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Sample records for obliquus persoon pilat

  1. Antioxidant small phenolic ingredients in Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga).

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Sato, Yuzo; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2007-08-01

    Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat (Chaga, in Russia, kabanoanatake in Japan) is a fungus having been used as a folk medicine in Russia and said to have many health beneficial functions such as immune modulating and anti-cancer activities. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of hot water extract (decoction) of Chaga was precisely compared with those of other medicinal fungi (Agaricus blazei Mycelia, Ganoderma lucidum and Phellinus linteus) showing Chaga had the strongest antioxidant activity among fungi examined in terms of both superoxide and hydroxyl radicals scavenging activities. Further determination of the antioxidant potential of isolated fruiting body (brown part) and Sclerotium (black part) revealed the 80% MeOH extract of fruiting body had the highest potential as high as that of Chaga decoction. Finally, seven antioxidant components were isolated and purified from the 80% MeOH extract of Chaga fruiting body, and their chemical structures were determined as small phenolics as follows: 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzoic acid 2-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl ethyl ester (BAEE), protocatechic acid (PCA), caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihybenzaladehyde (DB), 2,5-dihydroxyterephtalic acid (DTA), syringic acid (SA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL). Notably, BAEE was assigned as the new compound firstly identified from the natural source in the present study.

  2. Cancer cell cytotoxicity of extracts and small phenolic compounds from Chaga [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Matsugo, Seiichi; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2009-06-01

    Previously, we studied the antioxidant potential of Chaga mushroom [Inonotus obliquus (persoon) Pilat] extracts and isolated several small (poly)phenolic compounds as the major antioxidant components in the 80% methanol (MeOH) extract. In the present study, these isolated phenolic ingredients together with several other types of Chaga extracts were examined for cytotoxic effects against normal (IMR90) and cancer (A549, PA-1, U937, and HL-60) cell lines. Results revealed decoctions from both the fruiting body (FB) and sclerotium (ST) parts of Chaga, especially the ST part, showed considerable cytotoxicity toward tumor cells, but the cytotoxicity appeared to be stronger against normal cells than cancer cells. The 80% MeOH ST extract also showed the same trend. On the other hand, the 80% MeOH extract of FB showed significant cytotoxicity towards tumor cell lines without affecting normal cells, for example, the 50% lethal dose was 49.4 +/- 2.9 microg/mL for PA-1 cells versus 123.6 +/- 13.8 microg/mL for normal cells. The phenolic components isolated from the 80% MeOH extracts had markedly greater cancer cell toxicity than the extracts themselves. In particular, two out of seven compounds showed strong cytotoxicity towards several tumor cell lines without giving rise to significant cell toxicity toward normal cells. For example, the 50% lethal dose for 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone was 12.2 micromol/L in PA-1 cells but was 272.8 micromol/L in IMR90 cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis further revealed these phenolic ingredients have high potentiality for apoptosis induction in PA-1 cells.

  3. Transversus abdominis and obliquus internus activity during pilates exercises: measurement with ultrasound scanning.

    PubMed

    Endleman, Irit; Critchley, Duncan J

    2008-11-01

    To assess activity of transversus abdominis (TrA) and obliquus internus abdominis (OI) muscles during classical Pilates exercises performed correctly and incorrectly, and with or without equipment. Repeated-measures descriptive study. Pilates studio. A volunteer sample of women (n=18) and men (n=8), mean age +/- SD (43+/-14y), with more than 6 months classical Pilates training and no back pain or other condition likely to influence abdominal muscle activity. Participants performed Pilates imprint, hundreds A and B, roll-up, and leg-circle exercises on a mat. The hundreds exercise was also performed on a reformer (sliding platform). Mat imprint and hundreds exercises were instructed to be performed correctly (with abdominal drawing-in) or incorrectly (without drawing-in). Thickness of TrA and OI middle fibers measured with ultrasound imaging. TrA thickness increased during the mat imprint, hundreds A, hundreds B, leg-circle, and roll-up exercises (all P=.001) compared with resting. OI thickness increased during the mat imprint, hundreds A, hundreds B, leg-circle (all P=.001), and roll-up exercises (P=.002) compared with resting. TrA thickness during reformer hundreds B was greater than during mat hundreds B (P=.011); OI thicknesses were not different for this comparison. During incorrect imprint, neither TrA or OI thicknesses were different to resting. TrA and OI muscle thicknesses were moderately correlated (R=.410; P=.001). This study provides the first evidence that a selection of classic Pilates exercises activates TrA and OI. Use of the reformer exercise machine can result in greater TrA activation in some exercises. TrA and OI did not function independently during these exercises. Research into the training effects of Pilates or in patient populations can be undertaken using ultrasonography in submaximal exercises.

  4. Effect of pilates mat exercises and conventional exercise programmes on transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis activity: pilot randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Critchley, Duncan J; Pierson, Zoe; Battersby, Gemma

    2011-04-01

    Pilates training is said to increase Transversus abdominis (TrA) and Obliquus internus (OI) activation during exercise and functional activities. 34 Pain-free health club members with no Pilates experience, mean (SD) age 30(7) years, were randomised to Pilates mat exercises or strength training. Participants exercised unsupervised twice-weekly for eight weeks. TrA and OI thickness (a proxy for muscle activity at the low-medium efforts of our exercises) were measured with ultrasound pre- and post-training during Pilates exercises 'Imprint' (an abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre) and 'Hundreds A' (lying supine, arms slightly raised, hips and knees flexed to 90°) and 'Hundreds B' (as A, with neck flexion) and functional postures sitting and standing. Pilates participants had increased TrA thickness in Hundreds A [all values mean (SD) mm]: 3.7(1.3) pre-intervention, 4.7(1.1) post-intervention (P = 0.007); and decreased OI muscle thickness during Imprint: 11.7(2.8) pre-intervention, 10.8(3.5) post-intervention (P = 0.008). Strength training participants had greater OI thickness during Imprint (P = 0.014), Hundreds A (P = 0.018) and Hundreds B (P = 0.004) than Pilates participants post-intervention. There were no changes in muscle thickness at rest or during functional postures. Pilates training appears to increase TrA activity but only when performing Pilates exercises. Further research is required into Pilates in clinical populations and how to increase deep abdominal activation during functional activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pilates

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Am I in a Healthy Relationship? Who ... during the exercises. The fact that pilates is hot and classes are springing up everywhere does have ...

  6. Pilates

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The interest and popularity of Pilates is increasing worldwide. In addition to being used in fitness programs, it is being used in some rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes level III evidence from 1995 to 2009 obtained from PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, and the Internet. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved for appraisal. The keywords searched were Pilates and core stabilization. Results: Ninety articles were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL; 9 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria for level III evidence. Conclusion: There is a scientific basis for the effectiveness of Pilates exercise, with limited evidence to support it as a rehabilitative intervention. PMID:23016028

  7. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    PubMed

    Chai, Min; Zhu, Xiaopei; Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) 'L. formolongo') to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil.

  8. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as ‘trap crops’ for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’, Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids ‘Ceb Dazzle’, and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) ‘L. formolongo’) to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced “suicidal germination” of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  9. Antioxidant effect of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Kim, Dong-Seok; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2005-01-04

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the antioxidant capacities of Inonotus obliquus. Four extracts from the fungus were evaluated for antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and peroxyl radicals. The polyphenolic extract had a strong antioxidant activity, and the extract containing triterpenoids and steroids presented a relatively strong antioxidant effect. The polysaccharide extract, however, was inactive. The protective effects of these four extracts were assessed against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress using a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Our results show that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress, while the polysaccharide, triterpenoid and steroid extracts were ineffective. Additionally, the remnant polyphenolic and low molecular weight polysaccharide extracts showed a weakly protective effect at a concentration of 50 microg/ml. Our results indicate that Inonotus obliquus has the capacity to scavenge free radicals at concentrations higher than 5 microg/ml and that the polyphenolic extract can protect cells against oxidative stress.

  10. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Karen; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness – a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers’ overall well-being. PMID:25328542

  11. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being.

  12. Pilates and Mindfulness: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marianne; Caldwell, Karen; Atkins, Laurie; Quin, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The Pilates method as Joseph Hubertus Pilates originally defined it in the early 1920s, was called "Contrology," or the art of control, based on the ideal of attaining a complete coordination of body, mind, and spirit. Joseph Pilates's early writings emphasized the value of controlling the body rather than attending to the process of body…

  13. Pilates and Mindfulness: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marianne; Caldwell, Karen; Atkins, Laurie; Quin, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The Pilates method as Joseph Hubertus Pilates originally defined it in the early 1920s, was called "Contrology," or the art of control, based on the ideal of attaining a complete coordination of body, mind, and spirit. Joseph Pilates's early writings emphasized the value of controlling the body rather than attending to the process of body…

  14. Pilates for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We only included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) < 10% of the scale), medium (MD 10% to 20% of the scale) or large (MD > 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used. The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias.A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is

  15. Pilates for low back pain.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Menezes Costa, Luciola C; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2015-07-02

    Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We only included randomised controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) < 10% of the scale), medium (MD 10% to 20% of the scale) or large (MD > 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used. The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias.A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is

  16. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  17. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... MB, et al. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness. ... 20:258. Kloubec JA. Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and posture. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010;24:661. 2008 Physical ...

  18. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  19. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Zhijie; Sun, Hongmin; Lu, Chengbiao; Yao, Li; Chen, Shengyong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI). It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation. PMID:23861723

  20. Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

    2010-07-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery.

  1. Lanostane-type triterpenes from the fungal endophyte Scleroderma UFSMSc1 (Persoon) Fries.

    PubMed

    Morandini, Liziane M B; Neto, Alexandre T; Pedroso, Marcelo; Antoniolli, Zaida I; Burrow, Robert A; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Mostardeiro, Marco A; da Silva, Ubiratan F; Dalcol, Ionara I; Morel, Ademir F

    2016-02-15

    Two lanostane triterpenoids (sclerodols A and B) were isolated from the culture of the Eucalyptus grandis derived from the endophyte Scleroderma UFSM Sc1(Persoon) Fries together with three known compounds: one related triterpenoid lanosta-8,23-dien-3β,25-diol, the disaccharide α,β-trehalose, and the sugar alcohol mannitol. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR, HRME, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The methanol crude extract and the isolated lanostane triterpenoids showed promising anticandidal activities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Defining Pilates exercise: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    To describe Pilates exercise according to peer-reviewed literature, and compare definitions used in papers with healthy participants and those with low back pain. A systematic review of literature was conducted. A search for "pilates" within the maximal date ranges of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, ProQuest: Nursing and Allied Health Source, Proquest: Medical and Health Complete, Scopus, Sport Discus, and Web of Science, was undertaken. To be included, papers needed to describe Pilates exercise, and be published in English within an academic, peer-reviewed journal. There were no restrictions on the methodological design or quality of papers. Content analysis was used to record qualitative definitions of Pilates. Frequencies were calculated for mention of content categories, equipment, and traditional Pilates principles. Frequencies were then compared statistically in papers with healthy participants and those with low back pain. 119 papers fulfilled inclusion criteria. Findings suggest that Pilates is a mind-body exercise that focuses on strength, core stability, flexibility, muscle control, posture and breathing. Exercises can be mat-based or involve use of specialised equipment. Posture was discussed statistically significantly more often in papers with participants with low back pain compared to papers with healthy participants. Traditional Pilates principles of centering, concentration, control, precision, flow, and breathing were discussed on average in 23% of papers. Apart from breathing, these principles were not mentioned in papers with low back pain participants. There is a general consensus in the literature of the definition of Pilates exercise. A greater emphasis may be placed on posture in people with low back pain, whilst traditional principles, apart from breathing, may be less relevant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of Mat Pilates and Reformer Pilates in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Bulguroglu, I; Guclu-Gunduz, A; Yazici, G; Ozkul, C; Irkec, C; Nazliel, B; Batur-Caglayan, H Z

    2017-09-16

    Pilates is an exercise method which increases strength and endurance of core muscles and improves flexibility, dynamic postural control and balance. To analyze and compare the effects of Mat and Reformer Pilates methods in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). 38 patients with MS were included in the study. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups as Mat Pilates, Reformer Pilates and control groups. The subjects in the Pilates groups did Mat or Reformer Pilates for 8 weeks, 2 days a week. The control group did breathing and relaxation exercises at home. Balance, functional mobility, core stability, fatigue severity and quality of life were evaluated. Balance, functional mobility, core stability, fatigue severity and quality of life improved after Pilates in Mat and Reformer Pilates groups (p < 0.05). On the other hand, we couldn't find any changing in the control group (p > 0.05). When the gain obtained in the Pilates groups is compared, it has been observed that progress has been more in trunk flexor muscle strength in the Reformer Pilates group (p < 0.05) and that the gain has been similar in the other parameters (p > 0.05). As a result, patients with MS have seen similar benefits in Reformer Pilates and Mat Pilates methods.

  4. Quadriceps Muscle Mechanical Simulator for Training of Vastus Medialis Obliquus and Vastus Lateralis Obliquus Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Irmak, Rafet; Irmak, Ahsen; Biçer, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In classical anatomy quadriceps muscle has four heads. Clinical studies have demostrated 6 heads of this muscle. These heads were demostrated seperately not only by their functional properties,but also by innervation and kinesiological properties. In our previous study we have developed and demostrated electrophysiological properties of vastus medialis obliquus by an electronic patient simulator. The purpose of this study is to develop a mechanical simulator which can be used to demostrate mechanical properties of 6 heads of quadriceps muscle and the screw home mechanism. Methods: Quadriceps femoris muscle has 6 heads: rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis obliquus, vastus medialis longus, vastus lateralis obliquus and vastus lateralis longus. The fundamental mechanical properties of each head is seperated by insersio and angle of pull. Main design principle was to demostrate all heads with insersio and angle of pull properties. Second design principle was to demostrate the screw-home mechanism which is the result of difference in articular surfaces of medial and lateral of condyles of femur. Results: Final design of the simulator consists of three planes for demostration of angle of pull and pulling forces (patellar plane, proximal and distal planes) of each heads. On each plane channels were graved as origo and insersio for demostration of angle of pull. Distal plane was movable for demostration of pulling forces in different angels of knee flexion and extention. Also proximal plane was adjustable to demostrate different sitting and standing positions. Srew home mechanism was demostrated by specially designed hingle mechanism. Left and right side hingle mechanisms have different radii as femoral condyles and this difference can cause rotation in terminal extension as in the screw home mechanism. Conclusion: Vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis obliquus and screw-home mechanism have clinical significance. We were not able to find

  5. Pilates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... methods from around the world, among them the mind-body formats of yoga and Chinese martial arts. Joseph ...

  6. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    PubMed

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field.

  7. Influence of blue light on the leaf morphoanatomy of in vitro Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Leal-Costa, Marcos Vinicius; Nascimento, Luana Beatriz dos Santos; Moreira, Nattacha dos Santos; Reinert, Fernanda; Costa, Sônia Soares; Lage, Celso Luiz Salgueiro; Tavares, Eliana Schwartz

    2010-10-01

    Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) (air plant, miracle leaf) is popularly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders and wounds. Recently, the species was tested to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis with successful results. This medicinal activity was associated with the phenolic fraction of the plant. Blue light induces biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and many changes in anatomical characteristics. We studied the effects of supplementary blue light on the leaf morphology of in vitro K. pinnata. Plants cultured under white light (W plants) only and white light plus blue light (WB plants) show petioles with plain-convex section, amphistomatic leaf blades with simple epidermis, homogeneous mesophyll with densely packed cells, and a single collateral vascular bundle in the midrib. W plants have longer branches, a larger number of nodes per branch, and smaller leaves, whereas WB plant leaves have a thicker upper epidermis and mesophyll. Leaf fresh weight and leaf dry weight were similar in both treatments. Phenolic idioblasts were observed in the plants supplemented with blue light, suggesting that blue light plays an important role in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in K. pinnata.

  8. Innervation zones location and optimal electrodes position of obliquus internus and obliquus externus abdominis muscles.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Gennaro; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    The assessment of abdominal muscles has became popular in recent years because the study of "core muscles" is now considered a pivotal approach for a number of fields. The purpose of this study was to describe the innervation zone (IZ) locations and optimal electrode sites in two core muscles: the obliquus externus (OE) and the obliquus internus (OI) abdominis muscles. Twenty healthy male subjects were recruited and the IZ location was studied during a submaximal isometric contraction using multichannel surface EMG. The optimal electrode position for OI was found to be 2cm lower the most prominent point of the anterior superior iliac spine, just medial and superior to the inguinal ligament. The optimal electrode position for OE was found to be 14cm from the median line, lower the level of 1cm above umbilicus, parallel to the line extending from the most inferior point of the costal margin to the opposite pubic tubercle (almost 45° with respect to the median line). Findings showed that for OI and OE muscles it is possible to provide indications for a muscle belly area suited for proper positioning of at least an electrode pair. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of Pilates principles increases paraspinal muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Letícia Souza; Mochizuki, Luís; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; da Silva, Renato André Sousa; Mota, Yomara Lima

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of Pilates principles on the EMG activity of abdominal and paraspinal muscles on stable and unstable surfaces. Surface EMG data about the rectus abdominis (RA), iliocostalis (IL) and lumbar multifidus (MU) of 19 participants were collected while performing three repetitions of a crunch exercise in the following conditions: 1) with no Pilates technique and stable surface (nP + S); 2) with no Pilates technique and unstable surface (nP + U); 3) with Pilates technique and stable surface (P + S); 4) with Pilates and unstable surface (P + U). The EMG Fanalysis was conducted using a custom-made Matlab(®) 10. There was no condition effect in the RA iEMG with stable and unstable surfaces (F(1,290) = 0 p = 0.98) and with and without principles (F(1,290) = 1.2 p = 0.27). IL iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition (F(1,290) = 32.3 p < 0.001) with Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 21.9 p < 0.001). The MU iEMG was higher for the stable surface condition with and without Pilates principles (F(1,290) = 84.9 p < 0.001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antioxidative Properties of Crude Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Amin; Zhang, Wuxia; Cui, Guoting; Wang, Shunchun; Duan, Jinyou

    2012-01-01

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been widely used as a folk medicine in Russia, Poland and most of the Baltic countries. In this study, water-soluble and alkali-soluble crude polysaccharides (IOW and IOA) were isolated from I. obliquus, and the carbohydrate-rich fractions IOW-1 and IOA-1 were obtained respectively after deproteination and depigmentation. Their contents, such as neutral carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein, were measured. Their antioxidant properties against chemicals-induced reactive species (ROS) including 1,1′-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion radical, as well as their protective effects on H2O2-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. Results showed that I. obliquus polysaccharides can scavenge all ROS tested above in a dose-dependent manner. IOA and its product IOA-1 could rescue PC12 cell viability from 38.6% to 79.8% and 83.0% at a concentration of 20μg/mL. Similarly, IOW and its product IOW-1 at the same dose, can also increase cell viability to 84.9% and 88.6% respectively. The antioxidative activities of water-soluble and alkali-soluble polysaccharide constituents from I. obliquus might contribute to diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom. PMID:22942760

  11. The effectiveness of Pilates for partial anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Derya; Turkel, Nilgun

    2017-08-01

    This study explored the effects of Pilates on the muscle strength, function, and instability of patients with partial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in situations in which a non-surgical treatment option is preferred. Fifty participants 20-45 years of age who were diagnosed with isolated ACL injuries were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to either the Pilates exercise group (n = 24) or the control group (n = 26). The subjects in the Pilates exercise group performed basic mat exercises that focused on the muscle strength and flexibility of the lower limbs and core muscles during each class session, which met three times per week for 12 weeks. The control group did not receive any treatment or home exercise programme. All patients were evaluated using the Lysholm Knee Scale, the Cincinnati Knee Rating System, and isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strength. Patient satisfaction regarding improvement in knee stability was assessed using the Global Rating of Change scale. The Pilates group experienced significant improvement over the control group as measured by the difference in quadriceps strength at 12 weeks (p = 0.03). Both groups showed some clinical change over time, but the Pilates group improved for all outcome measurements at the 12-week follow-up, and the control group only improved for functional outcomes. Patient satisfaction with the level of knee stability based on the Global Rating of Change scale was higher in the Pilates group than in the control group. Although both groups exhibited improvements in knee strength and functional outcomes, the results suggest that Pilates is a superior management approach over a control treatment for increasing quadriceps strength in participants with partial ACL injury. Pilates may provide clinicians a novel option when choosing a treatment for a partial ACL injury. Further study is needed to determine whether certain subgroups of individuals might achieve an added

  12. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Maurício Antônio; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Fuhro, Fernanda Ferreira; Manzoni, Ana Carolina Taccolini; Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2014-05-01

    The Pilates method has been widely used to treat patients with chronic low back pain. Pilates exercises can be performed in 2 ways: by using specific equipment or without it (also known as mat Pilates). There are no studies, however, that have compared the effectiveness of mat Pilates with that of equipment-based Pilates. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mat Pilates and equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. A 2-arm randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor was conducted. The study was conducted at a private physical therapy clinic in Brazil. Eighty-six patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain participated. The patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups: a mat Pilates group (n=43) and an equipment-based Pilates group (n=43). The participants in both groups attended 12 Pilates sessions over a period of 6 weeks. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability. The secondary outcomes were global perceived effect, patient's specific disability, and kinesiophobia. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization. After 6 months, there was a statistically significant difference for disability (mean difference=3.0 points, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.6 to 5.4), specific disability (mean difference=-1.1 points, 95% CI=-2.0 to -0.1), and kinesiophobia (mean difference=4.9 points, 95% CI=1.6 to 8.2) in favor of equipment-based Pilates. No differences were found for the remaining outcomes. Equipment-based Pilates was superior to mat Pilates in the 6-month follow-up for the outcomes of disability and kinesiophobia. These benefits were not observed for pain intensity and global perceived effect in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

  13. Indications, benefits, and risks of Pilates exercise for people with chronic low back pain: a Delphi survey of Pilates-trained physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness of Pilates exercise for treating people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) is yet to be established. Understanding how to identify people with CLBP who may benefit, or not benefit, from Pilates exercise and the benefits and risks of Pilates exercise will assist in trial design. The purpose of this study was to establish a consensus regarding the indications, contraindications, and precautions of Pilates exercise and the potential benefits and risks of Pilates exercise for people with CLBP. A panel of 30 Australian physical therapists experienced in the use of Pilates exercise were surveyed using the Delphi technique. Three electronic questionnaires were used to collect participant opinions. Answers to open-ended questions were analyzed thematically, combined with research findings, and translated into statements about Pilates exercise. Participants then rated their level of agreement with statements using a 6-point Likert scale. Consensus was achieved when 70% of panel members agreed or disagreed with an item. Thirty physical therapists completed the 3 questionnaires. Consensus was reached on 100% of items related to the benefits, indications, and precautions of Pilates exercise, on 50% of items related to risks, and on 56% of items related to contraindications. Participants agreed that people who have poor body awareness and maladaptive movement patterns may benefit from Pilates exercise, whereas those with pre-eclampsia, unstable spondylolisthesis, or a fracture may not benefit. Participants also agreed that Pilates exercise may improve functional ability, movement confidence, body awareness, posture, and movement control. The findings reflect the opinions of only 30 Australian physical therapists and not all health professionals nationally or internationally. These findings, therefore, need to be verified in future research trials. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the indications, contraindications, and precautions of

  14. Pilates in heart failure patients: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; d'Avila, Veridiana Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Conventional cardiac rehabilitation program consist of 15 min of warm-up, 30 min of aerobic exercise and followed by 15 min calisthenics exercise. The Pilates method has been increasingly applied for its therapeutic benefits, however little scientific evidence supports or rebukes its use as a treatment in patients with heart failure (HF). Investigate the effects of Pilates on exercise capacity variables in HF. Sixteen pts with HF, left ventricular ejection fraction 27 ± 14%, NYHA class I-II were randomly assigned to conventional cardiac rehabilitation program (n = 8) or mat Pilates training (n = 8) for 16 weeks of 30 min of aerobic exercise followed by 20 min of the specific program. At 16 weeks, pts in the mat Pilates group and conventional group showed significantly increase on exercise time 11.9 ± 2.5 to 17.8 ± 4 and 11.7 ± 3.9 to 14.2 ± 4 min, respectively. However, only the Pilates group increased significantly the ventilation (from 56 ± 20 to 69 ± 17 L/min, P = 0.02), peak VO(2) (from 20.9 ± 6 to 24.8 ± 6 mL/kg/min, P = 0.01), and O(2) pulse (from 11.9 ± 2 to 13.8 ± 3 mL/bpm, P = 0.003). The Pilates group showed significantly increase in peak VO(2) when compared with conventional group (24.8 ± 6 vs. 18.3 ± 4, P = 0.02). The result suggests that the Pilates method may be a beneficial adjunctive treatment that enhances functional capacity in patients with HF who are already receiving standard medical therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

    2011-12-01

    The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p < 0.05). Due to its high bioavailability and low toxicity, vanadium-enriched I. obliquus could be used as a means of vanadium supplementation, with expectation of obtaining higher bioavailability and lower toxicity in animals.

  17. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals.

  18. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O’Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11–15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of the Oleaginous Green Alga Tetradesmus obliquus UTEX 393

    PubMed Central

    de Jaeger, L.; Springer, J.; Barbosa, M. J.; Breuer, G.; van den End, E. J.; Kleinegris, D. M. M.; Schäffers, I.; Wolbert, E. J. H.; Zhang, H.; Lamers, P. P.; Draaisma, R. B.; Martins dos Santos, V. A. P.; Wijffels, R. H.; Eggink, G.; Schaap, P. J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The microalgae Tetradesmus obliquus is able to maintain a high photosynthetic efficiency under nitrogen limitation and is considered a promising green microalgae for sustainable production of diverse compounds, including biofuels. Here, we report the first draft whole-genome shotgun sequencing of T. obliquus. The final assembly comprises 108,715,903 bp with over 1,368 scaffolds. PMID:28104651

  20. Inonotus obliquus Protects against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jong Seok; Pahk, Jung Woon; Lee, Jong Seok; Shin, Won Cheol; Lee, Shin Young; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the cytoprotective effects of Inonotus obliquus against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and premature senescence. Pretreatment with I. obliquus scavenged intracellular ROS and prevented lipid peroxidation in hydrogen peroxide-treated human fibroblasts. As a result, I. obliquus exerted protective effects against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis and premature senescence in human fibroblasts. In addition, I. obliquus suppressed UV-induced morphologic skin changes, such as skin thickening and wrinkle formation, in hairless mice in vivo and increased collagen synthesis through inhibition of MMP-1 and MMP-9 activities in hydrogen peroxide- treated human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that I. obliquus can prevent the aging process by attenuating oxidative stress in a model of stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:21359681

  1. An exploration of implications for the development of Pilates instructor system through identification of instructors' difficulties.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-08-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categories were incorporated in the collected data: (1) lack of information on Pilates qualification system, (2) difficulties in understanding the human anatomy related with the diverse movements taught in Pilates classes and its application to Pilates practice, (3) need for professional development through retraining. Based on these findings, a need for rethinking the monitoring and evaluation process for Pilates qualification system and Pilates education in Korea was identified. In addition, we need to summarize and offer information on a range of Pilates qualifications. And the quality of Pilates instructor education program should be improved as well by proving them a range of teaching methods including microteaching, discussion-based lessons as well as reading and writing sessions and other necessary teaching media.

  2. An exploration of implications for the development of Pilates instructor system through identification of instructors’ difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categories were incorporated in the collected data: (1) lack of information on Pilates qualification system, (2) difficulties in understanding the human anatomy related with the diverse movements taught in Pilates classes and its application to Pilates practice, (3) need for professional development through retraining. Based on these findings, a need for rethinking the monitoring and evaluation process for Pilates qualification system and Pilates education in Korea was identified. In addition, we need to summarize and offer information on a range of Pilates qualifications. And the quality of Pilates instructor education program should be improved as well by proving them a range of teaching methods including microteaching, discussion-based lessons as well as reading and writing sessions and other necessary teaching media. PMID:27656634

  3. Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

    2009-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 μg/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 μg/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 μg/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 μg/plate) and B(α)P (10 μg/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(α)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(α)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities.

  4. New antioxidant polyphenols from the medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Kim, Young-Sook; Jang, Yoon-Woo; Jung, Jin-Young; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2007-12-15

    The fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom called chaga, has been used as a traditional medicine for cancer treatment. Although this mushroom has been known to exhibit potent antioxidant activity, the mechanisms responsible for this activity remain unknown. In our investigation for free radical scavengers from the methanolic extract of this mushroom, inonoblins A (1), B (2), and C (3) were isolated along with the known compounds, phelligridins D (4), E (5), and G (6). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses. These compounds exhibited significant scavenging activity against the ABTS radical cation and DPPH radical, and showed moderate activity against the superoxide radical anion.

  5. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Luana B S; Leal-Costa, Marcos V; Coutinho, Marcela A S; Moreira, Nattacha dos S; Lage, Celso L S; Barbi, Nancy dos S; Costa, Sônia S; Tavares, Eliana S

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds protect plants against oxidative stress caused by environmental conditions. Different light qualities, such as UV-A radiation and blue light, have shown positive effects on the production of phenols in plants. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) is used for treating wounds and inflammations. Some of these beneficial effects are attributed to the antioxidant activity of plant components. We investigated the effects of blue light and UV-A radiation supplementation on the total phenol content, antioxidant activity and chromatographic profile of aqueous extracts from leaves of K. pinnata. Monoclonal plants were grown under white light, white plus blue light and white plus UV-A radiation. Supplemental blue light improved the antioxidant activity and changed the phenolic profile of the extracts. Analysis by HPLC of supplemental blue-light plant extracts revealed a higher proportion of the major flavonoid quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→2) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, as well as the presence of a wide variety of other phenolic substances. These findings may explain the higher antioxidant activity observed for this extract. Blue light is proposed as a supplemental light source in the cultivation of K. pinnata, to improve its antioxidant activity. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  6. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities.

  7. Biodegradation of cyanide containing effluents by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Fatma; Ciftci, Hasan; Akcil, Ata

    2009-02-15

    Biological degradation of cyanide has been shown a viable and robust process for degrading cyanide in mining process wastewaters. Several algal cultures can effectively degrade cyanide as carbon and/or nitrogen source for their growth. In this study, cyanide effluent degradation by Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Gold mill effluents containing WAD cyanide concentration of 77.9mg/L was fed to batch unit to examine the ability of S. obliquus for degrading cyanide. Cyanide was reduced down to 6mg/L in 77h. Microbial growth and metal uptake of Zn, Fe and Cu was examined during cyanide degradation. The cells well adapted to high pH and the effluent contained cyanide and the metals. It is important that Zn level reduced down 50%, of the starting concentration. pH was kept at 10.3 to prevent loss of cyanide as HCN, due its volatile nature. The bio treatment process was considered to be successful in degrading cyanide in the mine process water.

  8. Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus as a potential source for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

    2009-08-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae seems to be the only renewable biofuel that has the potential to completely replace the petroleum-derived transport fuels. Therefore, improving lipid content of microalgal strains could be a cost-effective second generation feedstock for biodiesel production. Lipid accumulation in Scenedesmus obliquus was studied under various culture conditions. The most significant increase in lipid reached 43% of dry cell weight (dcw), which was recorded under N-deficiency (against 12.7% under control condition). Under P-deficiency and thiosulphate supplementation the lipid content also increased up to 30% (dcw). Application of response surface methodology in combination with central composite rotary design (CCRD) resulted in a lipid yield of 61.3% (against 58.3% obtained experimentally) at 0.04, 0.03, and 1.0 g l(-1) of nitrate, phosphate, and sodium thiosulphate, respectively for time culture of 8 days. Scenedesmus cells pre-grown in glucose (1.5%)-supplemented N 11 medium when subjected to the above optimized condition, the lipid accumulation was boosted up to 2.16 g l(-1), the value approximately 40-fold higher with respect to the control condition. The presence of palmitate and oleate as the major constituents makes S. obliquus biomass a suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  9. Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and posture.

    PubMed

    Kloubec, June A

    2010-03-01

    Many claims have been made about the effectiveness of Pilates exercise on the basic parameters of fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Pilates exercise on abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, upper-body muscular endurance, posture, and balance. Fifty subjects were recruited to participate in a 12-week Pilates class, which met for 1 hour 2 times per week. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 25) or control group (n = 25). Subjects performed the essential (basic) mat routine consisting of approximately 25 separate exercises focusing on muscular endurance and flexibility of the abdomen, low back, and hips each class session. At the end of the 12-week period, a 1-way analysis of covariance showed a significant level of improvement (p < or = 0.05) in all variables except posture and balance. This study demonstrated that in active middle-aged men and women, exposure to Pilates exercise for 12 weeks, for two 60-minute sessions per week, was enough to promote statistically significant increases in abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, and upper-body muscular endurance. Participants did not demonstrate improvements in either posture or balance when compared with the control group. Exercise-training programs that address physical inactivity concerns and that are accessible and enjoyable to the general public are a desirable commodity for exercise and fitness trainers. This study suggests that individuals can improve their muscular endurance and flexibility using relatively low-intensity Pilates exercises that do not require equipment or a high degree of skill and are easy to master and use within a personal fitness routine.

  10. Effects of Pilates method in elderly people: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Francisco, Cristina; de Almeida Fagundes, Alessandra; Gorges, Bruna

    2015-07-01

    The Pilates method has been widely used in physical training and rehabilitation. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of this method in elderly people is limited. Six randomized controlled trials studies involving the use of the Pilates method for elderly people, published prior to December 2013, were selected from the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Scielo and PEDro. Three articles suggested that Pilates produced improvements in balance. Two studies evaluated the adherence to Pilates programs. One study assessed Pilates' influence on cardio-metabolic parameters and another study evaluated changes in body composition. Strong evidence was found regarding beneficial effects of Pilates over static and dynamic balance in women. Nevertheless, evidence of balance improvement in both genders, changes in body composition in woman and adherence to Pilates programs were limited. Effects on cardio-metabolic parameters due to Pilates training presented inconclusive results. Pilates may be a useful tool in rehabilitation and prevention programs but more high quality studies are necessary to establish all the effects on elderly populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Marked effects of Pilates on the abdominal muscles: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, Jose A L; Lopez-Gordillo, Ana; Alayon, Santiago; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2012-08-01

    The study's purpose was to analyze the effects of Pilates on the volume of the rectus abdominis (RA), obliques, and transversus abdominis, with the last two considered conjointly (OT). The volume of OT and RA were determined using magnetic resonance imaging in nine nonactive healthy women, before and after 36 wk of a standardized Pilates training program (Modern Pilates). The volume of the dominant OT was increased by 8% (P < 0.05) with training, whereas the nondominant OT volume remained unchanged (+2%, P = 0.58). The total volume of RA increased by 21% after Pilates (P < 0.05) because of a similar increase of dominant and nondominant RA volume (21% and 20%, respectively, P < 0.05). Before Pilates, the volume of the OT was 8% greater in the nondominant compared with the dominant side (P < 0.01). This asymmetry was compensated by Pilates training (2%, P = 0.43). No side-to-side asymmetries in RA muscle volumes were observed either before (2%, P = 0.51) or after (1%, P = 0.81) Pilates. The present study reveals the existence of asymmetries in the muscles of the abdominal wall in nonactive healthy women. Pilates practice twice a week for 9 months elicits hypertrophy of the abdominal wall muscles, particularly of the RA, and eliminates preexisting asymmetries of the OT. Modern Pilates can be recommended as an effective method to reinforce the muscles of the abdominal wall and to compensate preexisting asymmetric developments.

  12. Acute and chronic toxic effects of chloramphenicol on Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Wenfang; An, Shuai; Xiong, Bang; Lin, Kuangfei; Cui, Xinhong; Guo, Meijin

    2013-08-01

    The acute and chronic toxicological effects of Chloramphenicol (CAP) on Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa are not well understood. The indoor experiments were carried to observe and analyze the CAP induced changes. Results of the observations have showed that CAP exposure could significantly inhibit the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in almost all the treated groups, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa exhibited less sensitivity. Chlorophyll-a syntheses of Scenedesmus obliquus were all inhibited by CAP exposure, while Chlorella pyrenoidosa displayed obvious stimulation effect. Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of both algae were promoted in all the treatments. The experimental results indicated that the growth and Chlorophyll-a syntheses of Scenedesmus obliquus were more sensitive in response to CAP exposure than that of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. While for CAT and SOD activities, Chlorella pyrenoidosa showed more susceptible. This research provides a basic understanding of CAP toxicity to aquatic organisms.

  13. Role of the vastus medialis obliquus in repositioning the patella: a dynamic computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Lin, Jiu-Jenq; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Wei, Tung-Ching; Shih, Hsin-Yen; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2008-04-01

    It has been assumed that patellofemoral pain syndrome results from patellar malalignment. The precise role the vastus medialis obliquus plays in mediating the underlying pathologic abnormality is unclear. The morphologic characteristics of the vastus medialis obliquus correlate to patellar malalignment in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. One hundred twelve patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were studied. Six sets of computed tomography axial images were assessed in which knee flexion was 0 degrees, 15 degrees, or 30 degrees and the quadriceps muscle either relaxed or contracted. Measurements of serial cross-sectional areas of the vastus medialis obliquus and patellar malalignment were made. Correlation and stepwise regression models between the vastus medialis obliquus variables and patellar malalignment (lateral shift and patellar tilt) were calculated. Statistics were calculated on 4 subgroups depending on patellofemoral malalignment type. Significant correlations were found between measures of cross-sectional areas of vastus medialis obliquus and patellar tilt at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of knee flexion. Using a regression model, it was determined that vastus medialis obliquus is predictive of patellar tilt (R(2) = 0.078-0.130). This explanation was most apparent in the subgroup of patients with extreme patellar tilt and lateral shift malalignments (R(2) up to 0.824). There are significant correlations between vastus medialis obliquus variables and patellar malalignments in extended knees of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Vastus medialis obliquus muscle function is important to consider in the rehabilitation of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome, especially those with extreme patellar tilt and lateral shift malalignments.

  14. Harvesting of Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using dispersed ozone flotation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Ling; Juang, Yu-Chuan; Liao, Guan-Yu; Tsai, Pei-Wen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu; Liu, Jhy-Chern; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-01-01

    The Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was harvested using dispersed ozone flotation. While air aeration does not, ozone produces effective solid-liquid separation through flotation. Ozone dose applied for sufficient algal flotation is similar to those used in practical drinking waterworks. The algae removal rate, surface charge, and hydrophobicity of algal cells, and fluorescence characteristics and proteins and polysaccharides contents of algogenic organic matter (AOM) were determined during ozonation. Proteins released from tightly bound AOM are essential to modifying the hydrophobicity of bubble surfaces for easy cell attachment and to forming a top froth layer for collecting floating cells. Humic substances in the suspension scavenge dosed ozone that adversely affects ozone flotation efficiency of algal cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P<0.05) while no significant difference was observed in lean body mass (P>0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (P<0.05) as the other parameters showed the tendency for an increase, but no significant difference (P<0.05). The results of this study indicate that 8 weeks Pilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  16. Pilates: how does it work and who needs it?

    PubMed Central

    Kloubec, June

    2011-01-01

    Summary Pilates uses a combination of approximately 50 simple, repetitive exercises to create muscular exertion. Advocates of this system of exercise claim that exercises can be adapted to provide either gentle strength training for rehabilitation or a strenuous workout vigorous enough to challenge skilled athletes. The exercises are designed to increase muscle strength and endurance, as well as flexibility and to improve posture and balance. There is cautious support for the effectiveness of Pilates in improving flexibility, abdominal and lumbo-pelvic stability and muscular activity. Stronger support cannot be given at this point in time primarily due to the limited number of studies and the lack of sound methodology in the published research. However, current research does indicate that there may be applications for this type of intervention in certain clinical populations that are worthy of continued investigation. PMID:23738249

  17. Effect of Pilates training on people with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Altan, L; Korkmaz, N; Dizdar, M; Yurtkuran, M

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pilates on pain, functional status, and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The study was performed as a randomized, prospective, controlled, and single-blind trial. Fifty-five participants (30 men, 25 women) who were under a regular follow-up protocol in our Rheumatology Clinic with the diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups: in group I, Pilates exercise program of 1 h was given by a certified trainer to 30 participants 3 times a week for 12 weeks, and in group II, designed as the control group, 25 participants continued previous standard treatment programs. In groups, pre-(week 0) and post treatment (week 12 and week 24) evaluation was performed by one of the authors who was blind to the group allocation. Primary outcome measure was functional capacity. Evaluation was done using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Exploratory outcome measures were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Chest expansion, and ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQOL) questionnaire. In group I, BASFI showed significant improvement at week 12 (P = 0.031) and week 24 (P = 0.007). In group II, this parameter was not found to have significantly changed at week 12 and week 24. Comparison of the groups showed significantly superior results for group I at week 24 (P = 0.023). We suggest Pilates exercises as an effective and safe method to improve physical capacity in AS patients. Our study is the first clinical study designed to investigate the role of Pilates method in AS treatment. We believe that further research with more participants and longer follow-up periods could help assess the therapeutic value of this popular physical exercise method in AS.

  18. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  19. Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the flexibility of older women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Laís Campos de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 min, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  1. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly.

  2. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  3. Pilates for Low Back Pain: Complete Republication of a Cochrane Review.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-06-01

    Systematic review. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with nonspecific acute, subacute, or chronic low back pain. The Pilates method is one of the most common forms of intervention based on exercise used for treating patients with low back pain. However, its effectiveness is not well established. We conducted searches on CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, and SPORTDiscus up to March 2014. We included randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of Pilates in patients with acute, subacute, or chronic nonspecific low back pain. The outcomes evaluated were pain, disability, function, and global impression of recovery. Two independent reviewers screened for potentially eligible studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted the data. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and treatment effect sizes were described using mean differences and 95% confidence intervals. Searches retrieved 126 trials, of which 10 were included in the review (n = 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered at high risk of bias. When compared to minimal intervention, Pilates reduces pain at short and intermediate term with low- to moderate-quality evidence and medium effect sizes. For disability, there is also a significant difference in favor to Pilates with low- to moderate-quality evidence and small effect size for short term and medium effect size for intermediate term compared with minimal intervention. It is unclear whether Pilates is better than other exercises for short-term pain, but there is low-quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain at intermediate term. For disability, there is moderate-quality evidence that there is no significant difference between Pilates and other exercises in either the short term or the intermediate term. There is low- to moderate-quality evidence that Pilates is more effective than minimal intervention with most of the

  4. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Pilates Training on Lumbo-Pelvic Stability and Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Phrompaet, Sureeporn; Paungmali, Aatit; Pirunsan, Ubon; Sitilertpisan, Patraporn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to assess and compare the effects of Pilates exercise on flexibility and lumbo-pelvic movement control between the Pilates training and control groups. Methods A randomized single-blinded controlled design was utilized in the study. Forty healthy male and female volunteers (mean age 31.65±6.21 years) were randomly divided into Pilates-based training (20 subjects) and the control groups (20 subjects). The Pilates group attended 45-minute training sessions, 2 times per week, for a period of 8 weeks. Flexibility and lumbo-pelvic stability tests were determined as outcome measures using a standard “sit and reach test” and “pressure biofeedback” respectively at 0, 4 and 8 weeks of the study. Results The results showed that the Pilates training group improved flexibility significantly (P<0.001) during time intervals. This effect was also significantly greater than the control group for both 4 weeks and 8 weeks of the training period (P<0.001). There were 65% and 85% of the subjects from Pilates group passing the lumbo-pelvic stability test at 4 and 8 weeks of training periods respectively. No subjects from the control group passed the test at any stages. Conclusions Pilates can be used as an adjunctive exercise program to improve flexibility, enhance control-mobility of trunk and pelvic segments. It may also prevent and attenuate the predisposition to axial musculoskeletal injury. PMID:22375213

  6. Outcomes of a pilates-based intervention for individuals with lateral epicondylosis: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dale, Lucinda M; Mikuski, Connie; Miller, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Core stability and flexibility, features of Pilates exercise, can reduce loads to the upper extremities. Reducing loads is essential to improve symptoms for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. Although Pilates exercise has gained popularity in healthy populations, it has not been studied for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if adding Pilates-based intervention to standard occupational therapy intervention improved outcomes as measured by the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) more than standard intervention for individuals with lateral epicondylosis. Participants (N= 17) were randomized to the standard intervention group or Pilates-based intervention group. All participants received standard intervention. The Pilates-based intervention group additionally completed abdominal strengthening, postural correction, and flexibility. For both groups, paired t-tests showed significantly improved PRTEE scores, 38.1 for the Pilates-based intervention group, and 22.9 for the standard intervention group. Paired t-test showed significantly improved provocative grip strength and pain for both groups. Independent t-tests showed no significant difference between groups in improved scores of PRTEE, pain, and provocative grip. Although the Pilates-based intervention group showed greater improvement in PRTEE outcome, provocative grip, and pain, scores were not significantly better than those of the standard intervention group, warranting further research.

  7. The effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for "Pilates" and "low back pain" within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included. Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s), year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted. The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from "poor" to "excellent". A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period. Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates exercise designs, and whether some people with CLBP may benefit from Pilates exercise more than

  8. Histological examination of the human obliquus capitis inferior myodural bridge.

    PubMed

    Pontell, Matthew E; Scali, Frank; Enix, Dennis E; Battaglia, Patrick J; Marshall, Ewarld

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to examine the anatomical relationship between the obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscle and the cervical dura mater at the histological level. Eight human cadavers, with an average age of 65 ± 7.9 years were selected from a convenience sample for suboccipital dissection. Twelve OCI muscle specimens were excised, 100% of which emitted grossly visible soft tissue tracts that inserted into the posterolateral aspect of the cervical dura. These 12 myodural specimens were excised as single, continuous structures and sent for H&E staining. One sample also underwent immuno-peroxidase staining. Microscopic evaluation confirmed a connective tissue bridge emanating from the OCI muscular body and attaching to the posterolateral aspect of the cervical dura mater in 75% of the specimens. Microtome slices of the remaining 25% were not able to capture muscle, connective tissue and dura within the same plane and were therefore unable to be properly analyzed. The sample sent for neuro-analysis stained positively for several neuronal fascicles traveling within, and passing through the OCI myodural bridge. This study histologically confirms the presence of a connective tissue bridge that links the OCI muscle to the dura mater and the presence of neuronal tissue within this connection warrants further examination. This structure may represent a component of normal human anatomy. In addition to its hypothetical role in human homeostasis, it may contribute to certain neuropathological conditions, as well.

  9. [Effect of low phosphorus concentration on the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus and phosphorus removal].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Bao-Zhen; Qu, Jiang-Hang; Yang, Jin-Shui; Huang, Huai-Zeng; Yuan, Hong-Li

    2010-11-01

    Effects of phosphorus of low concentrations on the growth and the phosphorus removal efficiency of Scenedesmus obliquus were investigated in this study. Results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus achieved a phosphorus removal efficiency of 100% within 22 h when the initial algal cell concentration was 1 x 10(5) /mL and the initial phosphorus concentration was 0.02-0.10 mg/L. With the initial phosphorus concentration increased from 0.02 mg/L to 0.10 mg/L, both growth velocity of Scenedesmus obliquus and maximum biomass increased obviously. Research found that phosphorus concentration had a significant influence on cell morphology of algal. In the external phosphorus sufficient conditions, most of algae cell present as four cells gather round form, then transformed into two cells side by side form in the absence of external phosphorus in culture medium, Finally in single as the main form of existence.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of lipids from algae Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Krukonis, V. J.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from a protein concentrate of green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus), using a one-step supercritical carbon dioxide extraction procedure in presence of ethanol as an entrainer, and were characterized. The compositions of neutral lipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids, separated into individual components by column, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography procedures, are presented. Fatty acid composition patterns indicated that the major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 16:2, 16:3, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3. The lipids of S. obliquus were found to contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of lipids from algae Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Krukonis, V. J.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from a protein concentrate of green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus), using a one-step supercritical carbon dioxide extraction procedure in presence of ethanol as an entrainer, and were characterized. The compositions of neutral lipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids, separated into individual components by column, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography procedures, are presented. Fatty acid composition patterns indicated that the major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 16:2, 16:3, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3. The lipids of S. obliquus were found to contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids.

