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Sample records for obliquus persoon pilat

  1. Pilates

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, Christine E.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The interest and popularity of Pilates is increasing worldwide. In addition to being used in fitness programs, it is being used in some rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: This review summarizes level III evidence from 1995 to 2009 obtained from PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, and the Internet. Meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and controlled trials published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved for appraisal. The keywords searched were Pilates and core stabilization. Results: Ninety articles were identified in MEDLINE and CINAHL; 9 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria for level III evidence. Conclusion: There is a scientific basis for the effectiveness of Pilates exercise, with limited evidence to support it as a rehabilitative intervention. PMID:23016028

  2. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon.

    PubMed

    Chai, Min; Zhu, Xiaopei; Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as 'trap crops' for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids 'Sorbonne', Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids 'Ceb Dazzle', and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) 'L. formolongo') to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced "suicidal germination" of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  3. Lily Cultivars Have Allelopathic Potential in Controlling Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hongxia; Jiang, Chuangdao; Zhang, Jinzheng; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating holoparasitic weed, Orobanche aegyptiaca Persoon. (Egyptian broomrape) causes serious damage to agricultural production and threatens economic development, which has raised widespread concern. The present study was conducted to determine whether lilies have the potential to be used as ‘trap crops’ for controlling O. aegyptiaca Persoon. In the experiments, the ability of three popular lily cultivars (Lilium Oriental hybrids ‘Sorbonne’, Lilium LA (Longiflorum hybrids x Asiatic hybrids) hybrids ‘Ceb Dazzle’, and Lilium Longiflorum hybrids (L. formosanum x L. longiflorum) ‘L. formolongo’) to induce O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed germination was assessed. Parts of the three lily cultivars, including the rhizosphere soil and underground and above-ground organs, all induced “suicidal germination” of parasitic O. aegyptiaca Persoon. seed at four growth stages. Specifically, Sorbonne and Ceb Dazzle behaved with similar allelopathy, and the bulb, scale leaf and aerial stem exhibited stronger allelopathic effects on O. aegyptiaca Pers. germination compared to other organs. Aqueous L. formolongo leaf extracts may contain more stable, effective stimulants given that they induced the highest germination rate at 76.7% even though the extracts were serially diluted. We speculate that these organs may be advantageous in further isolating and purifying economical active substances that can be substitutes for GR24. These results indicate that lilies have the potential to be used as a trap crops or can be processed into green herbicide formulations that can be applied in agriculture production to rapidly deplete the seed bank of O. aegyptiaca Persoon. parasitic weeds in soil. PMID:26565398

  4. Pilates, Mindfulness and Somatic Education.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Karen; Adams, Marianne; Quin, Rebecca; Harrison, Mandy; Greeson, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The Pilates Method is a form of somatic education with the potential to cultivate mindfulness - a mental quality associated with overall well-being. However, controlled studies are needed to determine whether changes in mindfulness are specific to the Pilates Method or also result from other forms of exercise. This quasi-experimental study compared Pilates Method mat classes and recreational exercise classes on measures of mindfulness and well-being at the beginning, middle and end of a 15 week semester. Total mindfulness scores increased overall for the Pilates Method group but not for the exercise control group, and these increases were directly related to end of semester ratings of self-regulatory self-efficacy, perceived stress and mood. Findings suggest that the Pilates Method specifically enhances mindfulness, and these increases are associated with other measures of wellness. The changes in mindfulness identified in this study support the role of the Pilates Method in the mental well-being of its practitioners and its potential to support dancers' overall well-being. PMID:25328542

  5. Pilates and Mindfulness: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Marianne; Caldwell, Karen; Atkins, Laurie; Quin, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The Pilates method as Joseph Hubertus Pilates originally defined it in the early 1920s, was called "Contrology," or the art of control, based on the ideal of attaining a complete coordination of body, mind, and spirit. Joseph Pilates's early writings emphasized the value of controlling the body rather than attending to the process of body…

  6. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  7. Pilates for pregnancy and beyond: a study.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Elaine; Manley, Julie; Schofield, Aneleigh

    2016-05-01

    This mixed methods study explores the holistic impact of pilates-based exercises for childbearing women in the ante- and postnatal period, specifically in terms of general wellbeing, preparation for and recovery from childbirth, and pregnancy-related musculoskeletal problems. The study determined participants' perceptions of the pilates intervention, such as positive or negative wellbeing effects including self confidence/esteem, body image, flexibility, comfort, preparation for labour and/or postnatal recovery. PMID:27295756

  8. Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

    2010-07-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

  9. Pilates

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... methods from around the world, among them the mind-body formats of yoga and Chinese martial arts. Joseph ...

  10. Pilates for Better Sex: Changes in Sexual Functioning in Healthy Turkish Women After Pilates Exercise.

    PubMed

    Halis, Fikret; Yildirim, Pelin; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Cecen, Kursat; Gokce, Ahmet

    2016-05-18

    Although a large number of studies report the impact of daily exercise on many aspects of women's health, none of them address the relationship between Pilates exercise and sexual function prospectively. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Pilates exercise on sexual function in healthy young women using a validated questionnaire. In total, 34 premenopausal healthy Turkish women aged between 20 and 50 years who had regular menstrual cycles and sexual relationships were included in the study. Women were asked to complete Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed before and after 12 weeks of Pilates exercise. Primary endpoints were changes in total and individual domain scores on the FSFI and BDI. After the 12-week Pilates intervention, BDI scores were decreased and all domains of the FSFI were significantly improved with mean ± SD total FSFI scores increasing from 25.9 ± 7.4 to 32.2 ± 3.6 (p <.0001). This is the first prospective study that quantifies the improvement in sexual function of healthy women after a 12-week Pilates program. Our findings suggest that Pilates may improve sexual function in healthy women. However, further studies with a larger sample size are needed in this field. PMID:25826474

  11. Quadriceps Muscle Mechanical Simulator for Training of Vastus Medialis Obliquus and Vastus Lateralis Obliquus Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Irmak, Rafet; Irmak, Ahsen; Biçer, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: In classical anatomy quadriceps muscle has four heads. Clinical studies have demostrated 6 heads of this muscle. These heads were demostrated seperately not only by their functional properties,but also by innervation and kinesiological properties. In our previous study we have developed and demostrated electrophysiological properties of vastus medialis obliquus by an electronic patient simulator. The purpose of this study is to develop a mechanical simulator which can be used to demostrate mechanical properties of 6 heads of quadriceps muscle and the screw home mechanism. Methods: Quadriceps femoris muscle has 6 heads: rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis obliquus, vastus medialis longus, vastus lateralis obliquus and vastus lateralis longus. The fundamental mechanical properties of each head is seperated by insersio and angle of pull. Main design principle was to demostrate all heads with insersio and angle of pull properties. Second design principle was to demostrate the screw-home mechanism which is the result of difference in articular surfaces of medial and lateral of condyles of femur. Results: Final design of the simulator consists of three planes for demostration of angle of pull and pulling forces (patellar plane, proximal and distal planes) of each heads. On each plane channels were graved as origo and insersio for demostration of angle of pull. Distal plane was movable for demostration of pulling forces in different angels of knee flexion and extention. Also proximal plane was adjustable to demostrate different sitting and standing positions. Srew home mechanism was demostrated by specially designed hingle mechanism. Left and right side hingle mechanisms have different radii as femoral condyles and this difference can cause rotation in terminal extension as in the screw home mechanism. Conclusion: Vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis obliquus and screw-home mechanism have clinical significance. We were not able to find

  12. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O’Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11–15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  13. Clinical effectiveness of a Pilates treatment for forward head posture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Myung; Lee, Chang-Hyung; O'Sullivan, David; Jung, Joo-Ha; Park, Jung-Jun

    2016-07-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effects of pilates and an exercise program on the craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion, pain, and muscle fatigue in subjects with a forward head posture (FHP). [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 sedentary females (age 20 to 39 years) with FHP were randomly assigned to pilates (n=14) and combined (n=14) exercise groups. The study was a randomized, controlled, double-blind study with the two groups performing exercise 50 min/day, 3 days/week, with an intensity of 11-15 rating of perceived exertion (RPE) for ten weeks. The main outcome measures were craniovertebral angle, cervical range of motion (ROM), pain levels assessed by visual analog scale (VAS), and neck disability index (NDI). Surface electromyography was also used to measure muscle fatigue. [Results] There were significant increases in craniovertebral angle and cervical ROM in the pilates group, but none in the control group. The only significant differences in muscle activity were recorded in the sternocleidomastoid muscle in the pilates group. Both exercise programs had positive effects on pain measures, as VAS and NDI were significantly decreased. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pilates could be recommended as an appropriate exercise for treatment of FHP in sedentary individuals. PMID:27512253

  14. An exploration of implications for the development of Pilates instructor system through identification of instructors’ difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categories were incorporated in the collected data: (1) lack of information on Pilates qualification system, (2) difficulties in understanding the human anatomy related with the diverse movements taught in Pilates classes and its application to Pilates practice, (3) need for professional development through retraining. Based on these findings, a need for rethinking the monitoring and evaluation process for Pilates qualification system and Pilates education in Korea was identified. In addition, we need to summarize and offer information on a range of Pilates qualifications. And the quality of Pilates instructor education program should be improved as well by proving them a range of teaching methods including microteaching, discussion-based lessons as well as reading and writing sessions and other necessary teaching media. PMID:27656634

  15. An exploration of implications for the development of Pilates instructor system through identification of instructors’ difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categories were incorporated in the collected data: (1) lack of information on Pilates qualification system, (2) difficulties in understanding the human anatomy related with the diverse movements taught in Pilates classes and its application to Pilates practice, (3) need for professional development through retraining. Based on these findings, a need for rethinking the monitoring and evaluation process for Pilates qualification system and Pilates education in Korea was identified. In addition, we need to summarize and offer information on a range of Pilates qualifications. And the quality of Pilates instructor education program should be improved as well by proving them a range of teaching methods including microteaching, discussion-based lessons as well as reading and writing sessions and other necessary teaching media.

  16. An exploration of implications for the development of Pilates instructor system through identification of instructors' difficulties.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-08-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categories were incorporated in the collected data: (1) lack of information on Pilates qualification system, (2) difficulties in understanding the human anatomy related with the diverse movements taught in Pilates classes and its application to Pilates practice, (3) need for professional development through retraining. Based on these findings, a need for rethinking the monitoring and evaluation process for Pilates qualification system and Pilates education in Korea was identified. In addition, we need to summarize and offer information on a range of Pilates qualifications. And the quality of Pilates instructor education program should be improved as well by proving them a range of teaching methods including microteaching, discussion-based lessons as well as reading and writing sessions and other necessary teaching media.

  17. An exploration of implications for the development of Pilates instructor system through identification of instructors' difficulties.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-08-01

    This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categories were incorporated in the collected data: (1) lack of information on Pilates qualification system, (2) difficulties in understanding the human anatomy related with the diverse movements taught in Pilates classes and its application to Pilates practice, (3) need for professional development through retraining. Based on these findings, a need for rethinking the monitoring and evaluation process for Pilates qualification system and Pilates education in Korea was identified. In addition, we need to summarize and offer information on a range of Pilates qualifications. And the quality of Pilates instructor education program should be improved as well by proving them a range of teaching methods including microteaching, discussion-based lessons as well as reading and writing sessions and other necessary teaching media. PMID:27656634

  18. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities. PMID:27357919

  19. Effects of Pilates method in elderly people: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Francisco, Cristina; de Almeida Fagundes, Alessandra; Gorges, Bruna

    2015-07-01

    The Pilates method has been widely used in physical training and rehabilitation. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of this method in elderly people is limited. Six randomized controlled trials studies involving the use of the Pilates method for elderly people, published prior to December 2013, were selected from the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, Scielo and PEDro. Three articles suggested that Pilates produced improvements in balance. Two studies evaluated the adherence to Pilates programs. One study assessed Pilates' influence on cardio-metabolic parameters and another study evaluated changes in body composition. Strong evidence was found regarding beneficial effects of Pilates over static and dynamic balance in women. Nevertheless, evidence of balance improvement in both genders, changes in body composition in woman and adherence to Pilates programs were limited. Effects on cardio-metabolic parameters due to Pilates training presented inconclusive results. Pilates may be a useful tool in rehabilitation and prevention programs but more high quality studies are necessary to establish all the effects on elderly populations. PMID:26118523

  20. Effect of Pilates training on people with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Altan, L; Korkmaz, N; Dizdar, M; Yurtkuran, M

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Pilates on pain, functional status, and quality of life in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The study was performed as a randomized, prospective, controlled, and single-blind trial. Fifty-five participants (30 men, 25 women) who were under a regular follow-up protocol in our Rheumatology Clinic with the diagnosis of AS according to the modified New York criteria were included in the study. The participants were randomly assigned into two groups: in group I, Pilates exercise program of 1 h was given by a certified trainer to 30 participants 3 times a week for 12 weeks, and in group II, designed as the control group, 25 participants continued previous standard treatment programs. In groups, pre-(week 0) and post treatment (week 12 and week 24) evaluation was performed by one of the authors who was blind to the group allocation. Primary outcome measure was functional capacity. Evaluation was done using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Exploratory outcome measures were Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), Chest expansion, and ankylosing spondylitis quality of life (ASQOL) questionnaire. In group I, BASFI showed significant improvement at week 12 (P = 0.031) and week 24 (P = 0.007). In group II, this parameter was not found to have significantly changed at week 12 and week 24. Comparison of the groups showed significantly superior results for group I at week 24 (P = 0.023). We suggest Pilates exercises as an effective and safe method to improve physical capacity in AS patients. Our study is the first clinical study designed to investigate the role of Pilates method in AS treatment. We believe that further research with more participants and longer follow-up periods could help assess the therapeutic value of this popular physical exercise method in AS. PMID:21499876

  1. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  2. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  3. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  4. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  5. The effect of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency of 12-week Pilates exercises on wellness in the elderly. Before Pilates exercises training, the 88 elderly (63 females, 25 males) were given and completed a Wellness Scale. Then, the elderly participated in Pilates exercises and completed the same scale afterwards. Results of paired t-test showed that participants in 12-week Pilates exercises experienced significant improvement in physical (t=2.762, P<0.01), social (t=3.362, P<0.001), spiritual (t=2.307, P<0.05), and emotional wellness (t=2.489, P<0.05). Consequently, Pilates exercises helped improve wellness of the elderly. PMID:27162774

  6. Pilates Exercise for Hypertensive Patients: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gonzáles, Ana Inês; Nery, Tatyana; Fragnani, Samuel Geraldi; Pereira, Franciele; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Bezerra, Poliana Penasso; Haas, Patrícia

    2016-09-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) has a prevalence of approximately 1 billion cases worldwide. The main goals for its treatment involve changes in a patient's lifestyle, with a strategy of management that aims to increase his or her level of physical activity, with a recommendation for aerobic and resistance exercise. Some evidence has suggested that training with isometric exercises can produce effects similar to aerobic exercise on blood pressure reduction. Conventional exercises that are currently used in rehabilitation of hypertensive patients show low adherence, with a lack of motivation on the part of those patients. In that context, the Pilates method, which uses isometric exercises, has been gaining in popularity and worldwide acceptance, and it has the potential to be an effective method. The current literature review shows the possible benefits of the Pilates method for rehabilitation of hypertensive patients. However, even though the method is a promising modality, the authors have found that future research appears to be necessary to evaluate the benefits of Pilates for hypertensive patients. PMID:27622959

  7. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered.

  8. Herbicides interfere with antigrazer defenses in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuexia; Sun, Yunfei; Zhang, Xingxing; Heng, Hailu; Nan, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-11-01

    The extensive application of herbicides has led to a serious threat of herbicide contamination to aquatic ecosystem. Herbicide exposure affects aquatic communities not only by exerting toxicity on single species but also by changing interspecific interactions. This study investigated the antigrazer defenses of the common green alga Scenedesmus obliquus against different herbicides [glyphosate, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and atrazine] at various concentrations (0-2.0 mg L(-1)). In the presence of grazer (Daphnia)-derived cues, S. obliquus populations without herbicides formed high proportions of multicelled (e.g., four- and eight-celled) colonies. This result confirms that S. obliquus exhibits a morphological defense against grazing risk. At the low concentration range of 0.002-0.02 mg L(-1), the three herbicides exerted no influence on the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus, and multicelled colonies showed constant proportions. At the high concentration range of 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1), atrazine significantly inhibited the algal growth and photosynthesis whereas glyphosate or 2,4-D did not. Nonetheless, these levels of glyphosate or 2,4-D remarkably decreased the proportion of multicelled colonies, with reduced numbers of cells per particle in Daphnia filtrate-treated population. No eight-celled colony was formed after treatment with atrazine at 0.20-2.0 mg L(-1) despite the addition of Daphnia filtrate. These results suggest that herbicide exposure impairs antigrazer colonial morphs in phytoplankton although it is not sufficient to hamper algal growth. This phenomenon can increase the risk of predation by herbivores, thereby disrupting the inducible phytoplankton community. Furthermore, the predator-prey interactions between herbivores and phytoplankton can be potentially changed more seriously than previously considered. PMID:27501311

  9. Comparison of hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of Inonotus obliquus rich in vanadium and wild-growing I. obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Yong; Cui, Haifeng; Cao, Chunyu; Guo, Jianyou; Liu, Sha

    2011-12-01

    The effects of vanadium-enriched and wild Inonotus obliquus were tested on hyperglycemic mice. The vanadium content of the culture medium was 0.6%, reaching a concentration of 3.0 mg/g in the cultured mushroom while in the wild variety is 1/100 of that amount. The toxicity of vanadium at the 3.0 mg/g level is negligible, but its anti-diabetic effects are significantly different to those of the wild variety (p < 0.05). Due to its high bioavailability and low toxicity, vanadium-enriched I. obliquus could be used as a means of vanadium supplementation, with expectation of obtaining higher bioavailability and lower toxicity in animals.

  10. Antimutagenic effects of subfractions of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) extract.

    PubMed

    Ham, Seung-Shi; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Moon, Sun-Young; Chung, Mi Ja; Cui, Cheng-Bi; Han, Eun-Kyung; Chung, Cha-Kwon; Choe, Myeon

    2009-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a mushroom commonly known as Chaga that is widely used in folk medicine in Siberia, North America, and North Europe. Here, we evaluated the antimutagenic and antioxidant capacities of subfractions of Inonotus obliquus extract. The ethyl acetate extract was separated by vacuum chromatography into three fractions, and the fraction bearing the highest antimutagenic activity was subsequently separated into four fractions by reversed phase (ODS-C18) column chromatography. The most antimutagenic fraction was then separated into two subfractions (subfractions 1 and 2) by normal phase silica gel column chromatography. Ames test analysis revealed that the subfractions were not mutagenic. At 50 μg/plate, subfractions 1 and 2 strongly inhibited the mutagenesis induced in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100 by the directly acting mutagen MNNG (0.4 μg/plate) by 80.0% and 77.3%, respectively. They also inhibited 0.15 μg/plate 4NQO-induced mutagenesis in TA98 and TA100 by 52.6-62.0%. The mutagenesis in TA98 induced by the indirectly acting mutagens Trp-P-1 (0.15 μg/plate) and B(α)P (10 μg/plate) was reduced by 47.0-68.2% by the subfractions, while the mutagenesis in TA100 by Trp-P-1 and B(α)P was reduced by 70.5-87.2%. Subfraction 1 was more inhibitory than subfraction 2 with regard to the mutagenic effects of 4NQO, Trp-P-1, and B(α)P. Subfractions 1 and 2 also had a strong antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals and were identified by MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses as 3β-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol, respectively. Thus, we show that the 3beta-hydroxy-lanosta-8, 24-dien-21-al and inotodiol components of Inonotus obliquus bear antimutagenic and antioxidative activities. PMID:18992843

  11. Acute toxicity of butachlor and atrazine to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Yu, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Wenyang; He, Jinbo; Li, Huashou

    2012-06-01

    Both single and joint toxicity of atrazine and butachlor to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata isolated from South China were investigated in the present study. The 96 h-EC(50) values of atrazine and butachlor to S. obliquus were 0.0147 and 2.31 mg L(-1), while the 48 h-LC(50) values to D. carinata were 60.6 and 3.40 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that atrazine could be highly toxic to S. obliquus and slightly toxic to D. carinata, while butachlor exhibits moderate toxicity to both organisms. The additive indexes of atrazine and butachlor mixtures were -2.68 (-3.02 to -2.32) to S. obliquus and 0.054 (-0.025 to 0.238) to D. carinata, respectively. Therefore, the joint action of two herbicides was significant antagonism to S. obliquus, while significant synergism was not shown to D. carinata. Moreover, significant linear correlation between the natural logarithm of herbicide concentrations and growth rates of alga S. obliquus was observed. Taken together, it is the first study reporting the toxicity endpoints for mixture of atrazine and butachlor against S. obliquus and D. carinata isolated from south China. The present results would be helpful to provide data to assess the ecological risk of both herbicides to aquatic organisms.

  12. Effects of 8 weeks of mat-based Pilates exercise on gait in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Roh, SuYeon; Gil, Ho Jong; Yoon, Sukhoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week program of Pilates exercise on gait in chronic hemiplegia patients and to determine whether or not it can be used for rehabilitation in postsrtoke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 66.1 ± 4.4 yrs; height, 162.3 ± 8.3 cm; weight, 67.4 ± 12.3 kg) participated in this study and were randomly allocated equally to either a Pilates exercise group or a control group. To identify the effects of Pilates exercise, a 3-D motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras was performed. [Results] For the gait parameters, improvements were found in the Pilates exercise group for all variables, and statistical significance was observed for stride length, gait velocity, knee range of motion and hip range of motion. For the asymmetry indexes, insignificant improvements were found for all variables in the Pilates exercise group. [Conclusion] In conclusion, an 8-week program of Pilates exercise had a positive influence on improving the gait ability of poststroke patients, and the intervention could be applied to poststroke patients with various levels of physical disability by adjusting the intensity of training. PMID:27799706

  13. Effects of Pilates Exercise on Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Older Women.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Yoonyoung; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women. PMID:26671906

  14. Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenqin; Xia, Guiyang; Chen, Lixia; Zhao, Junli; Xie, Zhanfang; Qiu, Feng; Han, Guang

    2016-10-01

    Four new lanostane-type triterpenes (inonotusanes D-G, 1-4), including a 24,25,26,27-tetranorlanostane, together with 11 known compounds (5-15), including 7 lanostane derivatives, 2 steroids and 2 aromatic compounds, were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. To our knowledge, 1 is the first 24,25,26,27-tetranorlanostane-type triterpenoid from fungus, and this is the first time that 31-member lanostane-type triterpenes, 5 and 6, have been isolated from the sclerotia of I. obliquus instead of from its submerged culture. 7 and 8 are also new isolates of this genus. Compounds 1, 8, 12 and 13 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the 4T1 (mouse breast cancer) cell line, with IC50 9.40, 7.79, 9.06 and 9.31 μM, respectively. 8, 12 and 13 also exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the the MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell line, with IC50 8.35-9.01 μM.

  15. Chemical constituents from Inonotus obliquus and their antitumor activities.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fenqin; Xia, Guiyang; Chen, Lixia; Zhao, Junli; Xie, Zhanfang; Qiu, Feng; Han, Guang

    2016-10-01

    Four new lanostane-type triterpenes (inonotusanes D-G, 1-4), including a 24,25,26,27-tetranorlanostane, together with 11 known compounds (5-15), including 7 lanostane derivatives, 2 steroids and 2 aromatic compounds, were isolated from the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. To our knowledge, 1 is the first 24,25,26,27-tetranorlanostane-type triterpenoid from fungus, and this is the first time that 31-member lanostane-type triterpenes, 5 and 6, have been isolated from the sclerotia of I. obliquus instead of from its submerged culture. 7 and 8 are also new isolates of this genus. Compounds 1, 8, 12 and 13 exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the 4T1 (mouse breast cancer) cell line, with IC50 9.40, 7.79, 9.06 and 9.31 μM, respectively. 8, 12 and 13 also exhibited strong cytotoxicity against the the MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell line, with IC50 8.35-9.01 μM. PMID:27180084

  16. Pilates Method for Lung Function and Functional Capacity in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Niehues, Janaina Rocha; Gonzáles, Inês; Lemos, Robson Rodrigues; Haas, Patrícia

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the condition in which the body mass index (BMI) is ≥ 30 kg/m2 and is responsible for decreased quality of life and functional limitations. The harmful effects on ventilatory function include reduced lung capacity and volume; diaphragmatic muscle weakness; decreased lung compliance and stiffness; and weakness of the abdominal muscles, among others. Pilates is a method of resistance training that works with low-impact muscle exercises and is based on isometric exercises. The current article is a review of the literature that aims to investigate the hypothesis that the Pilates method, as a complementary method of training, might be beneficial to pulmonary function and functional capacity in obese adults. The intent of the review was to evaluate the use of Pilates as an innovative intervention in the respiratory dysfunctions of obese adults. In studies with other populations, it has been observed that Pilates can be effective in improving chest capacity and expansion and lung volume. That finding is due to the fact that Pilates works through the center of force, made ​​up of the abdominal muscles and gluteus muscles lumbar, which are responsible for the stabilization of the static and dynamic body that is associated with breath control. It has been observed that different Pilates exercises increase the activation and recruitment of the abdominal muscles. Those muscles are important in respiration, both in expiration and inspiration, through the facilitation of diaphragmatic action. In that way, strengthening the abdominal muscles can help improve respiratory function, leading to improvements in lung volume and capacity. The results found in the current literature review support the authors' observations that Pilates promotes the strengthening of the abdominal muscles and that improvements in diaphragmatic function may result in positive outcomes in respiratory function, thereby improving functional capacity. However, the authors did not

  17. Harvesting of Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using dispersed ozone flotation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ya-Ling; Juang, Yu-Chuan; Liao, Guan-Yu; Tsai, Pei-Wen; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu; Liu, Jhy-Chern; Chen, Wen-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2011-01-01

    The Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3, a species with excellent potential for CO(2) capture and lipid production, was harvested using dispersed ozone flotation. While air aeration does not, ozone produces effective solid-liquid separation through flotation. Ozone dose applied for sufficient algal flotation is similar to those used in practical drinking waterworks. The algae removal rate, surface charge, and hydrophobicity of algal cells, and fluorescence characteristics and proteins and polysaccharides contents of algogenic organic matter (AOM) were determined during ozonation. Proteins released from tightly bound AOM are essential to modifying the hydrophobicity of bubble surfaces for easy cell attachment and to forming a top froth layer for collecting floating cells. Humic substances in the suspension scavenge dosed ozone that adversely affects ozone flotation efficiency of algal cells.

  18. Effect of Pilates and taiji quan training on self-efficacy, sleep quality, mood, and physical performance of college students.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Karen; Harrison, Mandy; Adams, Marianne; Triplett, N Travis

    2009-04-01

    Methods of exercise such as Pilates and taiji quan, which have been shown to have beneficial effects on physical and mental characteristics, have been studied more often in samples of older participants. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a semester of either Pilates or taiji quan training on perceived self-efficacy, sleep quality and mood, as well as strength and balance in college-age individuals. Self-efficacy was found to be improved in the Pilates and taiji quan groups and there was a trend towards improvement in sleep quality. Mood was found to be improved significantly in the Pilates group while the taiji group showed a trend towards improvement. There were no changes or group differences in the strength or balance measures. Pilates and taiji quan are effective exercise modes to improve mental parameters in college-age individuals. PMID:19329051

  19. Effects of Pilates Exercise Programs in People With Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However

  20. Effects of Pilates exercise programs in people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The Pilates method has recently become a fast-growing popular way of exercise recommended for healthy individuals and those engaged in rehabilitation. Several published studies have examined the effects of Pilates method in people with chronic low back pain (LBP). The objective of this study is to describe and provide an extensive overview of the scientific literature comparing the effectiveness of the Pilates method on pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific LBP. The study is based on the data from the following sources: MEDLINE-NLM, MEDLINE-EBSCO, Scopus Elsevier, Cochrane, DOAJ, SciELO, and PLOSONE. Original articles and systematic reviews of adults with chronic nonspecific LBP that evaluated pain and/or disability were included in this study; studies in which the primary treatment was based on Pilates method exercises compared with no treatment, minimal intervention, other types of intervention, or other types of exercises. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were adopted. The literature search included 7 electronic databases and the reference list of relevant systematic reviews and original articles to July 2014. Two independent investigators conducted the literature search and performed the synthesis as follows: Study Design; Sample (n); Disability measure; Intervention; and Main results. The searches identified a total of 128 articles. From these, 29 were considered eligible and were included in the analysis. The items were stratified as follows: Pilates method versus other kind of exercises (n = 6 trials) and Pilates method versus no treatment group or minimal intervention for short-term pain (n = 9 trials); the therapeutic effect of the Pilates method in randomized cohorts (n = 5); and analysis of reviews (n = 9). We found that there is a dearth of studies that clearly demonstrates the efficacy of a specific Pilates exercise program over another in the treatment of chronic pain. However, the

  1. The effects of the Pilates method in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engers, Patrícia Becker; Rombaldi, Airton José; Portella, Elisa Gouvêa; da Silva, Marcelo Cozzensa

    2016-01-01

    Several studies show the benefits of including muscle strength and aerobic physical activity in the routine of elderly people. Among the various possibilities of physical activity, the Pilates method has become a popular modality in recent years, through a system of exercises enabling to work the whole body and that corrects posture and realigns the muscles, developing the body stability needed for a healthier life. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on the effects of the practice of the Pilates method in the elderly. A systematic literature review was conducted in the following electronic databases: Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs/Bireme, Scopus, Pedro and Isi of Knowledge, from descriptors pilates, elderly, old adults, aging. In the selection of studies the following inclusion criteria were used: original articles in English, Portuguese and Spanish languages. All selection and evaluation processes of the articles were performed by peers and the quality was verified by the Downs and Black scale. Twenty-one studies were included. The year of publication ranged from 2003 to 2014 and the size of the sample varied from 8 to 311 elderly subjects, aged at least 60 years old. The intervention period was from 4 weeks to 12 months of Pilates exercise practice. It was concluded that despite the studies pointing to physical and motor benefits of the Pilates method in the elderly, we cannot state whether or not the method is effective, in view of the poor methodological quality of the studies included in this review. PMID:27476629

  2. Effectiveness of mat Pilates or equipment-based Pilates in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic low back pain is an expensive and difficult condition to treat. One of the interventions widely used by physiotherapists in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain is exercise therapy based upon the Pilates principles. Pilates exercises can be performed with or without specific equipment. These two types of Pilates exercises have never been compared on a high-quality randomised controlled trial. Methods/design This randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor will evaluate eighty six patients of both genders with chronic low back pain, aged between 18 and 60 years, from one Brazilian private physiotherapy clinic. The patients will be randomly allocated into two groups: Mat Group will perform the exercises on the ground while the Equipment-based Group will perform the Pilates method exercises on the following equipment: Cadillac, Reformer, Ladder Barrel, and Step Chair. The general and specific disability of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity and global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomisation and at six weeks and six months after randomisation. In addition, the expectation of the participants and their confidence with the treatment will be evaluated before randomisation and after the first treatment session, respectively. Discussion This will be the first study aiming to compare the effectiveness of Mat and Equipment-based Pilates exercises in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. The results may help health-care professionals in clinical decision-making and could potentially reduce the treatment costs of this condition. Trial registration Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials RBR-7tyg5j PMID:23298183

  3. The effects of Pilates exercise on sleep quality in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan; Sadeghniiathaghighi, Khosro; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Chen, Hui

    2014-04-01

    Prolonged poor sleeping quality can decrease women's ability to perform their maternal and family duties after delivery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a Pilates training program on sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women in a randomized clinical trial. Eighty postpartum women were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n = 40). Home-based 30-min Pilates exercises were started 72 h after the delivery and performed five times per week for consecutive 8 weeks. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) prior to the intervention and 4th and 8th weeks afterwards. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, daytime dysfunction and global PSQI score (P < 0.001); however, there was no difference in sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency and sleep disturbance between the groups. In conclusion, Pilates exercises appeared to improve sleep quality in primigravida postpartum women. PMID:24725785

  4. Stimulated production of steroids in Inonotus obliquus by host factors from birch.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lian-Xia; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Geng, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Steroids was considered as one of the bioactive components in Inonotus obliquus, while this kind of secondary metabolites are less accumulated in cultured mycelia. In this study, effect of extracts from bark and core of host-related species, birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.), on steroid production of I. obliquus in submerged culture were evaluated. The results showed that all dosages (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) of aqueous extracts and methanol extracts from birch bark and birch core possessed significantly stimulatory effect on steroid production of I. obliquus (P < 0.05). Among the eight extracts, the aqueous extract (0.01 g/L) from birch bark gave the highest steroid production (225.5 ± 8.7 mg/L), which is 97.3% higher than that of the control group. The aqueous extract (0.01 and 0.1 g/L) from birch bark could simultaneously stimulated mycelial growth and steroid content, while the methanol extract from birch bark only elevated the steroid content. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that productions of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol in I. obliquus simultaneously increased in the presence of aqueous extract and methanol extract from birch bark. The results presented herein indicate that extracts from birch bark could act as an inducer for steroid biosynthesis of I. obliquus.

  5. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  6. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists.

