consistency in ratings was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient and demonstrated no significant difference in consistency between the 20- and 40-item checklists (ranged from 0.432 to 0.781, p-values from 0.56 to 0.73). Conclusions The addition of 20 checklist items to a core list of 20 items in an OSCE assessment checklist does not appear to impact observer accuracy or inter-rater reliability. PMID:26490948

  20. Challenges of OSCE national board exam in Iran from participants’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Emadzadeh, Ali; Ravanshad, Yalda; Makarem, Abass; Azarfar, Anoush; Ravanshad, Sahar; Aval, Shapour Badiee; Mehrad-Majd, Hassan; Alizadeh, Anahita

    2017-01-01

    Background The national board exam for residents in Iran is held in two parts: Multiple-choice and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The OSCE is a suitable method for evaluation of residents’ clinical qualifications. However, it requires experienced human resources, accurate planning, facilities and reliable evaluation tools. Objective To determine the challenges of the OSCE National Board Exam in Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on all the final-year pediatrics and gynecology residents of Mashhad University of Medical Science, who participated in the board exam in September 2014. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the residents’ opinion on challenges of the OSCE. Data was analyzed with SPSS16. We used U Mann–Whitney test independent t-test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results Fourteen pediatrics and eleven gynecology residents participated. In the gynecology group, there was no significant statistical correlation between the individual marks and questionnaire scores. However, in the pediatrics group, there was a significant correlation (p=0.046, r=−0.763). Based on pediatrics residents’ perspective, the main challenge of the OSCE part of the exam was the imbalance and disproportion between the allowed time and the task load in each exam stage. In other words, they believed that the tasks could not be fulfilled in the given time. In the gynecology group, the main challenge reported was the delay in announcing the exam results. In the pediatrics group, the main complaint was the disproportion of the allowed time and the task load in the exam stages. Conclusion Some of the challenges of the board exam were associated with the examiners and the exam environment, and some of them were related to the home university where the candidates had studied. To solve the problems, both aspects should be considered. PMID:28607655

  1. The value of best-practice guidelines for OSCEs in a postgraduate program in an Australian remote area setting.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Carol A; Mitchell, Marion L; Henderson, Amanda; Lenthall, Sue; Knight, Sabina; Glover, Pauline; Kelly, Michelle; Nulty, Duncan; Groves, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Nurses in remote areas of Australia are the primary healthcare professionals, who need to be able to deliver comprehensive and culturally sensitive care to clients, many of whom are Indigenous Australians. Adequate and specific preparation for practice is crucial to the quality of care delivered by remote area nurses (RANs). Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) provide an excellent opportunity for student practice in a simulated environment that is safe, authentic, fair and valid when well constructed. Seven integrated best practice guidelines (BPGs), previously developed by project team members to inform OSCEs within educational programs, provided guidance in restructuring the OSCE. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the value of BPGs used in the development, teaching and learning, and evaluation of OSCEs in a rural and remote postgraduate course for RANs. A pre-site visit to the Centre for Remote Health, Alice Springs, Northern Territory, was conducted with modification of the course and previous OSCE according to BPGs. Following delivery of the course and OSCE, evaluations occurred via a mixed method approach. Student surveys (n=15) and focus groups (n=13) and staff interviews (n=5) provided an in-depth analysis of their perceptions of the revised OSCE. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the student sample. The narrative data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Triangulation was achieved with the convergence of the separate data sources focusing on themes and patterns within and between students and tutors. All 15 students and five tutors provided feedback. The majority of student participants had limited experience in working in remote area nursing prior to participation and therefore the opportunities that availed themselves were critical in adequately equipping them with the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities. Three themes emerged from the data: (1) value of common and significant events in OSCE

  2. Finding reality: the use of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of mental health nursing students interpersonal skills.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Martin; Stickley, Theodore

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of mental health nursing students' interpersonal skills. It begins by providing a rationale for the use of this instrument to assess such ski lls and offers a brief discussion of the development of OSCEs. The preparation and implementation of the OSCE is explored and both students' and tutors' reflections of the process are highlighted. The strengths and problems, particularly the use of an ac tor and video tape recordings are examined, in the light of other studies. The paper concludes by advocating the use of such an assessment tool as a formative exercise.

  3. Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS): review of the literature and case report demonstrating challenges of spinal fusion after trauma.

    PubMed

    Katsevman, Gennadiy A; Turner, Ryan C; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Sedney, Cara L; Bhatia, Sanjay

    2016-06-01

    Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OSCS) is a rare but well-described pathology characterized by abnormalities in bone deposition in the axial and cranial skeleton as well as other abnormalities and associated deficits. These skeletal abnormalities can lead to significant intra-operative challenges for the surgeon and influence outcomes for the patient. In this report, we present a case of a patient with OSCS who was involved in a traumatic motor vehicle crash and underwent posterior cervico-thoracic fusion for a T4 chance fracture. Bony abnormalities in the cervico-thoracic spine presented a significant operative challenge due to alterations in bony anatomy and bone architecture. This case serves as an example of the challenges that the spine surgeon faces when dealing with OSCS, and highlights the differences between OSCS and commoner skeletal hyperplasias such as osteopetrosis.

  4. Structural stability and phase transition in OsC and RuC.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Erjun; Wang, Jinping; Wu, Zhijian

    2010-12-01

    The structural stability and phase transition of osmium and ruthenium carbides (OsC and RuC) were investigated by first principles. Nine structures were considered for each carbide. Zinc blende structure has the lowest energy among the considered structures at ambient conditions for both carbides. For OsC at elevated pressures, the most stable phase is zinc blende structure from 0 to 10 GPa, FeSi from 10 to 32 GPa. In these two structures, Os atom is fourfold coordinated. From 32 to 40 GPa, tungsten carbide (WC) and NiAs are energetically competitive with Os atom sixfold coordinated. NiAs becomes energetically the most stable structure above 40 GPa. For RuC, zinc blende structure is the most stable from 0 to 20 GPa. From 20 to 100 GPa, WC structure is the most stable. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Simulated and standardized patients in OSCEs: achievements and challenges 1992-2003.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Graceanne

    2003-05-01

    International interest in the teaching and assessment of clinical skills across the professional continuum has fueled extensive use of simulated parents in multiple station events by medical schools and professional organizations devoted to assessment. The author discuss achievements and challenges in the use of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and simulated patient (SP) for medical education and assessment. The author revisits and expands subject put forth as 'technical issues related to logistics' that summarize group discussions of conference attendees in 1992 by Anderson and Kassebaum, editors of the Proceedings of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Consensus Conference on the Use of Standardised Patients in the Teaching and Evaluation of Clinical Skills. The author describes and discusses current terminology; evolving conceptual and practical applications of the OSCE that utilize simulated patients in medical education and high-stakes assessment for licensure and certification; standards of practice in SP case materials development, recruitment, training and quality assurance; operational and research questions for the future in the use of SPs, centralized SP programs and staffing; faculty development in the use of the SP and OSCE; program costs, event space, test and web-based video access and security issues; document and data management of SP programs; development of web-based and online resources and the founding of the Association of Standardized Patient Educators(ASPE), a specialist professional organization.

  6. Standardised clients as assessors in a veterinary communication OSCE: a reliability and validity study.

    PubMed

    Artemiou, E; Adams, C L; Hecker, K G; Vallevand, A; Violato, C; Coe, J B

    2014-11-22

    In human medicine, standardised patients (SP) have been shown to reliably and accurately assess learners' communication performance in high-stakes certification Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE), offering a feasible way to reduce the need for recruitment, time commitment and coordination of faculty assessors. In this study, we evaluated the use of standardised clients (SC) as a viable option for assessing veterinary students' communication performance. We designed a four-station, two-track communication skills OSCE. SC assessors used an adapted nine-item Liverpool Undergraduate Communication Assessment Scale (LUCAS). Faculty used a 21-item checklist derived from the Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) and a five-point global rating scale. Participants were second year veterinary students (n=96). For the four stations, intrastation reliability (α) ranged from 0.63 to 0.82 for the LUCAS, and 0.73 to 0.87 for the CCG. The interstation reliability coefficients were 0.85 for the LUCAS and 0.89 for the CGG. The calculated Generalisability (G) coefficients were 0.62 for the LUCAS and 0.60 for the CGG. Supporting construct validity, SC and faculty assessors showed a significant correlation between the LUCAS and CCG total percent scores (r=0.45, P<0.001), and likewise between the LUCAS and global rating scores (r=0.49, P<0.001).Study results support that SC assessors offer a reliable and valid approach for assessing veterinary communication OSCE.

  7. Investigating the Attitude of Graduate Psychiatrists towards Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and Conventional Clinical Interview Examination.

    PubMed

    Nazeri Astaneh, Ali; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Karimloo, Masood; Rezaei, Omid; Fadai, Farbod; Alibeigi, Neda; Mazinani, Robabeh; Samiei, Mercedeh; Khodaei, Mohammad Reza

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we investigated the attitude of psychiatrists who graduated in 2002-2009 towards Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and conventional clinical interview examination (Individual Patient Assessment). We studied 134 psychiatrists graduated; half of whom were examined with conventional clinical interview and the others with OSCE. A questionnaire was prepared by a specialist workgroup to assess the participants' attitude towards the exams. The questionnaire was initially examined in a pilot study. The findings of the questionnaire were used to assess the graduates' attitude towards each examination, as well as to compare the examinations. The OSCE group indicated a significantly more positive attitude compared to the conventional group (p = 0.03). Furthermore, the OSCE group believed the role of theoretical knowledge (p = 0.01) and pre-test practice (p = 0.03) to be significantly greater for success compared to the other group. The structure of OSCE was reported to be superior to conventional examination in terms of fairness and homogeneity (p = 0.004). First participation in exam (p = 0.04) and ultimate success in the exam (p = 0.009) were predictors of graduates' attitude. Based on examinees 'attitudes, OSCE may be a more appropriate choice for graduation examinations of psychiatry compared to the conventional clinical interview examination.

  8. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) - A Systematic Review of Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students’ communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. Methods We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Results Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Discussion Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed

  9. Assessing Communication Skills of Medical Students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE)--A Systematic Review of Rating Scales.

    PubMed

    Cömert, Musa; Zill, Jördis Maria; Christalle, Eva; Dirmaier, Jörg; Härter, Martin; Scholl, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and assessment of communication skills have become essential in medical education. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has been found as an appropriate means to assess communication skills within medical education. Studies have demonstrated the importance of a valid assessment of medical students' communication skills. Yet, the validity of the performance scores depends fundamentally on the quality of the rating scales used in an OSCE. Thus, this systematic review aimed at providing an overview of existing rating scales, describing their underlying definition of communication skills, determining the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified rating scales. We conducted a systematic review to identify psychometrically tested rating scales, which have been applied in OSCE settings to assess communication skills of medical students. Our search strategy comprised three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed), reference tracking and consultation of experts. We included studies that reported psychometric properties of communication skills assessment rating scales used in OSCEs by examiners only. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated using the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. Data of twelve studies reporting on eight rating scales on communication skills assessment in OSCEs were included. Five of eight rating scales were explicitly developed based on a specific definition of communication skills. The methodological quality of studies was mainly poor. The psychometric quality of the eight rating scales was mainly intermediate. Our results reveal that future psychometric evaluation studies focusing on improving the methodological quality are needed in order to yield psychometrically

  10. Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)-based Assessment of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Amini, Mitra; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Paydar, Shahram; Ali, Jameel; Sefidbakht, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of advance trauma life support (ATLS®) training on general surgery residents clinical reasoning skills using the national boards-style objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Methods: This cross-sectional single-center study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences including 51 surgery residents that participated in a mandatory national board style OSCE between May 2014 and May 2015. OSCE scores of two groups of general surgery residents including 23 ATLS® trained and 28 non-ATLS® trained were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. The exam was graded out of 20 points and the passing score was ≥14 including 40% trauma cases. Results: There were 8(15.7%) women and 43(84.3%) men among the participants with mean age of 31.12 ± 2.69 and 33.67 ± 4.39 years in women and men respectively. Overall 7 (87.5%) women and 34 (79.07%) men passed the OSCE. The trauma section OSCE score was significantly higher in the ATLS® trained participants when compared to non-ATLS®(7.79 ± 0.81vs.6.90 ± 1.00; p=0.001). In addition, the total score was also significantly higher in ATLS® trained residents (16.07 ± 1.41 vs. 14.60 ± 1.40; p=0.001). There was no association between gender and ATLS® score (p=0.245) or passing the OSCE (p=0.503). Conclusion: ATLS® training is associated with improved overall OSCE scores of general surgery residents completing the board examinations suggesting a positive transfer of ATLS learned skills to management of simulated surgical patients including trauma cases. PMID:27331063

  11. Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)-based Assessment of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Amini, Mitra; Bolandparvaz, Shahram; Paydar, Shahram; Ali, Jameel; Sefidbakht, Sepideh

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of advance trauma life support (ATLS®) training on general surgery residents clinical reasoning skills using the national boards-style objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). This cross-sectional single-center study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences including 51 surgery residents that participated in a mandatory national board style OSCE between May 2014 and May 2015. OSCE scores of two groups of general surgery residents including 23 ATLS® trained and 28 non-ATLS® trained were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. The exam was graded out of 20 points and the passing score was ≥14 including 40% trauma cases. There were 8(15.7%) women and 43(84.3%) men among the participants with mean age of 31.12 ± 2.69 and 33.67 ± 4.39 years in women and men respectively. Overall 7 (87.5%) women and 34 (79.07%) men passed the OSCE. The trauma section OSCE score was significantly higher in the ATLS® trained participants when compared to non-ATLS®(7.79 ± 0.81vs.6.90 ± 1.00; p=0.001). In addition, the total score was also significantly higher in ATLS® trained residents (16.07 ± 1.41 vs. 14.60 ± 1.40; p=0.001). There was no association between gender and ATLS® score (p=0.245) or passing the OSCE (p=0.503). ATLS® training is associated with improved overall OSCE scores of general surgery residents completing the board examinations suggesting a positive transfer of ATLS learned skills to management of simulated surgical patients including trauma cases.

  12. Money makes the (medical assessment) world go round: The cost of components of a summative final year Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Brown, Craig; Ross, Sarah; Cleland, Jennifer; Walsh, Kieran

    2015-04-29

    The widely used Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is undoubtedly expensive. Cost-effectiveness is one of the components of the assessment utility index defining its usefulness. Our current financial climate demands increased transparency in the costs associated with medical education and it is now vital to ascertain how much is spent on assessments, such as the OSCE, and in particular costs associated with the different types of stations within the OSCE. A retrospective case-study approach was used to identify all costs associated with the development, production, administration and post-examination phases of the 2013 final year MBChB OSCE at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland. This 15 station OSCE was held over 2 days for 185 students. This OSCE cost £65,328 to run. Costs per station ranged from £3108 (prescribing) to £6577 (eye examination). The cost per student was £355. The costs of a "high stakes" OSCE are sobering. The bulk of costs identified are not modifiable in light of what is currently known about the metrics of OSCE utility, particularly reliability and validity. Providers, and funders, of medical education must be prepared to assign significant resource to OSCE assessment and centres should be encouraged to calculate precise costs associated with assessment to inform resource allocation decisions.

  13. Peer-assisted teaching student tutors as examiners in an orthopedic surgery OSCE station – pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Peter; Zajonz, Dirk; Roth, Andreas; Heyde, Christoph-E.; Ghanem, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background: The OSCE (objective structured clinical examination) is composed of oral and practical examination in order to examine students’ abilities to imply clinical examination techniques and to interact with patients. The examiners for this procedure can be either lecturers or peers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the peer-assisted teaching student tutors as examiners in an orthopedic surgery OSCE station. Methods: We analyzed the OSCE data from 2013 to 2015. During this period over 300 medical students were examined each year. An evaluation was conducted at an orthopedic station and examined by peer students to assess the advantages and disadvantages of peer-assisted teaching student tutors as examiners. Results: We have noticed that student peers are more flexible regarding their schedule and they have been well trained for OSCE. Concerning the economic aspects, student peers are clearly of major economic advantage. Disadvantages were not reported in our study probably because peers were well trained and the checklists are monitored regularly. Conclusion: Student peers in OSCE are of major advantage due to their flexible time schedule and relatively low costs. They must be well trained and the checklists are to be monitored regularly. Our study shows that peer tutor examiners conducted the examination as competent as lecture examiners. However, legal restrictions on the employment of students should be considered. PMID:27500078

  14. Key challenges for implementing a Canadian-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in a Middle Eastern context.

    PubMed

    Wilby, Kyle John; Diab, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Globalization of medical education is occurring at a rapid pace and many regions of the world are adapting curricula, teaching methods, and assessment tools from established programs. In the Middle East, the use of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) is rare. The College of Pharmacy at Qatar University recently partnered with the University of Toronto and the Supreme Council of Health in Qatar to adapt policies and procedures of a Canadian-based OSCE as an exit-from-degree assessment for pharmacy students in Qatar. Despite many cultural and contextual barriers, the OSCE was implemented successfully and is now an integrated component of the pharmacy curriculum. This paper aims to provide insight into the adoption and implementation process by identifying four major cultural and contextual challenges associated with OSCEs: assessment tools, standardized actors, assessor calibration, and standard setting. Proposed solutions to the challenges are also given. Findings are relevant to international programs attempting to adapt OSCEs into their contexts, as well as Canadian programs facing increasing rates of cultural diversity within student and assessor populations.

  15. Key challenges for implementing a Canadian-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in a Middle Eastern context

    PubMed Central

    Wilby, Kyle John; Diab, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Globalization of medical education is occurring at a rapid pace and many regions of the world are adapting curricula, teaching methods, and assessment tools from established programs. In the Middle East, the use of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) is rare. The College of Pharmacy at Qatar University recently partnered with the University of Toronto and the Supreme Council of Health in Qatar to adapt policies and procedures of a Canadian-based OSCE as an exit-from-degree assessment for pharmacy students in Qatar. Despite many cultural and contextual barriers, the OSCE was implemented successfully and is now an integrated component of the pharmacy curriculum. This paper aims to provide insight into the adoption and implementation process by identifying four major cultural and contextual challenges associated with OSCEs: assessment tools, standardized actors, assessor calibration, and standard setting. Proposed solutions to the challenges are also given. Findings are relevant to international programs attempting to adapt OSCEs into their contexts, as well as Canadian programs facing increasing rates of cultural diversity within student and assessor populations. PMID:28344703

  16. A mini-OSCE for formative assessment of diagnostic and radiographic skills at a dental college in India.

    PubMed

    Lele, Shailesh M

    2011-12-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is being widely used for assessment of skills in dental education around the world. In India, OSCE awareness is rising, and a few exploratory attempts have been made in its implementation. This article describes use of a five-station mini-OSCE for formative assessment of dental diagnostic and radiographic skills in an undergraduate curriculum. Besides gaining experience in OSCEs, the purpose of this project was to study their validity, objectivity, feasibility, acceptability to students and faculty, and impact on student performance. The mini-OSCE was found to be a fairly valid and reliable tool for formative assessment, though it required more planning, preparation, and resources than other means of assessment. A specially developed orientation module improved its feasibility. The nineteen students perceived it to be a meaningful examination and a fair method due to uniformity of tasks and time allocation; they found the scoring to be transparent and objective. The specific and immediate feedback received was appreciated by both students and faculty members.

  17. Using experiential learning and OSCEs to teach and assess tobacco dependence education with first-year dental students.

    PubMed

    Romito, Laura; Schrader, Stuart; Zahl, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has indicated that dentists do not routinely engage in tobacco cessation interventions with their patients due, in part, to a lack of training in the predoctoral curriculum. From 2010 to 2012, this study at one U.S. dental school evaluated the effectiveness of experiential learning and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to improve first-year dental students' knowledge and beliefs about tobacco dependence and cessation interventions. Analysis indicated acceptable reliability and student performance for the OSCE. In all three years, there were statistically significant increases in student knowledge (p<0.001). In each year, there were also statistically significant shifts in student perceptions of preparedness (p<0.001 to p=0.034) and willingness (p<0.001 to p=0.005) to provide tobacco dependence treatment to patients. Results suggest that OSCEs utilizing standardized patients may be an effective method for assessing tobacco dependence education. Preparing for and participating in an OSCE with a standardized patient may help increase student knowledge and shape the beliefs of early dental students about engaging in patient tobacco cessation interventions. Findings were mixed on the impact of experiential learning on OSCE performance, suggesting further research is needed.

  18. The quality of feedback during formative OSCEs depends on the tutors' profile.

    PubMed

    Junod Perron, Noelle; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-11-15

    During their pre-clinical years, medical students are given the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients. During these formative objective structured clinical encounters (OSCEs), tutors from various backgrounds give feedback on students' history taking, physical exam, and communication skills. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the content and process of feedback varied according to the tutors' profile. During 2013, all 2(nd) and 3(rd) year medical students and tutors involved in three formative OSCEs were asked to fill in questionnaires, and their feedback sessions were audiotaped. Tutors were divided into two groups: 1) generalists: primary care, general internist and educationalist physicians 2) specialists involved in the OSCE related to their field of expertise. Outcome measures included the students' perceptions of feedback quality and utility and objective assessment of feedback quality. Participants included 251 medical students and 38 tutors (22 generalists and 16 specialists). Students self-reported that feedback was useful to improve history taking, physical exam and communication skills. Objective assessment showed that feedback content essentially focused on history taking and physical exam skills, and that elaboration on clinical reasoning or communication/professionalism issues was uncommon. Multivariate analyses showed that generalist tutors used more learner-centered feedback skills than specialist tutors (stimulating student's self-assessment (p < .001; making the student active in finding solutions, p < .001; checking student's understanding, p < .001) and elaborated more on communication and professionalism issues (p < 0.001). Specialists reported less training in how to provide feedback than generalists. These findings suggest that generalist tutors are more learner-centered and pay more attention to communication and professionalism during feedback than specialist tutors. Such differences may be

  19. Undesired variance due to examiner stringency/leniency effect in communication skill scores assessed in OSCEs.

    PubMed

    Harasym, Peter H; Woloschuk, Wayne; Cunning, Leslie

    2008-12-01

    Physician-patient communication is a clinical skill that can be learned and has a positive impact on patient satisfaction and health outcomes. A concerted effort at all medical schools is now directed at teaching and evaluating this core skill. Student communication skills are often assessed by an Objective Structure Clinical Examination (OSCE). However, it is unknown what sources of error variance are introduced into examinee communication scores by various OSCE components. This study primarily examined the effect different examiners had on the evaluation of students' communication skills assessed at the end of a family medicine clerkship rotation. The communication performance of clinical clerks from Classes 2005 and 2006 were assessed using six OSCE stations. Performance was rated at each station using the 28-item Calgary-Cambridge guide. Item Response Theory analysis using a Multifaceted Rasch model was used to partition the various sources of error variance and generate a "true" communication score where the effects of examiner, case, and items are removed. Variance and reliability of scores were as follows: communication scores (.20 and .87), examiner stringency/leniency (.86 and .91), case (.03 and .96), and item (.86 and .99), respectively. All facet scores were reliable (.87-.99). Examiner variance (.86) was more than four times the examinee variance (.20). About 11% of the clerks' outcome status shifted using "true" rather than observed/raw scores. There was large variability in examinee scores due to variation in examiner stringency/leniency behaviors that may impact pass-fail decisions. Exploring the benefits of examiner training and employing "true" scores generated using Item Response Theory analyses prior to making pass/fail decisions are recommended.

  20. Implementation of OSCE test to develop appropriate tool to measure mothers' parenting skills.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Saiideh; Baghiani Moghaddam Ii, Mohammad H; Morowwaty Sharifabad, Mohammad A; Norouzi, Ali; Jafari, Ali R; Fallah Zadeh, Hossein

    2014-09-28

    Parents play a vital role throughout a child's life. This role is very significant in the beginning years of a child's life. In this period, the child encounters new experiences and these experiences make him or her to learn and grow. These days, in order to help the parents build a bright future for their children, different parenting programs have been designed. These programs provide a great opportunity for parents to enhance positive parenting skills. The aim of this study was to design a reliable and valid instrument for assessing the mothers' parenting skills. 44 mothers who had children aged 3 - 8 were invited to participate in this study. They took part in parenting-skills training sessions for more than two months. Then they were asked to attend the test center after six months to be tested on trained skills. In this study, mothers' parenting skills were measured by the OSCE test. The reliability of the test was determined with three methods including split half, Cronbach alpha, and correlation between assessors' scores in two similar stations. The construct validity of the test was determined with Explanatory Factor Analysis. The total Cronbach alpha coefficient obtained was 0.83 which indicated that the test had a high internal reliability. The Spearman correlation coefficient obtained for two halves of the test was 0.76. The results of Explanatory Factor Analysis showed that nine stations of OSCE were focused on two factors. The first factor was named positive positions and the second factor was named negative positions. The designed OSCE test has the suitable psychometric features to be used by researchers to assess mothers' parenting skills. 

  1. Improved OSC Amtec generator design to meet goals of JPL's candidate Europa Orbiter mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-07-01

    The preceding paper (Paper IECEC.98.244) described OSC's initial designs of AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) power systems, consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules and with 16 refractory AMTEC cells containing 5 Beta Alumina Solid Electrolyte (BASE) tubes; and presented the effect of heat input and voltage output on the generator's BOM evaporator and clad temperatures and on its EOM system efficiency and power output. Comparison of the computed results with JPL's goals for the Europa Orbiter mission showed that all of the initial 16-cell design options yielded either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures or insufficient EOM power to satisfy the JPL-specified mission goals. The present paper describes modified OSC generator designs with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell. These efforts succeeded in identifying generator designs with only half the number of AMTEC cells which -- for the same assumptions -- can produce EOM power outputs substantially in excess of JPL's goals for NASA's Europa Orbiter mission while operating well below the prescribed BOM limits on evaporator and clad temperature; and revealed that lowering the emissivity of the generator's housing to raise the cells' condenser temperatures can achieve substantial additional performance improvement. Finally, the paper culminates in programmatic recommendations.

  2. Hawks, Doves and Rasch decisions: Understanding the influence of different cycles of an OSCE on students' scores using Many Facet Rasch Modeling.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Peter; Sebok-Syer, Stefanie S

    2017-01-01

    OSCEs are commonly conducted in multiple cycles (different circuits, times, and locations), yet the potential for students' allocation to different OSCE cycles is rarely considered as a source of variance-perhaps in part because conventional psychometrics provide limited insight. We used Many Facet Rasch Modeling (MFRM) to estimate the influence of "examiner cohorts" (the combined influence of the examiners in the cycle to which each student was allocated) on students' scores within a fully nested multi-cycle OSCE. Observed average scores for examiners cycles varied by 8.6%, but model-adjusted estimates showed a smaller range of 4.4%. Most students' scores were only slightly altered by the model; the greatest score increase was 5.3%, and greatest score decrease was -3.6%, with 2 students passing who would have failed. Despite using 16 examiners per cycle, examiner variability did not completely counter-balance, resulting in an influence of OSCE cycles on students' scores. Assumptions were required for the MFRM analysis; innovative procedures to overcome these limitations and strengthen OSCEs are discussed. OSCE cycle allocation has the potential to exert a small but unfair influence on students' OSCE scores; these little-considered influences should challenge our assumptions and design of OSCEs.

  3. Influence of Marital Status on Attitude of Midwives towards OSCE and Their Performance in the Examination in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Emon Umoe; Mgbekem, Mary Achi; Nsemo, Alberta David; Ojong-Alacia, Mary Manyo; Nkwonta, Chigozie A.; Mobolaji-Olajide, O. M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the influence of marital status on the midwives' attitude towards OSCE and how this affects their performance in the examination. Two hypotheses guided the study. HO 1 sort to find out if there exist a significant influence of marital status of midwives on their attitude towards OSCE as well as performance in…

  4. An unfolding case with a linked OSCE: a curriculum in inpatient geriatric medicine.

    PubMed

    Karani, Reena; Callahan, Eileen H; Thomas, David C

    2002-09-01

    This study sought to design, implement, and evaluate a unique educational curriculum in inpatient geriatrics for internal medicine housestaff. Traditionally the didactic curriculum on an inpatient geriatrics unit varies according to the attending faculty on service, the types of patients admitted, and preferences of the housestaff and students-in-training. However, a more structured educational curriculum would allow for comprehensive attention to, and a detailed exploration of, the principles of geriatric care necessary to effectively treat all hospitalized older adults. We have developed a unique curriculum using an unfolding case that is followed by an OSCE, which assesses the knowledge and skills gained by the learners. An unfolding case is one that evolves over time and is unpredictable to the learners when they begin participating in the curriculum. It is well suited to postgraduate training and assessment since the learner must develop a differential diagnosis, discuss possible work-ups, and use the work-ups' results to reassess the case as it unfolds. Our scripted case, administered by a geriatrics fellow rotating on the unit, follows an ambulatory geriatric patient from her admission throughout her treatment and until the end of her stay. It culminates in a decision-making session about her functional ability and hence her discharge plans. Moreover, several topics relevant to inpatient geriatrics, including dementia, delirium, falls, urinary incontinence, wound care, and depression, are covered in three one-hour sessions. Written examinations or pre- and post-testing after an intervention are better suited to the early years of medical training but provide poor measures of curriculum mastery and clinical competency. Alternatively, our OSCE approach uses "stations" and "interstations" that provide a structured and timed opportunity to test these skills and assess specific areas of knowledge. We have designed a five-station, five-interstation OSCE that is

  5. Exploration of Nursing Faculty Members' Lived Experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Undergraduate Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obizoba, Cordelia O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of nursing faculty members' lived experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate nursing education. As owners of their programs' curriculum, nursing faculties are charged with the responsibility of providing needed knowledge, skills, and…

  6. Training Family Medicine Residents in Effective Communication Skills While Utilizing Promotoras as Standardized Patients in OSCEs: A Health Literacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Patti; Kindratt, Tiffany; Arnold, Danielle; Brandt, Jeffrey; Woodfin, Grant; Gimpel, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Future health care providers need to be trained in the knowledge and skills to effectively communicate with their patients with limited health literacy. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a curriculum designed to increase residents' health literacy knowledge, improve communication skills, and work with an interpreter. Materials and Methods. Family Medicine residents (N = 25) participated in a health literacy training which included didactic lectures and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Community promotoras acted as standardized patients and evaluated the residents' ability to measure their patients' health literacy, communicate effectively using the teach-back and Ask Me 3 methods, and appropriately use an interpreter. Pre- and postknowledge, attitudes, and postdidactic feedback were obtained. We compared OSCE scores from the group that received training (didactic group) and previous graduates. Residents reported the skills they used in practice three months later. Results. Family Medicine residents showed an increase in health literacy knowledge (p = 0.001) and scored in the adequately to expertly performed range in the OSCE. Residents reported using the teach-back method (77.8%) and a translator more effectively (77.8%) three months later. Conclusions. Our innovative health literacy OSCE can be replicated for medical learners at all levels of training.

  7. Predictive validity of a written knowledge test of skills for an OSCE in postgraduate training for general practice.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A W M; Jansen, J J M; Zuithoff, P; Düsman, H; Tan, L H C; Grol, R P T M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2002-09-01

    To examine the validity of a written knowledge test of skills for performance on an OSCE in postgraduate training for general practice. A randomly-selected sample of 47 trainees in general practice took a knowledge test of skills, a general knowledge test and an OSCE. The OSCE included technical stations and stations including complete patient encounters. Each station was checklist rated and global rated. The knowledge test of skills was better correlated to the OSCE than the general knowledge test. Technical stations were better correlated to the knowledge test of skills than stations including complete patient encounters. For the technical stations the rating system had no influence on the correlation. For the stations including complete patient encounters the checklist rating correlated better to the knowledge test of skills than the global rating. The results of this study support the predictive validity of the knowledge test of skills. In postgraduate training for general practice a written knowledge test of skills can be used as an instrument to estimate the level of clinical skills, especially for group evaluation, such as in studies examining the efficacy of a training programme or as a screening instrument for deciding about courses to be offered. This estimation is more accurate when the content of the test matches the skills under study. However, written testing of skills cannot replace direct observation of performance of skills.

  8. Exploration of Nursing Faculty Members' Lived Experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Undergraduate Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obizoba, Cordelia O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to gain an understanding of nursing faculty members' lived experiences of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate nursing education. As owners of their programs' curriculum, nursing faculties are charged with the responsibility of providing needed knowledge, skills, and…

  9. [Testing objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) for nursing students experience developed during the years 1995-2009].

    PubMed

    Sola Pola, Montserrat; Martínez Castela, Daniel; Molins I Mesalles, Ainhoa; Pulpón Segura, Anna M

    2011-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been recognized as an effective evaluation tool in the health area and has been implemented by an important sector of educational institutions, the Faculty of Medicine and School of Nursing. The present article describes the OSCE organized by the Institute of Health Studies in collaboration with the University Schools of Catalan Nursing. Between the years of 2002 and 2009, OSCE annual exams took place with the participation of 1.803 students. The global results remained stable with a median grade of slightly less than 60%, and the competence component that evaluated communicative capacity was the one in which students obtained the best results. The reliability obtained surpassed the minimum recommended by international standards. It's important underline the positive value to the students of all aspects of the test. From this experience it seems evident that it would be useful to take advantage of the OSCE tests in order to show the students their strong points and ways to improve. We should highlight, not only as a goal but also as an opportunity the assessment by competencies that the European space of higher Education provides at the end of studies for a Nursing degree.

  10. Does quantity ensure quality? Standardized OSCE-stations for outcome-oriented evaluation of practical skills at different medical faculties.

    PubMed

    Schleicher, Iris; Leitner, Karsten; Juenger, Jana; Moeltner, Andreas; Ruesseler, Miriam; Bender, Bernd; Sterz, Jasmina; Stibane, Tina; Koenig, Sarah; Frankenhauser, Susanne; Kreuder, Joachim Gerhard

    2017-07-01

    Practical skills are often assessed using Objective Structured Clinical Skill Exams (OSCE). Nevertheless, in Germany, interchange and agreement between different medical faculties or a general agreement on the minimum standard for passing is lacking. We developed standardized OSCE-stations for assessing structured clinical examination of knee and shoulder joint with identical checklists and evaluation standards. These were implemented into the OSCE-course at five different medical faculties. Learning objectives for passing the stations were agreed beforehand. At each faculty, one reference examiner scored independently of the local examiner. Outcome of the students at the standardized station was compared between faculties and correlated to their total outcome at the OSCE, to their results at the Part One of the National Medical Licensing Examination as a reference test during medical studies and to their previous amount of lessons in examining joints. Comparing the results of the reference examiner, outcome at the station differed significantly between some of the participating medical faculties. Depending on the faculty, mean total results at the knee-examination-station differed from 64.4% to 77.9% and at the shoulder-examination-station from 62.6% to 79.2%. Differences were seen in knowledge-based items and also in competencies like communication and professional manner. There was a weak correlation between outcome at the joint-examination-OSCE-station and Part One of the National Medical Licensing Examination, and a modest correlation between outcome at the joint-examination-station and total OSCE-result. Correlation to the previous amount of lessons in examining joint was also weak. Although addressing approved learning objectives, different outcomes were achieved when testing a clinical skill at different medical faculties with a standardized OSCE-station. Results can be used as a tool for evaluating lessons, training and curricula at the different sites

  11. Performance of OSC's initial Amtec generator design, and comparison with JPL's Europa Orbiter goals

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Noravian, H.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1998-07-01

    The procedure for the analysis (with overpotential correction) of multitube AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electrical Conversion) cells described in Paper IECEC 98-243 was applied to a wide range of multicell radioisotope space power systems. System design options consisting of one or two generators, each with 2, 3, or 4 stacked GPHS (General Purpose Heat Source) modules, identical to those used on previous NASA missions, were analyzed and performance-mapped. The initial generators analyzed by OSC had 8 AMTEC cells on each end of the heat source stack, with five beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) tubes per cell. The heat source and converters in the Orbital generator designs are embedded in a thermal insulation system consisting of Min-K fibrous insulation surrounded by graded-length molybdenum multifoils. Detailed analyses in previous Orbital studies found that such an insulation system could reduce extraneous heat losses to about 10%. For the above design options, the present paper presents the system mass and performance (i.e., the EOM system efficiency and power output and the BOM evaporator and clad temperatures) for a wide range of heat inputs and load voltages, and compares the results with JPL's preliminary goals for the Europa Orbiter mission to be launched in November 2003. The analytical results showed that the initial 16-cell generator designs resulted in either excessive evaporator and clad temperatures and/or insufficient power outputs to meet the JPL-specified mission goals. The computed performance of modified OSC generators with different numbers of AMTEC cells, cell diameters, cell lengths, cell materials, BASE tube lengths, and number of tubes per cell are described in Paper IECEC.98.245 in these proceedings.

  12. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Read, Emma K; Bell, Catriona; Rhind, Susan; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations) are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL) or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS) to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies [R(D)SVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school). All raters assessed all students (video recordings) during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing). Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(D)SVS) were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM). Generalizability theory (G theory), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater), and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study) showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  13. Isomers of OCS{sub 2}: IR absorption spectra of OSCS and O(CS{sub 2}) in solid Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, W.-J.; Chen, H.-F.; Chou, P.-H.; Lee, Y.-P.

    2004-12-22

    Irradiation of an Ar matrix sample containing O{sub 3} and CS{sub 2} with a KrF excimer laser at 248 nm yielded new lines at 1402.1 (1404.7), 1056.2 (1052.7), and 622.3 (620.5) cm-1; numbers in parentheses correspond to species in a minor matrix site. Secondary photolysis at 308 nm diminished these lines and produced mainly OCS and SO{sub 2}. Annealing of this matrix to 30 K yielded a second set of new lines at 1824.7 and 617.8 cm-1. The first set of lines are assigned to C=S stretching, O-S stretching, and S-C stretching modes of carbon disulfide S-oxide, OSCS; and the second set of lines are assigned to C=O stretching and OCS bending modes of dithiiranone, O(CS{sub 2}), respectively, based on results of {sup 34}S- and {sup 18}O-isotopic experiments and quantum-chemical calculations. These calculations using density-functional theory (B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ) predict four stable isomers of OCS{sub 2}: O(CS{sub 2}), SSCO, OSCS, and SOCS, listed in order of increasing energy. According to calculations, O(CS{sub 2}) has a cyclic CS{sub 2} moiety and is the most stable isomer of OCS{sub 2}. OSCS is planar, with bond angles anguprOSC congruent with 111.9 deg. and anguprSCS congruent with 177.3 deg.; it is less stable than SSCO and O(CS{sub 2}) by {approx}102 and 154 kJ mol-1, respectively, and more stable than SOCS by {approx}26 kJ mol-1. Calculated vibrational wave numbers, IR intensities, {sup 34}S- and {sup 18}O-isotopic shifts for OSCS and O(CS{sub 2}) fit satisfactorily with experimental results.

  14. Assessing nursing clinical skills competence through objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for open distance learning students in Open University Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Oranye, Nelson Ositadimma; Ahmad, Che'an; Ahmad, Nora; Bakar, Rosnida Abu

    2012-06-01

    The objective structured clinical skills examination (OSCE) has over the years emerged as a method of evaluating clinical skills in most medical and allied professions. Although its validity and objectivity has evoked so much debate in the literature, little has been written about its application in non-traditional education systems such as in distance learning. This study examined clinical skills competence among practising nursing students who were enrolled in a distance learning programme. The study examined the effect of work and years of nursing practice on nurses' clinical skills competence. This study used observational design whereby nursing students' clinical skills were observed and scored in five OSCE stations. Two instruments were used for the data collection - A self-administered questionnaire on the students' bio-demographic data, and a check list on the clinical skills which the examiners rated on a four point scale. The findings revealed that 14% of the nurses had level four competence, which indicated that they could perform the tasks correctly and complete. However, 12% failed the OSCE, even though they had more than 10 years experience in nursing and post basic qualifications. Inter-rater reliability was 0.92 for the five examiners. Factor analysis indicated that five participant factors accounted for 74.1% of the variations in clinical skills performance. An OSCE is a necessary assessment tool that should be continuously applied in nursing education, regardless of the mode of the education program, the student's years of experience or his/her clinical placement. This study validates the need for OSCE in both the design of tertiary nursing degree programs and the assessment of nurses' clinical competency level.

  15. OsC6, Encoding a Lipid Transfer Protein, Is Required for Postmeiotic Anther Development In Rice1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dasheng; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Zong, Jie; Gu, Fangwei; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-01-01

    Synthesis of lipidic components in anthers, including of the pollen exine, is essential for plant male reproductive development. Plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are small, abundant lipid-binding proteins that have the ability to exchange lipids between membranes in vitro. However, their biological role in male reproductive development remains less understood. Here, we report the crucial role of OsC6 in regulating postmeiotic anther development in rice (Oryza sativa). Found in monocots, OsC6 belongs to a distinct clade from previously identified LTP1 and LTP2 family members found in both dicots and monocots. OsC6 expression is mainly detectable in tapetal cells and weakly in microspores from stage 9 to stage 11 of anther development. Immunological assays indicated that OsC6 is widely distributed in anther tissues such as the tapetal cytoplasm, the extracellular space between the tapetum and middle layer, and the anther locule and anther cuticle. Biochemical assays indicated that recombinant OsC6 has lipid binding activity. Moreover, plants in which OsC6 was silenced had defective development of orbicules (i.e. Ubisch bodies) and pollen exine and had reduced pollen fertility. Furthermore, additional evidence is provided that the expression of OsC6 is positively regulated by a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Tapetum Degeneration Retardation (TDR). Extra granule-like structures were observed on the inner surface of the tdr tapetal layer when the expression of OsC6 was driven by the TDR promoter compared with the tdr mutant. These data suggest that OsC6 plays a crucial role in the development of lipidic orbicules and pollen exine during anther development in rice. PMID:20610705

  16. The influence of first impressions on subsequent ratings within an OSCE station.

    PubMed

    Wood, Timothy J; Chan, James; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire

    2016-11-15

    Competency-based assessment is placing increasing emphasis on the direct observation of learners. For this process to produce valid results, it is important that raters provide quality judgments that are accurate. Unfortunately, the quality of these judgments is variable and the roles of factors that influence the accuracy of those judgments are not clearly understood. One such factor is first impressions: that is, judgments about people we do not know, made quickly and based on very little information. This study explores the influence of first impressions in an OSCE. Specifically, the purpose is to begin to examine the accuracy of a first impression and its influence on subsequent ratings. We created six videotapes of history-taking performance. Each video was scripted from a real performance by six examinee residents within a single OSCE station. Each performance was re-enacted with six different actors playing the role of the examinees and one actor playing the role of the patient and videotaped. A total of 23 raters (i.e., physician examiners) reviewed each video and were asked to make a global judgment of the examinee's clinical abilities after 60 s (First Impression GR) by providing a rating on a six-point global rating scale and then to rate their confidence in the accuracy of that judgment by providing a rating on a five-point rating scale (Confidence GR). After making these ratings, raters then watched the remainder of the examinee's performance and made another global rating of performance (Final GR) before moving on to the next video. First impression ratings of ability varied across examinees and were moderately correlated to expert ratings (r = .59, 95% CI [-.13, .90]). There were significant differences in mean ratings for three examinees. Correlations ranged from .05 to .56 but were only significant for three examinees. Rater confidence in their first impression was not related to the likelihood of a rater changing their rating between the first

  17. GRIND-based 3D-QSAR to predict inhibitory activity for similar enzymes, OSC and SHC.

    PubMed

    Ermondi, Giuseppe; Caron, Giulia

    2008-07-01

    GRIND-based 3D-QSAR methods are widely used in modern medicinal chemistry, since they are alignment-independent and almost completely automated. Nevertheless, their efficacy in predicting different biological activities for a single data set of compounds remains to be explored. In this study we explore the capabilities and limits of ALMOND procedure to predict the inhibitor potency of a series a non-terpenoid squalenehopene cyclase (SHC) inhibitors, and compare the results with recently published results concerning oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) inhibitor potency. The findings show that the ALMOND procedure can correctly predict both activities, despite the similar architecture of the active center cavities of the two enzymes. Moreover, the graphical results suggest that a compound to act as an OSC inhibitor should satisfy more structural requirements than those necessary to be successful as an SHC inhibitor.

  18. Using a teaching OSCE to prompt learners to engage with patients who talk about religion and/or spirituality.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Seehusen, Dean A; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Cafferty, Lauren A

    2014-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has only occasionally been used as a teaching tool. The authors describe the initial use of an educational innovation consisting of a teaching OSCE used as "sensitizing practice," followed by personal, guided, and group reflection. Staff and resident physicians and one medical student (N = 28) at a community hospital's family medicine residency participated in the innovation during August 2012. The initial use of the educational innovation allowed learners to engage in a potentially challenging conversation with a standardized patient about religion and/or spirituality (R/S). The aim of the innovation was not to equip learners with a particular tactic to introduce or discuss R/S but, rather, to prompt learners to engage in mindful practice with patients who identify R/S as part of their biopsychosocial contexts. Written, dyadic, and group reflection added value to the OSCE by allowing participants to reflect on a difficult learning objective over time. Participants moved along the stages-of-change continuum when engaging in guided reflection compared with personal reflection. Additionally, all participants provided evidence of at least the preparation stage at the time of guided reflection. By following the OSCE's sensitizing practice with three periods of reflection, learners were enabled first, to recognize the need for readiness to address challenging communication topics (in this case, R/S) and, second, to reflect on practiced strategies for those conversations. The educational innovation can help learners become more aware of and skillful in dealing with difficult physician-patient communication topics.

  19. An innovative OSCE clinical log station: a quantitative study of its influence on Log use by medical students.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Judith N; Rienits, Helen; Corrin, Linda; Olmos, Martin

    2012-11-12

    A Clinical Log was introduced as part of a medical student learning portfolio, aiming to develop a habit of critical reflection while learning was taking place, and provide feedback to students and the institution on learning progress. It was designed as a longitudinal self-directed structured record of student learning events, with reflection on these for personal and professional development, and actions planned or taken for learning.As incentive was needed to encourage student engagement, an innovative Clinical Log station was introduced in the OSCE, an assessment format with established acceptance at the School. This study questions: How does an OSCE Clinical Log station influence Log use by students? The Log station was introduced into the formative, and subsequent summative, OSCEs with careful attention to student and assessor training, marking rubrics and the standard setting procedure. The scoring process sought evidence of educational use of the log, and an ability to present and reflect on key learning issues in a concise and coherent manner. Analysis of the first cohort's Log use over the four-year course (quantified as number of patient visits entered by all students) revealed limited initial use. Usage was stimulated after introduction of the Log station early in third year, with some improvement during the subsequent year-long integrated community-based clerkship. Student reflection, quantified by the mean number of characters in the 'reflection' fields per entry, peaked just prior to the final OSCE (mid-Year 4). Following this, very few students continued to enter and reflect on clinical experience using the Log. While the current study suggested that we can't assume students will self-reflect unless such an activity is included in an assessment, ongoing work has focused on building learner and faculty confidence in the value of self-reflection as part of being a competent physician.

  20. True communication skills assessment in interdepartmental OSCE stations: Standard setting using the MAAS-Global and EduG.

    PubMed

    Setyonugroho, Winny; Kropmans, Thomas; Murphy, Ruth; Hayes, Peter; van Dalen, Jan; Kennedy, Kieran M

    2017-07-11

    Comparing outcome of clinical skills assessment is challenging. This study proposes reliable and valid comparison of communication skills (1) assessment as practiced in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (2). The aim of the present study is to compare CS assessment, as standardized according to the MAAS Global, between stations in a single undergraduate medical year. An OSCE delivered in an Irish undergraduate curriculum was studied. We chose the MAAS-Global as an internationally recognized and validated instrument to calibrate the OSCE station items. The MAAS-Global proportion is the percentage of station checklist items that can be considered as 'true' CS. The reliability of the OSCE was calculated with G-Theory analysis and nested ANOVA was used to compare mean scores of all years. MAAS-Global scores in psychiatry stations were significantly higher than those in other disciplines (p<0.03) and above the initial pass mark of 50%. The higher students' scores in psychiatry stations were related to higher MAAS-Global proportions when compared to the general practice stations. Comparison of outcome measurements, using the MAAS Global as a standardization instrument, between interdisciplinary station checklists was valid and reliable. The MAAS-Global was used as a single validated instrument and is suggested as gold standard. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Remediating students' failed OSCE performances at one school: the effects of self-assessment, reflection, and feedback.