  12. Electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis muscles during dynamic Pilates abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela Bueno; Morgan, Mirele Minussi; Gomes de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto; Silva, Elisangela; de Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; de Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-10-01

    To assess the electrical behaviour of the upper rectus abdominis (URA) and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) by electromyography (EMG) during the following dynamic Pilates abdominal exercises: roll up, double leg stretch, coordination, crisscross and foot work. The results were compared with EMG findings of traditional abdominal exercises (sit up and crunch). Seventeen female subjects (with no experience of the Pilates method) were recruited. The URA and LRA were evaluated while 12 isotonic contractions were performed using the Pilates principles or traditional abdominal exercises. The data were normalised by a maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Normality was accepted, and ANOVA followed by Tukey test was used to determine data differences (P < 0.05). Pilates exercises double leg stretch, coordination, crisscross and foot work promoted greater muscle activation than traditional exercises, mainly in URA. Thus, these exercises have the potential to be prescribed for muscle strengthening programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Core Training in Low Back Disorders: Role of the Pilates Method.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Andrew A; Kotler, Dana H

    The Pilates method is a system of exercises developed by Joseph Pilates, which emphasizes recruitment and strengthening of the core muscles, flexibility, and breathing, to promote stability and control of movement. Its focus bears similarity to current evidence-based exercise programs for low back disorders. Spinal stability is a function of three interdependent systems, osseoligamentous, muscular, and neural control; exercise addresses both the muscular and neural function. The "core" typically refers to the muscular control required to maintain functional stability. Prior research has highlighted the importance of muscular strength and recruitment, with debate over the importance of individual muscles in the wider context of core control. Though developed long before the current evidence, the Pilates method is relevant in this setting and clearly relates to current evidence-based exercise interventions. Current literature supports the Pilates method as a treatment for low back disorders, but its benefit when compared with other exercise is less clear.

  14. "Rational" management of dichlorophenols biodegradation by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2013-01-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus exhibited the ability to biodegrade dichlorophenols (dcps) under specific autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. According to their biodegradability, the dichlorophenols used can be separated into three distinct groups. Group I (2,4-dcp and 2,6 dcp - no meta-substitution) consisted of quite easily degraded dichlorophenols, since both chloride substituents are in less energetically demanding positions. Group II (2,3-dcp, 2,5-dcp and 3,4-dcp - one meta-chloride) was less susceptible to biodegradation, since one of the two substituents, the meta one, required higher energy for C-Cl-bond cleavage. Group III (3,5-dcp - two meta-chlorides) could not be biodegraded, since both chlorides possessed the most energy demanding positions. In general, when the dcp-toxicity exceeded a certain threshold, the microalga increased the energy offered for biodegradation and decreased the energy invested for biomass production. As a result, the biodegradation per cell volume of group II (higher toxicity) was higher, than group I (lower toxicity) and the biodegradation of dichlorophenols (higher toxicity) was higher than the corresponding monochlorophenols (lower toxicity). The participation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the respiratory mechanism of microalga to biodegrade the group I and the group II, highlighted different bioenergetic strategies for optimal management of the balance between dcp-toxicity, dcp-biodegradability and culture growth. Additionally, we took into consideration the possibility that the intermediates of each dcp-biodegradation pathway could influence differently the whole biodegradation procedures. For this reason, we tested all possible combinations of phenolic intermediates to check cometabolic interactions. The present contribution bring out the possibility of microalgae to operate as "smart" bioenergetic "machines", that have the ability to continuously "calculate" the energy reserves and "use" the most energetically

  15. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (P<0.05) and decreases in disability and pain (P<0.05). The inactivity group showed worsening in the same measures at T2. We found an important improvement of pain, disability and physical and psychological perception of health in individuals who did the daily sessions of pilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  16. The Effectiveness of Pilates Exercise in People with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S.; Marshall, Paul; Hill, Bridget; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain (CLBP) through a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Data Sources A search for RCTs was undertaken using Medical Search Terms and synonyms for “Pilates” and “low back pain” within the maximal date range of 10 databases. Databases included the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; Cochrane Library; Medline; Physiotherapy Evidence Database; ProQuest: Health and Medical Complete, Nursing and Allied Health Source, Dissertation and Theses; Scopus; Sport Discus; Web of Science. Study Selection Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of evidence. To be included, relevant RCTs needed to be published in the English language. From 152 studies, 14 RCTs were included. Data Extraction Two independent reviewers appraised the methodological quality of RCTs using the McMaster Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies. The author(s), year of publication, and details regarding participants, Pilates exercise, comparison treatments, and outcome measures, and findings, were then extracted. Data Synthesis The methodological quality of RCTs ranged from “poor” to “excellent”. A meta-analysis of RCTs was not undertaken due to the heterogeneity of RCTs. Pilates exercise provided statistically significant improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity between 4 and 15 weeks, but not at 24 weeks. There were no consistent statistically significant differences in improvements in pain and functional ability with Pilates exercise, massage therapy, or other forms of exercise at any time period. Conclusions Pilates exercise offers greater improvements in pain and functional ability compared to usual care and physical activity in the short term. Pilates exercise offers equivalent improvements to massage therapy and other forms of exercise. Future research should explore optimal Pilates

  17. Biodiesel quality and biochemical changes of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus in response to nitrate levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongqin; Miao, Xiaoling

    2014-10-01

    Biodiesel quality associated with biochemical components of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under different nitrate levels were investigated. The highest lipid contents of 54.5% for C. pyrenoidosa and 47.7% for S. obliquus were obtained in nitrate absence. Carbohydrate peaked at 0.3gL(-1) with values of 40.7% for C. pyrenoidosa and 42.5% for S. obliquus. Protein content seemed species dependent, which decreased substantially to 11.2% in C. pyrenoidosa and 8.8% in S. obliquus under nitrate absence in present research. Better biodiesel quality (e.g. cetane number >58, iodine value <69) could be obtained from C. pyrenoidosa in nitrate absence and S. obliquus in 0.3gL(-1), where the highest saturated fatty acids (39.5 for C. pyrenoidosa, 31.2 for S. obliquus) and the lowest unsaturated fatty acids (60.5 for C. pyrenoidosa, 68.8 for S. obliquus) were obtained. These results suggest that microalgae grown in the presence of nitrogen may limit biodiesel quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antagonist coactivation of trunk stabilizer muscles during Pilates exercises.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Denise Martineli; Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Gonçalves, Mauro; Laroche, Dain P; Navega, Marcelo Tavella

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antagonist coactivation of the local and global trunk muscles during mat-based exercises of Skilled Modern Pilates. Twelve women performed five exercises and concurrently, surface EMG from internal oblique (OI), multifidus (MU), rectus abdominis (RA) and iliocostalis lumborum (IL) muscles was recorded bilaterally. The percentage of antagonist coactivation between local (OI/MU) and global muscles (RA/IL) was calculated. Individuals new to the practice of these exercises showed differences in coactivation of the trunk muscles between the exercises and these results were not similar bilaterally. Thus, in clinical practice, the therapist should be aware of factors such as compensation and undesirable rotation movements of the trunk. Moreover, the coactivation of global muscles was higher bilaterally in all exercises analyzed. This suggests that the exercises of Skilled Modern Pilates only should be performed after appropriate learning and correct execution of all principles, mainly the Centering Principle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yoga and pilates in the management of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Sorosky, Susan; Stilp, Sonja; Akuthota, Venu

    2008-03-01

    Many interventions for the management of low back pain exist, however most have modest efficacy at best, and there are few with clearly demonstrated benefits once pain becomes chronic. Therapeutic exercise, on the other hand, does appear to have significant benefits for managing patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) in terms of decreasing pain and improving function. In addition, because chronic pain is complex and does not fit a simple model, there have also been numerous trials investigating and demonstrating the efficacy of multidisciplinary pain programs for CLBP. It follows that interventions that treat more than one aspect of LBP would have significant benefits for this patient population. Yoga and Pilates which have, both been gaining in popularity over the last decade are two mind-body exercise interventions that address both the physical and mental aspects of pain with core strengthening, flexibility, and relaxation. There has been a slow evolution of these nontraditional exercise regimens into treatment paradigms for LBP, although few studies examining their effects have been published. The following article will focus on the scientific and theoretical basis of using yoga and Pilates in the management of CLBP.

  20. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  1. Effects of Pilates Exercise on Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoonyoung; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

  2. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training.

  3. Effects of Pilates exercises on sensory interaction, postural control and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Soysal Tomruk, Melda; Uz, Muhammed Zahid; Kara, Bilge; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-05-01

    Decreased postural control, sensory integration deficits and fatigue are important problems that cause functional impairments in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). To examine the effect of modified clinical Pilates exercises on sensory interaction and balance, postural control and fatigue in pwMS. Eleven patients with multiple sclerosis and 12 healthy matched controls were recruited in this study. Limits of stability and postural stability tests were used to evaluate postural control by Biodex Balance System and sensory interaction assessed. Fatigue was assessed by Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Pilates exercises were applied two times a week for 10 weeks and measurements were repeated to pwMS after exercise training. Postural control and fatigue (except psychosocial parameter) of pwMS were significantly worser than healthy controls (p<0.05). Significant improvements occurred in sensory interaction (eyes open, foam surface) and total, physical and cognitive scores of fatigue after 10-week modified clinical Pilates training (p<0.05). No significant changes were detected in postural control after the pilates exercises (p>0.05). Ten-week Pilates training is effective to improve sensory interaction and to decrease fatigue. Pilates exercises can be applied safely in ambulatory pwMS for enhance sensory interaction and balance and combat fatigue. More investigations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  5. The effects of pilates on balance, mobility and strength in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Citaker, Seyit; Irkec, Ceyla; Nazliel, Bijen; Batur-Caglayan, Hale Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    Although there are evidences as to Pilates developing dynamic balance, muscle strength and flexibility in healthy people, evidences related to its effects on Multiple Sclerosis patients are insufficient. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Pilates on balance, mobility, and strength in ambulatory patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Twenty six patients were divided into two groups as experimental (n = 18) and control (n = 8) groups for an 8-week treatment program. The experimental group underwent Pilates and the control group did abdominal breathing and active extremity exercises at home. Balance and mobility were measured with Berg Balance Scale and Timed up and go test, upper and lower muscle strength with hand-held dynamometer. Confidence in balance skills while performing daily activities was evaluated with Activities Specific Balance Confidence Scale. Improvements were observed in balance, mobility, and upper and lower extremity muscle strength in the Pilates group (p < 0.05). No significant differences in any outcome measures were observed in the control group (p > 0.05). Due to its structure which is made up of balance and strengthening exercises, Pilates training may develop balance, mobility and muscle strength of MS patients. For this reason, we think that, Pilates exercises which are appropriate for the disability level of the patient may be suggested.

  6. Does pilates-based exercise improve postural alignment in adult women?

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Kuo, Yi-Liang; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Fernandes, Orlando; Laranjo, Luís; Silva, António

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of Pilates-based exercise on postural alignment. Seventy-four adult women (mean age ± SD, 34.9 ± 16.4 years) were randomized to a Pilates-based mat class (n = 40) or a control group (n = 34). Pilates-based exercise participants were taught the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates for 6 months, twice a week, for 60 minutes per session; the control group received no exercise intervention. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months of the frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine, shoulder, and pelvis, and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. No differences were found in either group, over time, on frontal alignment of the thoracolumbar spine and pelvis. The experimental group showed significant improvements in frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis at 6 months. The Pilates-based exercise enhanced some parameters of the postural alignment of women, as measured by frontal alignment of the shoulder and sagittal alignment of the head and pelvis. The significant improvement in sagittal alignment of the head may imply that 6 months of Pilates-based exercise enhances sagittal alignment of the cervical or thoracic spine.

  7. Investigation of three lignin complexes with antioxidant and immunological capacities from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hong; Song, Dan; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Wuxia; Sun, Feifei; Duan, Jinyou

    2016-05-01

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus), a folk medicine, has been widely used to treat several human malicious tumors since 16th century. In this study, three homogenous biomolecules (designated IOA1, IOA2 and IOA3) were prepared from the alkali extract of I. obliquus. Their molecular weights were measured to be 6.1 × 10(4), 2.9 × 10(4) and 3.5 × 10(4) g/mol respectively and all of them were characterized as lignin-carbohydrate complexes mainly comprised lignin as well as -25% carbohydrates. Antioxidant assays indicated that all of them exhibited pronounced reductive power and strong scavenging activities on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Immunological tests showed that they could also significantly stimulate nitric oxide production and phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 macrophages. These results implied that the lignin-carbohydrate complexes extracted from I. obliquus might be used as novel natural antioxidants or immunostimulants in functional foods or pharmaceutical candidates.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lishuai; Chen, Haixia; Dong, Peng; Lu, Xueming

    2013-08-15

    Mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) has been used as functional food and traditional Chinese herbs for long time. An efficient method for bioassay-guided preparative isolation was used for identifying the anti-inflammatory and anticancer constituents in I. obliquus. The petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions were found to have significant inhibition effects on NO production and NF-κB luciferase activity in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and cytotoxicity against human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma cell MDA-MB-231. Six main constituents were isolated from these two fractions and they were identified as lanosterol (1), 3β-hydroxy-8,24-dien-21-al (2), ergosterol (3), inotodiol (4), ergosterol peroxide (5) and trametenolic acid (6). Compound ergosterol, ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed anti-inflammatory activities and ergosterol peroxide and trametenolic acid showed obviously cytotoxicity on human prostatic carcinoma cell PC3 and breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cell. The results obtained in this work might contribute to understanding the biological activity of mushroom I. obliquus for food and drug application.

  9. Grazer-induced morphological defense in Scenedesmus obliquus is affected by competition against Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yichun; Chen, Qinwen; Yang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus is known for its phenotypic plasticity in response to grazing risk. However, the benefits of colony formation induced by infochemicals from zooplankton should come with costs. That is, a tradeoff in benefit-to-cost ratios is likely under complex environmental conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that the coexistence of Scenedesmus and its competitors decreases the formation of anti-grazer colonies in Scenedesmus. Results demonstrated that the presence of a competitor Microcystis aeruginosa inhibited inducible defensive colony formation of Scenedesmus obliquus, and the established defensive colonies negatively affected the competitive ability of S. obliquus. The proportion of induced defensive colonies in cultures was dependent on the relative abundance of competitors. Under low competition intensity, large amount of eight-celled colonies were formed but at the cost of decreased competitive inhibition on M. aeruginosa. By contrast, defensive colony formation of S. obliquus slacked in the presence of high competition intensity to maintain a high displacement rate (competitive ability). In conclusion, S. obliquus exhibited different responses to potential grazing pressure under different intensities of competition, i.e., Scenedesmus morphological response to grazing infochemicals was affected by competition against Microcystis. PMID:26224387

  10. Biodiesel production by the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

    2012-08-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha(-1) year(-1) was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards.

  11. Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shovon

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha−1 year−1 was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards. PMID:22660702

  12. [Effects of Branchionus calyciflorus culture media filtrate on Microcystis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris colony formation and growth].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhou; Kong, Fanxiang; Shi, Xiaoli; Yang, Jiaxin

    2005-06-01

    To examine the possible information transfer by chemicals between zooplankton and algae, this paper studied the effects of Brachionus calyciflorus culture media filtrate on the colony formation and growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris. The results showed that the test filtrate could significantly promote the colony formation and population growth of S. obliquus, while no significant effect was observed on M. aeruginosa and C. vulgaris. The induced colony formation of S. obliquus increased its resistance to grazing, and thus, reduced the risk of its being grazed, which could be viewed as a kind of inducing defense. The accelerated growth of C. vulgaris and the toxin production of M. aeruginosa could also be interpreted as a defense mechanism against grazing. It maybe concluded that M. aeruginosa, S. obliquus and C. vulgaris could adopt different ecological strategies to resist the potential grazing by rotifer B. calyciflorus, and thus, to keep their population on a certain scale.

  13. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  14. Pilates Method for Women's Health: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Mazzarino, Melissa; Kerr, Debra; Wajswelner, Henry; Morris, Meg E

    2015-12-01

    To critically analyze the benefits of Pilates on health outcomes in women. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Databases were searched using the terms Pilates and Pilates Method. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they comprised female participants with a health condition and a health outcome was measured, Pilates needed to be administered, and the article was published in English in a peer-reviewed journal from 1980 to July 2014. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to potential studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. A best-evidence grading system was used to determine the strength of the evidence. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. PEDro scale values ranged from 3 to 7 (mean, 4.5; median, 4.0), indicating a relatively low quality overall. In this sample, Pilates for breast cancer was most often trialed (n=2). The most frequent health outcomes investigated were pain (n=4), quality of life (n=4), and lower extremity endurance (n=2), with mixed results. Emerging evidence was found for reducing pain and improving quality of life and lower extremity endurance. There is a paucity of evidence on Pilates for improving women's health during pregnancy or for conditions including breast cancer, obesity, or low back pain. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted to determine the effectiveness of Pilates for improving women's health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilates: ranging beyond neutral--a practical discussion.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-01-01

    The presence of 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system can be found if the movement control system (mind) and muscular system (body) is tested for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Deciding which exercises are the best to 'fix' the uncontrolled movements found is a fundamental part of the rehabilitative process. It has been suggested that specific exercises are best suited to fix specific faults. Direction Control and Range Control exercises are postulated as two key types of specific exercises that should be used when specific uncontrolled movements are found. In this paper, examples of the application of these two types of exercises are discussed, as is the fact that the 'mind and body' focused Pilates method already uses these two key exercise types as elements within its own system of exercise.

  16. Pilates and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Methods Induce Similar Strength Gains but Different Neuromuscular Adaptations in Elderly Women.

    PubMed

    Teixeira de Carvalho, Fabiana; de Andrade Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda; Pereira, Rafael; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Amaro Zangaro, Renato

    2017-09-26

    Background/Study Context: The aging process is associated with a decline in muscle mass, strength, and conditioning. Two training methods that may be useful to improve muscle function are Pilates and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). Thus, the present study aimed to compare the influence of training programs using Pilates and PNF methods with elderly women. Sixty healthy elderly women were randomly divided into three groups: Pilates group, PNF group, and control group. Pilates and PNF groups underwent 1-month training programs with Pilates and PNF methods, respectively. The control group received no intervention during the 1 month. The maximal isometric force levels from knee extension and flexion, as well as the electromyography (EMG) signals from quadriceps and biceps femoris, were recorded before and after the 1-month intervention period. A two-way analysis of variance revealed that the Pilates and PNF methods induced similar strength gains from knee flexors and extensors, but Pilates exhibited greater low-gamma drive (i.e., oscillations in 30-60 Hz) in the EMG power spectrum after the training period. These results support use of both Pilates and PNF methods to enhance lower limb muscle strength in older groups, which is very important for gait, postural stability, and performance of daily life activities.

  17. Effect of Pilates exercises on postpartum maternal fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postpartum fatigue is a pervasive phenomenon and often affects mothers immediately after delivery. The present study aimed to assess the effect Pilates home exercises had on postpartum maternal fatigue. METHODS A total of 80 women participated in our clinical trial study. The women were randomly divided into two groups – the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). In the intervention group, the women performed Pilates exercises five times a week (30 min per session) for eight consecutive weeks. The first session was conducted 72 hours after delivery. The control group did not receive any intervention. Each woman’s level of fatigue was evaluated at hospital discharge (as a baseline), and at four and eight weeks after delivery, using the standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) questionnaire and repeated measures analysis. RESULTS During the eight weeks of follow-up, we found that the intervention group had lower mean MFI-20 scores than the control group with regard to general fatigue (7.80 ± 2.07 vs. 12.72 ± 1.79; p < 0.001), physical fatigue (7.12 ± 1.41 vs. 10.42 ± 2.02; p < 0.001), reduced activity (6.95 ± 1.35 vs. 11.27 ± 1.70; p < 0.001), reduced motivation (6.20 ± 1.01 vs. 9.80 ± 2.04; p < 0.001) and mental fatigue (6.85 ± 1.45 vs. 10.72 ± 1.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The present study’s findings show that physical exercise can significantly reduce postpartum maternal fatigue in all subscales. PMID:25820848

  18. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

  19. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants' trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries.

  20. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants’ trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries. PMID:28265138

  1. Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical performance of college students.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-04-01

    Methods of exercise such as Pilates and taiji quan, which have been shown to have beneficial effects on physical and mental characteristics, have been studied more often in samples of older participants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a semester of either Pilates or taiji quan training on perceived self-efficacy, sleep quality and mood, as well as strength and balance in college-age individuals. Self-efficacy was found to be improved in the Pilates and taiji quan groups and there was a trend towards improvement in sleep quality. Mood was found to be improved significantly in the Pilates group while the taiji group showed a trend towards improvement. There were no changes or group differences in the strength or balance measures. Pilates and taiji quan are effective exercise modes to improve mental parameters in college-age individuals.

  2. Effects of Pilates exercise programs in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However, the

  3. Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However

  4. Examining the postural awareness and flexibility changes in physical therapy students who took clinical Pilates class

    PubMed Central

    Atilgan, Esra; Tarakci, Devrim; Mutluay, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate postural awareness and changes in posture and flexibility of students who took Clinical Pilates class as an elective course at the undergraduate level. Methods: The study conducted from 2013-2016 included 98 students who took Clinical Pilates class at the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey. The flexibility levels of the study participants were measured before and after the Clinical Pilates education using finger-to-floor test and modified Schober’s test. Observational posture analysis and postural awareness were recorded using the scale prepared by the researchers. Results: The post-education evaluations showed that postural distortions were fixed, and a significant increase in the postural awareness of the students was observed compared with the pre-education period. The results of both modified Schober’s test and finger-to-floor test, which were used to measure the flexibility levels, showed a statistically significant increase in post-education scores compared with those of the pre-education period. Conclusion: This study showed that the Clinical Pilates course increased postural awareness and flexibility of physical therapy students and fixed postural distortions. Thus, the inclusion of Clinical Pilates class in the undergraduate education is considered to be important. PMID:28811786

  5. The Effect of Clinical Pilates on Functional Movement in Recreational Runners.

    PubMed

    Laws, Anna; Williams, Sean; Wilson, Cassie

    2017-09-01

    Biomechanical imbalances and inefficient functional movements are considered contributing factors to running-related injuries. Clinical Pilates uses a series of exercises focused on retraining normal movement patterns. This study investigated whether a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates improves functional movement and thereby, potentially, reduces the risk of running-related injuries associated with movement dysfunction. A modified functional movement screen was used to analyze the functional movement ability of forty runners. Forty participants completed a 6-week course of Clinical Pilates delivered by a Clinical Pilates instructor. The movement screen was carried out 3 times for each runner: 6 weeks pre-intervention (baseline), within one week pre-intervention (pre) and within one week post-intervention (post). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post-hoc tests found significant increases in scores between baseline and post (mean±SD; 13.4±2.4 vs. 17.0±1.7, p<0.01) and pre and post (mean±SD; 13.5±2.5 vs. 17.0±1.7, p<0.01), but no significant difference between baseline and pre (p=0.3). A 6-week course of Clinical Pilates significantly improves functional movement in recreational runners, and this may lead to a reduction in the risk of running-related injuries. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Intra-abdominal pressure during Pilates: unlikely to cause pelvic floor harm.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Tanner J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Holder, Dannielle N; Egger, Marlene J; Hitchcock, Robert

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to describe the intra-abdominal pressures (IAP) generated during Pilates Mat and Reformer activities, and determine whether these activities generate IAP above a sit-to-stand threshold. Twenty healthy women with no symptomatic vaginal bulge, median age 43 (range 22-59 years), completed Pilates Mat and Reformer exercise routines each consisting of 11 exercises. IAP was collected by an intra-vaginal pressure transducer, transmitted wirelessly to a base station, and analyzed for maximal and area under the curve (AUC) IAP. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean maximal IAP between sit-to-stand and any of the Mat or Reformer exercises in the study population. Six to twenty-five percent of participants exceeded their individual mean maximal IAP sit-to-stand thresholds for 10 of the 22 exercises. When measuring AUC from 0 cm H2O, half the exercises exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand, but only Pilates Reformer and Mat roll-ups exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand when calculated from a threshold of 40 cm H2O (consistent with, for example, walking). Our results support recommending this series of introductory Pilates exercises, including five Mat exercises and six Reformer exercises to women desiring a low IAP exercise routine. More research is needed to determine the long-term effects of Pilates exercise on post-surgical exercise rehabilitation and pelvic floor health.

  7. Do Pilates-based exercises following total knee arthroplasty improve postural control and quality of life?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Aysenur; Yuksel, Inci; Kinikli, Gizem Irem; Caglar, Omur

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized, controlled study was to investigate the effects of the addition of Pilates-based exercises to standard exercise programs performed after total knee arthroplasty on quality of life and balance. Forty-six volunteers were divided into two groups. The control group (n = 17) was assigned a standard exercise program after discharge; the study group (n = 17) was assigned Pilates-based exercises along with the standard exercise program. We carried out clinical evaluations of all patients on the day of discharge and after the completion of the 6-week exercise program. We also recorded sociodemographic data, Berg Balance test scores, and Short Form-36 (SF-36) health-related quality of life measurements. When we compared the differences between pre- and post-treatment balance scores of the groups, we found a significant change in favor of the Pilates-based exercise group (13.64 ± 1.45; p < 0.01). The changes in the pre- and post-treatment SF-36 scores of the Pilates-based exercises group were found to be significant in terms of physical function (p = 0.001), physical role restriction (p = 0.01), and physical component score (p = 0.001). Pilates-based exercises performed along with standard exercise programs were more effective for improving balance and quality of life than standard exercise programs alone.

  8. Intra-abdominal Pressure during Pilates: Unlikely to Cause Pelvic Floor Harm

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Tanner J.; Holder, Dannielle N.; Egger, Marlene J.; Hitchcock, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Aims To describe intra-abdominal pressures (IAP) generated during Pilates Mat and Reformer activities, and determine whether these activities generate IAP above a sit-to-stand threshold. Methods Twenty healthy women with no symptomatic vaginal bulge, median age 43 (range 22 – 59 years), completed Pilates Mat and Reformer exercise routines each consisting of 11 exercises. IAP was collected by an intra-vaginal pressure transducer, transmitted wirelessly to a base station, and analyzed for maximal and area under the curve (AUC) IAP. Results There were no statistically significant differences in mean max IAP between sit-to-stand and any of the Mat or Reformer exercises in the study population. Six to twenty-five percent of participants exceeded their individual mean max IAP sit-to-stand thresholds for 10 of the 22 exercises. When measuring AUC from 0 cm H2O, half the exercises exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand but only Pilates Reformer and Mat roll-ups exceeded the mean AUC of sit-to-stand when calculated from a threshold of 40 cm H2O (consistent with, for example, walking). Conclusion Our results support recommending this series of introductory Pilates exercises including five Mat exercises and six Reformer exercises to women desiring a low IAP exercise routine. More research is needed to determine the long term effects of Pilates exercise on post-surgical exercise rehabilitation and pelvic floor health. PMID:25672647

  9. Effects of pilates on patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Hung, Wei-Ching; Hung, Jia-Ling; Wu, Pei-Shan; Liaw, Li-Jin; Chang, Jia-Hao

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effects of Pilates on patients with chronic low back pain through a systematic review of high-quality articles on randomized controlled trials. [Subjects and Methods] Keywords and synonyms for "Pilates" and "Chronic low back pain" were used in database searches. The databases included PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Articles involving randomized controlled trials with higher than 5 points on the PEDro scale were reviewed for suitability and inclusion. The methodological quality of the included randomized controlled trials was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Relevant information was extracted by 3 reviewers. [Results] Eight randomized controlled trial articles were included. Patients with chronic low back pain showed statistically significant improvement in pain relief and functional ability compared to patients who only performed usual or routine health care. However, other forms of exercise were similar to Pilates in the improvement of pain relief and functional capacity. [Conclusion] In patients with chronic low back pain, Pilates showed significant improvement in pain relief and functional enhancement. Other exercises showed effects similar to those of Pilates, if waist or torso movement was included and the exercises were performed for 20 cumulative hours.

  10. Examining the postural awareness and flexibility changes in physical therapy students who took clinical Pilates class.

    PubMed

    Atilgan, Esra; Tarakci, Devrim; Mutluay, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate postural awareness and changes in posture and flexibility of students who took Clinical Pilates class as an elective course at the undergraduate level. The study conducted from 2013-2016 included 98 students who took Clinical Pilates class at the Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey. The flexibility levels of the study participants were measured before and after the Clinical Pilates education using finger-to-floor test and modified Schober's test. Observational posture analysis and postural awareness were recorded using the scale prepared by the researchers. The post-education evaluations showed that postural distortions were fixed, and a significant increase in the postural awareness of the students was observed compared with the pre-education period. The results of both modified Schober's test and finger-to-floor test, which were used to measure the flexibility levels, showed a statistically significant increase in post-education scores compared with those of the pre-education period. This study showed that the Clinical Pilates course increased postural awareness and flexibility of physical therapy students and fixed postural distortions. Thus, the inclusion of Clinical Pilates class in the undergraduate education is considered to be important.

  11. Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls

    PubMed Central

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05) in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

  12. Effect on performance of learning a pilates skill with or without a mirror.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jennifer A; Chalmers, Gordon R; Knutzen, Kathleen M; Martin, Leaann T

    2009-07-01

    Mirrors are often used in an instructional environment where precise movements must be learned (e.g., martial arts, Pilates, dance). The potential for mirrors in the learning environment of a Pilates class, to affect the subsequent performance of a Pilates star movement when mirrors are not present, was examined. Twenty subjects learned the Pilates star movement over seven weeks, either with (n=11) or without (n=9), mirrors present in the Pilates studio. Performance of the star without mirrors present was assessed quantitatively before and after the training, by video analysis of the degree of lateral straightness of the subject's body at the start, middle, and end of the star movement. Performance of the star movement without a mirror present improved similarly for both the group that learned with, and the group that learned without, mirrors present (p<0.05). These results indicate that the inclusion of mirrors in a learning environment, to provide immediate visual feedback during learning, does not necessarily enhance the subsequent performance of a skill when mirrors are not present.

  13. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j PMID:23298183

  14. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Maurício Antônio; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; Fuhro, Fernanda Ferreira; Manzoni, Ana Carolina Taccolini; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2013-01-09

    Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j.

  15. Graphene oxide alleviates the ecotoxicity of copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Hu, Naitao; Li, Xiuling; Zhao, Yongjun

    2016-10-01

    The extensive industrial application of graphene oxide (GO), has increased its exposure risk to various aquatic organisms and its potential to affect the toxicity of other environmental pollutants. In this study, we investigated the combined toxicity of GO and copper on the freshwater microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, using the MIXTOX model. The effects of low concentration (1mg/L) exposure to GO were investigated with environmentally relevant concentrations of copper by using a 12-d subacute toxicity test, with pre- and post-GO treatment. Results showed that there were significant antagonistic effects between GO and copper on S. obliquus, and GO was found to reduce ecotoxicity of copper even at low and environmentally relevant concentrations (1mg/L).

  16. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-α was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-α related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy. PMID:24049493

  17. Immunomodulatory Activity of the Water Extract from Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Ran

    2005-09-01

    The immunomodulatory effect of aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus, called as Chaga, was tested on bone marrow cells from chemically immunosuppressed mice. The Chaga water extract was daily administered for 24 days to mice that had been treated with cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg body weight), immunosuppressive alkylating agent. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU)-granulocytes/macrophages (GM) and erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), increased almost to the levels seen in non-treated control as early as 8 days after treatment. Oral administration of the extract highly increased serum levels of IL-6. Also, the level of TNF-α was elevated by the chemical treatment in control mice, whereas was maintained at the background level in the extract-treated mice, indicating that the extract might effectively suppress TNF-α related pathologic conditions. These results strongly suggest the great potential of the aqueous extract from Inonotus obliquus as immune enhancer during chemotherapy.

  18. Terpenoids with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ying, You-Min; Zhang, Lin-Yan; Zhang, Xia; Bai, Hai-Bo; Liang, Dong-E; Ma, Lie-Feng; Shan, Wei-Guang; Zhan, Zha-Jun

    2014-12-01

    Lanostane-type triterpenoids, inotolactones A and B, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid, inotolactone C, and five known terpenoids 6β-hydroxy-trans-dihydroconfertifolin, inotodiol, 3β,22-dihydroxyanosta-7,9(11),24-triene, 3β-hydroxycinnamolide, and 17-hydroxy-ent-atisan-19-oic acid, were isolated from the submerged culture of chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods, including MS and NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic techniques. Inotolactones A and B, examples of lanostane-type triterpenoids bearing α,β-dimethyl, α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone side chains, exhibited more potent alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities than the positive control acarbose. This finding might be related to the anti-hyperglycemic properties of the fungus and to its popular role as a diabetes treatment. In addition, a drimane-type sesquiterpenoid and an atisane-type diterpenoid were isolated from I. obliquus.

  19. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecotoxicological effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Luo, Qi; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    As a persistent bioaccumulative compound, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is found in various ecosystems and receives growing attention. The acute toxicity of PFOA was tested on 2 freshwater microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus. The 96-h concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) values were measured, physiological responses of the algae were investigated, and uptake of PFOA by the algae was quantified. The EC50 values for C. reinhardtii and S. obliquus were 51.9 ± 1.0 mg/L and 44.0 ± 1.5 mg/L PFOA, respectively. After 8-d exposure to PFOA ranging from 10 mg/L to 40 mg/L, the growth of C. reinhardtii was significantly inhibited, whereas that of S. obliquus was only slightly suppressed. Increases in malonaldehyde and proline levels were observed in the 2 algae when exposed to PFOA at certain concentrations, for instance, 20 mg/L and 40 mg/L, which is indicative of the trigger of a defensive mechanism. The percentage of PFOA that was adsorbed by the algae after 8-d exposure at a dosage between 5 mg/L and 20 mg/L ranged from 5.5% to 7.5%, and the uptake of PFOA by the algae exceeded 10%. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction.

  2. Characterization of two water-soluble lignin metabolites with antiproliferative activities from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingjie; Mu, Haibo; Zhang, Lin; Dong, Dongqi; Zhang, Wuxia; Duan, Jinyou

    2015-03-01

    The chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus has long been recognized as a remedy for cancer, gastritis, ulcers, and tuberculosis of the bones since the 16th century. Herein we reported the identification of two homogenous biological macromolecules, designated as IOW-S-1 and IOW-S-2 with anti-tumor activities from the hot-water extract of I. obliquus. Their molecular weights were determined to be 37.9 and 24.5kDa by high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) respectively. Chemical and spectral analysis indicated that both IOW-S-1 and IOW-S-2 were predominant in lignin, along with ∼20% carbohydrates. Examination of cytotoxicity showed that these two lignin-carbohydrate complexes induced cell death in a concentration dependent manner, while this apoptosis induction was largely cell-cycle independent. Further investigation demonstrated that IOW-S-1 or IOW-S-2 inhibited the activation of the nuclear transcription factor in cancer cells. These findings implied that soluble lignin derivatives were one of bioactive components in I. obliquus, and further provided insights into the understanding of molecular basis for diverse medicinal and nutritional values of this mushroom.

  3. Enantioselective toxicity of metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus in the presence of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui J; Cai, Wei D; Huang, Ruo N; Xia, Hui L; Wen, Yue Z

    2012-02-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) possess a variety of chiral centers and are capable of recognizing enantiomeric molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes. Two types of CDs, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), were selected to evaluate the effects of the enantioselective ecotoxicity of racemic metolachlor (Rac-metolachlor) and its S-enantiomer (S-metolachlor) on the freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) by acute toxicity test. The results showed that the aquatic toxicity of S-metolachlor was higher than Rac-metolachlor and that CDs enhanced the toxicity of metolachlor enantioselectively by increasing the aquatic toxicity of Rac-metolachlor rather than that of S-metolachlor to S. obliquus. The equilibrium constant for Rac-metolachlor-CD complexes was higher than that of S-metolachlor-CDs, which was responsible for the greater aquatic toxicity shift effect of Rac-metolachlor. Thermodynamic studies of CD complexes showed that inclusion for all of the complexes was primarily a spontaneous, enthalpy-driven process. These results will help to understand the preliminary mechanism of shifting aquatic toxicity of metolachlor by CDs and the CDs mediated environmental processes of metolachlor, to correctly apply CDs to chiral pesticides formulation and environmental remediation of chiral contaminants.

  4. [Influence of the coexistence of Zn2+ on the enantioselective toxicity of metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Na; Zhang, Shu-Xian; Chen, Cai-Dong; Liu, Hui-Jun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticide coexisting with heavy metal, the enantioselective toxicity of Rac-, S-metolachlor alone and coexisting with Zn2+ on Scenedesmus obliquus was studied by using standard toxic testing method. The results showed that the trend of the enantioselective toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor coexisting with Zn2+ was similar to that of Rac- and S-metolachlor alone. The growth inhibition rate of Scenedesmus obliquus was decreased by the coexistence of Zn2+ with high concentrations of metolachlor. The inhibition rates with 0.30 mg x L(-1) Rac- and S-metolachlor alone at 24 h were 49.61% and 59.73%, and in the coexistence of Zn2+ the values were 38.41% and 42.52%, respectively. The enantioselective toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor was expanded and the toxicity of S-metolachlor increased greater than that of Rac-metolachlor. The coexistence of Zn2+ showed partial increase in toxicity of metolachlor in low concentrations, while there was antagonistic effect in high content of metolachlor. The trend of Chlorophyll content of Scenedesmus obliquus at 96 h was in accordance with the growth inhibition.

  5. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis.

  6. Wastewater treatment and biodiesel production by Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage cultivation process.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Díaz, P D; Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Barragán, J; Garrido-Pérez, M C; Perales, J A

    2015-04-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in two cultivation stages: (1) in batch with real wastewater; (2) maintaining the stationary phase with different conditions of CO2, light and salinity according to a factorial design in order to improve the lipid content. The presence of the three factors increased lipid content from 35.8% to 49% at the end of the second stage; CO2 presence presented the highest direct effect increasing lipid content followed by light presence and salt presence. The ω-3 fatty acids content increased with CO2 and light presence acting in isolation, nevertheless, when both factors acted together the interaction effect was negative. The ω-3 eicosapentaenoic acid content of the oil from S. obliquus slightly exceeded the 1% maximum to be used as biodiesel source (EU normative). Therefore, it is suggested the blend with other oils or the selective extraction of the ω-3 fatty acids from S. obliquus oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sensitivity of Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa to atrazine: effects of acclimation and mixed cultures, and their removal ability.

    PubMed

    Chalifour, Annie; LeBlanc, André; Sleno, Lekha; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide frequently detected in watercourses that can affect the phytoplankton community, thus impacting the whole food chain. This study aims, firstly, to measure the sensitivity of monocultures of the green alga Scenedemus obliquus and toxic and non-toxic strains of the cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa before, during and after a 30-day acclimation period to 0.1 µM of atrazine. Secondly, the sensitivity of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa to atrazine in mixed cultures was evaluated. Finally, the ability of these strains to remove atrazine from the media was measured. We demonstrated that both strains of M. aeruginosa had higher growth rate-based EC50 values than S. obliquus when exposed to atrazine, even though their photosynthesis-based EC50 values were lower. After being exposed to 0.1 µM of atrazine for 1 month, only the photosynthesis-based EC50 of S. obliquus increased significantly. In mixed cultures, the growth rate of the non-toxic strain of M. aeruginosa was higher than S. obliquus at high concentrations of atrazine, resulting in a ratio of M. aeruginosa to total cell count of 0.6. This lower sensitivity might be related to the higher growth rate of cyanobacteria at low light intensity. Finally, a negligible fraction of atrazine was removed from the culture media by S. obliquus or M. aeruginosa over 6 days. These results bring new insights on the acclimation of some phytoplankton species to atrazine and its effect on the competition between S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in mixed cultures.

  8. Effect of salinity stress on growth, lipid productivity, fatty acid composition, and biodiesel properties in Acutodesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Priti Raj; Fulekar, Madhusudan H; Karuna, Mallampalli Sri Lakshmi

    2017-04-07

    Two microalgae strains including Chlorella vulgaris and Acutodesmus obliquus were grown on BG11 medium with salinity stress ranging from 0.06 to 0.4 M NaCl. Highest lipid content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 49 and 43% in BG11 amended with 0.4 M NaCl. The microalgal strains C. vulgaris and A. obliquus grow better at 0.06 M NaCl concentration than control condition. At 0.06 M NaCl, improved dry biomass content in C. vulgaris and A. obliquus was 0.92 and 0.68 gL(-1), respectively. Stress biomarkers like reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were also lowest at 0.06 M NaCl concentration revealing that both the microalgal strains are well acclimatized at 0.06 M NaCl concentration. The fatty acid composition of the investigated microalgal strains was also improved by increased NaCl concentration. At 0.4 M NaCl, palmitic acid (37%), oleic acid (15.5%), and linoleic acid (20%) were the dominant fatty acids in C. vulgaris while palmitic acid (54%) and stearic acid (26.6%) were major fatty acids found in A. obliquus. Fatty acid profiling of C. vulgaris and A. obliquus significantly varied with salinity concentration. Therefore, the study showed that salt stress is an effective stress that could increase not only the lipid content but also improved the fatty acid composition which could make C. vulgaris and A. obliquus potential strains for biodiesel production.

  9. The effect of 8 week pilates exercise on body composition in obese women.

    PubMed

    Cakmakçi, O

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 8-weeks modern pilates mat and ball exercise program on body mass, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio on sedentary obese women total of 58 health sedentary obese women volunteered to participate in this study. They were divided randomly into 1 of 2 groups: pilates training group (PTG; N = 34) and control group (CG; N = 27). A pilates training program was applied to the subjects one hour per day four days per week during 8 weeks. The subjects in the control group did not participate in the training and participated only in the pre and post test measurements. BMI, waist circumference, Waist-hip ratio, 4-site skinfold thickness (Biceps, Triceps, Supscapula and Iliac), fat percentage, resting metabolic rate, Lean body mass and flexibility were assessed before and after the pilates training program. The SPSS statistical program (version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were run on each of the dependent variables. For all analyses, the criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p < 0.05. 8 weeks of pilates training program has been found to be effective on weight, Body mass index, Lean body mass, waist-hip ratio, biceps, triceps, fat percentage, basal metabolic rate, and flexibility in PTG (p < 0.05). The control group showed no significant differences in the same measures post-intervention. As a result there was a positive effect of Modern Pilates mat and ball exercises of reducing obesity, body composition parameters and flexibility at sedentary obese women.

  10. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists.

  11. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-01-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  12. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  13. Different types of exercise in Multiple Sclerosis: Aerobic exercise or Pilates, a single-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Kara, Bilge; Küçük, Fadime; Poyraz, Esra Coşkuner; Tomruk, Melda Soysal; İdıman, Egemen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine effects of aerobic and Pilates exercises on disability, cognition, physical performance, balance, depression and fatigue in relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients as compared to healthy controls. The subjects were divided as aerobic exercise (n = 26), Pilates (n = 9), and the healthy control group (n = 21). We used MSFC, physical performance, Berg balance scale, Beck depression scale, fatigue impact scale. All evaluations were performed before and after exercise training. There are statistically meaningful differences between Nine hole testing, PASAT 3, physical performance and fatique impact scale before and after aerobic exercise. Also we found significant difference for physical performance in the Pilates group. There are no significant differences in measures of fatique impact scale and depression between aerobic exercise group and the healthy controls after exercise. We found significant differences between Pilates and control group's after measurements except depression. There were significant differences between the Pilates and aerobic group for cognitive tests in favor of the Pilates group. Aerobic exercise and clinical Pilates exercises revealed moderate changes in levels of cognitive, physical performance, balance, depression, fatigue in MS patients.

  14. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  15. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  16. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists. PMID:27134355

  17. Draft Nuclear Genome, Complete Chloroplast Genome, and Complete Mitochondrial Genome for the Biofuel/Bioproduct Feedstock Species Scenedesmus obliquus Strain DOE0152z.

    PubMed

    Starkenburg, S R; Polle, J E W; Hovde, B; Daligault, H E; Davenport, K W; Huang, A; Neofotis, P; McKie-Krisberg, Z

    2017-08-10

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is an emerging platform species for the industrial production of biofuels. Here, we report the draft assembly and annotation for the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of S. obliquus strain DOE0152z. Copyright © 2017 Starkenburg et al.

  18. Effects of Cardio-Pilates Exercise Program on Physical Characteristics of Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevimli, Dilek; Sanri, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of four weeks cardio-Pilates exercise program on physical characteristics in females. Material and methods: The total 40 female participants were tested before and after four weeks regular exercise of 3 × 1 hr. sessions/week. Body height and weight, waist and hip circumferences, body fat percent and…

  19. The effectiveness of Pilates on balance and falls in community dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Josephs, Sharon; Pratt, Mary Lee; Calk Meadows, Emily; Thurmond, Stephanie; Wagner, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether Pilates is more effective than traditional strength and balance exercises for improving balance measures, balance confidence and reducing falls in community dwelling older adults with fall risk. Thirty-one participants with fall risk were randomly assigned to the Pilates group (PG) or the traditional exercise group (TG). Both groups participated in 12 weeks of exercise, 2 times/week for 1 h. There was significant improvement in the Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale for both the PG (mean difference = 6.31, p < .05) and the TG (mean difference = 7.45, p = .01). The PG also showed significant improvement in the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (mean difference = 10.57, p = .008). Both Pilates and traditional balance programs are effective at improving balance measures in community dwelling older adults with fall risk, with the Pilates group showing improved balance confidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of pilates on patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Ting; Hung, Wei-Ching; Hung, Jia-Ling; Wu, Pei-Shan; Liaw, Li-Jin; Chang, Jia-Hao

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effects of Pilates on patients with chronic low back pain through a systematic review of high-quality articles on randomized controlled trials. [Subjects and Methods] Keywords and synonyms for “Pilates” and “Chronic low back pain” were used in database searches. The databases included PubMed, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Medline, and the Cochrane Library. Articles involving randomized controlled trials with higher than 5 points on the PEDro scale were reviewed for suitability and inclusion. The methodological quality of the included randomized controlled trials was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Relevant information was extracted by 3 reviewers. [Results] Eight randomized controlled trial articles were included. Patients with chronic low back pain showed statistically significant improvement in pain relief and functional ability compared to patients who only performed usual or routine health care. However, other forms of exercise were similar to Pilates in the improvement of pain relief and functional capacity. [Conclusion] In patients with chronic low back pain, Pilates showed significant improvement in pain relief and functional enhancement. Other exercises showed effects similar to those of Pilates, if waist or torso movement was included and the exercises were performed for 20 cumulative hours. PMID:27821970

  1. Effects of modified Pilates on variability of inter-joint coordination during walking in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sukhoon; Kim, Joo Nyeon; Lim, Hee Sung

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of an 8-week modified Pilates program on the variability of inter-joint coordination in the elderly during walking. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly participants with no recent history of orthopedic abnormalities (age, 67.9 ± 2.7 years; height, 163.7 ± 8.9 cm; weight, 67.1 ± 11.6 kg) were recruited for this study and randomly allocated to a modified Pilates exercise group or a control group. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed on both groups to evaluate the effects of the Pilates exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the joint variability of the ankle, knee, and hip joints between the groups, both before training and after training. However, there was a significant increase in the hip-knee deviation phase value in the exercise group after the program was completed, and this increase was also significant when compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that an 8-week modified Pilates exercise program can have a positive impact on the gait of elderly participants, potentially by enhancing neuromuscular adjustment, which may have positive implications for reducing their fall risk.

  2. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  3. Electromyographic effect of mat Pilates exercise on the back muscle activity of healthy adult females.