  7. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  8. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists. PMID:27134355

  9. Improvements in cognition, quality of life, and physical performance with clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Kara, Bilge; Poyraz, Esra Çoşkuner; İdiman, Egemen

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of clinical Pilates in multiple sclerosis patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty multiple sclerosis patients were enrolled in this study. The participants were divided into two groups as the clinical Pilates and control groups. Cognition (Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite), balance (Berg Balance Scale), physical performance (timed performance tests, Timed up and go test), tiredness (Modified Fatigue Impact scale), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire) were measured before and after treatment in all participants. [Results] There were statistically significant differences in balance, timed performance, tiredness and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite tests between before and after treatment in the clinical Pilates group. We also found significant differences in timed performance tests, the Timed up and go test and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite between before and after treatment in the control group. According to the difference analyses, there were significant differences in Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life Questionnaire scores between the two groups in favor of the clinical Pilates group. There were statistically significant clinical differences in favor of the clinical Pilates group in comparison of measurements between the groups. Clinical Pilates improved cognitive functions and quality of life compared with traditional exercise. [Conclusion] In Multiple Sclerosis treatment, clinical Pilates should be used as a holistic approach by physical therapists. PMID:27134355

  10. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness. PMID:26171383

  11. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  12. Supercritical fluid extraction and characterization of lipids from algae Scenedesmus obliquus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Krukonis, V. J.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids were extracted from a protein concentrate of green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus), using a one-step supercritical carbon dioxide extraction procedure in presence of ethanol as an entrainer, and were characterized. The compositions of neutral lipids, glycolipids, and phospholipids, separated into individual components by column, thin-layer, and gas-liquid chromatography procedures, are presented. Fatty acid composition patterns indicated that the major fatty acids were 16:0, 16:1, 16:2, 16:3, 16:4, 18:1, 18:2, and 18:3. The lipids of S. obliquus were found to contain relatively high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential fatty acids.

  13. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  14. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  15. Treating non-specific chronic low back pain through the Pilates Method.

    PubMed

    La Touche, Roy; Escalante, Karla; Linares, María Teresa

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this study is to review and analyze scientific articles where the Pilates Method was used as treatment for non-specific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Articles were searched using the Medline, EMBASE, PEDro, CINAHL, and SPORTDICUS databases. The criteria used for inclusion were randomized controlled trials (RCT) and clinical controlled trials (CCT) published in English where therapeutic treatment was based on the Pilates Method. The analysis was carried out by two independent reviewers using the PEDro and Jadad Scales. Two RCTs and one CCT were selected for a retrospective analysis. The results of the studies analyzed all demonstrate positive effects, such as improved general function and reduction in pain when applying the Pilates Method in treating non-specific CLBP in adults. However, further research is required to determine which specific parameters are to be applied when prescribing exercises based on the Pilates Method with patients suffering from non-specific CLBP. Finally, we believe that more studies must be carried out where the samples are more widespread so as to give a larger representation and more reliable results. PMID:19083695

  16. Biodiesel quality and biochemical changes of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus in response to nitrate levels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongqin; Miao, Xiaoling

    2014-10-01

    Biodiesel quality associated with biochemical components of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under different nitrate levels were investigated. The highest lipid contents of 54.5% for C. pyrenoidosa and 47.7% for S. obliquus were obtained in nitrate absence. Carbohydrate peaked at 0.3gL(-1) with values of 40.7% for C. pyrenoidosa and 42.5% for S. obliquus. Protein content seemed species dependent, which decreased substantially to 11.2% in C. pyrenoidosa and 8.8% in S. obliquus under nitrate absence in present research. Better biodiesel quality (e.g. cetane number >58, iodine value <69) could be obtained from C. pyrenoidosa in nitrate absence and S. obliquus in 0.3gL(-1), where the highest saturated fatty acids (39.5 for C. pyrenoidosa, 31.2 for S. obliquus) and the lowest unsaturated fatty acids (60.5 for C. pyrenoidosa, 68.8 for S. obliquus) were obtained. These results suggest that microalgae grown in the presence of nitrogen may limit biodiesel quality.

  17. Expression of type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferse gene DGTT1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhances lipid production in Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Kao, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Zheng-Chia; Chow, Te-Jin; Chang, Hsin-Yueh; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chen, Po-Ting; Su, Hsiang-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2016-03-01

    Microalgal strains of Scenedesmus obliquus have the great potential for the production of biofuels, CO2 fixation, and bioremediation. However, metabolic engineering of S. obliquus to improve their useful phenotypes are still not fully developed. In this study, S. obliquus strain CPC2 was genetically engineered to promote the autotrophic growth and lipid productivity. The overexpression plasmid containing the type 2 diacylglycerol acyltransferse (DGAT) gene DGTT1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was constructed and transformed into S. obliquus CPC2, and the positive transformants were obtained. The expression of DGTT1 gene was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR analysis. Enhanced lipid content of the transformant S. obliquus CPC2-G1 by nearly two-fold was observed. The biomass concentration of the recombinant strains was also 29% higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the recombinant strain CPC2-G1 was successfully grown in 40 L tubular type photobioreactor and open pond system in an outdoor environment. The lipid content, biomass concentration, and biomass productivity obtained from 40 L tubular PBR were 127.8% 20.0%, and 232.6% higher than those obtained from the wild-type strain. The major aim of this work is to develop a tool to genetically engineer an isolated S. obliquus strain for the desired purpose. This is the first report that genetic engineering of S. obliquus has been successful employed to improve both the microalgal cell growth and the lipid production.

  18. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. [Methods] We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. [Results] As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (p<.001), the pilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (p<.05), while the control group showed a tendency to increase. Serum CK also showed a significant interaction between group and time (p<.05), the pilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (p<.05) but the control group didn’t have changes. TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in PBMC was significantly increased in the pilates group (p<.01, p<.05), although INF-γ mRNA expression didn’t show statistically significant difference, it tended to increase in the pilates group (NS). [Conclusion] These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption. PMID:25566441

  19. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    PubMed

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility.

  20. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  1. Effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Su Yeon

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women. PMID:27807531

  2. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  3. Pilates versus general exercise effectiveness on pain and functionality in non-specific chronic low back pain subjects.

    PubMed

    Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Obara, Karen; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Silva, Mariana Felipe; Silva, Monica Angelica Cardoso; de Campos, Renata Rosa; Barreto, Maria Simone Tavares; Nogueira, Jéssyca Fernandes; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common causes of disability, and the Pilates method has been associated with improvements in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Pilates method, when compared to general exercises, on pain and functionality after eight weeks (16 sessions, 2×/week) and a follow-up of three months, in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). A randomised controlled trial composed of 22 subjects was proposed. Subjects were allocated into two groups: the Pilates group (PG) (n = 11) and the general exercise group (GEG) (n = 11). The PG protocol was based on the Pilates method and the GEG performed exercises to manage NSCLBP. There were no differences between the groups. When analysed over time, the GEG demonstrated improvements in functionality between baseline and the end of treatment (P = .02; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.34) and baseline and follow-up (P = .04; Cohen'sd¯ = 0.31). There were no differences between the Pilates and general exercises with regard to pain and functionality in NSCLBP subjects but general exercises were better than Pilates for increasing functionality and flexibility. PMID:26592221

  4. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters. PMID:26696715

  5. Biodiesel Production by the Green Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a Recirculatory Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Shovon

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha−1 year−1 was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards. PMID:22660702

  6. Grazer-induced morphological defense in Scenedesmus obliquus is affected by competition against Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yichun; Chen, Qinwen; Yang, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus is known for its phenotypic plasticity in response to grazing risk. However, the benefits of colony formation induced by infochemicals from zooplankton should come with costs. That is, a tradeoff in benefit-to-cost ratios is likely under complex environmental conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that the coexistence of Scenedesmus and its competitors decreases the formation of anti-grazer colonies in Scenedesmus. Results demonstrated that the presence of a competitor Microcystis aeruginosa inhibited inducible defensive colony formation of Scenedesmus obliquus, and the established defensive colonies negatively affected the competitive ability of S. obliquus. The proportion of induced defensive colonies in cultures was dependent on the relative abundance of competitors. Under low competition intensity, large amount of eight-celled colonies were formed but at the cost of decreased competitive inhibition on M. aeruginosa. By contrast, defensive colony formation of S. obliquus slacked in the presence of high competition intensity to maintain a high displacement rate (competitive ability). In conclusion, S. obliquus exhibited different responses to potential grazing pressure under different intensities of competition, i.e., Scenedesmus morphological response to grazing infochemicals was affected by competition against Microcystis. PMID:26224387

  7. Biodiesel production by the green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Shovon; Mallick, Nirupama

    2012-08-01

    Biodiesel production was examined with Scenedesmus obliquus in a recirculatory aquaculture system with fish pond discharge and poultry litter to couple with waste treatment. Lipid productivity of 14,400 liter ha(-1) year(-1) was projected with 11 cultivation cycles per year. The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced adhered to Indian and international standards.

  8. Histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Travnik, L; Pernus, F; Erzen, I

    1995-01-01

    The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles were studied and compared with data on vastus lateralis. Cross-sections of autopsied muscles from 9 healthy men, aged 18-44 y, who had died suddenly were analysed. Data were obtained on proportions, cross-sectional diameter, and on atrophy and hypertrophy factors, of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres. The analysis showed that the anatomical differences and the different functional demands placed on vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus are also expressed in different proportions and sizes of fibre types in the two muscles. The proportion of type 1 fibres was significantly higher (P < 0.01), and the proportion of 2b fibres was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus. The diameters of type 1 and type 2a fibres were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus, although the differences were small. Within muscles a nonrandom arrangement of fibre types existed with the deeper portions of the muscles having more type 1 fibres than the more superficial portions. The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis obliquus show great similarity, reflecting the common function of both muscles which is taking part in transverse knee stability. Estimates of the limits of normality of the proportion, diameter, atrophy and hypertrophy factors of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres might be useful in obtaining information on how different physiological and pathological conditions influence the proportion and size of different fibre types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592003

  9. Ethanol extract of Innotus obliquus (Chaga mushroom) induces G1 cell cycle arrest in HT-29 human colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Inonotus obliquus (I. obliquus, Chaga mushroom) has long been used as a folk medicine to treat cancer. In the present study, we examined whether or not ethanol extract of I. obliquus (EEIO) inhibits cell cycle progression in HT-29 human colon cancer cells, in addition to its mechanism of action. MATERIALS/METHODS To examine the effects of Inonotus obliquus on the cell cycle progression and the molecular mechanism in colon cancer cells, HT-29 human colon cancer cells were cultured in the presence of 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO, and analyzed the cell cycle arrest by flow cytometry and the cell cycle controlling protein expression by Western blotting. RESULTS Treatment cells with 2.5 - 10 µg/mL of EEIO reduced viable HT-29 cell numbers and DNA synthesis, increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase, decreased protein expression of CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1, increased expression of p21, p27, and p53, and inhibited phosphorylation of Rb and E2F1 expression. Among I. obliquus fractions, fraction 2 (fractionated by dichloromethane from EEIO) showed the same effect as EEIO treatment on cell proliferation and cell cycle-related protein levels. CONCLUSIONS These results demonstrate that fraction 2 is the major fraction that induces G1 arrest and inhibits cell proliferation, suggesting I. obliquus could be used as a natural anti-cancer ingredient in the food and/or pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25861415

  10. Effect of Pilates on sleep quality and quality of life of sedentary population.

    PubMed

    Leopoldino, Amanda Aparecida Oliveira; Avelar, Núbia Carelli Pereira; Passos, Gabriela Basques; Santana, Natália Ágatta Perácio; Teixeira, Vanessa Pereira; de Lima, Vanessa Pereira; de Melo Vitorino, Débora Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an exercise program based on the Pilates Matwork method on sedentary volunteers who self-reported changes in their sleep quality and quality of life. This was a prospective clinical study, in which the variables (level of sleepiness and quality of life) were compared before and after applying a protocol of 12 weeks of an exercise program (2 sessions per week). The level of sleepiness showed significant improvement between before and after the intervention (p: 0.04). Quality of life improved based on all of the emotional components and the physical components (p < 0.05) with the exception of the physical domain (p: 0.09). The results of this study indicate that the sedentary population who participated in this 12 week Pilates program experienced improvements in sleep quality and quality of life. PMID:23294677

  11. Pilates vs. Balance Training in Health Community-Dwelling Seniors: a 3-arm, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Hürlimann, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2016-03-01

    The study examined effects of traditional balance vs. mat-based Pilates training on balance and trunk strength in healthy community dwellers. Forty-eight seniors were either stratified to a balance training group (BAL, n=16, 69.1 (SD 5.8) y), Pilates training group (PIL, n=17, 70.8 (6.5) y) or control group (CON, n=15, 69.2 (6.1) y). BAL performed traditional balance training, while PIL conducted mat-based Pilates-exercises (8 weeks, 2 sessions/week 66 min each). Balance performance (single limb stance and perturbed kneeling, Y-Balance test), dynamic and isometric trunk flexion and extension were assessed during pre- and post-testing. According to the magnitude-based inference approach, substantial positive effects in favor of BAL compared to CON were found for the Y-balance score (right leg, effect size (d)=0.68; left leg, d=0.56), trunk extension (d=0.68) and single leg stance (right leg, d=0.61; left leg, d=0.38). Dynamic (d=0.32) and isometric (d=0.15) trunk flexion revealed unclear effects. For the Y-balance score (right leg, d=0.48, left leg, d=0.75) and single leg stance (right leg, +d=0.61%; left leg, d=0.67), interestingly, BAL substantially exceeded PIL. PIL vs. CON revealed unclear effects for most parameters (0.05Pilates training did not cause relevant adaptations in trunk strength and balance performance, whereas balance training substantially improved balance and trunk strength. PMID:26630547

  12. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations. PMID:26849849

  13. The effects of pilates mat exercise on the balance ability of elderly females.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Ju; Hwangbo, Kak; Lee, Chae-Woo

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Pilates exercise on a mat and balance exercise on an unstable base of support for trunk stability on the balance ability of elderly females. [Subjects and Methods] Forty elderly women aged 65 or older were equally assigned to a Pilates mat exercise (PME) group and an unstable support surface exercise (USSE) group. They conducted exercise three times per week for 12 weeks for 40 minutes each time. In order to examine balance, sway length and the speed of the center of foot pressure were measured for one minute, and in order to examine dynamic balance, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was conducted. [Results] After the intervention, sway length, sway speed, and TUG significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of sway speed after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the PME group showed larger decreases than the USSE group. [Conclusion] PME and USSE elicited significant effects on the static and dynamic balance of elderly female subjects, suggesting that those exercises are effective at enhancing the balance ability of this group of subjects. However, the Pilates mat exercise is regarded as being safer than exercise on an unstable base of support. PMID:24648651

  14. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-neo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise. PMID:27134403

  15. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period.

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.

  16. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period.

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise. PMID:26583914

  17. Effects of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and weight distribution of patients with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gichul; HwangBo, Pil-Neo

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of Schroth and Pilates exercises on the Cobb angle and body weight distribution of patients with idiopathic scoliosis. [Subjects] Twenty-four scoliosis patients with a Cobb angle of ≥20° were divided into the Schroth exercise group (SEG, n = 12) and the Pilates exercise group (PEG, n = 12). [Methods] The SEG and PEG performed Schroth and Pilates exercises, respectively, three times a week for 12 weeks. The Cobb angle was measured in the standing position with a radiography apparatus, and weight load was measured with Gait View Pro 1.0. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant changes in the Cobb angle. For weight distribution, the SEG showed significant differences in the total weight between the concave and convex sides, but the PEG did not show significant differences. Furthermore, in the intragroup comparison, the SEG showed significant differences in the changes in the Cobb angle and weight distribution compared with the PEG. [Conclusion] Both Schroth and Pilates exercises were effective in changing the Cobb angle and weight distribution of scoliosis patients; however, the intergroup comparison showed that the Schroth exercise was more effective than the Pilates exercise. PMID:27134403

  18. Influence of pilates mat and apparatus exercises on pain and balance of businesswomen with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chae-Woo; Hyun, Ju; Kim, Seong Gil

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of mat Pilates and apparatus Pilates on pain and static balance of businesswomen with chronic back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were randomly allocated to Pilates mat exercises (PME) or Pilates apparatus exercise (PAE), and performed the appropriate Pilates exercises 3 days per week for 8 weeks. In order to measure the improvement in the participants' static balance ability as a result of the exercise, the sway length and sway velocity of the subjects were measured before and after the experiment while the subjects stood on a Balance Performance Monitor (BPM) facing the front wall for 30 seconds with their eyes open. The visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain. [Results] The VAS score, sway length, and sway velocity of both groups decreased significantly after the experiment, but the PME group showed a greater decrease than the PAE group. [Conclusion] PME showed greater improvement in pain level and balance compared with PAE in this research. Since the subjects of this study were patients with low back pain, PME is assumed to have been more suitable and effective because it uses body weight to strengthen core muscles rather than heavier apparatuses as in PAE. PMID:24764614

  19. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. PMID:26915590

  20. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals.

  1. Effect of food wastewater on biomass production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus for bioenergy generation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Hongkyun; Park, Young-Tae; Bae, Sunyoung; Ham, Jungyeob; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-03-01

    Effect of food wastewater (FW) on the biomass, lipid and carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in Bold's Basal Medium (BBM) was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-10%) of BBM either with FW or salt solution (NaCl) or sea water (SW) were evaluated. S. obliquus showed the highest growth (0.41 g L(-1)), lipid productivity (13.3 mg L(-1) day L(-1)), carbohydrate productivity (14.7 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) and nutrient removal (38.9 mg TN L(-1) and 12.1 mg TP L(-1)) with 1% FW after 6 days of cultivation. The FW promoted algal autoflocculation due to formation of inorganic precipitates at an alkali pH. Fatty acid methyl ester analysis revealed that the palmitic and oleic acid contents were increased up to 8% with FW. Application of FW improved the growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and biomass recovery efficiency of S. obliquus, which can be exploited for cost effective production of microalgae biomass. PMID:25553643

  2. Enantioselective toxicity of metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus in the presence of cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui J; Cai, Wei D; Huang, Ruo N; Xia, Hui L; Wen, Yue Z

    2012-02-01

    Cyclodextrins (CDs) possess a variety of chiral centers and are capable of recognizing enantiomeric molecules through the formation of inclusion complexes. Two types of CDs, α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), were selected to evaluate the effects of the enantioselective ecotoxicity of racemic metolachlor (Rac-metolachlor) and its S-enantiomer (S-metolachlor) on the freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) by acute toxicity test. The results showed that the aquatic toxicity of S-metolachlor was higher than Rac-metolachlor and that CDs enhanced the toxicity of metolachlor enantioselectively by increasing the aquatic toxicity of Rac-metolachlor rather than that of S-metolachlor to S. obliquus. The equilibrium constant for Rac-metolachlor-CD complexes was higher than that of S-metolachlor-CDs, which was responsible for the greater aquatic toxicity shift effect of Rac-metolachlor. Thermodynamic studies of CD complexes showed that inclusion for all of the complexes was primarily a spontaneous, enthalpy-driven process. These results will help to understand the preliminary mechanism of shifting aquatic toxicity of metolachlor by CDs and the CDs mediated environmental processes of metolachlor, to correctly apply CDs to chiral pesticides formulation and environmental remediation of chiral contaminants. PMID:22180313

  3. Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Wu, Zih-Ying; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-03-01

    Isothermal and non-isothermal torrefaction characteristics and kinetics of microalga Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus) CNW-N are studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The pyrolysis of S. obliquus CNW-N with increasing temperature is characterized by four-stage decomposition. Depending on the torrefaction temperature, light, mild, and severe torrefaction from the weight loss and the maximum decomposition rate of the microalga can be classified. Under the same average temperature and torrefaction duration, non-isothermal torrefaction gives more severe pretreatment than the isothermal one. Increasing the heating rate of non-isothermal torrefaction also intensifies the pretreatment severity. Therefore, microalgae can be torrefied via non-isothermal torrefaction in a shorter time under the same pretreatment extent. The atomic H/C ratio in the microalga decreases with increasing torrefaction severity, whereas the atomic O/C ratio rises. The analysis suggests that the activation energy of isothermal torrefaction is 57.52×10(3)Jmol(-1), while it is between 40.14×10(3) and 88.41×10(3)Jmol(-1) for non-isothermal torrefaction.

  4. Ecotoxicological effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Luo, Qi; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    As a persistent bioaccumulative compound, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is found in various ecosystems and receives growing attention. The acute toxicity of PFOA was tested on 2 freshwater microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus. The 96-h concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) values were measured, physiological responses of the algae were investigated, and uptake of PFOA by the algae was quantified. The EC50 values for C. reinhardtii and S. obliquus were 51.9 ± 1.0 mg/L and 44.0 ± 1.5 mg/L PFOA, respectively. After 8-d exposure to PFOA ranging from 10 mg/L to 40 mg/L, the growth of C. reinhardtii was significantly inhibited, whereas that of S. obliquus was only slightly suppressed. Increases in malonaldehyde and proline levels were observed in the 2 algae when exposed to PFOA at certain concentrations, for instance, 20 mg/L and 40 mg/L, which is indicative of the trigger of a defensive mechanism. The percentage of PFOA that was adsorbed by the algae after 8-d exposure at a dosage between 5 mg/L and 20 mg/L ranged from 5.5% to 7.5%, and the uptake of PFOA by the algae exceeded 10%. PMID:24464740

  5. The effect of 12 weeks Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) on body stability and pain for fruit farmers with MSDs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Nam, Sang-Nam; Bae, Ung Ryel; Hwang, Ryong; Lee, Jong-Bok; Kim, Jong-Hyuck

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible effects of 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) for the fruit farmers (grape, tomato, apple) with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) on body stability and pain. 131 fruit farmers with MSD were selected and asked to join a 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) from 2009 to 2012. The subjects (female=74, male=57) aged 50 to 65 years old voluntarily participated. As a result, it was found that lateral-medial and anterior-posterior of body stability significantly improved in male and female fruit farmers. It was found that pain index (VAS) after 12-week Prop Pilates Exercise Program (PPEP) showed a significant decrease. PMID:24704650

  6. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age. PMID:25456245

  7. Does pilates exercise increase physical activity, quality of life, latency, and sleep quantity in middle-aged people?

    PubMed

    García-Soidán, J L; Giraldez, V Arufe; Cachón Zagalaz, J; Lara-Sánchez, A J

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study assessed the effects of a 12-wk. exercise program based on the Pilates method (2 one-hr. sessions per week) on 99 sedentary middle-aged volunteers (M age = 47.6 yr., SD = 0.8), using an accelerometry, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the SF-36 questionnaire to measure changes in physical activity, quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity. The variables (quality of life, sleep latency, and quantity) were compared before and after applying the Pilates program. All of the physical and emotional components of the SF-36 questionnaire showed significant improvement, and the latency and sleep quantity also showed significant increases. The results indicate that Pilates is an accessible, interesting exercise program that can generate important changes in middle age.

  8. Efficacy of the Pilates method for pain and disability in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Gisela C.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.; Cabral, Cristina M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the available evidence on the efficacy of the Pilates method in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Method Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PEDro, SciELO, LILACS, CINAHL and CENTRAL in March 2013. Randomized controlled trials that tested the effectiveness of the Pilates method (against a nontreatment group, minimal intervention or other types of interventions) in adults with chronic low back pain were included regardless the language of publication. The outcome data were extracted from the eligible studies and were combined using a meta-analysis approach. Results The searches identified a total of 1,545 articles. From these, eight trials were considered eligible, and seven trials were combined in the meta-analysis. The comparison groups were as follows: Pilates versus other types of exercises (n=2 trials), and Pilates versus no treatment group or minimal intervention (n=4 trials) for short term pain; Pilates versus minimal intervention for short-term disability (n=4).We determined that Pilates was not better than other types of exercises for reducing pain intensity. However, Pilates was better than a minimal intervention for reducing short-term pain and disability (pain: pooled mean difference=1.6 points; 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8; disability: pooled mean difference=5.2 points; 95% CI 4.3 to 6.1). Conclusions Pilates was better than a minimal intervention for reducing pain and disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Pilates was not better than other types of exercise for short-term pain reduction. PMID:24346291

  9. [THE EFFECTS OF THE PILATES METHOD ON HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY, PELVIC TILT AND TRUNK FLEXION].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: el Pilates engloba un gran volumen de ejercicios de estiramiento de la musculatura isquiosural y de flexión máxima del tronco con rodillas extendidas. Objetivo: realizar una revisión sistemática sobre los efectos de la práctica de Pilates y de un período de desentrenamiento sobre la flexibilidad isquiosural, la inclinación pélvica y la flexión del tronco en flexión máxima del tronco con rodillas extendidas. Metodología: se analizaron todos los diseños experimentales o cuasi-experimentales redactados en inglés, español o portugués incluidos en las siguientes bases de datos: Pubmed, Sports Discus, ISI Web of Knowledge, Dialnet y Research Gate. Resultados y discusión: fueron analizados veintiún artículos. La mayoría utilizaron un diseño de pre-testpost- test con grupo control, siendo heterogéneos los programas de intervención aplicados. La muestra estaba compuesta principalmente por mujeres, jóvenes y mayores. Se encontró que la práctica de Pilates, con diferente volumen, incrementaba significativamente la extensibilidad isquiosural y la inclinación pélvica en flexión máxima del tronco. Para obtener una mayor inclinación del tronco fueron necesarios, al menos, tres días de entrenamiento semanal durante seis semanas. En los estudios que incluyen poblaciones de deportistas los resultados son contradictorios. Con el desentrenamiento se produce una disminución de la extensibilidad isquiosural y la flexión del tronco a partir de la segunda semana. Conclusiones: existen moderadas evidencias de que el Pilates es efectivo para aumentar la extensibilidad isquiosural, la inclinación pélvica y el grado de flexión del ronco en posiciones de flexión máxima en poblaciones sedentarias y activas recreacionales, así como para incrementar la flexibilidad isquiosural en deportistas.

  10. [Migraine and epilepsy: an attempt to analyze disorders in Pontius Pilate in the romance "Master and Margarita" by M. Bulgakov].

    PubMed

    Damulin, I V

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relation between migraine and epilepsy. The commonality of pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases is emphasized. As an example, the author analyzed neurological disorders in Pontius Pilate in M. Bulgakov's romance "Master and Margarita". These disorders are traditionally considered as an attack of migraine with olfactory aura. The author suggests the epileptic character of these disorders.

  11. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  12. [Migraine and epilepsy: an attempt to analyze disorders in Pontius Pilate in the romance "Master and Margarita" by M. Bulgakov].

    PubMed

    Damulin, I V

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the relation between migraine and epilepsy. The commonality of pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases is emphasized. As an example, the author analyzed neurological disorders in Pontius Pilate in M. Bulgakov's romance "Master and Margarita". These disorders are traditionally considered as an attack of migraine with olfactory aura. The author suggests the epileptic character of these disorders. PMID:24874341

  13. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  14. Pre-treatment optimization of Scenedesmus obliquus microalga for bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with the optimization of cellular disruption and sugar extraction from the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (Sc) for bioethanol production. Among the physical and physicochemical methods tested, the best results were obtained with acid hydrolysis by H(2)SO(4) (2N), at 120 °C for 30 min and using dried biomass. The sugar extraction efficiency level reached was 95.6% when compared to the harsh quantitative acid hydrolysis. The influence of other parameters such as biomass loading and number of extraction cycles were also evaluated. The results obtained in the latter case showed that a unique hydrolysis step is sufficient.

  15. Transmission and Accumulation of Nano-TiO2 in a 2-Step Food Chain (Scenedesmus obliquus to Daphnia magna).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinyuan; Li, Herong; Han, Xiaoqian; Wei, Xiuzhen

    2015-08-01

    The recent increase in nanomaterial usage has led to concerns surrounding its health risks and environmental impact. The food chain is an important pathway for high-trophic-level organisms absorbing and enriching nanomaterials. Our study therefore simulated nanometer titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) transfer along a 2-step food chain, from the unicellular alga Scenedesmus obliquus to the water flea Daphnia magna. We also explored the effect of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) on nano-TiO2 bioavailability. A suspension of 10 mg/L nano-TiO2 was optimally dispersed in aqueous solutions by 5 mg/L SDBS. After 72 h, S. obliquus growth was not significantly affected by 10 mg/L nano-TiO2, 5 mg/L SDBS and their mixed suspension. SDBS not only improved nano-TiO2 stability in water, but also increased its uptake in S. obliquus and enhanced its accumulation in D. magna. Our study suggests that nano-TiO2 is mildly toxic to S. obliquus, and can be transferred along the aquatic food chain with a biomagnification effect.

  16. Quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Xu, Hongyu; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Zhenghong

    2009-11-01

    This study describes the method of quantitative determination of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was applied to separate these steroids. The procedure was carried out on a reversed-phase C, column, using a stepwise gradient of water-methanol as mobile phase with the following profile: 0-10 min, 10% water, 90% methanol; 10-40 min, 3% water, 97% methanol. The flow rate was 1.4 mL/min and the detection wavelength was 202 nm. The analysis was completed within 40 min. The results showed that this method has good reproducibility and satisfactory recoveries for the determination of steroids. The relative standard deviations of the peak areas were less than 2.94% (n = 5) for intraday assays. A good linear correlation was obtained in a range of 0.4-4.8 microg. The recoveries of betulin, ergosterol, cholesterol, lanosterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol were 100.05%-100.72%, 99.31%-101.04%, 97.52%-101.63%, 96.61%-100.08%, 96.21%-100.76% and 100.04%-100.51%, respectively. This method can be applied to evaluate real samples, and it is rapid, accurate and suitable for the quantitative determination of steroids in the fruiting bodies and submerged-cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.

  17. Modelling of Scenedesmus obliquus; function of nutrients with modified Gompertz model.

    PubMed

    Celekli, Abuzer; Balci, Muharrem; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-12-01

    This study attempted to investigate variation in biovolume of Scenedesmus obliquus, in the modified Johnson medium at 20+/-2 degrees C, under 16kergcm(-2)s(-1) continuous illumination. The experiments were carried out at four nitrate (8, 12, 16, and 20mM) and four phosphate (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7mM) concentrations at pH 7 and 8. The best response for algal growth was found at 0.3mM phosphate and 12mM nitrate at pH 7, as it was obtained from weight averaging method. Besides, optimum phosphate and nitrate concentrations significantly distinguished (p<0.01) from other concentrations according to Turkey's HSD test. Key features of the growth of S. obliquus under phosphate and nitrate influenced batch culture was successfully predicted by modified Gompertz model. Through the cultivations, specific growth rate (mu) ranged from 0.30 to 1.02 day(-1), while biovolume doubling time (td) varied from 0.68 to 2.30 days. There were important differences (p<0.05) for both mu and td among response variables. Both nutrients displayed noteworthy effect (p<0.01) on the algal biovolume. PMID:18501595

  18. Modelling of Scenedesmus obliquus; function of nutrients with modified Gompertz model.

    PubMed

    Celekli, Abuzer; Balci, Muharrem; Bozkurt, Hüseyin

    2008-12-01

    This study attempted to investigate variation in biovolume of Scenedesmus obliquus, in the modified Johnson medium at 20+/-2 degrees C, under 16kergcm(-2)s(-1) continuous illumination. The experiments were carried out at four nitrate (8, 12, 16, and 20mM) and four phosphate (0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7mM) concentrations at pH 7 and 8. The best response for algal growth was found at 0.3mM phosphate and 12mM nitrate at pH 7, as it was obtained from weight averaging method. Besides, optimum phosphate and nitrate concentrations significantly distinguished (p<0.01) from other concentrations according to Turkey's HSD test. Key features of the growth of S. obliquus under phosphate and nitrate influenced batch culture was successfully predicted by modified Gompertz model. Through the cultivations, specific growth rate (mu) ranged from 0.30 to 1.02 day(-1), while biovolume doubling time (td) varied from 0.68 to 2.30 days. There were important differences (p<0.05) for both mu and td among response variables. Both nutrients displayed noteworthy effect (p<0.01) on the algal biovolume.

  19. Microalga, Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 as a potential candidate for CO2 mitigation and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Park, Young-Tae; Salama, El-Sayed; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of flue gas CO2 on growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 was investigated. The highest growth rate (0.46 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.09 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (95.9 mg L(-1)), and lipid productivity (20.1 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) was obtained at 14.1 % CO2 after 4 days of cultivation. In a semicontinuous batch reactor, the highest biomass production (1.19 g L(-1)) was achieved after 12 days with continuous injection of flue gas CO2. Compared with synthetic CO2, fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed that the amount of unsaturated fatty acid increased by 19.2 % with 14.1 % flue gas CO2. The application of flue gas CO2 improved biomass production and lipid productivity in A. obliquus. The current investigation demonstrated that the use of flue gas CO2 could reduce the cost of microalgae biomass production for better biofuel generation.

  20. Biosorption of cadmium by CO(2)-fixing microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hao-Wei; Kao, Pei-Chun; Pan, Jian-Liang; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-02-01

    An efficient CO(2)-fixing indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus CNW-N was used as the biosorbent to remove cadmium from aqueous solution. The microalga was grown with continuous feeding of 2.5% CO(2), achieving a maximum CO(2) consumption rate of 495 mg/l/d and a biomass production of 2.56 g/l. Cadmium (Cd) biosorption by S. obliquus CNW-N was optimal at pH 6.0 and 30 °C. For an initial cadmium concentration of 50mg/l, the biosorption capacity tended to decrease with an increase in biosorbent, while the cadmium removal efficiency was nearly 100% when the biosorbent loading was higher than 0.6g. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second order adsorption model. The adsorption equilibrium obeys Langmuir isotherm with an estimated maximum capacity of 68.6 mg/g and a saturation coefficient of 0.101 l/mg. The cadmium-loaded microalgal biomass could be regenerated preferably with 0.05 M CaCl(2), as the regenerated biosorbent retained good adsorption capability after five consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles.

  1. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L.

    2008-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp. PMID:23997626

  2. Enhancing lutein productivity of an indigenous microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 using light-related strategies.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lung; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Lutein, one of the main photosynthetic pigments, is a promising natural product with both nutritional and pharmaceutical applications. In this study, light-related strategies were applied to enhance the cell growth and lutein production of a lutein-rich microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3. The results demonstrate that using white LED resulted in better lutein production efficiency when compared to the other three monochromatic LEDs (red, blue, and green). The lutein productivity of S. obliquus FSP-3 was further improved by adjusting the type of light source and light intensity. The optimal lutein productivity of 4.08 mg/L/d was obtained when using a TL5 fluorescent lamp at a light intensity of 300 μmol/m(2)/s, and this performance is better than that reported in most related studies. Moreover, the time-course profile of lutein accumulation in the microalga shows that the maximal lutein content and productivity were obtained at the onset of nitrogen depletion.