    PubMed

    White, Casey B; Ross, Paula T; Gruppen, Larry D

    2009-05-01

    To investigate whether and how use of an online remediation system requiring reflective review of performance and self-assessment influenced students' performance on objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) station repeats (subsequent to failure on the first attempt) and their self-assessments of their performance (between the first and second attempts). Fourth-year medical students' performances on seven OSCE stations were videotaped at University of Michigan Medical School in 2006. Failing students took the exam again; remediation included self-assessment and review, plus faculty guidance for failures that were greater than one standard error of measurement of the distribution. A total of 1,171 possible observations of students' actual performance and performance self-assessments were analyzed using independent and dependent t tests and within-subjects ANOVA. Results indicate statistically significant changes in students' performance between first and second attempts and statistically significant improvements in self-assessment between first and second attempts. No significant changes were found between self-assessed and faculty-guided remediation. This study provides evidence that OSCE remediation combining review, reflection, and self-assessment has a salutary effect on (subsequent) performance and self-assessment of performance.

  2. How to assess communication, professionalism, collaboration and the other intrinsic CanMEDS roles in orthopedic residents: use of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Tim; Glover Takahashi, Susan; Kennedy Hynes, Melissa; Herold, Jodi; Wasserstein, David; Nousiainen, Markku; Ferguson, Peter; Wadey, Veronica; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Leroux, Tim; Semple, John; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2014-08-01

    Assessing residents' understanding and application of the 6 intrinsic CanMEDS roles (communicator, professional, manager, collaborator, health advocate, scholar) is challenging for postgraduate medical educators. We hypothesized that an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) designed to assess multiple intrinsic CanMEDS roles would be sufficiently reliable and valid. The OSCE comprised 6 10-minute stations, each testing 2 intrinsic roles using case-based scenarios (with or without the use of standardized patients). Residents were evaluated using 5-point scales and an overall performance rating at each station. Concurrent validity was sought by correlation with in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) from the last 12 months and an ordinal ranking created by program directors (PDs). Twenty-five residents from postgraduate years (PGY) 0, 3 and 5 participated. The interstation reliability for total test scores (percent) was 0.87, while reliability for each of the communicator, collaborator, manager and professional roles was greater than 0.8. Total test scores, individual station scores and individual CanMEDS role scores all showed a significant effect by PGY level. Analysis of the PD rankings of intrinsic roles demonstrated a high correlation with the OSCE role scores. A correlation was seen between ITER and OSCE for the communicator role, while the ITER medical expert and total scores highly correlated with the communicator, manager and professional OSCE scores. An OSCE designed to assess the intrinsic CanMEDS roles was sufficiently valid and reliable for regular use in an orthopedic residency program.

  3. Team OSCE: A Teaching Modality for Promotion of Multidisciplinary Work in Mental Health Settings.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2015-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination has been in use both as an assessment and a teaching modality within the mental health profession. It focuses on individual skill enhancement, the inter-professional understanding of role obligation is helpful in promoting competence as a team as well as role of other team members. The Team OSCE (TOSCE) is an effective way in promoting inter-professional learning. The present work assesses the trainee experience with TOSCE and its utility in clinical care. Twenty-two mental health trainees (17 male and 5 female from psychiatry, clinical psychology and psychiatric social work) got exposure to weekly OSCAF training as well as 2-3 Team OSCAFS on various aspects of clinical work as a part of their clinical training for 3 months. Rating from the trainees were taken on TOSCE feedback checklist. TOSCE was helpful in promoting the understanding role of other team members; shared decision-making, problem-solving, handling unexpected events, giving feedback and closure. The TOSCE may be introduced as a way to work on clinical performance, shared decision-making and inter-professional understanding.

  4. Team OSCE: A Teaching Modality for Promotion of Multidisciplinary Work in Mental Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S.; Chaturvedi, Santosh K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective structured clinical examination has been in use both as an assessment and a teaching modality within the mental health profession. It focuses on individual skill enhancement, the inter-professional understanding of role obligation is helpful in promoting competence as a team as well as role of other team members. The Team OSCE (TOSCE) is an effective way in promoting inter-professional learning. Materials and Methods: The present work assesses the trainee experience with TOSCE and its utility in clinical care. Twenty-two mental health trainees (17 male and 5 female from psychiatry, clinical psychology and psychiatric social work) got exposure to weekly OSCAF training as well as 2-3 Team OSCAFS on various aspects of clinical work as a part of their clinical training for 3 months. Rating from the trainees were taken on TOSCE feedback checklist. Results: TOSCE was helpful in promoting the understanding role of other team members; shared decision-making, problem-solving, handling unexpected events, giving feedback and closure. Conclusion: The TOSCE may be introduced as a way to work on clinical performance, shared decision-making and inter-professional understanding. PMID:26664082

  5. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Teng

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene):polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  6. Modifying the organic/electrode interface in Organic Solar Cells (OSCs) and improving the efficiency of solution-processed phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Teng

    2012-01-01

    Organic semiconductors devices, such as, organic solar cells (OSCs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have drawn increasing interest in recent decades. As organic materials are flexible, light weight, and potentially low-cost, organic semiconductor devices are considered to be an alternative to their inorganic counterparts. This dissertation will focus mainly on OSCs and OLEDs. As a clean and renewable energy source, the development of OSCs is very promising. Cells with 9.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) were reported this year, compared to < 8% two years ago. OSCs belong to the so-called third generation solar cells and are still under development. While OLEDs are a more mature and better studied field, with commercial products already launched in the market, there are still several key issues: (1) the cost of OSCs/OLEDs is still high, largely due to the costly manufacturing processes; (2) the efficiency of OSCs/OLEDs needs to be improved; (3) the lifetime of OSCs/OLEDs is not sufficient compared to their inorganic counterparts; (4) the physics models of the behavior of the devices are not satisfactory. All these limitations invoke the demand for new organic materials, improved device architectures, low-cost fabrication methods, and better understanding of device physics. For OSCs, we attempted to improve the PCE by modifying the interlayer between active layer/metal. We found that ethylene glycol (EG) treated poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS) improves hole collection at the metal/polymer interface, furthermore it also affects the growth of the poly(3- hexylthiophene) (P3HT):phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends, making the phase segregation more favorable for charge collection. We then studied organic/inorganic tandem cells. We also investigated the effect of a thin LiF layer on the hole-collection of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C70-based small molecular OSCs. A

  7. Distribution and expression characteristics of triterpenoids and OSC genes in white birch (Betula platyphylla suk.).

    PubMed

    Yin, Jing; Ren, Chun-Lin; Zhan, Ya-Guang; Li, Chun-Xiao; Xiao, Jia-Lei; Qiu, Wei; Li, Xin-Yu; Peng, Hong-Mei

    2012-03-01

    Betulin and oleanolic acids (pentacyclic triterpenoid secondary metabolites) have broad pharmacological activities and can be potentially used for the development of anti-cancer and anti-AIDS drugs. In this study, we detected the accumulation and the distribution characteristics of betulin and oleanolic acid in various organs of white birch at different ages. We also determined the expression of 4 OSC genes (LUS, β-AS, CAS1 and CAS2) involved in the triterpenoid synthesis pathways by real time RT-PCR. The result showed that the 1-year old birch can synthesize betulin and oleanolic acid. In addition, betulin and oleanolic acids were mainly distributed in the bark, while the content in the root skin and leaf was very low. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid in birch varied in different seasons. The content of betulin and oleanolic acid and their corresponding LUS and β-AS gene expression were very low in 1-year old birch. With increasing age of birch, betulin content was increased, while oleanolic acid was decreased. Similar changes were also observed for their corresponding synthesis genes LUS and β-AS. In the leaf of 1-year old plant, the highest expression of CAS1 and CAS2 occurred at end of September, while expression of LUS and the β-AS was low from June to October. In the stem skin,high expression of β-AS and the LUS genes occurred from the end of July to September. In the root, high expression of the β-AS gene was observed at the end of October. These results indicated that triterpenoid gene expression was similar to the triterpene accumulation. Expression of LUS gene and β-AS gene in birch with different ages were corresponding to the betulinic and oleanolic acid accumulation. Expression of CAS1 and CAS2 genes were elevated with increasing age of birch. This study provides molecular mechanisms of triterpenes synthesis in birch plants.

  8. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as a strategy for assessing clinical competence in midwifery education in Ireland: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Valerie; Muldoon, Kathryn; Biesty, Linda

    2012-09-01

    In Ireland, to register as a midwife, all student midwives must be deemed competent to practice with the assessment of competence an essential component of midwifery education. A variety of assessment strategies, including observed practice, clinical interviews, portfolios of reflection, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and written examination papers, are utilised to assess midwifery students' clinical competence. In this paper, a critical review of the OSCE as a strategy for assessing clinical competence in one third level institution in Ireland is offered. Although utilised for assessing competence across a range of areas (e.g. obstetric emergencies and pharmacology/drug administration), the use of the OSCE for assessing midwifery students' competence in lactation and infant feeding practices, as an example for this paper, is described. The advantages, disadvantages, validity and reliability of the OSCE, as an assessment strategy, are critically explored. Recognising that no single assessment strategy can provide all the information required to assess something as complex as clinical performance, the OSCE, when viewed alongside other forms of assessment, and with relevance to the topic under examination, may be considered a valuable strategy for enhancing the assessment of students' clinical competence, and for embracing diversity within midwifery education and training.

  9. Allelic diversification at the C (OsC1) locus of wild and cultivated rice: nucleotide changes associated with phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Kumi; Onishi, Kazumitsu; Mikami, Ichiho; Thidar, Khin; Sano, Yoshio

    2004-10-01

    Divergent phenotypes are often detected in domesticated plants despite the existence of invariant phenotypes in their wild forms. One such example in rice is the occurrence of varying degrees of apiculus coloration due to anthocyanin pigmentation, which was previously reported to be caused by a series of alleles at the C locus. The present study reveals, on the basis of comparison of its maps, that the C gene appears to be the rice homolog (OsC1) of maize C1, which belongs to the group of R2R3-Myb factors. Two different types of deletions causing a frameshift were detected in the third exon, and both of the deleted nucleotides corresponded to the positions of putative base-contacting residues, suggesting that the Indica and Japonica types carry loss-of-function mutations with independent origins. In addition, replacement substitutions were frequently detected in OsC1 of strains carrying the previously defined C alleles. Molecular population analysis revealed that 17 haplotypes were found in 39 wild and cultivated rices, and the haplotypes of most cultivated forms could be classified into one of three distinct groups, with few shared haplotypes among taxa, including Indica and Japonica types. The genealogy of the OsC1 gene suggests that allelic diversification causing phenotypic change might have resulted from mutations in the coding region rather than from recombination between preexisting alleles. The McDonald and Kreitman test revealed that the changes in amino acids might be associated with selective forces acting on the lineage of group A whose haplotypes were carried by most Asian cultivated forms. The results regarding a significant implication for genetic diversity in landraces of rice are also discussed.

  10. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) as a summative evaluation tool in a ruminant health management rotation for final-year DVM students.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Ken; Menzies, Paula; Sandals, David; Duffield, Todd; LeBlanc, Stephen; Leslie, Ken; Lissemore, Kerry; Swackhammer, Rob

    2008-01-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been used for 10 years at the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, to evaluate the clinical competencies in ruminant health management of final-year DVM students. The performance of these students in the summative assessment, which includes the use of OSCEs, was compared to their formative assessment, given at the end of the rotation. Specifically, classification of students' performance as poor (bottom 10% of the grade range versus "serious deficits") or superior ("A grade" versus "exceeds expectations") was compared. Agreement between the two types of assessment is slight, regardless of whether assessing diagnostic process skills or technical skills--and regardless of whether all students were assessed or only those enrolled in food-animal or mixed streams in their final year--which suggests that the two assess different types of skills. OSCEs are a useful and viable tool for objectively assessing clinical skills in ruminant health management.

  11. How to assess communication, professionalism, collaboration and the other intrinsic CanMEDS roles in orthopedic residents: use of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE)

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Tim; Takahashi, Susan Glover; Hynes, Melissa Kennedy; Herold, Jodi; Wasserstein, David; Nousiainen, Markku; Ferguson, Peter; Wadey, Veronica; Murnaghan, M. Lucas; Leroux, Tim; Semple, John; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessing residents’ understanding and application of the 6 intrinsic CanMEDS roles (communicator, professional, manager, collaborator, health advocate, scholar) is challenging for postgraduate medical educators. We hypothesized that an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) designed to assess multiple intrinsic CanMEDS roles would be sufficiently reliable and valid. Methods The OSCE comprised 6 10-minute stations, each testing 2 intrinsic roles using case-based scenarios (with or without the use of standardized patients). Residents were evaluated using 5-point scales and an overall performance rating at each station. Concurrent validity was sought by correlation with in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) from the last 12 months and an ordinal ranking created by program directors (PDs). Results Twenty-five residents from postgraduate years (PGY) 0, 3 and 5 participated. The interstation reliability for total test scores (percent) was 0.87, while reliability for each of the communicator, collaborator, manager and professional roles was greater than 0.8. Total test scores, individual station scores and individual CanMEDS role scores all showed a significant effect by PGY level. Analysis of the PD rankings of intrinsic roles demonstrated a high correlation with the OSCE role scores. A correlation was seen between ITER and OSCE for the communicator role, while the ITER medical expert and total scores highly correlated with the communicator, manager and professional OSCE scores. Conclusion An OSCE designed to assess the intrinsic CanMEDS roles was sufficiently valid and reliable for regular use in an orthopedic residency program. PMID:25078926

  12. Development and incorporation of hybrid simulation OSCE into in-training examinations to assess multiple CanMEDS competencies in urologic trainees

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Laura N.; Tardioli, Kim; Roberts, Matthew; Watterson, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As residency training requirements increasingly emphasize a competency-based approach, novel tools to directly evaluate Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) competencies must be developed. Incorporating simulation allows residents to demonstrate knowledge and skills in a safe, standardized environment. We describe a novel hybrid simulation station for use in a urology resident in-training Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to assess multiple CanMEDS competencies. Methods: An OSCE station was developed to assess Communicator, Health Advocate, Manager, and Medical Expert (including technical skills) CanMEDS roles. Residents interviewed a standardized patient, interacted with a nurse, performed flexible cystoscopy and attempted stent removal using a novel bladder/stent model. Communication was assessed using the Calgary-Cambridge Observational Guide, knowledge was assessed using a checklist, and technical skills were assessed using a previously validated global rating scale. Video debriefing allowed residents to review their performance. Face and discriminative validity were assessed, and feasibility was determined through qualitative post-examination interviews and cost analysis. Results: All 9 residents (postgraduate years [PGY] 3, 4, 5) completed the OSCE in 15 minutes. Communicator and knowledge scores were similar among all PGYs. Scores in technical skills were higher in PGY-5 compared with PGY-3/4 reside nts (mean score 79% vs. 73%). Residents and exam personnel felt the OSCE station allowed for realistic demonstration of competencies. Equipment cost was $218 for the exam station. Conclusions: We developed and implemented a hybrid simulation-based OSCE station to assess multiple CanMEDS roles. This approach was feasible and cost-effective; it also provided a framework for future development of similar OSCE stations to assess resident competencies across multiple domains. PMID:25737752

  13. Reliability and validity of OSCE checklists used to assess the communication skills of undergraduate medical students: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Setyonugroho, Winny; Kennedy, Kieran M; Kropmans, Thomas J B

    2015-06-27

    To explore inter-rater agreement between reviewers comparing reliability and validity of checklist forms that claim to assess the communication skills of undergraduate medical students in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Papers explaining rubrics of OSCE checklist forms were identified from Pubmed, Embase, PsycINFO, and the ProQuest Education Databases up to 2013. Included were those studies that report empirical validity or reliability values for the communication skills assessment checklists used. Excluded were those papers that did not report reliability or validity. Papers focusing on generic communication skills, history taking, physician-patient communication, interviewing, negotiating treatment, information giving, empathy and 18 other domains (ICC -0.12-1) were identified. Regarding the validity and reliability of the communication skills checklists, agreement between reviewers was 0.45. Heterogeneity in the rubrics used in the assessment of communication skills and a lack of agreement between reviewers makes comparison of student competences within and across institutions difficult. Consideration should be afforded to the adoption of a standardized measurement instrument to assess communication skills in undergraduate medical education. Future research will focus upon evaluating the potential impact of adoption of a standardized measurement instrument. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feedback promotes learning success! Which kind of feedback for the faculty is given by an interdisciplinary OSCE with focus on decision-making?

    PubMed

    Stibane, Tina; Sitter, Helmut; Neuhof, Despina; Wiechens, Helena; Schönbauer, Andrea; Bösner, Stefan; Baum, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Clinical skills such as history taking, diagnostic reasoning, therapy planning, and giving advice are even more complex than practical skills like lung auscultation and have to be applied in complex clinical situations. We judged this competence in an interdisciplinary formative OSCE conducted with students of Marburg University. Results of 218 students passing 643 OSCE stations composed of 37 different scenarios were analyzed. As a competence based examination that reflects the practical skills gained during clinical training, the here presented analysis serves also as a feedback instrument for clinical teachers, their respective disciplines and the medical faculty as a whole.

  15. Feedback promotes learning success! Which kind of feedback for the faculty is given by an interdisciplinary OSCE with focus on decision-making?

    PubMed Central

    Stibane, Tina; Sitter, Helmut; Neuhof, Despina; Wiechens, Helena; Schönbauer, Andrea; Bösner, Stefan; Baum, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Clinical skills such as history taking, diagnostic reasoning, therapy planning, and giving advice are even more complex than practical skills like lung auscultation and have to be applied in complex clinical situations. We judged this competence in an interdisciplinary formative OSCE conducted with students of Marburg University. Results of 218 students passing 643 OSCE stations composed of 37 different scenarios were analyzed. As a competence based examination that reflects the practical skills gained during clinical training, the here presented analysis serves also as a feedback instrument for clinical teachers, their respective disciplines and the medical faculty as a whole. PMID:27579353

  16. Long-term prospective teaching effectivity of practical skills training and a first OSCE in cranio maxillofacial surgery for dental students.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin A; Hoefer, Sebastian; Schuebel, Florian; Ballon, Alexander; Teiler, Anna; Tran, Andreas; Weber, Roxane; Walcher, Felix; Sader, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Basic skills in oral/CMF surgery should be taught effectively to dental students as surgical skills training is traditionally under-represented in the dental curriculum compared to its later need in daily clinical practice. Rigid curricular time frames and prospectively condensed professional education foster new effective teaching and examination formats. Transmitting and assessing clinical competence objectively (independent of subjective bias), reliably (repeatable, inter-rater consistency) and valid (representative, structured task selection) was intended and evaluated in oral/CMF surgery skills acquisition starting in summer 2009. A small-group practical skills training (PST) day initiated a one-week practical training course, covering previously formulated learning objectives. An objective structured clinical evaluation (OSCE) was held at the end of each semester. Theoretical background knowledge and clinical skills should have to be memorized within a representative number of practical tasks (test stations). A first semester (26 students) used classical practical training alone as controls, the following semesters (171 students) had PST, considered as a study group. All 197 students were assessed with OSCE's over a 3-year period. An instructor held PST based on presentations, videos and practical training, including mannequins, with pairs of students. This included history taking, communication and interpretation of laboratory/image diagnostics, structured clinical facial examination, fracture diagnosis, venipuncture, suturing, biopsy and wire loops on pig jaws for manual and clinical skills, which were later incorporated in OSCE stations. OSCE average results increased from 63.3 ± 9.7% before and to 75.5 ± 10% after the inclusion of PST (p < 0.05). Knowledge diffusion between sittings on the same test date and between consecutive semesters was insignificant. Students and faculty rated their learning/teaching experience "very good" to "good". PST was

  17. Undergraduate Clinical Teaching in Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Control Trial Comparing the Effect of Case-Based Teaching and Bedside Teaching on Musculoskeletal OSCE Performance.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Martin; Feeley, Iain; Boland, Fiona; O'Byrne, John M

    2017-07-15

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints are the second most common reason for a hospital outpatient appointment in the US, and account for 19.5% of general practice consultations. Previous studies have shown that passive teaching in medical school does not imbue students with an adequate degree of confidence in MSK evaluation. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized control trial to compare the effect of the gold standard small group tutorial of bedside teaching against case-based teaching (CBT) in relation to orthopedic surgery in medical students. All third-year medical students at our institution were invited to participate in a randomized control trial comparing CBT and bedside tutorials in relation to MSK. The primary outcome was student performance in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Participants were randomized into 2 groups, receiving either a bedside tutorial or a case-based tutorial. Participants were then assigned self-directed learning before undergoing a final OSCE assessment. Student feedback was attained through a poststudy questionnaire. Complete data was acquired for 96 study participants (n = 45 CBT; n = 51 bedside tutorial). The results of a linear regression model used to assess differences in the final OSCE scores, adjusting for the baseline OSCE score, gender, age, previous problem-based learning exposure and whether English was their first language or not showed no evidence of a difference between the bedside teaching group and the CBT group (mean difference: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: -3.79 to 4.47; p = 0.872). Almost all (95%) of the study participants felt that CBT was an important component in their learning. There was no difference in OSCE performance between groups. The introduction of CBT before clinical placement in medical school could accentuate the clinical skills of students before transition into the apprenticeship model of clinical attachment. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in

  18. A core competence-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in evaluation of clinical performance of postgraduate year-1 (PGY₁) residents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying-Ying; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Huang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Chang, Ching-Chih; Chen, Hao-Min; Huang, Chia-Chang

    2011-05-01

    Clinical competency certifications are important parts of internal medicine residency training. This study aims to evaluate a composite objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) that assesses postgraduate year-1 (PGY(1)) residents' acquisition of the six core competencies defined by the Accreditation council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Six-core-competency-based OSCE was used as examination of the clinical performance of 192 PGY(1) residents during their 3-month internal medicine training between 2007 January and 2009 December. For each year, the reliability of the entire examination was calculated with Cronbach's alpha. The reliability of six-core-competency-based OSCE was acceptable, ranging from 0.69 to 0.87 between 2007 and 2009. In comparison with baseline scores, the summary scores and core-competency subscores all showed significant increase after PGY(1) residents finished their 3-month internal medicine training program. By using a structured development process, the authors were able to create reliable evaluation items for determining PGY(1) residents' acquisition of the ACGME core competencies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Design and analysis of O-S-C triple band wavelength division demultiplexer using cascaded MMI couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chack, Devendra; Kumar, V.; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Dev Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Compact triple O-S-C band wavelength demultiplexer, which consists of series cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers has been carried out in this paper. The MMI coupler has been used to drop the wavelengths of 1510 nm and 1550 nm at bar port while the wavelength 1300 nm into the cross port. Then another MMI coupler has been designed to separate the wavelength 1510 nminto one port and wavelength 1550 nm into another port. The triple wavelength demultiplexer function has been performed by choosing a suitable refractive index of the guiding region and geometrical parameters such as the width and length of MMI coupler. Numerical simulation with finite difference beam propagation method (BPM) has been utilized to design and optimize the operation of the proposed triple wavelength demultiplexer. The simulation results show that insertion losses of wavelength O, S and C, bands are 1.884 dB, 1.452 dB and 2.568 dB, respectively, with isolations for each output waveguide ranging from 10 dB to 28.72 dB. The 3-dB bandwidth of insertion loss for 1300 nm, 1510 nm and 1550 nm are 80 nm, 20 nm and 10 nm, respectively.

  20. Communication skills of medical students during the OSCE: Gender-specific differences in a longitudinal trend study.

    PubMed

    Graf, Joachim; Smolka, Robert; Simoes, Elisabeth; Zipfel, Stephan; Junne, Florian; Holderried, Friederike; Wosnik, Annette; Doherty, Anne M; Menzel, Karina; Herrmann-Werner, Anne

    2017-05-02

    Communication skills are essential in a patient-centred health service and therefore in medical teaching. Although significant differences in communication behaviour of male and female students are known, gender differences in the performance of students are still under-reported. The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences in communication skills of medical students in the context of an OSCE exam (OSCE = Objective Structured Clinical Examination). In a longitudinal trend study based on seven semester-cohorts, it was analysed if there are gender differences in medical students' communication skills. The students (self-perception) and standardized patients (SP) (external perception) were asked to rate the communication skills using uniform questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed by using frequency analyses and t-tests in SPSS 21. Across all ratings in the self- and the external perception, there was a significant gender difference in favour of female students performing better in the dimensions of empathy, structure, verbal expression and non-verbal expression. The results of male students deteriorated across all dimensions in the external perception between 2011 and 2014. It is important to consider if gender-specific teaching should be developed, considering the reported differences between female and male students.

  1. How to maintain equity and objectivity in assessing the communication skills in a large group of student nurses during a long examination session, using the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Annamaria; Tolotti, Angela; Pagnucci, Nicola; Torre, Giancarlo; Timmins, Fiona; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana

    2016-03-01

    While development, testing, and innovation of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) are common in the international literature, studies from the United States of America (USA), Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) predominate. There is little known about OSCE use in European countries, such as Italy, where other than cost analysis, there is little reporting of OSCE use or validation. This paper reports on one Italian initiative, which evaluated the equity and objectivity of the OSCE method of assessing communication skills. An OSCE method was used to assess the communication skills of first-year students of the Degree Course in Nursing. A method of simulation was implemented through role-playing with standardized patients. An observational method was used to collect data. Four hundred and twenty-one first-year undergraduate nursing students at one university site in Italy took part. Ten examination sessions were carried out. The students' performances were assessed by two examiners who used a structured observation grid and conducted their assessment separately. A situation simulated by four nurses with experience as actors was used as the topic for the students' examination. Calculation of the daily rate of students who passed the examination revealed a random distribution over time. The nonparametric correlation indexes referring to the assessments and to the scores assigned by the two examiners proved statistically significant (P≤0.001). The study confirmed the validity of the OSCE method in ensuring equity and objectivity of communication skills assessment in a large population of nursing students for the purpose of certification throughout the duration of the examination. This has important implications for nurse education and practice as the extent to which OSCE approaches, while deemed objective, are culturally sensitive or valid and reliable across cultures is not clear. This is something that requires further research and examination in

  2. The effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of combining analytic and holistic rating scales for assessing communication skills in an internal medicine resident OSCE.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Vijay John; Harley, Dwight

    2017-07-01

    Although previous research has compared checklists to rating scales for assessing communication, the purpose of this study was to compare the effect on reliability and sensitivity to level of training of an analytic, a holistic, and a combined analytic-holistic rating scale in assessing communication skills. The University of Alberta Internal Medicine Residency runs OSCEs for postgraduate year (PGY) 1 and 2 residents and another for PGY-4 residents. Communication stations were scored with an analytic scale (empathy, non-verbal skills, verbal skills, and coherence subscales) and a holistic scale. Authors analyzed reliability of individual and combined scales using generalizability theory and evaluated each scale's sensitivity to level of training. For analytic, holistic, and combined scales, 12, 12, and 11 stations respectively yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-1,2 cohort, and 16, 16, and 14 stations yielded a Phi of 0.8 for the PGY-4 cohort. PGY-4 residents scored higher on the combined scale, the analytic rating scale, and the non-verbal and coherence subscales. A combined analytic-holistic rating scale increased score reliability and was sensitive to level of training. Given increased validity evidence, OSCE developers should consider combining analytic and holistic scales when assessing communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the Reliability and Validity of Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Assessment of Clinical Skills of Audiology Students

    PubMed Central

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Methods: Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university’s Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student’s performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. Results: The correlation between each examiner’s scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner’s scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). Conclusion: The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study. PMID:23618476

  4. Study of the reliability and validity of objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of clinical skills of audiology students.

    PubMed

    Nickbakht, Mansoureh; Amiri, Marzieh; Latifi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2013-01-31

    Audiology students should possess clinical competence and skills. To achieve this, their clinical skills must be properly assessed. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a standard and fair examination of clinical competence. The goal of this study is to devise a checklist of OSCE examination criteria and study their validity and reliability for assessing the clinical competence of Audiology students. Among the various procedures in which audiology students should possess demonstrated competence, 10 specific skills were selected and checklists were prepared. Faculty members of university's Audiology Department were consulted to determine the validity of the checklists. Subsequently, the examination was administered to all 14 fourth-year audiology students in their final semester of study at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. The examination consisted of three question stations and seven procedure stations. Each station was managed by two examiners who independently used a checklist to score each student's performance in a given procedure. To determine reliability, the Spearman test was used. The correlation between each examiner's scores of students at question stations was 0.908. The correlation between each examiner's scores at procedure stations was 0.857 (p=0). The site of lesion test had the highest correlation (0.948) and immittance audiometry had the lowest correlation (0.585). The prepared checklists had good validity and reliability and can be used to evaluate the clinical competence of audiology students in their final semester of study.

  5. The iOSC3 System: Using Ontologies and SWRL Rules for Intelligent Supervision and Care of Patients with Acute Cardiac Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Romero, Marcos; Vázquez-Naya, José M.; Pereira, Javier; Pereira, Miguel; Pazos, Alejandro; Baños, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Physicians in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are specially trained to deal constantly with very large and complex quantities of clinical data and make quick decisions as they face complications. However, the amount of information generated and the way the data are presented may overload the cognitive skills of even experienced professionals and lead to inaccurate or erroneous actions that put patients' lives at risk. In this paper, we present the design, development, and validation of iOSC3, an ontology-based system for intelligent supervision and treatment of critical patients with acute cardiac disorders. The system analyzes the patient's condition and provides a recommendation about the treatment that should be administered to achieve the fastest possible recovery. If the recommendation is accepted by the doctor, the system automatically modifies the quantity of drugs that are being delivered to the patient. The knowledge base is constituted by an OWL ontology and a set of SWRL rules that represent the expert's knowledge. iOSC3 has been developed in collaboration with experts from the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) of the Meixoeiro Hospital, one of the most significant hospitals in the northwest region of Spain. PMID:23476717

  6. OSC2 and CYP716A14v2 catalyze the biosynthesis of triterpenoids for the cuticle of aerial organs of Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Shen, Qian; Soetaert, Sandra; Reed, James; Erffelinck, Marie-Laure; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C W; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Osbourn, Anne; Thevelein, Johan M; Deforce, Dieter; Tang, Kexuan; Goossens, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and δ-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. OSC2 and CYP716A14v2 Catalyze the Biosynthesis of Triterpenoids for the Cuticle of Aerial Organs of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Tessa; Pollier, Jacob; Shen, Qian; Soetaert, Sandra; Reed, James; Erffelinck, Marie-Laure; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip C.W.; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Osbourn, Anne; Thevelein, Johan M.; Deforce, Dieter; Tang, Kexuan

    2015-01-01

    Artemisia annua is widely studied for its ability to accumulate the antimalarial sesquiterpenoid artemisinin. In addition to producing a variety of sesquiterpenoids, A. annua also accumulates mono-, di-, and triterpenoids, the majority of which are produced in the glandular trichomes. A. annua also has filamentous trichomes on its aerial parts, but little is known of their biosynthesis potential. Here, through a comparative transcriptome analysis between glandular and filamentous trichomes, we identified two genes, OSC2 and CYP716A14v2, encoding enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of specialized triterpenoids in A. annua. By expressing these genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Nicotiana benthamiana, we characterized the catalytic function of these proteins and could reconstitute the specialized triterpenoid spectrum of A. annua in these heterologous hosts. OSC2 is a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase that produces α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and δ-amyrin. CYP716A14v2 is a P450 belonging to the functionally diverse CYP716 family and catalyzes the oxidation of pentacyclic triterpenes, leading to triterpenes with a carbonyl group at position C-3, thereby providing an alternative biosynthesis pathway to 3-oxo triterpenes. Together, these enzymes produce specialized triterpenoids that are constituents of the wax layer of the cuticle covering the aerial parts of A. annua and likely function in the protection of the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25576188

  8. Do primary health centres and hospitals contribute equally towards achievement of the transversal clinical competencies of medical students? Performance on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in competency acquisition.

    PubMed

    Soler-González, Jorge; Buti, Miquel; Boada, Jordi; Ayala, Victoria; Peñascal, Eduard; Rodriguez, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The adaptation of the educational programmes of European faculties of medicine to the European Higher Education Area guidelines has focused curricula design on competence acquisition. Competencies are defined as the achievements of a predetermined level of efficacy in real-world scenarios. Our objective was to assess whether performance on a common competence evaluation test, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), resulted in different scores for second-year students after a practical medical training course took place in a primary health centre (PHC) or in a hospital. A descriptive study was conducted during the 2010-2014 academic year of the OSCE test scores obtained by all second-year students. Faculty of Medicine at the University of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). We performed a correlation analysis between students who completed their practical medical training at the PHC and hospitals utilising Student's t-test for comparison of means. 423 students who completed internships at the PHC and at hospitals obtained OSCE mean scores of 7.32 (SD; IC) (0.82; 7.18-7.47) points and 7.17 (0.83; 6.07-7.26) points, respectively (p=0.07). Second-year medical students acquired similar competency levels in the two analysed training scenarios. The two areas both serve their teaching purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. An exploration of student nurses' thoughts and experiences of using a video-recording to assess their performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during a mock objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).

    PubMed

    Paul, Fiona

    2010-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an essential skill taught within undergraduate nursing programmes. At the author's institution, students must pass the CPR objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) before progressing to second year. However, some students have difficulties developing competence in CPR and evidence suggests that resuscitation skills may only be retained for several months. This has implications for practice as nurses are required to be competent in CPR. Therefore, further opportunities for students to develop these skills are necessary. An action research project was conducted with six students who were assessed by an examiner at a video-recorded mock OSCE. Students self-assessed their skills using the video and a checklist. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to compare checklist scores, and explore students' thoughts and experiences of the OSCE. The findings indicate that students may need to repeat this exercise by comparing their previous and current performances to develop both their self-assessment and CPR skills. Although there were some differences between the examiner's and student's checklist scores, all students reported the benefits of participating in this project, e.g. discussion and identification of knowledge and skills deficits, thus emphasising the benefits of formative assessments to prepare students for summative assessments and ultimately clinical practice. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fellow use of medical jargon correlates inversely with patient and observer perceptions of professionalism: results of a rheumatology OSCE (ROSCE) using challenging patient scenarios.

    PubMed

    Berman, Jessica R; Aizer, Juliet; Bass, Anne R; Blanco, Irene; Davidson, Anne; Dwyer, Edward; Fields, Theodore R; Huang, Wei-Ti; Kang, Jane S; Kerr, Leslie D; Krasnokutsky-Samuels, Svetlana; Lazaro, Deana M; Schwartzman-Morris, Julie S; Paget, Stephen A; Pillinger, Michael H

    2016-08-01

    The NYC Rheumatology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (NYC-ROSCE) is held annually to assess fellow competencies. We recently redesigned our OSCE to better assess subspecialty trainee communication skills and professionalism by developing scenarios in which the patients encountered were psychosocially or medically complex. The objective of this study is to identify which types of verbal and non-verbal skills are most important in the perception of professionalism in the patient-physician interaction. The 2012-2013 NYC-ROSCEs included a total of 53 fellows: 55 MD evaluators from 7 NYC rheumatology training programs (Hospital for Special Surgery-Weill Cornell (HSS), SUNY/Downstate, NYU, Einstein, Columbia, Mount Sinai, and North Shore/Long Island Jewish (NSLIJ)), and 55 professional actors/standardized patients participated in 5 stations. Quantitative fellow performance assessments were made on the following: maintaining composure; partnering with the patient; honesty; professionalism; empathy; and accountability. Free-text comments were solicited regarding specific strengths and weaknesses. A total of 53/53 eligible (100 %) fellows were evaluated. MD evaluators rated fellows lower for professionalism than did the standardized patients (6.8 ± 0.6 vs. 7.4 ± 0.8, p = 0.05), suggesting that physicians and patients view professionalism somewhat differently. Fellow self-evaluations for professionalism (6.6 ± 1.2) were concordant with those of the MD evaluators. Ratings of empathy by fellows themselves (6.6 ± 1.0), MD evaluators (6.6 ± 0.7), and standardized patients (6.6 ± 1.1) agreed closely. Jargon use, frequently cited by evaluators, showed a moderate association with lower professionalism ratings by both MD evaluators and patients. Psychosocially challenging patient encounters in the NYC-ROSCE permitted critical assessment of the patient-centered traits contributing to impressions of professionalism and indicate that

  11. G-CLEAN OSC-1809

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical product bulletin: aka OIL SPILL CLEANUP, this surface washing agent may be applied liberally to heavily weathered oil on rocks or beaches/sand, vegetation, or at full strength on tar balls. Best results if allowed to soak, agitated, or reapplied.

  12. EPA's On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These are the federal officials responsible for monitoring or directing responses to all oil spills and hazardous substance releases reported to the government. They are responsible for assessment, monitoring, response assistance, and evaluation.

  13. Developments in the photonics program at OSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyghambarian, N.

    2014-10-01

    The photonics program at the College of Optical Sciences started nearly 30 years ago. In 1984, the program was focused on development of femtosecond laser sources and their use in investigating semiconductor carrier dynamics. The program grew into polymer and organic optics in late 1989 and was strengthened by the winning of the CAMP MURI from ONR in 1995 that was focused on multifunctional polymers including photorefractive polymers, organic light emitting diodes and 3D direct laser writing. Also in 1995, the areas of glass waveguide and fiber optic materials and devices were added to the program. In 2008, the optical communication and future internet research was started through winning the CIAN NSF ERC. Expertise in thin films, optical storage and the fundamental aspects of light are elements of the overall research program. Holographic 3D display, autofocus lenses, bio-medical imaging and devices for vision have also been ongoing research areas.

  14. Do role-players affect the outcome of a high-stakes postgraduate OSCE, in terms of candidate sex or ethnicity? Results from an analysis of the 52,702 anonymised case scores from one year of the MRCGP clinical skills assessment.

    PubMed

    Denney, MeiLing; Wakeford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The MRCGP clinical skills assessment (CSA), a high-stakes OSCE examination whereby GPs exit their training, uses trained role-players to depict patients (though not to mark candidates). Just as subgroups of examiners can potentially affect the results of subgroups of candidates through biases expressed in discriminatory marking, so possibly could subgroups of role-players alter the difficulty for different candidate groups. This study looks at the contribution of role-players to such possible systematic unfairness in the assessment. Using multiple linear regression, we examined the data from all 52,702 case scores from the MRCGP CSA for the academic year 2012-2013. Candidates were dichotomised by sex, by ethnicity and by source of primary medical qualification (PMQ); role-players were dichotomised by sex and binary ethnicity; and the transaction of candidate/role-player encounters were classified as 'same' or 'different' in terms of the two parties' sex and of their ethnicity. Neither examiner nor role-player characteristics were found to predict any statistically significant portion of case score variance, where the significant (p < .001) predictors were source of PMQ (UK or elsewhere: 11% of case score variance), candidates' ethnicity (1%), candidates' sex (0.6%) and 'transactional' sex (0.1%). We did not therefore find any substantial degree of support for the proposition that role-player subgroups systematically influence candidate subgroups' scores.

  15. Oxidative Stress Correlates (OSC) in Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Gillani, Syed Wasif; Azeem, Eman; Siddiqui, Ammar; Mian, Rashid Iqbal; Poh, Vinci; Sulaiman, Syed Azhar Syed; Baig, Mirza Rafiullah

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a considerable systemic metabolic disorder to exhibit various metabolic and cardiovascular disorders, mainly hyperglycemia. Our study aims to evaluate oxidative stress markers in DM patients and to determine the clinical correlates affecting the investigational parameters. To evaluate oxidative stress, the following parameters were included: tri-glycerides(TG), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL), oxidized LDL cholesterol(Ox LDL), superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and plasminogen activator inhibitor(PAI) which were measured at single observation point. Patient clinical and demographic data were taken from registered medication profiles from the Outpatient Department. The diabetic subjects have significantly high measured values of endocrine(p<0.01), metabolic(p<0.01) and antioxidant parameters(p<0.05), and have significant higher values of TG(3.69±1.27 vs 1.79±0.84 mmol/L, p< 0.01), Ox LDL(85.37±19.1 vs 77.11±26.64 mmol/L, p<0.05) and SOD enzyme activity(918.78 ± 145.39 vs 880.08±149.52 U/g Hb, p<0.05) compared to the controls. A significant negative correlation was found between Ox LDL and HbA1c(r = -0.6782, p < 0.001) among diabetic subjects. Elevated Ox-LDL, SOD and GSH-Px are associated with the diabetic patients. However, oxidative stress threshold values also showed high oxidative activity markers among controls. Clinical variables showed predictive information on oxidative activity among diabetes patients.

  16. Materials Data on OsC (SG:187) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-10

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on Sc3OsC4 (SG:12) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-07-31

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats.

    PubMed

    Junod Perron, Noëlle; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1) direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback) and 2) subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback) using a 21-item feedback scale. Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor). When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively). Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009). Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on the educational goal.

  19. Using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) as Education in Advanced Practice Registered Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Aronowitz, Teri; Aronowitz, Shoshana; Mardin-Small, Jennifer; Kim, BoRam

    Approximately 3 million nurses make up the U.S. health care workforce. The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Institute of Medicine (2011) supported the call to strengthen the nursing profession by establishing global standards of educational criteria and outcomes. Throughout the world, health education is affected by fundamental inadequacies related to static, fragmented, and content-oriented curricula. There are inadequacies in our curricula, and nursing faculties are facing challenges with clinical placements (both the number and quality of these placements); therefore, alternative methods of providing practice to students need to be considered. A transformative agenda comprising changes in the way students are taught fully harnessing the potential of information and communications technology (i.e., simulation) is necessary. Simulated patient encounters and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are 2 means to achieve needed practice in a safe environment. The purpose of this article is to show, by using simulation, how students can practice and be evaluated within their clinical practice role in a safe, controlled environment. In addition, this practice can (a) enable students to increase the complexity of their understanding and their autonomy and (b) educate students about social accountability, health and gender equity, social justice, and human rights. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Materials Data on H21OsC9NO7 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-11

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  1. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    PubMed

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Aziz, Yang Faridah Abdul; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students' unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  2. The Influence of First Impressions on Subsequent Ratings within an OSCE Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Timothy J.; Chan, James; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Competency-based assessment is placing increasing emphasis on the direct observation of learners. For this process to produce valid results, it is important that raters provide quality judgments that are accurate. Unfortunately, the quality of these judgments is variable and the roles of factors that influence the accuracy of those judgments are…

  3. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats

    PubMed Central

    Junod Perron, Noëlle; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1) direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback) and 2) subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback) using a 21-item feedback scale. Results Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor). When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively). Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009). Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on the educational goal. PMID:27834170

  4. Generalized Optimal-State-Constraint Extended Kalman Filter (OSC-EKF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-01

    less than 1 percent of the distance traveled except for the monocular implementation on the V2 03 difficult sequence. The monocular implementations...Stereo position tracking (MH 05 difficult left, V2 03 difficult right) 0 50 100 distance traveled (m) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 || p o si ti o n er ro r| | ||p̃...m) ||p̃|| (% distance traveled ) 0 50 100 distance traveled (m) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 || p o si ti o n er ro r| | ||p̃|| (m) ||p̃|| (% distance traveled ) Fig

  5. 40 CFR 300.145 - Special teams and other assistance available to OSCs/RPMs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment technology, biology, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and engineering. (2) The ERT can provide... SUPSALV. Formal requests are routed through the Chief of Naval Operations (N312). (e) For marine salvage... proper actions are taken. Marine salvage operations generally fall into five categories: afloat...

  6. 40 CFR 300.145 - Special teams and other assistance available to OSCs/RPMs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment technology, biology, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and engineering. (2) The ERT can provide... SUPSALV. Formal requests are routed through the Chief of Naval Operations (N312). (e) For marine salvage... proper actions are taken. Marine salvage operations generally fall into five categories: afloat...

  7. Materials Data on OsC2 (SG:187) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-19

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  8. The Relationship between Checklist Scores on a Communication OSCE and Analogue Patients' Perceptions of Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazor, Kathleen M.; Ockene, Judith K.; Rogers, H. Jane; Carlin, Michele M.; Quirk, Mark E.

    2005-01-01

    Many efforts to teach and evaluate physician-patient communication are based on two assumptions: first, that communication can be conceptualized as consisting of specific observable behaviors, and second, that physicians who exhibit certain behaviors are more effective in communicating with patients. These assumptions are usually implicit, and are…

  9. Materials Data on OsC (SG:194) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-05-24

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  10. Students’ performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to compare students’ performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Methods Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students’ exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Results Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. Conclusions CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students’ unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students’ clinical reasoning development. PMID:25697602

  11. 77 FR 28638 - OSC Forms And Survey Renewal for FY 2012-Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL... Federal agencies, state and local government employees, and the general public are invited to comment on... collections of information; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be...

  12. Are Examiners' Judgments in OSCE-Style Assessments Influenced by Contrast Effects?

    PubMed

    Yeates, Peter; Moreau, Marc; Eva, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory studies have shown that performance assessment judgments can be biased by "contrast effects." Assessors' scores become more positive, for example, when the assessed performance is preceded by relatively weak candidates. The authors queried whether this effect occurs in real, high-stakes performance assessments despite increased formality and behavioral descriptors. Data were obtained for the 2011 United Kingdom Foundational Programme clinical assessment and the 2008 University of Alberta Multiple Mini Interview. Candidate scores were compared with scores for immediately preceding candidates and progressively distant candidates. In addition, average scores for the preceding three candidates were calculated. Relationships between these variables were examined using linear regression. Negative relationships were observed between index scores and both immediately preceding and recent scores for all exam formats. Relationships were greater between index scores and the average of the three preceding scores. These effects persisted even when examiners had judged several performances, explaining up to 11% of observed variance on some occasions. These findings suggest that contrast effects do influence examiner judgments in high-stakes performance-based assessments. Although the observed effect was smaller than observed in experimentally controlled laboratory studies, this is to be expected given that real-world data lessen the strength of the intervention by virtue of less distinct differences between candidates. Although it is possible that the format of circuital exams reduces examiners' susceptibility to these influences, the finding of a persistent effect after examiners had judged several candidates suggests that the potential influence on candidate scores should not be ignored.

  13. Materials Data on OsC4ClO4 (SG:19) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  14. Materials Data on OsC3IO3 (SG:11) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2014-07-09

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  15. Materials Data on OsC (SG:221) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  16. Materials Data on OsC (SG:225) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  17. Materials Data on OsC (SG:216) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-09-21

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  18. Feedback in formative OSCEs: comparison between direct observation and video-based formats.

    PubMed

    Perron, Noëlle Junod; Louis-Simonet, Martine; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfarrwaller, Eva; Sommer, Johanna; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Medical students at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Switzerland, have the opportunity to practice clinical skills with simulated patients during formative sessions in preparation for clerkships. These sessions are given in two formats: 1) direct observation of an encounter followed by verbal feedback (direct feedback) and 2) subsequent review of the videotaped encounter by both student and supervisor (video-based feedback). The aim of the study was to evaluate whether content and process of feedback differed between both formats. Methods In 2013, all second- and third-year medical students and clinical supervisors involved in formative sessions were asked to take part in the study. A sample of audiotaped feedback sessions involving supervisors who gave feedback in both formats were analyzed (content and process of the feedback) using a 21-item feedback scale. Results Forty-eight audiotaped feedback sessions involving 12 supervisors were analyzed (2 direct and 2 video-based sessions per supervisor). When adjusted for the length of feedback, there were significant differences in terms of content and process between both formats; the number of communication skills and clinical reasoning items addressed were higher in the video-based format (11.29 vs. 7.71, p=0.002 and 3.71 vs. 2.04, p=0.010, respectively). Supervisors engaged students more actively during the video-based sessions than during direct feedback sessions (self-assessment: 4.00 vs. 3.17, p=0.007; active problem-solving: 3.92 vs. 3.42, p=0.009). Students made similar observations and tended to consider that the video feedback was more useful for improving some clinical skills. Conclusion Video-based feedback facilitates discussion of clinical reasoning, communication, and professionalism issues while at the same time actively engaging students. Different time and conceptual frameworks may explain observed differences. The choice of feedback format should depend on the educational goal.

  19. Students' performance in the different clinical skills assessed in OSCE: what does it reveal?

    PubMed

    Sim, Joong Hiong; Abdul Aziz, Yang Faridah; Mansor, Azura; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Foong, Chan Choong; Vadivelu, Jamuna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare students' performance in the different clinical skills (CSs) assessed in the objective structured clinical examination. Data for this study were obtained from final year medical students' exit examination (n=185). Retrospective analysis of data was conducted using SPSS. Means for the six CSs assessed across the 16 stations were computed and compared. Means for history taking, physical examination, communication skills, clinical reasoning skills (CRSs), procedural skills (PSs), and professionalism were 6.25±1.29, 6.39±1.36, 6.34±0.98, 5.86±0.99, 6.59±1.08, and 6.28±1.02, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed there was a significant difference in the means of the six CSs assessed [F(2.980, 548.332)=20.253, p<0.001]. Pairwise multiple comparisons revealed significant differences between the means of the eight pairs of CSs assessed, at p<0.05. CRSs appeared to be the weakest while PSs were the strongest, among the six CSs assessed. Students' unsatisfactory performance in CRS needs to be addressed as CRS is one of the core competencies in medical education and a critical skill to be acquired by medical students before entering the workplace. Despite its challenges, students must learn the skills of clinical reasoning, while clinical teachers should facilitate the clinical reasoning process and guide students' clinical reasoning development.