    PubMed

    Menacho, Maryela O; Obara, Karen; Conceição, Josilene S; Chitolina, Matheus L; Krantz, Daniel R; da Silva, Rubens A; Cardoso, Jefferson R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine back muscle activity during 3 traditional mat Pilates exercises. Eleven healthy female volunteers, aged between 18 and 30 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Surface electromyography (sEMG) of lumbar extensor muscles was recorded simultaneously with kinematics data to identify the phases of movement. Three mat Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) swimming, (2) single leg kick with static prone back extension, and (3) double leg kick. Root mean square values of each muscle were recorded with 2 pairs of surface electrodes placed bilaterally on one lumbar extensor muscle (at L5). During phases of each exercise, sEMG signals were identified by video analysis. Electrical muscle activation was normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction and used to compare back muscle activity among exercises. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation level during the exercises. The value of electrical muscle activity in the lumbar extensors ranged between 15% and 61% of MIVC for the 3 types of Pilates mat work exercise. The swimming exercise increased lumbar extensor activity (29% on average) in comparison to the other 2 Pilates conditions. Interestingly, the double leg kick exercise generated significantly more lumbar extensor activity (26% on average) than the single leg kick. For this group of participants, the swimming exercise increased muscle activation relative to the other 2 exercise modes. Copyright © 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  5. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  6. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  7. Effects of modified Pilates on variability of inter-joint coordination during walking in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Yoon, Sukhoon; Kim, Joo Nyeon; Lim, Hee Sung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of an 8-week modified Pilates program on the variability of inter-joint coordination in the elderly during walking. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty elderly participants with no recent history of orthopedic abnormalities (age, 67.9 ± 2.7 years; height, 163.7 ± 8.9 cm; weight, 67.1 ± 11.6 kg) were recruited for this study and randomly allocated to a modified Pilates exercise group or a control group. Three-dimensional motion analysis was performed on both groups to evaluate the effects of the Pilates exercise. [Results] There was no significant difference in the joint variability of the ankle, knee, and hip joints between the groups, both before training and after training. However, there was a significant increase in the hip-knee deviation phase value in the exercise group after the program was completed, and this increase was also significant when compared with that in the control group. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that an 8-week modified Pilates exercise program can have a positive impact on the gait of elderly participants, potentially by enhancing neuromuscular adjustment, which may have positive implications for reducing their fall risk. PMID:28174474

  8. Effectiveness of a physical activity programme based on the Pilates method in pregnancy and labour.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Luciano; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Vázquez-Lara, Juana María; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema

    To assess the effectiveness and safety of a physical activity programme based on use of the Pilates method, over eight weeks in pregnant women, on functional parameters, such as weight, blood pressure, strength, flexibility and spinal curvature, and on labour parameters, such as, type of delivery, episiotomy, analgesia and newborn weight. A randomized clinical trial was carried out on pregnant women, applying a programme of physical activity using the Pilates method, designed specifically for this population. A sample consisting of a total of 105 pregnant women was divided into two groups: intervention group (n=50) (32.87±4.46 years old) and control group (n=55) (31.52±4.95 years old). The intervention group followed a physical activity programme based on the Pilates method, for 2 weekly sessions, whereas the control group did not follow the program. Significant improvements (p<0.05) in blood pressure, hand grip strength, hamstring flexibility and spinal curvature, in addition to improvements during labour, decreasing the number of Caesareans and obstructed labour, episiotomies, analgesia and the weight of the newborns were found at the end of the intervention. A physical activity programme of 8 weeks based on the Pilates method improves functional parameters in pregnant women and benefits delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Removal of K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ from saline-alkaline water using the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zongli; Ying, Chengqi; Lu, Jianxue; Lai, Qifang; Zhou, Kai; Wang, Hui; Chen, Ling

    2013-11-01

    The capability of Scenedesmus obliquus to remove cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+) from saline-alkaline water was investigated at different salinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) and carbonate alkalinities (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 mmol/L). K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in saline-alkaline water were efficiently removed by S. obliquus. The maximum removal of the cations (29.37 mg for K+, 185.85 mg for Na+, 23.07 mg for Ca2+, 66.14 mg for Mg2+) occurred at salinity 25. The maximum removal of K+ (2.28 mg), Na+ (6.62 mg), Ca2+ (1.01 mg), and Mg2+ (0.62 mg) occurred at carbonate alkalinities of 25 mmol/L for K+, 35 mmol/L for Na+, 20 mmol/L for Ca2+, and 25 mmol/L for Mg2+, respectively. Under a salinity stress, the concentration of Na+ in S. obliquus increased significantly, while that of K+ decreased significantly. The concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ decreased as well. The ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly lower in all salinity treatments than those of the control. Under alkaline stress, the concentrations of Na+ and K+ in S. obliquus decreased significantly and the ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+, and Mg2+/Na+ were significantly higher in all treatments than in the control. Moreover, the concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in S. obliquus at alkalinities of 5-10 mmol/L were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The removal of Na+ by S. obliquus mainly occurs through biosorption, and Mg2+ and Ca2+ were removed through both biosorption and bioaccumulation.

  10. The effects of the Pilates method in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engers, Patrícia Becker; Rombaldi, Airton José; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa

    2016-01-01

    Several studies show the benefits of including muscle strength and aerobic physical activity in the routine of elderly people. Among the various possibilities of physical activity, the Pilates method has become a popular modality in recent years, through a system of exercises enabling to work the whole body and that corrects posture and realigns the muscles, developing the body stability needed for a healthier life. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on the effects of the practice of the Pilates method in the elderly. A systematic literature review was conducted in the following electronic databases: Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs/Bireme, Scopus, Pedro and Isi of Knowledge, from descriptors pilates, elderly, old adults, aging. In the selection of studies the following inclusion criteria were used: original articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. All selection and evaluation processes of the articles were performed by peers and the quality was verified by the Downs and Black scale. Twenty-one studies were included. The year of publication ranged from 2003 to 2014 and the size of the sample varied from 8 to 311 elderly subjects, aged at least 60 years old. The intervention period was from 4 weeks to 12 months of Pilates exercise practice. It was concluded that despite the studies pointing to physical and motor benefits of the Pilates method in the elderly, we cannot state whether or not the method is effective, in view of the poor methodological quality of the studies included in this review. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  11. The effects of the Pilates method in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engers, Patrícia Becker; Rombaldi, Airton José; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa da

    2016-03-09

    Several studies show the benefits of including muscle strength and aerobic physical activity in the routine of elderly people. Among the various possibilities of physical activity, the Pilates method has become a popular modality in recent years, through a system of exercises enabling to work the whole body and that corrects posture and realigns the muscles, developing the body stability needed for a healthier life. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on the effects of the practice of the Pilates method in the elderly. A systematic literature review was conducted in the following electronic databases: Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs/Bireme, Scopus, Pedro and Isi of Knowledge, from descriptors pilates, elderly, old adults, aging. In the selection of studies the following inclusion criteria were used: original articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. All selection and evaluation processes of the articles were performed by peers and the quality was verified by the Downs and Black scale. Twenty-one studies were included. The year of publication ranged from 2003 to 2014 and the size of the sample varied from 8 to 311 elderly subjects, aged at least 60 years old. The intervention period was from 4 weeks to 12 months of Pilates exercise practice. It was concluded that despite the studies pointing to physical and motor benefits of the Pilates method in the elderly, we cannot state whether or not the method is effective, in view of the poor methodological quality of the studies included in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    PubMed

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p < 0.001) and 2 months (r = 0.779, p < 0.001) after the Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p < 0.05) in the EG, and this reduction persisted for 1 month after completion of the program. At 1 and 2 months after cessation of the Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. [Methods] We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. [Results] As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn’t have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn’t show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). [Conclusion] These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption. PMID:25566441

  14. A Pilates exercise program with pelvic floor muscle contraction: Is it effective for pregnant women? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dias, Naiara T; Ferreira, Letícia R; Fernandes, Mariana G; Resende, Ana Paula M; Pereira-Baldon, Vanessa S

    2017-05-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Pilates exercise program with pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction compared to a conventional intervention in pregnant women. Fifty primiparous women, without gestational alterations, were randomized to the Pilates group (n = 25) and control group (n = 25). Interventions for both groups consisted of twice-weekly sessions of 1 h each during the period between the 14-16th and 32-34th gestational weeks. The Pilates group performed a Pilates exercises program with the addition of voluntary PFM contraction. Mat-based Pilates exercises were performed involving movement of the upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk in all sessions. The Control group walked for 10 min and performed strengthening exercises of the lower limbs, upper limbs, and trunk with resistance from an elastic band and body weight. Each woman was evaluated by an unblinded physiotherapist before and after intervention for primary (PFM strength using a manometer) and secondary (PFM strength using Oxford Scale, endurance and repeatability) outcomes. Covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was used to compare the groups using the baseline values as a covariate. Thirty-six women were included in the analysis. There were no differences between the groups for manometry. An increase in the PFM strength, endurance, and repeatability was only observed in the Pilates group. In addition, the Pilates group showed greater adherence to the intervention. Pilates exercise program with PFM contraction is not able to change the PFM strength assessed by manometer in pregnant women, but it improved adherence to the intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn't have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn't show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption.

  16. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=-6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.

  17. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  19. Effect of the Pilates method on physical conditioning of healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Campos, Renata R; Dias, Josilainne M; Pereira, Ligia M; Obara, Karen; Barreto, Maria S; Silva, Mariana F; Mazuquin, Bruno F; Christofaro, Diego G; Fernandes, Romulo A; Iversen, Maura D; Cardoso, Jefferson R

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditioning consists of a variety of health-related attributes and Pilates exercises are described as a form of this conditioning. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of the Pilates method on health and ability outcome of the physical conditioning of healthy individuals. The search was performed in the following databases: Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, PEDro, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar. (1950-2014). Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of the Pilates method on healthy subjects. Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Pilates improved abdominal muscular endurance when compared with no exercises (mean difference [MD]=9.53%; 95% CI: 2.41, 16.43; P=0.009), however, there was no difference in flexibility (MD=4.97; 95% CI: -0.53, 10.47; P=0.08). Some positive effects (up to 6 months) of the Pilates practice were found in some RCTs' results as follows: Improvement of dynamic balance, quality of life and back muscle flexibility. The results indicate the Pilates exercises performed on the mat or apparatus 2 to 3 times a week, for 5 to 12 weeks, improves abdominal muscular endurance (on average, 10 more abdominals curls in 1-minute sit-up test) for both genders, when compared to no exercises.

  20. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters.

  1. Effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction to a Pilates exercise program: an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Torelli, Luiza; de Jarmy Di Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin; Rodrigues, Claudinei Alves; Stüpp, Liliana; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding voluntary pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) to a Pilates exercise program in sedentary nulliparous women. Fifty-seven healthy nulliparous and physically inactive women were randomized to a Pilates exercise program (PEP) with or without PFMC. Forty-eight women concluded this study (24 participants for each group). Each woman was evaluated before and after the PEP, by a physiotherapist and an urogynecologist (UG). Neither of the professionals was revealed to them. This physiotherapist measured their pelvic floor muscle strength by using both a perineometer (Peritron) and vaginal palpation (Oxford Scale). The UG, who performed 3D perineal ultrasound examinations, collected their data and evaluated the results for pubovisceral muscle thickness and the levator hiatus area (LA). Both professionals were blinded to the group allocation. The protocol for both groups consisted of 24 bi-weekly 1-h individual sessions of Pilates exercises, developed by another physiotherapist who specializes in PFM rehabilitation and the Pilates technique. The PEP+ PFMC group showed significantly greater strength improvements than the PEP group when comparing the Oxford scale, vaginal pressure and pubovisceral muscle thickness during contraction measurements at baseline and post-treatment. Our findings suggest that adding a voluntary PFMC to a Pilates exercise program is more effective than Pilates alone in improving PFM strength in sedentary nulliparous women.

  2. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    PubMed

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  4. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2010-01-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquus in vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:20607061

  5. Enhancing lutein productivity of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using light-related strategies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Lutein, one of the main photosynthetic pigments, is a promising natural product with both nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, light-related strategies were applied to enhance the cell growth and lutein production of a lutein-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3. The results demonstrate that using white LED resulted in better lutein production efficiency when compared to the other three monochromatic LEDs (red, blue, and green). The lutein productivity of S. obliquus FSP-3 was further improved by adjusting the type of light source and light intensity. The optimal lutein productivity of 4.08 mg/L/d was obtained when using a TL5 fluorescent lamp at a light intensity of 300 μmol/m(2)/s, and this performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Moreover, the time-course profile of lutein accumulation in the microalga shows that the maximal lutein content and productivity were obtained at the onset of nitrogen depletion.

  6. Microalga, Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 as a potential candidate for CO2 mitigation and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Park, Young-Tae; Salama, El-Sayed; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of flue gas CO2 on growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 was investigated. The highest growth rate (0.46 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.09 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (95.9 mg L(-1)), and lipid productivity (20.1 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) was obtained at 14.1 % CO2 after 4 days of cultivation. In a semicontinuous batch reactor, the highest biomass production (1.19 g L(-1)) was achieved after 12 days with continuous injection of flue gas CO2. Compared with synthetic CO2, fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed that the amount of unsaturated fatty acid increased by 19.2 % with 14.1 % flue gas CO2. The application of flue gas CO2 improved biomass production and lipid productivity in A. obliquus. The current investigation demonstrated that the use of flue gas CO2 could reduce the cost of microalgae biomass production for better biofuel generation.

  7. Modelling of Scenedesmus obliquus; function of nutrients with modified Gompertz model.

    PubMed

    Celekli, Abuzer; Balci, Muharrem; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-12-01

    This study attempted to investigate variation in biovolume of Scenedesmus obliquus, in the modified Johnson medium at 20+/-2 degrees C, under 16kergcm(-2)s(-1) continuous illumination. The experiments were carried out at four nitrate (8, 12, 16, and 20mM) and four phosphate (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7mM) concentrations at pH 7 and 8. The best response for algal growth was found at 0.3mM phosphate and 12mM nitrate at pH 7, as it was obtained from weight averaging method. Besides, optimum phosphate and nitrate concentrations significantly distinguished (p<0.01) from other concentrations according to Turkey's HSD test. Key features of the growth of S. obliquus under phosphate and nitrate influenced batch culture was successfully predicted by modified Gompertz model. Through the cultivations, specific growth rate (mu) ranged from 0.30 to 1.02 day(-1), while biovolume doubling time (td) varied from 0.68 to 2.30 days. There were important differences (p<0.05) for both mu and td among response variables. Both nutrients displayed noteworthy effect (p<0.01) on the algal biovolume.

  8. Cloning and Characterization of a Squalene Synthase Gene from the Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panpan; Cao, Xiaoying; Li, Changgen; Zheng, Zhujun; Yong, Sun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Squalene synthase catalyzes the condensation of 2 molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to produce squalene, the first committed precursor for sterol, brassinosteroid, and triterpene biosynthesis. A squalene synthase gene, designated IoSQS, was isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom that produces a plethora of bioactive triterpenes. IoSQS complementary DNA was found to contain an open reading frame of 1476 bp, encoding a protein of 491 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.85 kDa. The IoSQS genomic DNA sequence consisted of 1813 bp and contained 4 exons and 3 introns. The restriction fragment polymorphisms revealed by Southern blot analysis suggested that IoSQS was a single-copy gene. Promoter analysis indicated that the 5' upstream region of IoSQS possessed various potential elements associated with physiological and environmental factors. The expression pattern of IoSQS in different stages and under methyl jasmonate treatment correlated with the accumulation of total triterpenoids and was consistent with the predicted results of the IoSQS promoter region. The N-terminal 466 residues of the hydrophilic sequence were expressed as a His-tagged protein in Escherichia coli, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with farnesyl diphosphate and NADPH. Squalene was detected in vitro in reaction mixture by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These results suggest that the IoSQS enzyme is involved in squalene production in I. obliquus.

  9. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  10. Extract of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) stimulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jeong In; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Jong Won

    2010-11-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has long been used as a folk medicine due to its numerous biological functions such as antibacterial, antiallergic, antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities. In the present study, it was found that the I. obliquus hot water extract (IOWE) activated adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Even in the absence of adipogenic stimuli by insulin, the IOWE strongly induced adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The major constituent of IOWE was glucose-rich polysaccharides with a molecular mass of 149  kDa. IOWE enhanced the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, increasing TG (triacylglycerol) accumulation that is critical for acquisition of the adipocyte phenotype, in a dose-dependent manner. IOWE stimulated gene expression of C/EBPα (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α) and PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ) during adipocyte differentiation, and induced the expression of PPARγ target genes such as aP2 (adipocyte protein 2), LPL (lipoprotein lipase) and CD36 (fatty acid translocase). Immunoblot analysis revealed that IOWE increased the expression of adipogenic makers such as PPARγ and GLUT4 (glucose transporter 4). The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that IOWE did not exhibit PPARγ ligand activity. Although these results require further investigation, the ability of natural mushroom product to increase PPARγ transcriptional activities may be expected to be therapeutic targets for dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Transmission and Accumulation of Nano-TiO2 in a 2-Step Food Chain (Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyuan; Li, Herong; Han, Xiaoqian; Wei, Xiuzhen

    2015-08-01

    The recent increase in nanomaterial usage has led to concerns surrounding its health risks and environmental impact. The food chain is an important pathway for high-trophic-level organisms absorbing and enriching nanomaterials. Our study therefore simulated nanometer titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) transfer along a 2-step food chain, from the unicellular alga Scenedesmus obliquus to the water flea Daphnia magna. We also explored the effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on nano-TiO2 bioavailability. A suspension of 10 mg/L nano-TiO2 was optimally dispersed in aqueous solutions by 5 mg/L SDBS. After 72 h, S. obliquus growth was not significantly affected by 10 mg/L nano-TiO2, 5 mg/L SDBS and their mixed suspension. SDBS not only improved nano-TiO2 stability in water, but also increased its uptake in S. obliquus and enhanced its accumulation in D. magna. Our study suggests that nano-TiO2 is mildly toxic to S. obliquus, and can be transferred along the aquatic food chain with a biomagnification effect.

  12. Effects of a mat Pilates programme on body composition in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Fourie, M; Gildenhuys, G M; Shaw, I; Shaw, B S; Toriola, A L; Goon, D T

    2013-07-01

    With ageing, the ability to mobilize fat is reduced and this, coupled with gradual decrease in lean body mass (LBM) from lessened exercise, allows for an increased body fat percentage (%BF). Exercising is considered a key to maintaining an appropriate body mass (BM), as it improves fat oxidation, while maintaining LBM. Although the effects of endurance and/or resistance training on fat mass (FM) and LBM in the elderly have well been established, limited data are forthcoming regarding the effects of Pilates as a training modality on these variables in the elderly. The present study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of a mat Pilates programme on body fat in elderly women. Fifty sedentary, apparently healthy females aged 60 years and older were randomly assigned a control (CG, n = 25) or an intervention (IG, n = 25) group. The IG took part in an eight-week progressive mat Pilates exercise programme, three times weekly while the CG were instructed to maintain their normal daily activities throughout the eight-week experimental period. All subjects underwent pre- and post-test in which FM and LBM were assessed. Eight weeks of mat Pilates demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in % BF (p = 0.016) and FM (p = 0.038), with a significant increase in LBM (p = 0.006), while not showing any significant changes (p ≥ 0.05) in BM (p = 0.979) and BMI (p = 0.992). The CG, however, did not produce any significant (p ≥ 0.05) changes in any of the tested anthropometric variables (BM: p = 0.266; BMI: p = 0.123; % BF: p = 0.516; FM: p = 0.937 and LBM: p = 0.522) after completion of the eight-week Pilates programme. An eight-week mat Pilates exercise programme may contradict or even reverse some of the most serious consequences of ageing associated with an increased fat mass and reduced lean body mass in elderly females.

  13. Effects of Pilates exercises on pain, functional status and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Küçükçakır, Nurten; Altan, Lale; Korkmaz, Nimet

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercise program on pain, functional status and quality of life in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study was performed as a randomized, prospective, controlled and single-blind trial. PARTICIPATIONS: Seventy women (age range, 45-65 years) with the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis were included. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups (home and Pilates exercise groups). Patients in the Pilates exercise group underwent a supervised Pilates exercise program twice a week for one year. Patients in the home exercise group were asked to perform a home exercise program consisting of thoracic extension exercises. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after one year of participation in the exercise programs. Visual Analog Scale for pain, six-minute walking and sit-to-stand tests for functional status, and the Qualeffo-41 Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) for quality of life. Patients were also asked to report the number of falls during the intervention. At the end of the study, the results of 60 patients were analyzed. A significant improvement was noted in all evaluation parameters at the end of the exercise program in the Pilates exercise group. Except for Qualeffo- Leisure Time Activities, SF-36 physical role limitation and emotional role limitation subscales, a significant improvement was noted in all other evaluation parameters at the end of the exercise program in the home exercise group. Improvement was significantly greater in the Pilates exercise group compared to the home exercise group in all parameters. Pilates exercises may be a safe and an effective treatment alternative for the quality of life in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Monteiro-Pedro, Vanessa; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Arakaki, Juliano Coelho; Bérzin, Fausto

    2006-01-01

    Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d) whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis longus (VLL) and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO) EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with) based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9). The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p < 0.0007) and MVIC hip abduction at 0° of abduction for female subjects (p < 0.02196). There were no statistically significant differences in the VLL EMG activity among the three sets of exercises tested. Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity

  15. Positive long-term effects of Pilates exercise on the aged-related decline in balance and strength in older, community-dwelling men and women.

    PubMed

    Bird, Marie-Louise; Fell, James

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of Pilates exercise on physical fall risk factors 12 months after an initial 5-week Pilates intervention. The authors hypothesized that ongoing Pilates participation would have a positive effect on physical fall risk factors in those who continued with Pilates exercise compared with those who ceased. Thirty older ambulatory adults (M = 69 years, SD = 7) participated in Pilates classes for 5 weeks with testing preintevention (Time 1 [T1]) and postintervention (Time 2 [T2]) and 12 months later (Time 3 [T3]). Balance and leg strength were compared using a 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Postural sway, dynamic balance, and function improvements evident after the initial Pilates training (T1-T2) were maintained at T3 (p < .01). Significant differences existed at T3 for dynamic balance and strength between participants who continued performing Pilates (n = 14) and those who had ceased. Balance improvements after a short Pilates intervention were maintained 1 year later in all participants, with increased benefits from ongoing participation.

  16. The effects of clinical pilates exercises on bone mineral density, physical performance and quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Angın, Ender; Erden, Zafer; Can, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of Clinical Pilates Exercises on bone mineral density (BMD), physical performance and quality of life (QOL) in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Forty-one women were recruited to the study. The subjects were divided into two groups, as the Pilates group and the control group. Subjects were evaluated for BMD at the lumbar region. Physical performance level was measured. Pain intensity level was scored with Visual Analogue Scale. QUALEFFO-41 was used for assessing QOL. BMD values increased in the Pilates group (p < 0.05), while BMD decreased in the control group (p< 0.05). Physical performance test results showed significant increases in the Pilates group (p< 0.05) whereas there was no changes in the control group (p> 0.05). Pain intensity level in the Pilates group was significantly decreased after the exercise (p< 0.05), while it was unchanged in the control group. There were significant increases in all parameters of QOL in the Pilates group. Conversely, some parameters of QOL showed decreases in the control group (p< 0.05). Pilates Exercises is effective to increase BMD; QOL and walking distance and also beneficial to relieve pain. Physiotherapist can use Pilates Exercises for the subjects with osteoporosis in the clinics.

  17. Electrical Activity of Powerhouse Muscles During the Teaser Exercise of Pilates Using Different Types of Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Werba, Débora da Rocha; Cantergi, Débora; Tolfo Franzoni, Leandro; Fagundes, Alex de Oliveira; Fagundes Loss, Jefferson; Nogueira Haas, Aline

    2017-04-01

    We compared the electrical activity of certain powerhouse muscles-External Oblique, Multifidus, Adductor Longus, and Gluteus Medius-during the teaser exercise of the Pilates Method, performed on various types of apparatus-the Mat, Reformer, and Wall Unit. Fifteen female practitioners of the Classic Pilates Method (32.6 ± 7.7 years old; 21.9 ± 1.9 body mass index) performed the teaser in each situation while electromyographic (EMG) and kinematic data were collected. Root mean square values of the flexion phase were compared. All muscles showed higher EMG activity in Reformer compared with Wall Unit, and Multifidus, Adductor Longus, and Gluteus Medius showed higher EMG activity in Mat compared with Wall Unit. No difference was found between Reformer and Mat.

  18. Eight-week traditional mat Pilates training-program effects on adult fitness characteristics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L

    2009-09-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p < .05) improved relative body fat (-1.2% BF), sit-and-reach (+7.5 cm), shoulder reach (+6.9 cm), curl-up (+14 reps), and low back extension (+7 reps) scores, as well as circumferences at the waist (-2.7 cm), chest (-1.7 cm), and arm (-0.5 cm). Baseline differences were noted only for curl-ups and low back extensions, with P being lower than C Body composition, muscular endurance, and flexibility significantly improved after 8 weeks of traditional mat Pilates.

  19. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05Pilates training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The effects of Pilates training on flexibility and body composition: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Segal, Neil A; Hein, Jane; Basford, Jeffrey R

    2004-12-01

    To assess claims regarding the effects of Pilates training on flexibility, body composition, and health status. An observational prospective study. A community athletic club. A sample of 47 adults (45 women, 2 men) who presented for Pilates training. Not applicable. Fingertip-to-floor distance, truncal lean body mass by bioelectric impedance, health status by questionnaire and visual analog scale were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months (+/-1 wk). Thirty-two of 47 enrolled subjects met the protocol requirements of missing no more than 1 weekly 1-hour session Pilates mat class during each 2-month period. Investigators were blinded to measurements from previous time points. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) fingertip-to-floor distance improved from baseline by 3.4 cm (1.3-5.7 cm), 3.3 cm (0.3- 7.8 cm), and 4.3 cm (1.5-7.6 cm) at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively (paired nonparametric analysis, all P<.01). There were no statistically significant changes in truncal lean body mass, height, weight, or other body composition parameters. Self-assessment of health also did not change in a statistically significant manner from its baseline median (IQR) value of 77 mm (69-85 mm). Pilates training may result in improved flexibility. However, its effects on body composition, health status, and posture are more limited and may be difficult to establish. Further study might involve larger sample sizes, comparison with an appropriate control group, and assessment of motor unit recruitment as well as strength of truncal stabilizers.

  1. [Effects of mercury concentration on life table demography of Moina macrocopa under different Scenedesmus obliquus densities].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Wang, Ling; Mu, Wei-ping; Ren, Tong-tong; Pan, Ling; Xi, Yi-long

    2015-12-01

    In order to compare the chronic toxicity of pollutants to organisms in an aquatic environment under different food densities, the cladoceran Moina macrocopa was used as test animal to investigate the effects of Hg²⁺ concentrations (0, 0.4, 1.1, 1.8, 2.5, 3.2 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹) on its life table demography under low (0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹), medium (1.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) and high (2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) densities of Scenedesmus obliquus. The results showed that at low and high food levels, certain concentrations of Hg²⁺ had inhibitory effects on survival, reproduction and population growth of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, the inhibitory effects disappeared. Compared with the control, at the low food level, Hg²⁺ at 0.4-2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ significantly decreased the life expectancy at hatching, Hg²⁺ at 0.4, 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the generation time, Hg²⁺ at 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the net reproduction rate, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the gross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. At the high food level, Hg²⁺ at 1.1 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the intrinsic rate of population increase, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the life expectancy at hatching and the net reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, Hg²⁺ at 3.2 µg · L⁻¹ increased the life expectancy at hatching of M. macrocopa. When S. obliquus density was 0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and the life expectancy at hatching, the generation time as well as the cross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, when S. obliquus density was 1.0 x 10⁶ or 2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were no any significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and each of the life table demographic parameters of M. macrocopa.

  2. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations.

  3. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support.

  4. Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls.

    PubMed

    Jago, Russell; Jonker, Mariëlle L; Missaghian, Mariam; Baranowski, Tom

    2006-03-01

    There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after school programs in Houston Texas in Spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were randomly assigned to intervention, the other (14) served as controls. BMI, BMI percentile, waist circumference and blood pressure were assessed before and after the intervention. Pilates classes were provided free of charge for an hour per day at the intervention site, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks. Four participants wore heart rate monitors during every session and completed enjoyment and perceived exertion questionnaires. Repeated measures analysis of variance with time (within) and group (between) as factors was performed. Mean attendance was 75%, mean heart rate 104 bpm, mean perceived exertion 5.9 (1-10 scale) and enjoyment 4.4 (1-5 scale). There was a significant (P = 0.039) time by group interaction for BMI percentile. Graphs indicated that this difference was influenced by large reductions in the BMI percentile of healthy girls. Girls enjoyed Pilates, and participation for 4 weeks lowered BMI percentile. Pilates holds promise as a means of reducing obesity.

  5. The effects of Pilates exercise on sleep quality in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan; Sadeghniiathaghighi, Khosro; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Chen, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilates exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in female undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of Pilates exercise by observing the impact of 8 weeks of Pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in female undergraduates in their 20s who had no prior experience in Pilates exercise and had not exercised in the previous 6 months. [Methods] There were 18 subjects with no prior experience in Pilates exercise. The subjects were separated into the Pilates exercise group (n = 9) and the non-exercise control group (n = 9). The former performed Pilates exercise for 60-70 minutes over 8 weeks with a gradual strength increase of 9-16 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise (RPE). The body composition, creatine kinase in the bloodstream and lipid metabolism (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) were measured before and after the experiment and Real-Time PCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-⍺. [Results] The creatine kinase (CK) in the blood had significant differences between the groups. The test group showed significant increase compared to the control group after 8 weeks of Pilates exercise (p = 0.007). Lipid analysis showed that the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.049), with the Pilates exercise group exhibiting significantly higher levels compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). IL-6 mRNA expression did not show significant differences between the groups either. Timing and TNF-α mRNA expression showed significant effect in both the exercise and the control groups (p = 0.013) but no correlation. [Conclusion] It was found from the study that Pilates exercise for 8 weeks affected CK expression (the muscle damage marker) and induced positive changes in the levels of high-density lipoprotein. PMID:25566463

  7. The effects of pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in female undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of Pilates exercise by observing the impact of 8 weeks of Pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in female undergraduates in their 20s who had no prior experience in Pilates exercise and had not exercised in the previous 6 months. There were 18 subjects with no prior experience in Pilates exercise. The subjects were separated into the Pilates exercise group (n = 9) and the non-exercise control group (n = 9). The former performed Pilates exercise for 60-70 minutes over 8 weeks with a gradual strength increase of 9-16 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise (RPE). The body composition, creatine kinase in the bloodstream and lipid metabolism (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) were measured before and after the experiment and Real-Time PCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-⍺. The creatine kinase (CK) in the blood had significant differences between the groups. The test group showed significant increase compared to the control group after 8 weeks of Pilates exercise (p = 0.007). Lipid analysis showed that the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.049), with the Pilates exercise group exhibiting significantly higher levels compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). IL-6 mRNA expression did not show significant differences between the groups either. Timing and TNF-α mRNA expression showed significant effect in both the exercise and the control groups (p = 0.013) but no correlation. It was found from the study that Pilates exercise for 8 weeks affected CK expression (the muscle damage marker) and induced positive changes in the levels of high-density lipoprotein.

  8. Anticancer activity of subfractions containing pure compounds of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract in human cancer cells and in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mi Ja; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Jeong, Yoonhwa; Ham, Seung-Shi

    2010-06-01

    The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been used in folk medicine to treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying anticancer effects of the major component of I. obliquusin vivo. We hypothesize that the pure compounds (3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-al, inotodiol and lanosterol, respectively) separated from I. obliquus would inhibit tumor growth in Balbc/c mice bearing Sarcoma-180 cells (S-180) in vivo and growth of human carcinoma cells in vitro. To test this hypothesis, the growth inhibition of each subfraction isolated from I. obliquus on human carcinoma cell lines (lung carcinoma A-549 cells, stomach adenocarcinoma AGS cells, breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells, and cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells) was tested in vitro. Then, after S-180 implantation, the mice were fed a normal chow supplemented with 0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg of subfraction 1, 2 or 3 per mouse per day. All of the subfractions isolated from I. obliquus showed significant cytotoxic activity against the selected cancer cell lines in vitro. Subfraction 1 was more active than subfraction 2 and subfraction 3 against the A549, AGS and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in vitro. In in vivo results, subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 mg/mouse per day significantly decreased tumor volume by 23.96% and 33.71%, respectively, as compared with the control. Subfractions 2 and 3 also significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice bearing S-180 as compared with the control mouse tumor. Subfraction 1 isolated from I. obliquus showed greater inhibition of tumor growth than subfractions 2 and 3, which agrees well with the in vitro results. The results suggest that I. obliquus and its compounds in these subfractions isolated from I. obliquus could be used as natural anticancer ingredients in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  9. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period.

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.

  10. The effects of Pilates exercise on cardiopulmonary function in the chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Sung; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of modified Pilates exercise on cardiopulmonary function in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty participants (age, 62.7 ± 7.3 years; height, 163.3 ± 8.5 cm; weight, 68.8 ± 10.3 kg) were recruited for this study, and randomly allocated to the modified Pilates exercise group (n=10) or the control group (n=10). Graded submaximal treadmill exercise test was used to examine the status of patients' cardiopulmonary function, based on maximal oxygen intake, at the end of a patient's exercise tolerance limit. [Results] The resting heart rates, maximal oxygen intake, and maximal oxygen intake per kilogram were significantly different after 8 weeks of modified Pilates exercise. In addition, these variables were also significantly different between the Pilates and control groups after 8 weeks. [Conclusion] This study has demonstrated that 8 weeks of modified Pilates exercise program can have a positive influence on patients with chronic stroke, potentially by enhancing the cardiopulmonary function, which may have positive implications for increasing their functional ability.

  11. Equipment-based Pilates reduces work-related chronic low back pain and disability: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Stieglitz, Dana Duval; Vinson, David R; Hampton, Michelle De Coux

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of an equipment-based Pilates protocol for reducing pain and disability in individuals with work-related chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twelve workers with non-specific CLBP participated in a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest pilot study of supervised 6-week equipment-based Pilates exercise. Pain severity was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Physical function was assessed using the Oswestry disability index (ODI). The Pilates intervention significantly reduced pain (mean decrease in VAS 30.75 ± 20.27, p < 0.0001) and disability (mean decrease in ODI 11.25 ± 13.20, p < 0.02) with large and borderline large effect sizes, respectively. Rehabilitative Pilates exercise reduced pain and disability in workers with CLBP. Further research is needed to investigate Pilates exercise for rehabilitation of work-related injuries in large populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-Neo

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise.

  13. Effects of Clinical Pilates Exercises on Patients Developing Lymphedema after Breast Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Şener, Hülya Özlem; Malkoç, Mehtap; Ergin, Gülbin; Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzşen, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of clinical Pilates exercises with those of the standard lymphedema exercises on lymphedema developing after breast cancer treatment. The study comprised 60 female patients with a mean age of 53.2±7.7 years who developed lymphedema after having breast cancer treatment. The patients were randomized into two groups: the clinical Pilates exercise group (n=30), and the control group (n=30). Before, and at the 8th week of treatment, the following parameters were measured: the severity of lymphedema, limb circumferences, body image using the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale, quality of life with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-BR23), and upper extremity function using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome measure. Both groups performed one-hour exercises three days a week for 8 weeks. After treatment, the symptoms recovered significantly in both groups. Reductions in the severity of lymphedema, improvements in the social appearance anxiety scale scores, quality of life scores, and upper extremity functions scores in the clinical Pilates exercise group were greater than those in the control group. Clinical Pilates exercises were determined to be more effective on the symptoms of patients with lymphedema than were standard lymphedema exercises. Clinical Pilates exercises could be considered a safe model and would contribute to treatment programs.

  14. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE.

  15. Effects of Clinical Pilates Exercises on Patients Developing Lymphedema after Breast Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Şener, Hülya Özlem; Malkoç, Mehtap; Ergin, Gülbin; Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzşen, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of clinical Pilates exercises with those of the standard lymphedema exercises on lymphedema developing after breast cancer treatment. Materials and Methods The study comprised 60 female patients with a mean age of 53.2±7.7 years who developed lymphedema after having breast cancer treatment. The patients were randomized into two groups: the clinical Pilates exercise group (n=30), and the control group (n=30). Before, and at the 8th week of treatment, the following parameters were measured: the severity of lymphedema, limb circumferences, body image using the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale, quality of life with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-BR23), and upper extremity function using the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome measure. Both groups performed one-hour exercises three days a week for 8 weeks. Results After treatment, the symptoms recovered significantly in both groups. Reductions in the severity of lymphedema, improvements in the social appearance anxiety scale scores, quality of life scores, and upper extremity functions scores in the clinical Pilates exercise group were greater than those in the control group. Clinical Pilates exercises were determined to be more effective on the symptoms of patients with lymphedema than were standard lymphedema exercises. Conclusions Clinical Pilates exercises could be considered a safe model and would contribute to treatment programs. PMID:28331763

  16. Immediate electromyographic changes of the biceps brachii and upper rectus abdominis muscles due to the Pilates centring technique.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho; Martins, Fábio Luiz Mendonça; Vitorino, Débora Fernandes de Melo; Barbosa, Michelle Cristina Sales Almeida

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the electrical behaviour of the biceps brachii (BB) and upper rectus abdominis (URA) by surface electromyography (sEMG) during a forearm flexion with and without the Pilates centring technique. Ten female subjects (with a minimum of one week of experience with the Pilates method) were recruited. The long head of the BB and URA were evaluated while an isotonic contraction of the BB was performed using the Pilates breathing technique and powerhouse contraction, followed by another contraction without these techniques. The data were normalised by a maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Normality was accepted, and the paired t-test was used to determine data differences (p < 0.05). The recruitment increased with the centring technique for both muscles, with greater activity during the concentric compared to the eccentric phase. In addition, this last phase, the centring activation was greater than without the Pilates technique. The Pilates method seems to influence the increase in BB activity during dynamic contraction, especially during the eccentric phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parametric study of a brewery effluent treatment by microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Melo, Ana C; Simões, Manuel; Caetano, Nídia S

    2012-03-01

    This work analyses the potential of using microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (So) for a brewery wastewater treatment and biomass production. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total carbon (TC) was followed in time, and the influence of light exposure, light intensity and culture aeration was studied. Results show that the most adequate conditions for cultivating So in this effluent are the aerated cultures, exposed to a 12h period of daily light, at 12000 Lux intensity. At these conditions it is obtained a maximum of 0.9 g of dry biomass per liter of culture, after 9 days, for a maximum reduction of 57.5% and 20.8% of COD and TN, respectively, after 14 days, and 56.9% of TC, after 13 days, corresponding to the final values of 1692 mg O(2)/L COD, 47 mg N/L TN, and 1mg C/L TC.

  18. Gamma-irradiation improves the color and antioxidant properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hun; Sung, Nak-Yun; Kwon, Sun-Kyu; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Yohan; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Mee-Ree; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on color and antioxidative properties of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract (CME). CME (10 mg/mL) was gamma-irradiated at 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy, and color, antioxidant activity, and total phenolic compound levels were then determined. The lightness and yellowness were increased (P < .05), and the redness was decreased (P < .05), as irradiation dose increased. The antioxidant parameters such as the 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation increased as the irradiation dose increased. Also, the total phenolic compound levels of CME were increased (P < .05) by gamma-irradiation. These results suggest that gamma-irradiation could be considered a means for improving the antioxidant properties and the color of CME.

  19. Mycosynthesis: antibacterial, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Inonotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) extract.

    PubMed

    Nagajyothi, P C; Sreekanth, T V M; Lee, Jae-il; Lee, Kap Duk

    2014-01-05

    In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were rapidly synthesized from silver nitrate solution at room temperature using Inonotus obliquus extract. The mycogenic synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). SEM revealed mostly spherical nanoparticles ranging from 14.7 to 35.2nm in size. All AgNPs concentrations showed good ABT radical scavenging activity. Further, AgNPs showed effective antibacterial activity against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria and antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. The samples demonstrated considerably high antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities against bacterial strains and cell lines.

  20. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test.

  1. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  2. Ethanol extract of Inonotus obliquus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Gyoung; Yoon, Deok-Hyo; Kim, Chun-Hoi; Shrestha, Bhushan; Chang, Woo-Chul; Lim, So-Yeon; Lee, Won-Ho; Han, Sang-Guk; Lee, Je-O; Lim, Mi-Hee; Kim, Geun-Young; Choi, Sunga; Song, Won O; Sung, Jae-Mo; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2007-03-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae of Basidiomycetes. Extracts and fractions of this fungus have been known to have biological activities, including antimutagenic, anticancer, antioxidative, and immunostimulating effects. Recently, there have been reports that the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of the methanol extract of I. obliquus may be due to the inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via the down-regulation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) binding activity. However, the effects of I. obliquus on Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation of inflammatory mediator production have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a 70% ethanol extract of I. obliquus (IOE70) showed antioxidative effects. We also tested the ability of the I. obliquus extract to inhibit the inflammatory cascades in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The NO inhibition of IOE70 was better than that of other ethanol extracts from I. obliquus. To investigate the mechanism by which IOE 70 inhibits NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression, we examined the activations of IkappaBalpha, Akt, and c-Jun NH(2) -terminal kinase (JNK) in LPS-activated macrophages. IOE70 markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, Akt, and MAPKs in dose-dependent manners in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, these experiments demonstrated that IOE70 inhibition of LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2 protein is mediated by Akt and JNK. Based on our findings, the most likely mechanism that can account for this biological effect of IOE70 involves the inhibition of NF-kappaB through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/IkappaB pathway and the inhibition of JNK activation. Thus, IOE70 might have useful clinical applications in the management of inflammatory diseases and may also be useful as a medicinal food.

  3. [Effects of Cd2+ concentration on life table demography of Brachionus calyciflorus under different Scenedesmus obliquus density].

    PubMed

    Shi, Juan; Xi, Yi-Long; Yang, Lin-Lu; Wang, Sheng-Guang; Chen, Feng-Hua; Su, Tian-Juan

    2010-06-01

    In order to understand the chronic toxicity of a pollutant to an organism in an aquatic environment with different food density, and screen out sensitive endpoints for monitoring Cd2+ pollution with rotifers as test animals, this paper studied the effects of different concentration (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 microg x L(-1)) Cd2+ on the life table demography of Bracionus calyciflorus at the Scenedesmus obliquus density being 1.0 x 10(6), 3.0 x 10(6), and 5.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1). The results showed that at 25 +/- 1 degrees C, the 24 h LC50 of Cd2+ to B. calyciflorus was 37.7 microg x L(-1). Compared with the controls at the same food density, when the S. obliquus density was 1.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1), 20.0 and 40.0 microg x L(-1) of Cd2+ prolonged the generation time of B. calyciflorus significantly, and 5.0 microg x L(-1) of Cd2+ increased the percentage of B. calyciflorus mictic offspring. When the S. obliquus density was 3.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1), the Cd2+ at all test concentrations except 5.0 microg x L(-1) decreased the percentage of mictic offspring; when the S. obliquus density was 5.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1), all test concentration Cd2+ had no effects on the life table demography (P > 0.05). S. obliquus density had significant effects on the generation time, life expectancy at birth, net reproduction rate, percentage of mictic offspring of B. calyciflorus (P < 0.05), Cd2+ concentration had significant effects on the generation time and the percentage of mictic offspring (P < 0.05), and the interaction of S. obliquus density and Cd2+ concentration had significant effects on the percentage of mictic offspring (P < 0.01). Among all the studied parameters, the generation time and the percentage of mictic offspring were more sensitive to Cd2+ pollution under the algal densities of 1.0 x 10(6) and 3.0 x 10(6) cells x ml(-1), with the latter being the most sensitive.

  4. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. LED light stress induced biomass and fatty acid production in microalgal biosystem, Acutodesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Keun; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Jeon, Hyeon Jin; Song, Hak-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Singh, Vijay; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-06-15

    Microbial algal system can serve as a potential source for the production of much high value bioproducts and biofuels. The quality and intensity of light are the key elements to optimize the production of algal biomass and fatty acid contents. This study presents the effect of differential LED flashing light conditions on the growth of microalgae, Acutodesmus obliquus. The induced light stress was optimized for its biomass and fatty acid content. The microalgae are exposed to various frequency of intermittent LED flashing light (blue and red lights) at three different phases in the 18 day cell growth (log, lag and stationary phase). The frequency of light flashing rate was adjusted to 120, 10, 5, 3.75, and 1 times per min. The effect of light stress on growth and fatty acids composition of A. obliquus induced an increase in algae growth and fatty acid production. Different optimal timing for light stress was subjected to elucidate the effect of light stress on algae growth and fatty acid production. The results showed an increase in the algae growth (1.2mg/L of chl a content) under light stress condition at FT10 (flashing time, 10 times per min) from the initial day (log phase) compared with the control experiment (0.4 mg/L of chl a content). However, the total fatty acids (71 mg/g) and volumetric FAME production (9.4 ml/l) level was found to be significant under FT5 (flashing time, 5 times per min), adopting flashing light from day 10 (stationary phase). TEM studies also revealed the deposition of lipid to be largest in the 18 day old cells under flashing light (FT5) condition, representing maximum accumulation of lipids bodies (up to 770 nm diameter in particle size) occupying approximately 42% of the total area of the cell.

  6. LED light stress induced biomass and fatty acid production in microalgal biosystem, Acutodesmus obliquus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Keun; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Jeon, Hyeon Jin; Song, Hak-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Singh, Vijay; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-06-01

    Microbial algal system can serve as a potential source for the production of much high value bioproducts and biofuels. The quality and intensity of light are the key elements to optimize the production of algal biomass and fatty acid contents. This study presents the effect of differential LED flashing light conditions on the growth of microalgae, Acutodesmus obliquus. The induced light stress was optimized for its biomass and fatty acid content. The microalgae are exposed to various frequency of intermittent LED flashing light (blue and red lights) at three different phases in the 18 day cell growth (log, lag and stationary phase). The frequency of light flashing rate was adjusted to 120, 10, 5, 3.75, and 1 times per min. The effect of light stress on growth and fatty acids composition of A. obliquus induced an increase in algae growth and fatty acid production. Different optimal timing for light stress was subjected to elucidate the effect of light stress on algae growth and fatty acid production. The results showed an increase in the algae growth (1.2 mg/L of chl a content) under light stress condition at FT10 (flashing time, 10 times per min) from the initial day (log phase) compared with the control experiment (0.4 mg/L of chl a content). However, the total fatty acids (71 mg/g) and volumetric FAME production (9.4 ml/l) level was found to be significant under FT5 (flashing time, 5 times per min), adopting flashing light from day 10 (stationary phase). TEM studies also revealed the deposition of lipid to be largest in the 18 day old cells under flashing light (FT5) condition, representing maximum accumulation of lipids bodies (up to 770 nm diameter in particle size) occupying approximately 42% of the total area of the cell.

  7. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under

  8. The effect of the clinical pilates exercises on kinesiophobia and other symptoms related to osteoporosis: Randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Oksuz, Sevim; Unal, Edibe

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical pilates exercise on kinesiophobia, pain, functional status and quality of life of the osteoporosis patients. This study involved 40 females with osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly separated into two groups. Group 1 received specific Clinical Pilates exercises provided by a qualified Physiotherapies ×3 per week for a period of 6 weeks. Group 2 acted as a control group, receiving no intervention and continuing their usual daily activities of life over the same period. All patients' kinesiophobia, pain and quality of life level and functional status were re-assessed at the end of 6 weeks. According to the measurements exercise group patients' kinesiophobia, pain decreased, functional status and quality of life statistically improved (p < 0,05). As clinical pilates training positively effects kinesiophobia, pain, functional status and quality of life, it can be recommended to osteoporosis patients, as a safe exercise model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  10. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease.

  11. The cell-wall glycoproteins of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The predominant cell-wall polypeptide of Scenedesmus obliquus is related to the cell-wall glycoprotein gp3 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Stolarczyk, Adam; Zych, Maria; Malec, Przemysław; Burczyk, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains a multilayered cell wall, ultrastructurally similar to that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although its proportion of hydroxyproline is considerably lower. Therefore, we have investigated the polypeptide composition of the insoluble and the chaotrope-soluble wall fractions of S. obliquus. The polypeptide pattern of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction was strongly modified by chemical deglycosylation with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) in pyridine indicating that most of these polypeptides are glycosylated. Polypeptide constituents of the chaotrope-soluble cell-wall fraction with apparent molecular masses of 240, 270, 265, and 135 kDa cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the 100 kDa deglycosylation product of the C. reinhardtii cell-wall glycoprotein GP3B. Chemical deglycosylation of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction resulted in a 135 kDa major polypeptide and a 106 kDa minor component reacting with the same antibody. This antibody recognized specific peptide epitopes of GP3B. When the insoluble wall fraction of S. obliquus was treated with anhydrous HF/pyridine, three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 144, 135, and 65 kDa were solubilized, which also occured in the deglycosylated chaotrope-soluble wall fraction. These findings indicate that theses glycoproteins are cross-linked to the insoluble wall fraction via HF-sensitive bonds.

  12. Feasibility of Pilates exercise to decrease falls risk: a pilot randomized controlled trial in community-dwelling older people.