  3. Microalga, Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 as a potential candidate for CO2 mitigation and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ji, Min-Kyu; Park, Young-Tae; Salama, El-Sayed; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the effect of flue gas CO2 on growth, lipid production, and fatty acid composition of a green microalga Acutodesmus obliquus KGE 30 was investigated. The highest growth rate (0.46 g L(-1) and μmax = 1.09 day(-1)), total inorganic carbon removal (95.9 mg L(-1)), and lipid productivity (20.1 mg L(-1) day L(-1)) was obtained at 14.1 % CO2 after 4 days of cultivation. In a semicontinuous batch reactor, the highest biomass production (1.19 g L(-1)) was achieved after 12 days with continuous injection of flue gas CO2. Compared with synthetic CO2, fatty acid methyl ester analysis showed that the amount of unsaturated fatty acid increased by 19.2 % with 14.1 % flue gas CO2. The application of flue gas CO2 improved biomass production and lipid productivity in A. obliquus. The current investigation demonstrated that the use of flue gas CO2 could reduce the cost of microalgae biomass production for better biofuel generation. PMID:27250092

  4. Introduction to Distribution and Ecology of Sterile Conks of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Woong; Hur, Hyeon; Chang, Kwang-Choon; Lee, Tae-Soo; Ka, Kang-Hyeon; Jankovsky, L

    2008-12-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a fungus that causes white heart rot on several broad-leaved species. This fungus forms typical charcoal-black, sterile conks (chaga) or cinder conks on infected stems of the birche (Betula spp). The dark brown pulp of the sterile conk is formed by a pure mycelial mass of fungus. Chaga are a folk remedy in Russia, reflecting the circumboreal distribution of I. obliquus in boreal forest ecosystems on Betula spp. and in meridional mountain forests on beech (Fagus spp.) in Russia, Scandinavia, Central Europe, and Eastern Europe. Distribution at lower latitudes in Western and Southern Europe, Northern America, Asia, Japan, and Korea is rare. Infected trees grow for many years without several symptoms of decline. The infection can penetrate through stem injuries with exterior sterile conks developing later. In the Czech Republic, cinder conk is found on birches inhabiting peat bogs and in mountain areas with a colder and more humid climate, although it is widespread in other broad leaved species over the Czech Republic. The most common hosts are B. pendula, B. pubescens, B. carpatica, and F. sylvatica. Less frequent hosts include Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus cerris, Q. petraea, Q. robur, Q. delachampii, and Ulmus sp.

  5. Cloning and Characterization of a Squalene Synthase Gene from the Chaga Medicinal Mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Panpan; Cao, Xiaoying; Li, Changgen; Zheng, Zhujun; Yong, Sun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Squalene synthase catalyzes the condensation of 2 molecules of farnesyl diphosphate to produce squalene, the first committed precursor for sterol, brassinosteroid, and triterpene biosynthesis. A squalene synthase gene, designated IoSQS, was isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom that produces a plethora of bioactive triterpenes. IoSQS complementary DNA was found to contain an open reading frame of 1476 bp, encoding a protein of 491 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.85 kDa. The IoSQS genomic DNA sequence consisted of 1813 bp and contained 4 exons and 3 introns. The restriction fragment polymorphisms revealed by Southern blot analysis suggested that IoSQS was a single-copy gene. Promoter analysis indicated that the 5' upstream region of IoSQS possessed various potential elements associated with physiological and environmental factors. The expression pattern of IoSQS in different stages and under methyl jasmonate treatment correlated with the accumulation of total triterpenoids and was consistent with the predicted results of the IoSQS promoter region. The N-terminal 466 residues of the hydrophilic sequence were expressed as a His-tagged protein in Escherichia coli, and the resultant bacterial crude extract was incubated with farnesyl diphosphate and NADPH. Squalene was detected in vitro in reaction mixture by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. These results suggest that the IoSQS enzyme is involved in squalene production in I. obliquus. PMID:27649606

  6. Sterol composition in field-grown and cultured mycelia of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei-fa; Liu, Tong; Xiang, Xiao-yan; Gu, Qi

    2007-07-01

    Sterols are one of the active classes of compounds in Inonotus obliquus for their effective therapy of many diseases. In field environment, this fungus accumulates large amount of sterols. In cultured mycelia, however, this class of compounds is less accumulated. For analyzing the factors responsible for differing sterol composition, the field-grown and cultured mycelia were extracted with 80% ethanol at room temperature and total sterols were prepared using silicon gel column chromatography followed by identification using either GC-MS or spectroscopic methods. For culturing Inonotus obliquus, the seed culture was grown either in basic medium consisting of glucose (2%), yeast extract (0.5%), KH2PO4 (0.01%), MgSO4.7H20 (0.05%) and distilled water at pH 6.5, or the basic medium supplemented with serial concentrations of AgNO3. The results indicated that field-grown mycelia contained lanosterol and inotodiol (comprised 45. 47% and 25. 36% of the total sterols, respectively) and other 10 sterols (comprising the remaining 30.17%) including ergosterol biosynthetic intermediates such as 24-methylene dihydrolanosterol, 4,4-dimethylfecosterol, 4-methyl fecosterol, fecosterol and episterol. Column chromatography also led to the isolation of lanosterol, Inotodiol, trametenolic acid, foscoparianol B and a new triterpenoid foscoparianol D in field-grown mycelia. In comparison, the cultured mycelia only contained three sterols with ergosterol as the predominant one (82.20%). Lanosterol only accounted for 3.68%. Supplementing Ag+ into the culture at 0.28 micromol x L(-1) greatly enhanced content of lanosterol (accounting for 56.81%) and decreased the content of ergosterol (18.5%) together with the presence of intermediates for ergosterol biosynthesis. These results suggested that the sterol composition in mycelia of the fungus can be diversified by supplementing substances inhibiting enzymatic process towards the synthesis of ergosterol. Harsh growth conditions in field

  7. [Effects of mercury concentration on life table demography of Moina macrocopa under different Scenedesmus obliquus densities].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya; Wang, Ling; Mu, Wei-ping; Ren, Tong-tong; Pan, Ling; Xi, Yi-long

    2015-12-01

    In order to compare the chronic toxicity of pollutants to organisms in an aquatic environment under different food densities, the cladoceran Moina macrocopa was used as test animal to investigate the effects of Hg²⁺ concentrations (0, 0.4, 1.1, 1.8, 2.5, 3.2 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹) on its life table demography under low (0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹), medium (1.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) and high (2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹) densities of Scenedesmus obliquus. The results showed that at low and high food levels, certain concentrations of Hg²⁺ had inhibitory effects on survival, reproduction and population growth of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, the inhibitory effects disappeared. Compared with the control, at the low food level, Hg²⁺ at 0.4-2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ significantly decreased the life expectancy at hatching, Hg²⁺ at 0.4, 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the generation time, Hg²⁺ at 1.1, 2.5 and 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the net reproduction rate, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the gross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. At the high food level, Hg²⁺ at 1.1 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the intrinsic rate of population increase, and Hg²⁺ at 3.9 µg · L⁻¹ decreased the life expectancy at hatching and the net reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, at the medium food level, Hg²⁺ at 3.2 µg · L⁻¹ increased the life expectancy at hatching of M. macrocopa. When S. obliquus density was 0.5 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and the life expectancy at hatching, the generation time as well as the cross reproduction rate of M. macrocopa. However, when S. obliquus density was 1.0 x 10⁶ or 2.0 x 10⁶ cells · mL⁻¹, there were no any significant dose-effect relationships between Hg²⁺ concentration and each of the life table demographic parameters of M. macrocopa. PMID:27112029

  8. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP. Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T1). Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG. The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  9. Accumulation of dieldrin in an alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), Daphnia magna, and the guppy (Poecilia reticulata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1972-01-01

    Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Poecilia reticulata accumulated dieldrin directly from water; average concentration factors (concentration in organism, dry weight, divided by concentration in water) were 1282 for the alga, 13,954 for D. magna, and 49,307 (estimated) for the guppy. The amount accumulated by each species at equilibrium (after about 1.5, 3-4, and 18 days, respectively) was directly proportional to the concentration of dieldrin in the water. Daphnia magna and guppies accumulated more dieldrin from water than from food that had been exposed to similar concentrations in water. When guppies were fed equal daily rations of D. magna containing different concentrations of insecticide, the amounts of dieldrin accumulated by the fish were directly proportional to the concentration in D. magna; when two lots of guppies were fed different quantities of D. magna (10 and 20 organisms per day) containing identical concentrations of dieldrin, however, the amounts accumulated did not differ substantially.

  10. Change in Photosystem II Photochemistry During Algal Growth Phases of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity of photosynthetic processes towards environmental stress is used as a bioanalytical tool to evaluate the responses of aquatic plants to a changing environment. In this paper, change of biomass density, chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters during growth phases of two microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus were studied. The photosynthetic growth behaviour changed significantly with cell age and algae species. During the exponential phase of growth, the photosynthesis capacity reached its maximum and decreased in ageing algal culture during stationary phase. In conclusion, the chlorophyll a fluorescence OJIP method and the derived fluorescence parameters would be an accurate method for obtaining information on maximum photosynthetic capacities and monitoring algal cell growth. This will contribute to more understanding, for example, of toxic actions of pollutants in microalgae test. PMID:26868257

  11. Effects of Pilates mat exercises on muscle strength and on pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Caroline Buarque; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Morcillo, André Moreno; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Almeida, Marina Buarque; Rozov, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of Pilates mat exercises in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a clinical trial involving 19 CF patients recruited from either the CF Outpatient Clinic of the State University at Campinas Hospital de Clínicas or the Children's Institute of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine Hospital das Clínicas. All of the patients performed Pilates mat exercises for four months (one 60-min session per week). The variables studied (before and after the intervention) were respiratory muscle strength, MIP, MEP, FVC, and FEV1. RESULTS: After the intervention, MIP was significantly higher in the male patients (p = 0.017), as were MIP and MEP in the female patients (p = 0.005 and p = 0.007, respectively). There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-intervention values of FVC or FEV1, neither in the sample as a whole nor among the patients of either gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Pilates mat exercises have beneficial effects on respiratory muscle strength in CF patients. PMID:25410840

  12. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  13. Effects of Pilates on muscle strength, postural balance and quality of life of older adults: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Campos de Oliveira, Laís; Gonçalves de Oliveira, Raphael; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of Pilates on lower leg strength, postural balance and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two older adults were randomly allocated either to the experimental group (EG, n = 16; mean age, 63.62 ± 1.02 years), which performed two sessions of Pilates per week for 12 weeks, or to the control group (CG, n = 16; mean age, 64.21 ± 0.80), which performed two sessions of static stretching per week for 12 weeks. The following evaluations were performed before and after the interventions: isokinetic torque of knee extensors and flexors at 300°/s, the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Health Survey assessment (SF-36). [Results] In the intra-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in all variables. In the inter-group analysis, the EG demonstrated significant improvement in most variables. [Conclusion] Pilates exercises led to significant improvement in isokinetic torque of the knee extensors and flexors, postural balance and aspects of the health-related quality of life of older adults. PMID:25931749

  14. Superior triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in starchless mutants of Scenedesmus obliquus: (I) mutant generation and characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microalgae are a promising platform for producing neutral lipids, to be used in the application for biofuels or commodities in the feed and food industry. A very promising candidate is the oleaginous green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus, because it accumulates up to 45% w/w triacylglycerol (TAG) under nitrogen starvation. Under these conditions, starch is accumulated as well. Starch can amount up to 38% w/w under nitrogen starvation, which is a substantial part of the total carbon captured. When aiming for optimized TAG production, blocking the formation of starch could potentially increase carbon allocation towards TAG. In an attempt to increase TAG content, productivity and yield, starchless mutants of this high potential strain were generated using UV mutagenesis. Previous studies in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have shown that blocking the starch synthesis yields higher TAG contents, although these TAG contents do not surpass those of oleaginous microalgae yet. So far no starchless mutants in oleaginous green microalgae have been isolated that result in higher TAG productivities. Results Five starchless mutants have been isolated successfully from over 3,500 mutants. The effect of the mutation on biomass and total fatty acid (TFA) and TAG productivity under nitrogen-replete and nitrogen-depleted conditions was studied. All five starchless mutants showed a decreased or completely absent starch content. In parallel, an increased TAG accumulation rate was observed for the starchless mutants and no substantial decrease in biomass productivity was perceived. The most promising mutant showed an increase in TFA productivity of 41% at 4 days after nitrogen depletion, reached a TAG content of 49.4% (% of dry weight) and had no substantial change in biomass productivity compared to the wild type. Conclusions The improved S. obliquus TAG production strains are the first starchless mutants in an oleaginous green microalga that show enhanced TAG content under

  15. LED light stress induced biomass and fatty acid production in microalgal biosystem, Acutodesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Keun; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Jeon, Hyeon Jin; Song, Hak-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Singh, Vijay; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-06-15

    Microbial algal system can serve as a potential source for the production of much high value bioproducts and biofuels. The quality and intensity of light are the key elements to optimize the production of algal biomass and fatty acid contents. This study presents the effect of differential LED flashing light conditions on the growth of microalgae, Acutodesmus obliquus. The induced light stress was optimized for its biomass and fatty acid content. The microalgae are exposed to various frequency of intermittent LED flashing light (blue and red lights) at three different phases in the 18 day cell growth (log, lag and stationary phase). The frequency of light flashing rate was adjusted to 120, 10, 5, 3.75, and 1 times per min. The effect of light stress on growth and fatty acids composition of A. obliquus induced an increase in algae growth and fatty acid production. Different optimal timing for light stress was subjected to elucidate the effect of light stress on algae growth and fatty acid production. The results showed an increase in the algae growth (1.2mg/L of chl a content) under light stress condition at FT10 (flashing time, 10 times per min) from the initial day (log phase) compared with the control experiment (0.4 mg/L of chl a content). However, the total fatty acids (71 mg/g) and volumetric FAME production (9.4 ml/l) level was found to be significant under FT5 (flashing time, 5 times per min), adopting flashing light from day 10 (stationary phase). TEM studies also revealed the deposition of lipid to be largest in the 18 day old cells under flashing light (FT5) condition, representing maximum accumulation of lipids bodies (up to 770 nm diameter in particle size) occupying approximately 42% of the total area of the cell.

  16. LED light stress induced biomass and fatty acid production in microalgal biosystem, Acutodesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Keun; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Jeon, Hyeon Jin; Song, Hak-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Singh, Vijay; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-06-15

    Microbial algal system can serve as a potential source for the production of much high value bioproducts and biofuels. The quality and intensity of light are the key elements to optimize the production of algal biomass and fatty acid contents. This study presents the effect of differential LED flashing light conditions on the growth of microalgae, Acutodesmus obliquus. The induced light stress was optimized for its biomass and fatty acid content. The microalgae are exposed to various frequency of intermittent LED flashing light (blue and red lights) at three different phases in the 18 day cell growth (log, lag and stationary phase). The frequency of light flashing rate was adjusted to 120, 10, 5, 3.75, and 1 times per min. The effect of light stress on growth and fatty acids composition of A. obliquus induced an increase in algae growth and fatty acid production. Different optimal timing for light stress was subjected to elucidate the effect of light stress on algae growth and fatty acid production. The results showed an increase in the algae growth (1.2mg/L of chl a content) under light stress condition at FT10 (flashing time, 10 times per min) from the initial day (log phase) compared with the control experiment (0.4 mg/L of chl a content). However, the total fatty acids (71 mg/g) and volumetric FAME production (9.4 ml/l) level was found to be significant under FT5 (flashing time, 5 times per min), adopting flashing light from day 10 (stationary phase). TEM studies also revealed the deposition of lipid to be largest in the 18 day old cells under flashing light (FT5) condition, representing maximum accumulation of lipids bodies (up to 770 nm diameter in particle size) occupying approximately 42% of the total area of the cell. PMID:25791881

  17. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties. PMID:26554523

  18. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties.

  19. LED light stress induced biomass and fatty acid production in microalgal biosystem, Acutodesmus obliquus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yong-Keun; Kumaran, Rangarajulu Senthil; Jeon, Hyeon Jin; Song, Hak-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Kyung-Guen; Kim, Kwang Jin; Singh, Vijay; Kim, Hyung Joo

    2015-06-01

    Microbial algal system can serve as a potential source for the production of much high value bioproducts and biofuels. The quality and intensity of light are the key elements to optimize the production of algal biomass and fatty acid contents. This study presents the effect of differential LED flashing light conditions on the growth of microalgae, Acutodesmus obliquus. The induced light stress was optimized for its biomass and fatty acid content. The microalgae are exposed to various frequency of intermittent LED flashing light (blue and red lights) at three different phases in the 18 day cell growth (log, lag and stationary phase). The frequency of light flashing rate was adjusted to 120, 10, 5, 3.75, and 1 times per min. The effect of light stress on growth and fatty acids composition of A. obliquus induced an increase in algae growth and fatty acid production. Different optimal timing for light stress was subjected to elucidate the effect of light stress on algae growth and fatty acid production. The results showed an increase in the algae growth (1.2 mg/L of chl a content) under light stress condition at FT10 (flashing time, 10 times per min) from the initial day (log phase) compared with the control experiment (0.4 mg/L of chl a content). However, the total fatty acids (71 mg/g) and volumetric FAME production (9.4 ml/l) level was found to be significant under FT5 (flashing time, 5 times per min), adopting flashing light from day 10 (stationary phase). TEM studies also revealed the deposition of lipid to be largest in the 18 day old cells under flashing light (FT5) condition, representing maximum accumulation of lipids bodies (up to 770 nm diameter in particle size) occupying approximately 42% of the total area of the cell.

  20. The effect of Pilates based exercise on mobility, postural stability, and balance in order to decrease fall risk in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pata, Rachel W; Lord, Katrina; Lamb, Jamie

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a common problem in older adults. Impaired balance, mobility and postural stability are risk factors for falling. Limited research has been performed on Pilates exercise and the ability to decrease fall risk. In this quasi-experimental study, 35 adults (61-87 years old) participated in an 8-week Pilates based exercise program. Blind examiners conducted the Timed Up and Go (TUG), Forward Reach Test, and Turn 180 Test before and after the intervention. Number of falls, perception of Pilates, and fear of falling was also recorded. Thirty-two (91.4%) participants completed post-test measures. Significant improvements were seen in the TUG (p <0.001) and Turn 180 Test (p = 0.002). Improvements were also demonstrated in the Forward Reach Test (p = 0.049). A positive perception of the Pilates program and decreased fear of falling was shown. Results suggest a Pilates based exercise program may be effective in improving balance, mobility and postural stability to decrease fall risk. PMID:25042305

  1. The cell-wall glycoproteins of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The predominant cell-wall polypeptide of Scenedesmus obliquus is related to the cell-wall glycoprotein gp3 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Stolarczyk, Adam; Zych, Maria; Malec, Przemysław; Burczyk, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains a multilayered cell wall, ultrastructurally similar to that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although its proportion of hydroxyproline is considerably lower. Therefore, we have investigated the polypeptide composition of the insoluble and the chaotrope-soluble wall fractions of S. obliquus. The polypeptide pattern of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction was strongly modified by chemical deglycosylation with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) in pyridine indicating that most of these polypeptides are glycosylated. Polypeptide constituents of the chaotrope-soluble cell-wall fraction with apparent molecular masses of 240, 270, 265, and 135 kDa cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the 100 kDa deglycosylation product of the C. reinhardtii cell-wall glycoprotein GP3B. Chemical deglycosylation of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction resulted in a 135 kDa major polypeptide and a 106 kDa minor component reacting with the same antibody. This antibody recognized specific peptide epitopes of GP3B. When the insoluble wall fraction of S. obliquus was treated with anhydrous HF/pyridine, three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 144, 135, and 65 kDa were solubilized, which also occured in the deglycosylated chaotrope-soluble wall fraction. These findings indicate that theses glycoproteins are cross-linked to the insoluble wall fraction via HF-sensitive bonds.

  2. The cell-wall glycoproteins of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. The predominant cell-wall polypeptide of Scenedesmus obliquus is related to the cell-wall glycoprotein gp3 of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jürgen; Stolarczyk, Adam; Zych, Maria; Malec, Przemysław; Burczyk, Jan

    2014-02-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains a multilayered cell wall, ultrastructurally similar to that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, although its proportion of hydroxyproline is considerably lower. Therefore, we have investigated the polypeptide composition of the insoluble and the chaotrope-soluble wall fractions of S. obliquus. The polypeptide pattern of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction was strongly modified by chemical deglycosylation with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF) in pyridine indicating that most of these polypeptides are glycosylated. Polypeptide constituents of the chaotrope-soluble cell-wall fraction with apparent molecular masses of 240, 270, 265, and 135 kDa cross-reacted with a polyclonal antibody raised against the 100 kDa deglycosylation product of the C. reinhardtii cell-wall glycoprotein GP3B. Chemical deglycosylation of the chaotrope-soluble wall fraction resulted in a 135 kDa major polypeptide and a 106 kDa minor component reacting with the same antibody. This antibody recognized specific peptide epitopes of GP3B. When the insoluble wall fraction of S. obliquus was treated with anhydrous HF/pyridine, three polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 144, 135, and 65 kDa were solubilized, which also occured in the deglycosylated chaotrope-soluble wall fraction. These findings indicate that theses glycoproteins are cross-linked to the insoluble wall fraction via HF-sensitive bonds. PMID:24388513

  3. Production of bioactive polysaccharides by Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation supplemented with lignocellulosic biomass and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiangqun; Hu, Yan; Quan, Lili

    2014-12-01

    The effect of lignocellulose degradation in wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse on the accumulation and antioxidant activity of extra- (EPS) and intracellular polysaccharides (IPS) of Inonotus obliquus under submerged fermentation were first evaluated. The wheat straw, rice straw, and sugarcane bagasse increased the EPS accumulation by 91.4, 78.6, and 74.3 % compared with control, respectively. The EPS and IPS extracts from the three lignocellulose media had significantly higher hydroxyl radical- and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity than those from the control medium. Of the three materials, wheat straw was the most effective lignocellulose in enhancing the mycelia growth, accumulation and antioxidant activity of I. obliquus polysaccharides (PS). The carbohydrate and protein content, as well as the monosaccharide compositions of the EPS and IPS extracts, were correlated with sugar compositions and dynamic contents during fermentation of individual lignocellulosic materials. The enhanced accumulation of bioactive PS of cultured I. obliquus supplemented with rice straw, wheat straw, and bagasse was evident.

  4. Metagenome changes in the mesophilic biogas-producing community during fermentation of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Böjti, Tamás; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Kis, Mihály; Kovács, Attila; Ács, Norbert; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-12-10

    A microalgal biomass offers a potential alternative to the maize silage commonly used in biogas technology. In this study, photoautotrophically grown Scenedesmus obliquus was used as biogas substrate. This microalga has a low C/N ratio of 8.5 relative to the optimum 20-30. A significant increase in the ammonium ion content was not observed. The methane content of the biogas generated from Sc. obliquus proved to be higher than that from maize silage, but the specific biogas yield was lower. Semi-continuous steady biogas production lasted for 2 months. Because of the thick cell wall of Sc. obliquus, the biomass-degrading microorganisms require additional time to digest its biomass. The methane concentration in the biogas was also high, in co-digestion (i.e., 52-56%) as in alga-fed anaerobic digestion (i.e., 55-62%). These results may be related to the relative predominance of the order Clostridiales in co-digestion and to the more balanced C/N ratio of the mixed algal-maize biomass. Predominance of the order Methanosarcinales was observed in the domain Archaea, which supported the diversity of metabolic pathways in the process.

  5. Insulin-sensitizing and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects of the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee

    2014-09-01

    Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent.

  6. Effect of Nano-Al₂O₃ on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al₂O₃ has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al₂O₃ is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al₂O₃ and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al₂O₃ on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al₂O₃ decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al₂O₃. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  7. Metagenome changes in the mesophilic biogas-producing community during fermentation of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Böjti, Tamás; Maróti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltán; Kis, Mihály; Kovács, Attila; Ács, Norbert; Rákhely, Gábor; Kovács, Kornél L

    2015-12-10

    A microalgal biomass offers a potential alternative to the maize silage commonly used in biogas technology. In this study, photoautotrophically grown Scenedesmus obliquus was used as biogas substrate. This microalga has a low C/N ratio of 8.5 relative to the optimum 20-30. A significant increase in the ammonium ion content was not observed. The methane content of the biogas generated from Sc. obliquus proved to be higher than that from maize silage, but the specific biogas yield was lower. Semi-continuous steady biogas production lasted for 2 months. Because of the thick cell wall of Sc. obliquus, the biomass-degrading microorganisms require additional time to digest its biomass. The methane concentration in the biogas was also high, in co-digestion (i.e., 52-56%) as in alga-fed anaerobic digestion (i.e., 55-62%). These results may be related to the relative predominance of the order Clostridiales in co-digestion and to the more balanced C/N ratio of the mixed algal-maize biomass. Predominance of the order Methanosarcinales was observed in the domain Archaea, which supported the diversity of metabolic pathways in the process. PMID:26087313

  8. The effect of lead on the growth, content of primary metabolites, and antioxidant response of green alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja; Bajguz, Andrzej; Talarek, Marta; Bralska, Monika; Zambrzycka, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Green unicellular alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Turpin) Hegewald et Hanagata (SAG strain no. 276-6) (Chlorophyceae) was used for determination of phytotoxicity of lead (Pb) at the range of concentrations 0.01-500 μM during 7 days of culture. The accumulation of Pb in algal cells was found to be increased in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner. The highest Pb uptake value was obtained in response to 500 μM Pb on the seventh day of cultivation. The decrease in the number and the size of cells and the contents of selected primary metabolites (photosynthetic pigments, monosaccharides, and proteins) in A. obliquus cells were observed under Pb stress. Heavy metal stimulated also formation of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and oxidative damage as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the deleterious effects of Pb resulting from the cellular oxidative state can be alleviated by enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione) antioxidant systems. These results suggest that A. obliquus is a promising bioindicator of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic environment, and it has been identified as good scavenger of Pb from aqueous solution. PMID:26233754

  9. Effect of Nano-Al2O3 on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-01-01

    Nano-Al2O3 has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al2O3 is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al2O3 and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al2O3 on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al2O3 towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al2O3 reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al2O3 decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al2O3. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water. PMID:27294942

  10. Effect of Nano-Al₂O₃ on the Toxicity and Oxidative Stress of Copper towards Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Zhou, Suyang; Fan, Wenhong

    2016-06-09

    Nano-Al₂O₃ has been widely used in various industries; unfortunately, it can be released into the aquatic environment. Although nano-Al₂O₃ is believed to be of low toxicity, it can interact with other pollutants in water, such as heavy metals. However, the interactions between nano-Al₂O₃ and heavy metals as well as the effect of nano-Al₂O₃ on the toxicity of the metals have been rarely investigated. The current study investigated copper toxicity in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ towards Scenedesmus obliquus. Superoxide dismutase activity and concentration of glutathione and malondialdehyde in cells were determined in order to quantify oxidative stress in this study. Results showed that the presence of nano-Al₂O₃ reduced the toxicity of Cu towards S. obliquus. The existence of nano-Al₂O₃ decreased the growth inhibition of S. obliquus. The accumulation of copper and the level of oxidative stress in algae were reduced in the presence of nano-Al₂O₃. Furthermore, lower copper accumulation was the main factor that mitigated copper toxicity with the addition of nano-Al₂O₃. The decreased copper uptake could be attributed to the adsorption of copper onto nanoparticles and the subsequent decrease of available copper in water.

  11. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides fractions from mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuling; Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan

    2012-10-15

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. We first reported the enhancement in production and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides by I. obliquus culture under lignocellulose decomposition. In this study, the two different sources of exopolysaccharides from the control medium and the lignocellulose (corn stover) containing medium by I. obliquus in submerged fermentation were fractionated and purified by chromatography. The exopolysaccharides from the corn stover-containing medium presented significantly stronger hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than the control. Three fractions from the control medium and the corn stover-containing medium were isolated respectively. The fraction of DEPL3 from the corn stover-containing medium with the highest protein content (38.3%), mannose content (49.6%), and the lowest molecular weight (29 kDa) had the highest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 values. In conclusion, lignocellulose decomposition changed the chemical characterisation and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions.

  12. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p < 0.001), extension (10.49%; p < 0.036), and rotation to the left side (20.45%; p < 0.019) of the cervical spine; flexion (16.45%; p < 0.001), extension (23.74%; p = 0.006), lateral bending right (39.52%; p < 0.001) and left (38.02%; p < 0.001), and right rotation (24.85%; p < 0.001) and left (24.24%; p < 0.001) of the thoracolumbar spine; flexion (right--8.80%, p

  13. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p < 0.001), extension (10.49%; p < 0.036), and rotation to the left side (20.45%; p < 0.019) of the cervical spine; flexion (16.45%; p < 0.001), extension (23.74%; p = 0.006), lateral bending right (39.52%; p < 0.001) and left (38.02%; p < 0.001), and right rotation (24.85%; p < 0.001) and left (24.24%; p < 0.001) of the thoracolumbar spine; flexion (right--8.80%, p

  14. Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat.

    PubMed

    Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K

    2003-02-01

    Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of a wood inhabiting polypore macrofungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat. were studied. Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. The aqueous extract did not exhibit cytotoxicity against the tested cell lines. All the three extracts were highly effective in inhibiting growth of solid tumor induced by DLA cell line in mice. However, the antitumor activity of ethyl acetate extract was higher than that of methanol and aqueous extracts. The ethyl acetate extract was also effective in preventing the EAC induced ascites tumor development in mice. The antitumor activity of all the three extracts against solid tumor at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) was comparable to the clinically used standard reference drug, cisplatin (4 mg/kg, i.p.). Pre-treatment of the extracts was also effective in inhibiting the tumor growth induced by DLA cell lines. The experimental results revealed that ethyl acetate extract of P. rimosus possessed significant antitumor activity. The findings thus suggest the potential use of this mushroom as antitumor agent. PMID:12648809

  15. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses. PMID:27210841

  16. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

    PubMed

    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p < 0.001), IO (p = 0.002) and EO (p < 0.001) thickness after the PM program. No alterations in lung function were found. These findings suggest that the PM program promotes abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses.

  17. Altered motor control, posture and the Pilates method of exercise prescription.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Dorothy; Cobbin, Deirdre; Wyndham, Jennifer; Boris Choy, S T

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of three different Pilates regimes on chronic, mild low back pain symptoms and to determine whether the efficiency of load transfer through the pelvis is improved by those exercises. A between subjects equivalent group experimental design was used. The independent variable was the type of exercise training (three groups) and the two-dependent variables were low back pain symptoms and load transfer through the pelvis. The outcome measures of the first-dependent variable were a comparison between modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaires (one of the standard pain instruments) completed pre- and post-program and frequency, intensity and duration of low back pain. The outcome measure of the second-dependent variable, efficiency of load transfer through the pelvis was the Stork test (one-legged standing test) in weight bearing. Although all groups experienced statistically significant reductions in frequency, intensity and duration of low back pain across the weeks of exercising, there were no significant differences between the groups relative to each other. PMID:19118799

  18. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L. PMID:22899495

  19. Effects of imidazolium chloride ionic liquids and their toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Caidong; Du, Shaoting; Dong, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The low volatility of ionic liquids effectively eliminates a major pathway for environmental release and contamination; however, the good solubility, low degree of environmental degradation and biodegradation of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. The growth inhibition of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus by five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids (ILs) ([Cnmim]Cl, n=6, 8, 10, 12, 16) was investigated, and the effect on cellular membrane permeability and the ultrastructural morphology by ILs ([Cnmim]Cl, n=8, 12, 16) were studied. The results showed that the growth inhibition rate increased with increasing IL concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The relative toxicity was determined to be [C6mim]Cl<[C8mim]Cl<[C10mim]Cl<[C12mim]Cl<[C16mim]Cl. The algae were most sensitive to imidazolium chloride ILs at 48 h according to the results from the growth inhibition rate and cellular membrane permeability tests. The ultrastructural morphology showed that the ILs had negative effects on the cellular morphology and structure of the algae. The cell wall of treated algae became wavy and separated from the cell membrane. Chloroplast grana lamellae became obscure and loose, osmiophilic material was deposited in the chloroplast, and mitochondria and their cristae swelled. Additionally, electron-dense deposits were observed in the vacuoles. PMID:26218552

  20. Synthesis and characterization of a new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Yanwei; Xing, Lisha

    2015-04-01

    A new Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide-iron(III) complex (IOPS-iron) was synthesized and characterized. The preparation conditions of IOPS-iron(III) were optimized and the physicochemical properties were characterized by physicochemical methods, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The highest iron content of IOPS-iron(III) complex (19.40%) was obtained at the conditions: the ratio of IOPS and FeCl3 • 6H2O was 3:5 (w/w), the pH value of alkali solution was 10, the reaction temperature was 30 °C and the reaction time was 6h. The iron(III) was shown to be bound through the binding sites of the polysaccharide IOPS and it could form spatially separated iron centers on the polysaccharide backbone. IOPS-iron(III) complex was found to have good digestive availability and antioxidant activities in the in vitro assays, which suggested the IOPS-iron(III) complex might be used as a new iron supplement candidate.

  1. Bioethanol production from Scenedesmus obliquus sugars: the influence of photobioreactors and culture conditions on biomass production.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J R; Passarinho, P C; Gouveia, L

    2012-10-01

    A closed-loop vertical tubular photobioreactor (PBR), specially designed to operate under conditions of scarce flat land availability and irregular solar irradiance conditions, was used to study the potential of Scenedesmus obliquus biomass/sugar production. The results obtained were compared to those from an open-raceway pond and a closed-bubble column. The influence of the type of light source and the regime (natural vs artificial and continuous vs light/dark cycles) on the growth of the microalga and the extent of the sugar accumulation was studied in both PBRs. The best type of reactor studied was a closed-loop PBR illuminated with natural light/dark cycles. In all the cases, the relationship between the nitrate depletion and the sugar accumulation was observed. The microalga Scenedesmus was cultivated for 53 days in a raceway pond (4,500 L) and accumulated a maximum sugar content of 29 % g/g. It was pre-treated for carrying out ethanol fermentation assays, and the highest ethanol concentration obtained in the hydrolysate fermented by Kluyveromyces marxianus was 11.7 g/L.