  20. Delimitacion de las Zonas Dialectales de Mexico: Objetivos y Problemas (Delimitation of Dialect Zones in Mexico: Objectives and Problems)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Juan M. Lope

    1975-01-01

    Before creating a linguistic map of Mexican dialects, it is necessary to determine the dialect regions of the country. An extensive questionnaire must be written and distributed to collect data from a representative sample of the population for an accurate picture of the language. (CK) (Text in Spanish.)

  1. Graphs as a Visual Aid in English for Special Purposes. Lenguas para objetivos especificos (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Merritt W.; Stark, Kathleen LaPiana

    Visual aids have been developed to strengthen non-English speaking students' ability to speak and write English effectively in their subject areas. Among these aids, graphs have been valuable for economics students because they readily illustrate the nature of the relationship between two sets of numbers. Frequently, the ability to analyze graphs…

  2. Delimitacion de las Zonas Dialectales de Mexico: Objetivos y Problemas (Delimitation of Dialect Zones in Mexico: Objectives and Problems)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanch, Juan M. Lope

    1975-01-01

    Before creating a linguistic map of Mexican dialects, it is necessary to determine the dialect regions of the country. An extensive questionnaire must be written and distributed to collect data from a representative sample of the population for an accurate picture of the language. (CK) (Text in Spanish.)

  3. Materials Data on H12OsC4N(OF)3 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  4. Designing, implementing and assessing a new formative OSCE for ENT higher surgical trainees: our experience in the North West region.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sadie; Khwaja, Nadeem; Kumar, Nirmal; Stobbs, Nicola

    2017-04-09

    Currently Otolaryngology trainees have a six or seven year gap between formal summative assessments, which comprise of the Membership of the Royal College if Surgeons exams (MRCS) during core training and the Fellowship of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons exams (FRCS) at the end of higher surgical training. In between these examinations, trainees undergo formative Work-Place Based Assessments (WPBA) and a summative Annual Review of Competency and Progression (ARCP) however there are no other tests or formal assessments of knowledge and skills to ensure that they are developing and progressing at the required rate. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Materials Data on P3H18OsC6(SO)6 (SG:15) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-07-29

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  6. Materials Data on Sb4OsC6(O3F11)2 (SG:14) by Materials Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kristin Persson

    2016-02-04

    Computed materials data using density functional theory calculations. These calculations determine the electronic structure of bulk materials by solving approximations to the Schrodinger equation. For more information, see https://materialsproject.org/docs/calculations

  7. Impact of Two Types of Internet-based Information on Medical Students’ Performance in an Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE)

    PubMed Central

    Elder, William G.; Dassow, Paul L.; Bruckner, Geza G.; Stratton, Terry D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Internet-based information has potential to impact physician-patient relationships. This study examined medical students’ interpretation and response to such information presented during an objective clinical examination. Method Ninety three medical students who had received training for a patient centered response to inquiries about alternative treatments completed a comprehensive examination in their third year. In one of twelve objective structured clinical exams, a SP presented internet-based information on l-theanine – an amino acid available as a supplement. In Condition A, materials were from commercial websites; in Condition B, materials were from the PubMed website. Results Analyses revealed no significant differences between Conditions in student performance or patient (SP) satisfaction. Students in Condition A rated the information less compelling than students in Condition B (z = −1.78, p = .037), and attributed less of the treatment’s action to real vs. placebo effects (z = −1.61, p = .053). Conclusions Students trained in a patient centered response to inquiries about alternative treatment perceived the credibility of the two types of internet-based information differently but were able to respond to the patient without jeopardizing patient satisfaction. Approach to information was superficial. Training in information evaluation may be warranted. PMID:19157760

  8. Knowing How and Showing How: Interdisciplinary Collaboration on Substance Abuse Skill OSCEs for Medical, Nursing and Social Work Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baez, Annecy; Eckert-Norton, Margaret; Morrison, Ann

    2005-01-01

    The problem use of alcohol causes over 100,000 deaths in the United States per year and has substantial negative impact on family structure, the economy and the criminal justice system. Screening and early treatment of individuals with problem use of alcohol by health professionals can significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. Students from…

  9. 75 FR 15715 - Filing Procedures and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization and Related Documentation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    .... Additional information is available on the OSC Web site at http://www.justice.gov/crt/osc/ . Note to.... Additional information is available on the OSC Web site at http://www.justice.gov/crt/osc/ ....

  10. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  11. The Development of Strategies for the Assignment of Semantic Information to Unknown Lexemes in Text. Lenguas para Objetivos Especificas (Languages for Special Purposes), No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, Charles; Alvarez, Guadalupe

    An English for Special Purposes (ESP) course being developed aims to give the students a series of techniques to help them handle vocabulary in a text, and teach them strategies for identifying meaning in context. Traditional strategies, such as the study of morphology, use of grammatical information, and exercises in dictionary usage, are…

  12. Evaluation of outcomes of a formative objective structured clinical examination for second-year UK medical students.

    PubMed

    Chisnall, Ben; Vince, Tushar; Hall, Sarah; Tribe, Rachel

    2015-06-21

    To explore how formative OSCEs influence student performance and perception when undertaking summative OSCEs. We introduced formative OSCEs for second-year medical students at a large London medical school. Examination data from both formative and subsequent summative OSCEs were analysed to determine the effect on summative OSCE performance. We gathered student perceptions using an anonymous online survey tool. The data was investigated using a standard scale of 1 to 5 and qualitative analysis of free text. Overall, 46.6% and 85.0% of students passed the formative and summative OSCEs respectively. Formative OSCEs did not improve overall pass rates in summative OSCEs. Inclusion of an individual formative station was associated with improved performance in that station in summative OSCEs, with one exception. Formative OSCEs had a positive predictive value of 92.5% for passing the summative OSCE but limited negative predictive value. Students who passed fewer than two out of three formative OSCE stations were significantly more likely to fail the summative OSCE (78.2% vs 89.7%, p <0.001). Students felt formative OSCEs were good exam preparation and suggested logistical changes. Formative OSCEs were associated with improved performance in subsequent summative OSCEs only for identical stations. They did not improve overall pass rates in summative OSCEs, and did not predict performance well. Students viewed the formative OSCE as a positive and useful activity. However, to maximise its benefit as a tool for learning, students need better communication about the role and purpose of formative OSCEs.

  13. 5 CFR 1820.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... records is available on the FOIA page of OSC's Web site (http://www.osc.gov/foia.htm). Information... by the public affairs officer, records published on the agency's Web site (http://www.osc.gov),...

  14. 5 CFR 1820.1 - General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... records is available on the FOIA page of OSC's Web site (http://www.osc.gov/foia.htm). Information... by the public affairs officer, records published on the agency's Web site (http://www.osc.gov),...

  15. [Using GA-dOSC method to eliminate interference of peel with prediction of apple firmness based on near infrared diffuse reflection spectra].

    PubMed

    Shi, Bo-Lin; Qing, Zhao-Shen; Ji, Bao-Ping; Tu, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Da-Zhou; Yin, Jing-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    In the present work, "Fuji" apples from Shandong Yantai were used to take the diffuse reflection spectra by FT-NIR PLS components (i.e., factors) were computed by nonlinear iterative partial least squares (NIPALS) and the number of latent factors (LV) was optimized by a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure on the calibration set. On the basis of partial least square (PLS) regression, the models for apples' firmness before and after peeling were compared. In order to eliminate the effect of apple peel on prediction, spectral pretreatments such as multiplicative scatter correction (MSC), derivative, direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC) and wavelengths selection based on genetic algorithms (GA) were used. Finally, the results of different spectral treatments were compared. In conclusion, the RSDp of models for apples before and after peeling was 16.71% and 12.36%, respectively, suggesting that the apple peel played a negative role in constructing good predictive models. Moreover, the traditional spectral pretreatments (such as MSC, derivative) can hardly resolve the problem. In this research, GA-DOSC played an important role in reducing the interference of apple peel. It not only reduced the wavelength variables from 1480 to 36, but also reduced the latent variables from 5 to 1. The correlation coefficient (r) was improved from 0.753 to 0.805, and the RMSECV and RMESP were reduced from 1.019 kgf x cm(-2) and 1.197 kgf x cm(-2) to 0.919 kgf x cm(-2) and 0.924 kgf x cm(-2), respectively. Especially, the RSDp was decreased remarkably from 16.71% to 12.89%. The performance of the model after GA-DOSC treatment was similar to the model using spectra of apple flesh (12.36%). It was concluded that the prediction precision based on GA-DOSC satisfied the requirement of NIR non-destruction determination of apples firmness.

  16. The development and evaluation of a computer-based resource to assist pre-registration nursing students with their preparation for objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs).

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Fordham-Clarke, Carol; Pegram, Anne; Cunningham, Brent

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents a narrative discussion of an innovative, computer-based resource developed, implemented and evaluated by a small project team at a school of nursing and midwifery in London. The interactive resource was designed to assist first and second year pre-registration nursing students with both their clinical skills revision and formative preparation for Objective Structured Clinical Examinations and involved a small range of clinical skills. These included: skin assessment; hand hygiene; reading a drug prescription chart, weighing a baby and assessment of an intravenous cannulae site. The processes involved in the development of the tool are described and, the key drivers informing its development are identified. Although a formal research approach was not adopted a summary of feedback obtained from anonymous student evaluations is included. This provides important insights into the perceived usefulness of the tool and is discussed in light of the challenges and practicalities associated with the content development and technical issues. The paper concludes by identifying proposed future developments and wider applications of this innovative clinical skills education initiative within nursing and healthcare education.

  17. [Enzymatic pancreatogenic omental bursitis].

    PubMed

    Tolstoĭ, A D; Kolupaev, I O; Sopiia, R A

    1996-01-01

    The most common causes of omental sac collections (OSC) are necrotic pancreatitis (90%) and pancreatic trauma (10%). Acute OSC is a form of local peritonitis in acute pancreatitis, subacute OSC are caused by internal pancreatic fistulas. The clinical and radiological signs, enzymatic activity of the exudate, morphological features of peritonitis were investigated. Treatment of acute OSC included conservative measures, of subacute OSC-surgical procedures.

  18. Los retos de la educación bilingüe en inglés y español en las escuelas públicas de Nueva York: objetivos, modelos y currículos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, Patricia; Cancino, Herlinda

    2012-10-01

    The challenges of bilingual education in English and Spanish in public schools of New York: Objectives, models and curricula - The first section of this article describes the conceptual differences between educational objectives, educational model (context and structures) and curriculum (units of study or sequential study guides). The second section analyses how these three concepts were put into practice in five bilingual elementary schools serving immigrant students in New York City. The educational objectives reflect the leadership and work expectations which the principal establishes within the school and with the community. The educational model is translated into a clear language allocation policy that is reached by consensus between the principal and the teachers. The curriculum adaptations reflect the context and culture of the students, but without neglecting the educational objectives. The development of academic language (the language based on academic texts) is an element that attracts vast interest in American schools, but is ignored in many bilingual ones. The development of academic language occupies a central role in the curriculum of these five schools. This is, to a great extent, the result of the limited exposure to literacy that many students have had outside of the school environment. The final section of this article describes how these schools disregard the antagonism towards immigrants and bilingual education that is currently characteristic of the United States and focus on the quality of their programmes.

  19. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination to Assess Problem-Based Learning

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Mary Beth; Garwood, Candice L.; Lehr, Victoria Tutag; Abdallah, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare pharmacy students’ performance on an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to their performance on a written examination for the assessment of problem-based learning (PBL); and to determine students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of OSCEs for PBL evaluations. Design. Four OSCEs were added to the written examination to assess 4 PBL cases in a third-year pharmacotherapy course. OSCE scores were compared to written examination scores. Faculty members evaluated student performance. Assessment. OSCE performance did not correlate with the written-examination scores. Most students (≥ 75%) agreed that OSCEs reflected their learning from PBL and measured knowledge, communication, and clinical skills. A majority of faculty members (≥75%) agreed that OSCEs should be part of PBL assessment. Conclusions. Addition of an OSCE to written examinations was valued and provided a more comprehensive assessment of the PBL experience. PMID:22544961

  20. 76 FR 33286 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Executive Branch Public Financial Disclosure Reports and Other Ethics Program Records; OGE/GOVT-2...) Claims and Complaints; OPM/GOVT-10 Employee Medical File System Records; and OSC/GOVT-1 OSC Complaint...

  1. 40 CFR 300.315 - Phase IV-Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES... technology. Funding for these actions is restricted by section 6002 of the OPA. (c) OSCs shall submit OSC...

  2. 40 CFR 300.315 - Phase IV-Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES... technology. Funding for these actions is restricted by section 6002 of the OPA. (c) OSCs shall submit OSC...

  3. 40 CFR 300.140 - Multi-regional responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be only one OSC and/or RPM at any time during the course of a response operation. Should a... agency should provide the OSC and/or RPM. The RRT shall designate the OSC and/or RPM if the RRT member... NRT shall designate the OSC and/or RPM if members of one RRT or two adjacent RRTs are unable to agree...

  4. Introducing a Model for Optimal Design of Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Yazdani, Kamran; Labaf, Ali; Norcini, John J.; Jalili, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In a sequential OSCE which has been suggested to reduce testing costs, candidates take a short screening test and who fail the test, are asked to take the full OSCE. In order to introduce an effective and accurate sequential design, we developed a model for designing and evaluating screening OSCEs. Based on two datasets from a 10-station…

  5. Developing doctors: what are the attitudes and perceptions of year 1 and 2 medical students towards a new integrated formative objective structured clinical examination?

    PubMed

    Furmedge, Daniel S; Smith, Laura-Jane; Sturrock, Alison

    2016-01-28

    Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a core component of undergraduate medical student assessment. With increased emphasis on integrated programmes, more courses include OSCEs in the traditionally 'preclinical' years. The acceptability and impact of such assessment methods at this stage of training is unknown. In 2013 and 2014 University College London Medical School piloted a formative, integrated OSCE in years 1 and 2 of the undergraduate medical degree programme. This study with a sequential exploratory design aimed to explore the acceptability and impact of such an OSCE in the early years of medical school. 1280 students completed the OSCE and were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their views of the OSCE (response rate 96.6%). Four focus groups, each with five or six participants (22 in total) were subsequently held to further explore themes. Data was independently transcribed and coded using thematic analysis. Students were strongly in favour of the introduction of an OSCE in addition to existing assessments. Six overarching themes were identified: application of knowledge and skills; OSCE as an experience; OSCE as a process; a learning curve; becoming a doctor; and creating an effective OSCE. Results strongly support the role of OSCE early in the medical course with many benefits reported. An OSCE at this stage aligns with the vision of integrated medical education which includes early patient contact and introduction of clinical and professional skills. It also fosters feelings of responsibility and professional identity amongst students.

  6. Introducing a Model for Optimal Design of Sequential Objective Structured Clinical Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortaz Hejri, Sara; Yazdani, Kamran; Labaf, Ali; Norcini, John J.; Jalili, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    In a sequential OSCE which has been suggested to reduce testing costs, candidates take a short screening test and who fail the test, are asked to take the full OSCE. In order to introduce an effective and accurate sequential design, we developed a model for designing and evaluating screening OSCEs. Based on two datasets from a 10-station…

  7. 40 CFR 300.115 - Regional Response Teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ACPs with the RCP and NCP. (b) The two principal components of the RRT mechanism are a standing team..., based on the RCP. The incident-specific RRT supports the designated OSC/RPM. The designated OSC/RPM... the resources of their agencies to the OSC/RPM as specified in the RCP and ACP. (g) RRT members...

  8. 40 CFR 300.115 - Regional Response Teams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ACPs with the RCP and NCP. (b) The two principal components of the RRT mechanism are a standing team..., based on the RCP. The incident-specific RRT supports the designated OSC/RPM. The designated OSC/RPM... the resources of their agencies to the OSC/RPM as specified in the RCP and ACP. (g) RRT members...

  9. Can the exercise mode determine lipid profile improvements in obese patients?

    PubMed

    Romero Moraleda, Blanca; Morencos, Esther; Peinado, Ana Belén; Bermejo, Laura; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Benito, Pedro José

    2013-01-01

    Introducción y objetivo: El perfil lipídico desfavorable se asocia con el desarrollo de enfermedades cardiovasculares. Para reducir este factor es necesario estudiar el impacto que los diferentes modos de ejercicio con dieta tienen sobre el perfil lipídico. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue investigar, en hombres y mujeres obesos, el efecto sobre el perfil lipídico de la dieta hipocalórica combinada con programas de ejercicios estructurados o recomendaciones de actividad física. Métodos: Noventa y seis participantes con obesidad (edad entre 18-50; IMC > 30 and < 34.9 kg/m(2)) fueron repartidos en 4 grupos: fuerza (S; n = 24), aeróbico (E; n = 26), combinado de fuerza y aeróbico (SE; n = 24), los cuales entrenaron 3 veces/semana durante 22 semanas, y el grupo de recomendaciones de actividad física (PA; n = 22). A todos se les asigno una dieta equilibrada con un 35% de restricción. Antes y después de la intervención todos los grupos fueron evaluados de los cambios en el perfil lipídico, la composición corporal y la ingesta diaria. Resultados: El perfil lipídico mejoró en todos los grupos. No se observaron diferencias significativas en los valores basales y tras la intervención entre los grupos. El HDL no mostró cambios. Para los valores de LDL se observó una disminución significativa en todos los grupos (S: 11,2%, E: 10,8%, SE: 7,9%, PA: 10,8%). Los sujetos S, E y PA mostraron una disminución en los triglicéridos (S: 14,9%, E: 15,8%, PA: 15,7%; p < 0,01). El colesterol total disminuyó significativamente en todos los grupos (S: 8,4%, E: 8,8%, SE: 4,9%, PA: 8,3%). Conclusiones: Todos los protocolos propuestos en nuestro estudio mejoraron el perfil lipídico en personas obesas. No hubo diferencias significativas en cuanto al efecto sobre el perfil lipídico entre la aplicación de un protocolo de entrenamiento estructurado que seguir las recomendaciones de actividad física.

  10. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Three Branch Point Oxidosqualene Cyclases from Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal*

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Niha; Rana, Satiander; Razdan, Sumeer; Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Hussain, Aashiq; Dhar, Rekha S.; Vaishnavi, Samantha; Hamid, Abid; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs) positioned at a key metabolic subdividing junction execute indispensable enzymatic cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene for varied triterpenoid biosynthesis. Such branch points present favorable gene targets for redirecting metabolic flux toward specific secondary metabolites. However, detailed information regarding the candidate OSCs covering different branches and their regulation is necessary for the desired genetic manipulation. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to characterize members of OSC superfamily from Withania somnifera (Ws), a medicinal plant of immense repute known to synthesize a large array of biologically active steroidal lactone triterpenoids called withanolides. Three full-length OSC cDNAs, β-amyrin synthase (WsOSC/BS), lupeol synthase (WsOSC/LS), and cycloartenol synthase (WsOSC/CS), having open reading frames of 2289, 2268, and 2277 bp, were isolated. Heterologous expression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, LC-MS analyses, and kinetic studies confirmed their monofunctionality. The three WsOSCs were found to be spatially regulated at transcriptional level with WsOSC/CS being maximally expressed in leaf tissue. Promoter analysis of three WsOSCs genes resulted in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements. Further, transcript profiling under methyl jasmonate, gibberellic acid, and yeast extract elicitations displayed differential transcriptional regulation of each of the OSCs. Changes were also observed in mRNA levels under elicitations and further substantiated with protein expression levels by Western blotting. Negative regulation by yeast extract resulted in significant increase in withanolide content. Empirical evidence suggests that repression of competitive branch OSCs like WsOSC/BS and WsOSC/LS possibly leads to diversion of substrate pool toward WsOSC/CS for increased withanolide production. PMID:24770414

  11. The understanding, attitude and use of nutrition label among consumers (China).

    PubMed

    Song, Jiangen; Huang, Junxia; Chen, Yujuan; Zhu, Yu; Li, Haibo; Wen, Yufeng; Yuan, Hui; Liang, Yali

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este estudio fue investigar el conocimiento, la actitud y el uso de la etiqueta nutricional entre los consumidores en China. Métodos: estudio transversal con un cuestionario estructurado que fue realizada entre 1.153 consumidores, que fueron reclutados a partir de diferentes supermercados durante marzo a mayo de 2014 en la ciudad de Wuhu de China. Resultados: el resultado muestra que la comprensión subjetiva de las etiquetas nutricionales fue moderada (el 62,8% de los encuestados), pero el objetivo entendimiento fue variado. Las actitudes hacia la etiqueta nutricional fueron positivas en aquellos participantes con mayor confianza y satisfacción en las mismas. Respecto a la lectura de las etiquetas, el 59,2 % de los encuestados contestó que “a veces” y el 28,7 % que “siempre”. La lectura de la etiqueta nutricional de alimentos que con mayor frecuencia se realizó fue la de la leche (57,5%), seguida por la alimentación infantil (33,3%), proteínas y nutrientes (51,5%), vitaminas (49,8%) y grasas (29,4%). Ninguna de las características demográficas se asoció con el conocimiento, la actitud y el uso de la etiqueta nutricional, excepto la educación. Conclusiones: Las personas que participaron en nuestro estudio tenían una comprensión moderada, mostrando una actitud más positiva aquellos que la utilizan con más frecuencia. Aunque la etiqueta nutricional se convirtió en obligatoria, aún son necesarias estrategias adicionales, así como fomentar su conocimiento por parte de los consumidores.

  12. Objective structured clinical examination in radiology

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anurag; Batra, Bipin; Sood, AK; Ramakantan, Ravi; Bhargava, Satish K; Chidambaranathan, N; Indrajit, IK

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing need for introducing objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as a part of radiology practical examinations in India. OSCE is an established, reliable, and effective multistation test for the assessment of practical professional skills in an objective and a transparent manner. In India, it has been successfully initiated and implemented in specialties like pediatrics, ophthalmology, and otolaryngology. Each OSCE station needs to have a pre-agreed “key-list” that contains a list of objective steps prepared for uniformly assessing the tasks given to students. Broadly, OSCE stations are classified as “manned” or “unmanned” stations. These stations may include procedure or pictorial or theory stations with clinical oriented contents. This article is one of a series of measures to initiate OSCE in radiology; it analyzes the attributes of OSCE stations and outlines the steps for implementing OSCE. Furthermore, important issues like the advantages of OSCE, its limitations, a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis, and the timing of introduction of OSCE in radiology are also covered. The OSCE format in radiology and its stations needs to be validated, certified, and finalized before its use in examinations. This will need active participation and contribution from the academic radiology fraternity and inputs from faculty members of leading teaching institutions. Many workshops/meetings need to be conducted. Indeed, these collaborative measures will effectively sensitize universities, examiners, organizers, faculty, and students across India to OSCE and help successfully usher in this new format in radiology practical examinations. PMID:20607015

  13. Comparative gene expression profiling of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells supports a distinct cellular identity

    PubMed Central

    Imudia, Anthony N.; Wang, Ning; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; White, Yvonne A.R.; Woods, Dori C.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Perform gene expression profiling of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Design Experimental animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Animal(s) Adult C57BL/6 female mice. Intervention(s) None. Main outcome measure(s) Gene expression profiles were compared between freshly isolated and cultured OSCs, as well as between OSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), fetal primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); OSC yield from ovaries versus meiotic gene activation during the estrous cycle was determined. Result(s) Freshly isolated OSCs, PGCs and SSCs exhibited distinct gene expression profiles. Cultured OSCs maintained their germline gene expression pattern, but gained expression of pluripotency markers found in PGCs and ESCs. Cultured OSCs also expressed the meiotic marker, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8). In vivo, OSC yield was higher from luteal versus follicular phase ovaries and this was inversely related to Stra8 expression. Conclusion(s) Freshly isolated OSCs exhibit a germline gene expression profile that overlaps with, but is distinct from, that of PGCs and SSCs. After in vitro expansion, OSCs activate expression of pluripotency genes found in freshly isolated PGCs. In vivo, OSC numbers in the ovaries fluctuate during the estrous cycle, with the highest numbers noted during the luteal phase. This is followed by activation of Stra8 expression during the follicular phase, which may signify a wave of neo-oogenesis to partially offset follicular loss through atresia and ovulation in the prior cycle. PMID:23876535

  14. Comparative gene expression profiling of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells supports a distinct cellular identity.

    PubMed

    Imudia, Anthony N; Wang, Ning; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; White, Yvonne A R; Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-11-01

    Perform gene expression profiling of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Experimental animal study. Research laboratory. Adult C57BL/6 female mice. None. Gene expression profiles were compared between freshly isolated and cultured OSCs, as well as between OSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), fetal primordial germ cells (PGCs), and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs); OSC yield from ovaries versus meiotic gene activation during the estrous cycle was determined. Freshly isolated OSCs, PGCs, and SSCs exhibited distinct gene expression profiles. Cultured OSCs maintained their germline gene expression pattern but gained expression of pluripotency markers found in PGCs and ESCs. Cultured OSCs also expressed the meiotic marker, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8). In vivo, OSC yield was higher from luteal versus follicular phase ovaries, and this was inversely related to Stra8 expression. Freshly isolated OSCs exhibit a germline gene expression profile that overlaps with, but is distinct from, that of PGCs and SSCs. After in vitro expansion, OSCs activate expression of pluripotency genes found in freshly isolated PGCs. In vivo, OSC numbers in the ovaries fluctuate during the estrous cycle, with the highest numbers noted during the luteal phase. This is followed by activation of Stra8 expression during the follicular phase, which may signify a wave of neo-oogenesis to partially offset follicular loss through atresia and ovulation in the prior cycle. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Design and application of carbon nanomaterials for photoactive and charge transport layers in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sunghwan; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-04-01

    Commercialization of organic solar cell (OSC) has faltered due to their low power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to inorganic solar cell. Low electrical conductivity, low charge mobility, and short-range light absorption of most organic materials limit the PCE of OSCs. Carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, are of great interest for use in OSC applications due to their high electrical conductivity, mobility, and unique optical properties for enhancing the performance of OSCs. In this review, recent progress toward the integration of carbon nanomaterials into OSCs is described. The role of carbon nanomaterials and strategies for their integration into various layers of OSCs, including the photoactive layer and charge transport layer, are discussed. Based on these, we also discuss the prospects of carbon nanomaterials for specific OSC layers to maximize the PCE.

  16. Design and application of carbon nanomaterials for photoactive and charge transport layers in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sunghwan; Jun, Gwang Hoon; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soon Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Commercialization of organic solar cell (OSC) has faltered due to their low power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to inorganic solar cell. Low electrical conductivity, low charge mobility, and short-range light absorption of most organic materials limit the PCE of OSCs. Carbon nanomaterials, especially carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes, are of great interest for use in OSC applications due to their high electrical conductivity, mobility, and unique optical properties for enhancing the performance of OSCs. In this review, recent progress toward the integration of carbon nanomaterials into OSCs is described. The role of carbon nanomaterials and strategies for their integration into various layers of OSCs, including the photoactive layer and charge transport layer, are discussed. Based on these, we also discuss the prospects of carbon nanomaterials for specific OSC layers to maximize the PCE.

  17. Objective structured clinical evaluation as an assessment method for undergraduate chest physical therapy students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cibele C B M; Lunardi, Adriana C; Mendes, Felipe A R; Souza, Flavia F P; Carvalho, Celso R F

    2011-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE) has been considered a reliable method for the evaluation of students' clinical skills in health sciences, but it has been rarely applied in the teaching of physical therapy. To assess the use of the OSCE as a tool to evaluate the abilities of undergraduate chest physical therapy students and to verify the internal consistency of the OSCE exam. Forty-seven students were evaluated using two types of exams: the traditional exam and the OSCE. Independent educators elaborated the exams. Each question (traditional) or station (OSCE) was given a score ranging from 0.0 to 2.0; being 10.0 the highest possible score of both exams. The relationship between the total score that were obtained from both exams was analyzed using Bland-Altman analysis and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The internal consistency of the OSCE stations was evaluated by four experienced chest physical therapists and it was tested using Cronbach's alpha. The students' average score on the OSCE ranged from 4.4 to 9.6. The internal consistency of the OSCE stations was considered good (0.7). The agreement between exams was analyzed, and it was determined that the exams are not comparable. Examiners also observed a low agreement between the two exams (r=-0.1; p=0.9). Our results showed that OSCE and traditional exams are not interchangeable. The OSCE exam had good internal consistency and is able to evaluate aspects that the traditional exam fails to evaluate.

  18. Improvement of psychometric properties of the objective structured clinical examination when assessing problem solving skills of surgical clerkship.

    PubMed

    Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; El-Tinay, Omer F; Khairy, Gamal A; Mofti, Safdar S; Anjum, Muhammad N

    2011-03-01

    To improve the psychometric properties of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and elevate staff motivation. The OSCE was conducted in May 2006 at the Department of Surgery, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as a pilot study for 95 students split over 2 consecutive days lasting 120 minutes each day. There were 15 actual stations on each day consisting of 10 stations that addressed problem solving skills, and 5 addressed clinical skills testing. The stability of the OSCE measured by Cronbach's alpha on day one was 0.87, and 0.88 on day 2. The internal consistency of the OSCE measured by Carmine's theta on day one was 0.76, and 0.79 on day 2. Overall, OSCE's reliability for each day was high (r=0.8), without a significant difference between the 2 days. Credibility and comprehensiveness of the the OSCE were considered good by both staff and students. Accuracy of the OSCE measured by Pearson's correlation with multiple choice question scores was 0.65. Feasibility of the OSCE has also improved remarkably compared with previous OSCEs. The OSCE proved to be highly reliable, and a valid format when more problem solving skills testing has been emphasized for the final year surgical clerkship. Feasibility has also improved remarkably after using this strategy, marked by more staff participation and enthusiasm.

  19. The opinion of post graduate students on objective structured clinical examination in Anaesthesiology: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Parul; Khurana, Gurjeet

    2016-03-01

    The scenario in medical education is changing with objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) being introduced as an assessment tool. Its successful implementation in anaesthesiology postgraduate evaluation process is still limited. We decided to to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE and compare it to conventional examinations as formative assessment tools in anaesthesiology. We conducted a cross-sectional comparative study in defined population of anaesthesiology postgraduate students to evaluate the effectiveness of OSCE as compared to conventional examination as formative assessment tool in anaesthesiology. Thirty-five students appeared for the conventional examination on the 1(st) day and viva voce on the 2(nd) day and OSCE on the last day. At the conclusion of the assessment, all the students were asked to respond to the perception evaluation questionnaire. We analysed the perception of OSCE among the students. Results showed a positive perception of the objective structured physical examination (OSCE) as well as structured 9 (25.7%), fair 19 (54.2%) and unbiased 13 (37.1%) with more standardised scoring 9 (25.7%). The students perceived OSCE to be less stressful than other examination. Thirty-one (88.5%) students agreed that OSCE is easier to pass than conventional method and 29 (82.5%) commented that the degree of emotional stress is less in OSCE than traditional methods. OSCE is better evaluation tool when compared to conventional examination.

  20. Mental health and learning disability nursing students' perceptions of the usefulness of the objective structured clinical examination to assess their competence in medicine administration.

    PubMed

    Hemingway, Steve; Stephenson, John; Roberts, Bronwyn; McCann, Terence

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate mental health and learning disability nursing students' perceptions of the usefulness of the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in assessing their administration of medicine competence. Learning disability (n = 24) and mental health (n = 46) students from a single cohort were invited to evaluate their experience of the OSCE. A 10-item survey questionnaire was used, comprising open- and closed-response questions. Twelve (50%) learning disability and 32 (69.6%) mental health nursing students participated. The OSCE was rated highly compared to other theoretical assessments; it was also reported as clinically real and as a motivational learning strategy. However, it did not rate as well as clinical practice. Content analysis of written responses identified four themes: (i) benefits of the OSCE; (ii) suggestions to improve the OSCE; (iii) concern about the lack of clinical reality of the OSCE; and (iv) OSCE-induced stress. The themes, although repeating some of the positive statistical findings, showed that participants were critical of the university setting as a place to conduct clinical assessment, highlighted OSCE-related stress, and questioned the validity of the OSCE as a real-world assessment. The OSCE has an important role in the development of student nurses' administration of medicine skills. However, it might hinder their performance as a result of the stress of being assessed in a simulated environment.

  1. Validation of a computer based objective structured clinical examination in the assessment of undergraduate dermatology courses.

    PubMed

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Khan, Abdul Sattar; Kuruvilla, Joel; Feroze, Kaberi

    2014-01-01

    Many teaching centers have now adopted objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as an assessment method for undergraduate dermatology courses. A modification of the standard OSCE in dermatology is computer based or electronic OSCE (eOSCE). We attempted to validate the use of a computer-based OSCE in dermatology in a group of fifth year medical students. The scores of the students in the computer-based OSCE showed a strong positive correlation with the scores on the clinical presentation (Pearson's co-efficient - 0.923, P value <0.000, significant at the 0.01 level) and a good correlation with overall scores of the student (Pearson's co-efficient - 0.728, P value <0.000, significant at the 0.01 level), indicating that this is a reliable method for assessment in dermatology. Generally, the students' feedback regarding the methods was positive.

  2. Extracting the Density of States of Copper Phthalocyanine at the SiO2 Interface with Electronic Sum Frequency Generation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravindra; Moon, Aaron P; Bender, Jon A; Roberts, Sean T

    2016-03-17

    Organic semiconductors (OSCs) constitute an attractive platform for optoelectronics design due to the ease of their processability and chemically tunable properties. Incorporating OSCs into electrical circuits requires forming junctions between them and other materials, yet the change in dielectric properties about these junctions can strongly perturb the electronic structure of the OSC. Here we adapt an interface-selective optical technique, electronic sum frequency generation (ESFG), to the study of a model OSC thin-film system, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) deposited on SiO2. We find that by modeling the thickness dependence of our measured spectra, we can identify changes in CuPc's electronic density of states at both its buried interface with SiO2 and air-exposed surface. Our work demonstrates that ESFG can be used to noninvasively probe the interfacial electronic structure of optically thick OSC films, indicating that it can be used for the study of OSC-based optoelectronics in situ.

  3. Eosinophils in human oral squamous carcinoma; role of prostaglandin D2.

    PubMed

    Davoine, Francis; Sim, Adrian; Tang, Charlie; Fisher, Sibina; Ethier, Caroline; Puttagunta, Lakshmi; Wu, Yingqi; McGaw, W Tim; Yu, Donald; Cameron, Lisa; Adamko, Darryl J; Moqbel, Redwan

    2013-01-31

    Eosinophils are often predominant inflammatory leukocytes infiltrating oral squamous carcinoma (OSC) sites. Prostaglandins are secreted by oral carcinomas and may be involved in eosinophil infiltration. The objective of this study was to determine the factors contributing to eosinophil migration and potential anti-neoplastic effects on OSC. Eosinophil degranulation was evaluated by measuring release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). Eosinophil chemotaxis towards OSC cells was assessed using artificial basement membrane. Eosinophil infiltration was prominent within the tissue surrounding the OSC tumor mass. We observed growth inhibition of the OSC cell line, SCC-9, during co-culture with human eosinophils, in vitro, which correlated with EPO activity that possesses growth inhibitory activity. The PGD2 synthase inhibitor, HQL-79, abrogated migration towards SCC-9. Our data suggest that OSC-derived PGD2 may play an important role via CRTH2 (the PGD2 receptor on eosinophils) in eosinophil recruitment and subsequent anti-tumor activity through the action of eosinophil cationic proteins.

  4. Effect of Ca2+ on the 1H NMR chemical shift of the methyl signal of oversulphated chondroitin sulphate, a contaminant in heparin.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Ian; Rundlöf, Torgny; Ek, Marianne; Hakkarainen, Birgit; Carlin, Gunnar; Arvidsson, Torbjörn

    2009-04-05

    The chemical shift of the methyl signal of oversulphated chondroitin sulphate (OSCS) is dependent on the type and concentration of the counterion. When OSCS is present as a contaminant in heparin sodium, the reported methyl 1H chemical shift is 2.15 +/- 0.02 ppm. In this report, a value of 2.18 +/- 0.01 ppm is reported for the OSCS in the presence of Ca2+. The chemical shift of the methyl signal of pure OSCS varies linearly from 2.13 ppm to 2.18 ppm with increasing amounts of Ca2+, until reaching the saturation point of four Ca2+ ions per OSCS disaccharide unit, which contains four sulphate groups (a 1:1 ratio between sulphate groups and Ca2+). This Ca2+ effect can be used for OSCS identification as well as to facilitate quantification.

  5. Synthesis and detection of N-sulfonated oversulfated chondroitin sulfate in marketplace heparin.

    PubMed

    Mans, Daniel J; Ye, Hongping; Dunn, Jamie D; Kolinski, Richard E; Long, Dianna S; Phatak, Nisarga L; Ghasriani, Houman; Buhse, Lucinda F; Kauffman, John F; Keire, David A

    2015-12-01

    N-sulfonated oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (NS-OSCS), recently reported as a potential threat to the heparin supply, was prepared along with its intermediate derivatives. All compounds were spiked into marketplace heparin and subjected to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) identification assays for heparin (proton nuclear magnetic resonance [(1)H NMR], chromatographic identity, % galactosamine [%GalN], anti-factor IIa potency, and anti-factor Xa/IIa ratio). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) strong-anionic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) method resolved NS-OSCS from heparin and OSCS and had a limit of detection of 0.26% (w/w) NS-OSCS. The %GalN test was sensitive to the presence of NS-OSCS in heparin. Therefore, current USP heparin monograph tests (i.e., SAX-HPLC and %GalN) detect the presence of NS-OSCS in heparin.

  6. Performance of an objective structured clinical examination in a national certification process of trainees in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Pascual Ramos, Virginia; Medrano Ramírez, Gabriel; Solís Vallejo, Eunice; Bernard Medina, Ana Guilaisne; Flores Alvarado, Diana Elsa; Portela Hernández, Margarita; Andrade Ortega, Lilia; Vera Lastra, Olga; Espinosa Morales, Rolando; Miranda Limón, Juan Manuel; Maldonado Velázquez, María Del Rocío; Jara Quezada, Luis Javier; Amezcua Guerra, Luis Manuel; López Zepeda, Judith; Saavedra Salinas, Miguel Ángel; Arce Salinas, Cesar Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    To assess reliability and validity of the objectively-structured clinical examination (OSCE) applied in postgraduate certification processes by the Mexican Board of Rheumatology. Thirty-two (2013) and 38 (2014) Rheumatology trainees (RTs) underwent an OSCE consisting of 12 and 15 stations respectively, scored according to a validated check-list, as well as 300-multiple-choice 300 question examination (MCQ). Previously, 3 certified rheumatologists underwent a pilot-OSCE. A composite OSCE score was obtained for each participant and its performance examined. In 2013, OSCE mean score was 7.1±0.6 with none RT receiving a failing score while the MCQ score was 6.5±0.6 and 7 (21.9%) RTs receiving a failing (< 6) score. In 2014, the OSCE score was 6.7±0.6, with 3 (7.9%) RTs receiving a failing score (2 of them also failed MCQ) while the MCQ score was 6.4±0.5 and 7 (18.5%) RTs were disqualified (2 of them also failed OSCE). A significant correlation between the MCQ and the OSCE scores was observed in the 2013 (r=0.44; P=0.006). Certified rheumatologists performed better than RTs at both OSCE. Overall, 86% of RTs obtaining an OSCE passing score also obtained a MCQ passing score, while this was only 67% (P=.02) among those who obtained an OSCE failing score. Nine stations were applied at both consecutive years. Their performance was similar in both certification processes, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.81 to 0.95 (P≤0.01). The OSCE is a valid and reliable tool to assess the Rheumatology clinical skills in RTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessing registered nurses' clinical skills in orthopaedics.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sonya; McDonald, Sinead; Rainey, Debbie

    The aim of this article is to explore the views of registered nurses undertaking the new Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), incorporating an integrated preparatory skills workshop. The workshop and the OSCE were audited with particular regard to the student experience. This article describes the audit process and the results of three questionnaires: one carried out before the OSCE assessment, a second immediately after the workshop and a third four days after the assessment. The results provide an insight into the student experience.

  8. Centralization or Decentralization in Iraq? In Search of the Elusive Sweet Spot

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    example, see Open Source Center (OSC), Iraqi PM Pushes Tribal Councils Over Local Officials’ Objections, OSC Analysis (Washington, DC: OSC...Foreign Affairs, July/August 2006; Edward P. Joseph and Michael E. O’Hanlon, The Case for Soft Partition in Iraq, Analysis Paper No. 12 (Washington, DC...or it may ignite the tinder of Iraq’s many unresolved internal conflicts and destroy the semblance of stability achieved so far. Is there a safe

  9. Flipping the Objective Structured Clinical Examination: A Teaching Innovation in Graduate Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Day, Cristi; Barker, Connie; Bell, Eva; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Flournoy, Deborah

    2017-07-24

    Objective evaluation of distance-based family nurse practitioner (FNP) students can be challenging. One FNP program piloted a teaching innovation, the video-enhanced objective structured clinical examination (VE-OSCE) or "flip" of the traditional face-to-face OSCE, to assess student clinical performance in a controlled online environment using a teleconferencing platform. This project sought to assess the VE-OSCE design, implementation, and ability to identify FNP student learning needs.

  10. Functional Flow and Event-Driven Methods for Predicting System Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    21. 2. SAR Mission initiates; SAR Assets conduct search but no objects of interest are found; SAR assets continue to scan but OSC aborts mission...be related to the SAR, so the OSC aborts mission and all Assets RTB. 45 4. SAR Mission initiates; SAR Assets conduct search and find an object of...interest; the object of interest is determined to be wreckage so the OSC aborts mission and all Assets RTB. 5. SAR Mission initiates; SAR Assets

  11. Divergent interactions involving the oxidosqualene cyclase and the steroid-3-ketoreductase in the sterol biosynthetic pathway of mammals and yeasts.

    PubMed

    Taramino, Silvia; Teske, Brian; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Bard, Martin; Balliano, Gianni

    2010-11-01

    In mammals and yeasts, oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) catalyzes the formation of lanosterol, the first cyclic intermediate in sterol biosynthesis. We used a murine myeloma cell line (NS0), deficient in the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (HSD17B7), as a model to study the potential interaction of the HSD17B7 with the OSC in mammals. HSD17B7 is the orthologue of the yeast steroid-3-ketoreductase (ERG27), an enzyme of ergosterol biosynthesis that plays a protective role towards OSC. Tracer experiments with NS0 cells showed that OSC is fully active in these mammalian cells, suggesting that in mammals the ketosteroid reductase is not required for OSC activity. Mouse and human HSD17B7 were overexpressed in ERG27-deletant yeast cells, and recombinant strains were tested for (i) the ability to grow on different media, (ii) steroid-3-ketoreductase activity, and (iii) OSC activity. Recombinant strains grew more slowly than the control yeast ERG27-overexpressing strain on sterol-deficient media, whereas the growth rate was normal on media supplemented with a 3-ketoreductase substrate. The full enzymatic functionality of mammalian steroid-3-ketoreductase expressed in yeast along with the lack of (yeast) OSC activity point to an inability of the mammalian reductase to assist yeast OSC. Results demonstrate that in mammals, unlike in yeast, OSC and steroid-3-ketoreductase are non-interacting proteins.

  12. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. “See and treat” one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service. PMID:26236502

  13. Does Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Score Reflect the Clinical Reasoning Ability of Medical Students?

    PubMed

    Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seong; Myung, Sun Jung

    2015-07-01

    Clinical reasoning ability is an important factor in a physician's competence and thus should be taught and tested in medical schools. Medical schools generally use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to measure the clinical competency of medical students. However, it is unknown whether OSCE can also evaluate clinical reasoning ability. In this study, the authors investigated whether OSCE scores reflected students' clinical reasoning abilities. Sixty-five fourth-year medical students participated in this study. Medical students completed the OSCE with 4 cases using standardized patients. For assessment of clinical reasoning, students were asked to list differential diagnoses and the findings that were compatible or not compatible with each diagnosis. The OSCE score (score of patient encounter), diagnostic accuracy score, clinical reasoning score, clinical knowledge score and grade point average (GPA) were obtained for each student, and correlation analysis was performed. Clinical reasoning score was significantly correlated with diagnostic accuracy and GPA (correlation coefficient = 0.258 and 0.380; P = 0.038 and 0.002, respectively) but not with OSCE score or clinical knowledge score (correlation coefficient = 0.137 and 0.242; P = 0.276 and 0.052, respectively). Total OSCE score was not significantly correlated with clinical knowledge test score, clinical reasoning score, diagnostic accuracy score or GPA. OSCE score from patient encounters did not reflect the clinical reasoning abilities of the medical students in this study. The evaluation of medical students' clinical reasoning abilities through OSCE should be strengthened.

  14. One-Stop Clinic Utilization in Plastic Surgery: Our Local Experience and the Results of a UK-Wide National Survey.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Mark; Coelho, James; Gujral, Sameer; McKay, Alastair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. "See and treat" one-stop clinics (OSCs) are an advocated NHS initiative to modernise care, reducing cancer treatment waiting times. Little studied in plastic surgery, the existing evidence suggests that though they improve care, they are rarely implemented. We present our experience setting up a plastic surgery OSC for minor skin surgery and survey their use across the UK. Methods. The OSC was evaluated by 18-week wait target compliance, measures of departmental capacity, and patient satisfaction. Data was obtained from 32 of the 47 UK plastic surgery departments to investigate the prevalence of OSCs for minor skin cancer surgery. Results. The OSC improved 18-week waiting times, from a noncompliant mean of 80% to a compliant 95% average. Department capacity increased 15%. 95% of patients were highly satisfied with and preferred the OSC to a conventional service. Only 25% of UK plastic surgery units run OSCs, offering varying reasons for not doing so, 42% having not considered their use. Conclusions. OSCs are underutilised within UK plastic surgery, where a significant proportion of units have not even considered their benefit. This is despite associated improvements in waiting times, department capacity, and levels of high patient satisfaction. We offer our considerations and local experience instituting an OSC service.

  15. Qualitative content analysis experiences with objective structured clinical examination among Korean nursing students.

    PubMed

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Korean nursing students with an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessment regarding the 12 cranial nerves using qualitative content analysis. Qualitative content analysis was used to explore the subjective experiences of nursing baccalaureate students after taking the OSCE. Convenience sampling was used to select 64 4th year nursing students who were interested in taking the OSCE. The participants learned content about the 12 cranial nerve assessment by lectures, demonstrations, and videos before the OSCE. The OSCE consisted of examinations in each of three stations for 2 days. The participants wrote information about their experiences on sheets of paper immediately after the OSCE anonymously in an adjacent room. The submitted materials were analyzed via qualitative content analysis. The collected materials were classified into two themes and seven categories. One theme was "awareness of inner capabilities", which included three categories: "inner motivation", "inner confidence", and "creativity". The other theme was "barriers to nursing performance", which included four categories: "deficiency of knowledge", "deficiency of communication skill", "deficiency of attitude toward comfort", and "deficiency of repetitive practice". This study revealed that the participants simultaneously experienced the potential and deficiency of their nursing competency after an OSCE session on cranial nerves. OSCE also provided the opportunity for nursing students to realize nursing care in a holistic manner unlike concern that OSCE undermines holism. © 2013 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2013 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  16. Protective effects of garlic sulfur compounds against DNA damage induced by direct- and indirect-acting genotoxic agents in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Belloir, C; Singh, V; Daurat, C; Siess, M H; Le Bon, A M

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antigenotoxic activity of several garlic organosulfur compounds (OSC) in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2, using comet assay. The OSC selected were allicin (DADSO), diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), S-allyl cysteine (SAC) and allyl mercaptan (AM). To explore their potential mechanisms of action, two approaches were performed: (i) a pre-treatment protocol which allowed study of the possible modulation of drug metabolism enzymes by OSC before treatment of the cells with the genotoxic agent; (ii) a co-treatment protocol by which the ability of OSC to scavenge direct-acting compounds was assessed. Preliminary studies showed that, over the concentration range tested (5-100 microM), the studied OSC neither affected cell viability nor induced DNA damage by themselves. In the pre-treatment protocol, aflatoxin B1 genotoxicity was significantly reduced by all the OSC tested except AM. DADS was the most efficient OSC in reducing benzo(a)pyrene genotoxicity. SAC and AM significantly decreased DNA breaks in HepG2 cells treated with dimethylnitrosamine. Additionally, all the OSC studied were shown to decrease the genotoxicity of the direct-acting compounds, hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate. This study demonstrated that garlic OSC displayed antigenotoxic activity in human metabolically competent cells.