    PubMed

    Barker, Anna L; Talevski, Jason; Bohensky, Megan A; Brand, Caroline A; Cameron, Peter A; Morello, Renata T

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of Pilates exercise in older people to decrease falls risk and inform a larger trial. Pilot Randomized controlled trial. Community physiotherapy clinic. A total of 53 community-dwelling people aged ⩾60 years (mean age, 69.3 years; age range, 61-84). A 60-minute Pilates class incorporating best practice guidelines for exercise to prevent falls, performed twice weekly for 12 weeks. All participants received a letter to their general practitioner with falls risk information, fall and fracture prevention education and home exercises. Indicators of feasibility included: acceptability (recruitment, retention, intervention adherence and participant experience survey); safety (adverse events); and potential effectiveness (fall, fall injury and injurious fall rates; standing balance; lower limb strength; and flexibility) measured at 12 and 24 weeks. Recruitment was achievable but control group drop-outs were high (23%). Of the 20 participants who completed the intervention, 19 (95%) attended ⩾75% of the classes and reported classes were enjoyable and would recommend them to others. The rate of fall injuries at 24 weeks was 42% lower and injurious fall rates 64% lower in the Pilates group, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.347 and P = 0.136). Standing balance, lower-limb strength and flexibility improved in the Pilates group relative to the control group (P < 0.05). Estimates suggest a future definitive study would require 804 participants to detect a difference in fall injury rates. A definitive randomized controlled trial analysing the effect of Pilates in older people would be feasible and is warranted given the acceptability and potential positive effects of Pilates on fall injuries and fall risk factors. The protocol for this study is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN1262000224820). © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Can a pilates exercise program be effective on balance, flexibility and muscle endurance? A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kibar, Sibel; Yardimci, Fatma Ö; Evcik, Deniz; Ay, Saime; Alhan, Aslıhan; Manço, Miray; Ergin, Emine S

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled study aims to determine the effect of pilates mat exercises on dynamic and static balance, hamstring flexibility, abdominal muscle activity and endurance in healthy adults. Female healthy volunteer university students randomly assigned into two groups. Group 1 followed a pilates program for an hour two times a week. Group 2 continued daily activities as control group. Dynamic and static balance were evaluated by Sport Kinesthetic Ability Trainer (KAT) 4000 device. Hamstring flexibility and abdominal endurance were determined by sit-and-reach test, curl-up test respectively. Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU) was used to measure transversus abdominis and lumbar muscle activity. The physical activity of the participants was followed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Twenty-three subjects in pilates group and 24 control subjects completed the study. In pilates group, statistical significant improvements were observed in curl-up, sit-and-reach test, PBU scores at sixth week (P<0.001), and KAT static and dynamic balance scores (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.007) at eighth week. In the comparison between two groups, there were significant improvements in pilates group for sit-and-reach test (P=0.01) and PBU scores (P<0.001) at sixth week, additionally curl-up and static KAT scores progressed in eighth week (P<0.001). No correlation was found between flexibility, endurance, trunk muscle activity and balance parameters. An eight-week pilates training program has been found to have beneficial effect on static balance, flexibility, abdominal muscle endurance, abdominal and lumbar muscle activity. These parameters have no effect on balance.

  14. Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Different Weekly Frequencies of Pilates for Chronic Low Back Pain: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Moura, Katherinne Ferro; Franco, Yuri Rafael dos Santos; Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos de; Amaral, Diego Diulgeroglo Vicco; Branco, Amanda Nery Castelo; Silva, Maria Liliane da; Lin, Christine; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2016-03-01

    The Pilates method has been recommended to patients with low back pain, but the evidence on effectiveness is inconclusive. In addition, there is still no evidence for the cost-effectiveness of this method or for the ideal number of sessions to achieve the highest effectiveness. The aim of this study will be to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Pilates method with different weekly frequencies in the treatment of patients with nonspecific low back pain. This is a randomized controlled trial with blinded assessor. This study will be conducted at a physical therapy clinic in São Paulo, Brazil. Two hundred ninety-six patients with nonspecific low back pain between the ages of 18 and 80 years will be assessed and randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=74 patients per group). All groups will receive an educational booklet. The booklet group will not receive additional exercises. Pilates group 1 will follow a Pilates-based program once a week, Pilates group 2 will follow the same program twice a week, and Pilates group 3 will follow the same program 3 times a week. The intervention will last 6 weeks. A blinded assessor will evaluate pain, quality-adjusted life-years, general and specific disability, kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, and global perceived effect 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after randomization. Therapists and patients will not be blinded. This will be the first study to investigate different weekly frequencies of treatment sessions for nonspecific low back pain. The results of this study will contribute to a better definition of treatment programs for this population. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. A Comparison of the Effects of Pilates and McKenzie Training on Pain and General Health in Men with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Dehghani, Arman; Solati, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Today, chronic low back pain is one of the special challenges in healthcare. There is no unique approach to treat chronic low back pain. A variety of methods are used for the treatment of low back pain, but the effects of these methods have not yet been investigated adequately. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Pilates and McKenzie training on pain and general health of men with chronic low back pain. Thirty-six patients with chronic low back pain were chosen voluntarily and assigned to three groups of 12 each: McKenzie group, Pilates group, and control group. The Pilates group participated in 1-h exercise sessions, three sessions a week for 6 weeks. McKenzie group performed workouts 1 h a day for 20 days. The control group underwent no treatment. The general health of all participants was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 28 and pain by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. After therapeutic exercises, there was no significant difference between Pilates and McKenzie groups in pain relief (P = 0.327). Neither of the two methods was superior over the other for pain relief. However, there was a significant difference in general health indexes between Pilates and McKenzie groups. Pilates and McKenzie training reduced pain in patients with chronic low back pain, but the Pilates training was more effective to improve general health.

  16. A Comparison of the Effects of Pilates and McKenzie Training on Pain and General Health in Men with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Dehghani, Arman; Solati, Kamal

    2017-01-01

    Background: Today, chronic low back pain is one of the special challenges in healthcare. There is no unique approach to treat chronic low back pain. A variety of methods are used for the treatment of low back pain, but the effects of these methods have not yet been investigated adequately. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Pilates and McKenzie training on pain and general health of men with chronic low back pain. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six patients with chronic low back pain were chosen voluntarily and assigned to three groups of 12 each: McKenzie group, Pilates group, and control group. The Pilates group participated in 1-h exercise sessions, three sessions a week for 6 weeks. McKenzie group performed workouts 1 h a day for 20 days. The control group underwent no treatment. The general health of all participants was measured by the General Health Questionnaire 28 and pain by the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Results: After therapeutic exercises, there was no significant difference between Pilates and McKenzie groups in pain relief (P = 0.327). Neither of the two methods was superior over the other for pain relief. However, there was a significant difference in general health indexes between Pilates and McKenzie groups. Conclusion: Pilates and McKenzie training reduced pain in patients with chronic low back pain, but the Pilates training was more effective to improve general health. PMID:28216860

  17. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent.

  18. Metagenome changes in the mesophilic biogas-producing community during fermentation of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Böjti, Tamás; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Kis, Mihály; Kovács, Attila; Ács, Norbert; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-12-10

    A microalgal biomass offers a potential alternative to the maize silage commonly used in biogas technology. In this study, photoautotrophically grown Scenedesmus obliquus was used as biogas substrate. This microalga has a low C/N ratio of 8.5 relative to the optimum 20-30. A significant increase in the ammonium ion content was not observed. The methane content of the biogas generated from Sc. obliquus proved to be higher than that from maize silage, but the specific biogas yield was lower. Semi-continuous steady biogas production lasted for 2 months. Because of the thick cell wall of Sc. obliquus, the biomass-degrading microorganisms require additional time to digest its biomass. The methane concentration in the biogas was also high, in co-digestion (i.e., 52-56%) as in alga-fed anaerobic digestion (i.e., 55-62%). These results may be related to the relative predominance of the order Clostridiales in co-digestion and to the more balanced C/N ratio of the mixed algal-maize biomass. Predominance of the order Methanosarcinales was observed in the domain Archaea, which supported the diversity of metabolic pathways in the process. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Nano-Al₂O₃ on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-06-09

    Nano-Al₂O₃ has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al₂O₃ is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al₂O₃ and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al₂O₃ on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al₂O₃ decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al₂O₃. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water.

  20. Effect of Nano-Al2O3 on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al2O3 has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al2O3 is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al2O3 and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al2O3 on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al2O3 towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al2O3 reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al2O3 decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al2O3. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  1. Bioassay-guided isolation of DPP-4 inhibitory fractions from extracts of submerged cultured of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2013-01-16

    Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom used in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the mycelium powders of I. obliquus possess significant antihyperglycemic effects in a mouse model of diabetic disease induced by alloxan. However, the active ingredients of mycelium powders responsible for the diabetes activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of I. obliquus mycelium powders by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the mechanism of action of these active ingredients by using a well-established DPP-4 (an important enzyme as a new therapeutic target for diabetes) inhibitory assay model. The results showed the chloroform extract of mycelium was potential inhibitory against DPP-4. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the identification of 19 compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecular docking between the compounds and DPP-4 revealed that compounds 5, 8, 9, 14, 15 may be the active components responsible for the DPP-4 inhibitory activity.

  2. Regulation of Anticancer Styrylpyrone Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Requires Thioredoxin Mediated Transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Xi, Qi; Loake, Gary J; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-11-21

    The medicinal macrofungus Inonotus obliquus widely utilized as folk medicine in Russia and Baltic countries is a source of phenylpropanoid-derived styrylpyrone polyphenols that can inhibit tumor proliferation. Insights into the regulatory machinery that controls I. obliquus styrylpyrone polyphenol biosynthesis will enable strategies to increase the production of these molecules. Here we show that Thioredoxin (Trx) mediated transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) underpins the regulation of styrylpyrone production, driven by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis triggered by P. morii coculture. NO accumulation results in the S-nitrosylation of PAL and 4CL required for the synthesis of precursor phenylpropanoids and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), integral to the production of styrylpyrone, inhibiting their activities. These enzymes are targeted for denitrosylation by Trx proteins, which restore their activity. Further, this Trx S-nitrosothiol (SNO) reductase activity was potentiated following S-nitrosylation of Trx proteins at a non-catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue. Intriguingly, this process was counterbalanced by Trx denitrosylation, mediated by Trx-dependent transnitrosylation of GSNOR. Thus, unprecedented interplay between Trx and GSNOR oxidoreductases regulates the biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus.

  3. Biodegradation of carbamazepine using freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas mexicana and Scenedesmus obliquus and the determination of its metabolic fate.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jiu-Qiang; Kurade, Mayur B; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Ji, Min-Kyu; Choi, Jaeyoung; Kim, Jong Oh; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the toxicity and cellular stresses of carbamazepine (CBZ) on Chlamydomonas mexicana and Scenedesmus obliquus, and its biodegradation by both microalgal species. The growth of both microalgal species decreased with increase of CBZ concentration. The growth of S. obliquus was significantly inhibited (97%) at 200 mg CBZ L(-1), as compared to the control after 10days; whereas, C. mexicana showed 30% inhibition at the same experimental conditions. Biochemical characteristics including total chlorophyll, carotenoid contents and enzyme activities (SOD and CAT) for both species were affected by CBZ at relatively high concentration. C. mexicana and S. obliquus could achieve a maximum of 35% and 28% biodegradation of CBZ, respectively. Two metabolites (10,11-dihydro-10,11-expoxycarbamazepine and n-hydroxy-CBZ) were identified by UPLC-MS, as a result of CBZ biodegradation by C. mexicana. This study demonstrated that C. mexicana was more tolerant to CBZ and could be used for treatment of CBZ contaminated wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Stimulatory Agents Simultaneously Improving the Production and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Inonotus obliquus by Submerged Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Shen, Mengwei; Quan, Lili

    2015-07-01

    Polyphenols are important secondary metabolites from the edible and medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus. Both the rarity of I. obliquus fruit body and the low efficiency of current method of submerged fermentation lead to a low yield of polyphenols. This study was aimed to determine the effect of applying stimulatory agents to liquid cultured I. obliquus on the simultaneous accumulation of exo-polyphenols (EPC) and endo-polyphenols (IPC). Linoleic acid was the most effective out of the 17 tested stimulatory agents, the majority of which increased the EPC and IPC production. The result was totally different from the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 for polysaccharide production in previous studies. The addition of 1.0 g/L linoleic acid on day 0 resulted in 7-, 14-, and 10-fold of increase (p < 0.05) in the production of EPC extracted by ethyl acetate (EA-EPC), EPC extracted by n-butyl alcohol (NB-EPC), and IPC, and significantly increased the production of ferulic acid, gallic acid, epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), phelligridin G, inoscavin B, and davallialactone. The EA-EPC, BA-EPC, and IPC from the linoleic acid-containing medium had significantly (p < 0.05) stronger scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH), which was attributed to the higher content of these bioactive polyphenols.

  5. Regulation of Anticancer Styrylpyrone Biosynthesis in the Medicinal Mushroom Inonotus obliquus Requires Thioredoxin Mediated Transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Xi, Qi; Loake, Gary J.; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-01-01

    The medicinal macrofungus Inonotus obliquus widely utilized as folk medicine in Russia and Baltic countries is a source of phenylpropanoid-derived styrylpyrone polyphenols that can inhibit tumor proliferation. Insights into the regulatory machinery that controls I. obliquus styrylpyrone polyphenol biosynthesis will enable strategies to increase the production of these molecules. Here we show that Thioredoxin (Trx) mediated transnitrosylation of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) underpins the regulation of styrylpyrone production, driven by nitric oxide (NO) synthesis triggered by P. morii coculture. NO accumulation results in the S-nitrosylation of PAL and 4CL required for the synthesis of precursor phenylpropanoids and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), integral to the production of styrylpyrone, inhibiting their activities. These enzymes are targeted for denitrosylation by Trx proteins, which restore their activity. Further, this Trx S-nitrosothiol (SNO) reductase activity was potentiated following S-nitrosylation of Trx proteins at a non-catalytic cysteine (Cys) residue. Intriguingly, this process was counterbalanced by Trx denitrosylation, mediated by Trx-dependent transnitrosylation of GSNOR. Thus, unprecedented interplay between Trx and GSNOR oxidoreductases regulates the biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus. PMID:27869186

  6. Biosorption of zinc and copper from aqueous solutions by two freshwater green microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guang-Jie; Peng, Fu-Qiang; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the removal of zinc and copper by two freshwater green microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus and to investigate changes of algal ultrastructure and photosynthetic pigment. Algal cells were exposed for 8 days to different initial zinc or copper concentrations. Heavy metal concentrations were detected by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Algal growth, ultrastructure, and photosynthetic pigment were analyzed by a microplate reader, transmission electron microscope, and spectrophotometer, respectively. Low zinc and copper concentrations induced increase in algal growth, whereas application of high zinc and copper concentrations suppressed the growth of both algae. High metal concentrations also decreased the photosynthetic pigments and destroyed algal cell ultrastructure. The zinc removal efficiency by both algae increased rapidly during the first day and thereafter remained nearly constant throughout the experiment. The copper removal efficiency by both algae increased slowly during the whole experimental periods. In all cultures, the quantity of both metals removed intracellularly was much lower than the adsorbed quantity on the cell surface. Both strains of the microalgae had proven effective in removing zinc and copper from aqueous solutions, with the highest removal efficiency being near 100%. In addition, C. pyrenoidosa appeared to be more efficient than S. obliquus for removing copper ions. On the contrary, S. obliquus appeared to be more efficient than C. pyrenoidosa for removing zinc ions.

  7. The definition and application of Pilates exercise to treat people with chronic low back pain: a Delphi survey of Australian physical therapists.

    PubMed

    Wells, Cherie; Kolt, Gregory S; Marshall, Paul; Bialocerkowski, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Pilates exercise is recommended for people with chronic low back pain (CLBP). In the literature, however, Pilates exercise is described and applied differently to treat people with CLBP. These differences in the definition and application of Pilates exercise make it difficult to evaluate its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to establish consensus regarding the definition and application of Pilates exercise to treat people with CLBP. A panel of Australian physical therapists who are experienced in treating people with CLBP using Pilates exercise were surveyed using the Delphi technique. Three electronic questionnaires were used to collect the respondents' opinions. Answers to open-ended questions were analyzed thematically, combined with systematic literature review findings, and translated into statements about Pilates exercise for people with CLBP. Participants then rated their level of agreement with these statements using a 6-point Likert scale. Consensus was achieved when 70% of the panel members strongly agreed, agreed, or somewhat agreed (or strongly disagreed, disagreed, or somewhat disagreed) with an item. Thirty physical therapists completed all 3 questionnaires and reached consensus on the majority of items. Participants agreed that Pilates exercise requires body awareness, breathing, movement control, posture, and education. It was recommended that people with CLBP should undertake supervised sessions for 30 to 60 minutes, twice per week, for 3 to 6 months. Participants also suggested that people with CLBP would benefit from individualized assessment and exercise prescription, supervision and functional integration of exercises, and use of specialized equipment. Item consensus does not guarantee the accuracy of findings. This survey reflects the opinion of only 30 physical therapists and requires validation in future trials. These findings contribute to a better understanding of Pilates exercise and how it is utilized by physical therapists to

  8. Efficacy of the Pilates method for pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Gisela C.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.; Cabral, Cristina M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the available evidence on the efficacy of the Pilates method in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Method Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, SciELO, LILACS, CINAHL and CENTRAL in March 2013. Randomized controlled trials that tested the effectiveness of the Pilates method (against a nontreatment group, minimal intervention or other types of interventions) in adults with chronic low back pain were included regardless the language of publication. The outcome data were extracted from the eligible studies and were combined using a meta-analysis approach. Results The searches identified a total of 1,545 articles. From these, eight trials were considered eligible, and seven trials were combined in the meta-analysis. The comparison groups were as follows: Pilates versus other types of exercises (n=2 trials), and Pilates versus no treatment group or minimal intervention (n=4 trials) for short term pain; Pilates versus minimal intervention for short-term disability (n=4).We determined that Pilates was not better than other types of exercises for reducing pain intensity. However, Pilates was better than a minimal intervention for reducing short-term pain and disability (pain: pooled mean difference=1.6 points; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8; disability: pooled mean difference=5.2 points; 95% CI 4.3 to 6.1). Conclusions Pilates was better than a minimal intervention for reducing pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Pilates was not better than other types of exercise for short-term pain reduction. PMID:24346291

  9. Efficacy of the Pilates method for pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Gisela C; Costa, Leonardo O P; Cabral, Cristina M N

    2013-01-01

    To systematically review the available evidence on the efficacy of the Pilates method in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, SciELO, LILACS, CINAHL and CENTRAL in March 2013. Randomized controlled trials that tested the effectiveness of the Pilates method (against a nontreatment group, minimal intervention or other types of interventions) in adults with chronic low back pain were included regardless the language of publication. The outcome data were extracted from the eligible studies and were combined using a meta-analysis approach. The searches identified a total of 1,545 articles. From these, eight trials were considered eligible, and seven trials were combined in the meta-analysis. The comparison groups were as follows: Pilates versus other types of exercises (n=2 trials), and Pilates versus no treatment group or minimal intervention (n=4 trials) for short term pain; Pilates versus minimal intervention for short-term disability (n=4).We determined that Pilates was not better than other types of exercises for reducing pain intensity. However, Pilates was better than a minimal intervention for reducing short-term pain and disability (pain: pooled mean difference=1.6 points; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8; disability: pooled mean difference=5.2 points; 95% CI 4.3 to 6.1). Pilates was better than a minimal intervention for reducing pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Pilates was not better than other types of exercise for short-term pain reduction.

  10. Urinary incontinence among group fitness instructors including yoga and pilates teachers.

    PubMed

    Bø, Kari; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2011-03-01

    Controversies exist on the role of physical activity on urinary incontinence (UI), and search on PubMed revealed no studies on UI in fitness instructors. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of UI among female group fitness instructors, including Pilates and yoga teachers. This was a cross-sectional study of 1,473 instructors representing three of the largest fitness companies recruited from 59 fitness centers in Norway. They filled in an online survey (Questback) about general health, educational background, and number of hours teaching per week. Prevalence of UI was evaluated by the International Consensus on Incontinence Questionnaire, short form (ICIQ-UI SF). Three out of 152 men (2%) reported UI. Six hundred eighty-five women, mean age 32.7 years (range 18-68) answered the questionnaire. 26.3% of all the female instructors reported to have UI, with 21.4% reporting leakage ≥ once a week, 3.2% 2-3 times/week and 1.7% ≥ once per day. 24.4% reported the leakage to be small to moderate and the bother score was 4.6 (SD 2.4) out of 21. 15.3% reported leakage during physical activity and 10.9% when coughing/sneezing. 25.9% of yoga and Pilates instructors reported UI. This is the first report on UI among fitness instructors and the results indicate that UI is prevalent among female fitness instructors, including yoga and Pilates teachers. More information about this topic seems to be important in the basic education of fitness instructors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Muscle activation during four Pilates core stability exercises in quadruped position.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Bergson C; Cagliari, Mariana F; Amorim, César F; Sacco, Isabel C

    2010-01-01

    Queiroz BC, Cagliari MF, Amorim CF, Sacco IC. Muscle activation during four Pilates core stability exercises in quadruped position. To compare the activity of stabilizing trunk and hip muscles in 4 variations of Pilates stabilizing exercises in the quadruped position. Repeated-measures descriptive study. A biomechanics laboratory at a university school of medicine. Healthy subjects (N=19; mean age +/- SD, 31+/-5y; mean weight +/- SD, 60+/-11kg; mean height +/- SD, 166+/-9cm) experienced in Pilates routines. Surface electromyographic signals of iliocostalis, multifidus, gluteus maximus, rectus abdominis, and external and internal oblique muscles were recorded in 4 knee stretch exercises: retroverted pelvis with flexed trunk; anteverted pelvis with extended trunk; neutral pelvis with inclined trunk; and neutral pelvis with trunk parallel to the ground. Root mean square values of each muscle and exercise in both phases of hip extension and flexion, normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The retroverted pelvis with flexed trunk position led to significantly increased external oblique and gluteus maximus muscle activation. The anteverted pelvis with trunk extension significantly increased multifidus muscle activity. The neutral pelvis position led to significantly lower activity of all muscles. Rectus abdominis muscle activation to maintain body posture was similar in all exercises and was not influenced by position of the pelvis and trunk. Variations in the pelvic and trunk positions in the knee stretch exercises change the activation pattern of the multifidus, gluteus maximus, rectus abdominis, and oblique muscles. The lower level of activation of the rectus abdominis muscle suggests that pelvic stability is maintained in the 4 exercise positions. Copyright (c) 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a mat pilates program on cardiometabolic parameters in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Marinda, Fourie; Magda, Gildenhuys; Ina, Shaw; Brandon, Shaw; Abel, Toriola; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of mat Pilates on resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in elderly women. Methodology: Fifty sedentary, apparently healthy females aged 60 and older were randomly assigned into a control (CG, n = 25) or an intervention (IG, n = 25) group. The IG took part in an eight-week progressive mat Pilates exercise program, three times weekly while the CG did not take part in any structured exercises throughout the eight-week period. All subjects underwent pre- and post-tests in which cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. Results: In the eight-week mat Pilates program, the IG only demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in systolic BP (p = 0.040) from 135.84 ± 14.66mmHg to 128.80 ± 16.36mmHg and a significant increase in blood glucose (p = 0.000) from 5.07 ± 0.46mmol.L-1 to 5.83 ± 0.57mmol.L-1, whereas resting HR (p = 0.148) (from 68.80 ± 12.58beats.min-1 to 73.20 ± 11.46beats.min-1), resting diastolic BP (p = 0.342) (from 75.64 ± 10.10mmHg to 77.44 ± 9.32mmHg), blood TC (p = 0.073) (from 5.37 ± 0.99mmol.L-1 to 5.67 ± 1.04mmol.L-1) and blood TG (p = 0.384) (from 1.77 ± 0.88mmol.L-1 to 1.92 ± 0.87mmol.L-1) did not produce any significant changes. Conclusion: Due to the contradictory nature of the cardiometabolic variables (except systolic BP) with the findings of previous studies, it is difficult to establish a case for using Pilates as a substitute for more conventional forms of exercising when exclusively attempting to favourably alter cardiometabolic parameters at least among the elderly women in our sample. PMID:24353564

  13. Effects of a mat pilates program on cardiometabolic parameters in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Marinda, Fourie; Magda, Gildenhuys; Ina, Shaw; Brandon, Shaw; Abel, Toriola; Ter Goon, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of mat Pilates on resting heart rate, resting blood pressure and fasting blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in elderly women. Fifty sedentary, apparently healthy females aged 60 and older were randomly assigned into a control (CG, n = 25) or an intervention (IG, n = 25) group. The IG took part in an eight-week progressive mat Pilates exercise program, three times weekly while the CG did not take part in any structured exercises throughout the eight-week period. All subjects underwent pre- and post-tests in which cardiometabolic parameters were assessed. In the eight-week mat Pilates program, the IG only demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.05) decrease in systolic BP (p = 0.040) from 135.84 ± 14.66mmHg to 128.80 ± 16.36mmHg and a significant increase in blood glucose (p = 0.000) from 5.07 ± 0.46mmol.L(-1) to 5.83 ± 0.57mmol.L(-1), whereas resting HR (p = 0.148) (from 68.80 ± 12.58beats.min(-1) to 73.20 ± 11.46beats.min(-1)), resting diastolic BP (p = 0.342) (from 75.64 ± 10.10mmHg to 77.44 ± 9.32mmHg), blood TC (p = 0.073) (from 5.37 ± 0.99mmol.L(-1) to 5.67 ± 1.04mmol.L(-1)) and blood TG (p = 0.384) (from 1.77 ± 0.88mmol.L(-1) to 1.92 ± 0.87mmol.L(-1)) did not produce any significant changes. Due to the contradictory nature of the cardiometabolic variables (except systolic BP) with the findings of previous studies, it is difficult to establish a case for using Pilates as a substitute for more conventional forms of exercising when exclusively attempting to favourably alter cardiometabolic parameters at least among the elderly women in our sample.

  14. [THE EFFECTS OF THE PILATES METHOD ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY, PELVIC TILT AND TRUNK FLEXION].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el Pilates engloba un gran volumen de ejercicios de estiramiento de la musculatura isquiosural y de flexión máxima del tronco con rodillas extendidas. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática sobre los efectos de la práctica de Pilates y de un período de desentrenamiento sobre la flexibilidad isquiosural, la inclinación pélvica y la flexión del tronco en flexión máxima del tronco con rodillas extendidas. Metodología: se analizaron todos los diseños experimentales o cuasi-experimentales redactados en inglés, español o portugués incluidos en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, Sports Discus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Dialnet y Research Gate. Resultados y discusión: fueron analizados veintiún artículos. La mayoría utilizaron un diseño de pre-testpost- test con grupo control, siendo heterogéneos los programas de intervención aplicados. La muestra estaba compuesta principalmente por mujeres, jóvenes y mayores. Se encontró que la práctica de Pilates, con diferente volumen, incrementaba significativamente la extensibilidad isquiosural y la inclinación pélvica en flexión máxima del tronco. Para obtener una mayor inclinación del tronco fueron necesarios, al menos, tres días de entrenamiento semanal durante seis semanas. En los estudios que incluyen poblaciones de deportistas los resultados son contradictorios. Con el desentrenamiento se produce una disminución de la extensibilidad isquiosural y la flexión del tronco a partir de la segunda semana. Conclusiones: existen moderadas evidencias de que el Pilates es efectivo para aumentar la extensibilidad isquiosural, la inclinación pélvica y el grado de flexión del ronco en posiciones de flexión máxima en poblaciones sedentarias y activas recreacionales, así como para incrementar la flexibilidad isquiosural en deportistas.

  15. Inhibitory effects of a polysaccharide extract from the Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), on the proliferation of human neurogliocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xianbin; Luo, Qi; Li, Chuang; Ding, Zhaoyi; Pang, Jinfeng; Zhao, Changfu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory roles of a polysaccharide extract from Inonotus obliquus on U251 human neurogliocytoma cells cultured in vitro. After administering the polysaccharide extract from I. obliquus to U251 cells cultivated in vitro, methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay was performed to measure the inhibitory effects of the extract on tumor cell proliferation. The expression of the apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were determined by Western blotting. Different concentrations of I. obliquus extract (25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 µg/mL) were added to U251 cells at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Methyl thiazolyl tetrazoliym assay showed that the inhibition ratio increased with increased extract concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract sharply decreased the expression of Bcl-2 but dramatically increased the expression of caspase-3. This function was gradually enhanced with increased drug concentration and prolonged treatment duration. The I. obliquus extract can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. This inhibition function is closely related to the downregulation of Bcl-2 and the upregulation of caspase-3.

  16. Yoga and Pilates: Associations with body image and disordered eating behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie; Loth, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between participating in mind-body activities (yoga/Pilates) and body dissatisfaction and disordered eating (unhealthy and extreme weight control practices and binge eating) in a population-based sample of young adults. Method The sample included 1030 young men and 1257 young women (mean age: 25.3 years, SD=1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Results Among women, disordered eating was prevalent in yoga/Pilates participants and non-participants, with no differences between the groups. Men participating in yoga/Pilates were more likely to use extreme weight control behaviors (18.6% vs. 6.8%, p=.006) and binge eating (11.6% vs. 4.2%, p=.023), and marginally more likely to use unhealthy weight control behaviors (49.1% vs. 34.5%; p=.053), than non-participants after adjusting for sociodemographics, weight status, and overall physical activity. Discussion Findings suggest the importance of helping yoga/Pilates instructors recognize that their students may be at risk for disordered eating. PMID:20862694

  17. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  18. Feasibility and Efficacy of Mat Pilates on People with Mild-to-Moderate Parkinson's Disease: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Cancela, Jose Maria; Mollinedo-Cardalda, Irimia; Ayán, Carlos; Machado de Oliveira, Iris

    2017-09-14

    This pilot study aimed at assessing the feasibility and efficacy of a Mat Pilates program in people with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease (PD). The participants carried out a Mat Pilates program twice a week for 12 weeks. The Senior Fitness Test battery and the 39-item PD Questionnaire were used to assess the effects of the program on the participants' fitness level and quality of life. A total of 16 patients with mild-to-moderate PD volunteered for and finished the study. The Mat Pilates program proved to be feasible. Adherence to the program was excellent, and no adverse effects were observed. The program had a positive effect on the participants' fitness levels, except for shoulder range of motion and dynamic balance, and on their quality of life. Assessments at follow-up indicated a regression in the improvements obtained by the end of the intervention, even though the sample still showed higher levels of fitness and quality of life than those tested at baseline. Mat Pilates is feasible and may be a beneficial rehabilitation strategy to improve fitness and quality of life in people with mild-to-moderate PD. Future randomized controlled trials might determine the extent of such benefits.

  19. The Pilates breathing technique increases the electromyographic amplitude level of the deep abdominal muscles in untrained people.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho; Guedes, Camila Antunes; Bonifácio, Douglas Novaes; de Fátima Silva, Angélica; Martins, Fábio Luiz Mendonça; Almeida Barbosa, Michelle Cristina Sales

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the behaviour of the upper rectus abdominis, lower rectus abdominis and transverse abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) by using surface electromyography during trunk flexion with and without the Pilates breathing technique. Nineteen female subjects (without experience of the Pilates method) were recruited. The muscles were evaluated while trunk flexion was performed by using the Pilates breathing technique (POW) and Step Barrel device, followed by another contraction without the technique (NORM). Normality was accepted, and the paired t-test was used to determine data differences (p < 0.05). Significant differences were noted in the amplitude level of activation between TrA/IO-POW and TrA/IO-NORM. The activation amplitude level of TrA/IO-POW significantly increased compared with all the other muscles under the NORM condition. The breathing technique of the Pilates method associated with trunk flexion increases TrA/IO electrical activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Migraine and epilepsy: an attempt to analyze disorders in Pontius Pilate in the romance "Master and Margarita" by M. Bulgakov].

    PubMed

    Damulin, I V

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relation between migraine and epilepsy. The commonality of pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases is emphasized. As an example, the author analyzed neurological disorders in Pontius Pilate in M. Bulgakov's romance "Master and Margarita". These disorders are traditionally considered as an attack of migraine with olfactory aura. The author suggests the epileptic character of these disorders.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha

    2015-04-01

    A new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex (IOPS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. The preparation conditions of IOPS-iron(III) were optimized and the physicochemical properties were characterized by physicochemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The highest iron content of IOPS-iron(III) complex (19.40%) was obtained at the conditions: the ratio of IOPS and FeCl3 • 6H2O was 3:5 (w/w), the pH value of alkali solution was 10, the reaction temperature was 30 °C and the reaction time was 6h. The iron(III) was shown to be bound through the binding sites of the polysaccharide IOPS and it could form spatially separated iron centers on the polysaccharide backbone. IOPS-iron(III) complex was found to have good digestive availability and antioxidant activities in the in vitro assays, which suggested the IOPS-iron(III) complex might be used as a new iron supplement candidate.

  2. Identification of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multi-feline viruses.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jin; Hu, Xiaoliang; Liu, Dafei; Wu, Hongxia; Qu, Liandong

    2017-02-01

    Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) are a potential drug for the prevention and treatment of cancer, cardiopathy, diabetes, AIDs, pancreatitis and other diseases. In this study, we found that IOP can act as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug against feline viruses in the in vitro experiment. Using cell models of feline calicivirus (FCV), we demonstrated that IOP treatment was capable of exhibiting anti-FCV strain F9 activity in cell-based assays and also showed low cytotoxicity. Investigation of the mechanism of action of the compound revealed that IOP treatment induces its inhibitory actions directly on virus particles through blocking viral binding/absorpting. The inhibitory activity against other FCV isolates from China was also identified. More importantly, we found that IOP exhibited broad-spectrum antiviral activity against the feline herpesvirus 1, feline influenza virus H3N2 and H5N6, feline panleukopenia virus and feline infectious peritonitis virus that can contribute to respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in cats. These findings suggest that IOP may be a potential broad-spectrum antiviral drug against feline viruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide induces cytotoxicity and inhibits photosynthetic performance of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ranran; Lu, Qi; Liu, Lin; Bao, Xiaowei; Liu, Huijun

    2016-12-01

    Increased use of graphene materials might ultimately lead to their release into the environment. However, only a few studies have investigated the impact of graphene-based materials on green plants. In this study, the impact of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus was evaluated to determine its phytotoxicity. Treatment with RGO suppressed the growth of the microalgae. The 72-h IC50 values of RGO evaluated using the logistic and Gompertz models were 148 and 151 mg L(-1), respectively. RGO significantly inhibited Chl a and Chl a/b levels in the algal cells. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis showed that RGO significantly down-regulated photosystem II activity. The mechanism of how RGO inhibited algal growth and photosynthetic performance was determined by analyzing the alterations in ultrastructural morphology. RGO adhered to the algal cell surface as a semitranslucent coating. Cell wall damage and membrane integrity loss occurred in the treated cells. Moreover, nuclear chromatin clumping and starch grain number increase were noted. These changes might be attributed to the increase in malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species levels, which might have exceeded the scavenging ability of antioxidant enzymes (including peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). RGO impaired the extra- and intra-cellular morphology and increased oxidative stress and thus inhibited algal growth and photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maximizing the production of Scenedesmus obliquus in photobioreactors under different irradiation regimes: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency are key factors to develop large-scale microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production. If the photobioreactor (PBR) is not operated under proper conditions, productivity and efficiency values drop considerably. In this work, the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in continuous flat-panel PBR is considered. Experimental data and simulations were used with the aim of determining suitable working conditions to achieve maximum productivity. Microalgae concentration and productivity have been measured in a continuous 250 mL flat-panel PBR as a function of the space-time τ. Simulations were performed at both low and high irradiance values, with different light regimes (constant light and day-night profiles). Model parameters were optimized based on laboratory-scale experimental data, and the importance of the maintenance energy requirement as a function of light intensity was outlined. The effect of different extent of axial mixing on PBR performances was investigated. Results obtained show how to determine optimum working conditions and how they could be used in the design of a large-scale PBR to achieve maximum microalgal productivity.

  5. Improving Vastus Medialis Obliquus Function Reduces Pressure Applied to Lateral Patellofemoral Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Elias, John J.; Kilambi, Srianjana; Goerke, Derek R.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The current study was performed to characterize how improving vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) function influences the pressure applied to patellofemoral cartilage. An additional focus was characterizing how lateral and medial cartilage lesions influence cartilage pressures. Ten knees were flexed to 40°, 60° and 80° in vitro, and forces were applied to represent the VMO and other muscles of the quadriceps group while a thin film sensor measured joint pressures. The knees were loaded with a normal VMO force, with the VMO force decreased by approximately 50%, and with the VMO unloaded. After tests were performed with the cartilage intact, all tests were repeated with a 12 mm diameter lesion created within the lateral cartilage, with the lateral lesion repaired with silicone, and with a medial lesion created. Based on a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc tests, increasing the force applied by the VMO significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the maximum lateral pressure and significantly increased the maximum medial pressure at each flexion angle. A lateral cartilage lesion significantly increased the maximum lateral pressure, while a medial lesion did not significantly influence the maximum medial pressure. Improving VMO function can reduce the pressure applied to lateral cartilage when lateral lesions are present. PMID:18985700

  6. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Study on surgical approaches and electrode implantation of oculomotor nerve and inferior obliquus in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ning-Xi; Meng, You-Qiang; Feng, Bao-Hui; Wang, Xu-Hui; Li, Xin-Yuan; Yang, Min; Zhu, Shu-Gan; Li, Shi-Ting

    2009-03-01

    To study the surgical anatomy and approaches of intracranial oculomotor nerve (OMN) and inferior obliquus (IO), and the methods of their electrode implantation in dogs. The research was performed on 30 adult beagle dogs at Shanghai Jiaotong University Medical College, Shanghai, China from November 2007 to August 2008. All animals were subjected to a right transfrontotemperal approach to intracranial OMN, a transconjunctival route to IO, and the neuro-stimulating and recording electrode implantation under general anaesthesia. The OMN was stimulated and the electromyography of IO recorded and analyzed with the Powerlab System. The security and reliability of the implanted electrodes were investigated. The surgical anatomy and approaches of both the OMN from its exit from midbrain to the entrance into cavernous sinus and the IO were described. Moreover, the implantation methods of OMN stimulating electrode and the electromyographic recording electrode of IO were displayed. The implanted electrodes were safe and reliable. Some electrophysiologic data of IO were obtained in the healthy dogs. Also, some perioperative precautions for intracranial and ophthalmic surgical procedures in dog were exhibited. The mortality rate of the dogs was 0%, and no operative complications were observed. With the data provided, these surgical approaches and the methods of electrode implantation offer a choice to construct an animal model for studying various aspects of OMN regeneration.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Young; Hur, Sun Jin; An, Chi Sun; Jeon, Yun Hui; Jeoung, Young Jun; Bak, Jong Phil; Lim, Beong Ou

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 ± 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The expressions of IL-4 and STAT6 were decreased in group D compared to the colitis induced group (B). The serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E level decreased in IO treatment groups (C, D) compared to no IO treatment groups (A and B) although there was no significant difference between the IO treatment groups. Extract from IO itself had a weak cytotoxic effect on murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7 cells). Extract from IO inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced, TNF-α, STAT1, pSTAT1, STAT6, and pSTAT6 production in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:20300439

  9. Amelioration of scopolamine induced cognitive dysfunction and oxidative stress by Inonotus obliquus - a medicinal mushroom.

    PubMed

    Giridharan, Vijayasree Vayalanellore; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan Amirthalingam; Konishi, Tetsuya

    2011-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the cognitive enhancing and anti-oxidant activities of Inonotus obliquus (Chaga) against scopolamine-induced experimental amnesia. Methanolic extract of Chaga (MEC) at 50 and 100 mg kg (-1)doses were administered orally for 7 days to amnesic mice. Learning and memory was assessed by passive avoidance task (PAT) and Morris water maze (MWM) test. Tacrine (THA, 10 mg kg (-1), orally (p.o)) used as a reference drug. To elucidate the mechanism of the cognitive enhancing activity of MEC, the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), anti-oxidant enzymes, the levels of acetylcholine (ACh) and nitrite of mice brain homogenates were evaluated. MEC treatment for 7 days significantly improved the learning and memory as measured by PAT and MWM paradigms. Further, MEC significantly reduced the oxidative-nitritive stress, as evidenced by a decrease in malondialdehyde and nitrite levels and restored the glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels in a dose dependent manner. In addition, MEC treatment significantly decreased the AChE activity in both the salt and detergent-soluble fraction of brain homogenates. Further, treatment with MEC restored the levels of ACh as did THA. Thus, the significant cognitive enhancement observed in mice after MEC administration is closely related to higher brain anti-oxidant properties and inhibition of AChE activity. These findings stress the critical impact of Chaga, a medicinal mushroom, on the higher brain functions like learning and memory.

  10. Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids and their toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong; Du, Shaoting; Dong, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The low volatility of ionic liquids effectively eliminates a major pathway for environmental release and contamination; however, the good solubility, low degree of environmental degradation and biodegradation of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. The growth inhibition of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) ([Cnmim]Cl, n=6, 8, 10, 12, 16) was investigated, and the effect on cellular membrane permeability and the ultrastructural morphology by ILs ([Cnmim]Cl, n=8, 12, 16) were studied. The results showed that the growth inhibition rate increased with increasing IL concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The relative toxicity was determined to be [C6mim]Cl<[C8mim]Cl<[C10mim]Cl<[C12mim]Cl<[C16mim]Cl. The algae were most sensitive to imidazolium chloride ILs at 48 h according to the results from the growth inhibition rate and cellular membrane permeability tests. The ultrastructural morphology showed that the ILs had negative effects on the cellular morphology and structure of the algae. The cell wall of treated algae became wavy and separated from the cell membrane. Chloroplast grana lamellae became obscure and loose, osmiophilic material was deposited in the chloroplast, and mitochondria and their cristae swelled. Additionally, electron-dense deposits were observed in the vacuoles.

  11. Supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of lipids from algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Choi, K J; Nakhost, Z; Krukonis, V J; Karel, M

    1987-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extractions (with and without ethanol as an entrainer) were carried out to remove lipids and pigments from protein concentrate of green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions. The content and fatty acid composition of algal lipids using column, thin-layer (TLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) were determined. Absorption spectra of extracted fractions showed the predominance of chlorophyll A (lambda max at 410 nm). Single step supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction resulted mostly in removal of neutral lipids and a part of glycolipids, but phospholipids were not extracted. Addition of ethanol to SC-CO2 increased the amount of glycolipids and phospholipids in the extract. TLC pattern of algal lipids showed that the main part of neutral lipids consisted of diglycerides, triglycerides, hydrocarbons, free sterols, and sterol esters. The glycolipids were mostly monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. In phospholipids, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol, and phosphatidyl ethanolamine were the main compounds. Fatty acid composition patterns indicated the main fatty acids to be 16:0, 16:1, 16:2, 16:3, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3(a). Relatively high recovery of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids in supercritical fluid extracted algal lipids and proteins isolates were observed.

  12. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  13. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic.

  14. Oil extraction from Scenedesmus obliquus using a continuous microwave system--design, optimization, and quality characterization.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Allen, James D; Kanitkar, Akanksha; Boldor, Dorin

    2011-02-01

    A 1.2 kW, 2450 MHz resonant continuous microwave processing system was designed and optimized for oil extraction from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus). Algae-water suspension (1:1 w/w) was heated to 80 and 95°C, and subjected to extraction for up to 30 min. Maximum oil yield was achieved at 95°C and 30 min. The microwave system extracted 76-77% of total recoverable oil at 20-30 min and 95°C, compared to only 43-47% for water bath control. Extraction time and temperature had significant influence (p<0.0001) on extraction yield. Oil analysis indicated that microwaves extracted oil containing higher percentages of unsaturated and essential fatty acids (indicating higher quality). This study validates for the first time the efficiency of a continuous microwave system for extraction of lipids from algae. Higher oil yields, faster extraction rates and superior oil quality demonstrate this system's feasibility for oil extraction from a variety of feedstock.

  15. [Influence of S-metolachlor and Cd2+ on photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cai-dong; Hu, Xiao-na; Zhang, Xiao-qiang; Liu, Hui-jun

    2014-09-01

    The single and combined effects of Cd2+ and S-metolachlor on the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Scenedesmus obliquus were studied by using standard toxic testing method. Both Cd2+ and S-metolachlor had effects on the chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters such as F0, FV/Fm, FV/F0, Y( II), qP, NPQ and rETR after 96 h-exposure, showing that Cd2+ and S-metolachlor damaged the PS II in algae, inhibited the primary reaction of photosynthesis, stopped the process of photosynthetic electron transport, and destroyed its ability of heat dissipation. The effects of Cd2 + on the chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters were greater than those of S-metolachlor, and the effects increased with the increasing concentration. The average drop of Y( II ) was 62. 5% in the control group when the light intensity was 231 μmol (m2.s) -1 , and it was 68. 0% , 82. 5% and 100% respectively in Cd2+ -treated groups, and 66. 1% , 72. 1% and 79.6% respectively in S-metolachlor-treated group with the increasing concentration. The combined effects of Cd2+ and S-metolachlor on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were mainly due to the impacts of Cd2+.

  16. Bioenergetic strategy for the biodegradation of p-cresol by the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Cultures from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus biodegrade the toxic p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and use it as alternative carbon/energy source. The biodegradation procedure of p-cresol seems to be a two-step process. HPLC analyses indicate that the split of the methyl group (first step) that is possibly converted to methanol (increased methanol concentration in the growth medium), leading, according to our previous work, to changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore to microalgal biomass increase. The second step is the fission of the intermediately produced phenol. A higher p-cresol concentration results in a higher p-cresol biodegradation rate and a lower total p-cresol biodegradability. The first biodegradation step seems to be the most decisive for the effectiveness of the process, because methanol offers energy for the further biodegradation reactions. The absence of LHCII from the Scenedesmus mutant wt-lhc stopped the methanol effect and significantly reduced the p-cresol biodegradation (only 9%). The present contribution deals with an energy distribution between microalgal growth and p-cresol biodegradation, activated by p-cresol concentration. The simultaneous biomass increase with the detoxification of a toxic phenolic compound (p-cresol) could be a significant biotechnological aspect for further applications.

  17. Bioenergetic Strategy for the Biodegradation of p-Cresol by the Unicellular Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Cultures from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus biodegrade the toxic p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and use it as alternative carbon/energy source. The biodegradation procedure of p-cresol seems to be a two-step process. HPLC analyses indicate that the split of the methyl group (first step) that is possibly converted to methanol (increased methanol concentration in the growth medium), leading, according to our previous work, to changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore to microalgal biomass increase. The second step is the fission of the intermediately produced phenol. A higher p-cresol concentration results in a higher p-cresol biodegradation rate and a lower total p-cresol biodegradability. The first biodegradation step seems to be the most decisive for the effectiveness of the process, because methanol offers energy for the further biodegradation reactions. The absence of LHCII from the Scenedesmus mutant wt-lhc stopped the methanol effect and significantly reduced the p-cresol biodegradation (only 9%). The present contribution deals with an energy distribution between microalgal growth and p-cresol biodegradation, activated by p-cresol concentration. The simultaneous biomass increase with the detoxification of a toxic phenolic compound (p-cresol) could be a significant biotechnological aspect for further applications. PMID:23251641

  18. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Inonotus obliquus and germinated brown rice extracts.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Trishna; Park, Sa Ra; Kim, Da Hye; Jo, Jeong Eun; Lim, Beong Ou

    2013-08-02

    Inonotus obliquus (IO) is parasitic mushroom that grows on birch and other trees in Russia, Korea, Europe and United States. However, IO is not readily available for consumption due to its high cost and difficult growth. In this regard, IO was inoculated on germinated brown rice (GBR) in the present study and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the IO grown on germinated brown rice (IOGBR) extracts were evaluated extensively and compared with those for IO and GBR. IOGBR showed highest antioxidant activities with scavenging total intracellular ROS and MDA levels as well as increasing the antioxidant enzymes activity in the H₂O₂-stimulated mice liver. It also exhibited best inflammatory activities by suppressing the proinflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE₂, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in an LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cell line. This study provides a comparative approach to find out an excellent natural source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agent as a dietary supplement.

  19. Immunostimulating Activity by Polysaccharides Isolated from Fruiting Body of Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Won, Dong Pil; Lee, Jong Seok; Kwon, Duck Soo; Lee, Keun Eok; Shin, Won Cheol; Hong, Eock Kee

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the immunostimulating activity of polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO). Additionally, the signaling pathway of PFIO-mediated macrophage activation was investigated in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We found that PFIO was capable of promoting NO/ROS production, TNF-α secretion and phagocytic uptake in macrophages, as well as cell proliferation, comitogenic effect and IFN-γ/IL-4 secretion in mouse splenocytes. PFIO was able to induce the phosphorylation of three MAPKs as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, resulting in activation of RAW264.7 macrophages. PFIO also induced the inhibition of TNF-α secretion by anti-TLR2 mAb, consequently, PFIO might be involved in TNF-α secretion via the TLR2 receptor. In addition, our results showed that oral administration of PFIO suppressed in vivo growth of melanoma tumor in tumorbearing mice. In conclusion, our experiments presented that PFIO effectively promotes macrophage activation through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that PFIO may potentially regulate the immune response. PMID:21191814

  20. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Teng, Chunying; Yu, Sumei; Wang, Xin; Liang, Jinsong; Bai, Xin; Dong, Liying; Song, Tao; Yu, Min; Qu, Juanjuan

    2017-12-01

    Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-PX and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-PX and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.