  2. Bioenergetic Strategy for the Biodegradation of p-Cresol by the Unicellular Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Cultures from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus biodegrade the toxic p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and use it as alternative carbon/energy source. The biodegradation procedure of p-cresol seems to be a two-step process. HPLC analyses indicate that the split of the methyl group (first step) that is possibly converted to methanol (increased methanol concentration in the growth medium), leading, according to our previous work, to changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore to microalgal biomass increase. The second step is the fission of the intermediately produced phenol. A higher p-cresol concentration results in a higher p-cresol biodegradation rate and a lower total p-cresol biodegradability. The first biodegradation step seems to be the most decisive for the effectiveness of the process, because methanol offers energy for the further biodegradation reactions. The absence of LHCII from the Scenedesmus mutant wt-lhc stopped the methanol effect and significantly reduced the p-cresol biodegradation (only 9%). The present contribution deals with an energy distribution between microalgal growth and p-cresol biodegradation, activated by p-cresol concentration. The simultaneous biomass increase with the detoxification of a toxic phenolic compound (p-cresol) could be a significant biotechnological aspect for further applications. PMID:23251641

  3. Maximizing the production of Scenedesmus obliquus in photobioreactors under different irradiation regimes: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    Maximizing biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency are key factors to develop large-scale microalgae cultivation for biodiesel production. If the photobioreactor (PBR) is not operated under proper conditions, productivity and efficiency values drop considerably. In this work, the growth of Scenedesmus obliquus in continuous flat-panel PBR is considered. Experimental data and simulations were used with the aim of determining suitable working conditions to achieve maximum productivity. Microalgae concentration and productivity have been measured in a continuous 250 mL flat-panel PBR as a function of the space-time τ. Simulations were performed at both low and high irradiance values, with different light regimes (constant light and day-night profiles). Model parameters were optimized based on laboratory-scale experimental data, and the importance of the maintenance energy requirement as a function of light intensity was outlined. The effect of different extent of axial mixing on PBR performances was investigated. Results obtained show how to determine optimum working conditions and how they could be used in the design of a large-scale PBR to achieve maximum microalgal productivity.

  4. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  5. Effect of static magnetic field on the oxygen production of Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tu, Renjie; Jin, Wenbiao; Xi, Tingting; Yang, Qian; Han, Song-Fang; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah

    2015-12-01

    Algal-bacterial symbiotic system, with biological synergism of physiological functions of both algae and bacteria, has been proposed for cultivation of microalgae in municipal wastewater for biomass production and wastewater treatment. The algal-bacterial symbiotic system can enhance dissolved oxygen production which enhances bacterial growth and catabolism of pollutants in wastewater. Therefore, the oxygen production efficiency of microalgae in algal-bacterial systems is considered as the key factor influencing the wastewater treatment efficiency. In the present study, we have proposed a novel approach which uses static magnetic field to enhance algal growth and oxygen production rate with low operational cost and non-toxic secondary pollution. The performance of oxygen production with the magnetic field was evaluated using Scenedesmus obliquus grown in municipal wastewater and was calculated based on the change in dissolved oxygen concentration. Results indicated that magnetic treatment stimulates both algal growth and oxygen production. Application of 1000 GS of magnetic field once at logarithmic growth phase for 0.5 h increased the chlorophyll-a content by 11.5% over the control after 6 days of growth. In addition, magnetization enhanced the oxygen production rate by 24.6% over the control. Results of the study confirmed that application of a proper magnetic field could reduce the energy consumption required for aeration during the degradation of organic matter in municipal wastewater in algal-bacterial symbiotic systems.

  6. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. This is due to the small

  7. Feasibility and outcomes of a classical Pilates program on lower extremity strength, posture, balance, gait, and quality of life in someone with impairments due to a stroke.

    PubMed

    Shea, Sarah; Moriello, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    Pilates is a method that can potentially be used for stroke rehabilitation to address impairments in gait, balance, strength, and posture. The purpose of this case report was to document the feasibility of using Pilates and to describe outcomes of a 9-month program on lower extremity strength, balance, posture, gait, and quality of life in an individual with stroke. The participant was taught Pilates exercises up to two times per week for nine months in addition to traditional rehabilitation in the United States. Outcomes were assessed using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Stroke Impact Scale (SIS), GAITRite System(®), 5 repetition sit-to-stand test (STST), and flexicurve. Improvements were found in balance, lower extremity strength, and quality of life. Posture and gait speed remained the same. While these changes cannot be specifically attributed to the intervention, Pilates may have added to his overall rehabilitation program and with some modifications was feasible to use in someone with a stroke. PMID:25042304

  8. Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Spirulina sp. and Scenedesmus obliquus cultivated in a three-stage serial tubular photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2007-05-01

    The increase in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide is considered to be one of the main causes of global warming. As estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) criteria, about 10-15% of the gases emitted from the combustion coal being in the form of carbon dioxide. Microalgae and cyanobacteria can contribute to the reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide by using this gas as carbon source. We cultivated the Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina sp. at 30 degrees C in a temperature-controlled three-stage serial tubular photobioreactor and determined the resistance of these organisms to limitation and excess of carbon dioxide and the capacity of the system to fix this greenhouse gas. After 5 days of cultivation under conditions of carbon limitation both organisms showed cell death. Spirulina sp. presenting better results for all parameters than S. obliquus. For Spirulina sp. the maximum specific growth rate and maximum productivity was 0.44 d(-1), 0.22 g L(-1)d(-1), both with 6% (v/v) carbon dioxide and maximum cellular concentration was 3.50 g L(-1) with 12% (v/v) carbon dioxide. Maximum daily carbon dioxide biofixation was 53.29% for 6% (v/v) carbon dioxide and 45.61% for 12% carbon dioxide to Spirulina sp. corresponding values for S. obliquus being 28.08% for 6% (v/v) carbon dioxide and 13.56% for 12% (v/v) carbon dioxide. The highest mean carbon dioxide fixation rates value was 37.9% to Spirulina sp. in the 6% carbon dioxide runs.

  9. [The effects of 16-weeks pilates mat program on anthropometric variables and body composition in active adult women after a short detraining period].

    PubMed

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel

    2015-04-01

    Introducción: Estudios previos han analizado los efectos de la práctica de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas y la composición corporal en poblaciones sedentarias. No existen estudios sobre los beneficios del Pilates en estas varibles tras un corto periodo de desentrenamiento. Objetivo: Determinar el efecto un programa de 16 semanas de Pilates mat sobre las variables antropométricas, la composición coporal y el somatotipo, en mujeres adultas con experiencia previa tras 3 semanas de desentrenamiento. Metodología: A veintiuna mujeres se les realizó una valoración antropométrica completa siguiendo las indicaciones de la ISAK antes y después de un programa de Pilates mat de 16 semanas (2 días a la semana, una hora por día). Todas las mujeres tenían una experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates mat de entre 1 y 3 años y venían de un proceso de desentrenamiento de 3 semanas (vacaciones de Navidad). Resultados y discusión: Las mujeres mostraron una reducción significativa del peso corporal, el IMC, los pliegues cutáneos individuales del miembro superior (bíceps y tríceps) y el tronco (subescapular, cresta iliaca, supraespinal y abdominal), el sumatorio de 6 y 8 pliegues, la endomorfia y la masa grasa; y un aumento significativo de la masa muscular. El somatotipo medio se clasificó en meso-endomorfo para el pre- (4,91, 4,01, 1,47) y el post-test (4,68, 4,16, 1,69). Ocho mujeres cambiaron su clasificación del somatotipo tras el programa de intervención. Conclusiones: La práctica de Pilates mat durante 16 semanas provocó cambios asociados a una mejora del estado de salud en las variables antropométricas, sobre todo en los pliegues cutáneos que disminuyeron significativamente, la composición corporal (masa grasa y muscular, que disminuyeron y aumentaron, respectivamente) y el somatotipo (una reducción significativa del componente endomórfico) en mujeres con experiencia previa en la práctica de Pilates después de tres semanas

  10. Kinetics of the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of carbon dioxide in Scenedesmus obliquus

    SciTech Connect

    Erbes, D.L.; Gibbs, M.

    1981-01-01

    The oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ was studied in H/sub 2/-adapted Scenedesmus obliquus by monitoring the initial rates of H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and the effect of inhibitors on these rates with gas-sensing electrodes and isotopic techniques. In the presence of 0.02 atmosphere O/sub 2/, the pH/sub 2/ was varied from 0 to 1 atmosphere. Whereas the rate of O/sub 2/ uptake increased by only 30%, the rate of H/sub 2/ uptake increased severalfold over the range of pH/sub 2/ values. At 0.1 atmosphere H/sub 2/ and 0.02 atmosphere O/sub 2/, rates for H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/ uptake were between 15 and 25 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll per hour. As the pH/sub 2/ was changed from 0 to 1 atmosphere, the quotient H/sub 2/:O/sub 2/ changed from 0 to roughly 2. This change may reflect the competition between H/sub 2/ and the endogenous respiratory electron donors. Respiration in the presence of glucose and acetate was also competitive with H/sub 2/ uptake. KCN inhibited equally respiration (O/sub 2/ uptake in the absence of H/sub 2/) and the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/. The uncoupler carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone accelerated the rate of respiration and the oxyhydrogen reaction to a similar extent. It was concluded that the oxyhydrogen reaction both in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ has properties in common with components of respiration and photosynthesis. Participation of these two processes in the oxyhydrogen reaction would require a closely linked shuttle between mitochondrion and chloroplast.

  11. Photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus in outdoor open thin-layer cascade system in high and low CO2 in Belgium.

    PubMed

    de Marchin, Thomas; Erpicum, Michel; Franck, Fabrice

    2015-12-10

    Two outdoor open thin-layer cascade systems operated as batch cultures with the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were used to compare the productivity and photosynthetic acclimations in control and CO2 supplemented cultures in relation with the outdoor light irradiance. We found that the culture productivity was limited by CO2 availability. In the CO2 supplemented culture, we obtained a productivity of up to 24gdwm(-2)day(-1) and found a photosynthetic efficiency (value based on the PAR solar radiation energy) of up to 5%. In the CO2 limited culture, we obtained a productivity of up to 10gdwm(-2)day(-1) while the photosynthetic efficiency was up to 3.3% and decreased to 2.1% when the integrated daily PAR increased. Fluorescence and oxygen evolution measurements showed that ETR and oxygen evolution light saturation curves, as well as light-dependent O2 uptake were similar in algal samples from both cultures when the CO2 limitation was removed. In contrast, we found that CO2 limitation conducted to a decreased PSII photochemical efficiency and an increased light-induced heat-dissipation in the control culture compared to the CO2 supplemented culture. These features are in line with a lower light use efficiency and may therefore contribute to the lower productivity observed in absence of CO2 supplementation in outdoor mass cultures of S. obliquus.

  12. Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zheng-Fei; Yang, Yang; Mao, Xin-Xin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an AC⁡50 of 9.74 and 8.43 μM, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3β,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a KI = KIS of 0.4 μM on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μM), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a KI of 0.9 μM, KIS of 0.5 μM, and an IC50 of 7.25 μM. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent. PMID:25197307

  13. Effect of carbon source on biomass growth and nutrients removal of Scenedesmus obliquus for wastewater advanced treatment and lipid production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jia-Wei; Chen, Li-Ping; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua; Chen, Huan-Lin

    2015-08-01

    The combination of tertiary wastewater treatment and microalgal lipid production is considered to be a promising approach to water eutrophication as well as energy crisis. To intensify wastewater treatment and microalgal biofuel production, the effect of organic and inorganic carbon on algal growth and nutrient removal of Scenedesmus obliquus were examined by varying TOC (total organic carbon) concentrations of 20-120mgL(-1) in wastewater and feeding CO2 concentrations in the range of 0.03-15%, respectively. The results showed that the maximal biomass and average lipid productivity were 577.6 and 16.7mgL(-1)d(-1) with 5% CO2 aeration. The total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TOC removal efficiencies were 97.8%, 95.6% and 59.1% respectively within 6days when cultured with real secondary municipal wastewater. This work further showed that S. obliquus could be utilized for simultaneous organic pollutants reduction, N, P removal and lipid accumulation.

  14. Correlation of nitric oxide produced by an inducible nitric oxide synthase-like protein with enhanced expression of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Inonotus obliquus cocultured with Phellinus morii.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; Xi, Qi; Xu, Qian; He, Meihong; Ding, Jianing; Dai, Yucheng; Keller, Nancy P; Zheng, Weifa

    2015-05-01

    Fungal interspecific interactions enhance biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites (PM), and production of nitric oxide (NO) is known to be involved in this process. However, it remains unknown which signaling pathway(s) or regulator(s) mediate fungal PM biosynthesis. In this study, we cocultured two white-rot fungi, Inonotus obliquus and Phellinus morii, to examine NO production, expression of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism and accumulation of phenylpropanoid-derived polyphenols by I. obliquus. Coculture of the two fungi caused an enhanced NO biosynthesis followed by increased transcription of the genes encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL), as well as an upregulated biosynthesis of styrylpyrone polyphenols in I. obliquus. Addition of the NO synthase (NOS) selective inhibitor aminoguanidine (AG) inhibited NO production by more than 90% followed by cease in transcription of PAL and 4Cl. Treatment of guanylyl cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one did not affect NO production but suppressed transcription of PAL and 4CL and reduced accumulation of total phenolic constituents. Genome-wide analysis of I. obliquus revealed two genes encoding a constitutive and an inducible NOS-like protein, respectively (cNOSL and iNOSL). Coculture of the two fungi did not increase the expression of the cNOSL gene but triggered expression of the iNOSL gene. Cloned iNOSL from Escherichia coli shows higher activity in transferring L-arginine to NO, and this activity is lost upon AG addition. Thus, iNOSL is more responsible for NO production in I. obliquus and may act as an important regulator governing PM production during fungal interspecific interactions. PMID:25582560

  15. “Rational” Management of Dichlorophenols Biodegradation by the Microalga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2013-01-01

    The microalga Scenedesmus obliquus exhibited the ability to biodegrade dichlorophenols (dcps) under specific autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions. According to their biodegradability, the dichlorophenols used can be separated into three distinct groups. Group I (2,4-dcp and 2,6 dcp – no meta-substitution) consisted of quite easily degraded dichlorophenols, since both chloride substituents are in less energetically demanding positions. Group II (2,3-dcp, 2,5-dcp and 3,4-dcp – one meta-chloride) was less susceptible to biodegradation, since one of the two substituents, the meta one, required higher energy for C-Cl-bond cleavage. Group III (3,5-dcp – two meta-chlorides) could not be biodegraded, since both chlorides possessed the most energy demanding positions. In general, when the dcp-toxicity exceeded a certain threshold, the microalga increased the energy offered for biodegradation and decreased the energy invested for biomass production. As a result, the biodegradation per cell volume of group II (higher toxicity) was higher, than group I (lower toxicity) and the biodegradation of dichlorophenols (higher toxicity) was higher than the corresponding monochlorophenols (lower toxicity). The participation of the photosynthetic apparatus and the respiratory mechanism of microalga to biodegrade the group I and the group II, highlighted different bioenergetic strategies for optimal management of the balance between dcp-toxicity, dcp-biodegradability and culture growth. Additionally, we took into consideration the possibility that the intermediates of each dcp-biodegradation pathway could influence differently the whole biodegradation procedures. For this reason, we tested all possible combinations of phenolic intermediates to check cometabolic interactions. The present contribution bring out the possibility of microalgae to operate as “smart” bioenergetic “machines”, that have the ability to continuously “calculate” the energy reserves and

  16. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10-100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  17. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10-100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  18. Renal Protective Effects of Low Molecular Weight of Inonotus obliquus Polysaccharide (LIOP) on HFD/STZ-Induced Nephropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Yen-Jung; Kan, Wei-Chih; Chang, Chieh-Min; Peng, Yi-Jen; Wang, Hsien-Yi; Yu, Wen-Chun; Cheng, Yu-Hsuan; Jhang, Yu-Rou; Liu, Hsia-Wei; Chuu, Jiunn-Jye

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been shown to play an important role in pathogeneses of renal damage on type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a white rot fungus that belongs to the family Hymenochaetaceae; it has been used as an edible mushroom and exhibits many biological activities including anti-tumor, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycemic properties. Especially the water-soluble Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides (IOPs) have been previously reported to significantly inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines in mice and protect from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In order to identify the nephroprotective effects of low molecular weight of IOP fraction (LIOP), from the fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus, high-fat diet (HFD) plus STZ-induced type 2-like diabetic nephropathy C57BL/6 mice were investigated in this study. Our data showed that eight weeks of administration of 10–100 kDa, LIOP (300 mg/kg) had progressively increased their sensitivity to glucose (less insulin tolerance), reduced triglyceride levels, elevated the HDL/LDL ratio and decreased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio(ACR) compared to the control group. By pathological and immunohistochemical examinations, it was indicated that LIOP can restore the integrity of the glomerular capsules and increase the numbers of glomerular mesangial cells, associated with decreased expression of TGF-β on renal cortex in mice. Consistently, three days of LIOP (100 μg/mL) incubation also provided protection against STZ + AGEs-induced glucotoxicity in renal tubular cells (LLC-PK1), while the levels of NF-κB and TGF-β expression significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that LIOP treatment could ameliorate glucolipotoxicity-induced renal fibrosis, possibly partly via the inhibition of NF

  19. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP.Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T)1.Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG.The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings.

  20. Pain Perception and Stabilometric Parameters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain After a Pilates Exercise Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Patti, Antonino; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Messina, Giuseppe; Montalto, Maria Alessandra; Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Iovane, Angelo; Palma, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Various exercise interventions, such as Pilates exercises and traditional physical therapy methods, are employed to decrease low back pain (LBP). Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is distinct from LBP, however, as the distribution of pain is restricted to the region between the costal margin and the inferior gluteal. The aim of our randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a program of Pilates exercises on pain perception and stabilometric parameters in patients with NSLBP.Thirty-eight participants were randomly allocated, using a 1:1 scheme, to either the experimental group (EG) or control group (CG). The EG completed a 14-week program of Pilates exercises, performed thrice per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist, while the CG was managed with a social program only. Measures of posturography and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) for pain perception were obtained at baseline (T0) and after the 14 weeks of intervention (T)1.Posturography measures improved for patients in the EG, with both eyes open and eyes closed (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in posturography in the CG. ODI decreased significantly in both groups over the 14 weeks of the study protocol: EG, T0, 13.7 ± 5.0 compared with T1, 6.5 ± 4.0 (P < 0.001); and CG, T0, 10.7 ± 7.8 compared with T1, 8.4 ± 7.8 (P < 0.01). A greater extent of reduction in pain was achieved in the EG.The Pilates exercise program yielded improvements in pain and posturography outcomes. Our study also confirms the applicability of posturography in evaluating postural instability in patients with NSLBP. Due to our relatively small study group, future studies would be necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:26765419

  1. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions. PMID:26578458

  2. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  3. Effects of nitrogen source availability and bioreactor operating strategies on lutein production with Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hsin; Xie, Youping; Chan, Ming-Chang; Liu, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chun-Yen; Lee, Duu-Jong; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of the type and concentration of nitrogen sources on the cell growth and lutein content of an isolated microalga Scenedesmus obliquus FSP-3 were investigated. With batch culture, the highest lutein content (4.61 mg/g) and lutein productivity (4.35 mg/L/day) were obtained when using 8.0 mM calcium nitrate as the nitrogen source. With this best nitrogen source condition, the microalgae cultivation was performed using two bioreactor strategies (namely, semi-continuous and two-stage operations) to further enhance the lutein content and productivity. Using semi-continuous operation with a 10% medium replacement ratio could obtain the highest biomass productivity (1304.8 mg/L/day) and lutein productivity (6.01 mg/L/day). This performance is better than most related studies.

  4. Nitrogen removal and recycling by Scenedesmus obliquus in semicontinuous cultures using artificial wastewater and a simulated light and temperature cycle.

    PubMed

    Voltolina, Domenico; Gómez-Villa, Herlinda; Correa, Gabriel

    2005-02-01

    Semicontinuous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus in artificial wastewater were maintained with 30% and 40% daily dilutions and under a 14:10 h light-dark cycle, with temperatures of 25.5 and 17 degrees C during light and dark hours. Under this regime, the production of organic biomass was 39.3 and 25.2 mg l(-1)d(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions, and 24.9 and 16.7 mg l(-1)d(-1) of single-cell proteins. Most of the nitrogen removal took place during the light hours, with daily totals of 9.27 and 8.45 mg l(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions. With the former, 43.7% of the nitrogen removed was recycled by the microalgae into proteins and other organic nitrogen cell contents, but this efficiency decreased to 26.4% when the dilutions were raised to 40%.

  5. Neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in professional soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Shalimá Figueirêdo; Marques, Natália Pereira; Silva, Rômulo Lemos E; Rebouças, Nahra Santos; de Freitas, Luise Monteiro; de Paula Lima, Pedro Olavo; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuromuscular efficiency of the vastus medialis obliquus and postural balance in high-performance soccer athletes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, compared to the uninvolved leg. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 22 male professional soccer players after ACL reconstruction (4-12 months postoperatively). The athletes were submitted to functional rehabilitation with an accelerated protocol on the soccer team. They were evaluated using isokinetic dynamometer, surface electromyography and electronic baropodometer. There was no decrease or difference between neuromuscular efficiency of the VMO when comparing both the limbs after ACL reconstruction in the professional soccer athletes under treatment. The same result was found in postural balance. It can be concluded that the NME of the VMO in the involved member and postural balance were successfully re-established after the reconstruction procedure of the ACL in the sample group studied.

  6. Nitrogen removal and recycling by Scenedesmus obliquus in semicontinuous cultures using artificial wastewater and a simulated light and temperature cycle.

    PubMed

    Voltolina, Domenico; Gómez-Villa, Herlinda; Correa, Gabriel

    2005-02-01

    Semicontinuous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus in artificial wastewater were maintained with 30% and 40% daily dilutions and under a 14:10 h light-dark cycle, with temperatures of 25.5 and 17 degrees C during light and dark hours. Under this regime, the production of organic biomass was 39.3 and 25.2 mg l(-1)d(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions, and 24.9 and 16.7 mg l(-1)d(-1) of single-cell proteins. Most of the nitrogen removal took place during the light hours, with daily totals of 9.27 and 8.45 mg l(-1) for the 30% and 40% dilutions. With the former, 43.7% of the nitrogen removed was recycled by the microalgae into proteins and other organic nitrogen cell contents, but this efficiency decreased to 26.4% when the dilutions were raised to 40%. PMID:15474938

  7. The efficacy of the addition of the Pilates method over a minimal intervention in the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain: a study protocol of a randomized controlled trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Gisela C.; Costa, Leonardo O.P.; Galvanin, Thalissa; Cabral, Cristina M.N.

    2011-01-01

    Objective There is little high-quality evidence on the efficacy of the Pilates-based exercises for the treatment of chronic nonspecific low back pain. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present a study protocol to investigate the efficacy of adding Pilates-based exercises to a minimum intervention in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Methods This randomized controlled trial will recruit 86 patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 60 years, with chronic non-specific low back pain. The participants will be randomly allocated into 2 treatment groups: the Booklet Group, which will receive a booklet with postural orientations, and the Pilates Group, which will receive the same booklet in addition to a Pilates-based exercises program. The general and specific functional capacities of the patient, kinesiophobia, pain intensity, and the global perceived effect will be evaluated by a blinded assessor before randomization and at 6 weeks and 6 months after randomization. In addition, the expectations of the participants and their confidence in the treatment will be evaluated before the randomization and after the first treatment session, respectively. Conclusions It is hoped that the results of this study will provide high-quality evidence on the usefulness of Pilates-based exercises in the treatment of chronic non-specific low back pain. PMID:22654682

  8. Mixotrophic cultivation of a microalga Scenedesmus obliquus in municipal wastewater supplemented with food wastewater and flue gas CO2 for biomass production.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Park, Young-Tae; Kabra, Akhil N; Oh, In-Hwan; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2015-08-15

    The biomass and lipid/carbohydrate production by a green microalga Scenedesmus obliquus under mixotrophic condition using food wastewater and flue gas CO2 with municipal wastewater was investigated. Different dilution ratios (0.5-2%) of municipal wastewater with food wastewater were evaluated in the presence of 5, 10 and 14.1% CO2. The food wastewater (0.5-1%) with 10-14.1% CO2 supported the highest growth (0.42-0.44 g L(-1)), nutrient removal (21-22 mg TN L(-1)), lipid productivity (10-11 mg L(-1)day(-1)) and carbohydrate productivity (13-16 mg L(-1)day(-1)) by S. obliquus after 6 days of cultivation. Food wastewater increased the palmitic and oleic acid contents up to 8 and 6%, respectively. Thus, application of food wastewater and flue gas CO2 can be employed for enhancement of growth, lipid/carbohydrate productivity and wastewater treatment efficiency of S. obliquus under mixotrophic condition, which can lead to development of a cost effective strategy for microalgal biomass production.

  9. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cepák, V; Pribyl, P; Vítová, M

    2006-01-01

    The color of light (white, red, blue, and green) had a significant effect on the growth and reproductive processes (both in the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast compartment of the cells) in synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus. This effect decreased in the order red > white > blue > green. In the same order, the light phase of the cell cycle (time when first autospores started to be released) was prolonged. The length of dark phase (time when 100 % of daughters were allowed to release from mothers) was not influenced and was the same for all colors. Critical cell size for cell division in green light was shifted to a smaller size (compared with cells grown in other lights) and so was the size of released daughters. The nuclear cycle was slowed in blue and even in green light, contrary to cells grown in red and white light. At the beginning of the cell cycle, one-nucleus daughters possess approximately 10 nucleoids; during the cell cycle their number doubled in all variants before the division of nuclei. Both events were delayed in cultures grown more slowly most markedly in green light. Smaller daughters in the green variant possessed a lower number of nucleoids. Motile cells released in continuous green or blue lights but not in red one were rarely observed. PMID:17007440

  10. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  11. Influence of light presence and biomass concentration on nutrient kinetic removal from urban wastewater by Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Arbib, Z; Alvarez-Díaz, P D; Garrido-Pérez, C; Barragán, J; Perales, J A

    2014-05-20

    This work was aimed at studying the effect of light-darkness and high-low biomass concentrations in the feasibility of removing nitrogen and phosphorus from urban treated wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Laboratory experiments were conducted in batch, where microalgae were cultured under different initial biomass concentrations (150 and 1500mgSSl(-1)) and light conditions (dark or illuminated). Nutrient uptake was more dependent on internal nutrient content of the biomass than on light presence or biomass concentration. When a maximum nitrogen or phosphorus content in the biomass was reached (around 8% and 2%, respectively), the removal of that nutrient was almost stopped. Biomass concentration affected more than light presence on the nutrient removal rate, increasing significantly with its increase. Light was only required to remove nutrients when the maximum nutrient storage capacity of the cells was reached and further growth was therefore needed. Residence times to maintain a stable biomass concentration, avoiding the washout of the reactor, were much higher than those needed to remove the nutrients from the wastewater. This ability to remove nutrients in the absence of light could lead to new configurations of reactors aimed to wastewater treatment.

  12. Toxic responses and antioxidative enzymes activity of Scenedesmus obliquus exposed to fenhexamid and atrazine, alone and in mixture.

    PubMed

    Mofeed, Jelan; Mosleh, Yahia Y

    2013-09-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of different concentrations of fenhexamid and atrazine (25, 50 and 100 µg L(-1)) on growth and oxidative stress on Scenedesmus obliquus (microalgae) after exposure for 24, 48, and 96 h. In addition, residues of fenhexamid and atrazine were determined in the culture medium after 96 h; 52%, 44% and 43% of fenhexamid remained in the medium for the lowest, middle and highest concentrations, respectively. Atrazine concentration decreased significantly in the medium with time. The reduction was faster with the lowest concentration (-53%), than in the highest concentration (-46%), while it was intermediate with 50 µg L(-1) (-47%). The antioxidative enzyme activities were used as biomarkers to evaluate the toxic effects of fenhexamid and atrazine on the microalgae. Enzymatic activities were measured in the presence of each compound alone after 24, 48 and 96 h and also in mixture after 24h exposure. The results showed that fenhexamid and atrazine induced antioxidative enzyme activities (GST, CAT and GR) at different concentrations. Catalase activities (CAT) in both pesticides treated-algae were significantly increased. Additionally, an increase in gulathione-S-transferase (GST) was observed in algae after 24, 48 and 96 h of exposure to both fenhexamid and atrazine. Antioxidative enzymes in fenhexamid and atrazine mixture treatment showed an antagonistic interaction after 24h of exposure in algae.

  13. The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Cepák, V; Pribyl, P; Vítová, M

    2006-01-01

    The color of light (white, red, blue, and green) had a significant effect on the growth and reproductive processes (both in the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast compartment of the cells) in synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus. This effect decreased in the order red > white > blue > green. In the same order, the light phase of the cell cycle (time when first autospores started to be released) was prolonged. The length of dark phase (time when 100 % of daughters were allowed to release from mothers) was not influenced and was the same for all colors. Critical cell size for cell division in green light was shifted to a smaller size (compared with cells grown in other lights) and so was the size of released daughters. The nuclear cycle was slowed in blue and even in green light, contrary to cells grown in red and white light. At the beginning of the cell cycle, one-nucleus daughters possess approximately 10 nucleoids; during the cell cycle their number doubled in all variants before the division of nuclei. Both events were delayed in cultures grown more slowly most markedly in green light. Smaller daughters in the green variant possessed a lower number of nucleoids. Motile cells released in continuous green or blue lights but not in red one were rarely observed.

  14. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24611630

  15. Effects of a 12-week Pilates course on lower limb muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women living in the community.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Huang, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Ya-Wen; Wang, Kuo-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Taiwan studying regular adult physical activity found that among married women aged 26 to 55 years, 56% participated in physical activity, and that the convenience and safety of the activity were major factors contributing to their willingness to exercise. Muscle weakness and poor trunk flexibility are closely related to some chronic diseases in women. In this cross-sectional survey, we used the Polestar Pilates™ method to explore the effects of a 12-week Pilates course on the physical fitness of women living in the community. Fifty-three members of the experimental group (mean age: 42.30 ± 9.97) and 43 of the control group (mean age: 41.23 ± 9.83) were included. We confirm that a convenient Pilates exercise intervention can significantly improve muscle strength and trunk flexibility in women. Our findings serve as an important reference for health authorities in Taiwan and provide higher awareness of women's health and physical fitness, which can help prevent chronic and cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Inhibitory effects of low molecular weight polyphenolics from Inonotus obliquus on human DNA topoisomerase activity and cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakajima, Yuki; Nishida, Hiroshi; Konishi, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Sugawara, Fumio; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2013-08-01

    Low molecular weight (LMW) polyphenolics containing a polyhydroxylated benzyl moiety are abundant in medicinal plants. In the present study, we report on the activities of seven LMW polyphenolics isolated from Inonotus obliquus, a medicinal mushroom. The isolated compounds included caffeic acid (CA), 3,4-dihydroxybenzalacetone (DBL), gallic acid, syringic acid, protocatechuic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid. We analyzed their inhibitory effects on DNA polymerase (pol) and DNA topoisomerase (topo), and their effects on human cancer cell growth. All isolated compounds inhibited human topo II activity; the most potent were DBL and CA, which contain a catechol propanoid moiety. CA and DBL inhibited the activity of human topo I, whereas other compounds had no effect. No compound modulated the activities of 11 mammalian pol species or other DNA metabolic enzymes, including T7 RNA polymerase, mouse IMP dehydrogenase (type II), T4 polynucleotide kinase and bovine deoxyribonuclease I. CA and DBL markedly suppressed the proliferation of human colon HCT116 carcinoma cells with an LD50 of 70.0 and 49.4 µM, respectively, and halted the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. The suppressive effect of these compounds on cancer cell growth correlated with their ability to inhibit topo II. These results suggest that CA- and DBL-dependent decreases in cell proliferation are due to the inhibition of cellular topo II. The mechanism of action of these catechol propanoid compounds and the implication for their use as anticancer agents are discussed. PMID:23799608

  17. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China. PMID:25996525

  18. Reduction in toxicity of wastewater from three wastewater treatment plants to alga (Scenedesmus obliquus) in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jiti; Masunaga, Shigeki; Ma, Fang

    2015-09-01

    The toxicity of municipal wastewater to the receiving water bodies is still unknown, due to the lack of regulated toxicity based index for wastewater discharge in China. Our study aims at gaining insight into the acute toxic effects of local municipal wastewater on alga, Scenedesmus obliquus. Four endpoints, i.e. cell density, chlorophyll-A concentration, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and cell membrane integrity, of alga were analyzed to characterize the acute toxicity effects of wastewater from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with different treatment techniques: sequencing batch reactor (SBR), Linpor and conventional activated sludge. Influent and effluent from each treatment stage in these three WWTPs were sampled and evaluated for their acute toxicity. Our results showed that all three techniques can completely affect the algal chlorophyll-A synthesis stimulation effects of influent; the algal cell growth stimulation effect was only completely removed by the secondary treatment process in conventional activated sludge technique; toxic effects on cell membrane integrity of two influents from WWTPs with SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques were completely removed; the acute toxicity on SOD activity was partially reduced in SBR and conventional activated sludge techniques while not significantly reduced by Linpor system. As to the disinfection unit, NaClO disinfection enhanced wastewater toxicity dramatically while UV radiation had no remarkable influence on wastewater toxicity. Our results illustrated that SOD activity and chlorophyll-A synthesis were relatively sensitive to municipal wastewater toxicity. Our results would aid to understand the acute toxicity of municipal wastewater, as well as the toxicity removal by currently utilized treatment techniques in China.