  17. Expanding the role of objectively structured clinical examinations in nephrology training.

    PubMed

    Prince, Lisa K; Abbott, Kevin C; Green, Felicidad; Little, Dustin; Nee, Robert; Oliver, James D; Bohen, Erin M; Yuan, Christina M

    2014-06-01

    Objectively structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) are widely used in medical education, but we know of none described that are specifically for nephrology fellowship training. OSCEs use simulation to educate and evaluate. We describe a technically simple, multidisciplinary, low-cost OSCE developed by our program that contains both examination and training features and focuses on management and clinical knowledge of rare hemodialysis emergencies. The emergencies tested are venous air embolism, blood leak, dialysis membrane reaction, and hemolysis. Fifteen fellows have participated in the OSCE as examinees and/or preceptors since June 2010. All have passed the exercise. Thirteen responded to an anonymous survey in July 2013 that inquired about their confidence in managing each of the 4 tested emergencies pre- and post-OSCE. Fellows were significantly more confident in their ability to respond to the emergencies after the OSCE. Those who subsequently saw such an emergency reported that the OSCE experience was somewhat or very helpful in managing the event. The OSCE tested and trained fellows in the recognition and management of rare hemodialysis emergencies. OSCEs and simulation generally deserve greater use in nephrology subspecialty training; however, collaboration between training programs would be necessary to validate such exercises.

  18. The roles of metallic rectangular-grating and planar anodes in the photocarrier generation and transport of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Cho Chew, Weng

    2012-11-01

    A multiphysics study carries out on organic solar cells (OSCs) by solving Maxwell's and semiconductor equations simultaneously. By introducing a metallic rectangular-grating as the anode, surface plasmons are excited resulting in nonuniform exciton generation. Meanwhile, the internal E-field of plasmonic OSCs is modified with the modulated anode boundary. The plasmonic OSC improves 13% of short-circuit current but reduces 7% of fill factor (FF) compared to the standard one with a planar anode. The uneven photocarrier generation and transport by the grating anode are physical origins of the dropped FF. This work provides fundamental multiphysics modeling and understanding for plasmonic OSCs.

  19. Pixelated speckle image holography carrier fringes for efficient superimposed light harvesting in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lei; Li, Yan-Qing; Chen, Jing-De; Ou, Qing-Dong; Tang, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Yun; Lin, Yi; Wei, Huai-Xin

    2017-06-01

    An inverted organic solar cell (OSC) device structure by incorporating pixelated speckle image holography carrier fringes (SIHFs) for efficient superimposed light harvesting is demonstrated. The proposed SIHF based OSCs yield an 18.2% increase in power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to that of the flat control devices. Moreover, compared to the common two-dimensional (2D) periodic grating patterned OSCs, SIHF based devices achieve 7.8% higher short-circuit current (JSC) and 10.0% higher PCE. This observable improvement in PCE of SIHF based OSCs is mainly ascribed to the geometric effect due to the unique chaotic carrier fringes of SIHFs.

  20. Status and prospects for ternary organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Luyao; Kelly, Mary Allison; You, Wei; Yu, Luping

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) featuring multiple donor or acceptor materials in the active layer have emerged as a promising structure to simultaneously improve all solar cell parameters compared with traditional binary OSCs. Power conversion efficiencies around 10% have been achieved for conjugated polymers in a ternary structure, showing the great potential of ternary systems. In this review, we summarize progress in developing ternary OSCs and discuss many of the designs, chemistries and mechanisms that have been investigated. We conclude by highlighting the challenges and future directions for further development in the field of ternary blend OSCs.

  1. An exploration of student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process.

    PubMed

    Barry, Maebh; Noonan, Maria; Bradshaw, Carmel; Murphy-Tighe, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative descriptive study that explored student midwives' experiences of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment process for obstetric emergencies within a university setting. The development of fundamental clinical skills is an important component in preparing students to meet the responsibilities of a midwife. There is an international concern that the transfer of midwifery education into universities may impact on the development of midwifery clinical skills. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have the potential to promote integration and consolidation of skills prior to clinical placement. Twenty six students (n=36) from two midwifery programmes (BSc and Higher Diploma) participated in four focus groups and Burnard's (2006) framework was used for data analysis. Three main themes emerged following analysis: preparation for the OSCE assessment, the OSCE process and learning through simulating practice. Preparation for the OSCE's which included lectures, demonstrations, and practice of OSCE's facilitated by lecturers and by the students themselves, was considered central to the process. Learning via OSCEs was perceived to be more effective in comparison to other forms of assessment and prepared students for clinical practice. Positive aspects of the process and areas for improvement were identified. Using OSCE's increased the depth of learning for the students with the steps taken in preparation for the OSCE's proving to be a valuable learning tool. This study adds to the evidence on the use of OSCE's in midwifery education.

  2. Oxysophocarpine induces anti-nociception and increases the expression of GABAAα1 receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tingting; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Haiyan; Xu, Yaqiong; Ma, Lin; Sun, Tao; Ma, Hanxiang; Yu, Jianqiang

    2013-06-01

    Oxysophocarpine (OSC) is an alkaloid extracted from Siphocampylus verticillatus. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive effects of OSC through systemic and intracerebroventricular administration in mice. Moreover, to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism of action, this study investigated whether OSC altered the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid type A α1 (GABAAα1) receptors in the central nervous system. Thermal and chemical behavioral models of nociception were used to assess the anti‑nociceptive action of OSC. The warm water tail-flick test, the hot‑plate test, acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin‑induced pain were used in mice. OSC was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Results showed that OSC (80 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased the tail withdrawal threshold with a peak effect of 25.46% maximal possible effect (MPE) at 60 min (P﹤0.01). Additionally, OSC (80 mg/kg) increased the positive staining of GABAAα1 receptors in cells. In conclusion, OSC administration is suggested to have anti-nociceptive effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems. The involvement of GABAA receptors in the anti-nociceptive activity of OSC is currently being investigated.

  3. Clinical competence assessment in radiology: introduction of an objective structured clinical examination in the medical school curriculum.

    PubMed

    Morag, E; Lieberman, G; Volkan, K; Shaffer, K; Novelline, R; Lang, E V

    2001-01-01

    Traditional oral and written examinations can be limited in predicting future clinical performance. Therefore Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) have been introduced in other specialties. The authors assessed their value in radiology. The study includes 122 Harvard medical students who undertook 1-month compulsory clerkships at one of three hospitals (A, B, or C) in their 3rd and 4th year and a compulsory OSCE in their 4th year. The OSCE was constructed from five cases. Each had eight or nine standardized questions designed to test, within a set time, the perception of essential findings, their interpretation, and clinical judgment (maximum possible score, 100). Clerkship grades were high honors (score of 3), honors (score of 2), satisfactory (score of 1), and fail (score of 0). Predictors of OSCE scores-clerkship grade and affiliated hospital-were modeled as linear functions. Time elapsed between clerkship and OSCE was modeled as a nonlinear function. Although there was a positive relation between clerkship grade and OSCE grade, it accounted for an increase of only 5.7% in OSCE score per clerkship grade and did not predict performance of individual students. Students who trained in hospital B showed significantly higher OSCE grades. OSCE scores were highest when the examination was taken 8 months after the clerkship. The OSCE may be useful to uncover deficits in individuals and groups beyond the ones detected with traditional clerkship evaluations and provide guidance for remediation. The improved performance after additional clinical exposure suggests that the OSCE may be well suited to test the integration of radiologic and clinical knowledge.

  4. Theoretical studies of effects of 2D plasmonic grating on electrical properties of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Chew, Weng Cho

    2012-09-01

    Although various optical designs and physical mechanisms have been studied both experimentally and theoretically to improve the optical absorption of organic solar cells (OSCs) by incorporating metallic nanostructures, the effects of plasmonic nanostructures on the electrical properties of OSCs is still not fully understood. Hence, it is highly desirable to study the changes of electrical properties induced by plasmonic structures and the corresponding physics for OSCs. In this work, we develop a multiphysics model for plasmonic OSCs by solving the Maxwell's equations and semiconductor equations (Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations) with unified finite-difference method. Both the optical and electrical properties of OSCs incorporating a 2D metallic grating anode are investigated. For typical active polymer materials, low hole mobility, which is about one magnitude smaller than electron mobility, dominates the electrical property of OSCs. Since surface plasmon resonances excited by the metallic grating will produce concentrated near-field penetrated into the active polymer layer and decayed exponentially away from the metal-polymer interface, a significantly nonuniform and extremely high exciton generation rate is obtained near the grating. Interestingly, the reduced recombination loss and the increased open-circuit voltage can be achieved in plasmonic OSCs. The physical origin of the phenomena lies at direct hole collections to the metallic grating anode with a short transport path. In comparison with the plasmonic OSC, the hole transport in a multilayer planar OSC experiences a long transport path and time because the standard planar OSC has a high exciton generation rate at the transparent front cathode. The unveiled multiphysics is particularly helpful for designing high-performance plasmonic OSCs.

  5. PubMed

    Plaza Moral, V; Carrillo, T; Delgado, J; Entrenas, L M; Martinez Moragón, E; Olaguibel, J M; Pérez de Llano, L; Perpiñá, M; Sastre, J; Valero, A; Quirce, S

    2016-11-21

      Fundamento. Numerosos estudios constatan que aproximadamente la mitad de la población asmática no está bien controlada. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar entre expertos las causas, consecuencias y las posibles soluciones del asma no controlada (ANC).  Material y métodos. Debate entre expertos en asma de las especialidades de Neumología, Alergología y Atención Primaria, estructurado en tres fases 1) Cuestionario para pulsar la opinión de los participantes en los diferentes elementos implicados del ANC; 2) Reunión presencial de los expertos, en la que se discutieron los resultados de la encuesta y se presentaron y debatieron ponencias sobre el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento del ANC; 3) Formulación de 83 ítems que fueron sometidos a consenso entre todos los participantes mediante el método Delphi.  Resultados. El 86,7% de los ítems del cuestionario Delphi fue consensuado, mayoritariamente en términos de acuerdo.  Conclusiones. El análisis de los resultados sobre el ANC señala la necesidad de mejora futura en: incorporar en las Guías de Práctica Clínica de asma un protocolo de actuación clínico para identificar agravantes y comorbilidades; desarrollar una herramienta barata y de fácil utilización que permita identificar la adherencia al tratamiento; establecer el fenotipo del paciente; analizar los efectos secundarios del tratamiento y ofrecer un tratamiento personalizado, valorando especialmente la eficacia y seguridad (control de síntomas y riesgo futuro). Se precisa generar nuevas evidencias (estudios) que determinen exploraciones complementarias a emplear en el seguimiento de estos pacientes.

  6. PubMed

    Sellés, Sergio; Fernández-Sáez, José; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Cejuela, Roberto

    2016-02-16

    El proceso de formación de futuros deportistas debe ser un trabajo estructurado y planificado para poder alcanzar el máximo nivel deportivo. Es fundamental en este periodo tener presentes los ritmos de desarrollo y maduración de los jóvenes deportistas para así adecuar las cargas de entrenamientos a sus estados evolutivos. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar y analizar la edad morfológica en nadadores y triatletas adolescentes, estableciendo diferencias entre su edad cronológica, grupos y género. A través del método antropométrico se determinó el estado de maduración biológica en un grupo de 37 deportistas jóvenes tecnificados. Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de la muestra (70,8%) se encuentra en un estado avanzado de desarrollo con respecto a su edad cronológica, siendo más notorio en el caso de los nadadores este estado de madurez avanzado. Tener una edad morfológica más avanzada respecto a su edad cronológica podría favorecer a los deportistas adolescentes a la hora de conseguir mejores marcas y resultados en las competiciones y de esta manera acceder con más facilidad a los programas de tecnificación. El índice de desarrollo corporal modificado (IDCm) se presenta como un método validado, fiable y no invasivo para tener presente el grado de desarrollo y maduración en la selección de talentos deportivos y adecuar las cargas de entrenamiento al estado evolutivo de los deportistas.

  7. [Pyramid training model in laparoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Usón-Gargallo, Jesús; Pérez-Merino, Eva María; Usón-Casaús, Jesús María; Sánchez-Fernández, Javier; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la práctica de la cirugía de mínima invasión necesita que el aprendizaje sea estructurado y progresivo. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo efectuado en el Centro de Cirugía de Mínima Invasión Jesús Usón que propone un modelo de formación piramidal con cuatro niveles: adquisición de habilidades básicas en simulador (nivel 1), desarrollo de técnicas quirúrgicas específicas en modelos animales (nivel 2), telemedicina y telementorización (nivel 3), y aplicación al paciente con supervisión experimentada (nivel 4). Objetivo: describir los niveles 1 y 2 que se practican en el Centro y evaluar la formación impartida. Resultados: 4,284 alumnos han recibido formación en cirugía laparoscópica: 95.5% médicos: cirujanos del aparato digestivo (49%), urólogos (30%) y ginecólogos (14%). En 77% de los cursos celebrados disponen de 20 horas de adiestramiento, 8 en el nivel 1, y 12 en el nivel 2. El 94.37% considera altamente apropiado el modelo de formación piramidal, calificándolo con 9.58 sobre 10 y con 9.5 a la calidad de la simulación. El 82.75% percibe que ha avanzado notablemente en sus destrezas y 99.56% recomendaría a otros cirujanos la realización de actividades en el Centro. Conclusión: el modelo de formación propuesto permite alcanzar las habilidades necesarias para efectuar correctamente procedimientos avanzados en cirugía de mínima invasión.

  8. Implementation of an Electronic Objective Structured Clinical Exam for Assessing Practical Skills in Pre-Professional Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Programs: Examiner and Course Coordinator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J.; Ashby, Samantha E.; Rivett, Darren A.; Russell, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of practical clinical skills is essential in the health fields. Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs), where examiners assess students performing clinical procedures on simulated patients (actors), are central to the evaluation of practical skills. However, traditional OSCEs require considerable time-investment to administer, and…

  9. Reducing the variability in performance of organic solar cells containing vacuum deposited MoOx extraction layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany

    2014-10-01

    Reproducibility in efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells (OSCs) remains a major concern, especially with the development of more complex and modern multi-layer device architectures. In this work, OSCs are studied for their efficiency and photo-stability as a function of the quality of their thermally evaporated MoOx hole extraction layer (HEL). To this end, the characteristics of the MoOx film are demonstrated to change with repeat evaporation runs from the same source material. These variations have strong effects on polymer OSCs (p-OSCs), with an effective halving of the power conversion efficiency after only three MoO3 evaporation runs. In contrast, vacuum deposited small molecule OSCs (sm-OSCs) appear to be unaffected by the history of the MoO3 source material. sm- OSCs are instead shown to be prone to large changes in efficiency as a function of the delay time in between deposition of the MoOx HEL and subsequent photo-active materials. Increased delay time between these deposition steps is also demonstrated to decrease the sm-OSC photo-stability. The results thus emphasize subtleties in materials deposition processes that can play a significant role in obtaining reproducible and scientifically relevant data.

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory and Vasodilating Effects of Three Selected Dietary Organic Sulfur Compounds from Allium Species

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Chen; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Shieh, Ja-Ping; Chu, Heuy-Ling; Lee, Chia-Pu; Duh, Pin-Der

    2017-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and vasodilating effects of three selected dietary organic sulfur compounds (OSC), including diallyl disulfide (DADS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and propyl disulfide (PDS), from Allium species were investigated. In the anti-inflammatory activity assay, the three OSC demonstrated significant inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in activated RAW 264.7 cells was inhibited by the three OSC, indicating that the three OSC prevented the LPS-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells. For the vasodilative assay, the three OSC were ineffective in producing NO in SVEC4-10 cells, but they did enhance prostacyclin (PGI2) production. The expression of COX-2 in SVEC4-10 cells was activated by DADS and DMDS. Pretreatment of SVEC4-10 cells with the three OSC decreased ROS generation in H2O2-induced SVEC4-10 cells. In addition, the three OSC significantly inhibited angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE). The up-regulation of PGI2 production and COX-2 expression by DADS and DMDS and the reduction of ROS generation by DADS, DMDS, and PDS in SVEC4-10 cells contributed to the vasodilative effect of the three OSC. Collectively, these findings suggest that DADS, DMDS, and PDS are potential anti-inflammatory and vasodilative mediators. PMID:28134777

  11. Using Simulation in Assessment and Teaching: OSCE Adapted for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogo, Marion; Rawlings, Mary; Katz, Ellen; Logie, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This detailed book by the most experienced authors in the field describes how to develop and implement the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for social work education. In addition to a wealth of practical material in the appendices, two videos produced especially for this book (accessible online) show the OSCE process step-by-step.…

  12. 40 CFR 300.315 - Phase IV-Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... parties, and impacts and potential impacts to public health and welfare and the environment. Documentation... technology. Funding for these actions is restricted by section 6002 of the OPA. (c) OSCs shall submit OSC... necessary collection and safeguarding of information, samples, and reports. Samples and information shall...

  13. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bhushan R; Mirsafaei, Mina; Cielecki, Paweł Piotr; Cauduro, André Luis Fernandes; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-10-06

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25% and 40%, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6% within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm(2), and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor (FF) of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18% for the line grids pattern and 30% for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the FF was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs was measured to be 4.34%, which is 23% higher than the PCE of the reference OSCs. As the presented method does not involve high temperature processing, it could be considered a general approach for development of large area organic electronics on solvent resistant, flexible substrates.

  14. Dietetic students' performance of activities in an objective structured clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Lambert, L; Pattison, D J; de Looy, A E

    2010-06-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have been used to assess the key clinical skills of many health professions; however, this form of assessment is not reported to have been used extensively for dietetic students. The present study explored which key dietetic skills could be assessed by an OSCE and which activity students performed best. An OSCE of six activities, two involving simulated patients, was developed to assess key dietetic clinical skills. Thirty-five level two dietetic students undertook the OSCE, which was marked using structured marking tools. A self-administered questionnaire was also used to obtain data concerning student's opinion on the OSCE process and the time allowed for each activity. Six activities were incorporated into the OSCE, involving communication, discriminatory and interpretation and food knowledge skills. The OSCE activity students performed least well involved knowledge of portion sizes and the carbohydrate content of specific foods. The activities that students performed best were the two activities in which mainly communication skills were assessed in simulated dietetic consultations using actors as standardised patients. A dietetic OSCE was generally positively accepted by the students and offers a very effect form of assessment of key dietetic skills. Students performed better at activities requiring communication skills than those requiring greater discriminatory and interpretation and food knowledge skills. Students' food knowledge skills require reinforcing to ensure that they acquire the knowledge and skills that are unique to dietitians.

  15. Supervisor Use of Observation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medley, Donald M.

    This paper discusses the supervisory use of one observational system -- Observation Schedule and Record, Form 5V (OScAR 5V). OScAR 5V refers to a series of observation schedules to develop techniques for obtaining an objective, quantitative record of observed classroom behavior that could be scored on dimensions of teacher behavior. Under this…

  16. 5 CFR 1209.2 - Jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...)(8). Example 3: Citing alleged misconduct, an agency proposes Employee Y's removal. While that removal action is pending, Y files a complaint with OSC alleging that the proposed removal was initiated... of Federal law and regulation. OSC subsequently issues a letter notifying Y that it has...

  17. Performance-Based Assessment of Clinical Ethics Using an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Peter A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Final-year Ontario medical students (n=88) took a 4-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) using standardized patients and involving decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatment. Performance was scored on a checklist of behaviors unique to each case. Results indicated that because of low reliability, the OSCE is not a feasible…

  18. A focus group study of the use of video-recorded simulated objective structured clinical examinations in nurse practitioner education.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Julian

    2010-05-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a common method of clinical skills assessment used for advanced nurse practitioner students across the United Kingdom. The purpose of an advanced nursing OSCE is to assess a nurse practitioner student's competence and safety in the performance of commonly used advanced clinical practice skills. Students often feel nervous when preparing for and participating in an OSCE. Consideration of these identified anxieties led to the development of an alternative method of meeting students' OSCE learning and preparation needs; namely video-recorded simulated OSCEs. Video-recording was appealing for the following reasons: it provides a flexible usage of staff resources and time; OSCE performance mistakes can be rectified; it is possible to use the same video-recordings with multiple cohorts of students, and the recordings can be made conveniently available for students with video streaming on internet-based video-sharing sites or virtual learning environments. The aim of the study was to explore the value of using such recordings amongst nurse practitioner students, via online and face-to-face focus groups, to see if they are a suitable OSCE educational preparation technique. The study findings indicate that simulated OSCE video-recordings are an effective method for supporting nurse practitioner educational development.

  19. Implementation of an Electronic Objective Structured Clinical Exam for Assessing Practical Skills in Pre-Professional Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Programs: Examiner and Course Coordinator Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J.; Ashby, Samantha E.; Rivett, Darren A.; Russell, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of practical clinical skills is essential in the health fields. Objective Structured Clinical Exams (OSCEs), where examiners assess students performing clinical procedures on simulated patients (actors), are central to the evaluation of practical skills. However, traditional OSCEs require considerable time-investment to administer, and…

  20. 5 CFR 1800.1 - Filing complaints of prohibited personnel practices or other prohibited activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Complaints Examining Unit, 1730 M Street NW., Suite 218, Washington, DC 20036-4505; (ii) By calling OSC, at...://www.osc.gov (to print out and complete on paper, or to complete online). (5) A complainant can file a..., Complaints Examining Unit, 1730 M Street NW., Suite 218, Washington, DC 20036-4505; (ii) By fax, to:...

  1. Communication Skills in Standardized-Patient Assessment of Final-Year Medical Students: A Psychometric Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiton, Gretchen; Hodgson, Carol S.; Delandshere, Ginett; Wilkerson, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the content-specificity of communication skills. It investigates the reliability and dimensionality of standardized patient (SP) ratings of communication skills in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE) for final year medical students. An OSCE consisting of seven standardized patient(SP)…

  2. The Rise of the Pasdaran. Assessing the Domestic Roles of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    see Islamic Republic of Iran Network Television (Tehran), “OSC: Iranian TV Describes Detained Iranian-American Esfandiari as ‘ Mosad Spy,’” FBIS...census85/census85.news Islamic Republic of Iran Network Television (Tehran), “OSC: Iranian TV Describes Detained Iranian-American Esfandiari as ‘ Mosad Spy

  3. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... response actions. Emergency restoration may not address residual oil unless: (1) The OSC's response is complete; or (2) The OSC has determined that the residual oil identified by the trustee as part of...

  4. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... response actions. Emergency restoration may not address residual oil unless: (1) The OSC's response is complete; or (2) The OSC has determined that the residual oil identified by the trustee as part of...

  5. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... response actions. Emergency restoration may not address residual oil unless: (1) The OSC's response is complete; or (2) The OSC has determined that the residual oil identified by the trustee as part of...

  6. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... response actions. Emergency restoration may not address residual oil unless: (1) The OSC's response is complete; or (2) The OSC has determined that the residual oil identified by the trustee as part of...

  7. 15 CFR 990.26 - Emergency restoration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS... response actions. Emergency restoration may not address residual oil unless: (1) The OSC's response is complete; or (2) The OSC has determined that the residual oil identified by the trustee as part of...

  8. 5 CFR 1800.2 - Filing disclosures of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discloses a violation of any law, rule, or regulation; gross mismanagement; gross waste of funds; abuse of...-free), or (202) 653-9125 (in the Washington, DC area); or (iii) Online, at: http://www.osc.gov (to...) 653-5151; or (iii) Electronically, at: http://www.osc.gov. ...

  9. Assessment of Benefits and Costs of Out of School Care: Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scottish Executive Education Dept., Edinburgh.

    A pivotal part of Scotland's Childcare Strategy is the provision of out-of-school care (OSC). The Scottish Executive Education Department commissioned an assessment of the costs and benefits of OSC in Scotland. Despite methodological issues such as lack of longitudinal studies, the review of existing literature evidenced a range of economic…

  10. ITO with embedded silver grids as transparent conductive electrodes for large area organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Bhushan R.; Mirsafaei, Mina; Piotr Cielecki, Paweł; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Fiutowski, Jacek; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten

    2017-10-01

    In this work, development of semi-transparent electrodes for efficient large area organic solar cells (OSCs) has been demonstrated. Electron beam evaporated silver grids were embedded in commercially available ITO coatings on glass, through a standard negative photolithography process, in order to improve the conductivity of planar ITO substrates. The fabricated electrodes with embedded line and square patterned Ag grids reduced the sheet resistance of ITO by 25% and 40%, respectively, showing optical transmittance drops of less than 6% within the complete visible light spectrum for both patterns. Solution processed bulk heterojunction OSCs based on PTB7:[70]PCBM were fabricated on top of these electrodes with cell areas of 4.38 cm2, and the performance of these OSCs was compared to reference cells fabricated on pure ITO electrodes. The Fill Factor (FF) of the large-scale OSCs fabricated on ITO with embedded Ag grids was enhanced by 18% for the line grids pattern and 30% for the square grids pattern compared to that of the reference OSCs. The increase in the FF was directly correlated to the decrease in the series resistance of the OSCs. The maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs was measured to be 4.34%, which is 23% higher than the PCE of the reference OSCs. As the presented method does not involve high temperature processing, it could be considered a general approach for development of large area organic electronics on solvent resistant, flexible substrates.

  11. 5 CFR 1820.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (b) Multitrack processing. (1) OSC may use two or more processing tracks by distinguishing between simple and more complex requests based on the amount of work and/or time needed to process the request. (2) When using multitrack processing, OSC may provide requesters in its slower track(s) with an...

  12. 5 CFR 1820.4 - Timing of responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (b) Multitrack processing. (1) OSC may use two or more processing tracks by distinguishing between simple and more complex requests based on the amount of work and/or time needed to process the request. (2) When using multitrack processing, OSC may provide requesters in its slower track(s) with an...

  13. Fullerene-based Schottky-junction organic solar cells: a brief review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutty, Sibi; Williams, Graeme; Aziz, Hany

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in fullerene-based Schottky organic solar cells (OSCs) are presented, with a focus on the current understanding of device physics. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs attain high open-circuit voltages due to the n-type Schottky junction formed between fullerene and an adjacent high work function anode. Small concentrations of donor material doped into the fullerene matrix serve as efficient exciton dissociation and hole transport agents that can substantially bolster short-circuit currents and fill factors. As a consequence, fullerene-based Schottky OSCs have been demonstrated to provide some of the highest-performance vacuum-deposited small molecule OSCs, with power conversion efficiencies up to 8.1%. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs constructed using different donor materials and varying cathode buffer layers, as studied by a number of different research groups, are presented. To elucidate the differences between Schottky OSCs and more traditional bulk-heterojunction OSCs, we discuss the photophysics of fullerenes, the role of the donor material, and charge transport in low donor concentration active layers. Fullerene-based Schottky OSCs possess considerable advantages because they can reach high efficiencies with a simple structure using readily available and cost-effective materials. The impact and applicability of the Schottky device architecture on the field of organic photovoltaics at large are discussed.

  14. 5 CFR 1820.2 - Requirements for making FOIA requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... at the number provided on the FOIA page of OSC's web site (see § 1820.1). For the quickest handling... records about an OSC case file, the case file number, name, and type (for example, prohibited personnel..., such as the date, title or name, author, recipient, and subject matter. (c) Agreement to pay...

  15. Item Dependency in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Myford, Carol M.; Yudkowsky, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is an assessment approach employed in medical education, in which residents rotate through multiple stations of standardized clinical tasks to evaluate their clinical competence. Because items used to evaluate residents' performance in each OSCE station are linked to the same task and are rated…

  16. Using Simulation in Assessment and Teaching: OSCE Adapted for Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogo, Marion; Rawlings, Mary; Katz, Ellen; Logie, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This detailed book by the most experienced authors in the field describes how to develop and implement the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for social work education. In addition to a wealth of practical material in the appendices, two videos produced especially for this book (accessible online) show the OSCE process step-by-step.…

  17. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    PubMed Central

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  18. Used protocols for isolation and propagation of ovarian stem cells, different cells with different traits.

    PubMed

    Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Rajabi, Zahra; Parvari, Soraya; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-10-20

    Although existence of ovarian stem cells (OSCs) in mammalian postnatal ovary is still under controversy, however, it has been almost accepted that OSCs are contributing actively to folliculogenesis and neo-oogenesis. Recently, various methods with different efficacies have been employed for OSCs isolation from ovarian tissue, which these methods could be chosen depends on aim of isolation and accessible equipments and materials in lab. Although isolated OSCs from different methods have various traits and characterizations, which might become from their different nature and origin, however these stem cells are promising source for woman infertility treatment or source of energy for women with a history of repeat IVF failure in near future. This review has brought together and summarized currently used protocols for isolation and propagation of OSCs in vitro.

  19. Regular Organic Solar Cells with Efficiency over 10% and Promoted Stability by Ligand- and Thermal Annealing-Free Al-Doped ZnO Cathode Interlayer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Hai-Qiao; Li, Yaru; Gui, Zhenzhen; Ming, Shuaiqiang; Usman, Khurram; Zhang, Wenjun; Fang, Junfeng

    2017-08-01

    Landmark power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 10% has been accomplished in the past year for single-junction organic solar cell (OSCs), suggesting a promising potential application of this technology. However, most of the high efficient OSCs are based on inverted configuration. Regular structure OSCs with both high efficiency and good stability are still rarely reported to date. In this work, by utilizing a new designed ligand-free and non-thermal-annealing-treated Al-doped ZnO cathode interlayer, high efficiency and greatly improved stability are simultaneously realized in regular OSCs. The highest PCE of 10.14% is accomplished for single-junction regular OSCs with active blend of poly [[2,6'-4,8-di(5-ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2-b;3,3-b]dithiophene][3-fluoro-2[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno [3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  20. New phases of osmium carbide from evolutionary algorithm and ab initio computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, Alessandro; Fadda, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    New crystal phases of osmium carbide are presented in this work. These results were found with the CA code, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) presented in a previous paper which takes full advantage of crystal symmetry by using an ad hoc search space and genetic operators. The new OsC2 and Os2C structures have a lower enthalpy than any known so far. Moreover, the layered pattern of OsC2 serves as a blueprint for building new crystals by adding or removing layers of carbon and/or osmium and generating many other Os  +  C structures like Os2C, OsC, OsC2 and OsC4. These again have a lower enthalpy than all the investigated structures, including those of the present work. The mechanical, vibrational and electronic properties are discussed as well.

  1. Influences of semiconductor morphology on the mechanical fatigue behavior of flexible organic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Uk Lee, Yong; Yeon, Han-Wool; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Evans, Louise A.; Joo, Young-Chang

    2013-12-01

    The influence of crystalline morphology on the mechanical fatigue of organic semiconductors (OSCs) was investigated using 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as a crystalline OSC and poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) as an amorphous OSC. During cyclic bending, resistances of the OSCs were monitored using the transmission-line method on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure. The resistance of the TIPS-pentacene increased under fatigue damage in tensile-stress mode, but no such degradation was observed in the PTAA. Both OSCs were stable under compressive bending fatigue. The formation of intergranular cracks at the domain boundaries of the TIPS-pentacene was responsible for the degradation of its electrical properties under tensile bending fatigue.

  2. Students' feedback of objectively structured clinical examination: a private medical college experience.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Iram; Usman, Yaseen; Usman, Jawaid

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate undergraduate students' perceptions regarding Objectively Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to be used as a feedback to improve the assessment technique. At the end of OSCE, students were provided with a feedback questionnaire related to OSCE to obtain their views and comments. The feedback was obtained from two consecutive batches of third year medical students and was utilized to incorporate the improvements in the process, wherever possible. A great majority of students (93% from group 'A' and 95% from group 'B') regarded OSCE as a practical and useful assessment tool in early years of medical education. In this study, students appreciated OSCE and offered constructive feedback on structure and organization of the process. However, at some stations they felt that instructions were ambiguous and time allocation was inadequate for the assigned tasks. The overall feedback was very useful and facilitated a critical review of the process.

  3. Qualitative analysis of student beliefs and attitudes after an objective structured clinical evaluation: implications for affective domain learning in undergraduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Cazzell, Mary; Rodriguez, Amber

    2011-12-01

    This qualitative study explored the feelings, beliefs, and attitudes of senior-level undergraduate pediatric nursing students upon completion of a medication administration Objective Structured Clinical Evaluation (OSCE). The affective domain is the most neglected domain in higher education, although it is deemed the "gateway to learning." Quantitative assessments of clinical skills performed during OSCEs usually address two of the three domains of learning: cognitive (knowledge) and psychomotor skills. Twenty students volunteered to participate in focus groups (10 per group) and were asked three questions relevant to their feelings, beliefs, and attitudes about their OSCE experiences. Students integrated the attitude of safety first into future practice but felt that anxiety, loss of control, reaction under pressure, and no feedback affected their ability to connect the OSCE performance with future clinical practice. The findings affect future affective domain considerations in the development, modification, and assessment of OSCEs across the undergraduate nursing curriculum.

  4. Designing and implementing the objective structured clinical examination in anesthesiology.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Maya Jalbout; Spellman, Jessica L; Pagano, Parwane P; Hastie, Jonathan; Egan, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Since its description in 1974, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has gained popularity as an objective assessment tool of medical students, residents, and trainees. With the development of the anesthesiology residents' milestones and the preparation for the Next Accreditation System, there is an increased interest in OSCE as an evaluation tool of the six core competencies and the corresponding milestones proposed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.In this article the authors review the history of OSCE and its current application in medical education and in different medical and surgical specialties. They also review the use of OSCE by anesthesiology programs and certification boards in the United States and internationally. In addition, they discuss the psychometrics of test design and implementation with emphasis on reliability and validity measures as they relate to OSCE.

  5. Fully Printable Organic and Perovskite Solar Cells with Transfer-Printed Flexible Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianqiang; Tang, Xiaohong; Ye, Tao; Wu, Dan; Wang, Hong; Wang, Xizu

    2017-06-07

    The perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) with high performance were fabricated with transfer-printed top metal electrodes. We have demonstrated that PSCs and OSCs with the top Au electrodes fabricated by using the transfer printing method have comparable or better performance than the devices with the top Au electrodes fabricated by using the conventional thermal evaporation method. The highest PCE of the PSCs and OSCs with the top electrodes fabricated using the transfer printing method achieved 13.72% and 2.35%, respectively. It has been investigated that fewer defects between the organic thin films and Au electrodes exist by using the transfer printing method which improved the device stability. After storing the PSCs and OSCs with the transfer-printed electrodes in a nitrogen environment for 97 and 103 days without encapsulation, the PSCs and OSCs still retained 71% and 91% of their original PCEs, respectively.

  6. Influences of semiconductor morphology on the mechanical fatigue behavior of flexible organic electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Young-Joo; Yeon, Han-Wool; Shin, Hae-A-Seul; Joo, Young-Chang; Uk Lee, Yong; Evans, Louise A.

    2013-12-09

    The influence of crystalline morphology on the mechanical fatigue of organic semiconductors (OSCs) was investigated using 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as a crystalline OSC and poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) as an amorphous OSC. During cyclic bending, resistances of the OSCs were monitored using the transmission-line method on a metal-semiconductor-metal structure. The resistance of the TIPS-pentacene increased under fatigue damage in tensile-stress mode, but no such degradation was observed in the PTAA. Both OSCs were stable under compressive bending fatigue. The formation of intergranular cracks at the domain boundaries of the TIPS-pentacene was responsible for the degradation of its electrical properties under tensile bending fatigue.

  7. Association of the pre-internship objective structured clinical examination in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations.

    PubMed

    Eftekhar, Hasan; Labaf, Ali; Anvari, Pasha; Jamali, Arsia; Sheybaee-Moghaddam, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of the pre-internship Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in final year medical students with comprehensive written examinations. SUBJECTS AND MATERIAL: All medical students of October 2004 admission who took part in the October 2010 National Comprehensive Pre-internship Examination (NCPE) and pre-internship OSCE were included in the study (n = 130). OSCE and NCPE scores and medical grade point average (GPA) were collected. GPA was highly correlated with NCPE (r = 0.76 and P<0.001) and moderately with OSCE (r = 0.68 and P < 0.001). Similarly a moderate correlation was observed between NCPE and OSCE scores(r = 0.6 and P < 0.001).Linear stepwise regression shows r(2) of a model applying GPA as predictor of OSCE score is 0.46 (β = 0.68 and P < 0.001), while addition of gender to the model increases r(2) to 0.59 (β = 0.61 and 0.36, for GPA and male gender, respectively and P < 0.001). Logistic forward regression models shows male gender and GPA are the only dependent predictors of high score in OSCE. OR of GPA and male gender for high OSCE score are 4.89 (95% CI = 2.37-10.06) and 6.95 (95% CI = 2.00-24.21), respectively (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate OSCE and examination which mainly evaluate knowledge, judged by GPA and NCPE are moderately to highly correlated. Our results illustrate the interwoven nature of knowledge and clinical skills. In other words, certain level of knowledge is crucial for appropriate clinical performance. Our findings suggest neither OSCE nor written forms of assessments can replace each other. They are complimentary and should also be combined by other evaluations to cover all attributes of clinical competence efficiently.

  8. Use of online clinical videos for clinical skills training for medical students: benefits and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multimedia learning has been shown effective in clinical skills training. Yet, use of technology presents both opportunities and challenges to learners. The present study investigated student use and perceptions of online clinical videos for learning clinical skills and in preparing for OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination). This study aims to inform us how to make more effective us of these resources. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted for this study. A 30-items questionnaire was administered to investigate student use and perceptions of OSCE videos. Year 3 and 4 students from 34 Korean medical schools who had access to OSCE videos participated in the online survey. Additionally, a semi-structured interview of a group of Year 3 medical students was conducted for an in-depth understanding of student experience with OSCE videos. Results 411 students from 31 medical schools returned the questionnaires; a majority of them found OSCE videos effective for their learning of clinical skills and in preparing for OSCE. The number of OSCE videos that the students viewed was moderately associated with their self-efficacy and preparedness for OSCE (p < 0.05). One-thirds of those surveyed accessed the video clips using mobile devices; they agreed more with the statement that it was convenient to access the video clips than their peers who accessed the videos using computers (p < 0.05). Still, students reported lack of integration into the curriculum and lack of interaction as barriers to more effective use of OSCE videos. Conclusions The present study confirms the overall positive impact of OSCE videos on student learning of clinical skills. Having faculty integrate these learning resources into their teaching, integrating interactive tools into this e-learning environment to foster interactions, and using mobile devices for convenient access are recommended to help students make more effective use of these resources. PMID:24650290

  9. Use of online clinical videos for clinical skills training for medical students: benefits and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hye Won; Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2014-03-21

    Multimedia learning has been shown effective in clinical skills training. Yet, use of technology presents both opportunities and challenges to learners. The present study investigated student use and perceptions of online clinical videos for learning clinical skills and in preparing for OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Examination). This study aims to inform us how to make more effective us of these resources. A mixed-methods study was conducted for this study. A 30-items questionnaire was administered to investigate student use and perceptions of OSCE videos. Year 3 and 4 students from 34 Korean medical schools who had access to OSCE videos participated in the online survey. Additionally, a semi-structured interview of a group of Year 3 medical students was conducted for an in-depth understanding of student experience with OSCE videos. 411 students from 31 medical schools returned the questionnaires; a majority of them found OSCE videos effective for their learning of clinical skills and in preparing for OSCE. The number of OSCE videos that the students viewed was moderately associated with their self-efficacy and preparedness for OSCE (p < 0.05). One-thirds of those surveyed accessed the video clips using mobile devices; they agreed more with the statement that it was convenient to access the video clips than their peers who accessed the videos using computers (p < 0.05). Still, students reported lack of integration into the curriculum and lack of interaction as barriers to more effective use of OSCE videos. The present study confirms the overall positive impact of OSCE videos on student learning of clinical skills. Having faculty integrate these learning resources into their teaching, integrating interactive tools into this e-learning environment to foster interactions, and using mobile devices for convenient access are recommended to help students make more effective use of these resources.

  10. An unusual plant triterpene synthase with predominant α-amyrin-producing activity identified by characterizing oxidosqualene cyclases from Malus × domestica.

    PubMed

    Brendolise, Cyril; Yauk, Yar-Khing; Eberhard, Ellen D; Wang, Mindy; Chagne, David; Andre, Christelle; Greenwood, David R; Beuning, Lesley L

    2011-07-01

    The pentacyclic triterpenes, in particular ursolic acid and oleanolic acid and their derivatives, exist abundantly in the plant kingdom, where they are well known for their anti-inflammatory, antitumour and antimicrobial properties. α-Amyrin and β-amyrin are the precursors of ursolic and oleanolic acids, respectively, formed by concerted cyclization of squalene epoxide by a complex synthase reaction. We identified three full-length expressed sequence tag sequences in cDNA libraries constructed from apple (Malus × domestica 'Royal Gala') that were likely to encode triterpene synthases. Two of these expressed sequence tag sequences were essentially identical (> 99% amino acid similarity; MdOSC1 and MdOSC3). MdOSC1 and MdOSC2 were expressed by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and by expression in the yeast Pichia methanolica. The resulting products were analysed by GC and GC-MS. MdOSC1 was shown to be a mixed amyrin synthase (a 5 : 1 ratio of α-amyrin to β-amyrin). MdOSC1 is the only triterpene synthase so far identified in which the level of α-amyrin produced is > 80% of the total product and is, therefore, primarily an α-amyrin synthase. No product was evident for MdOSC2 when expressed either transiently or in yeast, suggesting that this putative triterpene synthase is either encoded by a pseudogene or does not express well in these systems. Transcript expression analysis in Royal Gala indicated that the genes are mostly expressed in apple peel, and that the MdOSC2 expression level was much lower than that of MdOSC1 and MdOSC3 in all the tissues tested. Amyrin content analysis was undertaken by LC-MS, and demonstrated that levels and ratios differ between tissues, but that the true consequence of synthase activity is reflected in the ursolic/oleanolic acid content and in further triterpenoids derived from them. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three triterpene synthase sequences with other triterpene synthases that encoded either

  11. Pharmacotherapy follow-up of patients under treatment with biologic agents for chronic inflammatory systemic conditions: an agreement among hospital pharmacists for the standardized collection of a minimum set of data.

    PubMed

    Calleja Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Herrero Ambrosio, Alicia; Lamas Díaz, María Jesús; Martínez Cutillas, Julio; Poveda Andrés, Jose Luis; Aragón, Belén

    2017-01-01

    Fundamento y objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio fue consensuar un conjunto mínimo de datos cuya recopilación sistemática y estandarizada, mediante una herramienta electrónica en la farmacia hospitalaria, permitiera optimizar el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico de los pacientes tratados con agentes biológicos por enfermedades sistémicas inflamatorias crónicas. Material y método: Se constituyó un comité científico (n = 5 farmacéuticos hospitalarios). Se empleó la técnica Delphi, 2 rondas de consulta, por correo electrónico entre farmacéuticos hospitalarios. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado basado en una revisión bibliográfica y en recomendaciones del comité científico, valorándose 37 afirmaciones en una escala Likert de 5 puntos (1 = “En total desacuerdo”; 5 = “Totalmente de acuerdo”). Se alcanzó consenso cuando el 75% o más de los panelistas puntuaron 1-2 (consenso-rechazo) o 4-5 (consenso- acuerdo) la cuestión planteada. Se realizaron análisis estadísticos descriptivos. Resultados: Participaron 21 farmacéuticos hospitalarios (70 invitados, 70% respuesta). Se logró consenso en el 100% de las afirmaciones. Se acordó el conjunto mínimo de datos y de recomendaciones que el farmacéutico debe recoger y hacer en las visitas; documentar el estado de salud, la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud, los cambios en la adherencia al tratamiento y en la autonomía de los pacientes, así como las condiciones para hacer factible la recopilación sistemática del conjunto mínimo de datos. Conclusiones: Existe consenso entre los farmacéuticos hospitalarios en un conjunto mínimo de datos cuya recopilación, mediante una herramienta electrónica, ordenará, estandarizará y sistematizará el seguimiento farmacoterapéutico de los pacientes con enfermedades inflamatorias crónicas en tratamiento con agentes biológicos en el entorno sanitario público español.

  12. Health Literacy in Transitions of Care: An Innovative Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Fourth-Year Medical Students in an Internship Preparation Course.

    PubMed

    Bloom-Feshbach, Kimberly; Casey, Dana; Schulson, Lucy; Gliatto, Peter; Giftos, Jonathan; Karani, Reena

    2016-02-01

    Low health literacy is associated with adverse health outcomes, especially during transitions of care. Competency-based assessments may improve communication during this time. To develop an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for medical students to demonstrate communication skills to be used during the hospital discharge process with patients of low health literacy. The OSCE was integrated into the curriculum of an internship preparatory clerkship. One hundred and one fourth-year medical students participated. Students received a skills-based health literacy workshop. In the OSCE, learners counseled standardized patients regarding initiation of anticoagulation at discharge and wrote discharge instructions. Fifty-seven students completed the workshop prior to the OSCE, and 44 participated in the workshop after the completing the OSCE. Participants who completed the workshop first outperformed their peers on the checklist (15.1 vs. 13.4, p < 0.0001) and on the reading level of their written instructions (9.9 vs. 10.6, p = 0.01); 82% felt confident communicating with patients of low health literacy after the workshop and OSCE. This OSCE is a tool to train and evaluate future interns' ability to communicate with patients of limited health literacy levels at hospital discharge. Such innovations may make this period of time safer for patients, improving health outcomes.

  13. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    Urteaga, Elizabeth M; Attridge, Rebecca L; Tovar, John M; Witte, Amy P

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains.

  14. Measuring the success of an objective structured clinical examination for dietetic students.

    PubMed

    Hawker, J A; Walker, K Z; Barrington, V; Andrianopoulos, N

    2010-06-01

    Growing requirements to train more dietetic students greatly increase the teaching burden on clinical supervisors. This may be reduced if students can develop basic nutrition assessment skills before they commence clinical placement. To test achievement of these skills by Australian dietetic students, a preclinical objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was developed. Performance at this OSCE was then compared with the performance at first clinical placement. An OSCE was developed to test preclinical skills during the third year of a 4-year dietetic degree. Learning outcomes relating to nutritional assessment skills were assessed via a 1-h preclinical examination. Student application of these skills was then assessed after the first clinical placement, when performance was compared with the results at the preclinical OSCE. One hundred and ninety-three students completed the preclinical OSCE and first clinical placement during the period 2002-2007. A strong relationship was observed for individual student scores at the OSCE and the score achieved at the end of clinical placement (beta = 0.66; 95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.86; P < 0.0001). This relationship was maintained even when outliers were removed. No specific year effect was apparent. A third-year preclinical dietetic OSCE was found to be a valuable method of formative assessment for assisting dietetic students with the preparation for their first clinical placement. It aided the early identification of those students who are likely to do less well on their first clinical placement.

  15. Fill factor in organic solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trukhanov, Vasily A.; Bruevich, Vladimir V.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu.

    2015-06-01

    The ultimate efficiency of organic solar cells (OSC) is under active debate. The solar cell efficiency is calculated from the current-voltage characteristic as a product of the open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current (JSC), and the fill factor (FF). While the factors limiting VOC and JSC for OSC were extensively studied, the ultimate FF for OSC is scarcely explored. Using numerical drift-diffusion modeling, we have found that the FF in OSC can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit (SQL) established for inorganic p-n junction solar cells. Comparing charge generation and recombination in organic donor-acceptor bilayer heterojunction and inorganic p-n junction, we show that such distinctive properties of OSC as interface charge generation and heterojunction facilitate high FF, but the necessary condition for FF exceeding the SQL in OSC is field-dependence of charge recombination at the donor-acceptor interface. These findings can serve as a guideline for further improvement of OSC.

  16. Fill factor in organic solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit

    PubMed Central

    Trukhanov, Vasily A.; Bruevich, Vladimir V.; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu.

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate efficiency of organic solar cells (OSC) is under active debate. The solar cell efficiency is calculated from the current-voltage characteristic as a product of the open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current (JSC), and the fill factor (FF). While the factors limiting VOC and JSC for OSC were extensively studied, the ultimate FF for OSC is scarcely explored. Using numerical drift-diffusion modeling, we have found that the FF in OSC can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit (SQL) established for inorganic p–n junction solar cells. Comparing charge generation and recombination in organic donor-acceptor bilayer heterojunction and inorganic p–n junction, we show that such distinctive properties of OSC as interface charge generation and heterojunction facilitate high FF, but the necessary condition for FF exceeding the SQL in OSC is field-dependence of charge recombination at the donor-acceptor interface. These findings can serve as a guideline for further improvement of OSC. PMID:26095688

  17. Fill factor in organic solar cells can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit.

    PubMed

    Trukhanov, Vasily A; Bruevich, Vladimir V; Paraschuk, Dmitry Yu

    2015-06-22

    The ultimate efficiency of organic solar cells (OSC) is under active debate. The solar cell efficiency is calculated from the current-voltage characteristic as a product of the open-circuit voltage (VOC), short-circuit current (JSC), and the fill factor (FF). While the factors limiting VOC and JSC for OSC were extensively studied, the ultimate FF for OSC is scarcely explored. Using numerical drift-diffusion modeling, we have found that the FF in OSC can exceed the Shockley-Queisser limit (SQL) established for inorganic p-n junction solar cells. Comparing charge generation and recombination in organic donor-acceptor bilayer heterojunction and inorganic p-n junction, we show that such distinctive properties of OSC as interface charge generation and heterojunction facilitate high FF, but the necessary condition for FF exceeding the SQL in OSC is field-dependence of charge recombination at the donor-acceptor interface. These findings can serve as a guideline for further improvement of OSC.