  1. Effect of flue gas CO2 on the growth, carbohydrate and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Salama, El-Sayed; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-10-31

    Effect of various flue gas CO2 concentrations (5%, 10% and 14.1%) on growth rate and biochemical properties of a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus was investigated. S. obliquus showed the highest biomass production and growth rate (0.36 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.00 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (35.8 mg L(-1)), lipid productivity (9.9 mg L(-1) day) and carbohydrate productivity (10.3 mg L(-1) day) with 14.1% CO2 after 8 days of cultivation. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 5% and 7% with 14.1% CO2, respectively. Application of flue gas CO2 enhanced the growth along with lipid and carbohydrate productivity of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for reducing the CO2 concentration.

  2. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p < 0.05). The effects were retained for a period of three months after program termination for the Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  3. [Prevention of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides for high power microwave radiation induced testicular injury in rats: an experimental research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Wei; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Sun, Yan-Mei; Yang, Shu-Yan; Shen, Nan; Zhang, Yi-Zhong; Yang, Ning-Jiang; Ren, Kuang; Lu, Shi-Jie

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides on testicular injury induced by exposure to high power microwave (HPM) in rats. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, i.e., the normal control group, the microwave radiation model group, the treatment group, the new microwave radiation model group, and the prevention group, 6 in each group. All rats, except those in the normal control group, were exposed to microwave at an average power density of 200 mW/cm2 for 6 min. Rats in the control group and the model group were administered with normal saline by gastrogavage, once a day. Rats in the treatment group and the prevention group were given with Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides by gastrogavage, 2 mL each time (400 mg/kg body weight), once a day. All rats were sacrificed on the 11th day.The sperm density and the rate of sperm deformity were determined. Pathological changes of testis were observed by light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Short-term HPM irradiation could significantly reduce the sperm density and increase the sperm deformity rate (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, obvious pathological changes of testes occurred. Compared with the two model groups, the sperm density increased and the sperm deformity rate decreased in the treatment group and the prevention group (P < 0.05). Under the light microscope, injuries of spermatogenic cells and stromal cells, as well as vascular dilatation and congestion were obviously alleviated in the treatment group and the prevention group. Mitochondrial swelling and endoplasmic reticulum expansion shown by ultrastructural observation were also significantly alleviated. Of them, injuries of spermatogenic cells and inflammation response were milder in the treatment group than in the prevention group. Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides had significant protective effect on microwave radiation induced testicular injury. Better effect was obtained by therapeutic medication than

  4. Kinetics of the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of carbon dioxide in Scenedesmus obliquus

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, D.L.; Gibbs, M.

    1981-01-01

    The oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ was studied in H/sub 2/-adapted Scenedesmus obliquus by monitoring the initial rates of H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and the effect of inhibitors on these rates with gas-sensing electrodes and isotopic techniques. In the presence of 0.02 atmosphere O/sub 2/, the pH/sub 2/ was varied from 0 to 1 atmosphere. Whereas the rate of O/sub 2/ uptake increased by only 30%, the rate of H/sub 2/ uptake increased severalfold over the range of pH/sub 2/ values. At 0.1 atmosphere H/sub 2/ and 0.02 atmosphere O/sub 2/, rates for H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ uptake were between 15 and 25 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll per hour. As the pH/sub 2/ was changed from 0 to 1 atmosphere, the quotient H/sub 2/:O/sub 2/ changed from 0 to roughly 2. This change may reflect the competition between H/sub 2/ and the endogenous respiratory electron donors. Respiration in the presence of glucose and acetate was also competitive with H/sub 2/ uptake. KCN inhibited equally respiration (O/sub 2/ uptake in the absence of H/sub 2/) and the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone accelerated the rate of respiration and the oxyhydrogen reaction to a similar extent. It was concluded that the oxyhydrogen reaction both in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ has properties in common with components of respiration and photosynthesis. Participation of these two processes in the oxyhydrogen reaction would require a closely linked shuttle between mitochondrion and chloroplast.

  5. Myoelectric manifestations of fatigue in vastus lateralis, medialis obliquus and medialis longus muscles.

    PubMed

    Rainoldi, A; Falla, D; Mellor, R; Bennell, K; Hodges, P

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether surface electromyography (EMG) assessment of myoelectric manifestations of muscle fatigue is capable of detecting differences between the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles which are consistent with the results of previous biopsy studies. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus medialis longus (VML), vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles during isometric knee extension contractions at 60% and 80% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) for 10s and 60s, respectively. Initial values and rate of change of mean frequency (MNF), average rectified value (ARV) and conduction velocity (CV) of the EMG signal were calculated. Comparisons between the two force levels revealed that the initial values of MNF for the VL muscle were greater at 80% MVC compared to 60% MVC (P<0.01). Comparisons between the vasti muscles demonstrated lower initial values of CV for VMO compared to VL at 60% MVC (P<0.01) and lower than VML and VL at 80% MVC (P<0.01). In addition, initial values of MNF were higher for VL with respect to both VML and VMO at 80% MVC (P<0.01) and initial estimates of ARV were higher for VMO compared to VML at both force levels (P<0.01 at 60% MVC and P<0.05 at 80% MVC). For the sustained contraction at 80% MVC, VL demonstrated a greater decrease in CV over time compared to VMO (P<0.05). These findings suggest that surface EMG signals and their time course during sustained isometric contractions may be useful to non-invasively describe functional differences between the vasti muscles.

  6. The effect of discontinuous airlift mixing in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Leupold, Marco; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Discontinuous airlift mixing was realized by injecting pressured air at time intervals with a frequency between 0.033 and 0.25 Hz (at 80 kPa; i.e., every 4-30 s; valve opening time 800 ms) into outdoor flat panel photobioreactors ([Formula: see text]). This caused a flow velocity between 2 and 20 cm s(-1) of the culture medium within the photobioreactor and the mixing time was between 38 and 103.5 s, requiring 0.175-1.340 L(gas volume) L(photobioreactor volume)(-1) min(-1) pressured air. In order to detect the effect on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus during outdoor experiments and to be able to compare obtained results, a batch run with an airlift frequency of 0.25 Hz was simultaneously used as control. Growth at different airlift frequencies was measured by the increase of cell dry weight (CDW) during 3-5 days and biomass yield on light energy was calculated. With increasing airlift frequencies, growth increased from 52 to 91 % compared to the control. When CDW was at around 1.0-1.5 g L(-1), airlift frequency had no effect on growth, indicating that mass transfer gradients of nutrients and gas were not the limiting factors of growth. Above 1.5 g CDW L(-1), growth increased with increasing airlift frequency and light limitation for a single cell occurred. This effect was observed during low and high irradiance and it is concluded that a higher mean flow causes a better light distribution, resulting in an enhanced growth. Biomass productivity and demand of pressured air are correlated logarithmically, which enables to save mixing energy during cultivation.

  7. Effects of Pilates-Based Core Stability Training in Ambulant People With Multiple Sclerosis: Multicenter, Assessor-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fox, Esther E; Hough, Alan D; Creanor, Siobhan; Gear, Margaret; Freeman, Jennifer A

    2016-08-01

    Pilates exercise is often undertaken by people with multiple sclerosis (MS) who have balance and mobility difficulties. The primary aim of the study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of Pilates exercises with relaxation on balance and mobility. Secondary aims were: (1) to compare standardized exercises with relaxation and (2) to compare Pilates exercises with standardized exercises. A multicenter, assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores of 4.0 to 6.5 were randomly allocated to groups receiving 12 weeks of Pilates exercises, standardized exercises, or relaxation. Assessments were undertaken at baseline and weeks 12 and 16 (primary outcome measure: 10-Meter Timed Walk Test [10MTW]). One hundred participants (mean age=54 years, 74% female) were randomized to study groups. Six participants relapsed (withdrew from the study), leaving 94 participants for intention-to-treat analysis. There was no significant difference in mean 10MTW measurements between the Pilates and relaxation groups. At 12 weeks, there was a mean reduction of 4.2 seconds for the standardized exercise group compared with the relaxation group (95% confidence interval [relaxation group minus standardized exercise group measurements]=0.0, 8.4) and a mean reduction of 3.7 seconds for the Pilates group compared with the standardized exercise group (95% confidence interval [Pilates group minus standardized exercise group measurements]=-0.4 to 7.8). At 16 weeks, mean 10MTW times for the standardized exercise group remained quicker than those for the Pilates and relaxation groups, although the differences were nonsignificant. There were no significant differences between the Pilates and relaxation groups for any secondary outcome measure. In this study, therapists were limited to a standardized basket of exercises that may have affected the study outcomes. Furthermore, choosing measures such as posturography to assess balance

  8. The effects of 12 weeks Pilates-inspired exercise training on functional performance in older women: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Natália Donzeli; Testa, Daniela; Ruas, Paula Cristine; Salvini, Tânia de Fátima; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Melo, Ruth Caldeira

    2017-04-01

    Recent scientific evidence supports the benefits of Pilates exercises on postural balance and muscle strength of older persons. However, their effects on other aspects of physical fitness, which are also important for independent living in older age, are still unknown. To investigate the effects of a 12-week Pilates-inspired exercise program on the functional performance of community-dwelling older women. Forty community-dwelling older women were randomly enrolled in a Pilates-inspired exercise training (2 times/week, 60 min/session) (PG, n = 21, 66.0 ± 1.4yrs) or kept in the control group (CG; n = 19, 63.3 ± 0.9yrs). The Pilates exercises were conducted in small groups and performed on mats (using accessories such as exercise rubber bands, swiss and exercise balls). The functional performance on one-leg stance (OLS), timed up and go (TUG), five-times-sit-to-stand (STS) and 6-min walk (6 MW) tests was evaluated before and after the 12-week Pilates training or control follow-up period. After 12 weeks, time effects were observed for STS (p = 0.03) and 6 MW tests (p < 0.01). Only among PG subjects did the time spent to rise from a chair and return to a seated position decrease significantly (2.0 s faster, p = 0.02) and the distance walked in 6 min increase (∼30 m, p < 0.01). OLS and TUG performance remained unaltered in both groups. Pilates-inspired exercises improved dynamic balance, lower-extremity strength and aerobic resistance in community-dwelling older women. Therefore, it may be a potentially effective exercise regimen to maintain physical fitness in old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of calisthenics and Pilates exercises on coordination and proprioception in adult women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ozer Kaya, Derya; Duzgun, Irem; Baltaci, Gul; Karacan, Selma; Colakoglu, Filiz

    2012-08-01

    To assess and compare the effects of 6 mo of Pilates and calisthenics on multijoint coordination and proprioception of the lower limbs at the 3rd and 6th mo of training. Randomized, controlled, assessor-blinded, repeated-measures. University research laboratory. Healthy, sedentary, female participants age 25-50 y were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: a calisthenic exercise group (n = 34, mean age ± SD 40 ± 8 y, body-mass index [BMI] 31.04 ± 4.83 kg/m2), a Pilates exercise group (n = 32, mean age ± SD 37 ± 8 y, BMI 31.04 ± 4.83 kg/m2), and a control group (n = 41, mean age ± SD 41 ± 7 y, BMI 27.09 ± 4.77 kg/m2). The calisthenics and Pilates groups underwent related training programs for 6 mo, while the controls had no specific training. Coordination and proprioception of the lower extremities with concentric and eccentric performances in the closed kinetic chain assessed with the monitored rehab functional squat system at baseline and at the 3rd and 6th mo of training. For the within-group comparison, coordinative concentric and eccentric deviation values were significantly decreased for both dominant and nondominant lower limbs at pretraining and at the 3rd and 6th mo posttraining in the calisthenics group (P < .05). In contrast, there was no improvement in the Pilates group throughout the training. However, for comparisons between groups, the baseline values of coordinative concentric and eccentric deviations were different in the calisthenics group than in Pilates and the controls (P < .05). There were no differences in the proprioception values of either visible or nonvisible movement in any group throughout the training (P > .05). It seems that calisthenic exercises are more likely to improve coordination of the lower extremity after 3 and 6 mo of training than Pilates exercises. Calisthenic exercises may be useful for individuals who require improved coordination.

  10. Photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus in outdoor open thin-layer cascade system in high and low CO2 in Belgium.

    PubMed

    de Marchin, Thomas; Erpicum, Michel; Franck, Fabrice

    2015-12-10

    Two outdoor open thin-layer cascade systems operated as batch cultures with the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were used to compare the productivity and photosynthetic acclimations in control and CO2 supplemented cultures in relation with the outdoor light irradiance. We found that the culture productivity was limited by CO2 availability. In the CO2 supplemented culture, we obtained a productivity of up to 24gdwm(-2)day(-1) and found a photosynthetic efficiency (value based on the PAR solar radiation energy) of up to 5%. In the CO2 limited culture, we obtained a productivity of up to 10gdwm(-2)day(-1) while the photosynthetic efficiency was up to 3.3% and decreased to 2.1% when the integrated daily PAR increased. Fluorescence and oxygen evolution measurements showed that ETR and oxygen evolution light saturation curves, as well as light-dependent O2 uptake were similar in algal samples from both cultures when the CO2 limitation was removed. In contrast, we found that CO2 limitation conducted to a decreased PSII photochemical efficiency and an increased light-induced heat-dissipation in the control culture compared to the CO2 supplemented culture. These features are in line with a lower light use efficiency and may therefore contribute to the lower productivity observed in absence of CO2 supplementation in outdoor mass cultures of S. obliquus.

  11. Inonotus obliquus containing diet enhances the innate immune mechanism and disease resistance in olive flounder Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The present study describes the effect of diet supplementation with Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus extract at 0%, 0.01%, 0.1%, and 1.0% levels on the innate humoral (lysozyme, antiprotease, and complement), cellular responses (production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and myeloperoxidase), and disease resistance in olive flounder, Paralichythys olivaceus against Uronema marinum. The lysozyme activity and complement activity significantly increased in each diet on weeks 2 and 4 against pathogen. The serum antiprotease activity and reactive nitrogen intermediates production significantly increased in fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets from weeks 1-4. However, reactive oxygen species production and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased in 1.0% and 2.0% diets on weeks 2 and 4. In fish fed with 0.1% and 1.0% diets and challenged with U. marinum the cumulative mortality was 50% and 40% while in 0% and 0.01% diets the mortality was 85% and 55%. The results clearly indicate that supplementation diet with I. obliquus at 0.1% and 1.0% level positively enhance the immune system and confer disease resistance which may be potentially used as an immunoprophylactic in finfish culture.

  12. Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Yang, Yang; Mao, Xin-Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μM, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3β,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a KI = KIS of 0.4 μM on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μM), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a KI of 0.9 μM, KIS of 0.5 μM, and an IC50 of 7.25 μM. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent. PMID:25197307

  13. Determination of photosynthetic and enzymatic biomarkers sensitivity used to evaluate toxic effects of copper and fludioxonil in alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Dewez, David; Geoffroy, Laure; Vernet, Guy; Popovic, Radovan

    2005-08-30

    Modulated PAM fluorometry and Plant Efficiency Analyser methods were used to investigate photosynthetic fluorescence parameters of alga Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to inhibitory effect of fungicides copper sulphate and fludioxonil (N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N'-propyl-uree). The change of those parameters were studied when alga S. obliquus have been exposed during 48 h to different concentrations of fungicides (1, 2 and 3 mgl(-1)). Under the same condition, enzymatic activities of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase were investigated to evaluate antioxidative response to fungicides effects. The change of sensitivity of those parameters was dependent to the mode of fungicide action, their concentration and time of exposure. For copper effects, the most indicative photosynthetic biomarkers were parameters Q(N) as non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, Q(Emax) as the proton induced fluorescence quenching and ABS/RC as the antenna size per photosystem II reaction center. Copper induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased activity of catalase serving as the most sensitive and valuable enzymatic biomarker. On the other hand, fludioxonil effect on photosynthetic parameters was very negligible and consequently not very useful as biomarkers. However, fludioxonil induced strong antioxidative activities associated with cytosol enzymes, as we found for catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities. By obtained results, we may suggest for the activation of those enzymes to be sensitive and valuable biomarkers of oxidative stress induced by fludioxonil. Determination of biomarkers sensitivity may offer advantages in providing real criteria to use them for ecotoxicological diagnostic studies.

  14. Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Ook; Park, Hae Woong; Kim, Jong Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Moon, Seong Hoon; Shin, Chul Soo

    2006-05-30

    The endo-polysaccharide extracted from mycelia of Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pil. (Hymenochaetaceae) is a specific activator of B cells and macrophages. However, the in vivo anti-cancer effects and the chemical structure of the endo-polysaccharide are unknown. We purified the endo-polysaccharide, investigated its anti-cancer effects via in vitro and in vivo assays, and performed a structural characterization. The endo-polysaccharide was extracted from I. obliquus mycelia cultivated in a 300-l pilot fermenter, followed by hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation. Purification was achieved by DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation chromatography. Chemical analysis revealed that the purified endo-polysaccharide is an alpha-linked fucoglucomannan with a molecular weight of approximately 1,000 kDa. The anti-cancer activities of the endo-polysaccharide against various types of tumor cells were determined. No direct toxicity against either cancer or normal cells was observed. Intraperitoneal administration of the endo-polysaccharide significantly prolonged the survival rate of B16F10-implanted mice, resulting in a 4.07-fold increase in the survival rate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. After 60 days of feeding, approximately 67% of the initial number of mice survived with no tumor incidence based on macroscopic examination. These results indicate that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating.

  15. High Yields of Hydrogen Production Induced by Meta-Substituted Dichlorophenols Biodegradation from the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H2-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H2-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O2 production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

  16. Comparative effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for chronic mechanical neck pain: quasi-randomised parallel controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dunleavy, K; Kava, K; Goldberg, A; Malek, M H; Talley, S A; Tutag-Lehr, V; Hildreth, J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for individuals with chronic neck pain (CNP). Quasi-randomised parallel controlled study. Community, university and private practice settings in four locations. Fifty-six individuals with CNP scoring ≥3/10 on the numeric pain rating scale for >3 months (controls n=17, Pilates n=20, yoga n=19). Exercise participants completed 12 small-group sessions with modifications and progressions supervised by a physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were pain ratings, range of movement and postural measurements collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Follow-up was performed 6 weeks after completion of the exercise classes (Week 18). NDI decreased significantly in the Pilates {baseline: 11.1 [standard deviation (SD) 4.3] vs Week 12: 6.8 (SD 4.3); mean difference -4.3 (95% confidence interval -1.64 to -6.7); P<0.001} and yoga groups [baseline: 12.8 (SD 7.4) vs Week 12: 8.1 (SD 5.6); mean difference -4.7 (95% confidence interval -2.1 to -7.4); P<0.00], with no change in the control group. Pain ratings also improved significantly. Moderate-to-large effect sizes (0.7 to 1.8) and low numbers needed to treat were found. There were no differences in outcomes between the exercise groups or associated adverse effects. No improvements in range of movement or posture were found. Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions with appropriate modifications and supervision were safe and equally effective for decreasing disability and pain compared with the control group for individuals with mild-to-moderate CNP. Physiotherapists may consider including these approaches in a plan of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01999283. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Pilates exercise training vs. physical therapy for improving walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kalron, Alon; Rosenblum, Uri; Frid, Lior; Achiron, Anat

    2017-03-01

    Evaluate the effects of a Pilates exercise programme on walking and balance in people with multiple sclerosis and compare this exercise approach to conventional physical therapy sessions. Randomized controlled trial. Multiple Sclerosis Center, Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, Israel. Forty-five people with multiple sclerosis, 29 females, mean age (SD) was 43.2 (11.6) years; mean Expanded Disability Status Scale (S.D) was 4.3 (1.3). Participants received 12 weekly training sessions of either Pilates ( n=22) or standardized physical therapy ( n=23) in an outpatient basis. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking and posturography parameters during static stance. Functional tests included the Time Up and Go Test, 2 and 6-minute walk test, Functional Reach Test, Berg Balance Scale and the Four Square Step Test. In addition, the following self-report forms included the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. At the termination, both groups had significantly increased their walking speed ( P=0.021) and mean step length ( P=0.023). According to the 2-minute and 6-minute walking tests, both groups at the end of the intervention program had increased their walking speed. Mean (SD) increase in the Pilates and physical therapy groups were 39.1 (78.3) and 25.3 (67.2) meters, respectively. There was no effect of group X time in all instrumented and clinical balance and gait measures. Pilates is a possible treatment option for people with multiple sclerosis in order to improve their walking and balance capabilities. However, this approach does not have any significant advantage over standardized physical therapy.

  18. A Comparison of 12 Weeks of Pilates and Aquatic Training on the Dynamic Balance of Women with Mulitple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayyed Mohammad; Nejad, Vahid Shayegan; Shanazari, Zohreh; Zolaktaf, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disabling chronic disease of the nervous system in which the myelin system of the central nervous system is deteriorated. The objective of this study is to understand the effect of Pilates exercises and aquatic training for a 12 week period on the dynamic balance of MS patients. Methods: The research method is semi-experimental. As a result, among the female patients visiting the MS clinic of Kashani hospital in Esfahan, 57 patients with disease intensity levels between 0 and 4.5 were taken as samples. The average length of the disease was 8 ± 2 years, 20;40 years old, and they were randomly divided into three groups of Pilates exercise group, aquatic training group, and the control group. The exercise schedule for the experiment groups consisted of 12 weeks, three sessions per week, and 1 hour for each session. The dynamic balance of the patients, before and after the exercises was measured by Six Spot Step Test. Results: The adjusted mean differences of Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) scores of the experimental groups are significantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, it can be said that Pilates exercise interventions and aquatic training can significantly increase the dynamic balance of the examinees in the post-experiment stage. Conclusions: Performing the Pilate exercises and aquatic training increases dynamic balance of the MS patients. Considering the role of dynamic balance on physical fitness and enabling the person in doing is daily chores and routines, and its direct effect on the quality of life, it leads the specialists in applying these exercises as a supplementary treatment along with the medicinal treatments for MS patients. PMID:23717760

  19. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T1). Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG. The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  20. Effects of Pilates-based exercise on life satisfaction, physical self-concept and health status in adult women.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Ferreira, Ana; Fernandes, Jorge; Gomes, Dulce; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Kirkcaldy, Bruce D; Barbosa, Tiago M; Silva, António

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Pilates-based mat exercises on life satisfaction, perception of appreciation by other people, perception of physical appearance, perception of functionality, total physical self-concept, and perception of health status in healthy women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Evora, Portugal, in 2008, in which 62 healthy adult women were randomized to a Pilates-based mat (experimental group) (n = 38, mean age ± SD, 41.08 ± 6.64 years) or a control group (n = 24, mean age ± SD, 40.25 ± 7.70 years). Experimental group participants performed the Initial Mat of Body Control Pilates twice per week, 60-minutes per session. Repeated measurements were performed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. No significant differences between the two groups were observed in life satisfaction, perception of appreciation by other people, perception of physical appearance, perception of functionality, total physical self-concept, and perception of health status at three time point measures (baseline, after 3 months, and after 6 months). No significant differences were observed in the control group over time. The experimental group showed significant improvements between baseline and six months in life satisfaction (p = .04), perception of appreciation by other people (p = .002), perception of physical appearance (p = .001), perception of functionality (p = .01), total physical self-concept (p = .001), perception of health status (p = .013) and between three and six months in life satisfaction (p = .002), perception of appreciation by other people (p = .05), perception of physical appearance (p = .001), perception of functionality (p = .02), and total physical self-concept (p = .001). Life satisfaction, perception of appreciation by other people, perception of physical appearance, perception of functionality, total physical self-concept and perception of health status may improve after 6 months of Pilates-based mat

  1. Results of a Pilates exercise program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Valenza, M C; Rodríguez-Torres, J; Cabrera-Martos, I; Díaz-Pelegrina, A; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, M E; Castellote-Caballero, Y

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a Pilates exercise program on disability, pain, lumbar mobility, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. University laboratory. A total of 54 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n=27) included in a Pilates exercise program or to a control group ( n=27) receiving information in a form of a leaflet. Disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), current, average and pain at it least and at its worst (Visual Analogue Scales), lumbar mobility (modified Shober test), flexibility (finger-to-floor test) and balance (single limb stance test) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. A between-group analysis showed significant differences in the intervention group compared to the control group for both disability scores, the Rolland-Morris questionnaire (mean change±standard deviation of 5.31±3.37 and 2.40±6.78 respectively and between-groups mean difference of 3.2 ± 4.12, p=0.003) and the Oswestry Disability Index ( p<0.001), current pain ( p=0.002) and pain at it least ( p=0.033), flexibility (0.032) and balance (0.043). An 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in improving disability, pain, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

  2. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Caroline Buarque; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Almeida, Marina Buarque; Rozov, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients. PMID:25410840

  3. Air stacking: effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Franco, Caroline Buarque; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Almeida, Marina Buarque; Rozov, Tatiana

    2014-10-01

    To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients.

  4. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  5. “Rational” Management of Dichlorophenols Biodegradation by the Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2013-01-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus exhibited the ability to biodegrade dichlorophenols (dcps) under specific autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. According to their biodegradability, the dichlorophenols used can be separated into three distinct groups. Group I (2,4-dcp and 2,6 dcp – no meta-substitution) consisted of quite easily degraded dichlorophenols, since both chloride substituents are in less energetically demanding positions. Group II (2,3-dcp, 2,5-dcp and 3,4-dcp – one meta-chloride) was less susceptible to biodegradation, since one of the two substituents, the meta one, required higher energy for C-Cl-bond cleavage. Group III (3,5-dcp – two meta-chlorides) could not be biodegraded, since both chlorides possessed the most energy demanding positions. In general, when the dcp-toxicity exceeded a certain threshold, the microalga increased the energy offered for biodegradation and decreased the energy invested for biomass production. As a result, the biodegradation per cell volume of group II (higher toxicity) was higher, than group I (lower toxicity) and the biodegradation of dichlorophenols (higher toxicity) was higher than the corresponding monochlorophenols (lower toxicity). The participation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the respiratory mechanism of microalga to biodegrade the group I and the group II, highlighted different bioenergetic strategies for optimal management of the balance between dcp-toxicity, dcp-biodegradability and culture growth. Additionally, we took into consideration the possibility that the intermediates of each dcp-biodegradation pathway could influence differently the whole biodegradation procedures. For this reason, we tested all possible combinations of phenolic intermediates to check cometabolic interactions. The present contribution bring out the possibility of microalgae to operate as “smart” bioenergetic “machines”, that have the ability to continuously “calculate” the energy reserves and

  6. The effect of Pilates based exercise on mobility, postural stability, and balance in order to decrease fall risk in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pata, Rachel W; Lord, Katrina; Lamb, Jamie

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a common problem in older adults. Impaired balance, mobility and postural stability are risk factors for falling. Limited research has been performed on Pilates exercise and the ability to decrease fall risk. In this quasi-experimental study, 35 adults (61-87 years old) participated in an 8-week Pilates based exercise program. Blind examiners conducted the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Forward Reach Test, and Turn 180 Test before and after the intervention. Number of falls, perception of Pilates, and fear of falling was also recorded. Thirty-two (91.4%) participants completed post-test measures. Significant improvements were seen in the TUG (p <0.001) and Turn 180 Test (p = 0.002). Improvements were also demonstrated in the Forward Reach Test (p = 0.049). A positive perception of the Pilates program and decreased fear of falling was shown. Results suggest a Pilates based exercise program may be effective in improving balance, mobility and postural stability to decrease fall risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pilates improves lower limbs strength and postural control during quite standing in a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy: A case report study.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Serikawa, Simoni Sayuri; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    To verify the effect of Pilates exercises in a child with cerebral palsy (CP) with mild functional impairment. We evaluated average peak torque of ankle and knee extensors/flexors using a Biodex System, using concentric active-assisted test. We also evaluated amplitude of anterior-posterior and of medial-lateral displacement of the CoP and area of oscillation during quite standing with a BERTEC platform. We applied Pilates exercises for eight weeks. Peak torque/body weight of ankle and knee extensors/flexors of both affected and unaffected limbs increased after Pilates. Also, all kinetic variables decreased after Pilates' intervention. After one-month follow-up, isokinetic variable values were higher while kinetic variable values were lower than baseline values. Pilates may be an important rehabilitation technique for children with CP that present mild deficits in motor structures and high functional level, especially when the aims are to improve muscle strength and postural control during quite standing.

  8. The Effects of Pilates Training on Balance Control and Self-Reported Health Status in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gabizon, Hadas; Press, Yan; Volkov, Ilia; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of a group-based Pilates training program on balance control and health status in healthy older adults. A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. General community. A total of 88 community-dwelling older adults (age 71.15 ± 4.30 years), without evidence of functional balance impairment, were recruited and allocated at random to a Pilates intervention group (n = 44) or a control group (n = 44). The Pilates intervention group received 36 training sessions over three months (3 sessions a week), while the control group did not receive any intervention. Standing upright postural stability, performance-based measures of balance, and self-reported health status was assessed in both groups at baseline and at the end of the intervention period. Compared with the control group, the Pilates intervention did not improve postural stability, baseline functional measures of balance, or health status. The results suggest that because Pilates training is not task specific, it does not improve balance control or balance function in independent older adults.

  9. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  10. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-09-13

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10-100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  11. Neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in professional soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Shalimá Figueirêdo; Marques, Natália Pereira; Silva, Rômulo Lemos e; Rebouças, Nahra Santos; de Freitas, Luise Monteiro; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Summary The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in high-performance soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, compared to the uninvolved leg. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 22 male professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction (4–12 months postoperatively). The athletes were submitted to functional rehabilitation with an accelerated protocol on the soccer team. They were evaluated using isokinetic dynamometer, surface electromyography and electronic baropodometer. There was no decrease or difference between neuromuscular efficiency of the VMO when comparing both the limbs after ACL reconstruction in the professional soccer athletes under treatment. The same result was found in postural balance. It can be concluded that the NME of the VMO in the involved member and postural balance were successfully re-established after the reconstruction procedure of the ACL in the sample group studied. PMID:23738285

  12. Effects of nitrogen source availability and bioreactor operating strategies on lutein production with Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Xie, Youping; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the type and concentration of nitrogen sources on the cell growth and lutein content of an isolated microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 were investigated. With batch culture, the highest lutein content (4.61 mg/g) and lutein productivity (4.35 mg/L/day) were obtained when using 8.0 mM calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source. With this best nitrogen source condition, the microalgae cultivation was performed using two bioreactor strategies (namely, semi-continuous and two-stage operations) to further enhance the lutein content and productivity. Using semi-continuous operation with a 10% medium replacement ratio could obtain the highest biomass productivity (1304.8 mg/L/day) and lutein productivity (6.01 mg/L/day). This performance is better than most related studies.

  13. Nitrogen removal and recycling by Scenedesmus obliquus in semicontinuous cultures using artificial wastewater and a simulated light and temperature cycle.

    PubMed

    Voltolina, Domenico; Gómez-Villa, Herlinda; Correa, Gabriel

    2005-02-01

    Semicontinuous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus in artificial wastewater were maintained with 30% and 40% daily dilutions and under a 14:10 h light-dark cycle, with temperatures of 25.5 and 17 degrees C during light and dark hours. Under this regime, the production of organic biomass was 39.3 and 25.2 mg l(-1)d(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions, and 24.9 and 16.7 mg l(-1)d(-1) of single-cell proteins. Most of the nitrogen removal took place during the light hours, with daily totals of 9.27 and 8.45 mg l(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions. With the former, 43.7% of the nitrogen removed was recycled by the microalgae into proteins and other organic nitrogen cell contents, but this efficiency decreased to 26.4% when the dilutions were raised to 40%.

  14. Lignocellulose degradation patterns, structural changes, and enzyme secretion by Inonotus obliquus on straw biomass under submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Xu, Zhiqi; Shi, Song; Lin, Mengmeng

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the white rot fungus I. obliquus on the degradation of three types of straw biomass and the production of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes under submerged fermentation. The fungus process resulted in a highest lignin loss of 72%, 39%, and 47% in wheat straw, rice straw, and corn stover within 12days, respectively. In merely two days, the fungus selectively degraded wheat straw lignin by 37%, with only limited cellulose degradation (13%). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the fungus most effectively degraded the wheat straw lignin and rice straw crystalline cellulose. Scanning electronic microscopy showed the most pronounced structural changes in wheat straw. High activities of manganese peroxidase (159.0U/mL) and lignin peroxidase (123.4U/mL) were observed in wheat straw culture on Day 2 and 4, respectively. Rice straw was the best substrate to induce the production of cellulase and xylanase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of light intensity, pH, and temperature on triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation induced by nitrogen starvation in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Guido; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Draaisma, René B; Wijffels, René H

    2013-09-01

    Microalgae-derived lipids in the form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) are considered an alternative resource for the production of biofuels and food commodities. Large scale production of microalgal TAGs is currently uneconomical. The cost price could be reduced by improving the areal and volumetric TAG productivity. The economic value could be increased by enhancing the TAG quality. To improve these characteristics, the impact of light intensity, and the combined impact of pH and temperature on TAG accumulation were studied for Scenedesmus obliquus UTEX 393 under nitrogen starved conditions. The maximum TAG content was independent of light intensity, but varied between 18% and 40% of dry weight for different combinations of pH and temperature. The highest yield of fatty acids on light (0.263 g/mol photon) was achieved at the lowest light intensity, pH 7 and 27.5 °C.

  16. Protective Effect of Polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Symptoms and Their Potential Mechanisms in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Bao-zhong; Jin, Wei-rong; Yu, Xue-jing

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus (PIO) on streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic symptoms and their potential mechanisms. The effect of PIO on body weight, blood glucose, damaged pancreatic β-cells, oxidative stresses, proinflammatory cytokines, and glucose metabolizing enzymes in liver was studied. The results show that administration of PIO can restore abnormal oxidative indices near normal levels. The STZ-damaged pancreatic β-cells of the rats were partly recovered gradually after the mice were administered with PIO 6 weeks later. Therefore, we may assume that PIO is effective in the protection of STZ-induced diabetic rats and PIO may be of use as antihyperglycemic agent. PMID:25093030

  17. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Kim, Yang-Hee; Choi, Jong-Won; Park, Hee-Juhn; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-10-03

    The mushroom Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland and most of Baltic countries. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract from Inonotus obliquus (MEIO) in vivo and in vitro. MEIO (100 or 200 mg/(kgday), p.o.) reduced acute paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats, and showed analgesic activity, as determined by an acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and a hot plate test in mice. To reveal the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of MEIO, we examined its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. MEIO was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these observations, MEIO potently inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, MEIO inhibited the LPS-induced DNA binding activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), and this was associated with the prevention of inhibitor kappaB degradation and a reduction in nuclear p65 protein levels. Taken together, our data indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of MEIO may be due to the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression via the down-regulation of NF-kappaB binding activity.

  18. Effect of subcellular distribution on nC₆₀ uptake and transfer efficiency from Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Yin, Daqiang; Wang, Rui

    2016-06-01

    The potential uptake and trophic transfer ability of nanoparticles (NPs) in aquatic organisms have not been well understood yet. There has been an increasing awareness of the subcellular fate of NPs in organisms, but how the subcellular distribution of NPs subsequently affects the trophic transfer to predator remains to be answered. In the present study, the food chain from Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna was established to simulate the trophic transfer of fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The nC60 contaminated algae were separated into three fractions: cell wall (CW), cell organelle (CO), and cell membrane (CM) fractions, and we investigated the nC60 uptake amounts and trophic transfer efficiency to the predator through dietary exposure to algae or algal subcellular fractions. The nC60 distribution in CW fraction of S. obliquus was the highest, following by CO and CM fractions. nC60 uptake amounts in D. magna were found to be mainly relative to the NPs' distribution in CW fraction and daphnia uptake ability from CW fraction, whereas the nC60 trophic transfer efficiency (TE) were mainly in accordance with the transfer ability of NPs from the CO fraction. CW fed group possessed the highest uptake amount, followed by CO and CM fed groups, but the presence of humic acid (HA) significantly decreased the nC60 uptake from CW fed group. The CO fed groups acquired high TE values for nC60, while CM fed groups had low TE values. Moreover, even though CW fed group had a high TE value; it decreased significantly with the presence of HA. This study contributes to the understanding of fullerene NPs' dietary exposure to aquatic organisms, suggesting that NPs in different food forms are not necessarily equally trophically available to the predator. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of the addition of interferential current to Pilates method in patients with low back pain: a protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Franco, Yuri Rafael dos Santos; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Moura, Katherinne Ferro; de Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos; Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Santos, Matheus Oliveira; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2014-12-10

    Chronic low back pain is one of the four most common diseases in the world with great socioeconomic impact. Supervised exercise therapy is one of the treatments suggested for this condition; however, the recommendation on the best type of exercise is still unclear. The Pilates method of exercise is effective in reducing pain and disability in these patients, as well as the analgesia promoted by interferential current. Currently, the literature lacks information on the efficacy of the association of these two techniques in the short- and medium-term than performing one of the techniques isolated. The objective of this study will be to evaluate the efficacy of adding interferential current to the Pilates method exercises for the treatment of patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain in the short- and medium-term. This study will be a randomized controlled trial with two arms and blinded evaluator, conducted at an outpatient Physical Therapy Department in Brazil. Patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain and pain equal to or greater than 3 in the Pain Numerical Rating Scale (0/10) will be randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group with active interferential current + Pilates (n = 74) will be submitted to the active interferential current associated to the modified Pilates exercises, and Group with sham interferential current + Pilates (n = 74) will be submitted to the sham interferential current associated with the modified Pilates exercises during 18 sessions. The outcomes pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, general and specific disability, global perceived effect and kinesiophobia will be evaluated by a blinded assessor at baseline, six weeks and six months after randomization. Because of the study design, blinding of the participants and the therapists involved in the study will not be possible. The results of this study could contribute to the process of clinical decision- making for the improvement of pain and disability in

  20. Is Interferential Current Before Pilates Exercises More Effective Than Placebo in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain?: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Franco, Katherinne Moura; Franco, Yuri Dos Santos; Oliveira, Naiane Bastos de; Miyamoto, Gisela Cristiane; Santos, Matheus Oliveira; Liebano, Richard Eloin; Cabral, Cristina Nunes

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether interferential current (IFC) before Pilates exercises is more effective than placebo in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Two-arm randomized controlled trial, with a blinded assessor, and 6 months follow-up. Clinic of a school of physical therapy. The random sample consisted of patients (N=148) of both sexes, with age between 18 and 80 years and chronic nonspecific low back pain. In addition, participants were recruited by disclosure of the treatment in the media. Patients were allocated into 2 groups: active IFC + Pilates or placebo IFC + Pilates. In the first 2 weeks, patients were treated for 30 minutes with active or placebo IFC. In the following 4 weeks, 40 minutes of Pilates exercises were added after the application of the active or placebo IFC. A total of 18 sessions were offered during 6 weeks. The primary outcome measures were pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and disability measured at 6 weeks after randomization. No significant differences were found between the groups for pain (0.1 points; 95% confidence interval, -0.9 to 1.0 points), pressure pain threshold (25.3kPa; 95% confidence interval, -4.4 to 55.0kPa), and disability (0.4 points; 95% confidence interval, -1.3 to 2.2). However, there was a significant difference between baseline and 6-week and 6-month follow-ups in the intragroup analysis for all outcomes (P<.05), except pressure pain threshold in the placebo IFC + Pilates group. These findings suggest that active IFC before Pilates exercise is not more effective than placebo IFC with respect to the outcomes assessed in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immediate effects of Pilates based therapeutic exercise on postural control of young individuals with non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Susana; Correia, Christophe; Félix, Gonçalo; Lopes, Mário; Cruz, Ana; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Low back pain affects the person's ability to keep balance, especially in challenging conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of Pilates exercises on postural sway and dynamic balance of young individuals with non-specific low back pain. Controlled laboratory design. Forty-six participants with non-specific low back pain were randomized to a Pilates (n=23, 10 males; age: 21.8±3.2years) and a control group (n=23, 9 males; age: 22.8±3.6years). Postural sway was assessed with a force platform and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test, before and after the intervention or rest period. To assess postural sway, participants stood still on an unstable surface set on the force plate for 90s, with eyes closed. The intervention lasted 20min and consisted on four Pilates exercises: single leg stretch (level 1), pelvic press (level 1), swimming (level 1) and kneeling opposite arm and leg reach. At baseline, no differences were found between groups. The Pilates group improved in all the postural sway values (area of CoP: 11.5±3.4 to 9.7±2.7cm(2), p=0.002 and CoP velocity: 2.8±0.6 to 2.3±0.5cm/s, p<0.001) and in the Star Excursion Balance Test. Control group only improved in CoP velocity, however, this improvement was significantly inferior compared to the Pilates group. Pilates exercises immediately improved postural sway and dynamic balance in young adults with non-specific low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p < 0.001), extension (10.49%; p < 0.036), and rotation to the left side (20.45%; p < 0.019) of the cervical spine; flexion (16.45%; p < 0.001), extension (23.74%; p = 0.006), lateral bending right (39.52%; p < 0.001) and left (38.02%; p < 0.001), and right rotation (24.85%; p < 0.001) and left (24.24%; p < 0.001) of the thoracolumbar spine; flexion (right--8.80%, p

  3. Aqueous extract from a Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (higher Basidiomycetes), prevents herpes simplex virus entry through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hong-Hui; Yu, Xiong-Tao; Li, Ting; Wu, Hong-Ling; Jiao, Chun-Wei; Cai, Mian-Hua; Li, Xiang-Min; Xie, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Yi; Peng, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, a popular prescription in traditional medicine in Europe and Asia, was used to reduce inflammation in the nasopharynx and to facilitate breathing. The aqueous extract from I. obliquus (AEIO) exhibited marked decrease in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection (the 50% inhibitory concentration was 3.82 μg/mL in the plaque reduction assay and 12.29 μg/mL in the HSV-1/blue assay) as well as safety in Vero cells (the 50% cellular cytotoxicity was > 1 mg/mL, and selection index was > 80). Using a time course assay, effective stage analysis, and fusion inhibition assay, the mechanism of anti-HSV activity was found against the early stage of viral infection through inhibition of viral-induced membrane fusion. Therefore, AEIO could effectively prevent HSV-1 entry by acting on viral glycoproteins, leading to the prevention of membrane fusion, which is different from nucleoside analog antiherpetics.

  4. In vitro antitumor activity and structure characterization of ethanol extracts from wild and cultivated Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Yin, Ting; Chen, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Gong; Curtis, Rempel B; Lu, Zhan-Hui; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2011-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát has been traditionally used as a folk remedy for treatment of cancers, cardiovascular disease and diabetes in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, but natural reserves of this fungus have nearly been exhausted. This study was designed to investigate the artificial cultivation of I. obliquus and the antitumor activity of its tissues. The ethanol extract of cultivated sclerotium had the highest cell growth inhibitory rate (74.6%) as determined by an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. 78% of the bags produced sclerotia and only 6.17 g/bag of sclerotium was obtained. Extracts of the cultivated fruiting body showed 44.2% inhibitory activity against tumor cells. However, the yield was as high as 18.24 g/bag, and 98% of the bags produced fruiting body. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) showed that similar compounds were extracted from the wild and cultivated samples. The principal compounds observed were lanosterol, inotodiol, and ergosterol. Their percentages of the mass fraction were 86.1, 59.9, and 71.8% of the total, for the wild sclerotium, cultivated sclerotium, and cultivated fruiting body, respectively. Ergosterol was found to be much higher (27.32%) in cultivated fruiting body. We conclude that cultivated fruiting body of I. obliquus obtained by inoculation of the substrate with spawn mycelium of the fifth generation could serve as an ideal substitute for the wild I. obliquus.

  5. Mat Pilates training reduced clinical and ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive women using antihypertensive medications.

    PubMed

    Martins-Meneses, Daniele Tavares; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; de Oliveira, Nara Rejane Cruz; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-01-20

    Physical exercise has been used in the treatment of hypertension. However, there are few methods researched and shown beneficial for treatment of hypertension. The objective was to evaluate the effect of Mat Pilates training (MP) on blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive women medicated with antihypertensive drugs. 44 hypertensive women (50.5 ± 6.3 years age), treated with medication for blood pressure and, uninvolved in structured exercise program were distributed into two groups: Training Group (TG) and Control Group (CG). TG performed 60-minute sessions of MP, twice a week for 16 weeks. CG was requested to maintain daily activities without exercise training. The following variables were evaluated during the pre- and post-experimental periods: clinical and ambulatory BP, heart rate (HR) and double product (DP), besides body mass, height, body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, flexibility, and right and left hand strengths. TG showed statistically significant improvements (p<0.05) within and between-groups for the systolic, diastolic and mean BP in all moments evaluated (clinical, 24h, awake and asleep). Besides that, TG showed improvements in height, waist and hip circumferences, flexibility, right and left hand strengths and clinical DP. The other variables in TG, as well as all variables in the CG didn't show significant changes. In hypertensive women using antihypertensive medications, MP reduces clinical and ambulatory BP. These results support the recommendation of MP as a non-drug treatment for hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Pilates core stability exercises on the balance abilities of archers.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong-Min; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to provide fundamental data contributing to archery performance improvement and stabilization of shooting posture in archers by examining the influence of Pilates core stability (PCS) exercises on dynamic and static balance. The study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016 on high school archers who were registered as archers in the Korea Archery Association with 5 or more years of archery experience. Twenty voluntary subjects (exercise group n=10; control group n=10) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected and their body composition, static and dynamic balance abilities, before and after the PCS program, were measured. As for the static balance ability, there were no significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group after completing the PCS program. Similarly, these results were also represented in the control group. In the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in only the exercise group. As for the dynamic balance ability, there were significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group, except for up-right and left postures, whereas, there were no changes or decreases between pre- and postvalues in the control group after completing the PCS program. Meanwhile, in the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in up, and up right, and down right part and overall dynamic scores of the exercise groups.

  7. Effects of Pilates core stability exercises on the balance abilities of archers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Min; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide fundamental data contributing to archery performance improvement and stabilization of shooting posture in archers by examining the influence of Pilates core stability (PCS) exercises on dynamic and static balance. The study was conducted from December 2015 to March 2016 on high school archers who were registered as archers in the Korea Archery Association with 5 or more years of archery experience. Twenty voluntary subjects (exercise group n=10; control group n=10) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected and their body composition, static and dynamic balance abilities, before and after the PCS program, were measured. As for the static balance ability, there were no significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group after completing the PCS program. Similarly, these results were also represented in the control group. In the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in only the exercise group. As for the dynamic balance ability, there were significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group, except for up-right and left postures, whereas, there were no changes or decreases between pre- and postvalues in the control group after completing the PCS program. Meanwhile, in the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in up, and up right, and down right part and overall dynamic scores of the exercise groups. PMID:28119877

  8. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2003-02-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of a wood inhabiting polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. were studied. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. The aqueous extract did not exhibit cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. All the three extracts were highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumor induced by DLA cell line in mice. However, the antitumor activity of ethyl acetate extract was higher than that of methanol and aqueous extracts. The ethyl acetate extract was also effective in preventing the EAC induced ascites tumor development in mice. The antitumor activity of all the three extracts against solid tumor at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) was comparable to the clinically used standard reference drug, cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment of the extracts was also effective in inhibiting the tumor growth induced by DLA cell lines. The experimental results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of P. rimosus possessed significant antitumor activity. The findings thus suggest the potential use of this mushroom as antitumor agent. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  9. Effectiveness of Pilates-based exercises on upper extremity disorders related with breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zengin Alpozgen, A; Razak Ozdincler, A; Karanlik, H; Yaman Agaoglu, F; Narin, A N

    2016-06-23

    Breast cancer treatment causes upper extremity (UE) impairments. This study aims to assess the efficacy of Pilates-based exercises (PE) in comparison with combined exercise (CE) and home exercise (HE) groups, in the rehabilitation of UE disorders related with breast cancer treatment. Fifty-five patients were randomly allocated to PE, CE (consisting of strengthening, stretching and range of motion [ROM] exercises) and HE groups (consisting of CE group exercises). Pain (using visual analogue scale), ROM (using digital goniometer), muscle strength (using dynamometer and pinch gauge), functional status (using Constant-Murley scale and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale) were evaluated before and after intervention. For data analyses (using spss 21 version), one-way ANOVA, paired samples t-test and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed (p ≤ .05 was considered statistically significant). The data obtained in this study revealed significant improvements in almost all the parameters measured in the PE and CE groups, and some improvements were superior to HE group. PE seemed to have resulted similar improvements in pain, muscle strength and functional status when compared to CE group. Therefore, PE seems to be an effective method of rehabilitation of patients with UE disorders related with breast cancer treatment, and might be considered for use as an alternative to CE in this population.