  19. Responses of photosystems I and II of Acutodesmus obliquus to chemical stress caused by the use of recycled nutrients.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Dominik J; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients derived from hydrothermal gasification of Acutodesmus obliquus were tested on its biological compatibility to support growth of the same microalgae. Photosynthetic parameters of photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II) were investigated to study physiological effects on the microalgal cell. The nutrients were collected as liquid residues. Dilutions of 1:500 showed no effect on both photosystems. Lower dilutions affected PS II initially and later also PS I. Cyclic electron flow around PS I compensated for loss of electrons due to partially inhibited PS II. The highest tested concentration of liquid residue erased any photosynthetic activity of PS II after 28 min and onwards. In contrast, PS I remained active. The results suggest that PS I is less susceptible than PS II and that the mixture of chemicals in the liquid residue did not directly affect PS I but PS II. The toxicants in the residues seemed to interfere with linear electron flow of PS II even though light-driven formation of radicals and subsequent damage to one of the photosystems can be excluded as demonstrated in darkness. Lowered photosynthetic activity of PS I during actinic irradiation was caused due to lack of supply of electrons from PS II. The cyclic electron flow might play a key role in delivering the energy needed to restore PS II activity and to biodegrade the toxicants when linear electron flow failed. These negative effects of liquid residue towards microalgal cells require a remediation step for direct application of the liquid residue to substitute commercial fertilizers in microalgal mass cultures.

  20. sup 1 H NMR studies of plastocyanin from Scenedesmus obliquus: Complete sequence-specific assignment, secondary structure analysis, and global fold

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.M.; Chazin, W.J.; Wright, P.E. ); Powls, R. )

    1988-10-04

    Two-dimensional {sup 1}H NMR methods have been used to make sequence-specific resonance assignments for the 97 amino acid residues of the plastocyanin from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Assignments were obtained for all backbone protons and the majority of the side-chain protons. Spin system identification relied heavily on the observation of relayed connectivities to the backbone amide proton. Sequence-specific assignments were made by using the sequential assignment procedure. During this process, an extra valine residue was identified that had not been detected in the original amino acid sequence. Elements of regular secondary structure were identified from characteristic NOE connectivities between backbone protons, coupling constant values, and the observation of slowly exchanging amide protons. The protein in solution contains eight {beta}-strands, one short segment of helix, five reverse turns, and five loops. The {beta}-strands may be arranged into two {beta}sheets on the basis of extensive cross-strand NOE connectivities. The chain-folding topology determined from the NMR experiments is that of a Greek key {beta}-barrel and is similar to that observed for French bean plastocyanin in solution and poplar plastocyanin in the crystalline state. While the overall structures are similar, several differences in local structure between the S. obliquus and higher plant plastocyanins have been identified.

  1. Effect of Solvent System on Extractability of Lipidic Components of Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1) and Gloeothece sp. on Antioxidant Scavenging Capacity Thereof

    PubMed Central

    Amaro, Helena M.; Fernandes, Fátima; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Sousa-Pinto, I.; Malcata, F. Xavier; Guedes, A. Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae are well known for their biotechnological potential, namely with regard to bioactive lipidic components—especially carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), well-known for therapeutic applications based on their antioxidant capacity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of four distinct food-grade solvents upon extractability of specific lipidic components, and on the antioxidant capacity exhibited against both synthetic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+•)) and biological reactive species (O2•− and •NO−). A eukaryotic microalga (Scenedesmus obliquus (M2-1)) and a prokaryotic one (Gloeothece sp.) were used as case studies. Concerning total antioxidant capacity, the hexane:isopropanol (3:2) and acetone extracts of Sc. obliquus (M2-1) were the most effective against DPPH• and ABTS+•, respectively. Gloeothece sp. ethanol extracts were the most interesting scavengers of O2•−, probably due the high content of linolenic acid. On the other hand, acetone and hexane:isopropanol (3:2) extracts were the most interesting ones in •NO− assay. Acetone extract exhibited the best results for the ABTS assay, likely associated to its content of carotenoids, in both microalgae. Otherwise, ethanol stood out in PUFA extraction. Therefore, profiles of lipidic components extracted are critical for evaluating the antioxidant performance—which appears to hinge, in particular, on the balance between carotenoids and PUFAs. PMID:26492257

  2. Effects of Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher training on disease activity, spinal motility and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ţopa, Ionuţ; Chirieac, Rodica; Ancuta, Codrina

    2014-03-01

    The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity. This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences

  3. Effects of Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher training on disease activity, spinal motility and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ţopa, Ionuţ; Chirieac, Rodica; Ancuta, Codrina

    2014-03-01

    The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity. This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences

  4. Effects of DDT and dicofol on population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus under different algal (Scenedesmus obliquus) densities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Ping; Xi, Yi-Long; Chu, Zhao-Xia; Xiang, Xian-Ling

    2014-09-01

    A number of organochlorine pesticides, including DDT and dicofol, used to be important in crop protection and management. Their residues may reach water bodies and eventually affect the non-target organisms such as rotifers. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of DDT (0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg l(-1)) and dicofol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1)) on the population growth of rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under two levels of Scenedesmus obliquus (1.0 x 10(6) and 3.0 x 10(6) cell ml(-1)). Regardless of the food level, DDT was more toxic than dicofol to B. calyciflorus. Under low food level, DDT at 0.1 and 0.2 mg l(-1) decreased the population growth rate (r), and DDT at 0.05-0.4 mg l(-1) decreased the maximum population density (K). Dicofol at 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1) decreased r and K, but dicofol at 0.2 mg l(-1) increased K. Under high food level, DDT at 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) increased K, whereas DDT at 0.4 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.4 and 0.8 mg l(-1) decreased r and K. Increase in food level increased r exposed to DDT at 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.8 mg l(-1), and Kexposed to DDTat 0.05-0.2 mg l(-1) as well as dicofol at 0.1 and 0.2 mg l(-1). DDT concentration, algal density and their interaction affected r and K of B. calyciflorus. Both dicofol concentration and algal density affected r. Dicofol concentration, algal density and their interaction affected K. Both r and K were suitable endpoints for assessing the effects of DDT and dicofol on the rotifers population dynamics under two algal densities, and the latter was more sensitive.

  5. The synergistic effects for the co-cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus on the biomass and total lipids accumulation.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chen, Li-Juan

    2015-05-01

    In this co-culture of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus, microalgae potentially acts as an oxygen generator for the growth of aerobic yeast while the yeast mutually provides CO2 to the microalgae as both carry out the production of lipids. To explore the synergistic effects of co-cultivation on the cells growth and total lipids accumulation, several co-culture process parameters including the carbon source concentration, temperature and dissolved oxygen level would be firstly investigated in the flask trials. The results of co-culture in a 5L photobioreactor revealed that about 40-50% of biomass increased and 60-70% of total lipid increased was observed as compared to the single culture batches. Besides the synergistic effects of gas utilization, the providing of trace elements to each other after the natural cells lysis was believed to be another benefit to the growth of the overall co-culture system.

  6. Anticancer effects of fraction isolated from fruiting bodies of Chaga medicinal mushroom, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Aphyllophoromycetideae): in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Langner, Ewa; Kaczor, Józef; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Sanecka, Bozena; Mazurkiewicz, Witold; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Chaga, Inonotus obliquus (Pers.:Fr.) Pilát (Hymenochaetaceae), has been used in folk medicine in Russia, Poland, and most of the Baltic countries, as a cleansing and disinfecting measure, and as decoctions for stomach diseases, intestinal worms, liver and heart ailments, and cancer treatment. Many reports have been published concerning the health promoting functions of this mushroom, including antibacterial, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. The purpose of the present study was evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of fraction IO4 isolated from I. obliquus. The effect on cell proliferation, motility and viability was assessed in a range of cancer and normal cells. Chaga fraction prepared from dried fruiting bodies was subjected to anticancer evaluation in human lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), and rat glioma (C6) cell cultures. Human skin fibroblasts (HSF), bovine aorta endothelial cells (BAEC), models of rat oligodendrocytes (OLN-93), hepatocytes (Fao), rat astroglia, and mouse neurons (P19) were applied to test toxicity in normal cells. The following methods were applied: tumor cell proliferation (MTT assay and BrdU assay), cytotoxicity (LDH assay), tumor cell motility (wound assay), tumor cell morphology (May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining), and death detection (ELISA). Chaga fraction elicited anticancer effects which were attributed to decreased tumor cell proliferation, motility and morphological changes induction. Of note is the fact that it produced no or low toxicity in tested normal cells. The data presented could open interesting paths for further investigations of fraction IO4 as a potential anticancer agent.

  7. The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus contains both diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (asymmetrical) pyrophosphohydrolase and phosphorylase activities.

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, A G; Mayers, E; Hankin, S; Thorne, N M; Prescott, M; Powls, R

    1994-01-01

    Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) phosphorylase and Ap4A pyrophosphohydrolase activities have been purified from extracts of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Both activities were also detected in Scenedesmus brasiliensis, Scenedesmus quadricauda and in Chlorella vulgaris. This is the first time that both types of enzyme have been detected in the same species. The Ap4A phosphorylase has a molecular mass of 46-48 kDa, a broad pH optimum between 7.5 and 9.5, and requires a divalent ion for activity (Mg2+ > Co2+ > Ca2+ = Mn2+ = Cd2+ > Zn2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups and always produces a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate product. The Km values for Ap4A and Pi are 5.3 microM and 160 microM, respectively, and kcat. = 1.8 s-1. Arsenate, vanadate, molybdate, chromate and tungstate can substitute for phosphate. The enzyme also catalyses Ap4A synthesis (Keq. = [Ap4A] [Pi]/[ATP][ADP] = 9 x 10(-4)) and ADP arsenolysis. The Ap4A hydrolase has a molecular mass of 26-28 kDa, an alkaline pH optimum of 8.8-9.8, and prefers Zn2+ as the stimulatory ion (Zn2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+ > Co2+ > Cd2+). It degrades substrates with at least four phosphate groups, having a slight preference for Ap5A, and always produces a nucleoside 5'-triphosphate product. The Km value for Ap4A is 6.6 microM and kcat. = 1.3 s-1. It is inhibited competitively by adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ki = 0.67 microM) and non-competitively by fluoride (Ki = 150 microM). A 50-54 kDa dinucleoside 5',5'''-P1,P3-triphosphate (Ap3A) pyrophosphohydrolase was also detected in S. obliquus, S. quadricauda and C. vulgaris. The corresponding enzyme in S. brasiliensis (> 100 kDa) may be a dimer Images Figure 2 PMID:8198532

  8. Comparison of the electromyographic activity of the anterior trunk during the execution of two Pilates exercises - teaser and longspine - for healthy people.

    PubMed

    Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Menacho, Maryela de Oliveira; Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Obara, Karen; Mostagi, Fernanda Queiroz Ribeiro Cerci; Lima, Tarcísio Brandão; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Abrão, Taufik; Iversen, Maura Daly; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2014-10-01

    This study compared abdominal electromyographic (EMG) activity during the performance of Pilates' exercises. 16 females participated in the study. EMG signals of the rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded during Longspine performed on the mat, Cadillac, and Reformer and the Teaser performed on the mat, Cadillac, and Combo-chair. Values were normalized by the EMG peak of a dynamic task and divided in concentric and eccentric phases. Longspine performed on the mat increased EO activity in the concentric phase more than on the Reformer and the Cadillac (Mean Difference (MD)=12.2%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [3.36; 21.04]; p=.04). Differences in the eccentric phase of the RA favored the mat compared to the Reformer (MD=5.20%; 95% CI [-0.55; 10.95]; p=.02). Significant differences in eccentric contraction of the RA were found for teaser exercise performed on the mat versus Cadillac (MD=1.1%; 95% CI [-4.13; 6.33]; p=.04) and the mat versus the Combo-chair (MD=6.3%; 95% CI [1.31; 11.29]; p=.005). Higher concentric activation values for the EO were found when the teaser exercise was performed on the Cadillac. Exercises performed on the mat required greater rectus abdominis activation. PMID:25048643

  9. Inonotus obliquus-derived polysaccharide inhibits the migration and invasion of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells via suppression of MMP-2 and MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Rim; Lee, Jong Seok; Song, Jeong Eun; Ha, Suk Jin; Hong, Eock Kee

    2014-12-01

    Polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Inonotus obliquus (PFIO) are known to possess various pharmacological properties including antitumor activity. However, the anti-metastatic effect and its underlying mechanistic signaling pathway involved these polysaccharides in human non-small cell lung carcinoma remain unknown. The present study therefore aimed to determine the anti-metastatic potential and signaling pathways of PFIO in the highly metastatic A549 cells. We found that PFIO suppressed the migration and invasive ability of A549 cells while decreasing the expression levels and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Furthermore, PFIO decreased the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the expression level of COX-2, and inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in A549 cells. These results suggested that PFIO could suppress the invasion and migration of human lung carcinoma by reducing the expression levels and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 via suppression of MAPKs, PI3K/AKT, and NF-κB signaling pathways.

  10. Temperature-dependent sensitivity of growth and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus, Navicula pelliculosa and two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide atrazine.

    PubMed

    Chalifour, Annie; Juneau, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The temperature-dependent sensitivities of two algal species and two strains of cyanobacteria to the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide atrazine were evaluated in order to understand how the interaction between acclimation temperature and herbicide will affect growth and photosynthesis of aquatic microorganisms. The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and a toxic and non-toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were acclimated to three different temperatures (10, 15 and 25°C) and exposed to five concentrations of the herbicide atrazine (0-0.15μM) for 72h. Growth, photosynthetic yields, energy fluxes within photosystem II and pigment content were then measured as potential responses to each treatment. With the exception of N. pelliculosa, the toxicity of atrazine was higher when microorganisms were acclimated to lower temperatures. N. pelliculosa was not only the most tolerant to atrazine, but also had a similar sensitivity to this herbicide at every temperature. The observed differences in growth sensitivity to atrazine at low temperature are associated with the ability of algae and cyanobacteria to cope with high excitation pressure, by increasing its protective carotenoid content and non-photochemical energy dissipation. Our results demonstrate that future guidelines for the protection of aquatic life should consider water temperature as an important factor influencing the toxicity of atrazine to aquatic microorganisms. PMID:21392491

  11. Temperature-dependent sensitivity of growth and photosynthesis of Scenedesmus obliquus, Navicula pelliculosa and two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa to the herbicide atrazine.

    PubMed

    Chalifour, Annie; Juneau, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    The temperature-dependent sensitivities of two algal species and two strains of cyanobacteria to the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide atrazine were evaluated in order to understand how the interaction between acclimation temperature and herbicide will affect growth and photosynthesis of aquatic microorganisms. The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, the diatom Navicula pelliculosa and a toxic and non-toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa were acclimated to three different temperatures (10, 15 and 25°C) and exposed to five concentrations of the herbicide atrazine (0-0.15μM) for 72h. Growth, photosynthetic yields, energy fluxes within photosystem II and pigment content were then measured as potential responses to each treatment. With the exception of N. pelliculosa, the toxicity of atrazine was higher when microorganisms were acclimated to lower temperatures. N. pelliculosa was not only the most tolerant to atrazine, but also had a similar sensitivity to this herbicide at every temperature. The observed differences in growth sensitivity to atrazine at low temperature are associated with the ability of algae and cyanobacteria to cope with high excitation pressure, by increasing its protective carotenoid content and non-photochemical energy dissipation. Our results demonstrate that future guidelines for the protection of aquatic life should consider water temperature as an important factor influencing the toxicity of atrazine to aquatic microorganisms.

  12. Cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs towards fresh water algae Scenedesmus obliquus at low exposure concentrations in UV-C, visible and dark conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneshwari, M; Iswarya, V; Archanaa, S; Madhu, G M; Kumar, G K Suraish; Nagarajan, R; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-05-01

    Continuous increase in the usage of ZnO nanoparticles in commercial products has exacerbated the risk of release of these particles into the aquatic environment with possible harmful effects on the biota. In the current study, cytotoxic effects of two types of ZnO nanoparticles, having different initial effective diameters in filtered and sterilized lake water medium [487.5±2.55 nm for ZnO-1 NPs and 616.2±38.5 nm for ZnO-2 NPs] were evaluated towards a dominant freshwater algal isolate Scenedesmus obliquus in UV-C, visible and dark conditions at three exposure concentrations: 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/L. The toxic effects were found to be strongly dependent on the initial hydrodynamic particle size in the medium, the exposure concentrations and the irradiation conditions. The loss in viability, LDH release and ROS generation were significantly enhanced in the case of the smaller sized ZnO-1 NPs than in the case of ZnO-2 NPs under comparable test conditions. The toxicity of both types of ZnO NPs was considerably elevated under UV-C irradiation in comparison to that in dark and visible light conditions, the effects being more enhanced in case of ZnO-1 NPs. The size dependent dissolution of the ZnO NPs in the test medium and possible toxicity due to the released Zn(2+) ions was also noted. The surface adsorption of the nanoparticles was substantiated by scanning electron microscopy. The internalization/uptake of the NPs by the algal cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and elemental analyses.

  13. Sorghum halepense (L.) Persoon (Poaceae), a new larval host for the South American corn rootworm Diabrotica speciosa (Germar) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica speciosa is a South American corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) the adult of which is a pest on many crop and ornamental plants. The list of known larval hosts, however, is limited to maize, wheat, potatoes and peanuts. In March, 2005, larvae of D. speciosa were found ...

  14. Cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in liquid hydrolysate from flash hydrolysis for nutrient recycling.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Elena; Sforza, Eleonora; Kumar, Sandeep; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The production of biofuels from microalgae is associated with high demands of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) required for growth. Recycling nutrients from the residual biomass is essential to obtain a sustainable production. In this work, the aqueous phase obtained from flash hydrolysis of Scenedesmus sp. was used as cultivation medium for a microalga of the same genus, to assess the feasibility of this technique for nutrient recycling purposes. Batch and continuous cultivations were carried out, to determine growth performances in this substrate compared to standard media, and verify if a stable biomass production could be obtained. In continuous experiments, the effect of hydrolysate inlet concentration and of residence time were assessed to optimize nutrient supply in relation to productivity. Results obtained show that nutrient recycling is feasible by treating biomass with flash hydrolysis, and Scenedesmus is capable of recycling large amounts of recovered nutrients.

  15. [Composition and biological activity of triterpenes and steroids from Inonotus obliquus (chaga)].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, S A; Khabibrakhmanova, V R; Sysoeva, M A

    2016-05-01

    Data on the chemical composition of triterpenic and steroid compounds, isolated from the chaga mushroom grown in natural environment or in a synthetic culture have been summarized. Special attention has been paid to the biological activity of chaga mushroom extracts and these particular compounds against various cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. This analysis has demonstrated some common features in inhibition of growth of various cell lines by chaga mushroom components. In this context, the most active are triterpene compounds containing OH group at C-22 and a side chain unsaturated bond. PMID:27562990

  16. EFFECT OF 4 WEEKS OF PILATES ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG GIRLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...

  17. The Pilates Method and Ballet Technique: Applications in the Dance Studio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Elizabeth Lowe

    2006-01-01

    There are many body therapies from which dancers may choose in order to gain and maintain strength, flexibility, and balance and to avoid injury or facilitate rehabilitation from injury. The questions are: which system is best for the given student, and how can educators incorporate the many somatic perspectives into their curriculums. This…

  18. Polysaccharide protein complex isolated from mushroom Phellinus rimosus (berk.) Pilat alleviates γ radiation-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jini; Smina, Thozhuthum Parambil Pathmanabhan; Janardhanan, Kainoor Krishnankutty

    2011-06-01

    Ionizing radiations generate reactive oxygen species in irradiated tissue that induces several pathophysiological changes in the body. Radiotherapy induced toxicity is a major dose-limiting factor in anticancer treatments. Radioprotective agents are of significant importance in medical, industrial, environmental, military, and space applications. Radioprotective effect of polysaccharide protein complex (PPC-Pr) isolated from mushroom, Phellinus rimosus, was evaluated in Swiss albino mice. PPC-Pr (5 and 10 mg/kg bwt, i.p.) significantly increased leukocyte count, bone marrow cellularity, glutathione content, and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase in blood as well as intestinal mucosa when compared with the irradiated control group. Histopathological observation of intestinal jejunal mucosa revealed the tissue protective effects of PPC-Pr. Further radioprotective activity of PPC-Pr was in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest potential radioprotective efficacy of PPC-Pr.

  19. A Healthy Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Manya

    2009-01-01

    Yoga and Pilates are everywhere these days, and it's no wonder. Innumerable medical studies have shown that yoga and Pilates not only help people improve their fitness levels and slim down but also help them to alleviate asthma symptoms, manage arthritis and carpel tunnel pain, decrease cardiovascular risk factors, and improve one's emotional…

  20. 76 FR 40246 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of Gasoline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... rule under the Clean Air Act pertaining to a request for the use of low Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) fuel... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Ohio; Control of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Carolyn Persoon, Environmental Engineer, Control Strategies Section, Air Programs...

  1. 77 FR 55810 - Meeting of the Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... International Trade Administration Meeting of the Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Manufacturing... Jennifer Pilat, the Manufacturing Council, Room 4043, 1401 Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC...

  2. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  3. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  4. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp. PMID:27395090

  5. Rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament insufficiency in a dancer using the clinical reformer and a balanced body exercise method.

    PubMed

    Brown, S E; Clippinger, K

    1996-01-01

    Severe ligamentous knee injuries are uncommon in dance, but partial instability can be disabling. Because of the aesthetics required, use of a brace is not practical. The balanced body approach of exercise and rehabilitation can maximize the physiologic stabilizers of the knee and allow return to dance. While derived from the original principles of Joseph H. Pilates, current practitioners apply modern biomechanical and medical knowledge. The Reformer, a spring loaded exercise device first used by J.H. Pilates, can provide both a simulated environment for dance technique while allowing rest of the injured part and a method of cross training. PMID:24441690

  6. Costs and trade-offs of grazer-induced defenses in Scenedesmus under deficient resource

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuexia; Wang, Jun; Chen, Qinwen; Chen, Ge; Huang, Yuan; Yang, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus obliquus can form inducible defensive morphs under grazing threat. Costs and trade-offs of inducible defense are expected to accompany the benefits of defensive morphs, but are hard to detect under nutrient-sufficient experimental conditions. To test the existence of costs associated with inducible defense, we cultured S. obliquus along resource availability gradients in the presence or absence of infochemical cues from Daphnia, and measured the strength of defensive colony formation and fitness characters. Under the lowest phosphorous concentration, the expression of inducible defensive colony resulted in decreased growth rate, which provides direct evidence for physiological costs. Along the gradient reduction of phosphorous concentration or light intensity, inducible defense in S. obliquus showed a decreasing trend. However, the photosynthetic efficiency of S. obliquus was barely affected by its defense responses, suggesting that the negative correlations between resource availability and colony formation of this alga may be due to resource-based trade-offs in the allocation of limited resources. Thus, our results indicated that expression of inducible defense of S. obliquus was impaired under insufficient phosphorus or light. Furthermore, under severe phosphate deficiency, obvious physiological costs of inducible defense could be detected even though defensive colony formation also decreased significantly. PMID:26932369

  7. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes.

  8. My Career: Group Fitness Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Tammy Kenney, who teaches a yoga-Pilates class in several different gyms. In this interview, Kenney talks about her career as a group fitness instructor and gives her best advice for someone who wants to teach group fitness.

  9. Designing and Using a High School Cardio Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hall, Amber

    2012-01-01

    Attending a gym, fitness center or health club is a popular pastime of many people who wish to exercise and get in shape. Classes are offered in activities such as cardio endurance, toning, Pilates, spinning, step aerobics, core training, and kick boxing. Participants also use rooms with cardio equipment to get their own cardio workout. As many…

  10. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems. PMID:27154838

  11. Effects of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on the interspecific competition between Microcystis and Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Chen, Huaimin; Guo, Lili; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    The widespread use of detergents increases the concentration of surfactant in lakes and reservoirs. High surfactant loads produces toxicity to algae; however, the influence of the increasing surfactant on the competition between algae is not clear. In this paper, different amounts of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) were added to test the effects of LAS on the competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Scenedesmus obliquus under eutrophic condition. In single culture, the growth of S. obliquus was promoted under lower LAS concentrations (1 and 20 mg L(-1)), but cell density of S. obliquus reduced when treated with higher LAS concentration (100 mg L(-1)). The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited markedly with 20 and 100 mg L(-1) LAS. Compared with single culture, the result was opposite in co-cultures and the cell density of S. obliquus increased significantly when treated with LAS of 1, 20, and 100 mg L(-1). The specific growth rates of S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa in both cultures were 0.4-0.5 day(-1) and 0.6-0.7 day(-1), respectively, except that the specific growth rate of M. aeruginosa in both cultures treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was about 0.2 day(-1). M. aeruginosa dominated over S. obliquus in the co-culture without LAS, while the competition was completely opposite with the addition of 20 mg L(-1) LAS. The growth of S. obliquus treated with 20 mg L(-1) LAS was not affected significantly in single culture but was promoted by 75 % in co-culture. Moreover, the growth of S. obliquus in co-culture treated with 100 mg L(-1) LAS was promoted by more than 97 %. These results suggested that the increasing LAS would overturn the competition of algae in freshwater ecosystems.

  12. Lumbo-pelvic stability and electromyography of abdominal muscles in ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Silva, L Alves; Monteiro, T Lombardi; Alves, N; de Carvalho, A Cesinando; de Azevedo, F Mícolis

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the ability to rectify and maintain lumbar adjustment can contribute toward the understanding of the behavior of abdominal muscles and their participation in the stability of pelvic muscles in dancers during the posterior pelvic tilt and double straight leg lowering tests. Nine healthy volunteers (male and female ballet dancers; age mean: 25.9 +/- 7.37 years) underwent maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), isometric voluntary contraction at 50% of MIVC, posterior pelvic tilt (PPT) and double straight leg lowering (DSLL) tests. The tests were carried out in a single day, with 3 repetitions each. During the tests, electromygraphic signals of the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were recorded. The signal acquisition system was made up of bipolar surface electrodes, electrogoniometer and an electromechanic device (pressure sensor), which were connected to a signal conditioner module. Root mean square values of each muscle during the DSLL and PPT were converted into percentage of activation of 50% MIVC. Lower back pressure was submitted to the same process. ANOVA with repeated measures was performed, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The results revealed that all dancers were able to maintain posterior pelvic tilt and there was trend toward greater activation of the bilateral obliquus internus muscle. In an attempt to keep the pelvic region stabilized during DSLL, there was a greater contribution from the obliquus externus muscle in relation to other abdominal muscles.

  13. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  14. Effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on absorption properties in eutrophic shallow lakes: field and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yin, Yan; Wang, Mingzhu; Liu, Xiaohan

    2012-05-21

    We investigated phytoplankton absorption properties of Lake Taihu, in the spring and summer of 2005 and 2006, and for 17 days studied laboratory cultures of Scenedesmus obliquus (chlorophyta) and Microcystis aeruginosa (cyanophyta) to determine the effect of phytoplankton community composition and cell size on the absorption properties. There were significant seasonal differences in phytoplankton community composition and absorption coefficients. In spring, the phytoplankton community was dominated by chlorophyta with large cells, whereas in summer was dominated by cyanophyta with small cells. Phytoplankton absorption coefficients increased significantly from spring to summer, with the increase in chlorophyll a (Chla) concentration. In addition, Chla-specific absorption coefficients increased with the phytoplankton community succession from chlorophyta to cyanophyta. In culture, the cells density of S. obliquus was generally lower than that of M. aeruginosa, and Chla concentrations of S. obliquus were significantly higher than those of M. aeruginosa. Correspondingly, the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of S. obliquus were significantly lower than those of M. aeruginosa. Significant exponential correlations were found between absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients and Chla concentration for S. obliquus and M. aeruginosa. In addition, we developed a model to predict absorption and Chla-specific absorption coefficients using Chla concentration and cell size when data from two species was grouped together. Field and experimental results both showed that the Chla-specific absorption coefficients of cyanophyta were significantly higher than those of chlorophyta. The variability in specific absorption can attributed to phytoplankton community composition, cell size and pigment composition. As phytoplankton community composition changed significantly with season in the lake, and as variation in the cell sizes and accessory pigments of the phytoplankton

  15. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research

    PubMed Central

    Aliev, Rafik; Memmedova, Konul

    2015-01-01

    Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Test of Attention (D2 Test), and Spielberger's Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented. PMID:26339231

  16. Application of Z-Number Based Modeling in Psychological Research.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Rafik; Memmedova, Konul

    2015-01-01

    Pilates exercises have been shown beneficial impact on physical, physiological, and mental characteristics of human beings. In this paper, Z-number based fuzzy approach is applied for modeling the effect of Pilates exercises on motivation, attention, anxiety, and educational achievement. The measuring of psychological parameters is performed using internationally recognized instruments: Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), Test of Attention (D2 Test), and Spielberger's Anxiety Test completed by students. The GPA of students was used as the measure of educational achievement. Application of Z-information modeling allows us to increase precision and reliability of data processing results in the presence of uncertainty of input data created from completed questionnaires. The basic steps of Z-number based modeling with numerical solutions are presented. PMID:26339231

  17. Release of enzymes from human leucocytes during incubation with Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Senff, Leah Morford; Sawyer, William D.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on release of enzymes from human leucocytes was determined. Supernatants from incubation mixtures containing leucocytes and gonococci were assayed for activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme, lactic acid dehydrogenase, as well as for activity of the hydrolytic enzymes, β-glucuronidase and lysozyme, which are found primarily in leucocyte granules. Thirty-minute incubation of leucocytes with pilated T1 gonococci resulted in a negligible release of lactic acid dehydrogenase and little release of β-glucuronidase even at bacteria to leucocyte ratios as high as 50 to 1. Lysozyme release, however, was significant at this ratio and at 20 to 1 but not at 5 to 1. Incubation with non-pilated T4 bacteria yielded no significant release of lactic acid dehydrogenase or β-glucuronidase, but it caused a significant release of lysozyme at bacteria to leucocyte ratios as low as 2 to 1. These results suggested that the lysozyme release might be related to the degree of phagocytic activity since, at low ratios, T4 was readily ingested but T1 was not. Consistent with this hypothesis, serum which promoted the phagocytosis of the pilated gonococci also stimulated lysozyme release at low ratios of T1 to leucocyte. Absorption of the serum with T1 abolished the opsonic effect and markedly diminished the amount of lysozyme released. PMID:414817

  18. Release of enzymes from human leucocytes during incubation with Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Senff, L M; Sawyer, W D

    1977-12-01

    The effect of Neisseria gonorrhoeae on release of enzymes from human leucocytes was determined. Supernatants from incubation mixtures containing leucocytes and gonococci were assayed for activity of the cytoplasmic enzyme, lactic acid dehydrogenase, as well as for activity of the hydrolytic enzymes, β-glucuronidase and lysozyme, which are found primarily in leucocyte granules. Thirty-minute incubation of leucocytes with pilated T1 gonococci resulted in a negligible release of lactic acid dehydrogenase and little release of β-glucuronidase even at bacteria to leucocyte ratios as high as 50 to 1. Lysozyme release, however, was significant at this ratio and at 20 to 1 but not at 5 to 1. Incubation with non-pilated T4 bacteria yielded no significant release of lactic acid dehydrogenase or β-glucuronidase, but it caused a significant release of lysozyme at bacteria to leucocyte ratios as low as 2 to 1. These results suggested that the lysozyme release might be related to the degree of phagocytic activity since, at low ratios, T4 was readily ingested but T1 was not. Consistent with this hypothesis, serum which promoted the phagocytosis of the pilated gonococci also stimulated lysozyme release at low ratios of T1 to leucocyte. Absorption of the serum with T1 abolished the opsonic effect and markedly diminished the amount of lysozyme released.

  19. Importance of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

    PubMed

    Singh, A K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Algae have a great potential source of biofuels and also have unique importance to reduce gaseous emissions, greenhouse gases, climatic changes, global warming receding of glaciers, rising sea levels and loss of biodiversity. The microalgae, like Scenedesmus obliquus, Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp., Chlorella emersonii, and Dunaliella tertiolecta have high oil content. Among the known algae, Scenedesmus obliquus is one of the most potential sources for biodiesel as it has adequate fatty acid (linolenic acid) and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. Bio—ethanol is already in the market of United States of America and Europe as an additive in gasoline. Bio—hydrogen is the cleanest biofuel and extensive efforts are going on to bring it to market at economical price. This review highlights recent development and progress in the field of algae as a potential source of biofuel.

  20. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  1. Potential utilization of algal protein concentrate as a food ingredient in space habitats.

    PubMed

    Nakhost, Z; Karel, M

    1989-01-01

    Green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was studied as one of the potential sources of macronutrients in a space habitat. Algal protein concentrate (70.5% protein) was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation) and chocolate chip cookies. Food products containing 20 to 40% of incorporated algal proteins were considered. In the sensory analysis the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectional. The mild spinachy flavor (algae flavor) was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles. Commercially available spray-dried Spirulina algae was also incorporated so the products can be compared with those containing Scenedesmus obliquus concentrate. Food products containing commercial algae had a dark green color and a "burnt after taste" and were less acceptable to the panelists.

  2. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis. PMID:25332848

  3. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA.

    PubMed

    Ehret, Dana J; Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world's oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis.

  4. Occurrence of the megatoothed sharks (Lamniformes: Otodontidae) in Alabama, USA

    PubMed Central

    Ebersole, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Otodontidae include some of the largest sharks to ever live in the world’s oceans (i.e., Carcharocles megalodon). Here we report on Paleocene and Eocene occurrences of Otodus obliquus and Carcharocles auriculatus from Alabama, USA. Teeth of Otodus are rarely encountered in the Gulf Coastal Plain and this report is one of the first records for Alabama. Carcharocles auriculatus is more common in the Eocene deposits of Alabama, but its occurrence has been largely overlooked in the literature. We also refute the occurrence of the Oligocene Carcharocles angustidens in the state. Raised awareness and increased collecting of under-sampled geologic formations in Alabama will likely increase sample sizes of O. obliquus and C. auriculatus and also might unearth other otodontids, such as C. megalodon and C. chubutensis. PMID:25332848

  5. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production.