  18. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun

    2016-01-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low‐cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single‐junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single‐junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small‐molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon‐based materials, organic‐inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron‐transporting and hole‐transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure–property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research. PMID:27812480

  19. Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells: Five Core Technologies for Their Commercialization.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Junghwan; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kim, Heejoo; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-09-01

    The past two decades of vigorous interdisciplinary approaches has seen tremendous breakthroughs in both scientific and technological developments of bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs) based on nanocomposites of π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Because of their unique functionalities, the OSC field is expected to enable innovative photovoltaic applications that can be difficult to achieve using traditional inorganic solar cells: OSCs are printable, portable, wearable, disposable, biocompatible, and attachable to curved surfaces. The ultimate objective of this field is to develop cost-effective, stable, and high-performance photovoltaic modules fabricated on large-area flexible plastic substrates via high-volume/throughput roll-to-roll printing processing and thus achieve the practical implementation of OSCs. Recently, intensive research efforts into the development of organic materials, processing techniques, interface engineering, and device architectures have led to a remarkable improvement in power conversion efficiencies, exceeding 11%, which has finally brought OSCs close to commercialization. Current research interests are expanding from academic to industrial viewpoints to improve device stability and compatibility with large-scale printing processes, which must be addressed to realize viable applications. Here, both academic and industrial issues are reviewed by highlighting historically monumental research results and recent state-of-the-art progress in OSCs. Moreover, perspectives on five core technologies that affect the realization of the practical use of OSCs are presented, including device efficiency, device stability, flexible and transparent electrodes, module designs, and printing techniques.

  20. Coordinate patterns of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Wilms tumor 1 expression in the histopathologic distinction of ovarian from endometrial serous adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Fadare, Oluwole; James, Samuel; Desouki, Mohamed M; Khabele, Dineo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess whether composite or coordinate immunoexpression patterns of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene can significantly distinguish between endometrial serous carcinoma (ESC) and ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC). Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on whole tissue sections from 22 uterus-confined ESCs and on a tissue microarray of 140 high-grade, pan-stage OSCs, using antibodies to ER, PR, and WT-1. Estrogen receptor, PR, and WT1 expressions were present in 37%, 49%, and 81% of OSC, respectively, but these markers were also present in 18%, 27%, and 36% of ESC. The ER+/PR+/WT1+ coordinate profile was identified in 33.6% of OSC but in none of ESC (P = .0006), resulting in a calculated sensitivity and specificity of this profile for OSC of 33.6% and 100%, respectively. By contrast, the ER-/PR-/WT1- coordinate profile was identified in 41% of ESC but in only 6.4% of OSC (P = .0001), resulting in a calculated sensitivity and specificity of this profile for ESC of 50% and 94%. In summary, in the differential diagnosis between OSC and ESC, positivity for all 3 markers favors an extrauterine origin, whereas negativity for all 3 markers is supportive of an endometrial origin. The use of single markers for this purpose is not recommended, as each lacks optimal discriminatory power. Coordinate profiles, in general, have a high specificity but low sensitivity in this differential diagnosis.

  1. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  2. Evaluation of Clinical and Communication Skills of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Attridge, Rebecca L.; Tovar, John M.; Witte, Amy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate how effectively pharmacy students and practicing pharmacists communicate and apply knowledge to simulations of commonly encountered patient scenarios using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Design. Second-, third-, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed an OSCE as part of their required courses in 2012 and 2013. All students in both years completed identical OSCE cases. Licensed pharmacists were recruited to complete the OSCE and serve as controls in 2012. A survey assessed student perception and acceptance of the OSCE as well as student confidence in performance. Assessment. Licensed pharmacists had significantly higher clinical and communication skills scores than did pharmacy students. Student progression in communication and clinical skills improved significantly over time. Survey results indicated that students felt the OSCE was well-structured and assessed clinical skills taught in pharmacy school; 86% of students felt confident they could provide these skills. Conclusion. Objective structured clinical examinations can evaluate clinical competence and communication skills among professional students. Implementation of OSCEs may be an effective tool for assessment of the Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education domains. PMID:26690286

  3. Simultaneous determination of penicillin G salts by infrared spectroscopy: Evaluation of combining orthogonal signal correction with radial basis function-partial least squares regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebpour, Zahra; Tavallaie, Roya; Ahmadi, Seyyed Hamid; Abdollahpour, Assem

    2010-09-01

    In this study, a new method for the simultaneous determination of penicillin G salts in pharmaceutical mixture via FT-IR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics was investigated. The mixture of penicillin G salts is a complex system due to similar analytical characteristics of components. Partial least squares (PLS) and radial basis function-partial least squares (RBF-PLS) were used to develop the linear and nonlinear relation between spectra and components, respectively. The orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing method was used to correct unexpected information, such as spectral overlapping and scattering effects. In order to compare the influence of OSC on PLS and RBF-PLS models, the optimal linear (PLS) and nonlinear (RBF-PLS) models based on conventional and OSC preprocessed spectra were established and compared. The obtained results demonstrated that OSC clearly enhanced the performance of both RBF-PLS and PLS calibration models. Also in the case of some nonlinear relation between spectra and component, OSC-RBF-PLS gave satisfactory results than OSC-PLS model which indicated that the OSC was helpful to remove extrinsic deviations from linearity without elimination of nonlinear information related to component. The chemometric models were tested on an external dataset and finally applied to the analysis commercialized injection product of penicillin G salts.

  4. Student assessment by objective structured examination in a neurology clerkship

    PubMed Central

    Adesoye, Taiwo; Smith, Sandy; Blood, Angela; Brorson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the reliability and predictive ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the assessment of medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 third-year medical students who took the OSCE. For each student, the OSCE consisted of 2 standardized patient encounters. The scores obtained from each encounter were compared. Faculty clinical evaluations of each student for 2 clinical inpatient rotations were also compared. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to test the ability of the averaged OSCE scores to predict standardized written examination scores and composite clinical scores. Results: Students' OSCE scores from the 2 standardized patient encounters were significantly correlated with each other (r = 0.347, p < 0.001), and the scores for all students were normally distributed. In contrast, students' faculty clinical evaluation scores from 2 different clinical inpatient rotations were uncorrelated, and scores were skewed toward the highest ratings. After accounting for clerkship order, better OSCE scores were predictive of better National Board of Medical Examiners standardized examination scores (R2Δ = 0.131, p < 0.001) and of better faculty clinical scores (R2Δ = 0.078, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Student assessment by an OSCE provides a reliable and predictive objective assessment of clinical performance in a neurology clerkship. PMID:22855865

  5. Bioinformatics analysis of the oxidosqualene cyclase gene and the amino acid sequence in mangrove plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.

    2017-01-01

    This study described the bioinformatics methods to analyze seven oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC) genes from mangrove plants on DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank as well as predicted the structure, composition, similarity, subcellular localization and phylogenetic. The physical and chemical properties of seven mangrove OSC showed variation among the genes. The percentage of the secondary structure of seven mangrove OSC genes followed the order of a helix > random coil > extended chain structure. The values of chloroplast or signal peptide were too low, indicated that no chloroplast transit peptide or signal peptide of secretion pathway in mangrove OSC genes. The target peptide value of mitochondria varied from 0.163 to 0.430, indicated it was possible to exist. These results suggested the importance of understanding the diversity and functional of properties of the different amino acids in mangrove OSC genes. To clarify the relationship among the mangrove OSC gene, a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree shows that there are three clusters, Kandelia KcMS join with Bruguiera BgLUS, Rhizophora RsM1 was close to Bruguiera BgbAS, and Rhizophora RcCAS join with Kandelia KcCAS. The present study, therefore, supported the previous results that plant OSC genes form distinct clusters in the tree.

  6. Determination of oversulfated chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate impurities in heparin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Somsen, Govert W; Tak, Yvonne H; Toraño, Javier Sastre; Jongen, Peter M J M; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) present in certain lots of heparin was identified as the toxic contaminant responsible for severe side effects following intravenous heparin administration. The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and European Pharmacopeia (Eur.Ph.) announced an immediate revision of their monographs for heparin sodium by adding two US Food and Drugs Administration-recommended tests for OSCS based on nuclear magnetic resonance and capillary electrophoresis (CE). However, the proposed CE method provides only partial separation of the OSCS contaminant from heparin, thereby hindering appropriate impurity profiling. Here we present an improved CE method that is especially useful for the reliable quantification of OSCS in heparin samples, but also allows determination of the common impurity dermatan sulfate (DS). Parameters such as type and concentration of background electrolyte, capillary temperature, sample concentration and injection volume were investigated and optimized. Enhancement of the OSCS-heparin separation was achieved by using high concentrations of Tris phosphate (pH 3.0) as background electrolyte. High currents and excessive Joule heating were prevented by employing fused-silica capillaries with an internal diameter of 25 microm. Good separations of OSCS, heparin and DS are obtained within 17 min. The method permits injection of relatively high heparin concentrations (up to 50 mg/ml) and large sample volumes (up to 5% of the capillary volume) allowing OSCS and DS determination in heparin down to the 0.05% and 0.5% (w/w) level, respectively. The CE method is shown to be repeatable and linear (R(2)>0.99) for OSCS, heparin and DS. CE analyses of OSCS-contaminated heparin samples and different heparin standards further demonstrate the utility of the method.

  7. Does Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Score Reflect the Clinical Reasoning Ability of Medical Students?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Seok Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Clinical reasoning ability is an important factor in a physician's competence and thus should be taught and tested in medical schools. Medical schools generally use objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) to measure the clinical competency of medical students. However, it is unknown whether OSCE can also evaluate clinical reasoning ability. In this study, the authors investigated whether OSCE scores reflected students' clinical reasoning abilities. Methods: Sixty-five fourth-year medical students participated in this study. Medical students completed the OSCE with 4 cases using standardized patients. For assessment of clinical reasoning, students were asked to list differential diagnoses and the findings that were compatible or not compatible with each diagnosis. The OSCE score (score of patient encounter), diagnostic accuracy score, clinical reasoning score, clinical knowledge score and grade point average (GPA) were obtained for each student, and correlation analysis was performed. Results: Clinical reasoning score was significantly correlated with diagnostic accuracy and GPA (correlation coefficient = 0.258 and 0.380; P = 0.038 and 0.002, respectively) but not with OSCE score or clinical knowledge score (correlation coefficient = 0.137 and 0.242; P = 0.276 and 0.052, respectively). Total OSCE score was not significantly correlated with clinical knowledge test score, clinical reasoning score, diagnostic accuracy score or GPA. Conclusions: OSCE score from patient encounters did not reflect the clinical reasoning abilities of the medical students in this study. The evaluation of medical students' clinical reasoning abilities through OSCE should be strengthened. PMID:25647834

  8. The influence of students' prior clinical skills and context characteristics on mini-CEX scores in clerkships--a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Rogausch, Anja; Beyeler, Christine; Montagne, Stephanie; Jucker-Kupper, Patrick; Berendonk, Christoph; Huwendiek, Sören; Gemperli, Armin; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2015-11-25

    In contrast to objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), mini-clinical evaluation exercises (mini-CEXs) take place at the clinical workplace. As both mini-CEXs and OSCEs assess clinical skills, but within different contexts, this study aims at analyzing to which degree students' mini-CEX scores can be predicted by their recent OSCE scores and/or context characteristics. Medical students participated in an end of Year 3 OSCE and in 11 mini-CEXs during 5 different clerkships of Year 4. The students' mean scores of 9 clinical skills OSCE stations and mean 'overall' and 'domain' mini-CEX scores, averaged over all mini-CEXs of each student were computed. Linear regression analyses including random effects were used to predict mini-CEX scores by OSCE performance and characteristics of clinics, trainers, students and assessments. A total of 512 trainers in 45 clinics provided 1783 mini-CEX ratings for 165 students; OSCE results were available for 144 students (87%). Most influential for the prediction of 'overall' mini-CEX scores was the trainers' clinical position with a regression coefficient of 0.55 (95%-CI: 0.26-0.84; p < .001) for residents compared to heads of department. Highly complex tasks and assessments taking place in large clinics significantly enhanced 'overall' mini-CEX scores, too. In contrast, high OSCE performance did not significantly increase 'overall' mini-CEX scores. In our study, Mini-CEX scores depended rather on context characteristics than on students' clinical skills as demonstrated in an OSCE. Ways are discussed which focus on either to enhance the scores' validity or to use narrative comments only.

  9. Assessment of first-year veterinary students' clinical skills using objective structured clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Kent; Read, Emma K; Vallevand, Andrea; Krebs, Gord; Donszelmann, Darlene; Muelling, Christoph K W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    The DVM program at the University of Calgary offers a Clinical Skills course each year for the first three years. The course is designed to teach students the procedural skills required for entry-level general veterinary practice. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess students' performance on these procedural skills. A series of three OSCEs were developed for the first year. Content was determined by an exam blueprint, exam scoring sheets were created, rater training was provided, a mock OSCE was performed with faculty and staff, and the criterion-referencing Ebel method was used to set cut scores for each station using two content experts. Each station and the overall exam were graded as pass or fail. Thirty first-year DVM students were assessed. Content validity was ensured by the exam blueprint and expert review. Reliability (coefficient α) of the stations from the three OSCE exams ranged from 0.0 to 0.71. The three exam reliabilities (Generalizability Theory) were, for OSCE 1, G=0.56; OSCE 2, G=0.37; and OSCE 3, G=0.32. Preliminary analysis has suggested that the OSCEs demonstrate face and content validity, and certain stations demonstrated adequate reliability. Overall exam reliability was low, which reflects issues with first-time exam delivery. Because this year was the first that this course was taught and this exam format was used, work continues in the program on the teaching of the procedural skills and the development and revision of OSCE stations and scoring checklists.

  10. Solution-processed Ag-nanowire/ZnO-nanoparticle composite transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Pan, Saihu; Wang, Taohong; Tian, Zhenghao; Chen, Guo; Xu, Tao

    2016-12-16

    This paper demonstrates a hybrid transparent electrode composed of a solution-processed silver-nanowire (AgNW) film coated by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) acting as a modified buffer layer. The effect of the ZnO-NPs' coating ratio on the performances of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) has been systematically investigated. The optimized ITO-free OSCs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.85%, while flexible OSCs using the AgNW/ZnO-NP composite transparent electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate showed a PCE of 2.2%.

  11. Highly Efficient Organic Solar Cells Consisting of Double Bulk Heterojunction Layers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiang; Wang, Hanyu; Yan, Kangrong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Hongzheng; Li, Chang-Zhi; Yu, Junsheng

    2017-03-15

    An organic solar cell (OSCs) containing double bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layers, namely, double-BHJ OSCs is constructed via stamp transferring of low bandgap BHJ atop of mediate bandgap active layers. Such devices allow a large gain in photocurrent to be obtained due to enhanced photoharvest, without suffering much from the fill factor drop usually seen in thick-layer-based devices. Overall, double-BHJ OSC with optimal ≈50 nm near-infrared PDPP3T:PC71 BM layer atop of ≈200 nm PTB7-Th:PC71 BM BHJ results in high power conversion efficiencies over 12%.

  12. Solution-processed Ag-nanowire/ZnO-nanoparticle composite transparent electrode for flexible organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Bin; Pan, Saihu; Wang, Taohong; Tian, Zhenghao; Chen, Guo; Xu, Tao

    2016-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a hybrid transparent electrode composed of a solution-processed silver-nanowire (AgNW) film coated by zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) acting as a modified buffer layer. The effect of the ZnO-NPs’ coating ratio on the performances of indium tin oxide (ITO)-free organic solar cells (OSCs) has been systematically investigated. The optimized ITO-free OSCs achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.85%, while flexible OSCs using the AgNW/ZnO-NP composite transparent electrode grown on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate showed a PCE of 2.2%.

  13. Full-solution processed flexible organic solar cells using low-cost printable copper electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Kan; Zhen, Hongyu; Niu, Liyong; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Yaokang; Guo, Ruisheng; Yu, You; Yan, Feng; Li, Haifeng; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-11-12

    Full-solution-processed flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated using low-cost and high-quality printable Cu electrodes, which achieve a power conversion efficiency as high as 2.77% and show remarkable stability upon 1000 bending cycles. This device performance is thought to be the best among all full-solution-processed OSCs reported in the literature using the same active materials. This printed Cu electrode is promising for application in roll-to-roll fabrication of flexible OSCs.

  14. Generation and Modulation of a Millimeter-Wave Subcarrier on an Optical Frequency Generated via Optical Injection (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    the measured output power of the laser, is the damping rate, and osc is the oscillation frequency defined in (7) dPout ðtÞ ¼ dPout ð1Þ 1 et=2cosð...osctÞ 2 osc et=2sinðosctÞ (6) osc ¼fr ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi 1...A, Atom.,Mol., Opt. Phys., vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 4181–4185,May 1995. [25] T. B. Simpson, BMapping the nonlinear dynamics of a distributed feedback

  15. High performance n-type and ambipolar small organic semiconductors for organic thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ke; Dong, Huanli; Zhang, Hao-li; Hu, Wenping

    2014-11-07

    Remarkable progress has recently been achieved in n-type and ambipolar OFETs. In this mini review, we will highlight the representative development of high performance n-type and ambipolar organic semiconductors (OSCs) especially for those n-type small OSCs with thin film mobilities >1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and ambipolar small OSCs with both hole and electron mobilities of over 0.1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This overview shall provide a meaningful guideline for further development of high performance n-type and ambipolar materials and devices.

  16. Mechanism of optical absorption enhancement in thin film organic solar cells with plasmonic metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qu, Di; Liu, Fang; Huang, Yidong; Xie, Wanlu; Xu, Qi

    2011-11-21

    The optical absorption enhancement in thin film organic solar cells (OSCs) with plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs) has been studied by means of finite element method with a three-dimension model. It is found that significant plasmonic enhancement of above 100% can be obtained by introducing Ag-NPs at the interface between P3HT:PCBM active layer and PEDOT:PSS anode layer. This enhancement is even larger than that with Ag-NPs totally embedded in the P3HT:PCBM active layer of thin film OSCs. Furthermore, the enhancement mechanism of Ag-NPs at different positions of thin film OSCs is investigated.

  17. The emerging multiple metal nanostructures for enhancing the light trapping of thin film organic photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Choy, Wallace C H

    2014-10-18

    Recently, various metal nanostructures have been introduced into organic solar cells (OSCs) for performance enhancement. Here, we review the recent progress in OSCs incorporated with multiple metal nanostructures including various metal nanopatterns and metal nanomaterials. Multiple physical effects arise from these incorporated nanostructures, which require careful distinction. Changes induced by the metal nanostructures are examined in detail from the optical and electrical aspects. With the comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms for various metal nanostructures, further improvement in device performance and emerging applications can be expected for the new class of nanostructure-incorporated OSCs.

  18. Teaching core competencies of reconstructive microsurgery with the use of standardized patients.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji; Zeidler, Kamakshi R; Echo, Anthony; Otake, Leo; Ahdoot, Michael; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-04-01

    The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education has defined 6 core competencies that residents must master before completing their training. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) using standardized patients are effective educational tools to assess and teach core competencies. We developed an OSCE specific for microsurgical head and neck reconstruction. Fifteen plastic surgery residents participated in the OSCE simulating a typical new patient consultation, which involved a patient with oral cancer. Residents were scored in all 6 core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts. Analysis of participant performance showed that although residents performed well overall, many lacked proficiency in systems-based practice. Junior residents were also more likely to omit critical elements of the physical examination compared to senior residents. We have modified our educational curriculum to specifically address these deficiencies. Our study demonstrates that the OSCE is an effective assessment tool for teaching and assessing all core competencies in microsurgery.

  19. Nonlinear Phase Distortion in a Ti:Sapphire Optical Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Andorf, Matthew; Lebedev, Valeri; Piot, Philippe; Ruan, Jinhao

    2016-06-01

    Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) has been considered for future high-luminosity colliders as it offers much faster cooling time in comparison to the micro-wave stochastic cooling. The OSC technique relies on collecting and amplifying a broadband optical signal from a pickup undulator and feeding the amplified signal back to the beam. It creates a corrective kick in a kicker undulator. Owing to its superb gain qualities and broadband amplification features, Titanium:Sapphire medium has been considered as a gain medium for the optical amplifier (OA) needed in the OSC*. A limiting factor for any OA used in OSC is the possibility of nonlinear phase distortions. In this paper we experimentally measure phase distortions by inserting a single-pass OA into one leg of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The measurement results are used to estimate the reduction of the corrective kick a particle would receive due to these phase distortions in the kicker undulator.

  20. High-Performance Long-Term-Stable Dopant-Free Perovskite Solar Cells and Additive-Free Organic Solar Cells by Employing Newly Designed Multirole π-Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Kranthiraja, Kakaraparthi; Gunasekar, Kumarasamy; Kim, Hyunji; Cho, An-Na; Park, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Seonha; Kim, Bumjoon J; Nishikubo, Ryosuke; Saeki, Akinori; Song, Myungkwan; Jin, Sung-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and organic solar cells (OSCs) are promising renewable light-harvesting technologies with high performance, but the utilization of hazardous dopants and high boiling additives is harmful to all forms of life and the environment. Herein, new multirole π-conjugated polymers (P1-P3) are developed via a rational design approach through theoretical hindsight, further successfully subjecting them into dopant-free PSCs as hole-transporting materials and additive-free OSCs as photoactive donors, respectively. Especially, P3-based PSCs and OSCs not only show high power conversion efficiencies of 17.28% and 8.26%, but also display an excellent ambient stability up to 30 d (for PSCs only), owing to their inherent superior optoelectronic properties in their pristine form. Overall, the rational approach promises to support the development of environmentally and economically sustainable PSCs and OSCs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Development of a Single-Pass Amplifier for an Optical Stochastic Cooling Proof-of-Principle Experiment at Fermilab's IOTA Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Andorf, M. B.; Lebedev, V. A.; Piot, P.

    2015-06-01

    Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is a method of beam cooling which is expected to provide cooling rates orders of magnitude larger than ordinary stochastic cooling. Light from an undulator (the pickup) is amplified and fed back onto the particle beam via another undulator (the kicker). Fermilab is currently exploring a possible proof-of-principle experiment of the OSC at the integrable-optics test accelerator (IOTA) ring. To implement effective OSC a good correction of phase distortions in the entire band of the optical amplifier is required. In this contribution we present progress in experimental characterization of phase distortions associated to a Titanium Sapphire crystal laser-gain medium (a possible candidate gain medium for the OSC experiment to be performed at IOTA). We also discuss a possible option for a mid-IR amplifier

  2. 77 FR 7584 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Heparin for Drug and Medical Device Use; Monitoring Crude Heparin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... (especially ruminant material) contaminants. This draft guidance on crude heparin recommends strategies to... contamination of heparin with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent derived from ruminant materials... contaminated with OSCS or any non- porcine origin material, especially ruminant material (unless...

  3. 43 CFR 11.20 - Notification and detection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CERCLA requires prompt notification of Federal and State natural resource trustees of potential damages..., and planning under section 104 of CERCLA with such trustees. (2) The NCP provides for the OSC or...

  4. 77 FR 67025 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Immigration-Related Unfair Employment Practices (OSC), Civil Rights Division, United States Department of.... If additional information is required contact: Jerri Murray, Department Clearance Officer, United States Department of Justice, Justice Management Division, Policy and Planning Staff, Two...

  5. Analysis and optimization of surface plasmon-enhanced organic solar cells with a metallic crossed grating electrode.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eungkyu; Kim, Changsoon

    2012-09-10

    We perform a systematic analysis of enhanced short-circuit current density (J(sc) in organic solar cells (OSCs) where one metallic electrode is optically thick and the other consists of a two-dimensional metallic crossed grating. By examining a model device representative of such surface plasmon (SP)-enhanced OSCs by the Fourier modal and finite-element methods for electromagnetic and exciton diffusion calculations, respectively, we provide general guidelines to maximize J(sc) of the SP-enhanced OSCs. Based on this study, we optimize the performance of a small-molecule OSC employing a copper phthalocyanine-fullerene donor-acceptor pair, demonstrating that the optimized SP-enhanced device has J(sc) that is 75 % larger than that of the optimized device with an ITO-based conventional structure.

  6. 20 CFR 655.1316 - Job Service Complaint System; enforcement of work contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... violations involving the same, may be referred to the U.S. Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division, Office of Special Counsel for Unfair Immigration Related Employment Practices (OSC), in addition to...

  7. Stability of organic solar cells: challenges and strategies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Pei; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2016-05-03

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) present some advantages, such as simple preparation, light weight, low cost and large-area flexible fabrication, and have attracted much attention in recent years. Although the power conversion efficiencies have exceeded 10%, the inferior device stability still remains a great challenge. In this review, we summarize the factors limiting the stability of OSCs, such as metastable morphology, diffusion of electrodes and buffer layers, oxygen and water, irradiation, heating and mechanical stress, and survey recent progress in strategies to increase the stability of OSCs, such as material design, device engineering of active layers, employing inverted geometry, optimizing buffer layers, using stable electrodes and encapsulation. Some research areas of device stability that may deserve further attention are also discussed to help readers understand the challenges and opportunities in achieving high efficiency and high stability of OSCs towards future industrial manufacture.

  8. Optical and electrical study of organic solar cells with a 2D grating anode.

    PubMed

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Wu, Yumao; Chew, Weng Cho

    2012-01-30

    We investigate both optical and electrical properties of organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating 2D periodic metallic back grating as an anode. Using a unified finite-difference approach, the multiphysics modeling framework for plasmonic OSCs is established to seamlessly connect the photon absorption with carrier transport and collection by solving the Maxwell's equations and semiconductor equations (Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations). Due to the excited surface plasmon resonance, the significantly nonuniform and extremely high exciton generation rate near the metallic grating are strongly confirmed by our theoretical model. Remarkably, the nonuniform exciton generation indeed does not induce more recombination loss or smaller open-circuit voltage compared to 1D multilayer standard OSC device. The increased open-circuit voltage and reduced recombination loss by the plasmonic OSC are attributed to direct hole collections at the metallic grating anode with a short transport path. The work provides an important multiphysics understanding for plasmonic organic photovoltaics.

  9. Study of efficiency enhancement in layered geometry of excitonic-plasmonic solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Nilesh K.; Ji, Alok; Sharma, R. P.

    2014-06-01

    The nano-plasmonic effect on the organic solar cell (OSC) considering different materials, thickness, configurations and geometry has been considered. A theoretical modelling based on exciton-plasmon coupling using first principle approach was done to see the effect of incident photon to current collection efficiency of OSC in the direction to achieve efficient light trapping. For the present numerical model, uniform sized silver Nanoparticle were considered to be embedded in the active layer poly-(4'-(1", 4", 7"-trioaoctyl) phenyl) thiophanyl (PEOPT) of OSC. The coupling of local electromagnetic field due to metallic nano-plasmonic antenna resulted in the enhanced overall performance of the OSC. Optimized efficiency calculations suggested that there is nearly 1.6 % of enhancement in the efficiency (IPCE) due to plasmonic coupling to excitonic cell.

  10. Organic photovoltaic with various plasmonic nanostructures using titanium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdi, Sara; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate absorption improvement in organic solar cells due to the incorporation of TiN nanopatterned back electrode. Organic solar cells (OSC) have already reached 10% power conversion efficiency (PCE), which made them comparable to commercial solar cells. Localizing light using plasmonic nanostructures has the potential to overcome OSC absorption limitations and thus further improve their PCE. Using a C-MOS compatible, cheap and abundant material for light trapping could facilitate the commercialization of OSC. This work theoretically shows that the replacement of Ag nanopatterned back electrode with TiN in plasmonic OSC gives enhanced performance. In addition, the incorporation of TiN nanoparticles inside the active layer has been studied and analyzed.

  11. 40 CFR 300.322 - Response to substantial threats to public health or welfare of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall conduct an evaluation of the threat posed, based on the OSC's experience in assessing other... discharging, or threatening to discharge, by whatever means are available. (c) In the case of a substantial...

  12. Large-area formation of self-aligned crystalline domains of organic semiconductors on transistor channels using CONNECT.

    PubMed

    Park, Steve; Giri, Gaurav; Shaw, Leo; Pitner, Gregory; Ha, Jewook; Koo, Ja Hoon; Gu, Xiaodan; Park, Joonsuk; Lee, Tae Hoon; Nam, Ji Hyun; Hong, Yongtaek; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-05-05

    The electronic properties of solution-processable small-molecule organic semiconductors (OSCs) have rapidly improved in recent years, rendering them highly promising for various low-cost large-area electronic applications. However, practical applications of organic electronics require patterned and precisely registered OSC films within the transistor channel region with uniform electrical properties over a large area, a task that remains a significant challenge. Here, we present a technique termed "controlled OSC nucleation and extension for circuits" (CONNECT), which uses differential surface energy and solution shearing to simultaneously generate patterned and precisely registered OSC thin films within the channel region and with aligned crystalline domains, resulting in low device-to-device variability. We have fabricated transistor density as high as 840 dpi, with a yield of 99%. We have successfully built various logic gates and a 2-bit half-adder circuit, demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique for large-scale circuit fabrication.

  13. Correlation of a written test of skills and a performance based test: a study in two traditional medical schools.

    PubMed

    Remmen, Roy; Scherpbier, Albert; Denekens, Joke; Derese, Anselm; Hermann, Ingeborg; Hoogenboom, Ron; van Der Vleuten, Cees; van Royen, Paul; Bossaert, Leo

    2001-01-01

    Studies in innovative curricula have shown that a written test of skills is potentially able to predict OSCE scores. In this study we verified the potential of a written test of skills as an alternative to an OSCE in two traditional medical schools. A 12 station OSCE was scored using detailed checklists and global rating scales. The written test of skills consisted of 132 true-false questions. Students were assessed immediately before graduation in 1997. The size of the reported correlations confirms that the written test of skills can be used to predict performance-based test scores in traditional medical schools to some extent. For research purposes, particularly for outcome research to compare curricula of medical schools, a written test of skills is a viable alternative to performance-based testing. A written test of skills is unable to replace the OSCE for assessment of individual students.

  14. 40 CFR 300.320 - General pattern of response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY... shall monitor the situation to ensure that proper removal action is being taken. (3) If the OSC...

  15. Developing a successful nursing Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Paula; Botwinski, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of nursing students' clinical competencies is essential to the educational process. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) program was designed to assess students in a variety of health topics that may not be experienced during the assigned clinical rotation. Building on prior work, the purpose of this study was to examine specific aspects of the nursing OSCE toward developing a reliable and valid tool for evaluating selected students' clinical competencies.The following areas were investigated using an assessment design: the development of case scenarios and updates, the role and training of the standardized patient, and students' perceptions of the nursing OSCE experience. Recommendations are made for the variety of case scenarios, frequency of updates, methods by which standardized patients should be trained, remediation, and program requirements. Students were overwhelmingly favorable to perceived benefits of participation in OSCEs during their nursing education.

  16. National Response Team (NRT) Member Roles and Responsibilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA personnel chair the NRT and cochair all Regional Response Teams (RRTs). They provide On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), scientific support coordinators for inland spills, and Remedial Project Managers for hazardous waste remedial actions under Superfund.

  17. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  18. Large-area formation of self-aligned crystalline domains of organic semiconductors on transistor channels using CONNECT

    PubMed Central

    Park, Steve; Giri, Gaurav; Shaw, Leo; Pitner, Gregory; Ha, Jewook; Koo, Ja Hoon; Gu, Xiaodan; Park, Joonsuk; Lee, Tae Hoon; Nam, Ji Hyun; Hong, Yongtaek; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    The electronic properties of solution-processable small-molecule organic semiconductors (OSCs) have rapidly improved in recent years, rendering them highly promising for various low-cost large-area electronic applications. However, practical applications of organic electronics require patterned and precisely registered OSC films within the transistor channel region with uniform electrical properties over a large area, a task that remains a significant challenge. Here, we present a technique termed “controlled OSC nucleation and extension for circuits” (CONNECT), which uses differential surface energy and solution shearing to simultaneously generate patterned and precisely registered OSC thin films within the channel region and with aligned crystalline domains, resulting in low device-to-device variability. We have fabricated transistor density as high as 840 dpi, with a yield of 99%. We have successfully built various logic gates and a 2-bit half-adder circuit, demonstrating the practical applicability of our technique for large-scale circuit fabrication. PMID:25902502

  19. Prevalence and Incidence of Traumatic Experiences Among Orphans in Institutional and Family-Based Settings in 5 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Gray, Christine L; Pence, Brian W; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel A; O'Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan M; Whetten, Kathryn

    2015-08-25

    Policy makers struggling to protect the 153 million orphaned and separated children (OSC) worldwide need evidence-based research on the burden of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relative risk of PTEs across different types of care settings. The Positive Outcomes for Orphans study used a 2-stage, cluster-randomized sampling design to identify 1,357 institution-dwelling and 1,480 family-dwelling orphaned and separated children in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We used the Life Events Checklist developed by the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to examine self-reported PTEs among 2,235 OSC ages 10-13 at baseline. We estimated prevalence and incidence during 36-months of follow-up and compared the risk of PTEs across care settings. Data collection began between May 2006 and February 2008, depending on the site. Lifetime prevalence by age 13 of any PTE, excluding loss of a parent, was 91.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 85.6, 94.5) in institution-dwelling OSC and 92.4% (95% CI = 90.3, 94.0) in family-dwelling OSC; annual incidence of any PTE was lower in institution-dwelling (23.6% [95% CI = 19.4, 28.7]) than family-dwelling OSC (30.0% [95% CI = 28.1, 32.2]). More than half of children in institutions (50.3% [95% CI = 42.5, 58.0]) and in family-based care (54.0% [95% CI = 50.2, 57.7]) had experienced physical or sexual abuse by age 13. Annual incidence of physical or sexual abuse was lower in institution-dwelling (12.9% [95% CI = 9.6, 17.3]) than family-dwelling OSC (19.4% [95% CI = 17.7, 21.3]), indicating statistically lower risk in institution-dwelling OSC (risk difference = 6.5% [95% CI = 1.4, 11.7]). Prevalence and incidence of PTEs were high among OSC, but contrary to common assumptions, OSC living in institutions did not report more PTEs or more abuse than OSC living with families. Current efforts to reduce the number of institution-dwelling OSC may

  20. A Descriptive Survey of Anesthesiology Residency Simulation Programs: How Are Programs Preparing Residents for the New American Board of Anesthesiology APPLIED Certification Examination?

    PubMed

    Isaak, Robert S; Chen, Fei; Arora, Harendra; Martinelli, Susan M; Zvara, David A; Stiegler, Marjorie P

    2017-09-01

    Anesthesiology residency programs may need new simulation-based programs to prepare residents for the new Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) component of the American Board of Anesthesiology (ABA) Primary Certification process. The design of such programs may require significant resources, including faculty time, expertise, and funding, as are currently needed for structured oral examination (SOE) preparation. This survey analyzed the current state of US-based anesthesiology residency programs regarding simulation-based educational programming for SOE and OSCE preparation. An online survey was distributed to every anesthesiology residency program director in the United States. The survey included 15 to 46 questions, depending on each respondent's answers. The survey queried current practices and future plans regarding resident preparation specifically for the ABA APPLIED examination, with emphasis on the OSCE. Descriptive statistics were summarized. χ and Fisher exact tests were used to test the differences in proportions across groups. Spearman rank correlation was used to examine the association between ordinal variables. The responding 66 programs (49%) were a representative sample of all anesthesiology residencies (N = 136) in terms of geographical location (χ P = .58). There was a low response rate from small programs that have 12 or fewer clinical anesthesia residents. Ninety-one percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 84%-95%) of responders agreed that it is the responsibility of the program to specifically prepare residents for primary certification, and most agreed that it is important to practice SOEs (94%; 95% CI, 88%-97%) and OSCEs (89%; 95% CI, 83%-94%). While 100% of respondents reported providing mock SOEs, only 31% (95% CI, 24%-40%) of respondents provided mock OSCE experiences. Of those without an OSCE program, 75% (95% CI, 64%-83%) reported plans to start one. The most common reasons for not having an OSCE program already in place

  1. The method used to set the pass mark in an objective structured clinical examination defines the performance of candidates for certification as rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Guilaisne Bernard-Medina, Ana; Flores-Alvarado, Diana Elsa; Portela-Hernández, Margarita; Maldonado-Velázquez, María Del Rocío; Jara-Quezada, Luis Javier; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis Manuel; Rubio-Judith López-Zepeda, Nadina E; Álvarez-Hernandez, Everardo; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    The Mexican Accreditation Council for Rheumatology certifies trainees (TR) on an annual basis using both a multiple-choice question (MCQ) test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). For 2013 and 2014, the OSCE pass mark (PM) was set by criterion referencing as ≥6 (CPM), whereas overall rating of borderline performance method (BPM) was added for 2015 and 2016 accreditations. We compared OSCE TR performance according to CPM and BPM, and examined whether correlations between MCQ and OSCE were affected by PM. Forty-three (2015) and 37 (2016) candidates underwent both tests. Altogether, OSCE were integrated by 15 validated stations; one evaluator per station scored TR performance according to a station-tailored check-list and a Likert scale (fail, borderline, above range) of overall performance. A composite OSCE score was derived for each candidate. Appropriate statistics were used. Mean (±standard derivation [SD]) MCQ test scores were 6.6±0.6 (2015) and 6.4±0.6 (2016) with 5 candidates receiving a failing score each year. Mean (±SD) OSCE scores were 7.4±0.6 (2015) and 7.3±0.6 (2016); no candidate received a failing CPM score in either 2015 or 2016 OSCE, although 21 (49%) and 19 (51%) TR, respectively, received a failing BPM score (calculated as 7.3 and 7.4, respectively). Stations for BPM ranged from 4.5 to 9.5; overall, candidates showed better performance in CPM. In all, MCQ correlated with composite OSCE, r=0.67 (2015) and r=0.53 (2016); P≤.001. Trainees with a passing BPM score in OSCE had higher MCQ scores than those with a failing score. Overall, OSCE-PM selection impacted candidates' performance but had a limited affect on correlation between clinical and practical examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and Incidence of Traumatic Experiences Among Orphans in Institutional and Family-Based Settings in 5 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Brian W; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel A; O’Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan M; Whetten, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Policy makers struggling to protect the 153 million orphaned and separated children (OSC) worldwide need evidence-based research on the burden of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relative risk of PTEs across different types of care settings. Methods: The Positive Outcomes for Orphans study used a 2-stage, cluster-randomized sampling design to identify 1,357 institution-dwelling and 1,480 family-dwelling orphaned and separated children in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We used the Life Events Checklist developed by the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to examine self-reported PTEs among 2,235 OSC ages 10–13 at baseline. We estimated prevalence and incidence during 36-months of follow-up and compared the risk of PTEs across care settings. Data collection began between May 2006 and February 2008, depending on the site. Results: Lifetime prevalence by age 13 of any PTE, excluding loss of a parent, was 91.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 85.6, 94.5) in institution-dwelling OSC and 92.4% (95% CI = 90.3, 94.0) in family-dwelling OSC; annual incidence of any PTE was lower in institution-dwelling (23.6% [95% CI = 19.4, 28.7]) than family-dwelling OSC (30.0% [95% CI = 28.1, 32.2]). More than half of children in institutions (50.3% [95% CI = 42.5, 58.0]) and in family-based care (54.0% [95% CI = 50.2, 57.7]) had experienced physical or sexual abuse by age 13. Annual incidence of physical or sexual abuse was lower in institution-dwelling (12.9% [95% CI = 9.6, 17.3]) than family-dwelling OSC (19.4% [95% CI = 17.7, 21.3]), indicating statistically lower risk in institution-dwelling OSC (risk difference = 6.5% [95% CI = 1.4, 11.7]). Conclusion: Prevalence and incidence of PTEs were high among OSC, but contrary to common assumptions, OSC living in institutions did not report more PTEs or more abuse than OSC living with families. Current efforts to reduce

  3. Albania’s Counter-Terrorism Policy Options: Finding a Strategy of Common Sense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Hoxha, Banner of Struggle for Freedom and Socialism (Tirana, N.p., 1985), 107. 15 Aleks Luarasi, Historia e Institucioneve Juridike Shqiptare...minority villages and neighborhoods. The rampage left nineteen dead; nearly 900 injured; 700 Serb, Ashkali and Roma homes, up to 10 public buildings, 30...OSCE, February 2004. http://www.osce.org/documents/pia/2004/02/2117_en.pdf (accessed 20 March 2004). Luarasi, Aleks. Historia e Institucioneve

  4. Toward Highly Efficient Large-Area ITO-Free Organic Solar Cells with a Conductance-Gradient Transparent Electrode.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lijian; Zhang, Shuhua; Li, Hanying; Chen, Hongzheng

    2015-11-18

    Highly efficient large-area organic solar cells (OSCs) with power conversion efficiency up to 7.09%, and device area of 4 cm(2) are demonstrated on flexible substrates. A conductance- or thickness-gradient ultra-thin Ag-based transparent electrode is developed to better balance the light trapping and energy loss, owing to the inhomogeneous energy-loss density on the large OSC sheet. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Order effects in high stakes undergraduate examinations: an analysis of 5 years of administrative data in one UK medical school.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jenni; Abel, Gary; Barclay, Matt; Evans, Robert; Benson, John; Gurnell, Mark

    2016-10-11

    To investigate the association between student performance in undergraduate objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and the examination schedule to which they were assigned to undertake these examinations. Analysis of routinely collected data. One UK medical school. 2331 OSCEs of 3 different types (obstetrics OSCE, paediatrics OSCE and simulated clinical encounter examination OSCE) between 2009 and 2013. Students were not quarantined between examinations. (1) Pass rates by day examination started, (2) pass rates by day station undertaken and (3) mean scores by day examination started. We found no evidence that pass rates differed according to the day on which the examination was started by a candidate in any of the examinations considered (p>0.1 for all). There was evidence (p=0.013) that students were more likely to pass individual stations on the second day of the paediatrics OSCE (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.54). In the cases of the simulated clinical encounter examination and the obstetrics and gynaecology OSCEs, there was no (p=0.42) or very weak evidence (p=0.099), respectively, of any such variation in the probability of passing individual stations according to the day they were attempted. There was no evidence that mean scores varied by day apart from the paediatric OSCE, where slightly higher scores were achieved on the second day of the examination. There is little evidence that different examination schedules have a consistent effect on pass rates or mean scores: students starting the examinations later were not consistently more or less likely to pass or score more highly than those starting earlier. The practice of quarantining students to prevent communication with (and subsequent unfair advantage for) subsequent examination cohorts is unlikely to be required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Interface design principles for high-performance organic semiconductor devices

    DOE PAGES

    Nie, Wanyi; Gupta, Gautam; Crone, Brian K.; ...

    2015-03-23

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) are a promising cost-effective candidate in next generation photovoltaic technology. However, a critical bottleneck for OSCs is the electron/hole recombination loss through charge transfer state at the interface, which greatly limits the power conversion efficiency. W. Nie, A. Mohite, and co-workers demonstrate a simple strategy of suppressing the recombination rate by inserting a spacer layer at the donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a dramatic increase in power conversion efficiency.

  7. Ternary Organic Solar Cells Based on Two Compatible Nonfullerene Acceptors with Power Conversion Efficiency >10.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Guo, Yuan; Yi, Yuanping; Huo, Lijun; Xue, Xiaonan; Sun, Xiaobo; Fu, Huiting; Xiong, Wentao; Meng, Dong; Wang, Zhaohui; Liu, Feng; Russell, Thomas P; Sun, Yanming

    2016-12-01

    Two different nonfullerene acceptors and one copolymer are used to fabricate ternary organic solar cells (OSCs). The two acceptors show unique interactions that reduce crystallinity and form a homogeneous mixed phase in the blend film, leading to a high efficiency of ≈10.3%, the highest performance reported for nonfullerene ternary blends. This work provides a new approach to fabricate high-performance OSCs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Factors Affecting Coast Guard SAR Unit Visual Detection Performance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    and outer search legs were one-half the track spacing (S) inside the perimeter of the search area. cuP r MINOR AXIS SKETCH 1. PARALLEL SEARCH PATTERN...SRU. Wind speed and direction were recorded using a hand-held anemometer onboard the OSC vessel and an installed anemometer or an estimate onboard the...Surface wind measurements or estimates were made at various heights between the anemometer located at 90 feet and the sea surface (OSC at 10 feet

  9. A nanoscale study of charge extraction in organic solar cells: the impact of interfacial molecular configurations.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fu-Ching; Wu, Fu-Chiao; Yen, Chia-Te; Chang, Jay; Chou, Wei-Yang; Gilbert Chang, Shih-Hui; Cheng, Horng-Long

    2015-01-07

    In the optimization of organic solar cells (OSCs), a key problem lies in the maximization of charge carriers from the active layer to the electrodes. Hence, this study focused on the interfacial molecular configurations in efficient OSC charge extraction by theoretical investigations and experiments, including small molecule-based bilayer-heterojunction (sm-BLHJ) and polymer-based bulk-heterojunction (p-BHJ) OSCs. We first examined a well-defined sm-BLHJ model system of OSC composed of p-type pentacene, an n-type perylene derivative, and a nanogroove-structured poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (NS-PEDOT) hole extraction layer. The OSC with NS-PEDOT shows a 230% increment in the short circuit current density compared with that of the conventional planar PEDOT layer. Our theoretical calculations indicated that small variations in the microscopic intermolecular interaction among these interfacial configurations could induce significant differences in charge extraction efficiency. Experimentally, different interfacial configurations were generated between the photo-active layer and the nanostructured charge extraction layer with periodic nanogroove structures. In addition to pentacene, poly(3-hexylthiophene), the most commonly used electron-donor material system in p-BHJ OSCs was also explored in terms of its possible use as a photo-active layer. Local conductive atomic force microscopy was used to measure the nanoscale charge extraction efficiency at different locations within the nanogroove, thus highlighting the importance of interfacial molecular configurations in efficient charge extraction. This study enriches understanding regarding the optimization of the photovoltaic properties of several types of OSCs by conducting appropriate interfacial engineering based on organic/polymer molecular orientations. The ultimate power conversion efficiency beyond at least 15% is highly expected when the best state-of-the-art p-BHJ OSCs are combined with present arguments.

  10. Microeconomics, Private Security, and the Significance to Operational Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    like to thank Major Ryan Bulger who provided significant peer feedback on the organization and flow of what unfolds in the following pages. I...Philippines OIF Operation Iraqi Freedom OSC -I Office of Security Cooperation-Iraq PACOM Pacific Command PMC Private Military Contractor PMF Private...unknown but a model established in Iraq under the Office of Security 8 Cooperation-Iraq ( OSC -I) provides a framework to maintain strategic

  11. Order effects in high stakes undergraduate examinations: an analysis of 5 years of administrative data in one UK medical school

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Matt; Evans, Robert; Benson, John; Gurnell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between student performance in undergraduate objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and the examination schedule to which they were assigned to undertake these examinations. Design Analysis of routinely collected data. Setting One UK medical school. Participants 2331 OSCEs of 3 different types (obstetrics OSCE, paediatrics OSCE and simulated clinical encounter examination OSCE) between 2009 and 2013. Students were not quarantined between examinations. Outcomes (1) Pass rates by day examination started, (2) pass rates by day station undertaken and (3) mean scores by day examination started. Results We found no evidence that pass rates differed according to the day on which the examination was started by a candidate in any of the examinations considered (p>0.1 for all). There was evidence (p=0.013) that students were more likely to pass individual stations on the second day of the paediatrics OSCE (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.54). In the cases of the simulated clinical encounter examination and the obstetrics and gynaecology OSCEs, there was no (p=0.42) or very weak evidence (p=0.099), respectively, of any such variation in the probability of passing individual stations according to the day they were attempted. There was no evidence that mean scores varied by day apart from the paediatric OSCE, where slightly higher scores were achieved on the second day of the examination. Conclusions There is little evidence that different examination schedules have a consistent effect on pass rates or mean scores: students starting the examinations later were not consistently more or less likely to pass or score more highly than those starting earlier. The practice of quarantining students to prevent communication with (and subsequent unfair advantage for) subsequent examination cohorts is unlikely to be required. PMID:27729351

  12. PKCι regulates nuclear YAP1 localization and ovarian cancer tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Justilien, Verline; Brennan, Katharyn I.; Jamieson, Lee; Murray, Nicole R.; Fields, Alan P.