  10. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kabra, Akhil N; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-08-15

    The biomass and lipid/carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus under mixotrophic condition using food wastewater and flue gas CO2 with municipal wastewater was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-2%) of municipal wastewater with food wastewater were evaluated in the presence of 5, 10 and 14.1% CO2. The food wastewater (0.5-1%) with 10-14.1% CO2 supported the highest growth (0.42-0.44 g L(-1)), nutrient removal (21-22 mg TN L(-1)), lipid productivity (10-11 mg L(-1)day(-1)) and carbohydrate productivity (13-16 mg L(-1)day(-1)) by S. obliquus after 6 days of cultivation. Food wastewater increased the palmitic and oleic acid contents up to 8 and 6%, respectively. Thus, application of food wastewater and flue gas CO2 can be employed for enhancement of growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and wastewater treatment efficiency of S. obliquus under mixotrophic condition, which can lead to development of a cost effective strategy for microalgal biomass production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutrient composition of culture media induces different patterns of CO2 fixation from biogas and biomass production by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus U169.

    PubMed

    Choix, Francisco J; Polster, Elena; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2017-08-11

    Microalgae are considered as a promising biotechnological strategy to capture CO2 from biogas, producing biomass with valuable energetic compounds. This study has evaluated the biotechnological potential to fix CO2 from biogas and biomass production by Scenedesmus obliquus cultured in four different formulations of culture media, C30, Bristol, Bold 3N, and C30+M, as well as the effect of methane (CH4) of biogas during CO2 fixation and biomass production. The results obtained showed that different nutrient composition and concentration of culture media, mainly micronutrient and vitamin concentrations, induced different patterns of CO2 fixation from biogas and biomass production in S. obliquus. The highest CO2 fixation (23.03 ± 0.24%) and biomass production (4.63 ± 0.31 g L(-1)) were attained in the microalgae growing in C30+M medium, accumulating mainly proteins. Moreover, these results demonstrated that the CH4 of biogas did not affect CO2 fixation from biogas and biomass production by S. obliquus. Overall, these results demonstrated that a culture medium with a balanced nutrient supply is crucial to increasing the biotechnological potential of microalgae to fix CO2 from biogas.

  12. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic mice and potential mechanism via PI3K-Akt signal pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Cong; Li, Shuqin; Li, Weiwei; Yuan, Guoqi; Pan, Yuxiang; Chen, Haixia

    2017-09-23

    Polysaccharides are the main components of mushroom Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus) with antihyperglycemic activities. This study was aimed to investigate the anti-diabetic effects and the potential mechanism of I. obliquus polysaccharides (IOPS) in high fat diet and STZ-induced type 2 diabetic mice. Results showed that oral administration of IOPS (900mg/kg) could significantly restore the body and fat mass weight, reduce fasting blood glucose levels, improve glucose tolerance ability, increase hepatic glycogen level and ameliorate insulin resistance compared to those of the control diabetic mice (P<0.01). IOPS (900mg/kg) could enhance the cholesterol transportation in the liver, which was in coincidence with the increased HDL-C levels and decreased TC, TG and LDL-C levels.Treatment of IOPS could significantly improve the antioxidant activities of liver (P<0.05) and alleviate the STZ-lesioned organ tissues (liver, kidney, and pancreas). Further, protein expressions of PI3K-p85, p-Akt (ser473), GLUT4 were up-regulated after IOPS treatment, indicating that the antihyperglycemic mechanism of IOPS might involve in activating PI3K and Akt phosphorylation as well as the translocation of GLUT4 in diabetic mice. The results suggested that IOPS might be a promising functional food or drug candidate for diabetes treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Thermal evolution of a main detachment zone during late orogenic collapse: the pilat unit case (Variscan chain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardien, V.; Allemand, P.

    2003-04-01

    The high temperature uplift of deep seated nappes in different tectonic settings is a major question in orogenic domains. Detailed petrological and structural study were performed in the Pilat Unit (Eastern french Massif Central: Variscan chain) in order to discuss the thermal evolution of a main shear zone during late orogenic extension. The Pilat Unit is a 20 km long x 5 km large metamorphic unit and as a strain gradient within it perpandicular to the long axe of the unit. The mylonitic fabrics, in the strained zone are notherly directed. Geometrical and geochronological data indicate that these fabrics are associated with extesional regime that was a post-thickening event. Thermobarometrical determination supported by microstructural analyses indicate the develpoment of contrasting P-T-time evolution in the Pilat Unit. In the strongly mylonitized southern domain in which foliation and streching lineation show a top to the north normal slip, the calculated P-T conditions indicate an increase in temperature during decompression illustrated by the following mineral assemblages:1) Grt + Stau + Kya + Rut, 2) Bio + Sill + Cord, 3) And + Musco + K-feld and dated at 322 Ma. In the northern and less deformed domain, the calculated P-T conditions correspond to a cooling event during decompression illustrated by the following assemblages: 1) Grt + Stau + Kya + Rut, 2) Bio + Musco + Ilm, 3) And + Chlo + Pyro + Tour, dated at 313 Ma. The difference in T° between the southern and the northern domain is 200-250°C and Δ t is 10Ma. Based on these data, we have elaborated 1D numerical model simulating the thermal evolution of the continental crust during thinning associated or not with magma underplating.

  14. Trunk Muscle EMG During Intermediate Pilates Mat Exercises in Beginner Healthy and Chronic Low Back Pain Individuals.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ivye L R; Queiroz, Bergson; Loss, Jefferson; Amorim, César; Sacco, Isabel C N

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic pattern of core muscles during intermediate Pilates mat exercises between healthy people and those with low back pain. We evaluated healthy participants (n = 19; mean ± standard deviation [SD]: age 28 ± 8 years, body mass 65 ± 10 kg, height 160.0 ± 9.1 cm) and a low back pain group (n = 13; mean ± SD: age 30 ± 9 years, body mass 67 ± 12 kg, height 170.0 ± 6.6 cm). Electromyographic analysis assessed the multifidus, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles during classical Pilates exercises (single leg stretch, criss-cross, and dead bug). We calculated the root mean square normalized by maximum voluntary contraction, and the time of peak activation was provided by a linear envelope and normalized by the total movement cycle. The criss-cross exercise presented the highest values of root mean square for trunk flexors (rectus abdominis and oblique) compared with the other exercises, followed by the single leg stretch and the dead bug, which had similar muscle activation. The single leg stretch presented more activation of the rectus abdominis and oblique, whereas the criss-cross and dead bug created more activation of the oblique compared with the multifidus and rectus. The Pilates exercises presented different muscle recruitment patterns, and allowed the activation of the lumbopelvic stabilizing muscles even in the first session for healthy individuals and those with chronic low back pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small

  16. The effects of the Pilates training method on balance and falls of older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Segura, Noemi; Celedonia, Igual-Camacho; Ballester-Gil, Yéntel; María Clara, Blasco-Igual; Blasco, Jose María

    2017-08-03

    Exercising with the Pilates method may be a beneficial treatment to improve balance and decrease the number of falls. To ascertain this, our search in 7 databases included 15 randomized controlled trials in which Pilates was the primary intervention. Participants were over 60 years of age; the outcomes were related to balance and falls. The Cochrane tool and PEDro scale were used to assess risk of bias and quality of individual studies. Current evidence supported the view that exercising with the Pilates method improves the balance of older adults with a high practical effect in terms of the dynamic (SMD=0.75[0.17;1.32]), static (SMD=1.33[0.53;2.13]) and overall balance (SMD=0.96[0.00;1.91]). Pilates also produced greater improvements with a moderate effect in terms of the dynamic (SMD=0.37[-0.36;1.11]) and overall balance (SMD=0.58[0.19;0.96]) compared to other training approaches oriented to the same end. Literature evaluating the effects on falls is scarce, and results were not conclusive.

  17. Comparison of the functionality of pelvic floor muscles in women who practice the Pilates method and sedentary women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ferla, Lia; Paiva, Luciana Laureano; Darki, Caroline; Vieira, Adriane

    2016-01-01

    The Pilates method is a form of physical exercise that improves the control of the core muscles, improving the conditioning of all the muscle groups that comprise the core, including the pelvic floor muscles (PFM). Thus, this study had the goal of verifying the existence of differences in the functioning of the PFM in women who practice the Pilates method and sedentary women. This was an observational, cross-sectional pilot study. A sample size calculation was performed using preliminary data and it determined that the sample should have at least 24 individuals in each group. The participants were 60 women aged 20 to 40 years; 30 women practiced the Pilates method (PMG) and 30 were sedentary (SG). An anamnesis file was used to collect personal data and assess the knowledge and perception of the PFM. The Perina perineometer and vaginal palpation were used to determine the functionality of the PFM. There was no significant difference between the PMG and the SG in any of the variables analyzed. We concluded that the functionality of the PFM in younger women who practice the Pilates method is not different from that of sedentary women.

  18. Feasibility and outcomes of a classical Pilates program on lower extremity strength, posture, balance, gait, and quality of life in someone with impairments due to a stroke.

    PubMed

    Shea, Sarah; Moriello, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    Pilates is a method that can potentially be used for stroke rehabilitation to address impairments in gait, balance, strength, and posture. The purpose of this case report was to document the feasibility of using Pilates and to describe outcomes of a 9-month program on lower extremity strength, balance, posture, gait, and quality of life in an individual with stroke. The participant was taught Pilates exercises up to two times per week for nine months in addition to traditional rehabilitation in the United States. Outcomes were assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), GAITRite System(®), 5 repetition sit-to-stand test (STST), and flexicurve. Improvements were found in balance, lower extremity strength, and quality of life. Posture and gait speed remained the same. While these changes cannot be specifically attributed to the intervention, Pilates may have added to his overall rehabilitation program and with some modifications was feasible to use in someone with a stroke. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Estudios previos han analizado los efectos de la práctica de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas y la composición corporal en poblaciones sedentarias. No existen estudios sobre los beneficios del Pilates en estas varibles tras un corto periodo de desentrenamiento. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto un programa de 16 semanas de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas, la composición coporal y el somatotipo, en mujeres adultas con experiencia previa tras 3 semanas de desentrenamiento. Metodología: A veintiuna mujeres se les realizó una valoración antropométrica completa siguiendo las indicaciones de la ISAK antes y después de un programa de Pilates mat de 16 semanas (2 días a la semana, una hora por día). Todas las mujeres tenían una experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates mat de entre 1 y 3 años y venían de un proceso de desentrenamiento de 3 semanas (vacaciones de Navidad). Resultados y discusión: Las mujeres mostraron una reducción significativa del peso corporal, el IMC, los pliegues cutáneos individuales del miembro superior (bíceps y tríceps) y el tronco (subescapular, cresta iliaca, supraespinal y abdominal), el sumatorio de 6 y 8 pliegues, la endomorfia y la masa grasa; y un aumento significativo de la masa muscular. El somatotipo medio se clasificó en meso-endomorfo para el pre- (4,91, 4,01, 1,47) y el post-test (4,68, 4,16, 1,69). Ocho mujeres cambiaron su clasificación del somatotipo tras el programa de intervención. Conclusiones: La práctica de Pilates mat durante 16 semanas provocó cambios asociados a una mejora del estado de salud en las variables antropométricas, sobre todo en los pliegues cutáneos que disminuyeron significativamente, la composición corporal (masa grasa y muscular, que disminuyeron y aumentaron, respectivamente) y el somatotipo (una reducción significativa del componente endomórfico) en mujeres con experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates después de tres semanas

  20. Increased strength of the scapular stabilizer and lumbar muscles after twelve weeks of Pilates training using the Reformer machine: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Núbia Tomain Otoni; Raimundo, Karoline Cipriano; da Silva, Sheila Aparecida; Souza, Lara Andrade; Ferreira, Karoline Carregal; Borges Santo Urbano, Zuleika Ferreira; Gasparini, Andréa Licre Pessina; Bertoncello, Dernival

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze muscle strength in Pilates novices who used the Reformer equipment during twelve training sessions. Twenty-four healthy young female volunteers, who were non-smokers and did not exercise regularly, were split into a control group (mean age 28 ± 4 years and BMI 24.55 ± 3.21 kg/m(2)) and a training group (mean age 29 ± 4 years and BMI 22.69 ± 2.87 kgm(2)). The data were checked for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and were then analyzed using the t-test (p < 0.05). After the training sessions, there were statistically significant differences between the groups for the scapular stabilizer muscles (p = 0.0263) and the lumbar muscles (p = 0.0001). For the scapular stabilizers, the initial/final values were 14.69 ± 2.80/14.79 ± 2.89 (control group) and 15.99 ± 3.54/17.44 ± 2.88 (Pilates group). The corresponding values for the lumbar muscles were 53.83 ± 11.66/53.28 ± 11.14 (control group) and 54.75 ± 10.27/64.80 ± 10.20 (Pilates group). After twelve sessions of Pilates with the Reformer equipment, there were improvements in lumbar extensor and scapular stabilizer strength. Several benefits are reported by practitioners of Pilates, but until now, there has been limited scientific evidence of the improvement of strength in the trunk and limbs after application of the technique. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Comparative effects of 12 weeks of equipment based and mat Pilates in patients with Chronic Low Back Pain on pain, function and transversus abdominis activation. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Díaz, David; Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Hita-Contreras, Fidel

    2017-08-01

    Pilates method has been recommended for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and the activation of transversus abdominis has been deemed to play an important role in the improvement of these patients. Nevertheless, the evidence of the activation of TrA in Pilates practitioners remains unclear. To assess the effectiveness of 12 weeks of Pilates practice in disability, pain, kinesiophobia and transversus abdominis activation in patients with chronic nonspecific Low Back Pain. A randomized controlled trial was carried out. A single-blind randomized controlled trial with repeated measures at 6 and 12 weeks was carried out. A total of ninety eight patients with low back pain were included and randomly allocated to a Pilates Mat group (PMG) equipment based with apparatus Pilates (PAG) or control group (CG). Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), visual analog scale (VAS) Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and transversus abdominis (TrA) activation assessed by real time ultrasound measurement (US) were assessed as outcome measures. Improvement were observed in both intervention groups in all the included variables at 6 and 12 weeks (p<0.001). Faster enhancement was observed in the equipment based Pilates group (p=0.007). Equipment based and mat Pilates modalities are both effective in the improvement of TaA activation in patients with CLBP with associate improvement on pain, function and kinesiophobia. Significant differences were observed after 12 weeks of intervention in PMG and PAG with faster improvement in PAG suggesting that, feedback provided by equipment could help in the interiorization of Pilates principles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Respiratory pattern of diaphragmatic breathing and pilates breathing in COPD subjects

    PubMed Central

    Cancelliero-Gaiad, Karina M.; Ike, Daniela; Pantoni, Camila B. F.; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Costa, Dirceu

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic breathing (DB) is widely used in pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however it has been little studied in the scientific literature. The Pilates breathing (PB) method has also been used in the rehabilitation area and has been little studied in the scientific literature and in COPD. OBJECTIVES: To compare ventilatory parameters during DB and PB in COPD patients and healthy adults. METHOD: Fifteen COPD patients (COPD group) and fifteen healthy patients (healthy group) performed three types of respiration: natural breathing (NB), DB, and PB, with the respiratory pattern being analyzed by respiratory inductive plethysmography. The parameters of time, volume, and thoracoabdominal coordination were evaluated. After the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, ANOVA was applied followed by Tukey's test (intragroup analysis) and Student's t-test (intergroup analysis; p<0.05). RESULTS: DB promoted increase in respiratory volumes, times, and SpO2 as well as decrease in respiratory rate in both groups. PB increased respiratory volumes in healthy group, with no additional benefits of respiratory pattern in the COPD group. With respect to thoracoabdominal coordination, both groups presented higher asynchrony during DB, with a greater increase in the healthy group. CONCLUSIONS: DB showed positive effects such as increase in lung volumes, respiratory motion, and SpO2 and reduction in respiratory rate. Although there were no changes in volume and time measurements during PB in COPD, this breathing pattern increased volumes in the healthy subjects and increased oxygenation in both groups. In this context, the acute benefits of DB are emphasized as a supporting treatment in respiratory rehabilitation programs. PMID:25075999

  3. Optimization of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus in submerged fermentation using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Xu, Xiangqun; Zhu, Yang

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of fermentation medium on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of exo-polysaccharides from Inonotus obliquus by response surface methodology. A two-level fractional factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of different components of medium. Corn flour, peptone, and KH2PO4 were important factors significantly affecting hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. These selected variables were subsequently optimized using path of steepest ascent (descent), a central composite design, and response surface analysis. The optimal medium composition was (% w/v): corn flour 5.30, peptone 0.32, KH2PO4 0.26, MgSO4 0.02, and CaCl2 0.01. Under the optimal condition, the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate (49.4%) was much higher than that using either basal fermentation medium (10.2%) and single variable optimization of fermentation medium (35.5%). The main monosaccharides components of the RSM optimized polysaccharides are rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose with molar proportion at 1.45%, 3.63%, 2.17%, 15.94%, 50.00%, and 26.81%.

  4. Fixed-bed biosorption of cadmium using immobilized Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N cells on loofa (Luffa cylindrica) sponge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Chun-Yen; Guo, Wan-Qian; Chang, Hao-Wei; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-05-01

    A continuous fixed-bed biosorption process was established for cadmium (Cd) removal by Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N (isolated from southern Taiwan) cells immobilized onto loofa sponge. This immobilized-cell biosorption process allows better recovery and reusability of the microalgal biomass. The growth of microalgae on the matrix support with appropriate nutrient supplementation could enhance the overall metal removal activity. Major operating parameters (e.g., feeding flow rate, cycle number of medium replacement, and particle diameter of the sponge) were studied for treatability evaluation. The most promising cell growth on the sponge support was obtained at a flow rate of 0.284 bed volume (BV)/min, sponge particle diameter of 1 cm, and with one cycle of medium replacement. The performance of fixed-bed biosorption (adsorption capacity of 38.4 mg, breakthrough time at 15.5 h) was achieved at a flow rate of 5 ml/min with an influent concentration of 7.5 mg Cd/l. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Alvarez-Díaz, P D; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2014-05-20

    This work was aimed at studying the effect of light-darkness and high-low biomass concentrations in the feasibility of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from urban treated wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Laboratory experiments were conducted in batch, where microalgae were cultured under different initial biomass concentrations (150 and 1500mgSSl(-1)) and light conditions (dark or illuminated). Nutrient uptake was more dependent on internal nutrient content of the biomass than on light presence or biomass concentration. When a maximum nitrogen or phosphorus content in the biomass was reached (around 8% and 2%, respectively), the removal of that nutrient was almost stopped. Biomass concentration affected more than light presence on the nutrient removal rate, increasing significantly with its increase. Light was only required to remove nutrients when the maximum nutrient storage capacity of the cells was reached and further growth was therefore needed. Residence times to maintain a stable biomass concentration, avoiding the washout of the reactor, were much higher than those needed to remove the nutrients from the wastewater. This ability to remove nutrients in the absence of light could lead to new configurations of reactors aimed to wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) induces G0/G1 arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Youn, Myung-Ja; Kim, Jin-Kyung; Park, Seong-Yeol; Kim, Yunha; Kim, Se-Jin; Lee, Jin Seok; Chai, Kyu Yun; Kim, Hye-Jung; Cui, Ming-Xun; So, Hong Seob; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Raekil

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) water extract on human hepatoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B cells. METHODS: The cytotoxicity of Chaga extract was screened by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Morphological observation, flow cytometry analysis, Western blot were employed to elucidate the cytotoxic mechanism of Chaga extract. RESULTS: HepG2 cells were more sensitive to Chaga extract than Hep3B cells, as demonstrated by markedly reduced cell viability. Chaga extract inhibited the cell growth in a dose-dependent manner, which was accompanied with G0/G1-phase arrest and apoptotic cell death. In addition, G0/G1 arrest in the cell cycle was closely associated with down-regulation of p53, pRb, p27, cyclins D1, D2, E, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 2, Cdk4, and Cdk6 expression. CONCLUSION: Chaga mushroom may provide a new therapeutic option, as a potential anticancer agent, in the treatment of hepatoma. PMID:18203281

  7. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  8. Delayed onset of electromyographic activity of vastus medialis obliquus relative to vastus lateralis in subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cavazzuti, L; Merlo, A; Orlandi, F; Campanini, I

    2010-07-01

    Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) is a common musculoskeletal complaint. The presence of a delay between vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle onset has been suggested in the literature as a possible cause of PFPS, with poor agreement amongst authors on the value of the delay. In this study we computed the delay in the activation of VMO and VL in 15 PFPS patients and 20 age-matched controls (Ctrls) during the following tasks: sit to stand, stand to sit, squat, step up and step down. Activation instants were detected from surface EMG data by a double-threshold statistical detector. In order to compare the muscle activity throughout the task, we computed the delay between the instants in which the VMO and VL normalised envelopes reached subsequent normalised amplitude levels, until the envelope peak. In all investigated tasks but sit to stand, the onset delay was lower or equal then 0.02s, without group differences. Similarly, no differences between Ctrls and PFPS timing were found throughout all tasks, until the peak. Our results do not support the hypothesis that an onset delay between VMO and VL can be one of the causes of PFPS.

  9. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cepák, V; Pribyl, P; Vítová, M

    2006-01-01

    The color of light (white, red, blue, and green) had a significant effect on the growth and reproductive processes (both in the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast compartment of the cells) in synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus. This effect decreased in the order red > white > blue > green. In the same order, the light phase of the cell cycle (time when first autospores started to be released) was prolonged. The length of dark phase (time when 100 % of daughters were allowed to release from mothers) was not influenced and was the same for all colors. Critical cell size for cell division in green light was shifted to a smaller size (compared with cells grown in other lights) and so was the size of released daughters. The nuclear cycle was slowed in blue and even in green light, contrary to cells grown in red and white light. At the beginning of the cell cycle, one-nucleus daughters possess approximately 10 nucleoids; during the cell cycle their number doubled in all variants before the division of nuclei. Both events were delayed in cultures grown more slowly most markedly in green light. Smaller daughters in the green variant possessed a lower number of nucleoids. Motile cells released in continuous green or blue lights but not in red one were rarely observed.

  10. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  11. CO2 biofixation and carbonic anhydrase activity in Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 cultivated in large scale open system.

    PubMed

    Basu, Samarpita; Roy, Abhijit Sarma; Mohanty, Kaustubha; Ghoshal, Aloke K

    2014-07-01

    The present study deals with the large scale open system cultivation of the novel microalga: Scenedesmus obliquus SA1 (KC733762) previously isolated in our laboratory. SA1 strain was cultivated in open system at varying CO2 levels ranging from 0.03% to 35% (v/v) and subsequently the carbonic anhydrase activity (CA) and the biochemical properties were monitored. Maximum biomass concentration (1.39 ± 0.023 g L(-1)), CO2 fixation rate (97.65 ± 1.03 mg L(-1)d(-1)) and total CA activity (166.86 ± 3.30 E.U./mg chla) were obtained at 35% CO2. CA inhibitors: acetazolamide and ethoxyzolamide inhibited the external and internal enzyme activity in SA1. High CO2 levels were favorable for the accumulation of lipids and chlorophyll. The present results suggested that SA1 possessed high CO2 tolerance and high carbohydrate, lipid and chlorophyll content when cultivated in open system thus being suitable for CO2 mitigation in outdoor ponds and subsequent generation of value added products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Responses of photosystems I and II of Acutodesmus obliquus to chemical stress caused by the use of recycled nutrients.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Dominik J; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients derived from hydrothermal gasification of Acutodesmus obliquus were tested on its biological compatibility to support growth of the same microalgae. Photosynthetic parameters of photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II) were investigated to study physiological effects on the microalgal cell. The nutrients were collected as liquid residues. Dilutions of 1:500 showed no effect on both photosystems. Lower dilutions affected PS II initially and later also PS I. Cyclic electron flow around PS I compensated for loss of electrons due to partially inhibited PS II. The highest tested concentration of liquid residue erased any photosynthetic activity of PS II after 28 min and onwards. In contrast, PS I remained active. The results suggest that PS I is less susceptible than PS II and that the mixture of chemicals in the liquid residue did not directly affect PS I but PS II. The toxicants in the residues seemed to interfere with linear electron flow of PS II even though light-driven formation of radicals and subsequent damage to one of the photosystems can be excluded as demonstrated in darkness. Lowered photosynthetic activity of PS I during actinic irradiation was caused due to lack of supply of electrons from PS II. The cyclic electron flow might play a key role in delivering the energy needed to restore PS II activity and to biodegrade the toxicants when linear electron flow failed. These negative effects of liquid residue towards microalgal cells require a remediation step for direct application of the liquid residue to substitute commercial fertilizers in microalgal mass cultures.

  13. Effects of temperature and pH on growth and antioxidant content of the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Guedes, A Catarina; Amaro, Helena M; Pereira, Ricardo D; Malcata, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Reactive forms of oxygen can damage DNA (among other molecules), thus triggering, e.g., atherogenesis and carcinogenesis. However, such dietary antioxidants as lutein and β-carotene can effectively inactivate them; these compounds were found to high levels in a novel strain (M2-1) of the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. The independent and combined effects of pH and temperature on its rates of growth and production of antioxidants were experimentally assessed, via a full factorial experimental design; the effects of each parameter independently, and of their interactions were accordingly quantified by ANOVA. Our results indicated that temperature plays a more important role on the maximum specific growth rate than pH; in terms of antioxidant content, pH and, to a lesser extent, temperature also have relevant effects. Consequently, the highest rate of biomass specific growth (0.294 ± 0.013 day(-1)) and biomass productivity (0.837 ± 0.054 mg L(-1) day(-1)) were associated with relatively low pH (6) and relatively high temperature (30°C). Conversely, the antioxidant production rate increased with pH; hence, the highest productivity (0.638 mg L(-1) day(-1)) was attained at pH 8 and 30°C. At the best operating conditions for antioxidant content, the levels of lutein and β-carotene were 203.57 ± 1.41 and 18.20 ± 0.33 mg mL(-1), respectively; the maximum production of either one occurred at the early exponential phase.

  14. Enantioselective oxidative stress caused by chiral ionic liquids forms of 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Xia, Yilu; Li, Yue; Du, Shaoting

    2017-10-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are widely used, but their potential threat to the environment has recently gained more attention. The enantioselective oxidative stress caused by chiral ionic liquids (CILs), such as 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T), on Scenedesmus obliquus was demonstrated in this study. Stronger green fluorescence was observed in response to l-(+)-RMIM T treatment than to d-(+)-RMIM T treatment, which suggested that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were stimulated by l-(+)-RMIM T. Significantly higher ROS levels were recorded during the RMIM T treatments than in the control. There were 1.13-, 1.25-, 1.43-, 1.68-, and 1.96-fold increases over levels in the control in the 3, 5, 10, 15, and 25mg/L d-(-)-HMIM T treatments, respectively, and 1.26-, 1.37-, 1.58-, 1.86- and 2.08-fold increases over levels in the control in the 3, 5, 10, 15, and 25mg/L l-(+)-HMIM T treatments, respectively. The total soluble protein content decreased as the RMIM T concentration increased. The SOD and CAT activities were stimulated at lower concentrations, but were inhibited at higher concentrations. Regression analysis implied that ROS is the major factor responsible for the oxidative damage caused by RMIM T. The ultrastructural morphology analysis showed that plasmolysis and damage to the chloroplasts, starch granule decreases, and lipid granule increased, and pyrenoid and nucleoid damage had occurred. These results showed that enantioselective oxidative stress and oxidative damage were caused by d-(+)-RMIM T and l-(+)-RMIM T, and that l-(+)-RMIM T caused more damage than d-(+)-RMIM T. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  16. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP.Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T)1.Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG.The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings.

  17. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  18. Antidiabetic activities of polysaccharides separated from Inonotus obliquus via the modulation of oxidative stress in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Hu, Wenji; Li, Lanzhou; Huang, Xinping; Liu, Yange; Wang, Di; Teng, Lirong

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOs) on diabetes and other underlying mechanisms related to inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Four weeks administration of metformin (120 mg/kg) and IO1-4 (50%-80% alcohol precipitation), or IO5 (total 80% alcohol precipitation) at doses of 50 mg/kg reverses the abnormal changes of bodyweights and fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic mice. IOs significantly increased the insulin and pyruvate kinase levels in serum, and improved the synthesis of glycogen, especially for IO5. IOs restored the disturbed serum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde. The down-regulation of interleukin-2 receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and the enhancement of interleukin-2 in serum of diabetic mice were significantly attenuated by IOs. Histologic and morphology examinations showed that IOs repaired the damage on kidney tissues, inhibited inflammatory infiltrate and extracellular matrix deposit injuries in diabetic mice. Compared with untreated diabetic mice, IOs decreased the expression of phosphor-NF-κB in the kidneys. These results show that IOs treatment attenuated diabetic and renal injure in STZ-induced diabetic mice, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. These results provide valuable evidences to support the use of I. obliquus as a hypoglycemic functional food and/or medicine.

  19. Antidiabetic activities of polysaccharides separated from Inonotus obliquus via the modulation of oxidative stress in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Hu, Wenji; Li, Lanzhou; Huang, Xinping; Liu, Yange; Teng, Lirong

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOs) on diabetes and other underlying mechanisms related to inflammatory factors and oxidative stress in a mouse model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Four weeks administration of metformin (120 mg/kg) and IO1-4 (50%-80% alcohol precipitation), or IO5 (total 80% alcohol precipitation) at doses of 50 mg/kg reverses the abnormal changes of bodyweights and fasting blood glucose levels of diabetic mice. IOs significantly increased the insulin and pyruvate kinase levels in serum, and improved the synthesis of glycogen, especially for IO5. IOs restored the disturbed serum levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and malondialdehyde. The down-regulation of interleukin-2 receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and the enhancement of interleukin-2 in serum of diabetic mice were significantly attenuated by IOs. Histologic and morphology examinations showed that IOs repaired the damage on kidney tissues, inhibited inflammatory infiltrate and extracellular matrix deposit injuries in diabetic mice. Compared with untreated diabetic mice, IOs decreased the expression of phosphor-NF-κB in the kidneys. These results show that IOs treatment attenuated diabetic and renal injure in STZ-induced diabetic mice, possibly through the modulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory factors. These results provide valuable evidences to support the use of I. obliquus as a hypoglycemic functional food and/or medicine. PMID:28662169

  20. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Helena M; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Sousa-Pinto, I; Malcata, F Xavier; Guedes, A Catarina

    2015-10-20

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components-especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS(+•))) and biological reactive species (O₂(•)⁻ and (•)NO⁻). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•), respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O₂(•)⁻, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in (•)NO⁻ assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance-which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs.

  1. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in photobioreactors: effects of light intensities and light-dark cycles on growth, productivity, and biochemical composition.

    PubMed

    Gris, Barbara; Morosinotto, Tomas; Giacometti, Giorgio M; Bertucco, Alberto; Sforza, Eleonora

    2014-03-01

    One of the main parameters influencing microalgae production is light, which provides energy to support metabolism but, if present in excess, can lead to oxidative stress and growth inhibition. In this work, the influence of illumination on Scenedesmus obliquus growth was assessed by cultivating cells at different light intensities in a flat plate photobioreactor. S. obliquus showed a maximum growth rate at 150 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1). Below this value, light was limiting for growth, while with more intense illumination photosaturation effects were observed, although cells still showed the ability to duplicate. Looking at the biochemical composition, light affected the pigment contents only while carbohydrate, lipid, and protein contents remained stable. By considering that in industrial photobioreactors microalgae cells are subjected to light-dark cycles due to mixing, algae were also grown under pulsed illumination (5, 10, and 15 Hz). Interestingly, the ability to exploit pulsed light with good efficiency required a pre-acclimation to the same conditions, suggesting the presence of a biological response to these conditions.

  2. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Helena M.; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Guedes, A. Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2•− and •NO−). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•−, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO− assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  3. Effects of DDT and dicofol on population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus under different algal (Scenedesmus obliquus) densities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Chu, Zhao-Xia; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2014-09-01

    A number of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT and dicofol, used to be important in crop protection and management. Their residues may reach water bodies and eventually affect the non-target organisms such as rotifers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of DDT (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg l(-1)) and dicofol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1)) on the population growth of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under two levels of Scenedesmus obliquus (1.0 x 10(6) and 3.0 x 10(6) cell ml(-1)). Regardless of the food level, DDT was more toxic than dicofol to B. calyciflorus. Under low food level, DDT at 0.1 and 0.2 mg l(-1) decreased the population growth rate (r), and DDT at 0.05-0.4 mg l(-1) decreased the maximum population density (K). Dicofol at 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1) decreased r and K, but dicofol at 0.2 mg l(-1) increased K. Under high food level, DDT at 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) increased K, whereas DDT at 0.4 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1) decreased r and K. Increase in food level increased r exposed to DDT at 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.8 mg l(-1), and Kexposed to DDTat 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.1 and 0.2 mg l(-1). DDT concentration, algal density and their interaction affected r and K of B. calyciflorus. Both dicofol concentration and algal density affected r. Dicofol concentration, algal density and their interaction affected K. Both r and K were suitable endpoints for assessing the effects of DDT and dicofol on the rotifers population dynamics under two algal densities, and the latter was more sensitive.

  4. [A study of the antiherpetic activity of the chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts in the Vero cells infected with the herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Polkovnikova, M V; Nosik, N N; Garaev, T M; Kondrashina, N G; Finogenova, M P; Shibnev, V A

    2014-01-01

    The chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) contains a wide range of excellent bioactive compounds. However, limited information exists on the antiviral activity of the compounds extracted from chaga. A number of subfractions of chaga were obtained using different solvents and different procedures. The subfractions of chaga extracted with water, alcohol, alkali were tested for their toxicity for the Vero cell culture and antiviral effect in the Vero cells infected with the Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Type 1. It was shown that most of the subfractions were not toxic for the Vero cells and had protective effect on the Vero cells infected with HSV. The subfraction IV in the concentration 5 microg/ml protected the Vero cells from cytodestructive action of HSV and no viral DNA was detected in infected cells treated with chaga extracts. Best protective effect was observed when compound was added before or within one hour after the Vero cells were infected with HSV.

  5. Separation of an aqueous extract Inonotus obliquus (Chaga). A novel look at the efficiency of its influence on proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rydel, Katarzyna; Pogocki, Dariusz; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Inonotus obliquus was hydrolyzed in dilute hydrochloric acid. The products were extracted applying organic solvents, and separated chromatographically on a silica gel-packed column. Eluted fractions were analyzed by means of GC-MS. The presence of hydrocarbons, alcohols, phenols and various carbonyl compounds in analyzed fractions has been detected and quantified. Preliminarily experiments on the influence of certain separated samples on the proliferation of A549 human lung carcinoma cells were performed. Therefore, we hypothesize that the major antiproliferative effects are related to the presence of benzaldehyde, which is a benzyl alcohol metabolite formed in situ in the cells culture with the yield moderated by the presence of trace amounts of "high molecular mass compounds".

  6. Biokinetics of cadmium, selenium, and zinc in freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus under different phosphorus and nitrogen conditions and metal transfer to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ri-Qing; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2004-06-01

    The uptake of Cd, Se(IV) and Zn by the freshwater alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the subsequent transfer and release budget in Daphnia magna were investigated under different nutrient additions and cell incubation conditions. An increase in ambient phosphate concentrations from 0.5 micromol l(-1) to 50 micromol l(-1) significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of Cd (by 18x) and Zn (by 5x), but decreased the accumulation of Se (by 126x) in the alga. The percentage of these metals distributing in the intracellular pool of algae also increased substantially with increasing ambient P concentrations. Nitrate addition from 5.0 to 200 micromol l(-1) did not influence the uptake of any of the three metals, although a significant decrease in the intracellular Se distribution was observed. Radiolabeled algae under different nutrient manipulations (semi-continuous culture, starvation, and P-pulse treatments) were used to measure trophic transfer assimilation efficiency (AE) in Daphnia. When the algal cells were grown in a semi-continuous culture, starved for N and P, or were treated with P-pulse, the AEs of Cd and Zn were generally independent of the nutritional conditions, but the Se AE was significantly affected by different P levels. The efflux rate constants, determined during 10 d depuration following 7 days of dietary uptake, decreased significantly for Cd and Zn, but were relatively constant for Se with increasing P concentration. N-addition caused no effect on the metal efflux rate constants. P- or N-additions did not influence the release budget (including molting, neonates, excretion and feces) for all three elements in Daphnia. Our study indicated that phosphate enrichment may substantially increase metal uptake in green alga S. obliquus. Responses of trophic transfer in Daphnia to nutrient enrichment were metal specific. P-enrichment can possibly lead to considerable decrease on Se transfer from algae to zooplankton.

  7. Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent.

  8. Effect of conventional physical therapy and Pilates in functionality, respiratory muscle strength and ability to exercise in hospitalized chronic renal patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Lais A; Pinto, Juliana Sst; da Silva, Ana Pp; Cabral, Cristina Mn; Chiavegato, Luciana D

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effect of conventional physical therapy and Pilates on function, restoration, and exercise ability in hospitalized chronic renal patients. A total of 56 inpatients were randomized into two groups: Conventional physical therapy and Pilates. The primary outcomes were functionality (Barthel Index), respiratory muscle strength (manovacuometry), and ability to exercise (step test) evaluated in the following periods: preintervention, after the 5th session, and after the 10th session or at discharge. Three months after randomization, the Barthel Index was applied over the phone. At the end of the 10 sessions or at discharge, the length of hospital stay was calculated and the level of satisfaction with physical therapy care was assessed (MedRisk). Linear mixed models were used for the primary outcomes and the Student's t-test was used for length of stay and satisfaction. There was no significant between-group difference in functionality (MD -1.3; 95% CI -2.8 to 5.4), inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength (MD -1.3; 95% CI -7.3 to 4.5/MD -4.5; 95% CI -0.7 to 9.7, respectively), performance in the step test (MD -3.3; 95% CI -6.2 to 12.8), patient satisfaction with physical therapy care (MD -2.0; 95% CI -5.1 to 9.1), and length of stay (MD 4.5; 95% CI -15.9 to 6.8). Both interventions, conventional physical therapy and Pilates, showed improvements and there is no difference between them. Therefore both can be used in chronic renal patients.

  9. The effects of Pilates method on pelvic floor muscle strength in patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Cíntia S; Pedriali, Fabiana R; Urbano, Mariana R; Moreira, Eliane H; Averbeck, Marcio A; Almeida, Silvio Henrique M

    2017-05-02

    To assess the effects of a Pilates exercise program compared to conventional pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) protocol on pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) in patients with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Patients were randomized into three treatment groups (G1: Pilates, G2: electrical stimulation combined with PFMT, and G3: control group). Duration of therapy was 10 weeks. Baseline assessment included the 24 h pad-test and the ICI-Q questionnaire. PFMS was measured using a manometric perineometry device at baseline and 4 months after radical prostatectomy (RP). The level of significance was P < 0.05. One hundred twenty three patients were randomized and 104 patients completed the study protocol (G1: n = 34; G2: n = 35; G3: n = 35). Post-treatment assessment showed statistically significant improvements in maximum strength in G2, increased endurance in G1 and G2, and increment of muscle power in all three groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the mean changes of maximum strength, endurance, and muscle power between groups after treatment (P > 0.05). G1 and G2 achieved a higher number of fully continent patients than G3 (P < 0.05). At the end of treatment, 59% of patients in G1, 54% in G2, and 26% in G3 were continent (no pads/day). Improvements in PFMS parameters were distinct among active treatment groups versus controls, but did not predict recovery of urinary continence at final assessment. The Pilates method promoted similar outcomes in the proportion of fully continent patients when compared to conventional PFMT 4 months after RP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of a six-week Pilates intervention on balance and fear of falling in women aged over 65 with chronic low-back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; De la Torre-Cruz, Manuel J; Casuso, Rafael A; de Guevara, Nicolás Mendoza Ladrón; Hita-Contreras, Fidel

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effects of six weeks of Pilates regarding functional balance, fear of falling and pain in community living women older than 65 years old with chronic low-back pain. A single blind controlled randomized trial of six weeks of Pilates in addition to physiotherapy treatment (n=50) vs. physiotherapy treatment alone (n=47) was conducted on 97 community living women (71.14 ± 3.30 years) with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Main outcome measures were fear of falling (FoF), assessed by the Falls Efficacy Scale-international; functional mobility and balance, measured with the Timed up and Go Test; and pain, evaluated using the numeric rating scale. Only the Pilates group showed improvement in FoF (ES; d=.68) and functional mobility and balance (ES; d=1.12) after treatment, and also had better results in pain (ES; d=1.46) than the physiotherapy-only group. Six weeks of Pilates exercises may be effective in fall prevention through the improvement of FoF, functional balance, and pain in Spanish women over 65 years old with CLBP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Short- and long-term effects of a six-week clinical Pilates program in addition to physical therapy on postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Díaz, David; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Osuna-Pérez, M C; De la Torre-Cruz, M J; Hita-Contreras, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    To determine the short- and long-term effectiveness of the application of Clinical Pilates in addition to physical therapy versus a physical therapy treatment alone in a population of postmenopausal women with chronic low back pain (CLBP). A single-blind randomized controlled trial with repeated measures and a follow-up period. One hundred and one patients were randomly allocated to a Pilates + physical therapy (PPT) group or to a physical therapy (PT) only group for six weeks. Pain and disability were measured by visual analog scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index respectively preintervention, after 6 weeks of treatment and after 1-year follow-up. There were significant differences between groups in pain and disability after 6 weeks of treatment, with better results in the PPT group with an effect size of d = 3.14 and d = 2.33 for pain and disability. After 1-year follow-up, only PPT group showed better results compared with baseline with an effect size of d = 2.49 and d = 4.98 for pain and disability. The results suggest that using Clinical Pilates in addition to physical therapy provides improved results on pain management and functional status for postmenopausal woman with CLBP and that its benefits still linger after one year. Chronic Low Back Pain could benefit from the Pilates practice in postmenopausal women. Improvement in pain and disability derived from CLBP seem to be maintained over time due to Pilates practice. Pilates constitutes a safe tool to be applied in older population with CLBP due to its ability to be adapted to every performance and physical level.

  12. The effects of Pilates exercise training on physical fitness and wellbeing in the elderly: A systematic review for future exercise prescription.

    PubMed

    Bullo, V; Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Sieverdes, J C; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-06-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the effects of Pilates exercise training (PET) in elderly population on physical fitness, balance and fall prevention, and its effects on mood states, quality of life and independence in the daily living activities. Keyword "Pilates" associated with "elderly", "aging" and "old subjects" were identified as terms for the literature research in MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus. Only studies published in peer-reviewed journals written in English language were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes (ES) calculated. 10 studies were identified (6 RCTs and 4 uncontrolled trials); age ranged from 60 to 80years. Overall, PET showed large ES to improve muscle strength (ES=1.23), walking and gait performances (ES=1.39), activities of daily living, mood states and quality of life (ES=0.94), moderate to high effect on dynamic balance (ES=0.77), small effects on static balance (ES=0.34) and flexibility (ES=0.31), while a small effect on cardio-metabolic outcomes (ES=0.07). PET should be taken into account as a way to improve quality of life in the elderly, due to the imparted benefits of fall prevention, physical fitness, and mood states. In this context, physicians might include PET as a tool for exercise prescriptions for the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise: A quality evaluation and summary of systematic reviews based on randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Hiroharu; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Katsumata, Yoichi; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Okuizumi, Hiroyasu; Okada, Shinpei; Park, Sang-Jun; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Abe, Takafumi; Mutoh, Yoshiteru

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this review were to summarize evidence for the effectiveness of Pilates exercise (PE) and to assess the quality of systematic review (SRs) based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic review of SRs based on RCTs. Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included those with one treatment group in which PE was applied. We searched the following databases from 1995 up to August 20, 2014: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Global Health Library, and Ichushi-Web. We also searched All Cochrane Database and Campbell Systematic Reviews up to August 20, 2014. Based on the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10), we identified a disease targeted for each article. Nine studies met all inclusion criteria. As a whole, the quality of the articles was good. Seven studies were about "Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (M5456)". There were two studies in "Factors influencing health status and contact with health services (Z723)". The traits of participants were for females and the comparatively young- and middle-aged. Five SRs for chronic low back pain (CLBP) concluded that there was pain-relief and functional improvement of the intervention in the short term, but two SRs were inconclusive about the effectiveness of PE. There were no adverse events described in any of the studies. Although no SR reported any adverse effect or harm by PE, there was pain-relief and functional improvement attributed to PE in the short term in participants with CLBP. There was also evidence of improved flexibility and dynamic balance, and of enhanced muscular endurance in healthy people in the short term. In addition, there may have been an effect on body composition in the short term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering strategies for improving the CO2 fixation and carbohydrate productivity of Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N used for bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Kondo, Akihiko; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-09-01

    Engineering strategies were applied to improve the cell growth, CO2 fixation ability, and carbohydrate productivity of a Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N isolate. The resulting carbohydrate-rich microalgal biomass was subsequently utilized as feedstock for ethanol fermentation. The microalga was cultivated with 2.5% CO2 in a photobioreactor on different operation modes. Semi-batch operations with 50% replacement of culture medium resulted in the highest CO2 fixation rate (1546.7 mg L(-1) d(-1)), carbohydrate productivity (467.6 mg L(-1) d(-1)), and bioethanol yield (0.202 g/g biomass). This performance is better than most reported values in the literature. The microalgal biomass can accumulate nearly 50% carbohydrates, as glucose accounted for nearly 80% of the total carbohydrate content. This glucose-predominant carbohydrate composition of the microalga is well suited for fermentative bioethanol production. Therefore, using the proposed carbohydrate-rich microalgal biomass both as the carbon sink and as the feedstock provides a feasible alternative to current carbon-reduction and bioethanol-production strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Strategic enhancement of algal biomass, nutrient uptake and lipid through statistical optimization of nutrient supplementation in coupling Scenedesmus obliquus-like microalgae cultivation and municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunmin; Zhang, Yalei; Zhuang, Baolu; Zhou, Xuefei

    2014-11-01

    Supplementing proper nutrients could be a strategy for enhancing algal biomass, nutrients uptake and lipid accumulation in the coupling system of biodiesel production and municipal wastewater treatment. However, there is scant information reporting systematic studies on screening and optimization of key supplemented components in the coupling system. The main factors were scientifically screened and optimized using statistical methods. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was used to explore the roles of added nutrient factors, whereas response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for optimization. Based on the statistic analysis, the optimum added TP and FeCl3·6H2O concentrations for Scenedesmus obliquus-like microalgae growth, nutrients uptake and lipid accumulation were 4.41 mg L(-1) and 6.48 mg L(-1), respectively. The corresponding biomass, lipid content and TN/TP removal efficiency were 1.46 g L(-1), 36.26% and >99%. The predicted value agreed well with the experimental value, as determined by validation experiments, which confirmed the availability and accuracy of the model.

  17. Hepatoprotective Activity of Water Extracts from Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Tert-Butyl Hydroperoxide-Induced Oxidative Liver Injury in Primary Cultured Rat Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Bae; Noh, Dong Ouk; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2015-01-01

    We examined the hepatoprotective activity of Inonotus obliquus water extract (IO-W) against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured rat hepatocyte. The 50% radical scavenging concentrations (SC50s) of IO-W for radical-scavenging activity against 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothi- azoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) were 5.19 mg/mL and 0.39 mg/mL, respectively. IO-W pretreatment to the primary cultured hepatocytes significantly (p<0.05) protected the cells from t-BHP-induced cytotoxic injury even at a low concentration of IO-W (10 µg/mL). The cellular leakage of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) formation caused by t-BHP were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by IO-W pretreatment (>100 µg/ mL). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that IO-W exhibited hepatoprotective activity against t-BHP-induced oxidative liver injury in the primary cultured hepatocyte probably via its abilities of quenching free radicals, inhibiting the leakage of ALT, AST, and LDH, and decreasing MDA formation.

  18. Temperature-dependent sensitivity of growth and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus, Navicula pelliculosa and two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide atrazine.

    PubMed

    Chalifour, Annie; Juneau, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The temperature-dependent sensitivities of two algal species and two strains of cyanobacteria to the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide atrazine were evaluated in order to understand how the interaction between acclimation temperature and herbicide will affect growth and photosynthesis of aquatic microorganisms. The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and a toxic and non-toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were acclimated to three different temperatures (10, 15 and 25°C) and exposed to five concentrations of the herbicide atrazine (0-0.15μM) for 72h. Growth, photosynthetic yields, energy fluxes within photosystem II and pigment content were then measured as potential responses to each treatment. With the exception of N. pelliculosa, the toxicity of atrazine was higher when microorganisms were acclimated to lower temperatures. N. pelliculosa was not only the most tolerant to atrazine, but also had a similar sensitivity to this herbicide at every temperature. The observed differences in growth sensitivity to atrazine at low temperature are associated with the ability of algae and cyanobacteria to cope with high excitation pressure, by increasing its protective carotenoid content and non-photochemical energy dissipation. Our results demonstrate that future guidelines for the protection of aquatic life should consider water temperature as an important factor influencing the toxicity of atrazine to aquatic microorganisms.