  6. Nutrient removal and biogas upgrading by integrating freshwater algae cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Zhao, Yongjun; Zhao, Guohua; Zhang, Hui

    2015-08-01

    An integrated approach that combined freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation with piggery anaerobic digestate liquid treatment was investigated in this study. The characteristics of algal growth, biogas production, and nutrient removal were examined using photobioreactor bags (PBRbs) to cultivate S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in digestate with various digestate dilutions (the concentration levels of 3200, 2200, 1600, 1200, 800, and 400 mg L(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)) during 7-day period. The effects of the level of pollutants on nutrient removal efficiency and CO2 removal process were investigated to select the optimum system for effectively upgrade biogas and simultaneously reduce the nutrient content in digestate. The treatment performance displayed that average removal rates of COD, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and CO2 were 61.58-75.29, 58.39-74.63, 70.09-88.79, and 54.26-73.81 %, respectively. All the strains grew well under any the dilution treatments. With increased initial nutrient concentration to a certain range, the CO4 content (v/v) of raw biogas increased. Differences in the biogas enrichment of S. obliquus (FACHB-31) in all treatments mainly resulted from variations in biomass productivity and CO2 uptake. Notably, the diluted digestate sample of 1600 mg L(-1) COD provided an optimal nutrient concentration for S. obliquus (FACHB-31) cultivation, where the advantageous nutrient and CO2 removals, as well as the highest productivities of biomass and biogas upgrading, were revealed. Results showed that microalgal biomass production offered real opportunities to address issues such as CO2 sequestration, wastewater treatment, and biogas production. PMID:25808519

  7. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Potential for utilization of algae in engineered foods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances its potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  8. Potential for utilization of algal biomass for components of the diet in CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamarei, A. R.; Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.

    1986-01-01

    The major nutritional components of the green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown in a Constant Cell Density Apparatus were determined. Suitable methodology to prepare proteins from which three major undesirable components of these cells (i.e., cell walls, nucleic acids, and pigments) were either removed or substantially reduced was developed. Results showed that processing of green algae to protein isolate enhances is potential nutritional and organoleptic acceptability as a diet component in controlled Ecological Life Support System.

  9. Algal culture studies related to a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Behrens, P.; Fernandez, E.; Ollinger, O.; Howell, C.; Venables, A.; Huggins, D.; Gladue, R.

    1984-01-01

    In many respects, algae would be the ideal plant component for a biologically based controlled life support system, since they are eminently suited to the closely coupled functions of atmosphere regeneration and food production. Scenedesmus obliquus and Spirulina platensis were grown in three continuous culture apparatuses. Culture vessels their operation and relative merits are described. Both light and nitrogen utilization efficiency are examined. Long term culture issues are detailed and a discussion of a plasmid search in Spirulina is included.

  10. Activity of trunk muscles during aquatic and terrestrial locomotion in Ambystoma maculatum.

    PubMed

    Deban, Stephen M; Schilling, Nadja

    2009-09-15

    The activity of seven trunk muscles was recorded at two sites along the trunk in adult spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, during swimming and during trotting in water and on land. Several muscles showed patterns of activation that are consistent with the muscles producing a traveling wave of lateral bending during swimming and a standing wave of bending during aquatic and terrestrial trotting: the dorsalis trunci, subvertebralis lateralis and medialis, rectus lateralis and obliquus internus. The interspinalis showed a divergent pattern and was active out of phase with the other muscles suggesting that it functions in vertebral stabilization rather than lateral bending. The obliquus internus and rectus abdominis showed bilateral activity indicating that they counteract sagittal extension of the trunk that is produced when the large dorsal muscles are active to produce lateral bending. Of the muscles examined, only the obliquus internus showed a clear shift in function from lateral bending during swimming to resistance of long-axis torsion during trotting. During terrestrial trotting, muscle recruitment was greater in several muscles than during aquatic trotting, despite similar temporal patterns of muscle activation, suggesting that the trunk is stiffened during terrestrial locomotion against greater gravitational forces whereas the basic functions of the trunk muscles in trotting are conserved across environments.

  11. Screening of biomethane production potential from dominant microalgae.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Beltran, Carolina; Jimenez, Antonia; Fernández, María José; Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael; Jeison, David

    2016-10-14

    The use of microalgae for biomethane production has been considerably increasing during the recent years. In this study, four dominant species belonging to the genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Dunaliella and Nostoc were selected. The influence of different genera with several morphological, structural and physicochemical characteristics on methane production was assessed in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The ultimate methane yield values were 332 ± 24, 211 ± 2, 63 ± 17 and 28 ± 10 mL CH4/g VSadded for Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella sorokiniana, Dunaliella salina and Nostoc sp., respectively. The highest methane production was achieved by microalga species that had no complex cell wall or wall basically composed by proteins and simple sugars such as in S. obliquus, whereas lower methane yields were found for D. salina and Nostoc sp., due to the salinity effects and cell wall composition in terms of complex polysaccharide and glycolipid layers, respectively. Kinetic constant values obtained in the BMP tests ranged between 1.00 ± 0.08 and 0.097 ± 0.005 days(-1) for D. salina and S. obliquus, respectively.

  12. Application of acid mine drainage for coagulation/flocculation of microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kim, Jung Rae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Cho, Dong-Wan; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2015-06-01

    A novel application of acid mine drainage (AMD) for biomass recovery of two morphologically different microalgae species with respect to AMD dosage, microalgal cell density and pH of medium was investigated. Optimal flocculation of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris occurred with 10% dosage of AMD at an initial pH 9 for both 0.5 and 1.0 g/L cell density. The flocculation efficiency was 89% for S. obliquus and 93% for C. vulgaris. Zeta potential (ZP) was increased from -10.66 to 1.77 and -13.19 to 1.33 for S. obliquus and C. vulgaris, respectively. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray of the microalgae floc confirmed the sweeping floc formation mechanism upon the addition of AMD. Application of AMD for the recovery of microalgae biomass is a cost-effective method, which might further allow reuse of flocculated medium for algal cultivation, thereby contributing to the economic production of biofuel from microalgal biomass.

  13. Lower extremity muscles activity in standing and sitting position with use of sEMG in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuciel, Natalia Maria; Konieczny, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Oleksy, Łukasz; Wrzosek, Zdzisława

    2016-01-01

    There is very limited, evidenced data about movement possibilities in patients with high level of lower limb muscles atrophy and fatigue in patients suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome. Patient (age 46) suffering from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease for 30 years with multiple movement restrictions and muscles atrophy above knees took part into the study. Tests were performed for 8 muscles of the lower limb and pelvis. Muscles electrical activity was tested in sitting and standing position (for knees extended and hyperextended). In the right leg rectus femoris, vastus lateralis obliquus, gluteus medius and semitendinosus muscles activated at first and were working the longest time. The highest activity was observed in standing position with knees extended. In the left leg rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles activated at first and biceps femoris was working the longest time. Activity level in left lower limb is much lower than in the right one. Muscles weakness is asymmetric. Left leg is much weaker and engages antagonists and synergists muscles to compensate weaker rectus femoris, vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis obliquus.

  14. Application of acid mine drainage for coagulation/flocculation of microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Salama, El-Sayed; Kim, Jung Rae; Ji, Min-Kyu; Cho, Dong-Wan; Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Kabra, Akhil N; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2015-06-01

    A novel application of acid mine drainage (AMD) for biomass recovery of two morphologically different microalgae species with respect to AMD dosage, microalgal cell density and pH of medium was investigated. Optimal flocculation of Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris occurred with 10% dosage of AMD at an initial pH 9 for both 0.5 and 1.0 g/L cell density. The flocculation efficiency was 89% for S. obliquus and 93% for C. vulgaris. Zeta potential (ZP) was increased from -10.66 to 1.77 and -13.19 to 1.33 for S. obliquus and C. vulgaris, respectively. Scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray of the microalgae floc confirmed the sweeping floc formation mechanism upon the addition of AMD. Application of AMD for the recovery of microalgae biomass is a cost-effective method, which might further allow reuse of flocculated medium for algal cultivation, thereby contributing to the economic production of biofuel from microalgal biomass. PMID:25817034

  15. Screening of biomethane production potential from dominant microalgae.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Beltran, Carolina; Jimenez, Antonia; Fernández, María José; Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael; Jeison, David

    2016-10-14

    The use of microalgae for biomethane production has been considerably increasing during the recent years. In this study, four dominant species belonging to the genera Scenedesmus, Chlorella, Dunaliella and Nostoc were selected. The influence of different genera with several morphological, structural and physicochemical characteristics on methane production was assessed in biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The ultimate methane yield values were 332 ± 24, 211 ± 2, 63 ± 17 and 28 ± 10 mL CH4/g VSadded for Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella sorokiniana, Dunaliella salina and Nostoc sp., respectively. The highest methane production was achieved by microalga species that had no complex cell wall or wall basically composed by proteins and simple sugars such as in S. obliquus, whereas lower methane yields were found for D. salina and Nostoc sp., due to the salinity effects and cell wall composition in terms of complex polysaccharide and glycolipid layers, respectively. Kinetic constant values obtained in the BMP tests ranged between 1.00 ± 0.08 and 0.097 ± 0.005 days(-1) for D. salina and S. obliquus, respectively. PMID:27409043

  16. Toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenate in two freshwater green algae under different phosphate regimes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning-Xin; Li, Yan; Deng, Xi-Hai; Miao, Ai-Jun; Ji, Rong; Yang, Liu-Yan

    2013-05-01

    In the present study, the toxicity and bioaccumulation kinetics of arsenate in two green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus under phosphate-enriched (+P) and limited (-P) conditions were investigated. P-limitation was found to aggravate arsenate toxicity and S. obliquus was more tolerant than C. reinhardtii. Such phosphate-condition-dependent or algal-species-specific toxicity difference was narrowed when the relative inhibition of cell growth was plotted against intracellular arsenate content instead of its extracellular concentration. The discrepance was further reduced when the intracellular ratio of arsenic to phosphorus was applied. It suggests that both arsenate bioaccumulation and intracellular phosphorus played an important role in arsenate toxicity. On the other hand, arsenate uptake was induced by P-limitation and its variation with ambient arsenate concentration could be well fitted to the Michaelis-Menten model. Arsenate transporters of S. obliquus were found to have a higher affinity but lower capacity than those of C. reinhardtii, which explains its better regulation of arsenate accumulation than the latter species in the toxicity experiment. Further, arsenate depuration was facilitated and more was transformed to arsenite in C. reinhardtii or under -P condition. Intracellular proportion of arsenite was also increased after the algae were transferred from the long-term uptake media to a relatively clean solution in the efflux experiment. Both phenomena imply that algae especially the sensitive species could make physiological adjustments to alleviate the adverse effects of arsenate. Overall, our findings will facilitate the application of algae in arsenate remediation. PMID:23497978

  17. Enantioselective ecotoxicity of the herbicide dichlorprop and complexes formed with chitosan in two fresh water green algae.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yuezhong; Chen, Hui; Yuan, Yuli; Xu, Dongmei; Kang, Xiaodong

    2011-04-01

    To reduce the leaching potential, to prevent groundwater contamination and to maintain the efficacy of a pesticide, natural polysaccharides have received increasing attention due to their biocompatibility and useful biological reactivity for controlled release formulations (CRFs) of pesticides. In this paper, the toxicities of the chiral herbicide dichlorprop (DCPP) and its complexes with chitosan molecules (DCPP-CS) and chitosan nanoparticles (DCPP-NP) to two different green algae were determined and compared. The inhibition rates of DCPP, DCPP-CS and DCPP-NP were determined at 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168 h, and the results show that (S)-DCPP was more toxic to Chlorella vulgaris than (R)-DCPP, while the (R)-DCPP was more toxic to Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-DCPP. The study also found that the chiral selectivity of DCPP to Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus could be changed when DCPP was complexed with chitosan molecules (CS) or chitosan nanoparticles (NP). For Chlorella vulgaris, the order of inhibition was (R)-DCPP-CS > (S)-DCPP-CS and (R)-DCPP-NP > (S)-DCPP-NP; for Scenedesmus obliquus, the order was (S)-DCPP-CS > (R)-DCPP-CS and (S)-DCPP-NP > (R)-DCPP-NP. This phenomenon suggests that the enantioselective behaviors of chiral compounds might shift when interactions with other chiral receptors coexist in different biological environments. Additionally, chitosan molecules and chitosan nanoparticles also showed different toxicities, which could be ascribed to the difference in the physicochemical properties between CS and NP or the differences in the cell walls of the two fresh water green algae.

  18. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  19. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil. PMID:26249859

  20. New taxa and new records in Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) from the state of Bahia (Brazil) and notes on Meridiotroctes (Acanthoderini).

    PubMed

    Martins, Ubirajara R; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2015-06-17

    Twelve new species and two new genera are described from Bahia (Brazil): Ectenessa aurantiaca (Ectenessini); Stizocera lingafelteri (Elaphidiini); Raglicia monnei (Graciliini), new genus and species; Tobipuranga aspera (Heteropsini); Cicatrion unicolor, and Pygmodeon obscurum (Neoibidionini); Neophygopoda agdae (Rhinotragini); Arapari bellus (Trachyderini), new genus and species; Meridiotroctes obliquus (Acanthoderini); Melzerella inopinata (Aerenicini); Ceiupaba poranga, and Desmiphora (Desmiphora) nascimentoi (Desmiphorini). Notes on Meridiotroctes Martins & Galileo, 2007 and Cosmisoma brullei (Mulsant, 1862) are provided. Forty-eight species are recorded for the first time for Bahia (Brazil) including four species which are recorded for the first time for Brazil.

  1. The effects of a copper-based antifouling paint on mortality and enzymatic activity of a non-target marine organism.

    PubMed

    Katranitsas, A; Castritsi-Catharios, J; Persoone, G

    2003-11-01

    Antifouling paints are used on a wide range of underwater structures in order to protect them from the development of fouling organisms. The leaching of the toxic substances from the matrix of the paint causes toxic effects not only to the fouling organisms but also on other "non-target" biota. The present study addresses the impact of the antifouling paint Flexgard VI-II on brine shrimp nauplii selected as convenient test organisms. The surface to volume (S/V) concept developed by Persoone and Castritsi-Catharios (1989) was used to determine S/V-LC50s for the test biota exposed to PVC test panels of 400-1000 mm2 surface coated with the antifouling paint in test vessels containing 20 ml seawater. Total ATPase and Mg2+-ATPase were also analyzed for coated surface areas inducing less than 50% mortality in the brine shrimp nauplii. The calculated S/V-LC50 (24 h) was 24.6 mm2/ml, which shows the high toxic character of the antifouling paint. Decreased enzymatic activities were noted in the brine shrimp nauplii exposed to test panels of 50 and 100 mm2 in 20 ml seawater. The present study indicates that the "surface to volume" concept is an interesting methodology that can be applied with both lethal and sublethal effect criteria for the determination of toxic stress from leaches of painted surfaces. PMID:14607547

  2. Use of Monoclonal Antibodies in an ELISA for Detecting an Invasive Pest Insect, Liriomyza trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, W C; Shang, H W; Guo, W; Xu, D; Huang, T Y; Zhu, L X

    2015-04-01

    A monoclonal antibody was prepared by the hybridoma technology. It reacted only with the protein of Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) and not with that of Chromatomyia horticola Goureau or Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. It was effective even after being diluted more than 8.192×10(6)-fold. The detection sensitivity of the antibody was 31.3 µg/ml under controlled conditions. Positive reaction was achieved with all laboratory-reared L. trifolii samples, including larvae, pupae, and adults. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system was successfully established to detect L. trifolii in the field. This antibody was successfully used to determine the L. trifolii collected in different locations, from different host plants, and in different seasons. More than 50% of leafminers collected on Brassica chinensis var chinensis, Apium graveolens (Miller) Persoon, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walpers, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Lactuca sativa L., and Chrysanthemum coronarium (L.) Cassini ex Spach were L. trifolii, indicating that those six plant species might be the preference host plants of L. trifolii. Population of L. trifolii peaked in September, October, or November in Hangzhou, Zhejiang. These results suggest a great potential of using this McAb for precisely identifying L. trifolii and monitoring the population dynamics of L. trifolii in the field. PMID:26470159

  3. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Zheng-Qiong; Chen, Que; Xu, Ying-Wen; Hou, Kai; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4-8d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80°C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata. PMID:26991297

  4. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Zheng-Qiong; Chen, Que; Xu, Ying-Wen; Hou, Kai; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4-8d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80°C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata.

  5. Biofixation of CO2 from synthetic combustion gas using cultivated microalgae in three-stage serial tubular photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Morais, Michele G; Radmann, Elisângela M; Costa, Jorge A V

    2011-01-01

    Coal is the most abundant of the fossil fuels, with reserves estimated at 102 billions of tons. The feasibility of using coal as a fuel depends upon reducing emissions of gas when it is burnt, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur oxides (SO(x)), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). The removal of CO2 with microalgae may be one of the most efficient ways of reducing this gas, without the need for radical changes in the world's energy supply and production methods. Spirulina sp. LEB-18 and Scenedesmus obliquus LEB-22 were cultivated in serial tubular photobioreactors, with the aim of measuring the potential of CO2 biofixation and the resistance of the microalgae to SO2 and NO. Spirulina sp. and S. obliquus had CO2 biofixation scores of 0.27 and 0.22 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively. Both microalgae were resistant to SO2 and NO, and grew during the 15 d they were cultivated, which proves that using microalgae is an efficient method of biofixation of CO2 emitted when fossil fuels are burnt.

  6. Activations of Deep Lumbar Stabilizing Muscles by Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of Lumbar Paraspinal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung Ok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Cho, Yun Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in lumbar multifidus (LM) and deep lumbar stabilizing abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis [TrA] and obliquus internus [OI]) during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lumbar paraspinal L4-L5 regions using real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Methods Lumbar paraspinal regions of 20 healthy physically active male volunteers were stimulated at 20, 50, and 80 Hz. Ultrasound images of the LM, TrA, OI, and obliquus externus (OE) were captured during stimulation at each frequency. Results The thicknesses of superficial LM and deep LM as measured by RUSI were greater during NMES than at rest for all three frequencies (p<0.05). The thicknesses in TrA, OI, and OE were also significantly greater during NMES of lumbar paraspinal regions than at rest (p<0.05). Conclusion The studied transcutaneous NMES of the lumbar paraspinal region significantly activated deep spinal stabilizing muscle (LM) and the abdominal lumbar stabilizing muscles TrA and OI as evidenced by RUSI. The findings of this study suggested that transcutaneous NMES might be useful for improving spinal stability and strength in patients having difficulty initiating contraction of these muscles. PMID:25229029

  7. The role of photoperiods on photobioreactors - A potential strategy to reduce costs.

    PubMed

    Maroneze, Mariana Manzoni; Siqueira, Stefania Fortes; Vendruscolo, Raquel Guidetti; Wagner, Roger; de Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin; Zepka, Leila Queiroz; Jacob-Lopes, Eduardo

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was evaluate the role of photoperiods (long-term, frequencies and short) on the growth and lipid content of microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC05. The results showed that Scenedesmus obliquus can store sufficient energy to sustain cell growth for continuous periods of up to 2h in the dark, without affecting the photosynthetic rate. The values for maximum biomass (9.58mg/Lh) and lipid productivities (2.56mg/Lh) were obtained at photoperiod of 0.91:0.09s (light:dark) and 48 t/d, respectively. Moreover, the best trade-offs between biomass productivity and light energy economy occurred in photoperiods of 0.5:0.5s and 0.91:0.09s (light:dark), and those between lipid productivity and light energy economy occurred in the frequency photoperiod of 24 and 48 t/d. Thus, the use of the photoperiods are an effective strategy for reducing costs of microalgal biomass production. PMID:27521786

  8. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described here is work accomplished in investigating the potential use of micro-algae in yielding useful macronutrients for closed ecological life support systems in space habitats. Analysis of the chemical composition of the blue-green alga Synechoccus 6311 was done in the present work, and was compared to values found in previous work on the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus. Similar values were obtained for proteins, and lower values for nucleic acids and lipids. A second part of the work involved fabrication of food products containing various levels of incorporated algae (S. obliquus) proteins and/or lipids. Protein isolate was incorporated into a variety of food products such as bran muffins, fettuccine (spinach noodle imitation), and chocolate chip cookies. In the sensory analysis, the greenish color of the bran muffins and cookies was not found to be objectionable. The mild spinachy flavor was less detectable in chocolate chip cookies than in bran muffins. The color and taste of the algae noodles were found to be pleasant and compared well with commercially available spinach noodles.

  9. Determination of short-term copper toxicity in a multispecies microalgal population using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang; Wang, Meilin; Qian, Leilei; Shi, Xiaoli

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the role of algal-algal interactions in a multispecies microalgal population on their sensitivities to copper based on an enzyme inhibition assay using flow cytometric measures. Autofluorescence (chlorophyll a and phycocyanin) was used to identify species and count algal signals. The effect of multispecies population on copper toxicity of Microcystis aeruginousa was detected (1) at the same initial cell density, (2) at the same surface area, and (3) in the presence and absence of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus. As copper concentrations increased, esterase activity of M. aeruginosa changed in a concentration-dependent manner. The 24 h EC(50) value of M. aeruginosa in the multispecies population was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in the single-species population. Compared with S. obliquus, the effect of C. pyrenoidosa on M. aeruginosa was more marked (the 24 h EC(50) value of copper on fluorescin diacetate fluorescence of M. aeruginosa was 11 microg/L). At 48 h copper exposure (6 microg/L) analysis of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels also showed similar algal-algal interactions in multispecies microalgal populations. The pigment assay suggested that these algal-algal interactions occurred only at low concentrations (< 13 microg/L, 24 and 48 h copper exposure). This study demonstrates the importance of using multispecies populations to estimate metal toxicity in natural waters. PMID:16368143

  10. Mesophotic reef fish assemblages of the remote St. Peter and St. Paul's Archipelago, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Marcos Rogerio; Alves, Aline Cristina; Medeiros, Diego Valverde; Coni, Ericka Oliveira Cavalcanti; Ferreira, Camilo Moitinho; Ferreira, Beatrice Padovani; de Souza Rosa, Ricardo; Amado-Filho, Gilberto Menezes; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme Henrique; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes; Sumida, Paulo Yukio Gomes; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo Bastos

    2016-03-01

    Mesophotic reef fish assemblages (30-90 m depth) of the small and remote St. Peter and St. Paul's Archipelago (SPSPA), Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Brazil, were characterized using remotely operated vehicles. Ordination analyses identified distinct fish assemblages in the upper (30-50 m) and lower (50-90 m) mesophotic zones, the former characterized by high abundances of species that are also abundant at euphotic reefs ( Caranx lugubris, Melichthys niger, Stegastes sanctipauli and Chromis multilineata) and the latter dominated by two mesophotic specialists ( Prognathodes obliquus and Chromis enchrysura). Planktivores dominated fish assemblages, particularly in the upper mesophotic zone, possibly due to a greater availability of zooplankton coming from the colder Equatorial Undercurrent in mesophotic depths of the SPSPA. Turf algae, fleshy macroalgae and scleractinian corals dominated benthic assemblages between 30 and 40 m depth, while bryozoans, black corals and sponges dominated between 40 and 90 m depth. Canonical correspondence analysis explained 74 % of the relationship between environmental characteristics (depth, benthic cover and complexity) and structure of fish assemblages, with depth as the most important independent variable. Juveniles of Bodianus insularis and adults of P. obliquus and C. enchrysura were clearly associated with branching black corals ( Tanacetipathes spp.), suggesting that black corals play key ecological roles in lower mesophotic reefs of the SPSPA. Results from this study add to the global database about mesophotic reef ecosystems (MREs) and provide a baseline for future evaluations of possible anthropogenic and natural disturbances on MREs of the SPSPA.

  11. Combining urban wastewater treatment with biohydrogen production--an integrated microalgae-based approach.

    PubMed

    Batista, Ana Paula; Ambrosano, Lucas; Graça, Sofia; Sousa, Catarina; Marques, Paula A S S; Ribeiro, Belina; Botrel, Elberis P; Castro Neto, Pedro; Gouveia, Luisa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present work was the simultaneous treatment of urban wastewater using microalgae and the energetic valorization of the obtained biomass. Chlorella vulgaris (Cv), Scenedesmus obliquus (Sc) and a naturally occurring algal Consortium C (ConsC) were grown in an urban wastewater. The nutrient removals were quite high and the treated water fits the legislation (PT Dec-Lei 236/98) in what concerns the parameters analysed (N, P, COD). After nutrient depletion the microalgae remained two more weeks in the photobioreactor (PBR) under nutritional stress conditions, to induce sugar accumulation (22-43%). The stressed biomass was converted into biohydrogen (bioH2), a clean energy carrier, through dark fermentation by a strain of the bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. The fermentation kinetics were monitored and fitted to a modified Gompertz model. The highest bioH2 production yield was obtained for S. obliquus (56.8 mL H2/gVS) which was very similar when using the same algae grown in synthetic media.

  12. Postural- and respiratory-related activities of abdominal muscles during post-exercise hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    David, Pascal; Terrien, Jérémy; Petitjean, Michel

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses on the role of superficial abdominal muscles revealed by electromyographic recordings during the maintenance of a bipedal stance perturbed by post-exercise hyperventilation. Twelve healthy subjects performed six 30-s postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing quietly, then one test every minute for the 5 min immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Displacement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored over time. Myoelectric activities of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles were recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). Metabolic parameters were measured with a portable telemetric device. The change in ventilatory drive induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in both postural sway parameters and EMG activities. For OE and OI, the increased EMG activities were prominent during expiration, whereas OI was silent during inspiration. OE and RA were activated during both expiration and inspiration. It is concluded that the compensation of respiratory disturbances of the erect posture appears to be less effective when minute ventilation increases. The patterns of muscle activity suggest that abdominal muscles are controlled differentially and that their functional coordination is dependent on the respiratory demand.

  13. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles.

  14. Styrylpyrone-class compounds from medicinal fungi Phellinus and Inonotus spp., and their medicinal importance.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Kyoung; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2011-05-01

    Members of the genera Phellinus and Inonotus, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus are well-known medicinal fungi (mushrooms) and have been used in treatment of cancer, diabetes, bacterial and viral infections and ulcer. Adverse effects of these medicinal mushrooms have not yet been reported, indicating the safe nature of these mushrooms. Polysaccharides, particularly β-glucan, are considered the compounds responsible for the biological activity of medicinal mushrooms. However, there is only a limited amount of evidence to indicate that polysaccharides are in fact responsible for the biological effects of these medicinal mushrooms. Recently, many research groups have begun identification of active low-MW compounds in medicinal mushrooms, with a focus on the yellow polyphenol pigments, which are composed of a styrylpyrone class of compounds. Interestingly, a representative group of medicinal fungi, including P. linteus, P. igniarius, P. ribis, I. obliquus and I. xeranticus were shown to produce a large and diverse range of styrylpyrone-type polyphenol pigments that exhibited various biological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-diabetic, anti-dementia and anti-viral effects. Styrylpyrone pigments in mushrooms are thought to have a role similar to that of flavonoids in plants. The unique and unprecedented carbon skeleton of fused styrylpyrone might be an attractive molecular scaffold for pharmacological applications. In this review, the structural diversity, biological effects and biogenesis of styrylpyrone-class polyphenols from medicinal fungi are described. PMID:21304532

  15. The effects of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Gil Su; Baek, Seung Ok; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). [Results] The thickness of LM was significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for all three protocols. Thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for protocols A and A+B. Thickness increases in LM were significantly greater during protocols B and A+B, but not during protocol A. Thickness increases in the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during protocols A and A+B, but not during protocol B. [Conclusion] NMES can significantly activate the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with LDK. Protocol A+B of NMES is recommended to aid postural correction and low back pain (LBP) in patients with LDK. PMID:27064323

  16. The effects of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Gil Su; Baek, Seung Ok; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). [Results] The thickness of LM was significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for all three protocols. Thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for protocols A and A+B. Thickness increases in LM were significantly greater during protocols B and A+B, but not during protocol A. Thickness increases in the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during protocols A and A+B, but not during protocol B. [Conclusion] NMES can significantly activate the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with LDK. Protocol A+B of NMES is recommended to aid postural correction and low back pain (LBP) in patients with LDK. PMID:27064323

  17. Molecular characterization of phytoplankton dissolved organic matter (DOM) and sulfur components using high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Vaughn; Stock, Naomi L; Guéguen, Celine

    2016-03-01

    Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) with electrospray ionization in both positive and negative polarity was conducted on Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), Pony Lake fulvic acid (PLFA) standards, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) released by freshwater phytoplankton (Scenedesmus obliquus, Euglena mutabilis, and Euglena gracilis). Three-dimensional van Krevelen diagrams expressing various oxygenation states of sulfur molecules and abundance plots of sulfur-containing species were constructed. Orbitrap HRMS analysis of SRFA found a high density of peaks in the lignin region (77 %) and low density of protein material (6.53 %), whereas for PLFA, 25 % of the total peaks were lignin related compared to 56 % of peaks in protein regions, comparable with other HRMS studies. Phytoplankton-derived DOM of S. obliquus, E. mutabilis, and E. gracilis was dominated by protein molecules at respective percentages of 36, 46, and 49 %, and is consistent with previous experiments examining phytoplankton-derived DOM composition. The normalized percentage of SO-containing compounds was determined among the three phytoplankton to be 56 % for Scenedesmus, 54 % for E. mutabilis, and 47 % for E. gracilis, suggesting variation between sulfur content in phytoplankton-derived DOM and differences in metal binding capacities. These results suggest the level of resolution by Orbitrap mass spectrometry is sufficient for preliminary characterization of phytoplankton DOM at an affordable cost relative to other HRMS techniques.

  18. Effects of calcium, magnesium and sodium chloride in enhancing lipid accumulation in two green microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gorain, Prakash Chandra; Bagchi, Sourav Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae has the potential as a sustainable fuel, since some species show exceptionally high lipid accumulation potential under various stresses. Effects of different concentrations of Ca, Mg and NaCl in the growth medium on biomass yield and lipid accumulation of Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus grown under batch culture mode were investigated. Starvation of Mg showed a marginal rise in lipid content for a short period of time. Ca-starved cultures, however, demonstrated a profound rise in lipid content, i.e. 40% of dry cell wt. (dcw) was recorded against 11.9% control for C. vulgaris and 37% (dcw) against 11.3% for S. obliquus. Under increased concentration of Mg, significant rise in biomass and lipid yield was recorded. Effect of NaCl-induced osmotic stress showed lipid accumulation of approximately 40% (dcw) in both the test algae, whereas the biomass yield was severely affected. The fatty acid profiles under the above stresses were analysed and discussed.

  19. Impacts of low-molecular-weight organic acids on aquatic behavior of graphene nanoplatelets and their induced algal toxicity and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuang; Gao, Yucheng; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Xu, Defu; Zhang, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the interaction between graphene-based materials and low-molecular-weight organic acids (LOAs) is essential to understand fate and effects of graphene-based materials in the aquatic environment, but this interaction remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the effects of LOAs on the physicochemical properties of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in an aqueous medium and on the GNP toxicity to algae were studied. The unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to GNP suspensions in the presence of benzoic acid or gallic acid at various concentrations. The GNPs had smaller hydrodynamic sizes and the GNP suspensions were more stable and had higher or lower surface zeta potentials in the presence of LOAs than when LOAs were not present. The toxic effects in S. obliquus cultures incubated with GNP suspensions containing LOAs were related to the LOA concentration, and the presence of LOAs caused three effects: stimulation, alleviation, and synergistic inhibition. The intensities of the effects mainly correlated with the LOA concentration, the extent of agglomeration, and particle-induced oxidative stress. The results indicate that the environmental fates and toxicities of GNPs are strongly affected by the binding of GNPs to LOAs. PMID:26898932

  20. Reversible S-nitrosylation limits over synthesis of fungal styrylpyrone upon nitric oxide burst.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanxia; He, Meihong; Xi, Qi; Ding, Jianing; Hao, Baixia; Keller, Nancy P; Zheng, Weifa

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is known to be involved in modulating production of styrylpyrone polyphenols in the basidiomycete Inonotus obliquus. However, it remains unknown how NO orchestrates fungal styrylpyrone biosynthesis. Here, we show that a transient NO burst correlated with an enhanced expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate CoA ligase (4CL), and styrylpyrone synthase (SPS), the key enzymes involved in styrylpyrone biosynthesis, and subsequently an increased production of styrylpyrone polyphenols. In parallel, the NO burst also resulted in S-nitrosylation of PAL, 4CL, and SPS, which compromised their enzymatic activities mediating a post-translational feedback mechanism that keeps NO-dependent transcriptional activation in check. Moreover, dysfunction of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) further increased the formation of S-nitrosylated proteins, implicating the significance of the Trx system in maintaining a low level of protein-nitrosothiols. Three thioredoxin-like proteins (TrxLs) from I. obliquus show in vitro denitrosylation potential toward S-nitrosylated proteins via trans-denitrosylation or mixed disulfide intermediates. Thus, S-nitrosylation triggered by the NO burst limits over production of fungal styrylpyrone polyphenols, and denitrosylation by TrxLs that act in concert with TrxR play a key role in maintaining redox balance and orchestrating catalytic activities of the enzymes engaged in styrylpyrone synthetic metabolism. PMID:27000840

  1. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  2. Urban wastewater treatment by seven species of microalgae and an algal bloom: Biomass production, N and P removal kinetics and harvestability.