    2016-01-01

    Atypical protein kinase Cι (PKCι) is an oncogene in lung and ovarian cancer. The PKCι gene PRKCI is targeted for frequent tumor-specific copy number gain (CNG) in both lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and ovarian serous carcinoma (OSC). We recently demonstrated that in LSCC cells PRKCI CNG functions to drive transformed growth and tumorigenicity by activating PKCι-dependent cell autonomous Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Here, we assessed whether OSC cells harboring PRKCI CNG exhibit similar PKCι-dependent Hh signaling. Surprisingly, we find that whereas PKCι is required for the transformed growth for OSC cells harboring PRKCI CNG, these cells do not exhibit PKCι-dependent Hh signaling or Hh-dependent proliferation. Rather, transformed growth of OSC cells is regulated by PKCι-dependent nuclear localization of the oncogenic transcription factor, YAP1. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated knock down (KD) of PKCι leads to decreased nuclear YAP1 and increased YAP1 binding to angiomotin (AMOT), which sequesters YAP1 in the cytoplasm. Biochemical analysis reveals that PKCι directly phosphorylates AMOT at a unique site, Thr750, whose phosphorylation inhibits YAP1 binding. Pharmacologic inhibition of PKCι decreases YAP1 nuclear localization and blocks OSC tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis reveals a strong positive correlation between tumor PKCι expression and nuclear YAP1 in primary OSC tumor samples, indicating the clinical relevance of PKCι-YAP1 signaling. Our results uncover a novel PKCι-AMOT-YAP1 signaling axis that promotes OSC tumor growth, and provide a rationale for therapeutic targeting of this pathway for treatment of OSC. PMID:27321186

  13. A tetraphenylethylene core-based 3D structure small molecular acceptor enabling efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhang; Mu, Cheng; Jiang, Kui; Zhao, Jingbo; Li, Yunke; Zhang, Lu; Li, Zhengke; Lai, Joshua Yuk Lin; Hu, Huawei; Ma, Tingxuan; Hu, Rongrong; Yu, Demei; Huang, Xuhui; Tang, Ben Zhong; Yan, He

    2015-02-01

    A tetraphenylethylene core-based small molecular acceptor with a unique 3D molecular structure is developed. Bulk-heterojunction blend films with a small feature size (≈20 nm) are obtained, which lead to non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs) with 5.5% power conversion efficiency. The work provides a new molecular design approach to efficient non-fullerene OSCs based on 3D-structured small-molecule acceptors.

  14. Multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of apple fruit triterpenic acids.

    PubMed

    Andre, Christelle M; Legay, Sylvain; Deleruelle, Amélie; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Punter, Matthew; Brendolise, Cyril; Cooney, Janine M; Lateur, Marc; Hausman, Jean-François; Larondelle, Yvan; Laing, William A

    2016-09-01

    Apple (Malus × domestica) accumulates bioactive ursane-, oleanane-, and lupane-type triterpenes in its fruit cuticle, but their biosynthetic pathway is still poorly understood. We used a homology-based approach to identify and functionally characterize two new oxidosqualene cyclases (MdOSC4 and MdOSC5) and one cytochrome P450 (CYP716A175). The gene expression patterns of these enzymes and of previously described oxidosqualene cyclases were further studied in 20 apple cultivars with contrasting triterpene profiles. MdOSC4 encodes a multifunctional oxidosqualene cyclase producing an oleanane-type triterpene, putatively identified as germanicol, as well as β-amyrin and lupeol, in the proportion 82 : 14 : 4. MdOSC5 cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene into lupeol and β-amyrin at a ratio of 95 : 5. CYP716A175 catalyses the C-28 oxidation of α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol and germanicol, producing ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, betulinic acid, and putatively morolic acid. The gene expression of MdOSC1 was linked to the concentrations of ursolic and oleanolic acid, whereas the expression of MdOSC5 was correlated with the concentrations of betulinic acid and its caffeate derivatives. Two new multifuntional triterpene synthases as well as a multifunctional triterpene C-28 oxidase were identified in Malus × domestica. This study also suggests that MdOSC1 and MdOSC5 are key genes in apple fruit triterpene biosynthesis.

  15. Plasmonic nanostructures based on block copolymer templates for efficient organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Seung Jae; Lee, Dong-Eun; Lee, Dong Hyun; Chin, Byung Doo

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures fabricated from self-assembled patterns of block copolymers (BCPs) were applied for organic solar cells (OSCs). A thin film of a cylinder-forming polystrene- block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS- b-P2VP) was spin-coated on the transparent electrode of the OSCs, where nanostructures such as dot, dot with mixed line, and line patterns emerged during different solvent annealing processes. Selective conversion of hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) (HAuCl4) in P2VP blocks yielded gold (Au) nanostructures, which were used to trigger the localized surface plasmonic resonance (LSPR) effect at the OSCs. Plasmonic nanostructures with almost similar scales of BCP patterns were formed at the anode/buffer interface at the OSC, showing no-table enhancements of the short circuit current ( J sc) and the power conversion efficiency (3.57% for the reference compared to 4.35% for the optimum LSPR-OSC) as the size and the anisotropy of Au patterns changed from a simple dot through an integrated dot-line pattern to a line pattern. Based on the experimental analyses of the light absorption, photoluminescence, and exciton lifetime of OSC, such an enhancement would be mainly attributed to size-dependent LSPR-induced scattering and absorption at the OSC's active layer, which is not in intimate contact with the Au nanostructures. Up to a 26% increase in the power conversion efficiency could be observed at the plasmonic structures from BCP template, providing an accurately tuning and powerful tailoring of the LSPR-enhancing patterns for the OSCs.

  16. Two Oxidosqualene Cyclases Responsible for Biosynthesis of Tomato Fruit Cuticular Triterpenoids1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhonghua; Guhling, Ortwin; Yao, Ruonan; Li, Fengling; Yeats, Trevor H.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Jetter, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The first committed step in triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of epoxysqualene into various triterpene alcohol isomers, a reaction catalyzed by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs). The different OSCs have characteristic product specificities, which are mainly due to differences in the numbers of high-energy intermediates the enzymes can stabilize. The goal of this investigation was to clone and characterize OSCs from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a species known to accumulate δ-amyrin in its fruit cuticular wax, in order to gain insights into the enzymatic formation of this particular triterpenoid. We used a homology-based approach to isolate two tomato OSCs and tested their biochemical properties by heterologous expression in yeast as well as overexpression in tomato. One of the enzymes was found to be a product-specific β-amyrin synthase, while the other one was a multifunctional OSC synthesizing 48% δ-amyrin and six other products. The product spectra of both OSCs together account for both the range and the relative amounts of the triterpenoids found in the fruit cuticle. Both enzymes were expressed exclusively in the epidermis of the tomato fruit, indicating that their major function is to form the cuticular triterpenoids. The relative expression levels of both OSC genes, determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, were consistent with product profiles in fruit and leaves of the tomato cultivar MicroTom. However, the transcript ratios were only partially consistent with the differences in amounts of product triterpenoids between the tomato cultivars MicroTom, M82, and Ailsa Craig; thus, transcriptional control of the two OSCs alone cannot explain the fruit triterpenoid profiles of the cultivars. PMID:21059824

  17. Feedback Implementation of Zermelo's Optimal Control by Sugeno Approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, C.; Homaifax, A.; Bikdash, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to implement optimal control laws of nonlinear systems in real time. Our methodology does not require solving two-point boundary value problems online and may not require it off-line either. The optimal control law is learned using the original Sugeno controller (OSC) from a family of optimal trajectories. We compare the trajectories generated by the OSC and the trajectories yielded by the optimal feedback control law when applied to Zermelo's ship steering problem.

  18. 11% Efficient Ternary Organic Solar Cells with High Composition Tolerance via Integrated Near-IR Sensitization and Interface Engineering.

    PubMed

    Nian, Li; Gao, Ke; Liu, Feng; Kan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Xiaofang; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Peng, Xiaobin; Russell, Thomas P; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-10-01

    Highly efficient electron extraction is achieved by using a photoconductive cathode interlayer in inverted ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) where a near-IR absorbing porphyrin molecule is used as the sensitizer. The OSCs show improved device performance when the ratio of the two donors varies in a large region and a maximum power conversion efficiency up to 11.03% is demonstrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Past, present, and future of optical design at the College of Optical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasián, José

    2014-09-01

    The College of Optical Sciences, OSC, has seen three periods of optical design teaching and development. The first years 1964-1969; the golden years 1970-1999; and the new millennia years. Today the college offers a comprehensive and professional curriculum in optical design learning, and enjoys a strong heritage in optical design. This paper provides a perspective into the history and future prospects in optical design at the OSC.

  20. Implementing the objective structured clinical examination in a geriatrics fellowship program-a 3-year experience.

    PubMed

    Avelino-Silva, Thiago J; Gil, Luiz A; Suemoto, Claudia K; Kikuchi, Elina L; Lin, Sumika M; Farias, Luciana L; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2012-07-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) appears to be an effective alternative for assessing not only medical knowledge, but also clinical skills, including effective communication and physical examination skills. The purpose of the current study was to implement an OSCE model in a geriatrics fellowship program and to compare the instrument with traditional essay examination. Seventy first- and second-year geriatric fellows were initially submitted to a traditional essay examination and scored from 0 to 10 by a faculty member. The same fellows subsequently underwent an OSCE with eight 10-minute stations covering a wide range of essential aspects of geriatric knowledge. Each OSCE station had an examiner responsible for its evaluation according to a predefined checklist. Checklist items were classified for analysis purposes as clinical knowledge items (CKI) and communication skills items (CSI); fellow responses were scored from 0 to 10.Although essay examinations took from 30 to 45 minutes to complete, 180-200 minutes were required to evaluate fellows using the proposed OSCE method. Fellows scored an average of 6.2 ± 1.2 on the traditional essay examination and 6.6 ± 1.0 on the OSCE (P < .001). Subanalyses of OSCE scores indicated that average performance on CKI was lower than the average on CSI (6.4 ± 1.1 vs. 8.4 ± 1.1; P < .001). Fellow performance on the essay examination was similar to their performance on CKI (P = .13). Second-year fellows performed better than first-year fellows on the essay examination (P < .001) and CKI (P = .05), but not on CSI (P = .25).The OSCE was successfully implemented as an educational strategy during a geriatrics fellowship program. Combining different testing modalities may provide the best assessment of competence for various domains of knowledge, skills, and behavior. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Interface design principles for high-performance organic semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Wanyi; Gupta, Gautam; Crone, Brian K.; Liu, Feilong; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul; Kuo, Cheng -Yu; Tsai, Hsinhan; Wang, Hsing -Lin; Li, Hao; Tretiak, Sergei; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2015-03-23

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) are a promising cost-effective candidate in next generation photovoltaic technology. However, a critical bottleneck for OSCs is the electron/hole recombination loss through charge transfer state at the interface, which greatly limits the power conversion efficiency. W. Nie, A. Mohite, and co-workers demonstrate a simple strategy of suppressing the recombination rate by inserting a spacer layer at the donor-acceptor interface, resulting in a dramatic increase in power conversion efficiency.

  2. Regulation of Injury-Induced Ovarian Regeneration by Activation of Oogonial Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Erler, Piril; Sweeney, Alexandra; Monaghan, James R

    2017-01-01

    Some animals have the ability to generate large numbers of oocytes throughout life. This raises the question whether persistent adult germline stem cell populations drive continuous oogenesis and whether they are capable of mounting a regenerative response after injury. Here we demonstrate the presence of adult oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in the adult axolotl salamander ovary and show that ovarian injury induces OSC activation and functional regeneration of the ovaries to reproductive capability. Cells that have morphological similarities to germ cells were identified in the developing and adult ovaries via histological analysis. Genes involved in germ cell maintenance including Vasa, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Bmp15, Piwil1, Piwil2, Dazl, and Lhx8 were expressed in the presumptive OSCs. Colocalization of Vasa protein with H3 mitotic marker showed that both oogonial and spermatogonial adult stem cells were mitotically active. Providing evidence of stemness and viability of adult OSCs, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) adult OSCs grafted into white juvenile host gonads gave rise to EGFP OSCs, and oocytes. Last, the axolotl ovaries completely regenerated after partial ovariectomy injury. During regeneration, OSC activation resulted in rapid differentiation into new oocytes, which was demonstrated by Vasa(+) /BrdU(+) coexpression. Furthermore, follicle cell proliferation promoted follicle maturation during ovarian regeneration. Overall, these results show that adult oogenesis occurs via proliferation of endogenous OSCs in a tetrapod and mediates ovarian regeneration. This study lays the foundations to elucidate mechanisms of ovarian regeneration that will assist regenerative medicine in treating premature ovarian failure and reduced fertility. Stem Cells 2017;35:236-247.

  3. Nonfullerene Tandem Organic Solar Cells with High Open-Circuit Voltage of 1.97 V.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqing; Li, Shuixing; Huang, Jiang; Yang, Shida; Chen, Jiehuan; Zuo, Lijian; Shi, Minmin; Zhan, Xiaowei; Li, Chang-Zhi; Chen, Hongzheng

    2016-11-01

    Small-molecule nonfullerene-based tandem organic solar cells (OSCs) are fabricated for the first time by utilizing P3HT:SF(DPPB)4 and PTB7-Th:IEIC bulk heterojunctions as the front and back subcells, respectively. A power conversion efficiency of 8.48% is achieved with an ultrahigh open-circuit voltage of 1.97 V, which is the highest voltage value reported to date among efficient tandem OSCs.

  4. Introduction to Orbital Sciences Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) is presented. The following topics are covered: (1) manpower, facilities, and financial growth; (2) organization and management team; (3) the Space Data Division organization; (4) the Chandler facility; (5) Space Data-Products and Services; (6) space transportation systems; (7) spacecraft and space support systems; (8) turn-key suborbital launch services and support systems; and (9) OSC suborbital booster performance.

  5. Current and future activities in the area of optical space communications in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Araki, Ken'ichi; Arikawa, Hiroshi; Furuhama, Yoji

    1991-05-01

    An account is given of current and prospective activities in Japan in the field of optical space communications (OSC) and its associated optical technologies. These activities are conducted by NASDA, the Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute, and the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Attention is given to such initiatives as high-precision tracking, bidirectional OSC, laser beam propagation, optical ground stations, and a free-space simulator for laser transmission.

  6. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) promotes mammalian oogonial stem cell differentiation via Smad1/5/8 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Sil; Woods, Dori C.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test whether bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) directly regulates differentiation of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in vitro. Design Animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Animal(s) Adult C57BL/6 female mice. Intervention(s) After purification from adult ovaries by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), OSCs were cultured without or with BMP4 in the absence or presence of the BMP4 antagonist, Noggin. Main outcome measure(s) Rates of in vitro-derived (IVD) oocyte formation and changes in gene expression were assessed. Result(s) Cultured OSCs expressed BMP receptor (BMPR) 1A (BMPR1A), BMPR1B and BMPR2, suggesting that BMP signaling can directly affect OSC function. In agreement with this, BMP4 significantly increased the number of IVD-oocytes formed by cultured OSCs in a dose-dependent manner, and this response was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by co-treatment with Noggin. Exposure of OSCs to BMP4 was associated with rapid phosphorylation of BMPR-regulated Smad1/5/8 protein, and this response was followed by increased expression of the meiosis initiation factors, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), muscle-segment homeobox 1 (Msx1) and Msx2. In keeping with the IVD-oocyte formation data, the ability of BMP4 to activate Smad1/5/8 signaling and meiotic gene expression in OSCs was abolished by co-treatment with Noggin. Conclusion(s) Engagement of BMP4-mediated signaling in adult mouse ovary-derived OSCs cultured in vitro drives differentiation of these cells into IVD-oocytes through Smad1/5/8 activation and transcriptional up-regulation of key meiosis-initiating genes. PMID:23993924

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 promotes mammalian oogonial stem cell differentiation via Smad1/5/8 signaling.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Sil; Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-11-01

    To test whether bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) directly regulates differentiation of adult mouse ovary-derived oogonial stem cells (OSCs) in vitro. Animal study. Research laboratory. Adult C57BL/6 female mice. After purification from adult ovaries by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, OSCs were cultured without or with BMP4 in the absence or presence of the BMP4 antagonist, Noggin. Rates of in vitro-derived (IVD) oocyte formation and changes in gene expression were assessed. Cultured OSCs expressed BMP receptor (BMPR) 1A (BMPR1A), BMPR1B, and BMPR2, suggesting that BMP signaling can directly affect OSC function. In agreement with this, BMP4 significantly increased the number of IVD oocytes formed by cultured OSCs in a dose-dependent manner, and this response was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by cotreatment with Noggin. Exposure of OSCs to BMP4 was associated with rapid phosphorylation of BMPR-regulated Smad1/5/8 proteins, and this response was followed by increased expression of the meiosis initiation factors, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8), muscle-segment homeobox 1 (Msx1), and Msx2. In keeping with the IVD oocyte formation data, the ability of BMP4 to activate Smad1/5/8 signaling and meiotic gene expression in OSCs was abolished by cotreatment with Noggin. Engagement of BMP4-mediated signaling in adult mouse ovary-derived OSCs cultured in vitro drives differentiation of these cells into IVD oocytes through Smad1/5/8 activation and transcriptional up-regulation of key meiosis-initiating genes. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Oxidosqualene Cyclase from the Oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica Synthesizes Lanosterol as a Single Product

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Paul; Srivastava, Vaibhav; Bulone, Vincent; McKee, Lauren S.

    2016-01-01

    The first committed step of sterol biosynthesis is the cyclisation of 2,3-oxidosqualene to form either lanosterol (LA) or cycloartenol (CA). This is catalyzed by an oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC). LA and CA are subsequently converted into various sterols by a series of enzyme reactions. The specificity of the OSC therefore determines the final composition of the end sterols of an organism. Despite the functional importance of OSCs, the determinants of their specificity are not well understood. In sterol-synthesizing oomycetes, recent bioinformatics, and metabolite analysis suggest that LA is produced. However, this catalytic activity has never been experimentally demonstrated. Here, we show that the OSC of the oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica, a severe pathogen of salmonid fish, has an uncommon sequence in a conserved motif important for specificity. We present phylogenetic analysis revealing that this sequence is common to sterol-synthesizing oomycetes, as well as some plants, and hypothesize as to the evolutionary origin of some microbial sequences. We also demonstrate for the first time that a recombinant form of the OSC from S. parasitica produces LA exclusively. Our data pave the way for a detailed structural characterization of the protein and the possible development of specific inhibitors of oomycete OSCs for disease control in aquaculture. PMID:27881978

  9. Designing the objective structured clinical examination to cover all major areas of physical medicine and rehabilitation over 3 yrs.

    PubMed

    Garstang, Susan; Altschuler, Eric L; Jain, Sheela; Delisa, Joel A

    2012-06-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires that training programs comprehensively evaluate residents in the six core Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. One of the ways we do this in our residency is by administering a nine-station Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the end of each year, which evaluates tasks such as history taking, focused physical examination, communication, professionalism, procedural skills, management, prescription writing, and understanding systems-based practice. We have classified our OSCE stations into what we consider key areas in our field and assessed these on a rotating basis over 3 yrs. This results in the assessment of 27 areas over the 3 yrs of residency. Structuring the OSCE as a series of stations over 3 yrs is an efficient method to evaluate residents' competencies that are required by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and certifying boards. An analysis of OSCE scores when compared with American Board of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation parts 1 and 2 scores and final summative resident evaluation scores reveals that OSCE results correlate with part 1 scores and final evaluation scores but do not show the same strong correlations with part 2 scores. We discuss the way the OSCE can complete other assessment techniques and ways to improve cases in the future.

  10. Use of standardised patients in the evaluation of a residency mood disorders curriculum: a brief report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of resident performance on an observed structured clinical examination (OSCE) as a tool to refine a mood disorders curriculum, and to disseminate a mood disorders OSCE for use in other residency settings. Methods A depression-focused OSCE and a direct observation evaluation tool were developed and implemented. A total of 24 first-year family medicine residents (PGY1) participated in the OSCE, and their performance was used to direct changes in a mood disorders curriculum. Results Residents performed well on general interview behaviours, and 67% were able to uncover depression in a patient presenting with headaches. Less than 50% of the residents asked about suicidal ideation and recreational drug use. Curriculum was added that addressed the latter deficiencies. Conclusions Tracking of resident performance on specific behaviours during OSCE sessions can be used for curriculum evaluation purposes. The mood disorders curriculum in additional family medicine residency programmes can now be evaluated using our depression-focused OSCE and Clinical Performance Checklist. PMID:24381654

  11. The Ventriloscope® as an innovative tool for assessing clinical examination skills: appraisal of a novel method of simulating auscultatory findings.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anju; Bhatt, Himanshu; Booton, Paul; Kneebone, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is increasingly used as a teaching tool and in assessment. The Ventriloscope® (VS) is a new auscultation simulator. This modified stethoscope allows pre-recorded sounds (activated wirelessly) to be integrated with a simulated patient (SP, professional actor). This study explores the instrument's potential for overcoming limitations of current objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessment by increasing validity while retaining reliability. After training SPs to synchronise the device with their breathing (recreating abnormal signs), we evaluated the VS during a third year undergraduate medical student OSCE. Students (n =  385), examiners (n = 19) and SPs (n = 10) completed post-exam questionnaires which were analysed using a coding framework. OSCE performance data were analysed using Stata 10. When 'compared to their usual stethoscope' 40% of students found no difference in using the VS; 69% found it easier to identify sounds; 68% found examination with the VS very or fairly realistic when 'compared to examining a real patient'. Examination scores were comparable with other OSCE stations. The VS reliably provided consistent 'abnormal' auscultatory signs within an OSCE framework. Using a VS may increase OSCE validity, allowing examiners to assess students' application of knowledge in a realistically simulated setting. The VS can help bridge the gap between simulation and real patients.

  12. Artificially MoO3 graded ITO anodes for acidic buffer layer free organic photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Seok-Soon; Kim, Han-Ki

    2016-02-01

    We report characteristics of MoO3 graded ITO anodes prepared by a RF/DC graded sputtering for acidic poly(3,4-ethylene dioxylene thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS)-free organic solar cells (OSCs). Graded sputtering of the MoO3 buffer layer on top of the ITO layer produced MoO3 graded ITO anodes with a sheet resistance of 12.67 Ω/square, a resistivity of 2.54 × 10-4 Ω cm, and an optical transmittance of 86.78%, all of which were comparable to a conventional ITO anode. In addition, the MoO3 graded ITO electrode showed a greater work function of 4.92 eV than that (4.6 eV) of an ITO anode, which is beneficial for hole extraction from an organic active layer. Due to the high work function of MoO3 graded ITO electrodes, the acidic PEDOT:PSS-free OSCs fabricated on the MoO3 graded ITO electrode exhibited a power conversion efficiency 3.60% greater than that of a PEDOT:PSS-free OSC on the conventional ITO anode. The successful operation of PEDOT:PSS-free OSCs indicates simpler fabrication steps for cost-effective OSCs and elimination of interfacial reactions caused by the acidic PEDOT:PSS layer for reliable OSCs.

  13. A Highly Sensitive Potentiometric Strip-Test for Detecting High Charge Density Impurities in Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Youngjea; Gwon, Kihak; Shin, Jae Ho; Nam, Hakhyun; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Cha, Geun Sig

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) became a matter of grave concern in the medical field after many fatal responses to OSCS tainted heparin products occurred during the 2007 – 2008 period. Even though standard lab-based analytical techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and strong anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) have proven useful for monitoring the OSCS content in heparin products, an easy-to-use, quick, portable, and cost-efficient method is still needed for on-site monitoring during and after the heparin production. In this report, a disposable strip-type electrochemical polyion sensor is described for detection of low levels of OSCS contamination in heparin. A magnetic actuator is incorporated into this simple electrode-based microfluidic device in order to create the mixing effect necessary to achieve equilibrium potential changes of the sensor within a microfluidic channel. The planar membrane electrode detector within the sample channel is prepared with a tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC)-doped PVC membrane essentially equivalent to previously reported polyanion-sensitive electrodes. When the concentration of heparin applied to the single-use strip device is 57 mg/mL (in only 20 μl of sample), the same concentration recommended in the NMR analysis protocol for detecting OSCS in heparin, the detection limit is 0.005 wt% of OSCS, which is ca. 20 times lower than the reported detection limit of the NMR method. PMID:21500820

  14. [Capillary electrophoresis analysis of contaminants in heparin sodium for the Japanese pharmacopoeia purity test].

    PubMed

    Kakoi, Naotaka; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Kawasaki, Nana; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Hayakawa, Takao; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2009-10-01

    Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of thrombotic disorders. Recently, hundreds of cases of anaphylactic reaction as adverse effects were reported by the presence of contaminating oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in some heparin preparations. In addition, these heparin preparations often contaminated dermatan sulfate (DS). Unfortunately, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) does not include appropriate purity tests. In the present paper, we show that capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful tool for the analysis of OSCS and DS in heparin preparations. CE method shows high resolution and good quantification of OSCS in heparin preparations. This method (OSCS method) was evaluated for accuracy (93.7 %), repeatability (R.S.D.=2.11), linearity (R(2)=0.9996), detection limit (0.1% OSCS) and specificity. In contrast, DS was not able to be detected in high sensitivity by OSCS method. However, a modified CE method (DS method) using the buffer at lower pHs showed good parameters for accuracy (88.1%), repeatability (R.S.D.=1.99), linearity (R(2)=0.9998), detection limit (0.25% DS) and specificity. In conclusion, CE will be an alternative to the NMR method which is being adopted for purification test of heparin sodium in the present version of JP.

  15. The Assessment of Undergraduate Medical Students’ Satisfaction Levels With the Objective Structured Clinical Examination

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi Khorashad, Ahmad; Salari, Somayyeh; Baharvahdat, Humain; Hejazi, Sepideh; Lari, Shiva M; Salari, Maasoomeh; Mazloomi, Maryam; Lari, Shahrzad M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) has been introduced as an efficient method for the assessment of medical students. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the satisfaction level of undergraduate medical students of internal medicine department with the OSCE. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study, performed on all available undergraduate students at the end of their internal medicine training period in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The students responded to 15 multiple-choice questions with confirmed validity and reliability. Results: The majority of the students (94.5%) had a positive attitude toward the OSCE and mentioned that the OSCE format was a more appropriate type of exam than other methods of testing; however, 79.1% thought that the OSCE format was stressful. In addition, the participants’ sex had no effect on their level of satisfaction with the examination. Likewise, there was no significant correlation between their level of satisfaction and their age, marital status, or lack of previous experience with this type of exam. Conclusions: If the exam standards are met and a uniform dispersion of the scientific content is maintained, the OSCE method of assessment can be recommended as an efficient and applicable method for assessing medical students. PMID:25389474

  16. Hafnium metallocene compounds used as cathode interfacial layers for enhanced electron transfer in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Keunhee; Oh, Seungsik; Jung, Donggeun; Chae, Heeyeop; Kim, Hyoungsub; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-01-09

    We have used hafnium metallocene compounds as cathode interfacial layers for organic solar cells [OSCs]. A metallocene compound consists of a transition metal and two cyclopentadienyl ligands coordinated in a sandwich structure. For the fabrication of the OSCs, poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]:poly(styrene sulfonate), poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) + 66-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium(IV) dichloride, and aluminum were deposited as a hole transport layer, an active layer, a cathode interfacial layer, and a cathode, respectively. The hafnium metallocene compound cathode interfacial layer improved the performance of OSCs compared to that of OSCs without the interfacial layer. The current density-voltage characteristics of OSCs with an interfacial layer thickness of 0.7 nm and of those without an interfacial layer showed power conversion efficiency [PCE] values of 2.96% and 2.34%, respectively, under an illumination condition of 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5). It is thought that a cathode interfacial layer of an appropriate thickness enhances the electron transfer between the active layer and the cathode, and thus increases the PCE of the OSCs.

  17. Hafnium metallocene compounds used as cathode interfacial layers for enhanced electron transfer in organic solar cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We have used hafnium metallocene compounds as cathode interfacial layers for organic solar cells [OSCs]. A metallocene compound consists of a transition metal and two cyclopentadienyl ligands coordinated in a sandwich structure. For the fabrication of the OSCs, poly[3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene]:poly(styrene sulfonate), poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) + [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl)hafnium(IV) dichloride, and aluminum were deposited as a hole transport layer, an active layer, a cathode interfacial layer, and a cathode, respectively. The hafnium metallocene compound cathode interfacial layer improved the performance of OSCs compared to that of OSCs without the interfacial layer. The current density-voltage characteristics of OSCs with an interfacial layer thickness of 0.7 nm and of those without an interfacial layer showed power conversion efficiency [PCE] values of 2.96% and 2.34%, respectively, under an illumination condition of 100 mW/cm2 (AM 1.5). It is thought that a cathode interfacial layer of an appropriate thickness enhances the electron transfer between the active layer and the cathode, and thus increases the PCE of the OSCs. PMID:22230259

  18. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create ‘GraHEL’, which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

  19. Mixing plasmonic Au nanoparticles into all polymer layers for improving the efficiency of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Wallace C. H.; Wang, Charlie C. D.; Fung, Dixon D. S.; Sha, Wei E. I.; Xie, Feng-Xian

    2012-09-01

    To enhance the light trapping of organic solar cells (OSCs), metallic (e.g. Au, Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) have been incorporated into the polymer layers conveniently in solution process. Although power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSCs has been shown to improve by incorporating metallic NPs in either the buffer layer such as poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) :poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)[1] or the active layer[2], the understanding on the changes is still not quite clear. Moreover, there are very limited studies on incorporating metallic NPs in more than one organic layer and investigating their effects on the optical and electrical properties as well as the performances of OSCs. In this work, monofunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-capped Au NPs of sizes 18 nm and 35 nm are doped in the PEDOT:PSS and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layers respectively, leading to an improvement of PCE by ~22% compared to the optimized control device. We will firstly identify the impact of NPs in each polymer layer on OSC characteristics by doping Au NPs in either the PEDOT:PSS or P3HT:PCBM layer. Then, we will investigate Au NPs incorporated in all polymer layers. We demonstrate that the accumulated benefits of incorporating Au NPs in all organic layers of OSCs can achieve larger improvements in OSC performances.

  20. Correlation of microstructure and magnetotransport in organic semiconductor spin valve structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Gorham, J.; Lee, T.; Fairbrother, H.; Katz, H. E.; Reich, D. H.; Waston, S.; Borchers, J.

    2008-03-01

    Magnetoelectronic devices based on organic semiconductors (OSC) hold promise due to the long spin relaxation time and the ability to tune relevant properties such as interface barriers. However, it is unclear to date whether magnetotransport effects observed in these systems is due to tunneling, or whether spin-coherent diffusive transport is also possible. We have studied magnetotransport in Co/OSC/Fe trilayer junctions, with 50 to 150 nm thick OSC layer, where tunneling would not be expected. Positive magnetoresistance (MR) is observed at T = 4.2 K for several OSCs and it persists up to T = 290 K for two systems: tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (III) (Alq3) and copper phthalocyanine (CuPc). In order to probe the origins of MR, we have done structural studies on Co/Alq3/Fe trilayer films by x-ray reflectivity and Auger depth profiling. The results indicate well-defined layers with modest interface roughness (3-5 nm) between the Alq3 and the surrounding FM layers. While these results rule out large-scale intermixing of Co or Fe into the OSC, they do not as yet rule out the existence of local defects, such as pinholes, in the OSC layers that could enable tunneling to occur.

  1. Evaluating the clinical teaching of medical imaging students at Curtin University of Technology, Australia.

    PubMed

    Almohiy, H M; Davidson, R

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain the effectiveness of the clinical, tutorial-based component of teaching and the clinical assessment method in the Bachelor of Medical Imaging Science at Curtin University of Technology (CUT), Perth, Western Australia. In mid-2006, second- and third-year students enrolled in CUT's Medical Imaging Science degree were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) evaluation program and clinical teaching. Thirty-three of 57 students answered questions about demographics and their opinions of the laboratory sessions, clinical placements and the OSCEs. Seventy-six per cent of students were satisfied with their laboratory sessions and clinical placements. Sixty-four percent of respondents indicated that the OSCE was not an objective evaluation, but 82% of students felt the OSCE was an effective test of their radiography skills and knowledge, and believed that they were able to evaluate and care for a patient during the OSCE. Overall, the surveyed students believed that the practical skills explored in laboratory sessions helped improve clinical training outcomes; however, only 33% of the students were satisfied that the OSCE was an appropriate assessment of their clinical training in hospitals.

  2. Evaluating the clinical teaching of medical imaging students at Curtin University of Technology, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Almohiy, HM; Davidson, R

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the effectiveness of the clinical, tutorial-based component of teaching and the clinical assessment method in the Bachelor of Medical Imaging Science at Curtin University of Technology (CUT), Perth, Western Australia. Materials and Methods: In mid-2006, second- and third-year students enrolled in CUT’s Medical Imaging Science degree were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) evaluation program and clinical teaching. Thirty-three of 57 students answered questions about demographics and their opinions of the laboratory sessions, clinical placements and the OSCEs. Results: Seventy-six per cent of students were satisfied with their laboratory sessions and clinical placements. Sixty-four percent of respondents indicated that the OSCE was not an objective evaluation, but 82% of students felt the OSCE was an effective test of their radiography skills and knowledge, and believed that they were able to evaluate and care for a patient during the OSCE. Conclusion: Overall, the surveyed students believed that the practical skills explored in laboratory sessions helped improve clinical training outcomes; however, only 33% of the students were satisfied that the OSCE was an appropriate assessment of their clinical training in hospitals. PMID:22279497

  3. Chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms of garlic organosulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Trio, Phoebe Zapanta; You, Sixiang; He, Xi; He, Jianhua; Sakao, Kozue; Hou, De-Xing

    2014-05-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has long been used both for culinary and medicinal purposes by many cultures. Population and preclinical investigations have suggested that dietary garlic intake has health benefits, such as lowering the risk of esophageal, stomach and prostate cancers. Extensive studies from laboratory and animal models have revealed that garlic has a wide range of biological activities, and garlic organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are responsible for the biological activities. However, the presence and potency of garlic OSCs vary with respect to the mode of garlic preparation and extraction. Cooked or processed garlic products showed different kinds of garlic OSCs, some of which are highly unstable and instantly decomposed. These facts, possibly gave paradoxical results on the garlic effects. In this review, we first summarized the biotransformation processes of garlic alliin into different garlic OSCs as well as the garlic OSCs compositions from different garlic preparations. Next, we reviewed the chemopreventive functions and molecular mechanisms focusing on the anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anti-diabetes and anticancer activity behind different garlic OSCs.

  4. Potential of Nonfullerene Small Molecules with High Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanning; Yao, Huifeng; Zhang, Hao; Li, Sunsun; Hou, Jianhui

    2017-09-05

    Over the past decades, fullerene derivatives have become the most successful electron acceptors in organic solar cells (OSCs) and have achieved great progress, with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of over 11 %. However, fullerenes have some drawbacks, such as weak absorption, limited energy-level tunability, and morphological instability. In addition, fullerene-based OSCs usually suffer from large energy losses of over 0.7 eV, which limits further improvements in the PCE. Recently, nonfullerene small molecules have emerged as promising electron acceptors in OSCs. Their highly tunable absorption spectra and molecular energy levels have enabled fine optimization of the resulting devices, and the highest PCE has surpassed 12 %. Furthermore, several studies have shown that OSCs based on small-molecule acceptors (SMA) have very efficient charge generation and transport efficiency at relatively low energy losses of below 0.6 eV, which suggests great potential for the further improvement of OSCs. In this focus review, we analyze the challenges and potential of SMA-based OSCs and discuss molecular design strategies for highly efficient SMAs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Perception of pharmacy students in Malaysia on the use of objective structured clinical examinations to evaluate competence.

    PubMed

    Awaisu, Ahmed; Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki Nik; Al-Efan, Qais Ahmad Mohammad

    2007-12-15

    To assess bachelor of pharmacy students' overall perception and acceptance of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a new method of clinical competence assessment in pharmacy undergraduate curriculum at our Faculty, and to explore its strengths and weaknesses through feedback. A cross-sectional survey was conducted via a validated 49-item questionnaire, administered immediately after all students completed the examination. The questionnaire comprised of questions to evaluate the content and structure of the examination, perception of OSCE validity and reliability, and rating of OSCE in relation to other assessment methods. Open-ended follow-up questions were included to generate qualitative data. Over 80% of the students found the OSCE to be helpful in highlighting areas of weaknesses in their clinical competencies. Seventy-eight percent agreed that it was comprehensive and 66% believed it was fair. About 46% felt that the 15 minutes allocated per station was inadequate. Most importantly, about half of the students raised concerns that personality, ethnicity, and/or gender, as well as interpatient and inter-assessor variability were potential sources of bias that could affect their scores. However, an overwhelming proportion of the students (90%) agreed that the OSCE provided a useful and practical learning experience. Students' perceptions and acceptance of the new method of assessment were positive. The survey further highlighted for future refinement the strengths and weaknesses associated with the development and implementation of an OSCE in the International Islamic University Malaysia's pharmacy curriculum.

  6. Perception of Pharmacy Students in Malaysia on the Use of Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Evaluate Competence

    PubMed Central

    Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki; Mohammad Al-Efan, Qais Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess bachelor of pharmacy students' overall perception and acceptance of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), a new method of clinical competence assessment in pharmacy undergraduate curriculum at our Faculty, and to explore its strengths and weaknesses through feedback. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted via a validated 49-item questionnaire, administered immediately after all students completed the examination. The questionnaire comprised of questions to evaluate the content and structure of the examination, perception of OSCE validity and reliability, and rating of OSCE in relation to other assessment methods. Open-ended follow-up questions were included to generate qualitative data. Results Over 80% of the students found the OSCE to be helpful in highlighting areas of weaknesses in their clinical competencies. Seventy-eight percent agreed that it was comprehensive and 66% believed it was fair. About 46% felt that the 15 minutes allocated per station was inadequate. Most importantly, about half of the students raised concerns that personality, ethnicity, and/or gender, as well as interpatient and interassessor variability were potential sources of bias that could affect their scores. However, an overwhelming proportion of the students (90%) agreed that the OSCE provided a useful and practical learning experience. Conclusions Students' perceptions and acceptance of the new method of assessment were positive. The survey further highlighted for future refinement the strengths and weaknesses associated with the development and implementation of an OSCE in the International Islamic University Malaysia's pharmacy curriculum. PMID:19503702

  7. Education research: case logs in the assessment of medical students in the neurology outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Albert, Dara V; Brorson, James R; Amidei, Christina; Lukas, Rimas V

    2014-04-22

    Using outpatient neurology clinic case logs completed by medical students on neurology clerkships, we examined the impact of outpatient clinical encounter volume per student on outcomes of knowledge assessed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Clinical Neurology Subject Examination and clinical skills assessed by the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Data from 394 medical students from July 2008 to June 2012, representing 9,791 patient encounters, were analyzed retrospectively. Pearson correlations were calculated examining the relationship between numbers of cases logged per student and performance on the NBME examination. Similarly, correlations between cases logged and performance on the OSCE, as well as on components of the OSCE (history, physical examination, clinical formulation), were evaluated. There was a correlation between the total number of cases logged per student and NBME examination scores (r = 0.142; p = 0.005) and OSCE scores (r = 0.136; p = 0.007). Total number of cases correlated with the clinical formulation component of the OSCE (r = 0.172; p = 0.001) but not the performance on history or physical examination components. The volume of cases logged by individual students in the outpatient clinic correlates with performance on measures of knowledge and clinical skill. In measurement of clinical skill, seeing a greater volume of patients in the outpatient clinic is related to improved clinical formulation on the OSCE. These findings may affect methods employed in assessment of medical students, residents, and fellows.

  8. Neurology objective structured clinical examination reliability using generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Blood, Angela D; Park, Yoon Soo; Lukas, Rimas V; Brorson, James R

    2015-11-03

    This study examines factors affecting reliability, or consistency of assessment scores, from an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in neurology through generalizability theory (G theory). Data include assessments from a multistation OSCE taken by 194 medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Facets evaluated in this study include cases, domains, and items. Domains refer to areas of skill (or constructs) that the OSCE measures. G theory is used to estimate variance components associated with each facet, derive reliability, and project the number of cases required to obtain a reliable (consistent, precise) score. Reliability using G theory is moderate (Φ coefficient = 0.61, G coefficient = 0.64). Performance is similar across cases but differs by the particular domain, such that the majority of variance is attributed to the domain. Projections in reliability estimates reveal that students need to participate in 3 OSCE cases in order to increase reliability beyond the 0.70 threshold. This novel use of G theory in evaluating an OSCE in neurology provides meaningful measurement characteristics of the assessment. Differing from prior work in other medical specialties, the cases students were randomly assigned did not influence their OSCE score; rather, scores varied in expected fashion by domain assessed. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Neurology objective structured clinical examination reliability using generalizability theory

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yoon Soo; Lukas, Rimas V.; Brorson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines factors affecting reliability, or consistency of assessment scores, from an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in neurology through generalizability theory (G theory). Methods: Data include assessments from a multistation OSCE taken by 194 medical students at the completion of a neurology clerkship. Facets evaluated in this study include cases, domains, and items. Domains refer to areas of skill (or constructs) that the OSCE measures. G theory is used to estimate variance components associated with each facet, derive reliability, and project the number of cases required to obtain a reliable (consistent, precise) score. Results: Reliability using G theory is moderate (Φ coefficient = 0.61, G coefficient = 0.64). Performance is similar across cases but differs by the particular domain, such that the majority of variance is attributed to the domain. Projections in reliability estimates reveal that students need to participate in 3 OSCE cases in order to increase reliability beyond the 0.70 threshold. Conclusions: This novel use of G theory in evaluating an OSCE in neurology provides meaningful measurement characteristics of the assessment. Differing from prior work in other medical specialties, the cases students were randomly assigned did not influence their OSCE score; rather, scores varied in expected fashion by domain assessed. PMID:26432851

  10. Organic solar cells using CVD-grown graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hobeom; Bae, Sang-Hoon; Han, Tae-Hee; Lim, Kyung-Geun; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Tae-Woo

    2014-01-10

    We report on the development of flexible organic solar cells (OSCs) incorporating graphene sheets synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as transparent conducting electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. A key barrier that must be overcome for the successful fabrication of OSCs with graphene electrodes is the poor-film properties of water-based poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) when coated onto hydrophobic graphene surfaces. To form a uniform PEDOT:PSS film on a graphene surface, we added perfluorinated ionomers (PFI) to pristine PEDOT:PSS to create 'GraHEL', which we then successfully spin coated onto the graphene surface. We systematically investigated the effect of number of layers in layer-by-layer stacked graphene anode of an OSC on the performance parameters including the open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), and fill factor (FF). As the number of graphene layers increased, the FF tended to increase owing to lower sheet resistance, while Jsc tended to decrease owing to the lower light absorption. In light of this trade-off between sheet resistance and transmittance, we determined that three-layer graphene (3LG) represents the best configuration for obtaining the optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) in OSC anodes, even at suboptimal sheet resistances. We finally developed efficient, flexible OSCs with a PCE of 4.33%, which is the highest efficiency attained so far by an OSC with CVD-grown graphene electrodes to the best of our knowledge.

  11. Fast charge separation in a non-fullerene organic solar cell with a small driving force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Shangshang; Qian, Deping; Gautam, Bhoj; Yang, Guofang; Zhao, Jingbo; Bergqvist, Jonas; Zhang, Fengling; Ma, Wei; Ade, Harald; Inganäs, Olle; Gundogdu, Kenan; Gao, Feng; Yan, He

    2016-07-01

    Fast and efficient charge separation is essential to achieve high power conversion efficiency in organic solar cells (OSCs). In state-of-the-art OSCs, this is usually achieved by a significant driving force, defined as the offset between the bandgap (Egap) of the donor/acceptor materials and the energy of the charge transfer (CT) state (ECT), which is typically greater than 0.3 eV. The large driving force causes a relatively large voltage loss that hinders performance. Here, we report non-fullerene OSCs that exhibit ultrafast and efficient charge separation despite a negligible driving force, as ECT is nearly identical to Egap. Moreover, the small driving force is found to have minimal detrimental effects on charge transfer dynamics of the OSCs. We demonstrate a non-fullerene OSC with 9.5% efficiency and nearly 90% internal quantum efficiency despite a low voltage loss of 0.61 V. This creates a path towards highly efficient OSCs with a low voltage loss.

  12. Electric Field Tuning Molecular Packing and Electrical Properties of Solution-Shearing Coated Organic Semiconducting Thin Films

    DOE PAGES

    Molina-Lopez, Francisco; Yan, Hongping; Gu, Xiaodan; ...

    2017-01-17

    Recent improvements in solution-coated organic semiconductors (OSCs) evidence their high potential for cost-efficient organic electronics and sensors. Molecular packing structure determines the charge transport property of molecular solids. However, it remains challenging to control the molecular packing structure for a given OSC. Here, the application of alternating electric fields is reported to fine-tune the crystal packing of OSC solution-shearing coated at ambient conditions. First, a theoretical model based on dielectrophoresis is developed to guide the selection of the optimal conditions (frequency and amplitude) of the electric field applied through the solution-shearing blade during coating of OSC thin films. Next, electricmore » field-induced polymorphism is demonstrated for OSCs with both herringbone and 2D brick-wall packing motifs in 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene and 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene, respectively. Favorable molecular packing can be accessible in some cases, resulting in higher charge carrier mobilities. In conclusion, this work provides a new approach to tune the properties of solution-coated OSCs in functional devices for high-performance printed electronics.« less

  13. Recent progress in degradation and stabilization of organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Huanqi; He, Weidong; Mao, Yiwu; Lin, Xiao; Ishikawa, Ken; Dickerson, James H.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2014-10-15

    Stability is of paramount importance in organic semiconductor devices, especially in organic solar cells (OSCs). Serious degradation in air limits wide applications of these flexible, light-weight and low-cost power-generation devices. Studying the stability of organic solar cells will help us understand degradation mechanisms and further improve the stability of these devices. There are many investigations into the efficiency and stability of OSCs. The efficiency and stability of devices even of the same photoactive materials are scattered in different papers. In particular, the extrinsic degradation that mainly occurs near the interface between the organic layer and the cathode is a major stability concern. In the past few years, researchers have developed many new cathodes and cathode buffer layers, some of which have astonishingly improved the stability of OSCs. In this review article, we discuss the recent developments of these materials and summarize recent progresses in the study of the degradation/stability of OSCs, with emphasis on the extrinsic degradation/stability that is related to the intrusion of oxygen and water. The review provides detailed insight into the current status of research on the stability of OSCs and seeks to facilitate the development of highly-efficient OSCs with enhanced stability.

  14. [Eating habits and subjective well-being among university students in southern Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Orellana, Ligia; Paiva, Galo; Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-11-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de estudiantes universitarios en el sur de Chile, en base a su nivel de satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos alimentarios dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, aspectos asociados a la salud y características demográficas. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra no probabilística de 347 estudiantes de la Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco-Chile. El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó las escalas SWLS (Satisfaction with Life Scale), SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life) y el ICVRS (Índice de calidad de vida relativo a la salud). Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del lugar de residencia, el peso y estatura aproximada y, variables de clasificación demográfica. Resultados: Mediante análisis clúster se distinguieron tres tipologías de estudiantes con diferencias significativas en los puntajes de la SWLS y SWFL. Las tipologías difirieron en el número de días afectados por problemas de salud emocional, clasificación de su estado nutricional (IMC), auto percepción de su estado de salud, importancia de la alimentación para el bienestar personal, lugar de residencia durante el periodo de estudios, frecuencia de alimentación en el lugar donde vive y frecuencia de comidas a deshora. Conclusiones: La posibilidad de vivir con los padres durante el periodo de estudios universitarios se asocia con mejores hábitos de alimentación, mejor salud emocional y auto percepción de la salud, menor prevalencia de sobre peso y obesidad y, con una mayor satisfacción con la vida y la alimentación.