  19. Participation trends in holistic movement practices: a 10-year comparison of yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong use among a national sample of 195,926 Australians.

    PubMed

    Vergeer, Ineke; Bennie, Jason A; Charity, Melanie J; Harvey, Jack T; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Biddle, Stuart J H; Eime, Rochelle M

    2017-06-06

    In recent decades, the evidence supporting the physical and mental health benefits of holistic movement practices such as yoga and t'ai chi have become increasingly established. Consequently, investigating the participation prevalence and patterns of these practices is a relevant pursuit in the public health field. Few studies have provided population-level assessment of participation rates, however, and even fewer have focused on patterns over time. The purpose of this study was to examine participation prevalence and trends in yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong over a ten-year period in a nationally representative sample of Australians aged 15 years and over, with particular attention to sex and age. A secondary purpose was to juxtapose these findings with participation trends in traditional fitness activities over the same period. Data comprised modes and types of physical activity, age, and sex variables collected through the Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey (ERASS), a series of independent cross-sectional Australia-wide surveys conducted yearly between 2001 and 2010. For each year, weighted population estimates were calculated for those participating in yoga/Pilates, t'ai chi/qigong, and fitness activities (e.g. aerobics, calisthenics). Linear regression and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine trends in prevalence rates over time and differences among sex and age (15-34; 35-54; 55+ years) groups, respectively. Average prevalence rates between 2001 and 2010 were 3.0% (95% CI 2.9-3.1) for yoga/Pilates, 0.6% (95% CI 0.5-0.6) for t'ai chi/qigong, and 19.2% (95% CI 18.9-19.4) for fitness activities. Across the decade, overall participation rates remained relatively stable for yoga/Pilates and t'ai chi/qigong, while increasing linearly for fitness activities. For both genders and in all three age groups, participation in fitness activities increased, whereas only in the 55+ age group was there a significant increase in yoga/Pilates

  20. Effects of Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher training on disease activity, spinal motility and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ţopa, Ionuţ; Chirieac, Rodica; Ancuta, Codrina

    2014-03-01

    The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity. This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences

  1. Muscle Activation During Pilates Exercises in Participants With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Naiane Teixeira Bastos de; Freitas, Sandra Maria Sbeghen Ferreira; Fuhro, Fernanda Ferreira; Luz, Maurício Antônio da; Amorim, Cesar Ferreira; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2017-01-01

    To determine the amplitude of the electromyographic activity of trunk muscles during Pilates exercises in women with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). Case-control study. University physical therapy clinic. Women (N=60) divided into an LBP group and a control group. Not applicable. Amplitude of the electromyographic activity (root mean square values) of the gluteus maximus and external oblique muscles collected during 3 Pilates exercises: Shoulder Bridge performed on the mat, and Hip Roll and Breathing performed in equipment. Pain intensity was assessed in the LBP group. The amplitude of the electromyographic activity was similar between groups (P≥.05). For both groups, the amplitude of the gluteus maximus was higher in the Shoulder Bridge exercise compared with the Hip Roll with 2 springs (control group: mean difference [MD]=.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], .05-.41; LBP group: MD=.29; 95% CI, .16-.31) and the Breathing exercise (control group: MD=-.40; 95% CI, -.55 to -.26; LBP group: MD=-.36; 95% CI, -.52 to -.20). The amplitude of the external oblique muscle was higher in the Shoulder Bridge compared with the Hip Roll with 2 springs (control group: MD=.13; 95% CI, .05-.21; LBP group: MD=.18; 95% CI, .03-.33). Pain intensity increased after exercises, but this increase was lower for the mat exercises. Similar muscle activation between groups was found. The findings suggest that mat exercises caused less pain and a greater difference in the amplitude of muscle activation compared with the equipment-based exercises. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reversal of the TPA-induced inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication by Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extracts: effects on MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Ran; Park, Joon-Suk; Jo, Eun-Hye; Hwang, Jae-Woong; Kim, Sun-Jung; Ra, Jeong-Chan; Aruoma, Okezie I; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2006-01-01

    Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has continued to receive attention as a folk medicine with indications for the treatment of cancers and digestive diseases. The anticarcinogenic effect of Chaga mushroom extract was investigated using a model system of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in WB-F344 normal rat liver epithelial cells. The cells were pre-incubated with Chaga mushroom extracts (5, 10, 20 microg/ml) for 24 h and this was followed by co-treatment with Chaga mushroom extracts and TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, 10 ng/ml) for 1 h. The inhibition of GJIC by TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), promoter of cancer, was prevented with treatment of Chaga mushroom extracts. Similarly, the increased phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38 protein kinases were markedly reduced in Chaga mushroom extracts-treated cells. There was no change in the JNK kinase protein level, suggesting that Chaga mushroom extracts could only block the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. The Chaga mushroom extracts further prevented the inhibition of GJIC through the blocking of Cx43 phosphorylation. Indeed cell-to-cell communication through gap junctional channels is a critical factor in the life and death balance of cells because GJIC has an important function in maintaining tissue homeostasis through the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and adaptive functions of differentiated cells. Thus Chaga mushroom may act as a natural anticancer product by preventing the inhibition of GJIC through the inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase.

  3. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Iswarya, V; Archanaa, S; Madhu, G M; Kumar, G K Suraish; Nagarajan, R; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-05-01

    Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5±2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2±38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn(2+) ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses.

  4. Feasibility of CO2 mitigation and carbohydrate production by microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N used for bioethanol fermentation under outdoor conditions: effects of seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Yi-Di; Chang, Ching-Yu; Lai, Yen-Ying; Chen, Chun-Yen; Kondo, Akihiko; Ren, Nan-Qi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Although outdoor cultivation systems have been widely used for mass production of microalgae at a relatively low cost, there are still limited efforts on outdoor cultivation of carbohydrate-rich microalgae that were further used as feedstock for fermentative bioethanol production. In particular, the effects of seasonal changes on cell growth, CO2 fixation, and carbohydrate production of the microalgae have not been well investigated. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using outdoor tubular photobioreactors (PBR) for whole-year-round cultivation of a carbohydrate-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N in southern Taiwan. Time-course profile of the carbohydrate content under nitrogen-deficient conditions was monitored to assess the seasonal changes. The optimal CO2 fixation rate and carbohydrate productivity were 430.2 mg L(-1) d(-1)and 111.8 mg L(-1)d(-1), respectively, which were obtained during the summer time. Under nitrogen starvation, the microalgal biomass can accumulate nearly 45-50% of carbohydrates, mainly composed of glucose that accounted for 70-80% of the total carbohydrates in the microalgal cells. This glucose-rich microalgal biomass is apparently a very suitable carbon source for bioethanol fermentation. This work shows the feasibility of combining CO2 fixation and bioethanol production using microalgae grown in outdoor photobioreactors as feedstock. The understanding of the seasonal changes in the carbohydrate productivity makes this approach more practically viable. The novel strategy proposed in this study could be a promising alternative to the existing technology dealing with CO2 mitigation and biofuels production.

  5. Inducible trehalase enzyme activity of Morchella conica Persoon mycelium.

    PubMed

    Czövek, Pálma; Király, I

    2011-03-01

    Morchella conica Pers. strains of the study were isolated from fruit bodies collected in ash-mixed forests. At first, the strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), then on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid agar media. A normal-growing strain was chosen for the trehalase induction experiments. During the trehalase induction treatment, mycelia were grown in liquid culture containing different concentrations of trehalose. After the induction period of trehalase enzymes, physiological state of the mycelium and the oxidative stress were monitored in the vegetative mycelia by measuring the change of the malondialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase enzyme activity, the fresh and dry weight. The examined Morchella conica strain utilized the trehalose properly. The rising amount of the trehalose triggered the increase of the mycelial trehalase enzyme activity. Our results clearly proved that both neutral and acidic trehalase isoenzyme activity of the Morchella conica mycelium are inducible and are playing important role in the utilization of external trehalose.

  6. Comparison of the electromyographic activity of the anterior trunk during the execution of two Pilates exercises - teaser and longspine - for healthy people.

    PubMed

    Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Menacho, Maryela de Oliveira; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Obara, Karen; Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Abrão, Taufik; Iversen, Maura Daly; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2014-10-01

    This study compared abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity during the performance of Pilates' exercises. 16 females participated in the study. EMG signals of the rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded during Longspine performed on the mat, Cadillac, and Reformer and the Teaser performed on the mat, Cadillac, and Combo-chair. Values were normalized by the EMG peak of a dynamic task and divided in concentric and eccentric phases. Longspine performed on the mat increased EO activity in the concentric phase more than on the Reformer and the Cadillac (Mean Difference (MD)=12.2%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [3.36; 21.04]; p=.04). Differences in the eccentric phase of the RA favored the mat compared to the Reformer (MD=5.20%; 95% CI [-0.55; 10.95]; p=.02). Significant differences in eccentric contraction of the RA were found for teaser exercise performed on the mat versus Cadillac (MD=1.1%; 95% CI [-4.13; 6.33]; p=.04) and the mat versus the Combo-chair (MD=6.3%; 95% CI [1.31; 11.29]; p=.005). Higher concentric activation values for the EO were found when the teaser exercise was performed on the Cadillac. Exercises performed on the mat required greater rectus abdominis activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Biosynthesis of isoprenoids (carotenoids, sterols, prenyl side-chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone) via a novel pyruvate/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate non-mevalonate pathway in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Schwender, J; Seemann, M; Lichtenthaler, H K; Rohmer, M

    1996-05-15

    Isoprenoid biosynthesis was investigated in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown heterotrophically on 13C-labelled glucose and acetate. Several isoprenoid compounds were isolated and investigated by 13C-NMR spectroscopy. According to the 13C-labelling pattern indicated by the 13C-NMR spectra, the biosynthesis of all plastidic isoprenoids investigated (prenyl side-chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone-9, and the carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein), as well as of the non-plastidic cytoplasmic sterols, does not proceed via the classical acetate/mevalonate pathway (which leads from acetyl-CoA via mevalonate to isopentenyl diphosphate), but via the novel glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate/pyruvate route recently detected in eubacteria. Formation of isopentenyl diphosphate involves the condensation of a C2 unit derived from pyruvate decarboxylation with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and a transposition yielding the branched C5 skeleton of isoprenic units.

  8. Antitumor activity of a polysaccharide-protein complex isolated from a wood-rotting polypore macro fungus Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Meera, C R; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2012-01-01

    A protein-bound, water-soluble polysaccharide-protein complex was isolated from a medicinal mushroom, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat (PPC-Pr). The isolation was achieved by hot water extraction, filtration, solvent precipitation, dialysis, and freeze-drying. The proximate analysis showed that PPC-Pr comprised 54.8% polysaccharide and 28.6% protein. The molecular weight of the compound was determined by gel filtration using a Sephadex G 100. The molecular weight of PPC-Pr was approximately 1,200,000 D. The thin-layer chromatography analysis of PPC-Pr after acid hydrolysis with trifluroacetic acid showed that it was composed of glucose as the only monosaccharide unit. The amino acid profile analysis of PPC-Pr revealed that it contained large amounts of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, glycine, and serine. Thus, the results indicated that PPC-Pr is a glucan-protein complex. The PPC-Pr did not show in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell lines. The PPC-Pr was found to be effective in increasing the life span of ascites tumors induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cell line in mice. PPC-Pr also was found to have significant preventive and curative effects on solid tumors induced by the Dalton's lymphoma ascites cell line. The experimental results thus indicated that protein-bound polysaccharide (PPC-Pr) isolated from P. rimosus possessed profound antitumor activity. The findings suggest the potential therapeutic use of this compound as an antitumor agent.

  9. Pilates and Dance to Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-12

    Breast Cancer; Quality of Life; Lymphedema; Fatigue; Depressive Symptoms; Body Image; Self Esteem; Optimism; Sexual Function Disturbances; Stress; Sleep Disturbance; Pain; Muscular Weakness; Postural Balance; Range of Motion; Cardiorespiratory Fitness

  10. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling

    PubMed Central

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients. PMID:26868157

  11. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients.

  12. Toxicity and accumulation of copper and cadmium in the alga Scenedesmus obliquus LH

    SciTech Connect

    Drbal, K.; Veber, K.; Zahradnik, J.

    1985-06-01

    The techniques of determination of toxic and inhibitory effects, and of measuring the kinetics of metal sorption, used by individual authors differ widely in basic parameters, especially in the experimental concentrations of algal suspensions and in methods of separation of algae. Some authors assume that the drop in the concentration of the metal in the solution, or its concentration in the biomass, are a measure of sorption of the metals by the algae. This is not entirely correct; our study led to this conclusion on the basis of measurement of inhibition of growth and sorption of copper and cadmium ions in dense algal suspensions in a photoautotrophic regime of an intensive culture, and comparison of disappearance of these ions from the solution in the absence of the algae.

  13. [Composition and biological activity of triterpenes and steroids from Inonotus obliquus (chaga)].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, S A; Khabibrakhmanova, V R; Sysoeva, M A

    2016-05-01

    Data on the chemical composition of triterpenic and steroid compounds, isolated from the chaga mushroom grown in natural environment or in a synthetic culture have been summarized. Special attention has been paid to the biological activity of chaga mushroom extracts and these particular compounds against various cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. This analysis has demonstrated some common features in inhibition of growth of various cell lines by chaga mushroom components. In this context, the most active are triterpene compounds containing OH group at C-22 and a side chain unsaturated bond.

  14. The Pilates Method and Ballet Technique: Applications in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Elizabeth Lowe

    2006-01-01

    There are many body therapies from which dancers may choose in order to gain and maintain strength, flexibility, and balance and to avoid injury or facilitate rehabilitation from injury. The questions are: which system is best for the given student, and how can educators incorporate the many somatic perspectives into their curriculums. This…

  15. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2001-11-01

    The methanolic extract of a macrofungus, P. rimosus possessed significant in vitro superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibiting activities. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was evaluated in carrageenan and dextran induced acute and formalin induced chronic inflammatory models in mice. The extract showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity in both models, comparable to the standard reference drug diclofenac. The results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanol extract of P. rimosus is possibly attributed to it's free radical scavenging properties. The findings also reveal the potential therapeutic value of P.rimosus extract as an antiinflammatory agent.

  16. The Pilates Method and Ballet Technique: Applications in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Elizabeth Lowe

    2006-01-01

    There are many body therapies from which dancers may choose in order to gain and maintain strength, flexibility, and balance and to avoid injury or facilitate rehabilitation from injury. The questions are: which system is best for the given student, and how can educators incorporate the many somatic perspectives into their curriculums. This…

  17. Inhibitory Effect on In Vitro LDL Oxidation and HMG Co-A Reductase Activity of the Liquid-Liquid Partitioned Fractions of Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon (Lion's Mane Mushroom)

    PubMed Central

    Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly suggested as the key factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mushrooms have been implicated in having preventive effects against chronic diseases due especially to their antioxidant properties. In this study, in vitro inhibitory effect of Hericium erinaceus on LDL oxidation and the activity of the cholesterol biosynthetic key enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG Co-A) reductase, was evaluated using five liquid-liquid solvent fractions consisting of methanol : dichloromethane (M : DCM), hexane (HEX), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), and aqueous residue (AQ). The hexane fraction showed the highest inhibition of oxidation of human LDL as reflected by the increased lag time (100 mins) for the formation of conjugated diene (CD) at 1 µg/mL and decreased production (68.28%, IC50 0.73 mg/mL) of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) at 1 mg/mL. It also mostly inhibited (59.91%) the activity of the HMG Co-A reductase at 10 mg/mL. The GC-MS profiling of the hexane fraction identified the presence of myconutrients: inter alia, ergosterol and linoleic acid. Thus, hexane fraction of Hericium erinaceus was found to be the most potent in vitro inhibitor of both LDL oxidation and HMG Co-A reductase activity having therapeutic potential for the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated vascular diseases. PMID:24959591

  18. Polysaccharide protein complex isolated from mushroom Phellinus rimosus (berk.) Pilat alleviates γ radiation-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jini; Smina, Thozhuthum Parambil Pathmanabhan; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiations generate reactive oxygen species in irradiated tissue that induces several pathophysiological changes in the body. Radiotherapy induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anticancer treatments. Radioprotective agents are of significant importance in medical, industrial, environmental, military, and space applications. Radioprotective effect of polysaccharide protein complex (PPC-Pr) isolated from mushroom, Phellinus rimosus, was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. PPC-Pr (5 and 10 mg/kg bwt, i.p.) significantly increased leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, glutathione content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in blood as well as intestinal mucosa when compared with the irradiated control group. Histopathological observation of intestinal jejunal mucosa revealed the tissue protective effects of PPC-Pr. Further radioprotective activity of PPC-Pr was in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest potential radioprotective efficacy of PPC-Pr.

  19. Pilates exercise or stationary cycling for chronic nonspecific low back pain: does it matter? a randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Paul W M; Kennedy, Suzanne; Brooks, Cristy; Lonsdale, Chris

    2013-07-01

    Randomized controlled trial. This is the companion study to a previous publication that presented 8-week pain, disability, and trunk muscle motor control results. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 8 weeks of specific trunk exercises and stationary cycling on outcomes measures of catastrophizing and fear-avoidance beliefs (FAB) in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain, and provide 6-month outcome data for all self-report measures. It is thought that any form of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is sufficient to address catastrophizing and FAB, and concomitant levels of pain and disability. Sixty-four patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of specific trunk exercise group (SEG), or stationary cycling group (CEG). Self-rated pain, disability, catastrophizing and FAB scores were collected before, immediately after (8 wk), and 6 months after the training program. Clinically meaningful improvements were defined as greater than a 30% reduction from baseline in pain and disability scores. "Intention-to-treat" principles were used for missing data. Per-protocol analysis was performed on participants who attended at least two-thirds of the exercise sessions. At 8 weeks, disability was significantly lower in the SEG compared with the CEG (d = 0.62, P = 0.018). Pain was reduced from baseline in both the groups after training (P < 0.05), but was lower for the SEG (P < 0.05). FAB scores were reduced in the SEG at 8 weeks, and in the CEG at 6 months. No between-group differences in FAB scores were observed. Similar reductions in catastrophizing in each group were observed at each time point. At 6 months, the overall data pattern suggested no long-term difference between groups. Per-protocol analysis of clinically meaningful improvements suggests no between-group differences for how many patients are likely to report improvement. Inferential statistics suggest greater improvements at 8 weeks, but not 6 months, for the SEG. Inspection of clinically meaningful changes based on a minimum level of adherence suggests no between-group differences. If a patient with low back pain adheres to either specific trunk exercises or stationary cycling, it is reasonable to think that similar improvements will be achieved. 2.

  20. A CMake-Based Cross Platform Build System for Tcl/Tk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    expressing the logic for generating user-installable packages of the finished package. While specific com- pilation instructions are typically unique to each...Windows com- pilation . This presented a difficulty for the BRL- CAD project in that neither of these systems inte- grated well with BRL-CAD’s own build...build files. 2. Implement enough of the Tcl/Tk–specific com- pilation macro logic in CMake to support build- 1Twylite’s Coffee project uses CMake to

  1. Preparing for the 2009 Nuclear Posture Review: Post-Cold War Nuclear Deterrence and the 2001 NPR Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    of relying upon the minimalist idea of maintaining strategic deterrence only to prevent nuclear attack.[87] Joseph Pilat agrees and tries to make...Record Straight,” The Washington Quarterly 28, no. 3 (Summer 2005): 136. 87. Payne (2005), Op. Cit., 140. 88. Pilat , Op. Cit., 43. 89. Payne (2005...152. 91. Payne (2005), Op. Cit., 142. 92. Ibid., 146. 93. Joseph F. Pilat , “The New Triad,” in Wirtz and Larson, eds., Nuclear Transformation

  2. Strategic Stability in the Cold War: Lessons for Continuing Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Moltz, Daniel Moran, Thomas Parker, Joseph Pilat , Pavel Podvig, Brad Roberts, Michael Rühle, Diego Ruiz Palmer, Thomas Scheber, Mark Schneider, Paul...differ. As Joseph Pilat has observed, terrorist organizations “have historically mimicked states in key areas and are thus subject to constraints and...Press, 2008, p. 60. 62 Joseph F. Pilat , “Dissuasion of Terrorists and Other Non-State Actors”, Strategic Insights, Vol.III, Issue 10, October

  3. Advances in Air-Launched Weapon Guidance and Control, Proceedings of the Guidance and Control Panel Symposium (44th) Held in Athens (Greece) on 5-8 May 1987.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    d’autres situations, il eat impdratif de minimiser ces memes cauplages lorsque, par exemple, le pilate humain veut effectuer au travera du syst&,ne de... pilate humain en vitesse angulaire et en accdldration. LA encore, oa constate qua pour chaque situation opdrationnelle, on peut d~terminer un syst !me de...visualisation pilate et capilote, compoods chacun d’un Poore de commande de visualisation, d’un PFD (Primary Flight Display) at d’un ND (Navigation Display

  4. A Healthy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Manya

    2009-01-01

    Yoga and Pilates are everywhere these days, and it's no wonder. Innumerable medical studies have shown that yoga and Pilates not only help people improve their fitness levels and slim down but also help them to alleviate asthma symptoms, manage arthritis and carpel tunnel pain, decrease cardiovascular risk factors, and improve one's emotional…

  5. Post Cold War Nuclear Weapons Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    are unknown.”14 This instability threatens the success and future of the NPT. According to scholar Joseph F. Pilat , While the vision of a nuclear...for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction, April 2007. 15 Joseph F. Pilat , “Nonproliferation, Arms Control and Disarmament, and ExtendedDeterrence

  6. A Healthy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Manya

    2009-01-01

    Yoga and Pilates are everywhere these days, and it's no wonder. Innumerable medical studies have shown that yoga and Pilates not only help people improve their fitness levels and slim down but also help them to alleviate asthma symptoms, manage arthritis and carpel tunnel pain, decrease cardiovascular risk factors, and improve one's emotional…

  7. Discovery of Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermuller) in California: an invasive species new to North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The European grape berry moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller), is one of the most destructive pests of grapes in the Palearctic Region. Larvae feed on the fruit, causing direct damage and promoting secondary infection by Botrytis cinerea Persoon (botrytis bunch rot or gray mold). On 15 S...

  8. 76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... rule under the Clean Air Act pertaining to a request for the use of low Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) fuel... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carolyn Persoon, Environmental Engineer, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs Branch...

  9. 77 FR 55810 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing... Jennifer Pilat, the Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment ... the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be ...

  11. Types of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... the exercises even count in all three categories! Fitness types and tips Confused about the types of ... injuries. Some ways to increase flexibility are ballet, yoga, martial arts, or pilates (say: puh-LAH-teez) . ...

  12. Toward a New "New Triad"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    ii-iii. 50 Rumsfeld, ―Nuclear Posture Review Report: Forward.‖ 51 DOD, ―Findings of the Nuclear Posture Review,‖ 9. 52 Pilat , ―The end of the...28 Pilat , Joseph F. ―The end of the NPT regime?‖ International Affairs 83:3 (2007): 469-482. Raser, John R. ―Deterrence Research: Past

  13. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  14. [Toxicity effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on two algaes].

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei-Dan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Fang, Zhi-Guo

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective toxicity of the chiral herbicides Rac- and S-metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris was determined, and the effect of humic acid was studied by using acute toxicity testing method. The results indicated that the toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor increased with increasing concentration and exposure time. The EC(50, 96 h) ratio of Rac-metolachlor to S-metolachlor was 2.25 for C. vulgaris and 1.81 for S. obliquus, indicating that S-metolachlor had higher effect on two algaes, and S. obliquus was more sensitive to Rac- and S-metolachlor. Linear correlation between toxicity on S. obliquus and C. vulgaris was observed. The toxicity of Rac- and S-metolachlor changed with humic acid, with more significant change was observed in S-metolachlor (P<0.05).

  15. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  16. Utilization of Methylthio-s-Triazine for Growth of Soil Fungi 1

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Don S.; Rieck, Walter L.; Lynd, J. Q.

    1970-01-01

    Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus tamarii Kita, and Aspergillus flavus Link ex Fries utilized the methylthio moiety of 2,4-bis(isopropylamino) -6-methyl-mercapto-s-triazine (prometryne) as a sulfur nutrient source. Other soil fungal isolates not affected by prometryne concentrations to 1 mg/ml culture included: Aspergillus oryzae (Ahlburg) Cohn, Curvularia lunata (Wakker) Boedijn, Trichoderma viride Persoon ex Fries, Alternaria tenuis Nees ex Corda, Penicillium funiculosum Thom, and Paecilomyces varioti Bainier. PMID:16349873

  17. The effect of bilateral trainings on upper extremities muscle activation on level of motor function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyung Min; Jung, Jinhwa; Shim, Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to compare muscle activation level on the affected and unaffected limb according to the recovery level of upper limb between bilateral activity with hands clasped and bilateral activity with pilates ring. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty inpatient who have had a stroke were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Function score of moderately recovered group and well recovered group. The muscles activation of upper extremity and Co-Contraction Ratio (CCR) were analyzed. [Results] In the muscles activation of the well group, trapezius, anterior deltoid, and triceps muscles of affected side and biceps muscles of both sides were significantly higher when activity with pilates ring than activity with hands clasped. CCR of both side in the well group was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring and in the moderate group, CCR of affected side was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring. [Conclusion] Bilateral activity with a pilates ring is more effective than activity with hands clasped for the facilitation of muscle activation and coordination in stroke patients. PMID:28174466

  18. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-03-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly.

  19. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  20. Effects of artemisinin sustained-release granules on mixed alga growth and microcystins production and release.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lixiao; Li, Danye; Hu, Shuzhen; Wang, Peifang; Li, Shiyin; Li, Yiping; Li, Yong; Acharya, Kumud

    2015-12-01

    To safely and effectively apply artemisinin sustained-release granules to control and prevent algal water-blooms, the effects of artemisinin and its sustained-release granules on freshwater alga (Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) and Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa)), as well as the production and release of microcystins (MCs) were studied. The results showed that artemisinin sustained-release granules inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa (above 95% IR) and S. obliquus (about 90% IR), with M. aeruginosa more sensitive. The artemisinin sustained-release granules had a longer inhibition effect on growth of pure algae and algal coexistence than direct artemisinin dosing. The artemisinin sustained-release granules could decrease the production and release of algal toxins due to the continued stress of artemisinin released from artemisinin sustained-release granules. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium.

  1. Pershing II Simulation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Compiling the TRW Simulation Program The TRW program was originally set up for interactive com- pilation , program linkage, and execution. However, in...during the first com- pilation , a substantial fraction was associated with VAX-peculiar FORTRAN INCLUDE statements. INCLUDE is a VAX FORTRAN compile...90 4N(I,J)2AN(IJ) + AL(1,K) *AE(K,J) wPRT:(14,433) 4C3 cO MAT (1X,190’) COMPUTE INVERSS AM =AM1 DC 100 1=1,6 Dc 130 J=1,6 X((I,J)=AM(l,J) luJ) CONTINJE

  2. The effect of patellar taping on EMG activity of vasti muscles during squatting in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mostamand, Javid; Bader, Dan L; Hudson, Zöe

    2011-01-01

    Although patellar taping has been shown to reduce pain in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, the mechanisms of pain reduction have not completely been established following its application. The purpose of this study was to evaluate EMG activity of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis following the application of patellar taping during a functional single leg squat. Both vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset and vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of 18 participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and 18 healthy participants as controls were measured using an EMG unit. This procedure was performed on the affected knee of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome, before, during, and after patellar taping during unilateral squatting. The same procedure was also performed on the unaffected knees of both groups. The mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset prior to taping (2.54 ms, s = 4.35) were decreased significantly following an immediate application of tape (-3.22 ms, s = 3.45) and after a prolonged period of taping (-6.00 ms, s = 3.40 s) (P < 0.05). There was also a significant difference between the mean values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset among controls (-2.03 ms, s = 6.04) and participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome prior to taping (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant difference between the ranked values of vastus medialis obliquus/vastus lateralis amplitude of the affected and unaffected knees of participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome and controls during different conditions of taping (P > 0.05). Decreased values of vastus medialis obliquus-vastus lateralis onset may contribute to patellar realignment and explain the mechanism of pain reduction following patellar taping in participants with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  3. Access the toxic effect of the antibiotic cefradine and its UV light degradation products on two freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Chen, J Q; Guo, R X

    2012-03-30

    Two common freshwater algae Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus were employed as test organism to evaluate the toxic effects of the widely used antibiotic, cefradine. In general, cefradine had significantly toxic effect on population growth and chlorophyll-a accumulation of two algae and the cyanophyceae was more sensitive than the chlorophyceae. In addition, cefradine UV light degraded products had adverse effect on M. aeruginosa's growth and chlorophyll-a accumulation. In comparison, even if S. obliquus had growth ability when exposed to cefradine UV light-degradation products, the algal photosynthesis function was also disrupted.

  4. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems.

  5. In-Fiber Magneto-Optic Devices Based on Ultrahigh Verdet Constant Organic Materials and Holey Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-02

    2009 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12/01/2005 to 11/30/200! 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE In-Fiber Magneto -Optic...code) (520) 621-4649 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39 18 FINAL REPORT ’In-fiber Magneto -optic Devices Based on Ultrahigh...0094 Grant number # FA9550-06-1-0039 Nasser Peyghambarian, Robert A. Norwood, Andre Persoons 20090324168 In-fiber Magneto -optic Devices Based on

  6. An Application-Specific Compiler for High-Speed Binary Image Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 pilation speed. We will...large disadvantage: the .ngd file is a pro- prietary Xilinx file, and we have no guarantee that the for- mat will not be changed in the future. If this

  7. Construction Foundation Report, Missouri River, Fort Peck Lake, Montana. Volume 1. Text and Photos.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Bear Paw Shale 3. Slide Plane, Tunnel Portals 4. Fault and Beutonite, Tunnel Portals 5. Slide, Upstream Portals, Pilat Tunnels 6. Tunnel, Fault, Slide...calculations had to be made to compute the true elevation of the mat . There are currently 35 settlement and subsidence pipes in operation along the axis of

  8. Coincident Extraction of Line Objects from Stereo Image Pairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    listed in the file MLPILCL created by the maximum length polygon com- pilation , from the coordinate system of IL to the coordinate system of IR to get...final dead ends. Due to transportability and storage reasons it is much more desirable to save the final result polygons in the vector for- mat , but the

  9. Absorption of Deuterium Fluoride Laser Radiation by the Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    given a table of Q for the various molecules whose absorption lines are listed in the AFCRL Line Com- pilation which is repeated here as Table 1...LOCATION ELEMENTS. WHEN ALL PATAMFTE TYPE ’ENTER LCCÄT AND THE USER TYPE WITH RESftCT TO T TYPES THE SPOT SI OF THE BEAM. THE ANO THE USER MAT

  10. Advanced Numerical Techniques of Performance Evaluation. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Processors 5 It is clear from Figure C mat there is a significant qualitative difference ;n the behavior of the various multiprogramming scheduling disciplines...per 15000- pilation of an interface. The stub generator reads eachSecond interface and determines the number and size of the A- 10000" RPC Optimal

  11. Resolving Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    further complicate mat - ters, Britain had to reconcile its colonial ambitions with commitments made to Arabs and Jews during the war. The McMahon...Paper, available from avalon.law. yale.edu/20th_century/brwh1939.asp. 35. John Marlowe, The Seat of Pilate , London, UK: 1959, pp. 171-172. Haganah

  12. Ada (Trade Name) Compiler Validation Summary Report: Alsys Inc., AlsyCOMP 003, V3.1, Wang PC 280.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-04

    STANDARD ni l wd imp *n depuj .uiies *u(.LL pond : .. •-~... ,n-,epe~ident p .. o certain mat : • depen ,. lt as et :ioned , .,-)t 13 o f : -’,’.-7 8f...Compilation Units The Alsys PC AT Ada Compiler imposes no additional ordering constraints on com- pilations beyond those required by the language. However

  13. Study of Army Manpower Requirements, Determination Procedures, and Organization. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-23

    Develop standards. Prepares measurement plans Mat define what each standards study will cover, work measurement and work count, and locations where...application of knowledge of statistical methods, procedures, and tech- niques, to the collection, processing, com- pilation , computation, analysis, editing

  14. An Industrial Technology Called Tribiology--the UK Experience and Its Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-27

    limited progress was that related to the com- pilation of tribological case studies. Here the CIP met with several difficulties: (1) the commercial...enu- merated, were largely to advise, report, and make recommendations on mat - ters associated with tribology. To the apiprent extreme satisfaction of

  15. Using the Perceived Intensity-Level Assessment Task as an Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Perceived Intensity-Level Assessment Task (PILAT), an instructional tool designed as an assessment device to help students feel various intensity levels and properly code themselves as they jump rope in a regular physical education class. The paper highlights justification for its use, instructional uses and procedures, instructional…

  16. Using the Perceived Intensity-Level Assessment Task as an Instructional Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doering, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Perceived Intensity-Level Assessment Task (PILAT), an instructional tool designed as an assessment device to help students feel various intensity levels and properly code themselves as they jump rope in a regular physical education class. The paper highlights justification for its use, instructional uses and procedures, instructional…

  17. Designing and Using a High School Cardio Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hall, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Attending a gym, fitness center or health club is a popular pastime of many people who wish to exercise and get in shape. Classes are offered in activities such as cardio endurance, toning, Pilates, spinning, step aerobics, core training, and kick boxing. Participants also use rooms with cardio equipment to get their own cardio workout. As many…

  18. 77 FR 38583 - Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The agenda may change to accommodate Board business. The final agenda and... International Trade Administration Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Pilat, the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board, Room 4043,...

  19. 77 FR 20009 - Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The agenda may change to accommodate Board business. The final agenda will... International Trade Administration Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jennifer Pilat, the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board, Room 4043,...

  20. Designing and Using a High School Cardio Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hall, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Attending a gym, fitness center or health club is a popular pastime of many people who wish to exercise and get in shape. Classes are offered in activities such as cardio endurance, toning, Pilates, spinning, step aerobics, core training, and kick boxing. Participants also use rooms with cardio equipment to get their own cardio workout. As many…

  1. T'ai Chi

    MedlinePlus

    ... Date reviewed: February 2015 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC How Can I Get Motivated to Exercise? Sports and Exercise Safety Yoga for Stress Relief Kickboxing Pilates Yoga Strength Training Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend Permissions ...

  2. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  3. Effect of hip abduction exercise with manual pelvic fixation on recruitment of deep trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Hyuk; Lim, Tae Hong; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Cheol Seung; Jang, Sung Ho; Cho, Yun Woo; Kim, Kook Ju; Choi, Hwa Soon; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether side-lying hip abduction exercise while applying manual pelvic fixation is more effective than hip abduction without manual pelvic fixation for promoting deep trunk muscle activity. This is a cross-sectional study comparing deep trunk muscle activation between hip abduction exercise without and with manual pelvic fixation in ten participants. Muscle activation was measured using fine-wire and surface electromyography. Hip abduction with manual pelvic fixation was found to result in significantly more recruitment of all studied deep trunk muscles except the ipsilateral obliquus externus compared with hip abduction without manual pelvic fixation (P < 0.05). The greatest increased activation was seen in the ipsilateral deep and superficial multifidus. The increase in deep multifidus percentage of maximal voluntary contraction was greater than that of the rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus, the transversuus abdominis/obliquus internus, the lumbar erector spinae, the superficial multifidus, and the gluteus medius (P < 0.05). The superficial multifidus percentage of maximal voluntary contraction was significantly increased over that of the rectus abdominis and the obliquus externus (P < 0.05). Moderate correlation between deep and superficial multifidus activation was found (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.537). Hip abduction training in the side-lying position while applying manual pelvic fixation seems to be more effective for recruiting deep trunk muscles for dynamic lumbar spinal stabilization.

  4. Lumbo-pelvic stability and electromyography of abdominal muscles in ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Silva, L Alves; Monteiro, T Lombardi; Alves, N; de Carvalho, A Cesinando; de Azevedo, F Mícolis

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the ability to rectify and maintain lumbar adjustment can contribute toward the understanding of the behavior of abdominal muscles and their participation in the stability of pelvic muscles in dancers during the posterior pelvic tilt and double straight leg lowering tests. Nine healthy volunteers (male and female ballet dancers; age mean: 25.9 +/- 7.37 years) underwent maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), isometric voluntary contraction at 50% of MIVC, posterior pelvic tilt (PPT) and double straight leg lowering (DSLL) tests. The tests were carried out in a single day, with 3 repetitions each. During the tests, electromygraphic signals of the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were recorded. The signal acquisition system was made up of bipolar surface electrodes, electrogoniometer and an electromechanic device (pressure sensor), which were connected to a signal conditioner module. Root mean square values of each muscle during the DSLL and PPT were converted into percentage of activation of 50% MIVC. Lower back pressure was submitted to the same process. ANOVA with repeated measures was performed, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The results revealed that all dancers were able to maintain posterior pelvic tilt and there was trend toward greater activation of the bilateral obliquus internus muscle. In an attempt to keep the pelvic region stabilized during DSLL, there was a greater contribution from the obliquus externus muscle in relation to other abdominal muscles.

  5. Screening of microalgae for integral biogas slurry nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by different microalgae cultivation technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Bao, Keting; Cao, Weixing; Zhao, Yongjun; Hu, Chang Wei

    2017-07-14

    The microalgae-based technology has been developed to reduce biogas slurry nutrients and upgrade biogas simultaneously. In this work, five microalgal strains named Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Selenastrum capricornutum, Nitzschia palea, and Anabaena spiroides under mono- and co-cultivation were used for biogas upgrading. Optimum biogas slurry nutrient reduction could be achieved by co-cultivating microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nitzschia palea) with fungi using the pelletization technology. In addition, the effects of different ratio of mixed LED light wavelengths applying mixed light-emitting diode during algae strains and fungi co-cultivation on CO2 and biogas slurry nutrient removal efficiency were also investigated. The results showed that the COD (chemical oxygen demand), TN (total nitrogen), and TP (total phosphorus) removal efficiency were 85.82 ± 5.37%, 83.31 ± 4.72%, and 84.26 ± 5.58%, respectively at red: blue = 5:5 under the co-cultivation of S. obliquus and fungi. In terms of biogas upgrading, CH4 contents were higher than 90% (v/v) for all strains, except the co-cultivation with S. obliquus and fungi at red: blue = 3:7. The results indicated that co-cultivation of microalgae with fungi under mixed light wavelengths treatments was most successful in nutrient removal from wastewater and biogas upgrading.

  6. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  7. Effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on absorption properties in eutrophic shallow lakes: field and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yin, Yan; Wang, Mingzhu; Liu, Xiaohan

    2012-05-21

    We investigated phytoplankton absorption properties of Lake Taihu, in the spring and summer of 2005 and 2006, and for 17 days studied laboratory cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus (chlorophyta) and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanophyta) to determine the effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on the absorption properties. There were significant seasonal differences in phytoplankton community composition and absorption coefficients. In spring, the phytoplankton community was dominated by chlorophyta with large cells, whereas in summer was dominated by cyanophyta with small cells. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients increased significantly from spring to summer, with the increase in chlorophyll a (Chla) concentration. In addition, Chla-specific absorption coefficients increased with the phytoplankton community succession from chlorophyta to cyanophyta. In culture, the cells density of S. obliquus was generally lower than that of M. aeruginosa, and Chla concentrations of S. obliquus were significantly higher than those of M. aeruginosa. Correspondingly, the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of S. obliquus were significantly lower than those of M. aeruginosa. Significant exponential correlations were found between absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients and Chla concentration for S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa. In addition, we developed a model to predict absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients using Chla concentration and cell size when data from two species was grouped together. Field and experimental results both showed that the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of cyanophyta were significantly higher than those of chlorophyta. The variability in specific absorption can attributed to phytoplankton community composition, cell size and pigment composition. As phytoplankton community composition changed significantly with season in the lake, and as variation in the cell sizes and accessory pigments of the phytoplankton

  8. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Rafik; Memmedova, Konul

    2015-01-01

    Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Test of Attention (D2 Test), and Spielberger's Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented. PMID:26339231

  9. Simulating Radar Signals for Detection Performance Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    continuous and batch processing has a dra- mat ic off, ct on thk, t-chniquets used to simulated clutter signals, so much si. that the techniques and...if linear inter- fr > 1 3dB pilation is used (8, Eq. 8.611. Now we can use (103) and write h > 10 f 3dB/fr; hkowever, if thi!. ratio is greater than

  10. A Computer-Based Gaming System for Assessing Recognition Performance (RECOG)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    the 8510 disk drive. A third diskette containing game management facilities can be used by test administrators or researchers to for- . .. mat the...for- mat . Because of this, we may refer to "planes", "airplanes", "pictures", "images", "visual stimuli", "graphics", or "database objects". All of...FLASH IVAN technical descriptions as a reference. Before relinking any freshly compiled files (listed above), please be sure the com- pilation dates as

  11. Oblique and Parallel Modes of Vortex Shedding in the Wake of a Circular Cylinder at Low Reynolds Numbers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    I rii)t - I inask v (I 98). (Tbis term iingy aga in com nes fr om the tieldI of* mat erial science) F’rom hot-wire me(asuremnents. (made in the...Visualimsolirn 4 (ed. C . Venet). lil. 463 467. Hemtispihere. (FERICIL 1 ). & El’K Fi,.AAN. H. 2982 Intfluence of’ end pilates attd free endls (il

  12. The Environmental Interference Effects Model of the Electromagnetic Environmental Test Facility. Volume 3. Computer Program Descriptions. Part 2. Preliminary Data Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    for com- pilation and execution. b. The update data card file is read and sorted in ascending order on antenna code, polarity, and elevation angle...444 4N44 444 44444at 1j~ 0 : I 4 r 02U 04 ca.,41 * - . Mat 9 - m U0 442 OW 70 010 .4C -0 x 0z LJ .0 - 0% 1" 0 CACa 46 z La A -, aw a~ . z Al l 0 0u

  13. Effect of Longitudinal Grooves on Survivability of Cylindrical Steel Projectiles Fired against Simulated Concrete Targets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    he Rew of Cavity Bulg In Projtile Fired Against Ste PIlate Tare In the present study, firings were made of both filled and unfilled projectiles...OP-55 (1) 2 Chief of Naval Material MAT -05 (1) MAT -08 (1) I Chief of Naval Research, Arlington (ONR-102) 7 Naval Sea Systems Command SEA-62R (5) SEA...1) I Naval War College. Newport 1 Office of Naval Research. Pasadena Branch Office I Office of Naval Technology. Arlington ( MAT -07) I Operational

  14. Simplified Procedures for Eutrophication Assessment and Prediction: User Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    currents and wind mixing) and are represented by bulk exchange flows between adjacent segment pairs. Chapra and Reckhow (1983) present examples of lake...Oceanogrcaphy 22(2), 361-369. Chapra , S. C., and Reckhow, K. 11. (1983). Engineering apf)roachics./1or lake management; Volume 2: Mechanistic modeling...uncfirtainty: A manual and cP-1pilation of export coefficients," U.S. Environmental Protection ,tgency, Clean Lakes Section. Reckhow, K. H., and Chapra , S. C

  15. East Europe Report, Economic and Industrial Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-24

    Economic Problems of CEMA Countries (Vasile Pilat, Daniel Daianu; REVISTA ROMANA DE STUDII INTERNATIONALE, May-Jun 84) 1 CEMA Summit: Modest Gains...Lucjan Cimek; ZIELONY SZTANDAR, 24 Jun 84) 85 ROMANIA Shortcomings in Technical Export Activity Cited (Adrian Olariu; REVISTA EC0N0M1CA, No 15, 13...Apr 84) 88 Autonomy, Interdependence of Monetary System Examined (Constantin Ionete; REVISTA EC0N0MICA, No 15, 13 Apr 84).. 96 Need To

  16. Modification and Improvement of Software for Modeling Multidimensional Reacting Fuel Flow.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    block Gauss- Seidel method for F(u) = 0. NLGMR provides a means of accelerating the TEACH iterations as follows (see [16]). - . -Throughout we denote...properties and thermodynamic coefficients. and the velocity-dependent turbulent transport properties. A multistage variation of the block Gauss- Seidel ... method is used to solve this nonlinear ;vstem. The outermost stage consists of cycling between a Poisson-like pressure correction J (pilation (derived

  17. Conference Proceedings: Aircraft Gear and Bearing Tribological Systems Held in San Antonio, Texas on 22-26 April 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Bearing Tribological Systems DTIC ____________ .. LECTE RAU A MyN 0OSUw -JD DISTRIBUTION AND AVAILABILITY ON BACK COVER 86 5 5 059 COPONENT PART NOTICE...THIS PAPER IS A COMPlONENT PART OF THE FOLLOWING COMfPILATION REPORT: TITLE: Conference Proceedings: Aircraft Gear and Bearing Tribological Systems Held...LATLANTIQUE NORD) AGARD Conference Proceedings No.394 AIRCRAFT GEAR AND BEARING TRIBOWOGICAL SYSTEMS of Papers presented at the 60th Meeting of the Structures

  18. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  19. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  20. Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in tetraodontiformes, with special reference to muscle homologies.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Masanori; Sasaki, Kunio

    2008-06-01

    Branchial arch muscle innervation by the glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagal (X) nerves in 10 tetraodontiform families and five outgroup taxa was examined, with special reference to muscle homologies. Basic innervation patterns and their variations were described for all muscle elements (except gill filament muscles). In the tetraodontids Takifugu poecilonotus and Canthigaster rivulata, diodontid Diodon holocanthus, and molid Mola mola, levator externus 4 was innervated by the 3rd vagal branchial trunk (BX3) in addition to BX2, owing to strong posterior expansion of the muscle. Based on nerve innervation, migrations of the muscle attachment sites (i.e., origins and insertions) were recognized in levator internus 2 (in Mola mola), obliquus dorsalis 3 (in Ostracion immaculatus and Canthigaster rivulata), and obliquus ventralis 2 (in Stephanolepis cirrhifer), muscle topologies not necessarily being indicative of homologies. Embryonic origin of the retractor dorsalis and parallel attainment of the swimbladder muscle within the order were also discussed.

  1. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis. PMID:25332848

  2. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts.

  3. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  4. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  5. Growth and nutrient removal in free and immobilized green algae in batch and semi-continuous cultures treating real wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Marin, Alejandro; Mendoza-Espinosa, Leopoldo G; Stephenson, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Two species of microalgae growing as immobilized and free-cells were compared to test its ability to remove N and P in batch cultures of urban wastewater. The best microalgae-cell growth configuration was selected to be tested in bioreactor operated in semi-continuous mode. Scenedesmus obliquus showed a higher N and P uptake rate in urban wastewater than Chlorella vulgaris. When tested in semi-continuous mode and with the re-calcification of beads, S. obliquus was more effective in removing N and P for longer periods (181 h) than batch cultures; fecal coliforms removal was good (95%) although the final concentration was still unsuitable for discharge to natural water bodies. Protein and lipids content analysis suggest that, from a practical point of view, immobilized systems could facilitate the separation of the biomass from the treated wastewater although in terms of nutritional value of the biomass, immobilized systems do not represent an advantage over free-cell systems.

  6. Cytostatic activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants on transformed A549, H1299, and HeLa Cells.

    PubMed

    Tepkeeva, I I; Aushev, V N; Zborovskaya, I B; Demushkin, V P

    2009-01-01

    Biological activity of peptide extracts of medicinal plants was studied on transformed non-small-cell lung carcinoma A549 cells, lung cancer H1299 cells, and cervical cancer HeLa cells at various cell densities. Cell survival and proliferation were evaluated 72 h after treatment with extracts in concentrations of 0.05, 0.25, and 0.5 microg/microl. The cytostatic effect was produced by peptide extracts of Camelia sinesis Kuntze, Inonotus obliquus, and a mixture Inula helenium L., Chelidonium majus L., Equisetum arvense L., and Inonotus obliquus. Peptide extracts of Hypericum perforatum L. and Laurus nobilis L. in the same concentrations had no effects on proliferative activity and growth of tumor cells.

  7. Life-cycle stages of a Posthodiplostomum species (Digenea: Diplostomidae) from Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ritossa, Luciano; Flores, Verónica; Viozzi, Gustavo

    2013-10-01

    In Patagonia, populations of the galaxiid fish Galaxias maculatus are parasitized by metacercariae of a species of Posthodiplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae). The aim of this work was to describe larval and adult stages of this species in experimental and natural hosts from an Andean Patagonian lake. Specimens of G. maculatus and the pulmonate snail, Anisancylus obliquus, were collected in Patagua Lake. The snails were isolated in individual containers to observe emergence of cercariae, dissected, and examined under a stereoscopic microscope to record sporocysts and cercariae. Fish were examined to obtain metacercariae, and uninfected fish from Gutiérrez Lake were exposed to cercariae from A. obliquus to obtain experimental metacercariae. Chicks and mice were infected with metacercariae from naturally infected G. maculatus to obtain experimental adults. Specimens recovered belong to Posthodiplostomum sp. on the basis of morphological features. This is the first description of sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae, and adults stages of a Posthodiplostomum species in Patagonia, including data about its natural intermediate hosts.