    PubMed

    Mennaa, Fatima Zahra; Arbib, Zouhayr; Perales, José Antonio

    2015-10-15

    This study evaluates the capacity of seven species and a Bloom of microalgae to grow in urban wastewater. Nutrient removal kinetics and biomass harvesting by means of centrifugation and coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation have been also tested. Results show that the best biomass productivities ranged from between 118 and 108 mgSS L(-1) d(-1) for the Bloom (Bl) and Scenedesmus obliquus (Sco). Regarding nutrient removal, microalgae were able to remove the total dissolved phosphorus and nitrogen concentrations by more than 80% and 87% respectively, depending on the species tested. The final total dissolved concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in the culture media complies with the European Commission Directive 98/15/CE on urban wastewater treatment. Regarding harvesting, the results of coagulation-flocculation sedimentation using a 60 mg L(-1) dose of Ferric chloride were similar between species, exceeding the biomass removal efficiency by more than 90%. The results of centrifugation (time required to remove 90% of solids at 1000 rpm) were not similar between species, with the shortest time being 2.9 min for Sco, followed by the bloom (7.25 min). An overall analysis suggested that the natural bloom and Scenedesmus obliquus seem to be the best candidates to grow in pre-treated wastewater, according to their biomass production, nutrient removal capability and harvestability.

  3. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus.

    PubMed

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Nordez, Antoine

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties.

  4. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  5. Evaluation of the potential for trophic transfer of roxithromycin along an experimental food chain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Liu, Jianchao; Zhang, Zhenghua

    2015-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals have been recognized as a new class of environmental pollutants in recent years. But data about their potential for transfer and biomagnification in aquatic food chains are still lacking. In this study, bioaccumulation of the macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) was determined in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea Daphnia magna and the crucian carp Carassius auratus. After 48 h of exposure, S. obliquus accumulated ROX from media, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 74.6, 46.3, and 24.5 l kg(-1) at nominal exposure concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 μg l(-1), respectively. After 48 h of feeding ROX-contaminated algae, D. magna was able to accumulate ROX in all three concentration treatments, but biomagnification did not occur at this trophic level, as biomagnification factors (BMFs) varied from 0.21 to 0.29 in different concentration treatments were well below one. In tissues (muscle, gill, liver, and bile) of C. auratus fed with contaminated daphnia for 8 days, no biomagnification was observed. However, this species did accumulate a certain degree of ROX through food chain transfer, and the tissue burden was greatest in the liver > muscle > gill and lowest in the bile. This work suggests that the trophic transfer should be a matter of concern for ecological risk assessments of pharmaceutical substances in aquatic food webs.

  6. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of body psychotherapy in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, Stefan; Savill, Mark; Wykes, Til; Bentall, Richard; Lauber, Christoph; Reininghaus, Ulrich; McCrone, Paul; Mosweu, Iris; Bremner, Stephen; Eldridge, Sandra; Röhricht, Frank

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia significantly impact on quality of life and social functioning, and current treatment options are limited. In this study the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms were compared with an active control. DESIGN: A parallel-arm, multisite randomised controlled trial. Randomisation was conducted independently of the research team, using a 1 : 1 computer-generated sequence. Assessors and statisticians were blinded to treatment allocation. Analysis was conducted following the intention-to-treat principle. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, a health and social care perspective was adopted. PARTICIPANTS: ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: age 18-65 years; diagnosis of schizophrenia with symptoms present at > 6 months; score of ≥ 18 on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative symptoms subscale; no change in medication type in past 6 weeks; willingness to participate; ability to give informed consent; and community outpatient. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: inability to participate in the groups and insufficient command of English. SETTINGS: Participants were recruited from NHS mental health community services in five different Trusts. All groups took place in local community spaces. INTERVENTIONS: Control intervention: a 10-week, 90-minute, 20-session group beginners' Pilates class, run by a qualified Pilates instructor. Treatment intervention: a 10-week, 90-minute, 20-session manualised group body psychotherapy group, run by a qualified dance movement psychotherapist. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was the PANSS negative symptoms subscale score at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included measures of psychopathology, functional, social, service use and treatment satisfaction outcomes, both at treatment end and at 6-month follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 275 participants were randomised (140 body psychotherapy group, 135 Pilates group). At the end of

  7. The Double Knee Swing Test - a practical example of The Performance Matrix Movement Screen.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Warrick

    2014-07-01

    Movement screens have been suggested as an appropriate tool to identify 'uncontrolled movement' within the human neuromusculoskeletal system. Movement screens test the Central Nervous System along with the muscular system, for their combined ability to successfully control low threshold forces, such as those affecting posture and alignment, or, high threshold forces, such as those requiring muscular strength to control. Further information such as the identification of an anatomical site and direction of a potential uncontrolled movement can be elicited by this type of testing. This paper describes a low threshold, movement screen test, designed to be part of a battery of tests, which when used as a whole, can identify injury risk or factors affecting performance limitations. The testing is suggested to be a suitable assessment tool for Pilates Teachers working in a rehabilitative environment. PMID:25042325

  8. Twisting and bending: the functional role of salamander lateral hypaxial musculature during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W O; Simons, R S; Brainerd, E L

    2001-06-01

    The function of the lateral hypaxial muscles during locomotion in tetrapods is controversial. Currently, there are two hypotheses of lateral hypaxial muscle function. The first, supported by electromyographic (EMG) data from a lizard (Iguana iguana) and a salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus), suggests that hypaxial muscles function to bend the body during swimming and to resist long-axis torsion during walking. The second, supported by EMG data from lizards during relatively high-speed locomotion, suggests that these muscles function primarily to bend the body during locomotion, not to resist torsional forces. To determine whether the results from D. ensatus hold for another salamander, we recorded lateral hypaxial muscle EMGs synchronized with body and limb kinematics in the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In agreement with results from aquatic locomotion in D. ensatus, all four layers of lateral hypaxial musculature were found to show synchronous EMG activity during swimming in A. tigrinum. Our findings for terrestrial locomotion also agree with previous results from D. ensatus and support the torsion resistance hypothesis for terrestrial locomotion. We observed asynchronous EMG bursts of relatively high intensity in the lateral and medial pairs of hypaxial muscles during walking in tiger salamanders (we call these 'alpha-bursts'). We infer from this pattern that the more lateral two layers of oblique hypaxial musculature, Mm. obliquus externus superficialis (OES) and obliquus externus profundus (OEP), are active on the side towards which the trunk is bending, while the more medial two layers, Mm. obliquus internus (OI) and transversus abdominis (TA), are active on the opposite side. This result is consistent with the hypothesis proposed for D. ensatus that the OES and OEP generate torsional moments to counteract ground reaction forces generated by forelimb support, while the OI and TA generate torsional moments to counteract ground reaction forces from hindlimb

  9. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent host lineages, Colobopsis obliquus and Polyrhachis turneri, and compared them with four published genomes from Blochmannia of Camponotus sensu stricto. Reconstructed gene content of the last common ancestor (LCA) of these six Blochmannia genomes is reduced (690 protein coding genes), consistent with rapid gene loss soon after establishment of the symbiosis. Differential gene loss among Blochmannia lineages has affected cellular functions and metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and repair, vitamin biosynthesis and membrane proteins. Blochmannia of P. turneri (i.e., B. turneri) encodes an intact DnaA chromosomal replication initiation protein, demonstrating that loss of dnaA was not essential for establishment of the symbiosis. Based on gene content, B. obliquus and B. turneri are unable to provision hosts with riboflavin. Of the six sequenced Blochmannia, B. obliquus is the earliest diverging lineage (i.e., the sister group of other Blochmannia sampled) and encodes the fewest protein-coding genes and the most pseudogenes. We identified 55 genes involved in parallel gene loss, including glutamine synthetase, which may participate in nitrogen recycling. Pathways for biosynthesis of coenzyme A, terpenoids and riboflavin were lost in multiple lineages, suggesting relaxed selection on the pathway after inactivation of one component. Analysis of Illumina read datasets did not detect evidence of plasmids encoding missing functions, nor the presence of coresident symbionts

  10. A quantitative study of electroencephalography, eye movements and neck electromyography characterizing the sleep-wake cycle of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Vidal, P P

    1996-03-01

    The qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cerebral cortex electrical activity, ocular motility and muscular activity were studied in six head-restrained guinea-pigs during wakefulness, slow-wave and paradoxical sleep. Animals were chronically implanted with bipolar electrodes in the obliquus capitis muscle for electromyographic recordings and epidurally through the parietal bones for electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Eye movements were recorded using the scleral search-coil technique. After postoperative recovery and a short period of habituation to immobilization, head-restrained animals exhibited a polyphasic sleep-wake cycle similar to what has already been described in the unrestrained guinea-pig. Paradoxical sleep periods of mean duration 110 +/- 42 s occurred at a mean interval of 32.2 +/- 7.2 min. Amplitude and frequency components of EEG activity were different for each state of vigilance. EEG amplitude was highest and frequency range lowest-with two well-defined peaks at 4 and 10 Hz-during slow-wave sleep. During paradoxical sleep, frequencies were higher and amplitudes lower than during wakefulness. Three types of eye movement intermingled with periods of ocular fixation were recorded: saccadic movements during wakefulness and paradoxical sleep, slow drifts during slow-wave sleep and paradoxical sleep, and a new type of eye movement-bursts of high-velocity eye oscillations during paradoxical sleep. Saccadic eye movements during paradoxical sleep were more frequent and showed higher velocities and amplitudes than during wakefulness. During paradoxical sleep the episodes of eye oscillation (8-14 Hz) occurred quite regularly every 1.6 s and had a mean duration of 1.4 s. During wakefulness, the obliquus muscle activity displayed a burst-tonic pattern. Bursting components were closely related to saccadic eye movements directed to the side of the recorded muscle. The muscle activity was predominantly tonic during slow-wave sleep and was

  11. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development.

  12. Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)-Botrytis cinerea (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae)-Vitis vinifera (Vitales: Vitaceae) Interaction: The Role of B. cinerea on the Development of E. postvittana in Synthetic Nutritional Media.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, S Z M; Raman, A

    2015-08-01

    Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (light-brown apple moth) is a polyphagous herbivore of economic significance, which also feeds on Vitis vinifera L. The E. postvittana-V. vinifera interacting system also involves the participation of the fungus Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex Fries. We have been exploring the relationship among E. postvittana-V. vinifera-B. cinerea over the past two years. In this article, we report the preference and performance of the larvae of E. postvittana raised solely on a synthetic diet incorporated with the mycelial material of B. cinerea (Diet B). To characterize the effect of fungus on the development of E. postvittana, another synthetic diet was prepared that included the lyophilized leaf material of V. vinifera (Diet C). When raised on Diets B and C, a decrease in the duration of larval development and an increase in the survival and fecundity rate of E. postvittana occurred. Diet B influenced the pupal mass, but a significant increase occurred when the larvae were fed on Diet C. The larval emergence rate was the greatest in E. postvittana raised on Diet B, followed by those on Diet C. The F(2) generation of the larvae reared on Diet B showed similar effects as F(1) on the life-history performance of the larvae. Diet B enhanced the life-history performance of E. postvittana, although the larvae of E. postvittana showed little preference to Diet B. The greater fertility rate of E. postvittana reared on Diet B suggests the importance of sterols as shown in Lobesia botrana (Denis & Schiffermüller) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and in a few Myrmicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), which serve as precursors to different ecdysteroids that regulate many critical processes through embryonic development. PMID:26470305

  13. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns.

  14. Tolerance to and accumulation of cadmium by the mycelium of the fungi Scleroderma citrinum and Pisolithus tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A

    2012-06-01

    The behavior of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi on exposure to cadmium dependent upon isolation remains a poorly understood phenomenon. The in vitro growth, tolerance, and accumulation of Cd were studied in three strains of ECM fungi exposed to six Cd concentrations (0-10 mg L(-1)). The fungi studied were a strain of Scleroderma citrinum Persoon (Sc) isolated from a tailings heap containing 5 mg kg(-1) available Cd, and two strains of Pisolithus tinctorius (Pers.) Coker and Couch from unpolluted sites (Pt1 and Pt2), both common ECM fungi used for remediation. The growth kinetic (36 days) of Sc was not affected by Cd concentration. By contrast, the ED(50) in Pt1 and Pt2 occurred at 4.8 and 6.9 mg L(-1) of Cd, respectively. The biomass of the three fungi exposed to the highest Cd concentration (10 mg L(-1)) was significantly different. Sc presented the highest biomass, while this was strongly reduced for Pt1 and Pt2. The tolerance index for Sc ranged from 78% to 95% at all Cd concentrations tested, while for Pt1 it was 49% and 31%, and for Pt2 it was 62% and 35% at 5 and 10 mg of Cd L(-1), respectively. The mycelium of both Pt strains accumulated more Cd than the Sc mycelium. At the highest Cd concentration, Pt1 and Pt2 accumulated 1.9 and 1.7 times more Cd than Sc. This study suggests that regardless of the differences in tolerance to Cd by the three ECM fungi, they could have biotechnological applications for soil remediation. However, Sc has greater possibilities of being used successfully when high concentrations of Cd prevail in the environment.

  15. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns. PMID:20207477

  16. Microalgae harvesting by flotation using natural saponin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kurniawati, H Agnes; Ismadji, Suryadi; Liu, J C

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the harvesting of microalgae by dispersed air flotation (DiAF) using natural biosurfactant saponin as the collector and chitosan as the flocculant. Two types of microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus, were used in this study. It was observed that saponin was a good frother, but not an effective collector when used alone for flotation separation of algae. However, with the pre-flocculation of 5 mg/L of chitosan, separation efficiency of >93% microalgae cells was found at 20 mg/L of saponin. Removal efficiency of >54.4% and >73.0% was found for polysaccharide and protein, respectively at 20 mg/L of saponin and chitosan each. Experimental results show that DiAF using saponin and chitosan is effective for separation of microalgae, and algogenic organic matter (AOM). It can potentially be applied in the integrated microalgae-based biorefinery.

  17. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components: Recovery optimization and characterizations of algal proteins and lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1986-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of closed environment life support system (CELSS) diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  18. Influence of microalgal N and P composition on wastewater nutrient remediation.

    PubMed

    Whitton, Rachel; Le Mével, Amandine; Pidou, Marc; Ometto, Francesco; Villa, Raffaella; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-03-15

    Microalgae have demonstrated the ability to remediate wastewater nutrients efficiently, with methods to further enhance performance through species selection and biomass concentration. This work evaluates a freshwater species remediation characteristics through analysis of internal biomass N:P (nitrogen:phosphorus) and presents a relationship between composition and nutrient uptake ability to assist in species selection. Findings are then translated to an optimal biomass concentration, achieved through immobilisation enabling biomass intensification by modifying bead concentration, for wastewaters of differing nutrient concentrations at hydraulic retention times (HRT) from 3 h to 10 d. A HRT <20 h was found suitable for the remediation of secondary effluent by immobilised Scenedesmus obliquus and Chlorella vulgaris at bead concentrations as low as 3.2 and 4.4 bead·mL(-1). Increasing bead concentrations were required for shorter HRTs with 3 h possible at influent concentrations <5 mgP L(-1). PMID:26854403

  19. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I--Algal proteins; characterization and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Nakhost, Z; Karel, M; Krukonis, V J

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  20. Identifying muscle and processing combinations suitable for use as beef for fajitas.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Montauti, D; Miller, R K; Pfeiffer, C E Schuehle; Pfeiffer, K D; Nicholson, K L; Osburn, W N; Savell, J W

    2008-10-01

    Four different treatments-control, papain, blade tenderization, and papain+blade tenderization-were applied to sixty USDA Choice M. diaphragma pars costalis, M. transversus abdominis, M. obliquus abdominis internus, M. rhomboideus, M. trapezius, M. latissimus, and M. serratus ventralis. Trained (n=6) and consumer (n=81) panelists scored papain samples higher for most sensory traits. Treatment tended not to affect the palatability scores of the M. diaphragma pars costalis and M. serratus ventralis, which tended to receive higher scores in comparison to the other muscles. Consumers were willing to purchase the M. latissimus and M. serratus ventralis treated with papain+blade tenderization and papain, respectively, and these muscles performed well enough to be considered as alternatives in the beef fajita market. PMID:22063330

  1. [Advances in researches on mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine].

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhao-Yun; Zhang, Bao-de; Ning, Jun-ya; Wang, Yuan-yuan; Yuan, Wen-ying

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunity cellular parasite, related to the infection of various animals and human beings and severely impairing agriculture and human health. Because of the complexity of T. gondii life cycle, its different biological characteristics, and multifarious pathogenesis, there are no specific treatment and preventive medicines at present. Chinese herbal medicine can balance "yin-yang" and regulate the immunity and its side-effect is slight. Now, it has been a hot topic of the research on effective and secure medicines in anti-toxoplasmosis. This paper summarizes and analyzes the curative effect and mechanism of anti-Toxoplasma Chinese herbal medicine, such as Scutellaria baicalensis, Inontus obliquus polysaccharide, Radix glycyrrhizae, pumpkin seeds, and Semen arecae. PMID:26930953

  2. Polyamines in cell walls of chlorococcalean microalgae.

    PubMed

    Burczyk, Jan; Zych, Maria; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae represents a very attractive alternative as a source of energy and substances of high value when compared with plant cultivation. Cell walls of green microalgae have an extraordinary chemical and mechanical resistance and may impede some steps in the biotechnological/industrial exploitation of algae. The aim of the present contribution was to check the presence of polyamines in the cell walls of chlorococcalean green microalgae. Polyamines are nitrogenous compounds synthesized normally in cells and may affect the properties of the cell wall. Our work included strains either forming or not forming the polymer algaenan, allowing us to conclude that algaenan is not a prerequisite for the presence of polyamines in the cell walls. Polyamines were detected in isolated cell walls of Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella fusca, Chlorella saccharophila, and Chlorella vulgaris. Their concentration in isolated cell walls ranged between 0.4 and 8.4 nmol/mg dry weight. PMID:24772826

  3. Utilization of non-conventional systems for conversion of biomass to food components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The potential use of micro-algae in yielding useful macronutrients for the CELSS is investigated. Algal proteins were isolated and characterized from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) grown under controlled conditions. The RNA and DNA contents were determined, and methodology for reduction of the nucleic acid content to acceptable levels developed. Lipid extraction procedures using supercritical fluids were tailored to removal of undesirable lipids and pigments. Initial steps toward preparation of model foods for potential use in the CELSS were taken. The goal was to fabricate food products which contain isolated algal macronutrients such as proteins and lipids and also some components derived from higher plants including wheat flour, soy flour, potato powder (flakes), soy oil, and corn syrup.

  4. Ontogenetic changes of trunk muscle structure in the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens).

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Koyabu, Daisuke; Endo, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    We investigated ontogenetic changes in the trunk muscles of the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens) before, during and after metamorphosis. Given that amphibians change their locomotive patterns with metamorphosis, we hypothesized that they may also change the structure of their trunk muscles. The trunk muscles were macroscopically observed, and the weight ratios of each trunk muscle group were quantified at six different developmental stages. Immediately after hatching, we found that the lateral hypaxial muscle was composed of one thick M. ventralis, from ventral edge of which M. transversus abdominis arose later, followed by M. obliquus externus and M. rectus abdominis. The weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles to the trunk muscles increased with growth. We suggest that a single thick and large lateral hypaxial muscle facilitates swimming during early developmental stages. The increase in the weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles with growth possibly assists with gravity resistance necessary for terrestrial life.

  5. A quantitative structure-activity relationship approach for assessing toxicity of mixture of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chang, C M; Ou, Y H; Liu, T-C; Lu, S-Y; Wang, M-K

    2016-06-01

    Four types of reactivity indices were employed to construct quantitative structure-activity relationships for the assessment of toxicity of organic chemical mixtures. Results of analysis indicated that the maximum positive charge of the hydrogen atom and the inverse of the apolar surface area are the most important descriptors for the toxicity of mixture of benzene and its derivatives to Vibrio fischeri. The toxicity of mixture of aromatic compounds to green alga Scenedesmus obliquus is mainly affected by the electron flow and electrostatic interactions. The electron-acceptance chemical potential and the maximum positive charge of the hydrogen atom are found to be the most important descriptors for the joint toxicity of aromatic compounds.

  6. On the way to cyanobacterial blooms: impact of the herbicide metribuzin on the competition between a green alga (Scenedesmus) and a cyanobacterium (Microcystis).

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Roessink, Ivo

    2006-10-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to a common and widely applied photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, metribuzin, would alter the outcome of the competitive battle between susceptible green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) and tolerant cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was tested. In a long-term (17 d) experiment, Scenedesmus and Microcystis populations as well as mixtures that started with different inoculum composition (i.e. 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 Scenedesmus:Microcystis) were grown in the absence or presence of metribuzin (100 microg l-1). In the absence of metribuzin, Scenedesmus was competitively superior and out-competed Microcystis regardless the initial composition of the mixed communities. However, this competitive outcome was reversed completely in the presence of metribuzin, where despite growth inhibition Microcystis became dominant. Hence, photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides may not only affect algal community structure, but also provide cyanobacteria founder populations a window for dominance and thus play an important role in promoting cyanobacteria blooms.

  7. Ontogenetic changes of trunk muscle structure in the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens)

    PubMed Central

    OMURA, Ayano; ANZAI, Wataru; KOYABU, Daisuke; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated ontogenetic changes in the trunk muscles of the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens) before, during and after metamorphosis. Given that amphibians change their locomotive patterns with metamorphosis, we hypothesized that they may also change the structure of their trunk muscles. The trunk muscles were macroscopically observed, and the weight ratios of each trunk muscle group were quantified at six different developmental stages. Immediately after hatching, we found that the lateral hypaxial muscle was composed of one thick M. ventralis, from ventral edge of which M. transversus abdominis arose later, followed by M. obliquus externus and M. rectus abdominis. The weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles to the trunk muscles increased with growth. We suggest that a single thick and large lateral hypaxial muscle facilitates swimming during early developmental stages. The increase in the weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles with growth possibly assists with gravity resistance necessary for terrestrial life. PMID:25816856

  8. On the way to cyanobacterial blooms: impact of the herbicide metribuzin on the competition between a green alga (Scenedesmus) and a cyanobacterium (Microcystis).

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Roessink, Ivo

    2006-10-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to a common and widely applied photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, metribuzin, would alter the outcome of the competitive battle between susceptible green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) and tolerant cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was tested. In a long-term (17 d) experiment, Scenedesmus and Microcystis populations as well as mixtures that started with different inoculum composition (i.e. 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 Scenedesmus:Microcystis) were grown in the absence or presence of metribuzin (100 microg l-1). In the absence of metribuzin, Scenedesmus was competitively superior and out-competed Microcystis regardless the initial composition of the mixed communities. However, this competitive outcome was reversed completely in the presence of metribuzin, where despite growth inhibition Microcystis became dominant. Hence, photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides may not only affect algal community structure, but also provide cyanobacteria founder populations a window for dominance and thus play an important role in promoting cyanobacteria blooms. PMID:16540149

  9. Validation of algal viability treated with total residual oxidant and organic matter by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junghyun; Choi, Eun Joo; Rhie, Kitae

    2015-08-15

    Algal cell growth after starch and oxidant treatments in seawater species (Isochrysis galbana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and freshwater species (Selenastrum capricornutum and Scenedesmus obliquus) were evaluated by flow cytometry with fluorescein diacetate (FDA) staining to determine algal viability. Growth of algal cell was found to be significantly different among groups treated with NaOCl, starch and/or sodium thiosulfate, which are active substance (Total Residual Oxidant; TRO as Cl2), organic compound to meet efficacy testing standard and neutralizer of TRO by Ballast Water Management Convention of International Maritime Organization, respectively. The viability of algal cell treated with TRO in starch-add culture of 5days after treatment and neutralization was decreased significantly. ATP contents of the treated algal cells corresponded to the FL1 fluorescent signal of flow cytometry with FDA staining. I. galbana was the most sensitive to TRO-neutralized cultures during viability analysis.

  10. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I - Algal proteins: Characterization and process optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    1987-01-01

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  11. Nitrate and phosphate removal by chitosan immobilized Scenedesmus.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Sashenka; Sánchez-Saavedra, Maria del Pilar; Copalcúa, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    The effect of chitosan immobilization of Scenedesmus spp. cells on its viability, growth and nitrate and phosphate uptake was investigated. Scenedesmus sp. (strains 1 and 2) and Scenedesmus obliquus immobilized in chitosan beads showed high viability after the immobilization process. Immobilized Scenedesmus sp. strain 1 had a higher growth rate than its free living counterpart. Nitrate and phosphate uptake by immobilized cells of Scenedesmus sp. (strain 1), freely suspended cells and blank chitosan beads (without cells) were evaluated. Immobilized cells accomplished a 70% nitrate and 94% phosphate removal within 12h of incubation while free-living cells removed 20% nitrate and 30% phosphate within 36 h of treatment. Blank chitosan beads were responsible for up to 20% nitrate and 60% phosphate uptake at the end of the experiment. Chitosan is a suitable matrix for immobilization of microalgae, particularly Scenedesmus sp., but this system should be improved before its application for water quality control.

  12. Non-conventional approaches to food processing in CELSS. I-algal proteins; characterization and process optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakhost, Z.; Karel, M.; Krukonis, V. J.

    Protein isolate obtained from green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) cultivated under controlled conditions was characterized. Molecular weight determination of fractionated algal proteins using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a wide spectrum of molecular weights ranging from 15,000 to 220,000. Isoelectric points of dissociated proteins were in the range of 3.95 to 6.20. Amino acid composition of protein isolate compared favorably with FAO standards. High content of essential amino acids leucine, valine, phenylalanine and lysine makes algal protein isolate a high quality component of CELSS diets. To optimize the removal of algal lipids and pigments supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (with and without ethanol as a co-solvent) was used. Addition of ethanol to supercritical CO2 resulted in more efficient removal of algal lipids and produced protein isolate with a good yield and protein recovery. The protein isolate extracted by the above mixture had an improved water solubility.

  13. A novel one-stage cultivation/fermentation strategy for improved biogas production with microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Viktor; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Hoekzema, Yoep; Mussgnug, Jan H; Kruse, Olaf

    2015-12-10

    The use of alga biomass for biogas generation has been studied for over fifty years but until today, several distinct features, like inefficient degradation and low C/N ratios, limit the applicability of algal biomass for biogas production in larger scale. In this work we investigated a novel, one-stage combined cultivation/fermentation strategy including inherently progressing nitrogen starvation conditions to generate improved microalgal biomass substrates. For this strategy, comparable low amounts of nitrogen fertilizers were applied during cultivation and no additional enzymatic, chemical or physical pretreatments had to be performed. The results of this study demonstrate that progressing nitrogen limitation leads to continuously increasing C/N ratios of the biomass up to levels of 24-26 for all three tested alga strains (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Parachlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus). Importantly, the degradation efficiency of the algal cells increased with progressing starvation, leading to strain-specific cell disintegration efficiencies of 35%-100% during the fermentation process. Nitrogen limitation treatment resulted in a 65% increase of biogas yields for C. reinhardtii biomass (max. 698±23mL biogas g(-1) VS) when compared to replete conditions. For P. kessleri and S. obliquus, yields increased by 94% and 106% (max. 706±39mL and 586±36mL biogas g(-1) VS, respectively). From these results we conclude that this novel one-stage cultivation strategy with inherent nitrogen limitation can be used as a pretreatment for microalgal biomass generation, in order to produce accessible substrates with optimized C/N ratios for the subsequent anaerobic fermentation process, thus increasing methane production and avoiding the risk of ammonia inhibition effects within the fermenter.

  14. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs

  15. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate to aquatic algae.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zou, Yuqin; Zhang, Lijuan; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    With the wide application of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) as green solvents, their threats to the aquatic environment cannot be ignored. Thus, risk assessment and the prospective design of inherently safe CILs have become more urgent. However, whether enantioselectivity is a feature of the aquatic toxicity of CILs is poorly understood. Herein, we describe the first investigation into the ecotoxicities of CILs toward green algae Scenedesmus obliquus and Euglena gracilis. A series of methylimidazolium lactic ionic liquids, which cation parts with different alkyl chains and anion part is enantiomers of lactate, are used as representative CILs. The results of S. obliquus showed that the EC50 value of L-(+)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (L-(+)-EMIM L) was more than 5000 μM, while the EC50 value of D-(-)-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium lactate (D-(-)-EMIM L) was 2255.21 μM. Such a distinct difference indicates the enantioselective toxicity of CILs to algae. This enantioselectivity initially persisted with increasing carbon chain length, but no longer exhibited when with greater carbon chain lengths, due to changes in the toxicity weightings of the cation parts. Further research showed that the enantioselective effects of CILs resulted from the differences in the production of reactive oxygen species, the damage to cell membrane integrity and cell wall after exposure to CILs. Results from this study showed that monitoring for the racemate CILs will give an inadequate or misleading environmental risk assessment. Thus, we should improve our ability to predict their effects in natural environments. In the meantime, non-selective use of CILs will do harm to aquatic organisms. Therefore, to minimize their potential for environmental impact, the enantioselective toxicities of CILs with short alkyl chains should be taken into consideration.

  16. Microalgae as a raw material for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Luisa; Oliveira, Ana Cristina

    2009-02-01

    Biofuels demand is unquestionable in order to reduce gaseous emissions (fossil CO(2), nitrogen and sulfur oxides) and their purported greenhouse, climatic changes and global warming effects, to face the frequent oil supply crises, as a way to help non-fossil fuel producer countries to reduce energy dependence, contributing to security of supply, promoting environmental sustainability and meeting the EU target of at least of 10% biofuels in the transport sector by 2020. Biodiesel is usually produced from oleaginous crops, such as rapeseed, soybean, sunflower and palm. However, the use of microalgae can be a suitable alternative feedstock for next generation biofuels because certain species contain high amounts of oil, which could be extracted, processed and refined into transportation fuels, using currently available technology; they have fast growth rate, permit the use of non-arable land and non-potable water, use far less water and do not displace food crops cultures; their production is not seasonal and they can be harvested daily. The screening of microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Spirulina maxima, Nannochloropsis sp., Neochloris oleabundans, Scenedesmus obliquus and Dunaliella tertiolecta) was done in order to choose the best one(s), in terms of quantity and quality as oil source for biofuel production. Neochloris oleabundans (fresh water microalga) and Nannochloropsis sp. (marine microalga) proved to be suitable as raw materials for biofuel production, due to their high oil content (29.0 and 28.7%, respectively). Both microalgae, when grown under nitrogen shortage, show a great increase (approximately 50%) in oil quantity. If the purpose is to produce biodiesel only from one species, Scenedesmus obliquus presents the most adequate fatty acid profile, namely in terms of linolenic and other polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, the microalgae Neochloris oleabundans, Nannochloropsis sp. and Dunaliella tertiolecta can also be used if associated with other

  17. Arginine kinase in the cladoceran Daphnia magna: cDNA sequencing and expression is associated with resistance to toxic Microcystis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhu, Xuexia; Cui, Guilian; Wilson, Alan E; Yang, Zhou

    2015-03-01

    Nutrient loading derived from anthropogenic activities into lakes have increased the frequency, severity and duration of toxic cyanobacterial blooms around the world. Although herbivorous zooplankton are generally considered to be unable to control toxic cyanobacteria, populations of some zooplankton, including Daphnia, have been shown to locally adapt to toxic cyanobacteria and suppress cyanobacterial bloom formation. However, little is known about the physiology of zooplankton behind this phenomenon. One possible explanation is that some zooplankton may induce more tolerance by elevating energy production, thereby adding more energy allocation to detoxification expenditure. It is assumed that arginine kinase (AK) serves as a core in temporal and spatial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) buffering in cells with high fluctuating energy requirements. To test this hypothesis, we studied the energetic response of a single Daphnia magna clone exposed to a toxic strain of Microcystis aeruginosa, PCC7806. Arginine kinase of D. magna (Dm-AK) was successfully cloned. An ATP-gua PtransN domain which was described as a guanidine substrate specificity domain and an ATP-gua Ptrans domain which was responsible for binding ATP were both identified in the Dm-AK. Phylogenetic analysis of AKs in a range of arthropod taxa suggested that Dm-AK was as dissimilar to other crustaceans as it was to insects. Dm-AK transcript level and ATP content in the presence of M. aeruginosa were significantly lower than those in the control diet containing only the nutritious chlorophyte, Scenedesmus obliquus, whereas the two parameters in the neonates whose mothers had been previously exposed to M. aeruginosa were significantly higher than those of mothers fed with pure S. obliquus. These findings suggest that Dm-AK might play an essential role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the tolerance of D. magna to toxic cyanobacteria.

  18. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs

  19. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial†

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R. P.; Reininghaus, U.; Lauber, C.; Bremner, S.; Eldridge, S.; Röhricht, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited. Arts therapies are currently recommended but more evidence is required. Aims To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration: ISRCTN84216587). Method Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary outcome was negative symptoms at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, functional, social and treatment satisfaction outcomes at treatment end and 6-months later. Results In total, 275 participants were randomised. The adjusted difference in negative symptoms was 0.03 (95% CI −1.11 to 1.17), indicating no benefit from body psychotherapy. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favour of body psychotherapy. No other outcomes were significantly different. Conclusions Body psychotherapy does not have a clinically relevant beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27151073

  20. Effects of physical therapy for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in the biological era.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Erika; Trainito, Sabina; Arioli, Giovanni; Rucco, Vincenzo; Masiero, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Exercise is considered a fundamental tool for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in combination with pharmacological therapy that with the advent of biological therapy has improved dramatically the control of signs and symptoms of this challenging disease. Current evidence shows that a specific exercise protocol has not been validated yet. The purpose of this review is to update the most recent evidence (July 2010-November 2013) about physiotherapy in AS, analyzing the possible role and synergistic interactions between exercise and biological drugs. From 117 studies initially considered, only 15 were included in the review. The results support a multimodal approach, including educational sessions, conducted in a group setting, supervised by a physiotherapist and followed by a maintaining home-based regimen. Spa exercise and McKenzie, Heckscher, and Pilates methods seem promising in AS rehabilitation, but their effectiveness should be further investigated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When performed in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, cardiovascular training has been proven safe and effective and should be included in AS rehabilitation protocols. Exercise training plays an important role in the biological era, being now applicable to stabilized patients, leading ultimately to a better management of AS by physiatrists and rheumatologists throughout the world. On the basis of the current evidence, further research should aim to determine which exercise protocols should be recommended. PMID:24797772

  1. Effects of exercise on pain of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisângela Valevein; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira; Tanhoffer, Aldre Izabel Pchevozniki; Leite, Neiva

    2014-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders are a major concern for public health and pain is the most important symptom. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of workplace exercises to control musculoskeletal pain and its frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercises used. The search was conducted systematically in Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Bireme, Web of Knowledge and Pedro databases. The keywords "workplace", "exercise" and "musculoskeletal disorders" were used combined. Randomized control trials which performed worksite exercises were selected and the studies were assessed by their methodological soundness. Ten articles were selected which investigated the resistance training, cardio respiratory exercises, Pilates, stretching, postural orientation and exercises for relaxation. Workplace resistance training performed at 70-85% RM, three times a week for 20 minutes promotes reduction of the pain in shoulders, wrists, cervical, dorsal and lumbar spine. However, there is no consensus regarding the total duration of the intervention for the decrease of musculoskeletal pain in these regions. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of Treatment, Systematic Review of RCTs (Randomized and Controlled Clinical Studies). PMID:25538482

  2. [Rehabilitation after occupational accidents in professional dancers: advice with due regard to dance specific aspects].