  15. [Food-related lifestyles and eating habits inside and outside the home in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler, Berta; Peña, Juan Pablo; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de consumidores en base a su estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar, características sociodemográficas y su nivel de satisfacción con su alimentación. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra de 951 personas en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (más de 100.000 habitantes). El instrumento de recogida de información incluyó una adaptación del cuestionario de estilos de vida en relación a la alimentación (FRL) y la escala SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life). Se consultaron los hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar y variables de clasificación sociodemográfica de los encuestados. Resultados: Mediante análisis cluster se distinguieron cinco tipologías con diferencias significativas en los cinco componentes obtenidos del FRL, con análisis factorial de componentes principales. Las tipologías presentaron distinto perfil de género, edad y nivel socioeconómico y difirieron en los puntajes obtenidos en la SWFL. Se diferenciaron en la frecuencia en que la persona almuerza, toma once y cena en su hogar. Respecto a las comidas fuera del hogar, las tipologías se distinguieron según la frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes, locales de comida rápida y en la compra de comida preparada. Conclusiones: Un estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación con baja implicación y disfrute de los alimentos se asocia con un mayor nivel socioeconómico y menor edad de las personas. Adicionalmente, se asocia con comportamientos alimentarios poco saludables y no beneficiosos para las personas, como una mayor frecuencia de comidas en restaurantes y de compra de comida preparada, junto a una menor frecuencia de comidas en el hogar, lo que estaría influyendo en un nivel inferior de

  16. [Comparison of glycemic control in diabetic patients with and without metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cruz del Castillo, A H; Córdova Fernández, J A; Ramos Lagunes, I; Camara, Jorge; Ortiz Solana, X E; Vigil Pérez, C A; García Ramos, G

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Comparar el nivel glucémico en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 (DM2) con y sin síndrome metabólico (SM). Metodología: Estudio transversal analítico. Se incluyeron aleatoriamente pacientes con DM2 corroborado en su expediente clínico. El SM se identificó en pacientes con al menos 3 de 5 criterios del ATP III (AdultTreatment Panel III). Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado. Se determinó hemoglobina glucosilada (HbA1c), colesterol-HDL, triglicéridos, hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS), índice de masa corporal (IMC), circunferencia de cintura (CCi) y cadera (CCa). Plan de análisis: prevalencia, prueba t de Student, correlación de Pearson y regresión logística. Resultados: Se incluyeron 283 pacientes. Edad promedio: 59.8±10.6 años. Predominó el sexo femenino (73.6%)Criterios cubiertos para SM: hipocolesterolemia-HDL: 62.9%; hipertrigliceridemia: 56.3%; obesidad abdominal (OA) 90.1%; hipertensión arterial sistémica (HAS): 62.5%. La prevalencia de SM fue 86.6% (IC95% 83% a 89%). No hubo diferencia significativa en el promedio de HbA1c en pacientes con y sin SM, HAS, OA, e hipocolesterolemia-HDL. En cambio, sujetos con hipertrigliceridemia tuvieron un promedio significativamente mayor de HbA1c que aquellos sin hipertrigliceridemia (8.9±2.3 vs 8.5±2.1, respectivamente; p=0.01). HbA1c correlacionó positivamente con trigliceridemia (r=0.24, p=0.001), y negativamente con el peso (r= -0.19, p=0.001), IMC (r= -0.172, p=0.004), CCi (r= -0.12, p=0.004) y CCa (r=-0.14, p=0.02). En el análisis multivariado ajustado, solamente la duración de la diabetes se asoció con el nivel glucémico (OR= 1.014, IC95% 1.010 a 1.016). Conclusiones: No encontramos diferencias significativas en el nivel glucémico en pacientes con y sin SM.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and associated factors in children and adolescents of a Brazilian municipality.

    PubMed

    Dias Pitangueira, Jacqueline Costa; Rodrigues Silva, Luciana; Portela de Santana, Mônica Leila; Monteiro da Silva, Maria da Conceição; de Farias Costa, Priscila Ribas; D'Almeida, Vânia; de Oliveira Assis, Ana Marlúcia

    2014-04-01

    Introducción: Los factores asociados al Síndrome metabólico (SM) han sido ampliamente estudiados en adultos, pero aún son poco explorado en niños y adolescentes Objetivo: Identificar la superioridad de SM y los factores asociados en niños y adolescentes. Métodos: Se trata de estudio transversal, con 540 niños de 7 a 14 años de edad. Los datos socioeconómicos, demográficos, estilo de vida e historia familiar de enfermedades crónicas fueron informados por la persona y/o responsable y registrados en cuestionario estructurado. Fueron realizadas dosificaciones bioquímicas (glicemia en ayuno, triglicérides, lipoproteína de alta densidad reducida, lipoproteína de muy baja densidad, homocisteina y cisteina), evaluación antropométrica y verificación de la presión arterial. La SM fue definida de acuerdo con los criterios del The National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III adaptado por Ferranti. Se utilizó regresión de Poisson como técnica estadística para identificar los factores asociados a la SM. Resultados: La superioridad de la SM fue del 12,8%, siendo a lipoproteína de alta densidad reducida (58,2%) el componente más frecuente, seguido por la hipertrigliceridemia (41,8%), presión arterial aumentada (29,1%), circunferencia de la cintura aumentada (26,7%) e hiperglicemia (7,2%). Fue observada asociación entre SM y exceso de peso (RP: 2,2 [1,22-3,95]), escolaridad paterna (RP: 2,19 [1,10-4,37]), concentración sérica de la lipoproteína de muy baja densidad (RP: 1,08 [1,04-1,11]) y concentraciones séricas simultáneamente aumentadas de homocisteina y cisteina (RP: 2,58 [1,32-5,04]). Conclusiones: La superioridad de SM es elevada en niños y adolescentes y se encuentra aumentada en paciente con exceso de peso, mayor escolaridad paterna, concentraciones séricas aumentadas de la lipoproteína de muy baja densidad, y elevación simultánea de los niveles séricos de homocisteína y cisteína.

  18. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  19. Restriction of dairy products; a reality in inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Brasil Lopes, Mirella; Rocha, Raquel; Castro Lyra, André; Rosa Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes Coqueiro, Fernanda; Silveira Almeida, Naiade; Santos Valois, Sandra; Oliveira Santana, Genoile

    2014-03-01

    Introducción: Se considera que la deficiencia de calcio es un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de osteoporosis en pacientes con enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal (EII). En estos pacientes se han notificado diversas restricciones dietéticas. Objetivo: Evaluar la ingesta de productos lácteos y calcio de la dieta en pacientes con EII. Métodos: En este estudio cruzado se reclutaron 65 pacientes ambulatorios con EII procedentes de un centro de referencia para EII. Se administraron un cuestionario semi-estructurado (que recogía datos demográficos, socio- económicos y clínicos) y un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimento. Con respecto a los datos clínicos, evaluamos el estado nutricional antropométrico, la clasificación de la enfermedad, el índice de actividad de la enfermedad y la presencia de síntomas gastrointestinales. Se evaluaron las modificaciones auto-notificadas en el uso de los productos lácteos. Resultados: Las edades de los pacientes con EII variaban entre los 20 y 75 años y el 67,0% fueron diagnosticados de colitis ulcerosa. La mayoría (64,7 %) notificaban una restricción de los productos lácteos. La frecuencia de síntomas gastrointestinales fue mayor en los pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn que restringían los productos lácteos que en aquellos que no lo hacían (100% frente a 42,9%; p = 0,013); este resultado no se observó en los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa CU. La actividad de la enfermedad también fue más frecuente en los pacientes con EII que restringían los productos lácteos que en aquellos sin restricción (23,8% frente a 4,5%; p = 0,031) y, en los pacientes con CU, la enfermedad extensa fue más habitual en pacientes que restringían los productos lácteos que en aquellos que no lo hacían (42,9 % frente a 20,0%; p = 0,03). Conclusión: La restricción de productos lácteos es habitual en pacientes con EII, posiblemente debido a la actividad de la enfermedad, la presencia de síntomas gastrointestinales y la

  20. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    PubMed Central

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; p<0.0001) y con la escala “Self Efficacy Form” (r=0.34; p<0.0001), pero no se relacionaron con las “normas de los pares en cuanto a relaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  1. Assessing patient-centered care: one approach to health disparities education.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, LuAnn; Fung, Cha-Chi; May, Win; Elliott, Donna

    2010-05-01

    Patient-centered care has been described as one approach to cultural competency education that could reduce racial and ethnic health disparities by preparing providers to deliver care that is respectful and responsive to the preferences of each patient. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of a curriculum in teaching patient-centered care (PCC) behaviors to medical students, we drew on the work of Kleinman, Eisenberg, and Good to develop a scale that could be embedded across cases in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). To compare the reliability, validity, and feasibility of an embedded patient-centered care scale with the use of a single culturally challenging case in measuring students' use of PCC behaviors as part of a comprehensive OSCE. A total of 322 students from two California medical schools participated in the OSCE as beginning seniors. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency of each approach. Construct validity was addressed by establishing convergent and divergent validity using the cultural challenge case total score and OSCE component scores. Feasibility assessment considered cost and training needs for the standardized patients (SPs). Medical students demonstrated a moderate level of patient-centered skill (mean = 63%, SD = 11%). The PCC Scale demonstrated an acceptable level of internal consistency (alpha = 0.68) over the single case scale (alpha = 0.60). Both convergent and divergent validities were established through low to moderate correlation coefficients. The insertion of PCC items across multiple cases in a comprehensive OSCE can provide a reliable estimate of students' use of PCC behaviors without incurring extra costs associated with implementing a special cross-cultural OSCE. This approach is particularly feasible when an OSCE is already part of the standard assessment of clinical skills. Reliability may be increased with an additional investment in SP training.

  2. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyong-Jee

    2016-12-29

    To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students' motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants' test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants' test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants' test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p < 0.01, respectively, and weak negative associations with their patient-centeredness (r = -0.21, p < 0.05) and with their perceived values of the OSCE (r = -0.21, p < 0.05). This study found some non-cognitive factors related to medical students' test anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs.

  3. High-mass Star Formation in the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armentrout, W. P.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.; Bania, T. M.; Dame, T. M.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2017-06-01

    The Outer Scutum-Centaurus (OSC) spiral arm is the most distant molecular spiral arm in the Milky Way, but until recently little was known about this structure. Discovered by Dame and Thaddeus, the OSC lies ˜15 kpc from the Galactic Center. Due to the Galactic warp, it rises to nearly 4° above the Galactic Plane in the first Galactic quadrant, leaving it unsampled by most Galactic plane surveys. Here we observe H ii region candidates spatially coincident with the OSC using the Very Large Array to image radio continuum emission from 65 targets and the Green Bank Telescope to search for ammonia and water maser emission from 75 targets. This sample, drawn from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions, represents every H ii region candidate near the longitude-latitude ({\\ell },b) locus of the OSC. Coupled with their characteristic mid-infrared morphologies, detection of radio continuum emission strongly suggests that a target is a bona fide H ii region. Detections of associated ammonia or water maser emission allow us to derive a kinematic distance and determine if the velocity of the region is consistent with that of the OSC. Nearly 60% of the observed sources were detected in radio continuum, and more than 20% have ammonia or water maser detections. The velocities of these sources mainly place them beyond the Solar orbit. These very distant high-mass stars have stellar spectral types as early as O4. We associate high-mass star formation at 2 new locations with the OSC, increasing the total number of detected H ii regions in the OSC to 12.

  4. Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology Education through Simulation (PAGES): Development and Evaluation of a Simulation Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Damle, Lauren F; Tefera, Eshetu; McAfee, Julie; Loyd, Mary K; Jackson, Allison M; Auguste, Tamika C; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2015-06-01

    Develop a Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PAG) curriculum, appropriate pelvic model for teaching examination skills, and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for evaluation. Compare OSCE performance between residents with clinical training in PAG vs those that completed the curriculum vs those without either experience. Prospective cohort study. Obstetrics and Gynecology (Ob/Gyn) residency program in an urban academic center. Senior Ob/Gyn residents. A simulation-based teaching curriculum was created to teach PAG skills. A pediatric mannequin with anatomic pre-pubertal genitalia was developed for teaching and assessment of skills. Performance on a PAG-based OSCE as assessed by 2 observers using a 40 point checklist. 17 residents participated in the OSCE; 5 completed the curriculum, 6 completed a clinical rotation, and 6 were controls. The teaching curriculum group had the highest median composite OSCE score (75.0%) compared to the clinical group (73.1%) and control group (55.3%). There was no statistical difference between the scores of the teaching and clinical groups, but the teaching group scored statistically higher than controls (P = .0331). Scores for each OSCE component were compared. The teaching and clinical groups outperformed controls on assessment and procedures. There was no difference in scores on history taking or physical examination. An interactive teaching curriculum incorporating simulation and a realistic pediatric pelvic model can be used to teach PAG clinical skills. Using an OSCE to evaluate skills shows that residents completing the curriculum perform as well as those with clinical experience and better than controls. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing intern core competencies with an objective structured clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Short, Matthew W; Jorgensen, Jennifer E; Edwards, John A; Blankenship, Robert B; Roth, Bernard J

    2009-09-01

    Residents are evaluated using Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. An Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a potential evaluation tool to measure these competencies and provide outcome data. Create an OSCE to evaluate and demonstrate improvement in intern core competencies of patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, and systems-based practice before and after internship. From 2006 to 2008, 106 interns from 10 medical specialties were evaluated with a preinternship and postinternship OSCE at Madigan Army Medical Center. The OSCE included eight 12-minute stations that collectively evaluated the 6 ACGME core competencies using human patient simulators, standardized patients, and clinical scenarios. Interns were scored using objective and subjective criteria, with a maximum score of 100 for each competency. Stations included death notification, abdominal pain, transfusion consent, suture skills, wellness history, chest pain, altered mental status, and computer literature search. These stations were chosen by specialty program directors, created with input from board-certified specialists, and were peer reviewed. All OSCE testing on the 106 interns (ages 25 to 44 [average, 28.6]; 70 [66%] men; 65 [58%] allopathic medical school graduates) resulted in statistically significant improvement in all ACGME core competencies: patient care (71.9% to 80.0%, P < .001), medical knowledge (59.6% to 78.6%, P < .001), practice-based learning and improvement (45.2% to 63.0%, P < .001), interpersonal and communication skills (77.5% to 83.1%, P < .001), professionalism (74.8% to 85.1%, P < .001), and systems-based practice (56.6% to 76.5%, P < .001). An OSCE during internship can evaluate incoming baseline ACGME core competencies and test for interval improvement. The OSCE is a valuable assessment tool to provide

  6. Characterization of currently marketed heparin products: adverse event relevant bioassays.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Cynthia D; Montpas, Nicolas; Adam, Albert; Keire, David A

    2012-01-01

    The polyanion oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) was identified as a contaminant in heparin products and was associated with severe hypotensive responses and other symptoms in patients receiving the drug. The OSCS associated adverse reactions were attributed to activation of the contact system via the plasma mediator, activated factor XII (FXIIa), which triggers kallikrein (KK) activity. Unlike heparin alone, OSCS, is able to activate FXII in plasma and stably bind to FXIIa enhancing plasma KK activity and the induction of vasoactive mediators such as bradykinin (BK), C3a and C5a. Similarly OSCS can interfere with heparin neutralization by the polycationic drug protamine. Here, we assess heparin (heparin sodium, dalteparin, tinzaparin or enoxaparin)-protamine complex formation and plasma based bioassays of KK, BK and C5a in a 96-well plate format. We establish the normal range of variation in the optimized bioassays across multiple lots from 9 manufacturers. In addition, because other oversulfated (OS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) besides OSCS could also serve as possible economically motivated adulterants (EMAs) to heparin, we characterize OS-dermatan sulfate (OSDS), OS-heparan sulfate (OSHS) and their native forms in the same assays. For the protamine test, OS-GAGs could be distinguished from heparin. For the KK assay, OSCS and OSDS were most potent followed by OSHS, and all had similar efficacies. Finally, OSDS had a greater efficacy in the C5a and BK assays followed by OSCS then OSHS. These data established the normal range of response of heparin products in these assays and the alteration in the responses in the presence of possible EMAs.

  7. Identification of organic sulfur compounds in coal bitumen obtained by different extraction techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria Elisabete; Fontanive, Fernando Cappelli; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz

    2011-11-01

    The determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) in coal is of great interest. Technically and operationally these compounds are not easily removed and promote corrosion of equipment. Environmentally, the burning of sulfur compounds leads to the emission of SO(x) gases, which are major contributors to acid rain. Health-wise, it is well known that these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Bitumen can be extracted from coal by different techniques, and use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection enables identification of compounds present in coal extracts. The OSC from three different bitumens were tentatively identified by use of three different extraction techniques: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). Results obtained from one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GC-qMS) and from two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-TOFMS) were compared. By use of 2D GC, a greater number of OSC were found in ASE bitumen than in SFE and UE bitumens. No OSC were identified with 1D GC-qMS, although some benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were detected by use of EIM and SIM modes. GC × GC-TOFMS applied to investigation of OSC in bitumens resulted in analytical improvement, as more OSC classes and compounds were identified (thiols, sulfides, thiophenes, naphthothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and benzonaphthothiophenes). The roof-tile effect was observed for OSC and PAH in all bitumens. Several co-elutions among analytes and with matrix interferents were solved by use of GC × GC.

  8. Rhinoplasty Education Using a Standardized Patient Encounter

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Eric J.; Khosla, Rohit K.; Howell, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Background Comprehensive aesthetic surgery training continues to be a challenge for residency programs. Our residency program developed a rhinoplasty-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) based upon validated methods as part of the residency education curriculum. We report our experience with the rhinoplasty-based OSCE and offer guidance to its incorporation within residency programs. Methods The encounter involved resident evaluation and operative planning for a standardized patient desiring a rhinoplasty procedure. Validated OSCE methods currently used at our medical school were implemented. Residents were evaluated on appropriate history taking, physical examination, and explanation to the patient of treatment options. Examination results were evaluated using analysis of variance (statistical significance P<0.05). Results Twelve residents completed the rhinoplasty OSCE. Medical knowledge assessment showed increasing performance with clinical year, 50% versus 84% for postgraduate year 3 and 6, respectively (P<0.005). Systems-based practice scores showed that all residents incorrectly submitted forms for billing and operative scheduling. All residents confirmed that the OSCE realistically represents an actual patient encounter. All faculty confirmed the utility of evaluating resident performance during the OSCE as a useful assessment tool for determining the Next Accreditation System Milestone level. Conclusions Aesthetic surgery training for residents will require innovative methods for education. Our examination showed a program-educational weakness in billing/coding, an area that will be improved upon by topic-specific lectures. A thoroughly developed OSCE can provide a realistic educational opportunity to improve residents' performance on the nonoperative aspects of rhinoplasty and should be considered as an adjunct to resident education. PMID:27689053

  9. [The importance of recombinant proteins of West Siberian isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi S.L. for serological diagnostic of ixodic tick borreliosis].

    PubMed

    Karavayev, V S; Genina, E S; Ryabchenko, A V; Beklemoschev, A B

    2014-06-01

    The structural proteins OspC, FlaB, FlaA and DbpB of agent of ixodic tick borreliosis are one of main antigens inducing humoral immunity at initial stages of disease. Owing to it, the task was stated to evaluate antigen activity of recombinant proteins OspC (OscP-Bg), fragment of FlaB (f-FlaB) and DbpB of genospecies B. garinii and OspC (OscC-Ba) of genospecies of B. afzelii of West Siberian isolates of Borrelia Burgdorferi S.L. for their possible application as antigens for serological diagnostic of ixodic tick borreliosis The recombinant proteins OscP-Bg, OscC-Ba, f-FlaB, FlaA and DbpB are analyzed using technique of enzymoimmunoassay to detect ability to bound antibodies of serums of patients with ixodic tick borreliosis with localized and disseminated stage of infection. The difference of their sensitivity as antigens during detection of specific antibodies in blood serum of patients with ixodic tick borreliosis was demonstrated In serum of patients with ixodic tick borreliosis with disseminated stage of infection the level of specific IgM and IgG antibodies reacting with OscP-Bg, OscC-Ba, f-FlaB, FlaA and DbpB is within the limits 15.7-52.6% for IgG. The results of enzymoimmunoassay applied to patients with ixodic tick borreliosis for detection of IgM and IgG in serum demonstrated that OscP-Bg and f-FlaB determined the highest antigen activity with antigens. The study results make it possible to consider these proteins as perspective components for development of immune enzyme test system of diagnostic of ixodic tick borreliosis.

  10. Temporal stability of objective structured clinical exams: a longitudinal study employing item response theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective structure clinical examination (OSCE) has been used since the early 1970s for assessing clinical competence. There are very few studies that have examined the psychometric stability of the stations that are used repeatedly with different samples. The purpose of the present study was to assess the stability of objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs) employing the same stations used over time but with a different sample of candidates, SPs, and examiners. Methods At Time 1, 191 candidates and at Time 2 (one year apart), 236 candidates participated in a 10-station OSCE; 6 of the same stations were used in both years. Generalizability analyses (Ep2) were conducted. Employing item response analyses, test characteristic curves (TCC) were derived for each of the 6 stations for a 2-parameter model. The TCCs were compared across the two years, Time 1 and 2. Results The Ep2 of the OSCEs exceeded.70. Standardized thetas (θ) and discriminations were equivalent for the same station across the two year period indicating equivalent TCCs for a 2-parameter model. Conclusion The 6 OSCE stations used by the AIMG program over two years have adequate internal consistency reliability, stable generalizability (Ep2) and equivalent test characteristics. The process of assessment employed for IMG’s are stable OSCE stations that may be used several times over without compromising psychometric properties. With careful security, high-stakes OSCEs may use the same stations that have high internal consistency and generalizability repeatedly as the psychometric properties are stable over several years with different samples of candidates. PMID:23216816

  11. Factors associated with medical student test anxiety in objective structured clinical examinations: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate attributes of medical students associated with their test anxiety on Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs). Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted of all Year 3 and 4 students at a private medical school in South Korea in 2014. This 53-item questionnaire consisted of factors pertaining to test anxiety on the OSCE identified from a review of relevant literature, which included students’ motivational beliefs and achievement emotions, perceived values of the OSCE, and attitude and orientation towards patients. Participants’ test anxiety levels were measured using the Korean Achievement Emotions Questionnaire. Participants rated their responses using a five-point Likert-type scale. Univariate analysis was performed to examine relationships between the variables. Results A total of 94 students completed the questionnaire (a 93% response rate). No differences in the participants’ test anxiety scores were observed across genders, entry-levels, or years in medical school. Participants’ test anxiety on the OSCE showed moderate association with their class-related achievement emotions (i.e., anxiety and boredom), where r = 0.46 and 0.32, p < 0.01, respectively, and weak negative associations with their patient-centeredness (r = -0.21, p < 0.05) and with their perceived values of the OSCE (r = -0.21, p < 0.05). Conclusions This study found some non-cognitive factors related to medical students’ test anxiety on the OSCE. These findings have implications for developing effective educational interventions for helping students cope with such a stress by enhancing our understanding of the various factors that influence their test anxiety in OSCEs. PMID:28035056

  12. Middle-aged rats orally supplemented with gel-encapsulated catechin favorably increases blood cytosolic NADPH levels.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2015-04-15

    Green tea catechins are primarily known to function as free radical scavengers and have several beneficial uses. Orally supplemented catechin (OSC) was previously shown to increase mitochondrial heme and catalase levels in rat heart blood, however, its effect in the cytosol has not been elucidated. Here, we determined the effects of OSC in the rat heart blood cytosol. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We isolated blood cytosol, verified its purity, and determined heme, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, catalase (CAT) activities, gp91(phox) amounts, NADP and NAD pools, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities, and free fatty acids (FFA). We established that OSC is associated with decreased heme-dependent H2O2 amounts while increasing heme-independent CAT activity. Moreover, we found that OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among middle-aged rats is associated to increased NADPH levels and SIRT1 activity. In contrast, we associated OSC-related decrease in NAD(+) amounts among young rats to decreased NADPH levels and increased SIRT1 activity. This highlights a major difference between catechin-treated middle-aged and young rats. Furthermore, we observed that cytosolic FFA and GR levels were significantly increased only among OSC-treated middle-aged rats which we hypothesize are related to increased NADPH levels. This insinuates that OSC treatment allows higher catechin amounts to enter the bloodstream of middle-aged rats. We propose that this would favorably increase NADPH amounts and lead to the simultaneous decrease in NADPH-related pro-oxidant activity and increase in NADPH-related biomolecules and anti-oxidant activities.

  13. The impact of a hybrid online and classroom-based course on palliative care competencies of family medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J; Palacios, M; Collin, T; Wedel, R; Galloway, L; Murray, A; Violato, C; Lockyer, J

    2008-12-01

    The University of Calgary offers a palliative care course that involves both classroom- and web-based learning for rural-based family medicine residents. This study assessed the impact of the course on palliative care-related competencies for two classes: 2004 and 2005. Instruments were developed to evaluate pre- versus post-course changes in knowledge (15-item quiz), attitudes (12-item survey), self-perceived comfort levels (19-item survey) and skills (3 long Objective Structured Clinical Examination stations (OSCEs), with accompanying standardised score sheets). In all, 16 and 20 residents participated in the 2004 and 2005 classes, respectively. Internal reliability values were acceptable to very good (Knowledge Quiz, Kuder-Richardson 20 = 0.5; Attitude Scale, alpha = 0.68-0.78; OSCE score sheets, alpha = 0.63-0.89; Self-Perceived Comfort Survey, alpha = 0.89-0.92). Inter-rater reliability values of the OSCE score sheets were alpha = 0.87 to 0.92. There was a significant improvement in the pre- versus post-course performances in OSCE 2 for 2004 and 2005 (P = 0.01; P = 0.01; d = 1.42 and 1.94, respectively). Despite statistically insignificant changes in the other OSCEs, acceptable to large effect sizes were noted (d = 0.4-1.34) for OSCE 1 in 2004 and OSCEs 3 in 2004 and 2005. Knowledge improved significantly pre-versus post-course in 2004 and 2005 (t = 4.44 and 8.99; d = 2.29 and 2.24, respectively). Significant improvements and large effect sizes were noted in the comfort scales, but a ceiling effect was noted in the communication subscale. This hybrid course resulted in significant improvements across four domains, knowledge, attitudes, self-perceived comfort scale, and skills, in 2 consecutive classes.

  14. Communication Skills in Candidates for Accreditation in Rheumatology Are Correlated With Candidate's Performance in the Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Flores-Alvarado, Diana Elsa; Portela-Hernández, Margarita; Maldonado-Velázquez, María Del Rocío; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis Manuel; López-Zepeda, Judith; Álvarez, Everardo; Rubio, Nadina; Lastra, Olga Vera; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Arce-Salinas, César Alejandro

    2017-07-26

    The Mexican Accreditation Council for Rheumatology annually certifies trainees in Rheumatology using a multiple-choice test and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Since 2015, candidate's communication skills (CS) have been rated by both patients and by physician examiners and correlated with results on the OSCE. This study compared the CS from candidates to annual accreditation in Rheumatology as rated by patients and by physician examiners, and assessed whether these correlated with candidate's performance in the OSCE. From 2015 to 2017, 8areas of CS were evaluated using a Likert scale, in each OSCE station that involved a patient. Both patient and physician evaluators were trained annually and their evaluations were performed blindly. The associations were calculated using the Pearson correlation coefficient. In general, candidates were given high CS scores; the scores from patients of the candidate's CS were better than those of physician examiners; within the majority of the stations, both scores were found to correlate moderately. In addition, the scoring of CS correlated with trainee performance at the corresponding OSCE station. Interestingly, better correlations were found when the skills were rated by the patients compared to physician scores. The average CS score was correlated with the overall OSCE performance for each trainee, but not with the multiple-choice test, except in the 2017 accreditation process, when a weak correlation was found. CS assessed during a national accreditation process correlated with the candidate's performance at the station level and with the overall OSCE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgery Clerkship Evaluations Are Insufficient for Clinical Skills Appraisal: The Value of a Medical Student Surgical Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kathryn L; Hirsh, David A; Petrusa, Emil R; Yeh, D Dante; Stearns, Dana; Sloane, David E; Linder, Jeffrey A; Basu, Gaurab; Thompson, Lisa A; de Moya, Marc A

    Optimal methods for medical student assessment in surgery remain elusive. Faculty- and housestaff-written evaluations constitute the chief means of student assessment in medical education. However, numerous studies show that this approach has poor specificity and a high degree of subjectivity. We hypothesized that an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the surgery clerkship would provide additional data on student performance that would confirm or augment other measures of assessment. We retrospectively reviewed data from OSCEs, National Board of Medical Examiners shelf examinations, oral presentations, and written evaluations for 51 third-year Harvard Medical School students rotating in surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital from 2014 to 2015. We expressed correlations between numeric variables in Pearson coefficients, stratified differences between rater groups by one-way analysis of variance, and compared percentages with 2-sample t-tests. We examined commentary from both OSCE and clinical written evaluations through textual analysis and summarized these results in percentages. OSCE scores and clinical evaluation scores correlated poorly with each other, as well as with shelf examination scores and oral presentation grades. Textual analysis of clinical evaluation comments revealed a heavy emphasis on motivational factors and praise, whereas OSCE written comments focused on cognitive processes, patient management, and methods to improve performance. In this single-center study, an OSCE provided clinical skills data that were not captured elsewhere in the surgery clerkship. Textual analysis of faculty evaluations reflected an emphasis on interpersonal skills, rather than appraisal of clinical acumen. These findings suggest complementary roles of faculty evaluations and OSCEs in medical student assessment. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Hypotensive and vascular relaxant effects of phospholipase A2 toxins from Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) venom.

    PubMed

    Chaisakul, Janeyuth; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2014-01-15

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) toxins are common and abundant components of Australasian elapid venoms. These toxins are associated with a range of activities including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and coagulation disturbances. We have recently reported that sudden cardiovascular collapse induced by Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus) venom involves a combination of the release of dilator autacoids and a direct effect on the smooth muscle. In this study, we aimed to isolate PLA2 components from Papuan taipan venom and investigate their contribution to the hypotensive action of this venom. O. scutellatus venom was fractionated using size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and fractions screened for activity in anaesthetized rats. Fraction three from O. scutellatus venom (i.e. OSC3, 14.2±1.0% of whole venom) produced a 64% decrease in mean arterial pressure. Reverse-phase HPLC indicated that OSC3 consisted of two major components (i.e. OSC3a and OSC3b). OSC3a and OSC3b produced a significant hypotensive response in anaesthetized rats which were attenuated by prior administration of indomethacin or the combination of mepyramine and heparin. N-terminal analysis indicated that OSC3a and b displayed sequence homology to PLA2 toxins isolated from coastal taipan (O. scutellatus scutellatus) venom. These findings indicate that PLA2 components may play an important role in the development of hypotension and vascular relaxation which may contribute to the effects observed after envenoming by these Australasian elapids. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Assessment of clinical competence of medical students using the objective structured clinical examination: first 2 years' experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chin-Chou; Chan, Cho-Yu; Wu, Chun-Lien; Chen, Ya-Lin; Yang, Hui-Wen; Huang, Chia-Chang; Chen, Chen-Huan; Huang, William J; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2010-11-01

    Competence-oriented education is currently the mainstream method of teaching clinical medical education. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely employed and accepted tool to measure the clinical competence of medical students. We describe the first 2 years' experience of OSCE in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. At Taipei Veterans General Hospital, every 7(th)-year medical student has taken the OSCE since 2006. There were 15 stations in the first 2 years' OSCEs. In years 1 and 2, 133 and 132 students were assessed by the OSCE, respectively. The content of the OSCE included internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, communication, and emergency training. All categories and results of examinees' evaluation at each station were recorded inclusively and compared statistically. The average scores of students from the 15 stations ranged from 47.7 ± 16.4 to 93.7 ± 8.5 in 2007. The score for communication skills was the lowest, whereas the score for Micro-Sim was the highest. Communication skills and electrocardiography interpretation were the 2 categories in which most of the students failed. A reliability analysis was conducted of the 2007 OSCE questions. The overall score and reliability (Cronbach's reliability) was 0.641. The difference between the impacts on reliability after deleting a test item ranged from 0.59 to 0.65 for all stations. This meant that every station had a similar impact on reliability after being deleted. The squared multiple correlation, R(2), of the reliability of each item was between 0.12 and 0.49, with chest X-ray interpretation being the lowest. The item-total correlation was between 0.10 and 0.41, with interactive case being the lowest. The OSCE is an effective method for assessing the clinical competence of medical students. The OSCE could be improved further by modifying the examination questions and promoting effective training for standardized patients and examiners. Copyright © 2010

  18. Cancer pain management skills among medical students: the development of a Cancer Pain Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    Sloan, P A; Plymale, M A; Johnson, M; Vanderveer, B; LaFountain, P; Sloan, D A

    2001-04-01

    Recent surveys suggest that most physicians have inadequate knowledge to assess and manage cancer pain; however, the important domain of clinical performance has not yet been clearly evaluated. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) has become a widely- used and accepted method to evaluate the clinical abilities of medical students. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a Cancer Pain OSCE for medical students evaluating their clinical competence in the area of cancer pain management. A four-component Cancer Pain OSCE was developed and presented to 34 third-year medical students during a sixteen-week combined medicine/surgery clerkship. The content of the objective criteria for each component of the OSCE was developed by a multidisciplinary group of pain experts. The OSCE was designed to assess the students' cancer pain management skills of pain history-taking, focused physical examination, analgesic management of cancer pain, and communication of opioid analgesia myths. Actual cancer survivors were used in the five-minute individual stations. The students were asked to complete a cancer pain history, physical examination, manage cancer pain using analgesics, and communicate with a family member regarding opioid myths. Clinical performance was evaluated using pre-defined checklists. Results showed the student's average performance for the history component was the highest of all four components of the examination. Out of 34 points possible on this clinical skills item, students on average (SD) scored 24.5 (5.2), or 72%. For the short-answer analgesic management component of the Cancer Pain OSCE, the overall score was 32%. Most students managed cancer pain with opioids, however, very few prescribed regular opioid use, and the use of adjuvant analgesics was uncommon. Student performance on the focused cancer pain physical examination was, in general, poor. On average students scored 61% on the musculoskeletal system, but only 31% on both the

  19. Electrostatic fields in hybrid heterojunctions: Field-effect transistor, topological insulator, & thermoelectronic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert Matthew

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are still surging in popularity for sustainable electronic devices, especially since they can perform as well as amorphous and polycrystalline silicon materials. Although OSCs have processing advantages that give rise to novel opportunities compared to inorganic semiconductors (ISCs), devices usually require inorganic materials for highly conductive connections or other functionality. Significantly, OSCs can be used to tune or modify the behavior of inorganic semiconductors (ISCs) by exploiting the junction between two semiconductors (a heterojunction). The possible creation of stable interfaces between ISCs and OSCs provides a practically limitless range of functionalities. Broadly, my goal is to study interfaces between OSCs and ISCs (hybrid heterojunctions) by testing devices of different configurations and altering the internal fields systematically, as well as with the aid of electron- and force-microscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. This thesis contains three major sections based around nascent, relevant applications: field-effect transistors, topological insulators, and thermoelectrics. First I study the effects of combining tellurium thin-films with OSC layers in field-effect transistors, where the organic acts both as a substrate modification layer and electrostatic gate. Secondly, I use electron withdrawing OSCs as gating materials for modifying Bi2Se3 in order to realize fundamental topological insulator behavior. Thirdly, I develop polymer-particle composites, including doping of the polymers and stabilization of inorganic particles with an electronic density of states that supports good thermoelectric behavior. We show that OSCs can undeniably be used to significantly modify properties of ISCs, namely tellurium, bismuth selenide, and organometallic compounds. I will first discuss the interfacial fields intrinsic to each heterojunction or device structure. Then I implement an additional electrostatic gate as part of the

  20. Novel synthetic organosulfur compounds induce apoptosis of human leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Wong, W W; Macdonald, S; Langler, R F; Penn, L Z

    2000-01-01

    It has been well documented that natural organosulfur compounds (OSCs) derived from plants such as garlic, onions and mahogany trees possess antiproliferative properties; however, the essential chemical features of the active OSC compounds remain unclear. To investigate the association between OSC structure and growth inhibitory activity, we synthesized novel relatives of dysoxysulfone, a natural OSC derived from the Fijian medicinal plant, Dysoxylum richii. In this study, we have examined the antiproliferative effects of these novel OSCs on a model human leukemic cell system and show that the compounds segregate into three groups. Group I, consisting of compounds A, B, G and J, did not affect either cell proliferation or the cell cycle profile of the leukemic cell lines. Group II, consisting of compounds F and H, induced the cells to undergo apoptosis from the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Group III, consisting of compounds C, D, E and I, decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis throughout the cell cycle. The apoptotic agonists of Group II and III shared a common disulfide moiety, essential for leukemic cell cytotoxicity. Interestingly, Group II compounds did not affect cell viability of normal human diploid cells, suggesting the regions flanking the disulfide group contributes to the specificity of cell killing. Thus, we provide evidence that structure-activity analysis of natural products can identify novel compounds for the development of new therapeutics that can trigger apoptosis in a tumor-specific manner.

  1. The feasibility and acceptability of administering a telemedicine objective structured clinical exam as a solution for providing equivalent education to remote and rural learners.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Ryan T; Biagioli, Frances E; Mujcic, Jasminka; Schneider, Benjamin N; Spires, LeNeva; Dodson, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    Although many medical schools incorporate distance learning into their curricula, assessing students at a distance can be challenging. While some assessments are relatively simple to administer to remote students, other assessments, such as objective structured clinical exams (OSCEs) are not. This article describes a means to more effectively and efficiently assess distance learners and evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the assessment. We developed a teleOSCE, administered online in real time, to two cohorts of students on a rural clerkship rotation and assessed the feasibility and acceptability of using such an approach to assess medical students' clinical skills at rural locations. Project feasibility was defined as having development and implementation costs of less than $5000. Project acceptability was determined by analyzing student interview transcripts. A qualitative case study design framework was chosen due to the novel nature of the activity. The implementation cost of the teleOSCE was approximately US$1577.20, making it a feasible educational endeavor. Interview data indicated the teleOSCE was also acceptable to students. The teleOSCE format may be useful to other institutions as a method to centrally administer clinical skills exams for assessment of distance medical students.

  2. Pharmacy Student Anxiety and Success With Objective Structured Clinical Examinations.

    PubMed

    Longyhore, Daniel S

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs.

  3. Regular Organic Solar Cells with Efficiency over 10% and Promoted Stability by Ligand‐ and Thermal Annealing‐Free Al‐Doped ZnO Cathode Interlayer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohui; Li, Yaru; Gui, Zhenzhen; Ming, Shuaiqiang; Usman, Khurram; Zhang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Landmark power conversion efficiency (PCE) over 10% has been accomplished in the past year for single‐junction organic solar cell (OSCs), suggesting a promising potential application of this technology. However, most of the high efficient OSCs are based on inverted configuration. Regular structure OSCs with both high efficiency and good stability are still rarely reported to date. In this work, by utilizing a new designed ligand‐free and non‐thermal‐annealing‐treated Al‐doped ZnO cathode interlayer, high efficiency and greatly improved stability are simultaneously realized in regular OSCs. The highest PCE of 10.14% is accomplished for single‐junction regular OSCs with active blend of poly [[2,6′‐4,8‐di(5‐ethylhexylthienyl)benzo[1,2‐b;3,3‐b]dithiophene][3‐fluoro‐2[(2‐ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno [3,4‐b]thiophenediyl

  4. Pharmacy Student Anxiety and Success With Objective Structured Clinical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students’ OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs. PMID:28289297

  5. Reliability analysis of the objective structured clinical examination using generalizability theory.

    PubMed

    Trejo-Mejía, Juan Andrés; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely used method for assessing clinical competence in health sciences education. Studies using this method have shown evidence of validity and reliability. There are no published studies of OSCE reliability measurement with generalizability theory (G-theory) in Latin America. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of an OSCE in medical students using G-theory and explore its usefulness for quality improvement. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine in Mexico City. A total of 278 fifth-year medical students were assessed with an 18-station OSCE in a summative end-of-career final examination. There were four exam versions. G-theory with a crossover random effects design was used to identify the main sources of variance. Examiners, standardized patients, and cases were considered as a single facet of analysis. Results The exam was applied to 278 medical students. The OSCE had a generalizability coefficient of 0.93. The major components of variance were stations, students, and residual error. The sites and the versions of the tests had minimum variance. Conclusions Our study achieved a G coefficient similar to that found in other reports, which is acceptable for summative tests. G-theory allows the estimation of the magnitude of multiple sources of error and helps decision makers to determine the number of stations, test versions, and examiners needed to obtain reliable measurements.

  6. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-07-18

    Tungsten oxide (WO₃) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO₃ transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO₃, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO₃ ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO₃, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication.

  7. Randomized trial of teaching brief motivational interviewing to pediatric trainees to promote healthy behaviors in families.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; McPhillips, Heather A; Hartzler, Bryan; Robertson, Andrea S; Runkle, Cecilia; Scholz, Kelley A; Stout, James W; Kieckhefer, Gail M

    2010-06-01

    That pediatric resident trainees would demonstrate increased counseling skill following training in brief motivational interviewing (MI). Randomized controlled trial. University of Washington Pediatric Residency. Pediatric residents (N = 18), including residents in postgraduate years 1, 2, 3, and 4. Collaborative Management in Pediatrics, a 9-hour behavior change curriculum based on brief MI plus written feedback on communication skills (based on a 3-month Objective Standardized Clinical Evaluation [OSCE]). The percentage of MI-consistent behavior (%MICO), a summary score for MI skill, was assessed via OSCEs in which standardized patients portray parents of children with asthma in 3 clinical scenarios (stations). The OSCEs were conducted at baseline and 3 and 7 months. Blinded coders rated videotaped OSCEs using a validated tool to tally communication behaviors. Training effects were assessed using linear regression controlling for baseline %MICO. Global ratings of counseling style served as secondary outcome measures. Trained residents demonstrated a trend toward increased skill (%MICO score) at 3 months compared with control residents. At 7 months, %MICO scores increased 16% to 20% (P < .02) across all OSCE stations after the combined intervention of Collaborative Management in Pediatrics training plus written feedback. The effect of training on global ratings supported the main findings. Pediatric trainees' skills in behavior change counseling improved following the combination of training in brief MI plus personalized feedback.

  8. Highly efficient and bendable organic solar cells using a three-dimensional transparent conducting electrode.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Bae, Tae-Sung; Park, Yeon Hyun; Kim, Dong Ho; Lee, Sunghun; Min, Guanghui; Lee, Gun-Hwan; Song, Myungkwan; Yun, Jungheum

    2014-06-21

    A three-dimensional (3D) transparent conducting electrode, consisting of a quasi-periodic array of discrete indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticles superimposed on a highly conducting oxide-metal-oxide multilayer using ITO and silver oxide (AgOx) as oxide and metal layers, respectively, is synthesized on a polymer substrate and used as an anode in highly flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). The 3D electrode is fabricated using vacuum sputtering sequences to achieve self-assembly of distinct ITO nanoparticles on a continuous ITO-AgOx-ITO multilayer at room-temperature without applying conventional high-temperature vapour-liquid-solid growth, solution-based nanoparticle coating, or complicated nanopatterning techniques. Since the 3D electrode enhances the hole-extraction rate in OSCs owing to its high surface area and low effective series resistance for hole transport, OSCs based on this 3D electrode exhibit a power conversion efficiency that is 11-22% higher than that achievable in OSCs by means of conventional planar ITO film-type electrodes. A record high efficiency of 6.74% can be achieved in a bendable OSC fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate.

  9. Students' perceptions of practice assessment in the skills laboratory: an evaluation study of OSCAs with immediate feedback.

    PubMed

    Rush, Sue; Ooms, Ann; Marks-Maran, Di; Firth, Terry

    2014-11-01

    Assessment of clinical skills is fundamental to undergraduate nursing programmes. However, enabling assessment to be a good learning experience as well is a challenge to nurse educators. The study presented here presents the change from using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for summative assessment (with feedback given to students after results had gone to the examination board--6 weeks after the OSCE) to one with immediate feedback. Because the previous OSCEs were universally disliked by students, for reasons that included absence of immediate feedback, in making this change the university re-branded the OSCE as an objective structured clinical assessment (OSCA) with immediate feedback provided to students. A survey was undertaken to measure student engagement with the OSCA, its value and impact, and its sustainability from the students' perspectives. There is little in the literature about student engagement with OSCEs and sustainability. Findings show that the OSCA with immediate feedback was perceived positively by students, was valued with regard to a number of factors, had a positively impact on student learning and confidence and was felt to be a form of assessment that this university should continue to use.

  10. Reliability analysis of the objective structured clinical examination using generalizability theory

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Mejía, Juan Andrés; Sánchez-Mendiola, Melchor; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Martínez-González, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a widely used method for assessing clinical competence in health sciences education. Studies using this method have shown evidence of validity and reliability. There are no published studies of OSCE reliability measurement with generalizability theory (G-theory) in Latin America. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of an OSCE in medical students using G-theory and explore its usefulness for quality improvement. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) Faculty of Medicine in Mexico City. A total of 278 fifth-year medical students were assessed with an 18-station OSCE in a summative end-of-career final examination. There were four exam versions. G-theory with a crossover random effects design was used to identify the main sources of variance. Examiners, standardized patients, and cases were considered as a single facet of analysis. Results The exam was applied to 278 medical students. The OSCE had a generalizability coefficient of 0.93. The major components of variance were stations, students, and residual error. The sites and the versions of the tests had minimum variance. Conclusions Our study achieved a G coefficient similar to that found in other reports, which is acceptable for summative tests. G-theory allows the estimation of the magnitude of multiple sources of error and helps decision makers to determine the number of stations, test versions, and examiners needed to obtain reliable measurements. PMID:27543188

  11. Diminished osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes following the membrane insertion of oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Streuli, R.A.; Kanofsky, J.R.; Gunn, R.B.; Yachnin, S.

    1981-08-01

    Oxygenated sterol compounds (OSC), when incubated for 1 hr with human erythrocytes in lipoprotein-depleted medium at concentrations of 0.625-5 x 10/sup -5/M, are inserted into the cell membrane and remain there despite subsequent washing of the cells. The insertion results in expansion of the surface area of the red cell ghost membrane, an increase in critical hemolytic volume, and as a consequence, in dimished osmotic fragility of the erythrocytes. This effect is seen with echinocyte-forming as well as with non-echinocyte-forming OSC. Erythrocytes treated with OSC do not differ from control cells with respect to their mean cell volume (MCV) in isotonic solution, water content, ion fluxes, and filterability through polycarbonate filters. The shift of the osmotic fragility curve toward lower NaCl concentrations is proportional to the amount of OSC inserted into the red cell membrane. 7BETA-Hydroxycholesterol, 22-ketocholesterol, and 20 ..cap alpha..-hydroxycholesterol are the most potent inhibitors of osmotic lysis. The effect of OSC on osmotic fragility is diminished if the erythrocytes are incubated in a lipoprotein-containing medium; free cholesterol, however, does not change this effect. Various progesterones also protect red cells from osmotic lysis if the erythrocytes are directly exposed to the compounds present in the hypotonic NaCl solutions.

  12. Highly transparent Nb-doped indium oxide electrodes for organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jun Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Na, Seok-In; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Lee, Hye-Min; Kim, Han-Ki

    2014-03-15

    The authors investigated the characteristics of Nb-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (INbO) films prepared by co-sputtering of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} for use in transparent anodes for organic solar cells (OSCs). To optimize the Nb dopant composition in the In{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix, the effect of the Nb doping power on the resistivity and transparency of the INbO films were examined. The electronic structure and microstructure of the INbO films were also investigated using synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction examinations in detail. At the optimized Nb co-sputtering power of 30 W, the INbO film exhibited a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq, and an optical transmittance of 86.04% at 550 nm, which are highly acceptable for the use as transparent electrodes in the fabrication of OSCs. More importantly, the comparable power conversion efficiency (3.34%) of the OSC with an INbO anode with that (3.31%) of an OSC with a commercial ITO anode indicates that INbO films are promising as a transparent electrode for high performance OSCs.

  13. The occurrence and identification of series of organic sulphur compounds in oils and sediment extracts: II. Their presence in samples from hypersaline and non-hypersaline palaeoenvironments and possible application as source, palaeoenvironmental and maturity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; De Leeuw, Jan W.; Schenck, P. A.

    1989-06-01

    The organic sulphur compounds (OSC) present in sixteen immature samples (both crude oils and bitumens) from different geographical locations and of different ages representing different palaeoenvironments have been analysed by GC-MS. In all samples OSC (thiolanes, thianes, thiophenes and benzo[ b]thiophenes) with structures related to well-known geologically occurring hydrocarbons ( n-alkanes, isoprenoid alkanes, steranes, triterpanes) occur, although the relative amounts and distribution patterns of the various OSC classes vary considerably. This variation is interpreted as a result of different sources of organic matter and different degrees of thermal maturation. The palaeoenvironments of the samples were anoxic and H 2S, produced by sulphate-reducing bacteria, probably has exceeded the input of reactive iron minerals. These conditions resulted in a surplus of free H 2S, which reacted with organic matter, leading to the formation of OSC. The distributions of OSC may be useful as molecular indicators for the assessment of sources of organic matter, palaeoenvironment and thermal maturity and for oil-oil and oil-source rock correlation studies. The distributions of the C 20 isoprenoid thiophenes in combination with those of the methylated 2-methyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl) chromans can be used to discriminate non-hypersaline from hypersaline palaeoenvironments.