  8. The evolution of mindfulness-based physical interventions in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Stan, Daniela L; Collins, Nerissa M; Olsen, Molly M; Croghan, Ivana; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of breast cancer are faced with a multitude of medical and psychological impairments during and after treatment and throughout their lifespan. Physical exercise has been shown to improve survival and recurrence in this population. Mind-body interventions combine a light-moderate intensity physical exercise with mindfulness, thus having the potential to improve both physical and psychological sequelae of breast cancer treatments. We conducted a review of mindfulness-based physical exercise interventions which included yoga, tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong, in breast cancer survivors. Among the mindfulness-based interventions, yoga was significantly more studied in this population as compared to tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong. The participants and the outcomes of the majority of the studies reviewed were heterogeneous, and the population included was generally not selected for symptoms. Yoga was shown to improve fatigue in a few methodologically strong studies, providing reasonable evidence for benefit in this population. Improvements were also seen in sleep, anxiety, depression, distress, quality of life, and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting in the yoga studies. Tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong were not studied sufficiently in breast cancer survivors in order to be implemented in clinical practice.

  9. The Evolution of Mindfulness-Based Physical Interventions in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Daniela L.; Collins, Nerissa M.; Olsen, Molly M.; Croghan, Ivana; Pruthi, Sandhya

    2012-01-01

    Survivors of breast cancer are faced with a multitude of medical and psychological impairments during and after treatment and throughout their lifespan. Physical exercise has been shown to improve survival and recurrence in this population. Mind-body interventions combine a light-moderate intensity physical exercise with mindfulness, thus having the potential to improve both physical and psychological sequelae of breast cancer treatments. We conducted a review of mindfulness-based physical exercise interventions which included yoga, tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong, in breast cancer survivors. Among the mindfulness-based interventions, yoga was significantly more studied in this population as compared to tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong. The participants and the outcomes of the majority of the studies reviewed were heterogeneous, and the population included was generally not selected for symptoms. Yoga was shown to improve fatigue in a few methodologically strong studies, providing reasonable evidence for benefit in this population. Improvements were also seen in sleep, anxiety, depression, distress, quality of life, and postchemotherapy nausea and vomiting in the yoga studies. Tai chi chuan, Pilates, and qigong were not studied sufficiently in breast cancer survivors in order to be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22997532

  10. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production.

  11. Potential for utilization of algal biomass for components of the diet in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1986-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell Density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances is potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  12. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  13. Helminth Parasites of the Juvenile Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Testudines: Cheloniidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Werneck, M R; Lima, E H S M; Pires, T; Silva, R J

    2015-08-01

    The helminth fauna of 31 juvenile specimens of Eretmochelys imbricata from the Brazilian coast was examined. Seventeen individuals were infected with helminths (54.8%). The helminths found were: Diaschistorchis pandus, Cricocephalus albus, Metacetabulum invaginatum, Pronocephalus obliquus (Pronocephalidae), Cymatocarpus solearis (Brachycoeliidae), Styphlotrema solitaria (Styphlotrematidae), Carettacola stunkardi, Amphiorchis caborojoensis (Spirorchiidae), Orchidasma amphiorchis (Telorchiidae), and Anisakis nematode larvae. This report is the first analysis of parasite communities in this host.

  14. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  15. Morphology of the abdominal muscles in ballet dancers with and without low back pain: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gildea, Jan E; Hides, Julie A; Hodges, Paul W

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the morphology of transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles and the ability to "draw in" the abdominal wall, in professional ballet dancers without low back pain, with low back pain or both hip region and low back pain. Observational study. Magnetic resonance images of 31 dancers were taken at rest and during voluntary abdominal muscle contraction. Measurements included the thickness of transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles, lateral slide of the anterior extent of the transversus abdominis muscles (transversus abdominis slide) and reduction in total cross sectional area of the trunk. The transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles were thicker in male dancers and the right side was thicker than the left in both genders. There was no difference in muscle thickness as a proportion of the total thickness, between dancers with and without pain, although there was a trend for female dancers with low back pain only to have a smaller change in transversus abdominis muscle thickness with contraction than those without pain. Transversus abdominis slide was less in female dancers than in male dancers. When gender was ignored, the extent of transversus abdominis slide was less in dancers with low back pain only. Reduction in trunk cross sectional area with contraction was not different between genders or groups. This study provides evidence that the abdominal muscles (transversus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis) are asymmetrical in dancers and although the abdominal muscles are not different in structure (resting thickness) in dancers with LBP, there is preliminary evidence for the behavioural change of reduced slide of transversus abdominis during the 'draw in' of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Are the changes in postural control associated with low back pain caused by pain interference?

    PubMed

    Moseley, G Lorimer; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-01-01

    Voluntary limb movements are associated with involuntary and automatic postural adjustments of the trunk muscles. These postural adjustments occur prior to movement and prevent unwanted perturbation of the trunk. In low back pain, postural adjustments of the trunk muscles are altered such that the deep trunk muscles are consistently delayed and the superficial trunk muscles are sometimes augmented. This alteration of postural adjustments may reflect disruption of normal postural control imparted by reduced central nervous system resources available during pain, so-called "pain interference," or reflect adoption of an alternate postural adjustment strategy. We aimed to clarify this by recording electromyographic activity of the upper (obliquus externus) and lower (transversus abdominis/obliquus internus) abdominal muscles during voluntary arm movements that were coupled with painful cutaneous stimulation at the low back. If the effect of pain on postural adjustments is caused by pain interference, it should be greatest at the onset of the stimulus, should habituate with repeated exposure, and be absent immediately when the threat of pain is removed. Sixteen patients performed 30 forward movements of the right arm in response to a visual cue (control). Seventy trials were then conducted in which arm movement was coupled with pain ("pain trials") and then a further 70 trials were conducted without the pain stimulus ("no pain trials"). There was a gradual and increasing delay of transversus abdominis/obliquus internus electromyograph and augmentation of obliquus externus during the pain trials, both of which gradually returned to control values during the no pain trials. The results suggest that altered postural adjustments of the trunk muscles during pain are not caused by pain interference but are likely to reflect development and adoption of an alternate postural adjustment strategy, which may serve to limit the amplitude and velocity of trunk excursion caused by

  17. Application of acid mine drainage for coagulation/flocculation of microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kim, Jung Rae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Cho, Dong-Wan; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2015-06-01

    A novel application of acid mine drainage (AMD) for biomass recovery of two morphologically different microalgae species with respect to AMD dosage, microalgal cell density and pH of medium was investigated. Optimal flocculation of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris occurred with 10% dosage of AMD at an initial pH 9 for both 0.5 and 1.0 g/L cell density. The flocculation efficiency was 89% for S. obliquus and 93% for C. vulgaris. Zeta potential (ZP) was increased from -10.66 to 1.77 and -13.19 to 1.33 for S. obliquus and C. vulgaris, respectively. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray of the microalgae floc confirmed the sweeping floc formation mechanism upon the addition of AMD. Application of AMD for the recovery of microalgae biomass is a cost-effective method, which might further allow reuse of flocculated medium for algal cultivation, thereby contributing to the economic production of biofuel from microalgal biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Lower extremity muscles activity in standing and sitting position with use of sEMG in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuciel, Natalia Maria; Konieczny, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Oleksy, Łukasz; Wrzosek, Zdzisława

    2016-01-01

    There is very limited, evidenced data about movement possibilities in patients with high level of lower limb muscles atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Patient (age 46) suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease for 30 years with multiple movement restrictions and muscles atrophy above knees took part into the study. Tests were performed for 8 muscles of the lower limb and pelvis. Muscles electrical activity was tested in sitting and standing position (for knees extended and hyperextended). In the right leg rectus femoris, vastus lateralis obliquus, gluteus medius and semitendinosus muscles activated at first and were working the longest time. The highest activity was observed in standing position with knees extended. In the left leg rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles activated at first and biceps femoris was working the longest time. Activity level in left lower limb is much lower than in the right one. Muscles weakness is asymmetric. Left leg is much weaker and engages antagonists and synergists muscles to compensate weaker rectus femoris, vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis obliquus.

  20. Microalgal post-treatment of anaerobically digested agro-industrial wastes for nutrient removal and lipids production.

    PubMed

    Koutra, Eleni; Grammatikopoulos, George; Kornaros, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cultivating Parachlorella kessleri and Acutodesmus obliquus, in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) derived from the co-digestion of end-of-life dairy products with mixtures of agro-industrial wastes. To this end, their performance under sterile and non-sterile conditions and different ADE loadings was evaluated, in terms of biomass and lipid production, nutrient removal efficiency and vitality of the photosynthetic apparatus. 10% (v/v) ADE loading inhibited growth over 9-12days of cultivation, however biomass yields of 1.1 and 1gL(-1), 22.7% and 19.5% (w/w) fatty acids concentration, as well as NH3-N assimilation of 49.7mgL(-1) and 32.3mgL(-1) and TP removal of 84.2% and 84% were recorded for P. kessleri and A. obliquus, respectively. Among all the ADE-based treatments tested, P. kessleri outperformed A. obliquus, with no differences observed between sterilized and non-sterilized ADE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activity of trunk muscles during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Ambystoma maculatum.

    PubMed

    Deban, Stephen M; Schilling, Nadja

    2009-09-15

    The activity of seven trunk muscles was recorded at two sites along the trunk in adult spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, during swimming and during trotting in water and on land. Several muscles showed patterns of activation that are consistent with the muscles producing a traveling wave of lateral bending during swimming and a standing wave of bending during aquatic and terrestrial trotting: the dorsalis trunci, subvertebralis lateralis and medialis, rectus lateralis and obliquus internus. The interspinalis showed a divergent pattern and was active out of phase with the other muscles suggesting that it functions in vertebral stabilization rather than lateral bending. The obliquus internus and rectus abdominis showed bilateral activity indicating that they counteract sagittal extension of the trunk that is produced when the large dorsal muscles are active to produce lateral bending. Of the muscles examined, only the obliquus internus showed a clear shift in function from lateral bending during swimming to resistance of long-axis torsion during trotting. During terrestrial trotting, muscle recruitment was greater in several muscles than during aquatic trotting, despite similar temporal patterns of muscle activation, suggesting that the trunk is stiffened during terrestrial locomotion against greater gravitational forces whereas the basic functions of the trunk muscles in trotting are conserved across environments.

  2. Screening of biomethane production potential from dominant microalgae.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Beltran, Carolina; Jimenez, Antonia; Fernández, María José; Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael; Jeison, David

    2016-10-14

    The use of microalgae for biomethane production has been considerably increasing during the recent years. In this study, four dominant species belonging to the genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Dunaliella and Nostoc were selected. The influence of different genera with several morphological, structural and physicochemical characteristics on methane production was assessed in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The ultimate methane yield values were 332 ± 24, 211 ± 2, 63 ± 17 and 28 ± 10 mL CH4/g VSadded for Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella sorokiniana, Dunaliella salina and Nostoc sp., respectively. The highest methane production was achieved by microalga species that had no complex cell wall or wall basically composed by proteins and simple sugars such as in S. obliquus, whereas lower methane yields were found for D. salina and Nostoc sp., due to the salinity effects and cell wall composition in terms of complex polysaccharide and glycolipid layers, respectively. Kinetic constant values obtained in the BMP tests ranged between 1.00 ± 0.08 and 0.097 ± 0.005 days(-1) for D. salina and S. obliquus, respectively.

  3. Toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenate in two freshwater green algae under different phosphate regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-Xin; Li, Yan; Deng, Xi-Hai; Miao, Ai-Jun; Ji, Rong; Yang, Liu-Yan

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, the toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenate in two green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus under phosphate-enriched (+P) and limited (-P) conditions were investigated. P-limitation was found to aggravate arsenate toxicity and S. obliquus was more tolerant than C. reinhardtii. Such phosphate-condition-dependent or algal-species-specific toxicity difference was narrowed when the relative inhibition of cell growth was plotted against intracellular arsenate content instead of its extracellular concentration. The discrepance was further reduced when the intracellular ratio of arsenic to phosphorus was applied. It suggests that both arsenate bioaccumulation and intracellular phosphorus played an important role in arsenate toxicity. On the other hand, arsenate uptake was induced by P-limitation and its variation with ambient arsenate concentration could be well fitted to the Michaelis-Menten model. Arsenate transporters of S. obliquus were found to have a higher affinity but lower capacity than those of C. reinhardtii, which explains its better regulation of arsenate accumulation than the latter species in the toxicity experiment. Further, arsenate depuration was facilitated and more was transformed to arsenite in C. reinhardtii or under -P condition. Intracellular proportion of arsenite was also increased after the algae were transferred from the long-term uptake media to a relatively clean solution in the efflux experiment. Both phenomena imply that algae especially the sensitive species could make physiological adjustments to alleviate the adverse effects of arsenate. Overall, our findings will facilitate the application of algae in arsenate remediation.

  4. Diverging intramuscular activity patterns in back and abdominal muscles during trunk rotation.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Eva A; Grundström, Helen; Thorstensson, Alf

    2002-03-15

    An intramuscular electromyographic study was performed on trunk rotations during sitting and standing. The aim was to provide new information on activation levels for deep trunk muscles in various unresisted and resisted trunk rotations. Frequent daily trunk twisting and decreased maximal strength during trunk rotation have been associated with low back pain or sciatic pain. However, the involvement of deep trunk muscles during different trunk rotations is relatively unknown. Ten healthy subjects participated. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted, under ultrasound guidance, into psoas, quadratus lumborum, the superficial medial lumbar erector spinae (ES-s, multifidus) and its deep lateral portion (ES-d, iliocostalis), iliacus, rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, and obliquus internus. The highest involvement for all muscles was observed on the ipsilateral side, in maximal trunk twists with shoulder resistance, except obliquus externus, which showed a dominant contralateral side, and rectus abdominis, which was little activated in all rotations. In contrast, maximal trunk twist without shoulder resistance, i.e., freely performed, resulted generally in lower levels for all muscles involved and in a shift of side dominance for the lumbar muscles quadratus lumborum, psoas, and ES-s. During trunk rotations the activity patterns for various trunk muscles could drastically change, and even be the opposite, between the two body sides, within the same type of task, depending on several factors such as initial position, effort level, sitting or standing, and external shoulder resistance.

  5. Removal and metabolism of triclosan by three different microalgal species in aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujuan; Poon, Karen; Cai, Zongwei

    2017-09-05

    Triclosan, an antimicrobial additive widely used in personal care products, has caused the contamination of various aquatic environment. Biodegradation was proved to play a vital role in the treatment of triclosan in wastewater. However, there is limited information about the metabolic pathway. In this study, three common freshwater microalgae including Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa), Desmodesmus sp., and Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) were applied to remove and biodegrade triclosan in aqueous culture medium. High removal rate up to 99.7% was observed during the treatment of 400μgL(-1) triclosan by the three microalgae for 1day. The removal of triclosan attributed to cellular uptake by C. pyrenoidosa, and biotransformation by Desmodesmus sp. and S. obliquus. Simultaneously, triclosan metabolites resulted from hydroxylation, reductive dechlorination, or ether bond cleavage and their conjugates produced through glucosylation and/or methylation were detected in the biodegradation samples. Metabolic pathway of triclosan by algae were firstly proposed in this work, shedding light on the environmental fate of triclosan. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of three microalgal strains in biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrade in response to various mixed light-emitting diode light wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongjun; Sun, Shiqing; Hu, Changwei; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Jie; Ping, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    The three microalgal strains were cultivated, namely, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Neochloris oleoabundans, by applying mixed light-emitting diode wavelength treatments to biogas slurry in a photobioreactor bag. This study aims to compare the growth and nutrient removal efficiency of the algae and determine their roles for biogas upgrading. At red:blue=5:5, S. obliquus and C. vulgaris efficiently removed COD and TP, respectively. S. obliquus demonstrated high N removal efficiency at red:blue=7:3. The same strain significantly improved removal capacity for all nutrients compared with C. vulgaris and N. oleoabundans, particularly at red:blue=5:5, 7:3, and 3:7. For biogas upgrade, CH4 contents were higher than 75% (v/v) for all strains. The algae exhibited particularly good CH4 enrichment at red:blue=7:3, 5:5. Results show that microalgal biomass production offers real opportunities for addressing issues, such as nutrient reduction, CO2 removal, and biogas enrichment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Potential of Microalgae Lipids for Edible Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfei; Zhang, Dongmei; Xue, Shengzhang; Wang, Meng; Cong, Wei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of oil-rich green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Nannochloropsis oceanica, to produce edible oil with respect to lipid and residue properties. The results showed that C. vulgaris and N. oceanica had similarly much higher lipid recovery (about 50 %) in hexane extraction than that of S. obliquus (about 25 %), and C. vulgaris had the highest content of neutral lipids among the three algae. The fatty acid compositions of neutral lipids from C. vulgaris and S. obliquus were mainly C16 and C18, resembling that of vegetable oils. ARA and EPA were the specific valuable fatty acids in lipids of N. oceanica, but the content of which was lower in neutral lipids. Phytol was identified as the major unsaponifiable component in lipids of the three algae. Combined with the evaluation of the ratios in SFA/MUFA/PUFA, (n-6):(n-3) and content of free fatty acids, lipids obtained from C. vulgaris displayed the great potential for edible oil production. Lipids of N. oceanica showed the highest antioxidant activity, and its residue contained the largest amounts of protein as well as the amino acid compositions were greatly beneficial to the health of human beings.

  8. A reevaluation of the unusual abdominal musculature of squamate reptiles (Reptilia: Squamata).

    PubMed

    Bhullar, Bhart-Anjan S

    2009-08-01

    The abdominal muscles of lizards and snakes (Squamata) have been the subject of periodic attention from anatomists, embryologists, and systematists. Until now, the presence of a superficial portion of the m. rectus abdominis, named the m. rectus abdominis lateralis, has been considered a key synapomorphy of the clade Autarchoglossa, which includes all extant squamates save Gekkota and Iguania. However, the precise anatomical relations of the m. rectus abdominis lateralis have never been fully investigated. Here, I show that the m. rectus abdominis lateralis is present in Iguania. Its absence in Gekkota represents rare gross anatomical support for recent molecular-structure-based hypotheses of squamate relationships placing geckoes as sister to the remaining squamates. Where present, it is the most superficial trunk muscle, exterior to the m. obliquus externus. The separation of the m. rectus abdominis lateralis from the m. rectus abdominis occurs as the m. obliquus externus aponeurosis and part of the m. obliquus internus aponeurosis emerge superficially to form the outer portion of the rectus sheath. In Autarchoglossa, the contralateral mm. recti abdomines laterales meet at the midline and are attached to the imbricae of the transverse scale rows characteristic of the clade, suggesting developmental, functional, and evolutionary association. Because the m. rectus abdominis lateralis is sometimes continuous with the pectoralis, its exclusive association with the m. rectus abdominis is questionable. It may be a neomorphic layer that is part of the abaxial developmental system, comprising those muscles whose connective tissue is largely derived from lateral plate as opposed to somatic mesoderm.

  9. Can Unconventional Exercise be Helpful in the Treatment, Management and Prevention of Osteosarcopenic Obesity?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Owen J; Gilman, Jennifer C

    2017-01-01

    Body composition changes occur with aging; bone and muscle mass decrease while fat mass increases. The collective term for these changes is osteosarcopenic obesity. It is known that conventional resistance exercise programs build/maintain lean mass and reduce fat mass. However, unconventional (to Western society/medicine) forms of exercise may be viable for the treatment/prevention of osteosarcopenic obesity. The purpose of this review is to assess relatively unconventional exercises for their efficacy in maintaining/improving bone and muscle mass and reducing fat mass. A literature search for unconventional exercise showed Tai Chi, yoga, Pilates, whole body vibration, electrical stimulation of muscle, and the Alexander Technique were considered alternative/ unconventional. A PubMed and Medline search for human data using combinations and synonyms of osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity, and each exercise was then conducted. Tai Chi, yoga, and Pilates, in addition to whole body vibration, electrical stimulation of muscle, and the Alexander Technique are all considered low impact. Tai Chi, yoga, and Pilates not only physically support the body, but also increase balance and quality of life. The devices showed promise in reducing or preventing muscle atrophy in older people that are unable to perform conventional exercises. Any exercise, conventional or otherwise, especially in sedentary older people, at risk of, or diagnosed with osteosarcopenic obesity may be better than none. Exercise prescriptions should suit the patient and the desired outcomes; the patient should not be forced to fit an exercise prescription, so all potential forms of exercise should be considered. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Quantitative Description of Obscuration Factors for Electro-Optical and Millimeter Wave Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-25

    ttki plated, and the frequenty with tIsetI tst’t liendl% ix, ititll , lIt.tusc eel thl an gt-I hotu ’hu h it is pIlat et. hndit ations ll tt’astnabhe...a e s i n i: . eImAIIt that the saint mat lhv s.114kerltill lifomn 4 a-It trill it l 1, = Ii kl ".~Al isilicienl t an 1w~’ta it ta F(o M, Ik-alA Mt

  11. Design Guidelines and Criteria for User/Operator Transactions with Battlefield Automated Systems. Volume 2. Technical Discussion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    SAKE. .. mo... frM a log of fKfnt truiiaclloni m ff« Pilat LOS «/A CL CMUW... «/« Purtt ticilt or UMIMdtd fftl ProfomottoO ■osugo...format directory message, listing the message for- mat types in each message category. In both cases, menu options are listed horizontally. This...analyst requests material from each of the other analysts. Each analyst calls up a segment of report for- mat appropriate to his or her area of

  12. National Dam Inspection Program. Sheppard Dam (NDI Number PA-00333, DER Number 1-71), Susquehanna River Basin, Adams County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    well maintained grass mat . The downstream slope is flat and there were no signs of instability or seepage. The junctions at the abutments were good...the dam and the downstream slope are protected with a well maintained grass mat . The downstream toe is clear of any brush and weeds. The upstream slope...I0 0 62L69 m0 0 0 0 000 __ _ _ _+_ SH EPPAR D DAM 0 n0 PA - 00333 LO I NSPECTION SURVEY PILATE A-I r1 APPENDIX B CHECK LIST OF ENGINEERING DATA

  13. Intrasystem Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Program. Volume III. Computer Program Documentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    and TART, should be stored separately so they can each be accessed separately for com- pilation and execution. It is nor absolutely necessary to store...analysis results for further use. 6.1 IDIPR CARD INPUT 6.1.1 Input Card Format The basic format for all input cards is a free-field f .- mat with param...data. for t he avg t ci. ’hiis dlata is iin LtIle [u0rilpol )cc1fi e d ill LOLPH mittl data, 12. Wi re Mat . FileI. Th is F iik ohuli Lt duii~r tgju ii~at

  14. Individual and combined effect of anthracene, cadmium, and chloridazone on growth and activity of SOD izoformes in three Scenedesmus species.

    PubMed

    Zbigniew, Tukaj; Wojciech, Pokora

    2006-11-01

    Short-term (12-48 h) experiments were carried out to examine the effect of anthracene (three-ring aromatic hydrocarbon), cadmium (CdCl(2)), and chloridazone (triazine herbicide), individually and in combination, on growth and SOD activity of three green algae Scenedesmus: S. subspicatus, S. obliquus, and S. microspina, grown in a batch-culture system. The relative toxicity of chemicals to algae was anthracene > chloridazone > cadmium. The species revealed similar growth sensitivity to individual chemicals after 24 h of exposure but there were differences between them when exposed to their combinations. Two methods were used to determine the modes of interaction effects of the chemical combinations; both led to the same results, with two exceptions of all 36 variants examined. In general, mixtures of two and three chemicals behaved toward algal growth mainly in an antagonistic manner (20 cases), whereas additive and synergistic interaction occurred 13 and 3 times, respectively. Antagonism was the most frequently observed to growth of S. obliquus; antagonistic interaction and additive effect was noted in relation to S. subspicatus, while response of S. microspina depended markedly on applied combination. There is a relationship between SOD activity and growth response to stress. The markedly higher level of SOD isoforms activities was noticed in cells (especially S. microspina and S. obliquus) exposed to 12 h to combined chemicals, as compared to individually treated and control cells. SOD activities in cells of three Scenedesmus grown 24 h were similar in all experimental variants and after 48 h of exposure significantly decreased in almost all cases (especially in S. subspicatus). There were no differences observed between SOD profiles obtained for all variants examined. Chloroplasts seems to be the main target site of interaction effects of dissimilarly acting chemicals.

  15. Enantioselective ecotoxicity of the herbicide dichlorprop and complexes formed with chitosan in two fresh water green algae.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuli; Xu, Dongmei; Kang, Xiaodong

    2011-04-01

    To reduce the leaching potential, to prevent groundwater contamination and to maintain the efficacy of a pesticide, natural polysaccharides have received increasing attention due to their biocompatibility and useful biological reactivity for controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides. In this paper, the toxicities of the chiral herbicide dichlorprop (DCPP) and its complexes with chitosan molecules (DCPP-CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (DCPP-NP) to two different green algae were determined and compared. The inhibition rates of DCPP, DCPP-CS and DCPP-NP were determined at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 h, and the results show that (S)-DCPP was more toxic to Chlorella vulgaris than (R)-DCPP, while the (R)-DCPP was more toxic to Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-DCPP. The study also found that the chiral selectivity of DCPP to Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus could be changed when DCPP was complexed with chitosan molecules (CS) or chitosan nanoparticles (NP). For Chlorella vulgaris, the order of inhibition was (R)-DCPP-CS > (S)-DCPP-CS and (R)-DCPP-NP > (S)-DCPP-NP; for Scenedesmus obliquus, the order was (S)-DCPP-CS > (R)-DCPP-CS and (S)-DCPP-NP > (R)-DCPP-NP. This phenomenon suggests that the enantioselective behaviors of chiral compounds might shift when interactions with other chiral receptors coexist in different biological environments. Additionally, chitosan molecules and chitosan nanoparticles also showed different toxicities, which could be ascribed to the difference in the physicochemical properties between CS and NP or the differences in the cell walls of the two fresh water green algae.

  16. Alterations in in vivo knee joint kinematics following a femoral nerve branch block of the vastus medialis: Implications for patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Frances T; Borotikar, Bhushan S; Behnam, Abrahm J; Alter, Katharine E

    2012-07-01

    A potential source of patellofemoral pain, one of the most common problems of the knee, is believed to be altered patellofemoral kinematics due to a force imbalance around the knee. Although no definitive etiology for this imbalance has been found, a weak vastus medialis is considered a primary factor. Therefore, this study's purpose was to determine how the loss of vastus medialis obliquus force alters three-dimensional in vivo knee joint kinematics during a volitional extension task. Eighteen asymptomatic female subjects with no history of knee pain or pathology participated in this IRB approved study. Patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics were derived from velocity data acquired using dynamic cine-phase contrast MRI. The same kinematics were then acquired immediately after administering a motor branch block to the vastus medialis obliquus using 3-5ml of 1% lidocaine. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the null hypothesis that the post- and pre-injection kinematics were no different. The null hypothesis was rejected for patellofemoral lateral shift (P=0.003, max change=1.8mm, standard deviation=1.7mm), tibiofemoral lateral shift (P<0.001, max change=2.1mm, standard deviation=2.9mm), and tibiofemoral external rotation (P<0.001, max change=3.7°, standard deviation=4.4°). The loss of vastus medialis obliquus function produced kinematic changes that mirrored the axial plane kinematics seen in individuals with patellofemoral pain, but could not account for the full extent of these changes. Thus, vastus medialis weakness is likely a major factor in, but not the sole source of, altered patellofemoral kinematics in such individuals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Alterations in in vivo Knee Joint Kinematics Following a Femoral Nerve Branch Block of the Vastus Medialis: Implications for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Frances T.; Borotikar, Bhushan S.; Behnam, Abrahm J; Alter, Katharine E.

    2012-01-01

    Background A potential source of patellofemoral pain, one of the most common problems of the knee, is believed to be altered patellofemoral kinematics due to a force imbalance around the knee. Although no definitive etiology for this imbalance has been found, a weak vastus medialis is considered a primary factor. Therefore, this study’s purpose was to determine how the loss of vastus medialis obliquus force alters three-dimensional in vivo knee joint kinematics during a volitional extension task. Methods Eighteen asymptomatic female subjects with no history of knee pain or pathology participated in this IRB approved study. During the first visit, the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral kinematics were derived from velocity data acquired using dynamic cine-phase contrast MRI. The same kinematics were then acquired immediately after administering a motor branch block to the vastus medialis obliquus using 3–5cc of 1% lidocaine. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test the null hypothesis that the post- and pre-injection kinematics were no different. Findings The null hypothesis was rejected for patellofemoral lateral shift (p=0.003, max change=1.8mm, standard deviation=1.7mm), tibiofemoral lateral shift (p<0.001, max change=2.1mm, standard deviation=2.9mm), and tibiofemoral external rotation (p<0.001, max change=3.7°, standard deviation=4.4°). Interpretation The loss of vastus medialis obliquus function produced kinematic changes that mirrored the axial plane kinematics seen in individuals with patellofemoral pain, but could not account for the full extent of these changes. Thus, vastus medialis weakness is likely a major factor in, but not the sole source of, altered patellofemoral kinematics in such individuals. PMID:22244738

  18. Abdominal muscle size and symmetry at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in healthy control subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, A F; Pulkovski, N; Toma, V; Sprott, H

    2008-01-01

    The symmetry of, and physical characteristics influencing, the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal exercises were examined in 57 healthy subjects (20 men, 37 women; aged 22–62 years). M-mode ultrasound images were recorded from the abdominal muscles at rest and during abdominal hollowing exercises in hook-lying. The fascial lines bordering the transvs. abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were digitized and the absolute thickness, relative thickness (% of total lateral thickness) and contraction ratio (thickness during hollowing/thickness at rest), as well as the asymmetry (difference between sides expressed as a percent of the smallest value for the two sides) for each of these parameters were determined for each muscle. Both at rest and during hollowing, obliquus internus was the thickest and transvs. abdominis the thinnest muscle. There were no significant differences between left and right sides for group mean thicknesses of any muscle; however, individual asymmetries were evident, with mean values for the different muscles ranging from 11% to 26%; asymmetry was much less for the contraction ratios (mean % side differences, 5–14% depending on muscle). Body mass was the most significant positive predictor of absolute muscle thickness, for all muscles at rest and during hollowing, accounting for 30–44% variance. Body mass index explained 20–30% variance in transvs. abdominis contraction ratio (negative relationship). The influence of these confounders must be considered in comparative studies of healthy controls and back pain patients, unless groups are very carefully matched. Asymmetries observed in patients should be interpreted with caution, as they are also common in healthy subjects. PMID:19172732

  19. Different ways to balance the spine: subtle changes in sagittal spinal curves affect regional muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Claus, Andrew P; Hides, Julie A; Moseley, G Lorimer; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-03-15

    Exploratory study of regional muscle activity in different postures. To detail the relationship between spinal curves and regional muscle activity. Sagittal balanced spinal posture (C7 above S1 in the sagittal plane) is a goal for spinal surgery and conservative ergonomics. Three combinations of thoracolumbar and lumbar spinal curves can be considered sagittal balanced postures: (i) flat-at both regions, (ii) long lordosis-lordotic at both regions, and (iii) short lordosis-thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. This study compares regional muscle activity between these 3 sagittal balanced postures in sitting, as well as a slump posture. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) electrodes were inserted into the lumbar multifidus (deep and superficial), iliocostalis (lateral and medial), longissimus thoracis, and transversus abdominis in 14 healthy male volunteers. Fine-wire or surface EMG electrodes were also used to record activity of the obliquus internus, obliquus externus, and rectus abdominis muscles. Root mean square EMG amplitude in the flat, long lordosis, short lordosis, and slump sitting postures were normalized to maximal voluntary contraction, and also to the peak activity across the sitting postures. Muscle activity was compared between postures with a linear mixed model analysis. Of the extensor muscles, it was most notable that activity of the deep and superficial fibers of lumbar multifidus increased incrementally in the 3 sagittal balanced postures; flat, long lordosis, and short lordosis (P < 0.05). Of the abdominal muscles, obliquus internus was more active in short lordosis than the other postures (P < 0.05). Comparing the sagittal balanced postures, the flat posture showed the least muscle activity (similar to the slump posture at most muscles examined). Discrete combinations of muscle activity supported the 3 different sagittal balanced postures in sitting, providing new detail for surgeons, researchers, and therapists to distinguish between different

  20. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-06-17

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil.

  1. Studies on the hormonal relationships of algae in pure culture : I. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid on the growth of blue-green and green algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M R; Winter, A

    1968-09-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) stimulated the growth (increase in dry weight) of the blue-green algae Anacystis nidulans, Chlorogloea fritschii, Phormidium foveolarum, Nostoc muscorum, Anabaena cylindrica, and Tolypothrix tenuis and the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Ankistrodesmus falcatus and Scenedesmus obliquus growing under as sterile conditions as possible. The optimum concentration varied from species to species; in the blue-green algae it ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-9) M and in the green algae it was 10(-3) M. These results are discussed in the light of present studies in this field.

  2. Effects of active/passive interventions on pain, anxiety, and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia: Randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Gamze; Unal, Edibe; Akbayrak, Turkan; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Yakut, Yavuz; Karabulut, Erdem

    2017-01-01

    The authors of this study compared the effects of pilates exercises and connective tissue massage (CTM) on pain intensity; pain-pressure threshold; and tolerance, anxiety, progress, and health-related quality of life in females with fibromyalgia. It was a pilot, assessor masked, randomized controlled trial conducted between January and August of 2013. Twenty-one women with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to the pilates exercise program (six of whom did not complete the program), and 22 were randomly assigned to CTM (one of whom did not complete this program). Each group received the assigned intervention three times per week during a 4-week period. The Visual Analogue Scale, algometry, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were used at baseline and at the end of treatments. Significant improvements were found in both groups for all parameters. However, the scores for pain-pressure threshold were significantly elevated and the symptoms of anxiety were significantly diminished in the exercise group compared to the massage group. Thus, exercise and massage might be used to provide improvements in women with fibromyalgia. The exercise group showed more advantages than the massage group and thus might be preferred for patients with fibromyalgia. However, an adequately powered trial is required to determine this with certainty.

  3. Improving muscular endurance with the MVe Fitness Chair™ in breast cancer survivors: a feasibility and efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eric; Battaglini, Claudio; Groff, Dianne; Naumann, Fiona

    2013-07-01

    To assess the feasibility and efficacy of delivering Pilates exercises for resistance training to breast cancer survivors using the MVe Fitness Chair™. Pilot randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six female breast cancer survivors were randomized to use the MVe Fitness Chair™ (n=8), traditional resistance training (n=8), or a control group (no exercise) (CO) (n=10). The MVe Fitness Chair™ and traditional resistance training groups completed 8 weeks of exercise. Muscular endurance was assessed pre and post-test for comparisons within and between groups using push ups, curl ups, and the Dynamic Muscular Endurance Test Battery for Cancer Patients of Various Ages. Feasibility of the MVe Fitness Chair™ was good, evidenced by over 80% adherence for both exercise groups and positive narrative feedback. Significant improvements in muscular endurance were observed in the MVe Fitness Chair™ (p<0.002) and traditional resistance training groups (p<0.001), but there were no differences in improvement between the MVe Fitness Chair™ and traditional resistance training groups (p<0.711) indicating that Pilates and traditional resistance training may be equally effective at improving muscular endurance in this population. The MVe Fitness Chair™ is feasible for use in breast cancer survivors. It appears to promote similar improvements in muscular endurance when compared to traditional resistance training, but has several advantages over traditional resistance training, including cost, logistics, enjoyment, and ease of learning. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described here is work accomplished in investigating the potential use of micro-algae in yielding useful macronutrients for closed ecological life support systems in space habitats. Analysis of the chemical composition of the blue-green alga Synechoccus 6311 was done in the present work, and was compared to values found in previous work on the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus. Similar values were obtained for proteins, and lower values for nucleic acids and lipids. A second part of the work involved fabrication of food products containing various levels of incorporated algae (S. obliquus) proteins and/or lipids. Protein isolate was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation), and chocolate chip cookies. In the sensory analysis, the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectionable. The mild spinachy flavor was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles.

  5. Algae biofilm growth and the potential to stimulate lipid accumulation through nutrient starvation.

    PubMed

    Schnurr, Peter J; Espie, George S; Allen, D Grant

    2013-05-01

    An algae biofilm growth system was developed to study the growth kinetics and neutral lipid productivities of Scenedesmus obliquus and Nitzschia palea, and to determine if algal biofilms can be starved of key nutrients to increase their neutral lipid concentrations. Linear growth curves were determined for each species until nutrient starvation commenced, at which point growth ceased and/or biofilms sloughed from their substratum. Nutrient starvation did not increase neutral lipid concentrations in any of the biofilms; however, it approximately doubled their lipid concentrations when grown in suspension. Biomass productivities of 2.8 and 2.1g/m(2)/d and lipid productivities of 0.45 and 0.18 g/m(2)/d were determined for N. palea and S. obliquus, respectively. The results suggest that nutrient starvation of biofilms is not a desirable method of lipid production for algae biofilm biofuel production systems, but that lipid production rates compare favorably with conventional terrestrial biofuel sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of the potential for trophic transfer of roxithromycin along an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Zhang, Zhenghua

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a new class of environmental pollutants in recent years. But data about their potential for transfer and biomagnification in aquatic food chains are still lacking. In this study, bioaccumulation of the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) was determined in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea Daphnia magna and the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 48 h of exposure, S. obliquus accumulated ROX from media, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 74.6, 46.3, and 24.5 l kg(-1) at nominal exposure concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 μg l(-1), respectively. After 48 h of feeding ROX-contaminated algae, D. magna was able to accumulate ROX in all three concentration treatments, but biomagnification did not occur at this trophic level, as biomagnification factors (BMFs) varied from 0.21 to 0.29 in different concentration treatments were well below one. In tissues (muscle, gill, liver, and bile) of C. auratus fed with contaminated daphnia for 8 days, no biomagnification was observed. However, this species did accumulate a certain degree of ROX through food chain transfer, and the tissue burden was greatest in the liver > muscle > gill and lowest in the bile. This work suggests that the trophic transfer should be a matter of concern for ecological risk assessments of pharmaceutical substances in aquatic food webs.

  7. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic environment, but this interaction remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the effects of LOAs on the physicochemical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in an aqueous medium and on the GNP toxicity to algae were studied. The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to GNP suspensions in the presence of benzoic acid or gallic acid at various concentrations. The GNPs had smaller hydrodynamic sizes and the GNP suspensions were more stable and had higher or lower surface zeta potentials in the presence of LOAs than when LOAs were not present. The toxic effects in S. obliquus cultures incubated with GNP suspensions containing LOAs were related to the LOA concentration, and the presence of LOAs caused three effects: stimulation, alleviation, and synergistic inhibition. The intensities of the effects mainly correlated with the LOA concentration, the extent of agglomeration, and particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that the environmental fates and toxicities of GNPs are strongly affected by the binding of GNPs to LOAs.

  8. Acute toxicity and effects of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquids on green algae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Min; Cai, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Bang-Jun; Hu, Ling-Wei; Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Jian-Ji

    2010-09-01

    In the present study, the acute toxicity of 1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Cnmim]Br) on the green algal Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella ellipsoidea was determined. The length of alkyl side chain of these imidazolium ionic liquids were C4, C6, C8, C10 and C12. The primary production of S. obliquus was also assessed after they were exposed to 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/L of [C10mim]Br for 96 h. The results showed that the acute toxicity of these ionic liquids was positively correlated with the alkyl chain length. Meanwhile, the concentration of the ionic liquid strongly influenced the primary production of algae. These results indicate that [Cnmim]Br with longer alkyl length have toxic effects on the green algae, and the risk to aquatic ecosystems by ionic liquid's leaking into the water body must be evaluated in the future. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Urban wastewater treatment by seven species of microalgae and an algal bloom: Biomass production, N and P removal kinetics and harvestability.

    PubMed

    Mennaa, Fatima Zahra; Arbib, Zouhayr; Perales, José Antonio

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluates the capacity of seven species and a Bloom of microalgae to grow in urban wastewater. Nutrient removal kinetics and biomass harvesting by means of centrifugation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation have been also tested. Results show that the best biomass productivities ranged from between 118 and 108 mgSS L(-1) d(-1) for the Bloom (Bl) and Scenedesmus obliquus (Sco). Regarding nutrient removal, microalgae were able to remove the total dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations by more than 80% and 87% respectively, depending on the species tested. The final total dissolved concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the culture media complies with the European Commission Directive 98/15/CE on urban wastewater treatment. Regarding harvesting, the results of coagulation-flocculation sedimentation using a 60 mg L(-1) dose of Ferric chloride were similar between species, exceeding the biomass removal efficiency by more than 90%. The results of centrifugation (time required to remove 90% of solids at 1000 rpm) were not similar between species, with the shortest time being 2.9 min for Sco, followed by the bloom (7.25 min). An overall analysis suggested that the natural bloom and Scenedesmus obliquus seem to be the best candidates to grow in pre-treated wastewater, according to their biomass production, nutrient removal capability and harvestability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  11. Combining urban wastewater treatment with biohydrogen production--an integrated microalgae-based approach.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Paula; Ambrosano, Lucas; Graça, Sofia; Sousa, Catarina; Marques, Paula A S S; Ribeiro, Belina; Botrel, Elberis P; Castro Neto, Pedro; Gouveia, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was the simultaneous treatment of urban wastewater using microalgae and the energetic valorization of the obtained biomass. Chlorella vulgaris (Cv), Scenedesmus obliquus (Sc) and a naturally occurring algal Consortium C (ConsC) were grown in an urban wastewater. The nutrient removals were quite high and the treated water fits the legislation (PT Dec-Lei 236/98) in what concerns the parameters analysed (N, P, COD). After nutrient depletion the microalgae remained two more weeks in the photobioreactor (PBR) under nutritional stress conditions, to induce sugar accumulation (22-43%). The stressed biomass was converted into biohydrogen (bioH2), a clean energy carrier, through dark fermentation by a strain of the bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. The fermentation kinetics were monitored and fitted to a modified Gompertz model. The highest bioH2 production yield was obtained for S. obliquus (56.8 mL H2/gVS) which was very similar when using the same algae grown in synthetic media.

  12. Effects of calcium, magnesium and sodium chloride in enhancing lipid accumulation in two green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gorain, Prakash Chandra; Bagchi, Sourav Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae has the potential as a sustainable fuel, since some species show exceptionally high lipid accumulation potential under various stresses. Effects of different concentrations of Ca, Mg and NaCl in the growth medium on biomass yield and lipid accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus grown under batch culture mode were investigated. Starvation of Mg showed a marginal rise in lipid content for a short period of time. Ca-starved cultures, however, demonstrated a profound rise in lipid content, i.e. 40% of dry cell wt. (dcw) was recorded against 11.9% control for C. vulgaris and 37% (dcw) against 11.3% for S. obliquus. Under increased concentration of Mg, significant rise in biomass and lipid yield was recorded. Effect of NaCl-induced osmotic stress showed lipid accumulation of approximately 40% (dcw) in both the test algae, whereas the biomass yield was severely affected. The fatty acid profiles under the above stresses were analysed and discussed.

  13. Anatomical Evaluation of the Thoracolumbar Nerves Related to the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block Technique in the Dog.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Herrera, F E; Buriticá-Gaviria, E F; Echeverry-Bonilla, D F

    2017-08-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) is a fascial plane containing the thoracolumbar nerve branches that innervate the abdominal wall. Limited information is available on the anatomical organization of these nerve branches in the dog, which is of great importance for the success of the TAP block anaesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to describe the origin and conformation of thoracolumbar nerves running through the TAP in 20 hemi-abdominal walls of 10 adult mongrel dog cadavers with an average body weight of 12.6 kg (range: 9.6-15.6). The abdominal walls were dissected from superficial to deep direction, the skin and both obliquus externus abdominis and obliquus internus abdominis muscles were dissected and reflected dorsally to expose the transversus abdominis muscle and the thoracolumbar nerve branches located in this plane. The anatomical features of ventral nerve branches were described. The thoracic nerve branches: T7-T12 and costoabdominalis; and the lumbar nerve branches: iliohypogastricus cranialis, iliohypogastricus caudalis, ilioinguinalis and cutaneus femoris lateralis were identified in all the cadavers. Anatomical variations related to the presence or absence within the TAP of the T7, T8 and T9 nerve branches were found. These variations should be taken into account when planning the TAP block technique in dogs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. The relationship of abdominal muscles balance and body balance.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Ji-Seon; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Lee, Sang-Sook; Kim, Jee-Hee

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data.

  15. Postural- and respiratory-related activities of abdominal muscles during post-exercise hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    David, Pascal; Terrien, Jérémy; Petitjean, Michel

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses on the role of superficial abdominal muscles revealed by electromyographic recordings during the maintenance of a bipedal stance perturbed by post-exercise hyperventilation. Twelve healthy subjects performed six 30-s postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing quietly, then one test every minute for the 5 min immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Displacement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored over time. Myoelectric activities of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles were recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). Metabolic parameters were measured with a portable telemetric device. The change in ventilatory drive induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in both postural sway parameters and EMG activities. For OE and OI, the increased EMG activities were prominent during expiration, whereas OI was silent during inspiration. OE and RA were activated during both expiration and inspiration. It is concluded that the compensation of respiratory disturbances of the erect posture appears to be less effective when minute ventilation increases. The patterns of muscle activity suggest that abdominal muscles are controlled differentially and that their functional coordination is dependent on the respiratory demand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship of Abdominal Muscles Balance and Body Balance

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dong-Kwon; Kim, Ji-Seon; Lee, Dong-Yeop; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Lee, Sang-Sook; Kim, Jee-Hee

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify what impact the thickness differences between the leftside and rightside transversus abdominis (TrA), internal obliquus (IO) and external obliquus (EO) have on balance ability in the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) and resting postures. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 41 young adults were asked to adopt a resting posture and to perform ADIM. The thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, IO, EO) were measured using ultrasound imaging, Then balance ability was measured, so that a comparative analysis could be carried out. [Results] According to the results, the thicknesses of TrA and IO very significantly increased when ADIM was performed. The changes in thickness of the muscles on the left and right sides showed no significant correlations with balance ability. [Conclusion] According to the study results, the difference in thickness between the left and right side muscles in a normal person is small (symmetric), and the differences in the thickness of TrA and IO on the left and right side reduced when the ADIM, which is a re-education method for abdominal muscles was performed. Therefore, we consider that the ADIM should be used in future clinical trials to induce symmetric contraction of the abdominal muscles. Also, the correlation results of muscle balance and body balance can be used as empirical data. PMID:24259848

  17. The effects of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Gil Su; Baek, Seung Ok; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). [Results] The thickness of LM was significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for all three protocols. Thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for protocols A and A+B. Thickness increases in LM were significantly greater during protocols B and A+B, but not during protocol A. Thickness increases in the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during protocols A and A+B, but not during protocol B. [Conclusion] NMES can significantly activate the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with LDK. Protocol A+B of NMES is recommended to aid postural correction and low back pain (LBP) in patients with LDK. PMID:27064323

  18. The effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation at different frequencies on the activations of deep abdominal stabilizing muscles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Kim, Eun Hyuk; Cho, Yun Woo; Kim, Sang Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with transversus abdominis (TrA) dysfunction. Recently, it was proposed that Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES) could be used to stimulate deep abdominal muscle contractions and improve lumbopelvic stability. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal stimulation frequency required during NMES for the activation of deep abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy volunteers between the ages of 24 and 32 were included. The portable research-stimulator was applied using a 10 second contraction time, and a 10 second resting time at 20 Hz, 50 Hz, and 80 Hz. Changes in muscle thicknesses were determined for the TrA, obliquus internus (OI), and obliquus externus (OE) by real time ultrasound imaging. Significant thickness increases in the TrA, OI, and OE were observed during NMES versus the resting state (p < 0.05). Of the frequencies examined, 50 Hz NMES produced the greatest increase in TrA thickness (1.33 fold as compared with 1.22 fold at 20 Hz and 1.21 fold at 80 Hz) (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that NMES can preferentially stimulate contractions in deep abdominal stabilizing muscles. Most importantly, 50 Hz NMES produced greater muscle thickness increases than 20 or 80 Hz.

  19. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Stabilization of lumbo-pelvic region and electromyography of the abdominal muscles.

    PubMed

    Filho, R de F N; de Brito Silva