  14. Electron Transport Layer-Free Inverted Organic Solar Cells Fabricated with Highly Transparent Low-Resistance Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide/Ag/Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Multilayer Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kwon, Sung-Nam; Na, Seok-In; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Yoo, Young-Zo; Im, Hyeong-Seop; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2017-04-01

    Inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) have been fabricated with conventional Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) and amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO)/Ag/a-IGZO (39 nm/19 nm/39 nm) (a-IAI) electrodes and their electrical characteristics characterized. The ITO and optimized a-IAI electrodes showed high transmittance of 96% and 88% at 500 nm, respectively. The carrier concentration and sheet resistance of the ITO and a-IAI films were 8.46 × 1020 cm-3 and 7.96 × 1021 cm-3 and 14.18 Ω/sq and 4.24 Ω/sq, respectively. Electron transport layer (ETL)-free OSCs with the a-IAI electrode exhibited power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.66%, similar to that of ZnO ETL-based OSCs with ITO electrode (3.27%). However, the ETL-free OSCs with the a-IAI electrode showed much higher PCE than the ETL-free OSCs with the ITO electrode (0.84%). Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the work function of the a-IAI electrode was 4.15 eV. This improved performance was attributed to the various roles of the a-IAI electrode, e.g., as an effective ETL and a hole blocking layer.

  15. [A standardized practical examination for title revalidation of graduates of foreign medical schools].

    PubMed

    Kunakov, Natasha; Bozzo, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    The University of Chile, backed by its extensive experience in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), performs the practical exam to graduates of foreign medical school in this format. This test format would give more guarantees of validity and fairness as compared with the previous oral examination that was required for title revalidation. To compare the performance of graduates of foreign medical schools and last year medical students of the University of Chile in the same internal medicine OSCE. Seventy-seven last year medical students and thirty-three graduates of foreign medical schools participated in the same Internal Medicine OSCE, but in different moments. At the end of the examination, graduates of foreign medical schools answered a questionnaire about their prior experience with OSCEs and about their perception about this type of examination. The performance of graduates of foreign medical schools was lower than those of our last year medical students in four of the eight stations of the examination. Graduates of foreign medical schools considered the examination objective, fair, and that it assessed skills adequately and that the degree difficulty was homogeneous for all examinees. The possibility of obtaining comparable results in a transparent process makes the OSCE the assessment tool of choice for title revalidation of physicians migrating from foreign countries.

  16. Length of internship influences performance on medical residency exam.

    PubMed

    Santos, Itamar de Souza; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Nunes, Maria do Patrocínio Tenório

    2009-01-01

    Medical education encompasses globally diverse context and conditions. The Brazilian scenario seemed a natural environment to study the influence of medical education programs and internship duration on the entrance exam for medical residency. This investigation evaluates some methods used during the entrance exam for medical residency as a means to make a distinction between candidates with longer clerkships. Candidates selected for a residency program performed a multiple-choice (MC), an open question (OQ) and OSCE-like tests, an interview and a curriculum analysis for participation in scientific meetings, papers published and voluntary activities. Groups were compared for gender, year of graduation, tests and OSCE scores. Participants were distributed into two groups based on clerkship duration: 2 years or less than 2 years. There was no difference for the MCT score among groups or any of the activities from interview and curriculum analysis. The 2 years clerkship group showed significantly higher OQ (p=0.009) and OSCE-like affective (p=0.025) and knowledge (p=0.002) scores. The OSCE test identified some aspects related to competence acquisition and assessed basic skills and attitudes essential to the supervised practice of medicine during residency. OSCE discriminated aspects not perceived by the sole use of knowledge tests.

  17. Introduction and preparation of an objective structured clinical examination in family medicine for undergraduate students at the University of Split.

    PubMed

    Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Šimunović, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    To describe the implementation of the first Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) conducted at the University of Split School of Medicine. Twenty-one clinical skills relevant to general practice were selected and described in a Handbook for students. Assessment sheets were created. After performing an inventory of available resources, teaching models were purchased and practical classes arranged. A Centre for Clinical Competencies was established, where the first OSCE at the University of Split School of Medicine was conducted in March 2011. Attendance by students to the practical classes and the OSCE was 100%. Positive feedback was received by students, who requested extra lessons in clinical skills training. Despite not setting a minimal pass rate, the average OSCE score was 27 out of 30 points. Organization of clinical skills training and assessment was demanding, requiring many hours of preparation and numerous staff involvement but was ultimately very rewarding. Both practical classes and the OSCE were very well received by students, who seemed to be empowered by this experience. Copyright 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  18. Polarization-independent efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by using 3-dimensional plasmonic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuanhua; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Ren, Xingang; Xin, Jianzhuo; Lin, Peng; Leung, Dennis C. W.

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic back reflectors have recently become a promising strategy for realizing efficient organic solar cell (OSCs). Since plasmonic effects are strongly sensitive to light polarization, it is highly desirable to simultaneously achieve polarization-independent response and enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) by designing the nanostructured geometry of plasmonic reflector electrode. Here, through a strategic analysis of 2-dimensional grating (2D) and 3-dimensional patterns (3D), with similar periodicity as a plasmonic back reflector, we find that the OSCs with 3D pattern achieve the best PCE enhancement by 24.6%, while the OSCs with 2D pattern can offer 17.5% PCE enhancement compared to the optimized control OSCs. Importantly, compared with the 2D pattern, the 3D pattern shows a polarization independent plasmonic response, which will greatly extend its uses in photovoltaic applications. This work shows the significances of carefully selecting and designing geometry of plasmonic nanostructures in achieving high-efficient, polarization-independent plasmonic OSCs.

  19. [The Use of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination for Paediatric residents in the City of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Hamui, Magalí; Ferreira, Juan Pablo; Paganini, Agustina; Torres, Fernando; Ossorio, María Fabiana; Yulitta, Horacio; Eiguchi, Kumiko; Ferrero, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is considered the reference standard for competence evaluation, but its use in Latin America is limited. The City of Buenos Aires Government (CBAG) administers a Paediatric residency system that includes 400 residents distributed in 13 hospitals, sharing an admission system and education program. We aim to describe the experience of administering an OSCE for evaluating all the Paediatric residents of the CBAG. Descriptive study, including all paediatric residents of the CBAG, belonging to 13 hospitals (2 paediatric and 11 general), ending their first year of training. The OSCE included 10 stations. Eighty-five residents participated in the OSCE, and 88.2% (95% CI 79.7-93.5) passed the examination. There were no significant differences in the pass rate between residents from paediatric hospitals and from general hospitals (89.5 vs. 85.7%; OR=1.4; 95% CI 0.4-5.5; P=.8). In 2015, the OSCE was administered to all paediatric residents of the CBAG for the first time. This experience allowed identifying weaknesses in the education system, in order to develop strategies to overcome them. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Single-walled carbon nanotube: One specific inhibitor of cancer stem cells in osteosarcoma upon downregulation of the TGFβ1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yanyan; Zhang, Haixia; Pan, Yubin; Ren, Jian; Ye, Miaoman; Xia, Fangfang; Huang, Rui; Lin, Zhuoheng; Jiang, Shuai; Zhang, Ya; Songyang, Zhou; Zhang, Yan

    2017-09-26

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to have a critical role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, therapeutic resistance or recurrence. Therefore, strategies designed to specifically target and eliminate CSCs have become one of the most promising and desirable ways for tumor treatment. Osteosarcoma stem cells (OSCs), the CSCs in osteosarcoma (OS), are critically associated with OS progression. Here, we show that single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), including unmodified SWCNT (SWCNT-Raw) and SWCNT-COOH, have the ability to specifically inhibit the process of TGFβ1-induced OS cells dedifferentiation, prevent the stem cell phenotypes acquisition in OS cells and reduce the OSC viability under conditions which mimic the OS microenvironment. Concurrently, SWCNT treatment significantly down-regulates the expression of OSC markers in OS, and markedly reduces the tumor microvessel density and tumor growth. Furthermore, we found that SWCNT could suppress the TGFβ1-induced activation of TGFβ type I receptor and downstream signaling, which are key for the OSC formation and maintenance. Our results reveal an unexpected function of SWCNT in negative modulation of OSCs, and provide significant implications for the potential CSCs-targeted therapeutic applications of SWCNT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Near-peer education: a novel teaching program.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Sara; Premnath, Daphne

    2016-05-30

    This study aims to: 1) Evaluate whether a near-peer program improves perceived OSCE performance; 2) Identify factors motivating students to teach; 3) Evaluate role of near-peer teaching in medical education. A near-peer OSCE teaching program was implemented at Monash University's Peninsula Clinical School over the 2013 academic year. Forty 3rd-year and thirty final-year medical students were recruited as near-peer learners and educators, respectively. A post-program questionnaire was completed by learners prior to summative OSCEs (n=31), followed by post-OSCE focus groups (n=10). Near-peer teachers were interviewed at the program's conclusion (n=10). Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes to assess the perceived value of the program. Learners felt peer-led teaching was more relevant to assessment, at an appropriate level of difficulty and delivered in a less threatening environment than other methods of teaching. They valued consistent practice and felt confident approaching their summative OSCEs. Educators enjoyed the opportunity to develop their teaching skills, citing mutual benefit and gratitude to past peer-educators as strong motivators to teach others. Near-peer education, valued by near-peer learners and teachers alike, was a useful method to improve preparation and perceived performance in summative examinations. In particular, a novel year-long, student-run initiative was regarded as a valuable and feasible adjunct to faculty teaching.

  2. Undergraduate psychiatry students' attitudes towards teaching methods at an Irish university.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, F; Casey, P; Kelly, B D

    2016-11-01

    At University College Dublin, teaching in psychiatry includes clinical electives, lectures, small-group and problem-based teaching, consistent with international trends. To determine final-year psychiatry students' attitudes towards teaching methods. We distributed questionnaires to all final-year medical students in two classes (2008 and 2009), after final psychiatry examination (before results) and all of them participated (n = 111). Students' interest in psychiatry as a career increased during psychiatry teaching. Students rated objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) as the most useful element of teaching and examination. The most common learning style was "reflector"; the least common was "pragmatist". Two thirds believed teaching could be improved (increased patient contact) and 89 % reported that experience of psychiatry changed attitudes towards mental illness (increased understanding). Students' preference for OSCEs may reflect the closeness of OSCE as a form of learning to OSCE as a form of assessment: OSCEs both focus on specific clinical skills and help prepare for examinations. Future research could usefully examine the extent to which these findings are university-specific or instructor-dependent. Information on the consistency of various teaching, examination and modularisation methods would also be useful.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer action of garlic compounds in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Surajit; Choudhury, Subhasree Roy; Banik, Naren L; Ray, Swapan K

    2011-05-01

    The medicinal properties of garlic (Allium sativum) have been well known and widely used since historical times. Garlic compounds have received increasing attention during the last few years due to their cancer chemopreventive properties. The anti-cancer activity of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds (OSCs) are extensively reported in many cancers but only a few in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma, which warrants exploration of new therapy for its management. There are some recent reports suggesting that garlic-derived OSCs cause cell cycle arrest, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate stress kinases, and also stimulate the mitochondrial pathway for apoptosis in malignant neuroblastoma. The comprehensive mechanisms of anti-cancer action of OSCs still remain unclear and require more studies in neuroblastoma. This review is designed to highlight the molecular mechanisms of anti-cancer actions of garlic-derived OSCs in neuroblastoma and as well as in several other cancers. Further studies should be conducted to establish the clinical expediency of garlic-derived OSCs for treatment of malignant neuroblastoma in humans.

  4. Enhanced transmittance of metallic film with nanoaperture array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Ou, Xia-Li; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Liu, Yu-Shan; Gao, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Metallic film as an indium tin oxide alternative, which shows excellent mechanical flexibility and high conductivity, has the ideal physical properties for flexible organic solar cells (OSCs). However, a bottleneck of metallic film was a lack of transmittance that limits the application in OSCs. We have demonstrated a nanoaperture metallic film fabricated by a template striping method, which can overcome the above-mentioned bottleneck. This metallic film has a random nanoaperture array. The size and shape of the nanoaperture were dependent on master templates. This metallic film with nanoaperture array is not only able to show high conductivity but also possesses tunable localized surface plasmon (LSP) resonance as well. The LSP could be coupled with dipole mode in nanostructure, which can account for the transmission enhancement and efficiently increase the light absorption of active layer in the OSCs. Moreover, this metallic film with nanoaperture array will exhibit particular advantage in flexible OSCs because the backing layer itself is a flexible substrate. The nanoaperture metallic film fabricated by this method as an electrode was a good choice for OSCs.

  5. Breaking bad news in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the need for medical education.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Kerri L; Schofield, Susie J; Fang, Shoufan; Johnston, Wendy S W

    2014-03-01

    The manner in which physicians deliver difficult diagnoses is an area of discontent for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The American Academy of Neurology's Practice Parameter for care of the ALS Patient recommended teaching and evaluating strategies for disclosing the diagnosis (10). Our objective was to examine residents' ability in and perceptions of communicating the diagnosis of ALS. Twenty-two resident physicians were videotaped and rated by two ALS neurologists as they delivered an ALS diagnosis to a standardized patient (SP) during an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Residents self-rated immediately after the OSCE, again after viewing their videotape, and completed a survey regarding the OSCE and delivering difficult diagnoses. OSCE performance was suboptimal, particularly for communication skills and empathy. The two examiners' scores correlated except for the empathy subscore. Residents' self-assessments did not align with the examiners' scores either before or after watching their videotape. The survey uncovered residents' apprehension and dissatisfaction with their training in diagnosis delivery. The results highlight a need for resident education in delivering an ALS diagnosis. The lack of correlation between residents' and examiners' scoring requires further study. Evaluation of empathy is particularly challenging. Residents agreed that OSCE participation was worthwhile.

  6. Examiners' perceptions of the objective structured clinical examination in colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N S

    2013-02-01

    Certification in Colposcopy by the British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (BSCCP) and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is a formal pre- requisite to the practice of colposcopy within the UK. This certification is awarded after passing an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The aim of the project is to explore examiners' perceptions of the OSCE examination in colposcopy and consider whether it is the right tool to differentiate between safe and unsafe practice in colposcopy. A case study research methodology was employed for the project, and questionnaires were sent to 30 examiners for OSCE in Colposcopy. The project also included conducting semi-structured interviews with two examiners, two trainees and a senior manager of the BSCCP. The questionnaire had a response rate of 28 (94%). The satisfaction rate among the examiners about the standard of questions in OSCE in Colposcopy was 93%, and 89% of the examiners would allow a candidate passing the examination to carry out a clinic in their absence. A total of 26 (94%) examiners thought that the examination was fit for purpose. It was suggested that testing of practical skills should also be made part of the examination. It seems OSCE in Colposcopy is perceived well both by the examiners and the candidates.

  7. The cholesterol biosynthesis enzyme oxidosqualene cyclase is a new target to impair tumour angiogenesis and metastasis dissemination.

    PubMed

    Maione, Federica; Oliaro-Bosso, Simonetta; Meda, Claudia; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Bussolino, Federico; Balliano, Gianni; Viola, Franca; Giraudo, Enrico

    2015-03-12

    Aberrant cholesterol homeostasis and biosynthesis has been observed in different tumour types. This paper investigates the role of the post-squalenic enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase (OSC), in regulating tumour angiogenesis and metastasis dissemination in mouse models of cancer. We showed that Ro 48-8071, a selective inhibitor of OSC, reduced vascular density and increased pericyte coverage, with a consequent inhibition of tumour growth in a spontaneous mouse model of pancreatic tumour (RIP-Tag2) and two metastatic mouse models of human colon carcinoma (HCT116) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (HPAF-II). Remarkably, the inhibition of OSC hampered metastasis formation in HCT116 and HPAF-II models. Ro 48-8071 induced tumour vessel normalization and enhanced the anti-tumoral and anti-metastatic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in HCT116 mice. Ro 48-8071 exerted a strong anti-angiogenic activity by impairing endothelial cell adhesion and migration, and by blocking vessel formation in angiogenesis assays. OSC inhibition specifically interfered with the PI3K pathway. According to in vitro results, Ro 48-8071 specifically inhibited Akt phosphorylation in both cancer cells and tumour vasculature in all treated models. Thus, our results unveil a crucial role of OSC in the regulation of cancer progression and tumour angiogenesis, and indicate Ro 48-8071 as a potential novel anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic drug.

  8. Photocurrent generation through electron-exciton interaction at the organic semiconductor donor/acceptor interface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lijia; Zhang, Qiaoming; Lei, Yanlian; Zhu, Furong; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Ting; Niu, Guoxi; Xiong, Zuhong; Song, Qunliang

    2013-10-21

    In this work, we report our effort to understand the photocurrent generation that is contributed via electron-exciton interaction at the donor/acceptor interface in organic solar cells (OSCs). Donor/acceptor bi-layer heterojunction OSCs, of the indium tin oxide/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60)/molybdenum oxide/Al type, were employed to study the mechanism of photocurrent generation due to the electron-exciton interaction, where CuPc and C60 are the donor and the acceptor, respectively. It is shown that the electron-exciton interaction and the exciton dissociation processes co-exist at the CuPc/C60 interface in OSCs. Compared to conventional donor/acceptor bi-layer OSCs, the cells with the above configuration enable holes to be extracted at the C60 side while electrons can be collected at the CuPc side, resulting in a photocurrent in the reverse direction. The photocurrent thus observed is contributed to primarily by the charge carriers that are generated by the electron-exciton interaction at the CuPc/C60 interface, while charges derived from the exciton dissociation process also exist at the same interface. The mechanism of photocurrent generation due to electron-exciton interaction in the OSCs is further investigated, and it is manifested by the transient photovoltage characteristics and the external quantum efficiency measurements.

  9. Molecular cloning and expression of squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclase genes in persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chunhua; Zhao, Daqiu; Sheng, Yanle; Liang, Guohua; Tao, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are the main triterpene acids in persimmon fruit, and squalene synthase and 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases are important enzymes in pentacyclic triterpene biosynthesis. In order to study their relationship, DkSQS and DkOSC were cloned from persimmon fruits in the present study. The full-length cDNA of DkSQS was 1647 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1245 bp that encoded a peptide of 415 amino acids (AA). The 3'-end of DkOSC cDNA fragment contained 522 bp, including a partial ORF of 298 bp, a full poly A tail that encoded 98 AA. Two cultivars of persimmon, i.e. cv. Nishimurawase and cv. Niuxinshi, were used to study the content of OA and UA and the related gene expression. Results showed that OA and UA contents changed in both cultivars during fruit development, the difference in cv. Nishimurawase was greater than that in cv. Niuxinshi. The expression of DkSQS and DkOSC had no obvious correlation with the biosynthesis of OA and UA in the flesh. There may be two main reasons. Firstly, different enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenes and mutual adjustment were existed in different gene expressions. Secondly, it was not clear that the DkOSC cloned in this research belonged to which subfamily. Therefore, the real relationship between triterpenes and DkSQS and DkOSC in persimmon fruits is still to be revealed.

  10. Embedment of nano-sized Ag layer into Ag-doped In2O3 films for use as highly transparent and conductive anode in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-08-01

    By inserting a nano-sized Ag layer between bottom Ag-doped In2O3 (AIO) and a top AIO layer, we were able to control the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of AIO films for application in organic solar cells (OSCs) as a transparent electrode. To optimize the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer, we investigated the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer as a function of Ag interlayer thickness with a constant bottom and top AIO thickness of 35 nm. The optimized AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer showed a much lower resistivity of 3.988 × 10-5 Ω cm and a higher optical transmittance of 84.79% than the values (4.625 × 10-4 Ω cm and 78.36%) of the single AIO film, due to the high conductivity of the metallic Ag layer and the antireflection effect of the symmetric AIO/Ag/AIO structure. In addition, we investigated the performances of OSCs with AIO/Ag/AIO electrodes as a function of Ag interlayer thickness to determine the optimal Ag thickness to produce a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs. Based on the PCE of the OSCs, we correlated the performance of the OSCs with the Ag interlayer thickness in the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the dependency of PCE on Ag thickness in AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer electrodes.

  11. Low-Temperature Preparation of Tungsten Oxide Anode Buffer Layer via Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Method for Large-Area Organic Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Ran; Zheng, Ding; Zhou, Chang; Cheng, Jiang; Yu, Junsheng; Li, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Tungsten oxide (WO3) is prepared by a low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method in air atmosphere, and it is used as an anode buffer layer (ABL) for organic solar cells (OSCs). The properties of the WO3 transition metal oxide material as well as the mechanism of ultrasonic spray pyrolysis processes are investigated. The results show that the ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL exhibits low roughness, matched energy level, and high conductivity, which results in high charge transport efficiency and suppressive recombination in OSCs. As a result, compared to the OSCs based on vacuum thermal evaporated WO3, a higher power conversion efficiency of 3.63% is reached with low-temperature ultrasonic spray pyrolysized WO3 ABL. Furthermore, the mostly spray-coated OSCs with large area was fabricated, which has a power conversion efficiency of ~1%. This work significantly enhances our understanding of the preparation and application of low temperature-processed WO3, and highlights the potential of large area, all spray coated OSCs for sustainable commercial fabrication. PMID:28773177

  12. Effects of Various Calcium Powders as Replacers for Synthetic Phosphate on the Quality Properties of Ground Pork Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the optimal and superior type of natural calcium for replacing phosphate in cooked ground pork products. To achieve this, 0.5% eggshell calcium (ESC), oyster shell calcium (OSC), marine algae calcium (MAC), or milk calcium (MC) was added to ground pork meat products. The effect of this substitution was studied by comparing the substituted products with products containing 0.3% phosphate blend (control). ESC was considered an ideal phosphate replacer for minimizing the cooking loss, which likely resulted from the increase in the pH of the product. Among the other natural calcium types, OSC treatment did not cause a significant increase in pH, but it lowered the cooking loss. CIE L* values were higher (p<0.05) in products treated with OSC or MC than the control, and lowest (p<0.05) in the products with ESC. However, products with ESC had higher (p<0.05) CIE a* and CIE b* values than the control and products treated with other powders. Compared to the control, products treated with ESC and OSC had similar substitution effects on the textural properties of the products. Therefore, the results of this study suggested that the combined use of ESC and OSC could be a potentially effective method for replacing synthetic phosphate in ground pork products. PMID:28747832

  13. An Evolutionary Perspective on Adult Female Germline Stem Cell Function from Flies to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    The concept that oogenesis continues into reproductive life has been well established in nonmammalian species. Recent studies of mice and women indicate that oocyte formation is also not, as traditionally believed, restricted to the fetal or perinatal periods. Analogous to de novo oocyte formation in flies and fish, newly formed oocytes in adult mammalian ovaries arise from germline stem cells (GSCs) or, more specifically, oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Studies of mice have confirmed that isolated OSCs, once delivered back into adult ovaries, are capable of generating fully functional eggs that fertilize to produce healthy embryos and offspring. Parallel studies of OSCs recently purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women indicate that these cells closely resemble their mouse ovary–derived counterparts, although the fertilization competency of oocytes generated by human OSCs awaits clarification. Despite the ability of OSCs to produce new oocytes during adulthood, oogenesis will still ultimately cease with age, contributing to ovarian failure. The causal mechanisms behind these events in mammals are unknown, but studies of flies have revealed that GSC niche dysfunction plays a critical role in age-related oogenic failure. Such insights derived from evaluation of nonmammalian species, in which postnatal oogenesis has been studied in depth, may aid in development of new strategies to alleviate ovarian failure and infertility in mammals. PMID:23329633

  14. Purification of oogonial stem cells from adult mouse and human ovaries: an assessment of the literature and a view toward the future.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; White, Yvonne A R; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonatal and adult mouse ovaries by 4 independent groups using multiple strategies. Two of these groups also reported that isolated mouse OSCs, once transplanted back into ovaries of adult female mice, differentiate into fully functional eggs that ovulate, fertilize, and produce healthy embryos and offspring. Arguably, one of the most significant advances in this emerging field was provided by a new research study published this year, which reported the successful isolation and functional characterization of OSCs from ovaries of reproductive age women. Two commentaries on this latest work, one cautiously supportive and one highly skeptical, were published soon afterward. This article evaluates the current literature regarding postnatal oogenesis in mammals and discusses important next steps for future work on OSC biology and function.

  15. An evolutionary perspective on adult female germline stem cell function from flies to humans.

    PubMed

    Woods, Dori C; Tilly, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    The concept that oogenesis continues into reproductive life has been well established in nonmammalian species. Recent studies of mice and women indicate that oocyte formation is also not, as traditionally believed, restricted to the fetal or perinatal periods. Analogous to de novo oocyte formation in flies and fish, newly formed oocytes in adult mammalian ovaries arise from germline stem cells (GSCs) or, more specifically, oogonial stem cells (OSCs). Studies of mice have confirmed that isolated OSCs, once delivered back into adult ovaries, are capable of generating fully functional eggs that fertilize to produce healthy embryos and offspring. Parallel studies of OSCs recently purified from ovaries of reproductive-age women indicate that these cells closely resemble their mouse ovary-derived counterparts, although the fertilization competency of oocytes generated by human OSCs awaits clarification. Despite the ability of OSCs to produce new oocytes during adulthood, oogenesis will still ultimately cease with age, contributing to ovarian failure. The causal mechanisms behind these events in mammals are unknown, but studies of flies have revealed that GSC niche dysfunction plays a critical role in age-related oogenic failure. Such insights derived from evaluation of nonmammalian species, in which postnatal oogenesis has been studied in depth, may aid in development of new strategies to alleviate ovarian failure and infertility in mammals. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Purification of Oogonial Stem Cells From Adult Mouse and Human Ovaries: An Assessment of the Literature and a View Toward the Future

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Dori C.; White, Yvonne A. R.; Tilly, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary claims that mitotically active female germ line or oogonial stem cells (OSCs) exist and support oogenesis during postnatal life in mammals have been debated in the field of reproductive biology since March 2004, when a mouse study posed the first serious challenge to the dogma of a fixed pool of oocytes being endowed at birth in more than 50 years. Other studies have since been put forth that further question the validity of this dogma, including the isolation of OSCs from neonatal and adult mouse ovaries by 4 independent groups using multiple strategies. Two of these groups also reported that isolated mouse OSCs, once transplanted back into ovaries of adult female mice, differentiate into fully functional eggs that ovulate, fertilize, and produce healthy embryos and offspring. Arguably, one of the most significant advances in this emerging field was provided by a new research study published this year, which reported the successful isolation and functional characterization of OSCs from ovaries of reproductive age women. Two commentaries on this latest work, one cautiously supportive and one highly skeptical, were published soon afterward. This article evaluates the current literature regarding postnatal oogenesis in mammals and discusses important next steps for future work on OSC biology and function. PMID:23024060

  17. Agarose-gel electrophoresis for the quality assurance and purity of heparin formulations.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Buzzega, Dania

    2012-01-01

    The adulteration of raw heparin (Hep) with a synthetic oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) not found in nature produced in 2007-2008 a global crisis giving rise to the development of additional, new and specific methods for its quality assurance and purity. In this study, a simple and sensitive agarose-gel electrophoresis method has been developed for the visualization of OSCS in Hep samples along with other natural glycosaminoglycans possibly present as "process-related impurities", in particular dermatan sulfate (DS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS). Agarose-gel electrophoresis under non-conventional conditions is able to separate OSCS from Hep with its two components, the slow-moving and fast-moving species, DS and CS by performing separation for 15 h (overnight) and under high voltage (100 mA, ∼200 V). Densitometric scanning enabled us to calculate a limit of detection of ∼0.5 μg OSCS with a linear behaviour from 0.1 to 5 μg, comparable to CS/DS. Contaminated samples from Hep manufacturers were analyzed and quantitative data were found comparable to previous studies. Due to its capacity to process many samples in a single run and to the equipment commonly available in laboratories, this analytical method would be suitable for the identification and quantification of contamination by other polysaccharides, in particular OSCS and DS, within Hep preparations and formulations.

  18. Signal transduction pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in cancer cells by Allium vegetable-derived organosulfur compounds: a review.

    PubMed

    Herman-Antosiewicz, Anna; Singh, Shivendra V

    2004-11-02

    Epidemiological studies continue to support the premise that dietary intake of Allium vegetables (e.g., garlic, onions and so forth) may lower the risk of various types of cancer. Anticarcinogenic effect of Allium vegetables is attributed to organosulfur compounds (OSCs) that are generated upon processing of these vegetables. Preclinical studies have provided convincing evidence to indicate that Allium vegetable-derived OSCs including diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide are highly effective in affording protection against cancer in laboratory animals induced by a variety of chemical carcinogens. Inhibition of carcinogen activation through modulation of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases and/or acceleration of carcinogen detoxification via induction of phase II enzymes (glutathione transferases, quinone reductase, etc.) are believed to be responsible for protective effects of OSCs against chemically induced cancers. More recent studies have indicated that some naturally occurring OSC analogues can suppress proliferation of cancer cells in culture and inhibit growth of transplanted tumor xenografts in vivo by inducing apoptosis and/or by perturbing cell cycle progression. This review summarizes current knowledge on signal transduction pathways leading to perturbations in cell cycle progression and apoptosis induction by OSCs.

  19. Computer Assisted Objective Structured Clinical Examination: a useful tool for dermatology undergraduate assessment.

    PubMed

    Grover, Chander; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Pandhi, Deepika; Singal, Archana; Kumar, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Dermatology is a minor subject in undergraduate medical curriculum in India. The dermatology clinical postings are generally poorly attended, and the clinical acumen of an average medical graduate in this specialty is quite low. To develop and implement Computer Assisted Objective Structured Clinical Examination (CA-OSCE) as a means of end of dermatology posting evaluation. Also, to assess its effectiveness in improving the motivation, attendance and learning of undergraduate students with respect to their visual recognition skills and problem solving ability. We designed and introduced CA-OSCE as a means of end of posting assessment. The average attendance and assessment scores of students undergoing CA-OSCE were compiled and compared using 'independent t test' with the scores of previous year's students who had undergone assessment with essay type questions. The average attendance and average assessment scores for the candidates undergoing CA-OSCE were found to 83.36% and 77.47%, respectively as compared to 64.09% and 52.07%, respectively for previous years' students. The difference between the two groups was found to be statistically significant. Student acceptability of the technique was also high, and their subjective feedback was encouraging. CA-OSCE is a useful tool for assessment of dermatology undergraduates. It has the potential to drive them to attend regularly as well as to test their higher cognitive skills of analysis and problem solving.

  20. Highly sensitive ratiometric detection of heparin and its oversulfated chondroitin sulfate contaminant by fluorescent peptidyl probe.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pramod Kumar; Lee, Hyeri; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2017-05-15

    The selective and sensitive detection of heparin, an anticoagulant in clinics as well as its contaminant oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) is of great importance. We first reported a ratiometric sensing method for heparin as well as OSCS contaminants in heparin using a fluorescent peptidyl probe (Pep1, pyrene-GSRKR) and heparin-digestive enzyme. Pep1 exhibited a highly sensitive ratiometric response to nanomolar concentration of heparin in aqueous solution over a wide pH range (2~11) and showed highly selective ratiometric response to heparin among biological competitors such as hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate. Pep1 showed a linear ratiometric response to nanomolar concentrations of heparin in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. The detection limit for heparin was calculated to be 2.46nM (R(2)=0.99) in aqueous solutions, 2.98nM (R(2)=0.98) in 1% serum samples, and 3.43nM (R(2)=0.99) in 5% serum samples. Pep1 was applied to detect the contaminated OSCS in heparin with heparinase I, II, and III, respectively. The ratiometric sensing method using Pep1 and heparinase II was highly sensitive, fast, and efficient for the detection of OSCS contaminant in heparin. Pep1 with heparinase II could detect as low as 0.0001% (w/w) of OSCS in heparin by a ratiometric response.

  1. Near-peer education: a novel teaching program

    PubMed Central

    Premnath, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to: 1) Evaluate whether a near-peer program improves perceived OSCE performance; 2) Identify factors motivating students to teach; 3) Evaluate role of near-peer teaching in medical education. Methods A near-peer OSCE teaching program was implemented at Monash University’s Peninsula Clinical School over the 2013 academic year. Forty 3rd-year and thirty final-year medical students were recruited as near-peer learners and educators, respectively. A post-program questionnaire was completed by learners prior to summative OSCEs (n=31), followed by post-OSCE focus groups (n=10). Near-peer teachers were interviewed at the program’s conclusion (n=10). Qualitative data was analysed for emerging themes to assess the perceived value of the program. Results Learners felt peer-led teaching was more relevant to assessment, at an appropriate level of difficulty and delivered in a less threatening environment than other methods of teaching. They valued consistent practice and felt confident approaching their summative OSCEs. Educators enjoyed the opportunity to develop their teaching skills, citing mutual benefit and gratitude to past peer-educators as strong motivators to teach others. Conclusions Near-peer education, valued by near-peer learners and teachers alike, was a useful method to improve preparation and perceived performance in summative examinations. In particular, a novel year-long, student-run initiative was regarded as a valuable and feasible adjunct to faculty teaching. PMID:27239951

  2. Developing a Framework for Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Using the Nominal Group Technique

    PubMed Central

    Crum, Matthew F.; White, Paul J.; Larson, Ian; Malone, Daniel T.; Manallack, David T.; Nicolazzo, Joseph A.; McDowell, Jennifer; Lim, Angelina S.; Kirkpatrick, Carl M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To use the nominal group technique to develop a framework to improve existing and develop new objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) within a four-year bachelor of pharmacy course. Design. Using the nominal group technique, a unique method of group interview that combines qualitative and quantitative data collection, focus groups were conducted with faculty members, practicing pharmacists, and undergraduate pharmacy students. Five draft OSCEs frameworks were suggested and participants were asked to generate new framework ideas. Assessment. Two focus groups (n=9 and n=7) generated nine extra frameworks. Two of these frameworks, one from each focus group, ranked highest (mean scores of 4.4 and 4.1 on a 5-point scale) and were similar in nature. The project team used these two frameworks to produce the final framework, which includes an OSCE in every year of the course, earlier implementation of teaching OSCEs, and the use of independent simulated patients who are not examiners. Conclusions. The new OSCE framework provides a consistent structure from course entry to exit and ensures graduates meet internship requirements. PMID:28090107

  3. Analysis of crude heparin by (1)H NMR, capillary electrophoresis, and strong-anion-exchange-HPLC for contamination by over sulfated chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Keire, David A; Trehy, Michael L; Reepmeyer, John C; Kolinski, Richard E; Ye, Wei; Dunn, Jamie; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Buhse, Lucinda F

    2010-03-11

    We previously published a strong-anion-exchange-high performance liquid chromatography (SAX-HPLC) method for the detection of the contaminant over sulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in heparin sodium active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). While APIs have been processed to remove impurities, crude heparins contain insoluble material, chondroitin sulfates, heparan sulfate, and proteins that may interfere with the recovery and measurement of OSCS. We examined 500MHz (1)H NMR, capillary electrophoresis (CE), and SAX-HPLC to quantify OSCS in crude heparin. Using our standard API protocol on OSCS spiked crude heparin samples; we observed a weight percent LOD and LOQ for the NMR approach of 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, while the SAX-HPLC method gave values of 0.03% and 0.09%, respectively. CE data was not amenable to quantitative measurement of OSCS in crude heparin. We developed a modified HPLC sample preparation protocol using crude dissolved at the 100mg/mL level with a 2.5M NaCl solution. This SAX-HPLC approach gave a weight percent LOD of 0.02% and a LOQ of 0.07% and had better performance characteristics than that of the protocol used for APIs.

  4. Post-natal oogenesis: a concept for controversy that intensified during the last decade.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilian, Yashar; Atalay, Arzu; Erdemli, Esra

    2015-06-01

    For decades, scientists have considered that female mammals are born with a lifetime reserve of oocytes in the ovary, irrevocably fated to decline after birth. However, controversy in the matter of the possible presence of oocytes and granulosa cells that originate from stem cells in the adult mammalian ovaries has been expanded. The restricted supply of oocytes in adult female mammals has been disputed in recent years by supporters of neo-oogenesis, who claim that germline stem cells (GSCs) exist in the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) or the bone marrow (BM). Differentiation of ovarian stem cells (OSCs) into oocytes, fibroblast-like cells, granulosa phenotype, neural and mesenchymal type cells and generation of germ cells from OSCs under the contribution of an OSC niche that consists of immune system-related cells and hormonal signalling has been claimed. Although these arguments have met with intense suspicion, their confirmation would necessitate the revision of the current classic knowledge of female reproductive biology.

  5. Assessing Cultural Psychiatry Milestones Through an Objective Structured Clinical Examination.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Auralyd; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lewis-Fernandez, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Culturally appropriate tools for patient assessment are needed to train psychiatric residents. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can be a helpful tool for evaluating trainees in the psychiatry milestones pertaining to cultural competency. Seventeen psychiatry residents and fellows at the University of Massachusetts participated in two small-group OSCE exercises to learn cultural interviewing using the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview. Trainee groups presented a cultural formulation and received feedback. Participants were surveyed about their comfort with cultural interviewing before and after the exercise. Paired t tests (N = 16) showed that mean level of comfort with the Cultural Formulation Interview increased by a mean of 0.5 points after training (t = 3.16, df = 15, p < 01 95 % CI = 163-837). The UMass culturally appropriate assessment OSCE enhanced psychiatric trainees' comfort with culturally appropriate interviewing using the Cultural Formulation Interview.

  6. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.

  7. Selective observation of photo-induced electric fields inside different material components in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiangyu; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2014-01-06

    By using electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement at two laser wavelengths of 1000 nm and 860 nm, we investigated carrier behavior inside the pentacene and C{sub 60} component of co-deposited pentacene:C{sub 60} bulk-heterojunctions (BHJs) organic solar cells (OSCs). The EFISHG experiments verified the presence of two carrier paths for electrons and holes in BHJs OSCs. That is, two kinds of electric fields pointing in opposite directions are identified as a result of the selectively probing of SHG activation from C{sub 60} and pentacene. Also, under open-circuit conditions, the transient process of the establishment of open-circuit voltage inside the co-deposited layer has been directly probed, in terms of photovoltaic effect. The EFISHG provides an additional promising method to study carrier path of electrons and holes as well as dissociation of excitons in BHJ OSCs.

  8. RNAi and overexpression of genes in ovarian somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kuniaki

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that PIWI proteins, in collaboration with PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), play a critical role in retrotransposon silencing in Drosophila gonadal somatic and germ-line cells. The recent establishment of female germ-line stem cells/ovarian somatic sheet and its derivative cell line, ovarian somatic cells (OSCs), allows researchers to study the molecular functions of several protein factors involved in the primary piRNA pathway in Drosophila. Although transgene expression is difficult to achieve in gonad-derived cell lines, transfection of both expression vectors and knockdown reagents is highly effective in OSCs. Here, I focus on techniques that knockdown or overexpress genes of interest in OSCs.

  9. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; ...

    2015-06-04

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increasedmore » hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. As a result, the working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs.« less

  10. Effect of bedside physical diagnosis training on third-year medical students' physical exam skills.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lloyd; Lu, Wei-Hsin; Go, Roderick A; Daroowalla, Feroza

    2014-01-01

    Graduating medical students, when surveyed, noted a deficit in training in physical examination skills. In an attempt to remedy this deficit we implemented a pilot program for 3rd-year medical students consisting of twice-weekly bedside diagnosis rounds as part of their 8-week medicine clerkship. To assess the success of this program we reviewed students' objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) scores at the completion of the clerkship compared with prior years' students who did not have the bedside physical diagnosis training. Students who were trained (n = 109) had an overall higher OSCE physical exam score (p < .01) than students without the training (n = 85). Bedside physical diagnosis rounds appear to have elevated the overall OSCE score for 3rd-year medical students.

  11. Improved performances of CuPc/C60-based solar cell by using randomly and irregularly embossed PEDOT:PSS as anode buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiqing; Hao, Yuying; Zhang, Fan; Sun, Qinjun; Li, Zhanfeng; Cui, Yanxia; Wang, Hua; Shi, Fang

    2015-07-01

    An unique organic solar cell (OSC) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and fullerene C60 as the electron donor and acceptor materials is demonstrated with randomly and irregularly embossed poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) as anode buffer layer. The effect of PEDOT:PSS nanostructure is characterized by optical and electrical measurements. The results indicate that introducing irregular nanostructure with random distribution into OSC leads to longer light paths by efficient scattering of the incident light and thus higher light absorption in active layer. Moreover, such a nanostructure increases the junction area, allowing more efficient exciton dissociation and charge carrier transfer/collection. These combined effects result in a prominent enhancement of 25.5% in average power conversion efficiency relative to the non-structured OSC due to the increases in short-circuit current and fill factor.

  12. Effect of the additional anode layers on the absorption enhancement characteristic of plasmonic organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sanghyuk; Kim, Jungho

    2014-12-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of additional anode layers on the absorption enhancement characteristic of pyramidal-grating plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) using the finite element method. The behaviors of the plasmonic absorption enhancement are compared between a “simple” structure consisting of only the active and metal cathode layers and a “practical” structure with the additional anode layers. The plasmonic absorption enhancement is identified by comparing the polarization-dependent absorbance spectra between the planar and plasmonic OSCs. When the active-layer thickness is small, the plasmonic resonance condition changes owing to the addition of the anode layers. When the active-layer thickness is large, the plasmonic resonance condition and corresponding absorption behavior show a slight difference irrespective of the inclusion of the additional anode layers. Therefore, the additional anode layers should be included in the optical analysis and design of plasmonic OSCs when the active-layer thickness is small.

  13. Effect of organic small-molecule hole injection materials on the performance of inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Zheng, Yifan; Zheng, Ding; Yu, Junsheng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the influence of small-molecule organic hole injection materials on the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs) as the hole transport layer (HTL) with an architecture of ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PC71BM/HTL/Ag has been investigated. A significant enhancement on the performance of OSCs from 1.06% to 2.63% is obtained by using N, N‧-bis(1-naphthalenyl)-N, N‧-bis-phenyl-(1, 1‧-biphenyl)-4, 4‧-diamine (NPB) HTL. Through the resistance simulation and space-charge limited current analysis, we found that NPB HTL cannot merely improve the hole mobility of the device but also form the Ohmic contact between the active layer and anode. Besides, when we apply mix HTL by depositing the NPB on the surface of molybdenum oxide, the power conversion efficiency of OSC are able to be further improved to 2.96%.

  14. Broadband absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with an antenna layer through surface-plasmon mediated energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yu; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Xu, Ming; Chen, Qi-Dai; Wu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrated a strategy to realize broadband enhanced absorption in the top-incident inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) by employing an external antenna layer on top of the periodic corrugated metallic anode. Surface-plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are excited on the opposite interfaces of the periodic corrugated metallic anode, which mediate the energy transfer from the antenna layer to the active layer through the anode. The absorption of the OSCs is significantly broadened and enhanced by tuning the SPP resonance to coincide with both the emission of the antenna and the absorption of the active material. The power conversion efficiency exhibits an enhancement of 16% compared to that of the OSCs without the antenna layer.

  15. Disodium edetate as a promising interfacial material for inverted organic solar cells and the device performance optimization.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenjun; Wang, Xueyan; Gao, Feng; Fang, Junfeng

    2014-12-10

    Disodium edetate (EDTA-Na), a popular hexadentate ligand in analytical chemistry, was successfully introduced in organic solar cells (OSCs) as cathode interfacial layer. The inverted OSCs with EDTA-Na showed superior performance both in power conversion efficiency and devices stability compared with conventional devices. Interestingly, we found that the performance of devices with EDTA-Na could be optimized through external bias treatment. After optimization, the efficiency of inverted OSCs with device structure of ITO/EDTA-Na/polymer thieno[3,4-b]thiophene/benzodithiophene (PTB7):PC71BM/MoO3/Al was significantly increased to 8.33% from an initial value of 6.75%. This work introduces a new class of interlayer materials, small molecule electrolytes, for organic solar cells.

  16. Assessment of pharmacy students' communication competence using the Roter Interaction Analysis System during objective structured clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshie; Yano, Yoshitaka; Seki, Susumu; Takada, Kaori; Sakuma, Mio; Morimoto, Takeshi; Akaike, Akinori; Hiraide, Atsushi

    2011-04-11

    To determine the value of using the Roter Interaction Analysis System during objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) to assess pharmacy students' communication competence. As pharmacy students completed a clinical OSCE involving an interview with a simulated patient, 3 experts used a global rating scale to assess students' overall performance in the interview, and both the student's and patient's languages were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). The coders recorded the number of utterances (ie, units of spoken language) in each RIAS category. Correlations between the raters' scores and the number and types of utterances were examined. There was a significant correlation between students' global rating scores on the OSCE and the number of utterances in the RIAS socio-emotional category but not the RIAS business category. The RIAS proved to be a useful tool for assessing the socio-emotional aspect of students' interview skills.

  17. Isolation of Mammalian Oogonial Stem Cells by Antibody-Based Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Navaroli, Deanna M; Tilly, Jonathan L; Woods, Dori C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to isolate and subsequently culture mitotically active female germ cells from adult ovaries, referred to as either oogonial stem cells (OSCs) or adult female germline stem cells (aFGSCs), has provided a robust system to study female germ cell development under multiple experimental conditions, and in many species. Flow cytometry or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is an integral part of many isolation and characterization protocols. Here, we provide methodological details for antibody-based flow cytometric isolation of OSCs using antibodies specific for external epitopes of the proteins Ddx4 or Ifitm3, alone or in combination with the use of fluorescent reporter mice. Beginning with sample preparation, we provide point-by-point instructions to guide researchers on how to isolate OSCs using flow cytometry.

  18. Pilot test of a three-station palliative care observed structured clinical examination for multidisciplinary trainees.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Amy M; Lysaght, Susan; Lamarra, Denise; Ersek, Mary

    2013-05-01

    Developing effective communication and symptom assessment skills is an important component of palliative care training for advance practice nurses (APNs) and other health care providers. The purpose of this project was to develop and pilot test a three-station palliative care Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) for APN students and physician fellows. Three stations included discussing goals of care, breaking bad news, and assessing delirium. Measures included the Interpersonal Skills Tool, Station Checklists, the OSCE Evaluation Tool, and a focus group to solicit learners' perspectives about the experience. Findings showed that learners evaluated the exercise as appropriate for their level of training and that standardized patients were convincing and provided helpful feedback. Learner self-evaluation means were significantly lower than those of standardized patient or faculty, and faculty raters demonstrated low interrater reliability. Initial evaluation suggests a three-station palliative care OSCE exercise is effective for multidisciplinary learners, although additional refinement is necessary. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Datamining and analysis of the key parameters in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riede, Moritz K.; Liehr, Andreas W.; Glatthaar, Markus; Niggemann, Michael; Zimmermann, Birger; Ziegler, Tobias; Gombert, Andreas; Willeke, Gerhard

    2006-04-01

    The production process of organic solar cells (OSCs) is investigated and the effects of parameter variations on experimental results are analysed with the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This statistical method is applied to an exemplar data set, in which the materials' concentration in the absorber solution and the spincoating speed of the absorber solution were varied intentionally. In addition to the remaining production parameters, the time intervals between the steps were included in the analysis. A large part of the variance in the experimental results can be explained with the evaporation conditions, the spincoating speed and the concentrations in the absorber solution. The PCA also confirms that the OSC is a complex and interdependent system, where one has to analyse the influence of several parameters at the same time in order to understand their effects on the OSC properties. The PCA results will be used to focus further experiments on the identified key parameters.

  20. High-performance ternary blend polymer solar cells involving both energy transfer and hole relay processes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Luyao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The integration of multiple materials with complementary absorptions into a single junction device is regarded as an efficient way to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic solar cells (OSCs). However, because of increased complexity with one more component, only limited high-performance ternary systems have been demonstrated previously. Here we report an efficient ternary blend OSC with a PCE of 9.2%. We show that the third component can reduce surface trap densities in the ternary blend. Detailed studies unravel that the improved performance results from synergistic effects of enlarged open circuit voltage, suppressed trap-assisted recombination, enhanced light absorption, increased hole extraction, efficient energy transfer and better morphology. The working mechanism and high device performance demonstrate new insights and design guidelines for high-performance ternary blend solar cells and suggest that ternary structure is a promising platform to boost the efficiency of OSCs. PMID:26041586