    PubMed

    Wanke, E M; Quarcoo, D; Uibel, S; Groneberg, D A

    2012-08-01

    The highly specialized occupation of professional dancers is a combination of sport and artistic expression. The exertion is only possible with a fully operative body. Although professional dancers may be compared with elite athletes and acute injuries frequently happen, dancers do not seem to be granted an appropriate therapy after accidents as compared with athletes. Although even minor injuries may potentially endanger the career of a professional dancer, physiotherapeutic or physical treatment methods are applied in every tenth case only. Alternative and holistic concepts such as Pilates or dance-specific re-integration that proved successful in professional dancers, are used in even fewer instances. The aim of this study is to develop a rehabilitation concept for professional dancers focusing on dance-medicine aspects. It has been taken into account that the best physical outcomes are reflected in an optimized, holistic, dance-specific therapy and rehabilitation. Intensifying and exploiting dance-specific methods of treatment can not only reduce costs in the end but can even contribute to reducing the duration of rehabilitation after injuries of dancers. Preconditions for realization of the rehabilitative model are a high qualification of all persons working in the rehabilitative field as well as a marked willingness to cooperate in the various dance fields. Both gender-specific and dance-style particularities are to be taken into account to ensure a successful rehabilitation.

  3. The origins of Western mind–body exercise methods

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jonathan; Gabel, C. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over recent decades, mind–body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind–body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind–body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind–body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind–body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society’s elite to deprived minorities. Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind–body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance.

  4. Change of Range of Motion of the Temporomandibular Joint after Correction of Mild Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yongnam; Bae, Youngsook

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the change in range of motion of the temporomandibular joint on correction of scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] This study examined 31 male and female participants in their 20s and 30s with a spinal curve degree of 10° or greater. The subjects performed therapeutic exercise based on the pilates exercise system, which is known to be effective in mitigating the spinal curve for patients with scoliosis. All participants completed an 8-week therapeutic exercise regimen to alleviate the scoliosis in which exercise was performed, the exercise was done three times a week for 8 weeks and each session lasted 60 minutes. Among them, 19 participants were selected as an experiment group, whose symptoms were mitigated significantly, and 12 participants who did not undergo the exercise were identified as a control group. All subject was assessed for spinal curve degree, apparent leg length discrepancy, and deviation and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint before and after the study. [Results] In the experimental group, the apparent leg length discrepancy and the deviation of the temporomandibular joint were significantly decreased after the exercise, and the ROM in the temporomandibular joint was significantly increased. In intergroup comparisons, all variables showed a significant difference. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that as the spinal curve degree decreases significantly, the range of motion and deviation in the temporomandibular joint showed a significant change, indicating that mild scoliosis may be a negative factor affecting the deviation and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:25202172

  5. Combined exercise training reduces fatigue and modulates the cytokine profile of T-cells from multiple sclerosis patients in response to neuromediators.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga-Filho, Helcio; Sacramento, Priscila M; Ferreira, Thais B; Hygino, Joana; Abreu, Jorge Eduardo Canto; Carvalho, Sonia Regina; Wing, Ana Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-04-15

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a classical Th1- and Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for fatigue, but some reports point towards beneficial effects of physical activity on management of the fatigue in MS patients. As both MS and fatigue have been associated with dysregulated cytokine network production, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a physical activity program consisting of a 12-week series of combining Pilates and aerobic exercises on fatigue severity, determined by FSS, and cytokine production, quantified by ELISA, by T cells from MS patients (n=08) with low disability (EDSS≤2). The results showed decrease in FSSs in all patients at the end of physical activity intervention. Regarding the cytokines, a significant reduction of IL-22 release was observed in polyclonally-activated T cells form MS patients post-training follow-up. Interestingly, while the physical activity attenuated the ability of dopamine in up-regulating Th17-related cytokines, it enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of serotonin, evidenced by high IL-10 production. In summary, all results suggest that programmed physical activity has beneficial effects on management of fatigue in MS patients, and it could be related, at least in part, to its ability in regulating neuroimmune parameters into T cell compartment. PMID:27049568

  6. Effects of exercise on pain of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elisângela Valevein; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira; Tanhoffer, Aldre Izabel Pchevozniki; Leite, Neiva

    2014-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders are a major concern for public health and pain is the most important symptom. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of workplace exercises to control musculoskeletal pain and its frequency, intensity, duration and type of exercises used. The search was conducted systematically in Medline, Pubmed, Embase, Bireme, Web of Knowledge and Pedro databases. The keywords "workplace", "exercise" and "musculoskeletal disorders" were used combined. Randomized control trials which performed worksite exercises were selected and the studies were assessed by their methodological soundness. Ten articles were selected which investigated the resistance training, cardio respiratory exercises, Pilates, stretching, postural orientation and exercises for relaxation. Workplace resistance training performed at 70-85% RM, three times a week for 20 minutes promotes reduction of the pain in shoulders, wrists, cervical, dorsal and lumbar spine. However, there is no consensus regarding the total duration of the intervention for the decrease of musculoskeletal pain in these regions. Level of Evidence I, Therapeutic Studies Investigating the Results of Treatment, Systematic Review of RCTs (Randomized and Controlled Clinical Studies). PMID:25538482

  7. Osteosarcopenic obesity and fall prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Hita-Contreras, Fidel; Martínez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-Díaz, David; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. PMID:25533145

  8. The origins of Western mind–body exercise methods

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Jonathan; Gabel, C. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over recent decades, mind–body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind–body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind–body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind–body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind–body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society’s elite to deprived minorities. Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind–body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance. PMID:27695277

  9. [Manuscripts don't burn].

    PubMed

    Lund, P J

    2001-06-30

    Mikhail Bulgakov (1891-1940) studied at Kiev University and qualified in medicine in 1916. He worked as a doctor for a few years, then chose a literary career. All his life he was sceptical to the Soviet system and used his satire against the regime. Because of that he met difficulties as an author and could not publish anything after 1927. He worked on his main work, The Master and Margarita, from 1928 until his death. The novel was not published in his lifetime. In 1966-67 an abridged and censored edition appeared. Not until 1973 was a complete edition published in Moscow, and it soon became a cult book in Russia. In the major part of The Master and Margarita, the scene is in Moscow between the two world wars, with Bulgakov using his own experience. Through subtle irony and wild humour he exposes the imperfections of this society. To obtain this, he employs the Devil with his suite of strange figures. The book is also a love story between the Master and Margarita. The Master is writing a novel about Pontius Pilate, and this narrative runs parallel to the Moscow story, so that the book puts an eternal perspective on human frailty.

  10. Change of range of motion of the temporomandibular joint after correction of mild scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Yongnam; Bae, Youngsook

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the change in range of motion of the temporomandibular joint on correction of scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] This study examined 31 male and female participants in their 20s and 30s with a spinal curve degree of 10° or greater. The subjects performed therapeutic exercise based on the pilates exercise system, which is known to be effective in mitigating the spinal curve for patients with scoliosis. All participants completed an 8-week therapeutic exercise regimen to alleviate the scoliosis in which exercise was performed, the exercise was done three times a week for 8 weeks and each session lasted 60 minutes. Among them, 19 participants were selected as an experiment group, whose symptoms were mitigated significantly, and 12 participants who did not undergo the exercise were identified as a control group. All subject was assessed for spinal curve degree, apparent leg length discrepancy, and deviation and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint before and after the study. [Results] In the experimental group, the apparent leg length discrepancy and the deviation of the temporomandibular joint were significantly decreased after the exercise, and the ROM in the temporomandibular joint was significantly increased. In intergroup comparisons, all variables showed a significant difference. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that as the spinal curve degree decreases significantly, the range of motion and deviation in the temporomandibular joint showed a significant change, indicating that mild scoliosis may be a negative factor affecting the deviation and range of motion of the temporomandibular joint. PMID:25202172

  11. Effects of physical therapy for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in the biological era.

    PubMed

    Giannotti, Erika; Trainito, Sabina; Arioli, Giovanni; Rucco, Vincenzo; Masiero, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Exercise is considered a fundamental tool for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in combination with pharmacological therapy that with the advent of biological therapy has improved dramatically the control of signs and symptoms of this challenging disease. Current evidence shows that a specific exercise protocol has not been validated yet. The purpose of this review is to update the most recent evidence (July 2010-November 2013) about physiotherapy in AS, analyzing the possible role and synergistic interactions between exercise and biological drugs. From 117 studies initially considered, only 15 were included in the review. The results support a multimodal approach, including educational sessions, conducted in a group setting, supervised by a physiotherapist and followed by a maintaining home-based regimen. Spa exercise and McKenzie, Heckscher, and Pilates methods seem promising in AS rehabilitation, but their effectiveness should be further investigated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When performed in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, cardiovascular training has been proven safe and effective and should be included in AS rehabilitation protocols. Exercise training plays an important role in the biological era, being now applicable to stabilized patients, leading ultimately to a better management of AS by physiatrists and rheumatologists throughout the world. On the basis of the current evidence, further research should aim to determine which exercise protocols should be recommended.

  12. Changes in Activation of Abdominal Muscles at Selected Angles During Trunk Exercise by Using Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Dong; Bae, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Jong-Gil; Han, Nami; Eom, Mi-Ja

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of activation of the abdominal muscles depending on exercise angles and whether the activation of rectus abdominis differs according to the location, during curl up and leg raise exercises, by measuring the thickness ratio of abdominal muscles using ultrasonography. Methods We examined 30 normal adults without musculoskeletal problems. Muscle thickness was measured in the upper rectus abdominis (URA), lower rectus abdominis (LRA), obliquus externus (EO), obliquus internus (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA), at pre-determined angles (30°, 60°, 90°) and additionally at the resting angle (0°). Muscle thickness ratio was calculated by dividing the resting (0°) thickness for each angle, and was used as reflection of muscle activity. Results The muscle thickness ratio was significantly different depending on the angles in URA and LRA. For curl up-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°>90°), p=0.44 (30°>90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-and for leg raise-URA p=0 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°) and LRA p=0.01 (30°<60°), p=0 (60°<90°), p=0 (30°<90°), respectively, by one-way ANOVA test-exercises, but not in the lateral abdominal muscles (EO, IO, and TrA). Also, there was no significant difference in the muscle thickness ratio of URA and LRA during both exercises. In the aspect of muscle activity, there was significant difference in the activation of RA muscle by selected angles, but not according to location during both exercises. Conclusion According to this study, exercise angle is thought to be an important contributing factor for strengthening of RA muscle; however, both the exercises are thought to have no property of strengthening RA muscle selectively based on the location. PMID:26798609

  13. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements - Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6-11°; humans 12-34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11-17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics.

  14. Spinal Motion and Muscle Activity during Active Trunk Movements – Comparing Sheep and Humans Adopting Upright and Quadrupedal Postures

    PubMed Central

    Valentin, Stephanie; Licka, Theresia F.

    2016-01-01

    Sheep are used as models for the human spine, yet comparative in vivo data necessary for validation is limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to compare spinal motion and trunk muscle activity during active trunk movements in sheep and humans. Three-dimensional kinematic data as well as surface electromyography (sEMG) of spinal flexion and extension was compared in twenty-four humans in upright (UR) and 4-point kneeling (KN) postures and in 17 Austrian mountain sheep. Kinematic markers were attached over the sacrum, posterior iliac spines, and spinous and transverse processes of T5, T8, T11, L2 and L5 in humans and over the sacrum, tuber sacrale, T5, T8, T12, L3 and L7 in sheep. The activity of erector spinae (ES), rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus externus (OE), and obliquus internus (OI) were collected. Maximum sEMG (MOE) was identified for each muscle and trial, and reported as a percentage (MOE%) of the overall maximally observed sEMG from all trials. Spinal range of motion was significantly smaller in sheep compared to humans (UR / KN) during flexion (sheep: 6–11°; humans 12–34°) and extension (sheep: 4°; humans: 11–17°). During extension, MOE% of ES was greater in sheep (median: 77.37%) than UR humans (24.89%), and MOE% of OE and OI was greater in sheep (OE 76.20%; OI 67.31%) than KN humans (OE 21.45%; OI 19.34%), while MOE% of RA was lower in sheep (21.71%) than UR humans (82.69%). During flexion, MOE% of RA was greater in sheep (83.09%) than humans (KN 47.42%; UR 41.38%), and MOE% of ES in sheep (45.73%) was greater than KN humans (14.45%), but smaller than UR humans (72.36%). The differences in human and sheep spinal motion and muscle activity suggest that caution is warranted when ovine data are used to infer human spine biomechanics. PMID:26741136

  15. Use of chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the effect of microcystins on photosynthesis and photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marie-Claude; Qiu, Baosheng; Boucher, Nathalie; Bellemare, François; Juneau, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of cyanobacteria bloom occurs widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds and slow flowing rivers. Those blooms can have important repercussions, at once on recreational and commercial activities but also on the health of animals and human beings. Indeed, many species are known to produce toxins which are released in water mainly at cellular death. The cyanotoxin most frequently encountered is the microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin which counts more than 70 variants. The use of fast tests for the detection of this toxin is thus a necessity for the protection of the ecosystems and the human health. A promising method for their detection is a bioassay based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence of algae. Many studies have shown that algae are sensible to diverse pollutants, but were almost never used for cyanotoxins. Therefore, our goals were to evaluate the effect of microcystin on the fluorescence of different species of algae and how it can affect the flow of energy through photosystem II. To reach these objectives, we exposed four green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC5, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata CPCC37 and Chlorella vulgaris CPCC111) to microcystin standards (variants MC-LF, LR, RR, YR) and to microcystin extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299), which is known to produce mainly MC-LR. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured by PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer) and LuminoTox. The results of our experiment showed that microcystins affect the photosynthetic efficiency and the flow of energy through photosystem II from 0.01 μg/mL, within only 15 min. From exposure to standard of microcystin, we showed that MC-LF was the most potent variant, followed by MC-YR, LR and RR. Moreover, green algae used in this study demonstrated different sensitivity to MCs, S. obliquus being the more sensitive. We finally demonstrated that LuminoTox was more sensitive to MCs than parameters measured with PEA, although the latter brings

  16. Use of chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the effect of microcystins on photosynthesis and photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marie-Claude; Qiu, Baosheng; Boucher, Nathalie; Bellemare, François; Juneau, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of cyanobacteria bloom occurs widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds and slow flowing rivers. Those blooms can have important repercussions, at once on recreational and commercial activities but also on the health of animals and human beings. Indeed, many species are known to produce toxins which are released in water mainly at cellular death. The cyanotoxin most frequently encountered is the microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin which counts more than 70 variants. The use of fast tests for the detection of this toxin is thus a necessity for the protection of the ecosystems and the human health. A promising method for their detection is a bioassay based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence of algae. Many studies have shown that algae are sensible to diverse pollutants, but were almost never used for cyanotoxins. Therefore, our goals were to evaluate the effect of microcystin on the fluorescence of different species of algae and how it can affect the flow of energy through photosystem II. To reach these objectives, we exposed four green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC5, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata CPCC37 and Chlorella vulgaris CPCC111) to microcystin standards (variants MC-LF, LR, RR, YR) and to microcystin extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299), which is known to produce mainly MC-LR. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured by PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer) and LuminoTox. The results of our experiment showed that microcystins affect the photosynthetic efficiency and the flow of energy through photosystem II from 0.01 μg/mL, within only 15 min. From exposure to standard of microcystin, we showed that MC-LF was the most potent variant, followed by MC-YR, LR and RR. Moreover, green algae used in this study demonstrated different sensitivity to MCs, S. obliquus being the more sensitive. We finally demonstrated that LuminoTox was more sensitive to MCs than parameters measured with PEA, although the latter brings

  17. Beating the blues: is there any music in fighting cyanobacteria with ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Tolman, Yora

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanobacteria can be controlled by commercially available ultrasound transducers was tested in laboratory experiments with cultures of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp., Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis aeruginosa and the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus that were grown in the absence or presence of ultrasound (mix of 20, 28 and 44 kHz). The Scenedesmus experiment also included a treatment with the zooplankton grazer Daphnia magna. Chlorophyll-a and biovolume-based growth of Anabaena was significantly lower in ultrasound exposed cultures than in controls. Particle based growth rates were higher in ultrasound treatments. Filaments were significantly shorter in ultrasound exposed cultures reflecting filament breakage. Photosystem II efficiency was not affected by ultrasound. In Cylindrospermopsis chlorophyll-a based growth rates and photosystem II efficiencies were similar in controls and ultrasound treatments, but biovolume-based growth was significantly lower in ultrasound exposed cultures compared to controls. Despite biovolume growth rates of the filamentous cyanobacteria were reduced in ultrasound treatments compared to controls, growth remained positive implying still a population increase. In Microcystis and Scenedesmus growth rates were similar in controls and ultrasound treatments. Hence, no effect of ultrasound on these phytoplankton species was found. Ultrasound should not be viewed "environmental friendly" as it killed all Daphnia within 15 min, releasing Scenedesmus from grazing control in the cultures. Based on our experiments and critical literature review, we conclude that there is no music in controlling cyanobacteria in situ with the commercially available ultrasound transducers we have tested.

  18. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. We report experiments in which cultures of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments we tested hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  19. Hip and knee muscle function following aerobic exercise in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ott, Brittany; Cosby, Nicole L; Grindstaff, Terry L; Hart, Joseph M

    2011-08-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a commonly experienced knee disorder that can result in altered muscle activation of the surrounding musculature. There is little evidence on effects of aerobic exercise on quadriceps torque and EMG activation of the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO), vastus lateralis (VL), and gluteus medius (GM). In this study 20 healthy individuals and 20 patients with PFPS had measures of torque and muscle activation taken following aerobic exercise. A modified Balke-Ware protocol was used for the exercise intervention. Baseline and post-aerobic measurements of knee extension torque and VMO, VL, and GM activation during a single leg anterior reaching task. These measurements were only taken on the injured limb. Following exercise, knee extension torque was lower in PFPS patients when compared to controls (p=0.03). Patients reporting no pain after exercise experienced decreases (p=0.021) in GM activation following exercise. There was a decrease in VMO (p=0.010) and VL (p=0.021) activation in PFPS patients with elevated knee pain. Recreationally active individuals with PFPS may experience different responses in the quadriceps and GM after exercise. Responses may be confounded by whether or not pain is exacerbated by exercise.

  20. Enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and dissipation in vegetables of the chiral triazole fungicide flutriafol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Hua, Xiu-de; Shi, Hai-yan; Liu, Ji-song; Tian, Ming-ming; Wang, Ming-hua

    2015-03-01

    The enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and stereoselective degradation of the chiral triazole fungicide flutriafol in vegetables were investigated for the first time using the (R)-, (S)- and rac-flutriafol. The order of the bioactivity against five target pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Pyricularia grisea, Gibberella zeae, Botrytis cinerea) was found to be (R)-flutriafol>rac-flutriafol>(S)-flutriafol. The fungicidal activity of (R)-flutriafol was 1.49-6.23 times higher than that of (S)-flutriafol. The (R)-flutriafol also showed 2.17-3.52 times higher acute toxicity to Eisenia fetida and Scenedesmus obliquus than (S)-flutriafol. The stereoselective degradation of flutriafol in tomato showed that the active (R)-flutriafol degraded faster, resulting in an enrichment of inactive (S)-form, and the half-lives were 9.23 d and 10.18 d, respectively. Inversely, the (S)-flutriafol, with a half-life of 4.76 d, was preferentially degraded in cucumber. In conclusion, the systemic assessments of the triazole fungicide flutriafol stereoisomers on the enantioselective bioactivity, acute toxicity and environmental behavior may have implications for better environmental and ecological risk assessment. PMID:25463219

  1. Chronic Low Back Pain in Women: Muscle Activation during Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernanda G; Carmo, Carolina M; Fracini, América C; Pereira, Rita R P; Takara, Kelly S; Tanaka, Clarice

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the activities of the trunk and hip muscles in chronic low back pain (CLBP) women and asymptomatic subjects during the kneeling to half-kneeling task. [Subjects] Twenty-nine CLBP women and thirty asymptomatic subjects (C) participated in this study. [Methods] Electromyography activity (EMG) of the obliquus internus abdominis (OI), the lumbar erector spinae (LES) and the gluteus medius (GM) muscles was recorded bilaterally. The peak amplitude, the time of peak amplitude and the integrated linear envelope EMG for each muscle were obtained. [Results] The C group bilateral OI and GM muscles displayed higher peak amplitudes and earlier times of peak amplitude. They also had higher integrated linear envelope EMG values. The CLBP group bilateral LES muscles had higher peak amplitudes and earlier times of peak amplitude. They also showed an increased integrated linear envelope EMG values. [Conclusion] The CLBP women activate the LES muscles in the kneeling to half-kneeling task, showing different patterns of motor planning activity. PMID:24409022

  2. Mode of Action Studies on Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicides 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowyer, John R.; Hallahan, Beverly J.; Camilleri, Patrick; Howard, Joy

    1989-01-01

    The nitrodiphenyl ether herbicide 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-2-nitroacetophenone oxime-o-(acetic acid, methyl ester) (DPEI) induces light- and O2-dependent lipid peroxidation and chlorophyll (Chl) bleaching in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. Under conditions of O2-limitation, these effects are diminished by prometyne and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), both inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport. Mutants in which photosynthetic electron transport is blocked are also resistant to DPEI under conditions of O2-limitation. Light- and O2-dependent lipid peroxidation and Chl bleaching are also induced by 5-[2-chloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]-3-methoxyphthalide (DPEII), a diphenyl ether whose redox properties preclude reduction by photosystem I. However, these effects of DPEII are also inhibited by DCMU. Under conditions of high aeration, DCMU does not protect Scenedesmus cells from Chl bleaching induced by DPEI, but does protect against paraquat. DPEI, but not paraquat, induces tetrapyrrole formation in treated cells in the dark. This is also observed in a mutant lacking photosystem I but is suppressed under conditions likely to lead to O2 limitation. Our results indicate that, in contrast to paraquat, the role of photosynthetic electron transport in diphenyl ether toxicity in Scenedesmus is not to reduce the herbicide to a radical species which initiates lipid peroxidation. Its role is probably to maintain a sufficiently high O2 concentration, through water-splitting, in the algal suspension. PMID:16666600

  3. The Early Indicators of Functional Decrease in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kubicki, Alexandre; Fautrelle, Lilian; Bourrelier, Julien; Rouaud, Olivier; Mourey, France

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Motor deficiency is associated with cognitive frailty in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairments (MCI). In this study we aimed to test the integrity in muscle synergies involved in an arm-pointing movement in functionally unimpaired MCI patients. We hypothesized that early motor indicators exist in this population at a preclinical level. Methods: Electromyographic signals were collected for 11 muscles in 3 groups: Young Adults (YA), Older Adults (OA), and MCI patients. The OA and MCI groups presented the same functional status. Each subject performed 20 arm-pointing movements from a standing position. Results: The main differences were (1) an earlier activation of the left Obliquus internus in MCI compared with OA group, (2) an earlier activation for the MCI compared with both OA and YA. The temporal differences in muscle synergies between MCI and OA groups were linked with executive functions of MCI patients, assessed by the trail making test. Moreover, the results show a delayed activation of the right Biceps Femoris and the right Erector Spinae at l3 in MCI and OA compared with YA. Interpretation: The motor program changes highlighted in our patient MCI group suggest that discrete modifications of the motor command seem to exist even in the absence of functional impairment. Instead of showing an indication of delayed muscle activation in the MCI patients, our results highlight some early activation of several trunk muscles. PMID:27570509

  4. Reverse transcriptase activity of an intron encoded polypeptide.

    PubMed Central

    Fassbender, S; Brühl, K H; Ciriacy, M; Kück, U

    1994-01-01

    A number of group II introns from eukaryotic organelles and prokaryotes contain open reading frames for polypeptides with homology to retroviral reverse transcriptases (RTs). We have used the yeast transposon (Ty) system to express ORFs for RTs from eukaryotic organelles. This includes the mitochondrial coxI intron i1 from the fungus Podospora anserina, the plastid petD intron from the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the mitochondrial RTL gene from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The ORFs were fused with the TYA ORF from the yeast retrotransposon Ty to produce virus-like particles in the recipient strains with detectable amounts of the RT-like polypeptides. Analysis of the heterologous gene products revealed biochemical evidence that the P. anserina intron encodes an RNA-directed DNA polymerase with properties typically found for RTs of viral or retrotransposable origin. In vitro assays showed that the intron encoded RT is sensitive to RT inhibitors such as N-ethylmaleimide and dideoxythymidine triphosphate but is insensitive against the DNA polymerase inhibitor aphidicolin. The direct biochemical evidence provided here supports the idea that intron encoded RTs are involved in intron transposition events. Images PMID:7514530

  5. The impacts of replacing air bubbles with microspheres for the clarification of algae from low cell-density culture.

    PubMed

    Ometto, Francesco; Pozza, Carlo; Whitton, Rachel; Smyth, Beatrice; Gonzalez Torres, Andrea; Henderson, Rita K; Jarvis, Peter; Jefferson, Bruce; Villa, Raffaella

    2014-04-15

    Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) is a well-known coagulation-flotation system applied at large scale for microalgae harvesting. Compared to conventional harvesting technologies DAF allows high cell recovery at lower energy demand. By replacing microbubbles with microspheres, the innovative Ballasted Dissolved Air Flotation (BDAF) technique has been reported to achieve the same algae cell removal efficiency, while saving up to 80% of the energy required for the conventional DAF unit. Using three different algae cultures (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira maxima), the present work investigated the practical, economic and environmental advantages of the BDAF system compared to the DAF system. 99% cells separation was achieved with both systems, nevertheless, the BDAF technology allowed up to 95% coagulant reduction depending on the algae species and the pH conditions adopted. In terms of floc structure and strength, the inclusion of microspheres in the algae floc generated a looser aggregate, showing a more compact structure within single cell alga, than large and filamentous cells. Overall, BDAF appeared to be a more reliable and sustainable harvesting system than DAF, as it allowed equal cells recovery reducing energy inputs, coagulant demand and carbon emissions.

  6. Microalgal species growing on piggery wastewater as a valuable candidate for nutrient removal and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Abou-Shanab, Reda A I; Ji, Min-Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Paeng, Ki-Jung; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2013-01-30

    Six microalgal species were examined in this study to determine their effectiveness in the coupling of piggery wastewater treatment and biodiesel production. The dry biomasses of Ourococcus multisporus, Nitzschia cf. pusilla, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris, and Micractinium reisseri were 0.34 ± 0.08, 0.37 ± 0.13, 0.56 ± 0.35, 0.53 ± 0.30, 0.49 ± 0.26, and 0.35 ± 0.08 g dwt/L, respectively. The highest removal of nitrogen (62%), phosphorus (28%), and inorganic carbon (29%) were achieved by C. mexicana. In the absence of microalgae, the spontaneous precipitation of phosphorus, calcium, and inorganic carbon occurred at slightly alkaline pH. The highest lipid productivity and lipid content (0.31 ± 0.03 g/L and 33 ± 3%, respectively) were found in C. mexicana. The fatty acid compositions of the studied species were mainly palmitic, linoleic, α-linolenic, and oleic. The results of our study suggest that C. mexicana is one of the most promising candidates for simultaneous nutrient removal and high-efficient biodiesel production.

  7. Direct utilization of waste water algal biomass for ethanol production by cellulolytic Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183.

    PubMed

    Fathima, Anwar Aliya; Sanitha, Mary; Kumar, Thangarathinam; Iyappan, Sellamuthu; Ramya, Mohandass

    2016-02-01

    Direct bioconversion of waste water algal biomass into ethanol using Clostridium phytofermentans DSM1183 was demonstrated in this study. Fermentation of 2% (w/v) autoclaved algal biomass produced ethanol concentration of 0.52 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.19 g/g) where as fermentation of acid pretreated algal biomass (2%, w/v) produced ethanol concentration of 4.6 g L(-1) in GS2 media (solvent yield of 0.26 g/g). The control experiment with 2% (w/v) glucose in GS2 media produced ethanol concentration of 2.8 g L(-1) (solvent yield of 0.25 g/g). The microalgal strains from waste water algal biomass were identified as Chlamydomonas dorsoventralis, Graesiella emersonii, Coelastrum proboscideum, Scenedesmus obliquus, Micractinium sp., Desmodesmus sp., and Chlorella sp., based on ITS-2 molecular marker. The presence of glucose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose were detected by high performance liquid chromatography in the algal biomass. Scanning Electron Microscopy observations of fermentation samples showed characteristic morphological changes in algal cells and bioaccessibility of C. phytofermentans.

  8. Pretreatment of microalgal biomass for enhanced recovery/extraction of reducing sugars and proteins.

    PubMed

    Eldalatony, Marwa M; Kabra, Akhil N; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Govindwar, Sanjay P; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Hoo; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae species including Chlamydomonas mexicana, Micractinium reisseri, Scenedesmus obliquus and Tribonema aequale were cultivated in batch cultures, and their biochemical composition was determined. C. mexicana showed the highest carbohydrate content of 52.6% and was selected for further study. Sonication pretreatment under optimum conditions (at 40 kHz, 2.2 Kw, 50 °C for 15 min) released 74 ± 2.7 mg g(-1) of total reducing sugars (TRS) of dry cell weight, while the combined sonication and enzymatic hydrolysis treatment enhanced the TRS yield by fourfold (280.5 ± 4.9 mg g(-1)). The optimal ratio of enzyme [E]:substrate [S] for maximum TRS yield was [1]:[5] at 50 °C and pH 5. Combined sonication and hydrolysis treatment released 7.3% (27.1 ± 0.9 mg g(-1)) soluble protein of dry cell weight, and further fermentation of the dissolved carbohydrate fraction enhanced the soluble protein content up to 56% (228.4 mg g(-1)) of total protein content. Scanning and transmission electron microscopic analyses indicated that microalgae cells were significantly disrupted by the combined sonication and enzyme hydrolysis treatment. This study indicates that pretreatment and subsequent fermentation of the microalgal biomass enhance the recovery of carbohydrates and proteins which can be used as feedstocks for generation of biofuels.

  9. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona.

  10. Construction and application of the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA in microbial contamination control in a coupled cultivation and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalei; Zhang, Chunmin; Zhou, Xuefei; Shen, Zheng; Zhao, Fangchao; Zhao, Jianfu

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by iron fertilization experiments in HNLC (high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll) sea areas, we proposed the use of iron-rich engineered microalgae for microbial contaminant control in iron-free culture media. Based on the genome sequence and natural transformation system of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, ftnA (encoding ferritin) was selected as our target gene and was cloned into wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Tests at the molecular level confirmed the successful construction of the engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA. After Fe(3+)-EDTA pulsing, the intracellular iron content of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA was significantly enhanced, and the algae was used in the microbial contamination control system. In the coupled Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA production and municipal wastewater (MW, including Scenedesmus obliquus and Bacillus) treatment, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA accounted for all of the microbial activity and significantly increased from 70% of the microbial community to 95%. These results revealed that while the stored iron in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA cells was used for growth and reproduction of this microalga in the MW, the growth of other microbes was inhibited because of the iron limitation, and these results provide a new method for microbial contamination control during a coupling process.

  11. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago.

  12. Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the DIC-pump in unicellular algae

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. )

    1989-04-01

    SHAM at 1 or 2 mM inhibits dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrating mechanisms in unicellular green algae as measured by photosynthetic oxygen evolution or by {sup 14}C-inorganic carbon uptake (using silicone oil centrifugation techniques). This inhibition was reversed by high levels of DIC whereby the cells do not require the concentrating mechanism. SHAM inhibited the DIC-pump, which uses external CO{sub 2}, in three species of algae, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Scenedesmus obliquus when adapted to low CO{sub 2} and assayed around neutral pH. Scenedesmus adapted to air at pH 9.0 to use external HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were not affected by SHAM. It is important to establish low optimum concentrations of SHAM, which varied with the algal species. The mechanism of SHAM inhibition of the CO{sub 2} concentrating process is unknown. SHAM inhibits alternative respiration in these algae, but SHAM may also inhibit other reactions involving H{sup +} gradients or transporters associated with the DIC-pump.

  13. Construction and application of the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA in microbial contamination control in a coupled cultivation and wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yalei; Zhang, Chunmin; Zhou, Xuefei; Shen, Zheng; Zhao, Fangchao; Zhao, Jianfu

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by iron fertilization experiments in HNLC (high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll) sea areas, we proposed the use of iron-rich engineered microalgae for microbial contaminant control in iron-free culture media. Based on the genome sequence and natural transformation system of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, ftnA (encoding ferritin) was selected as our target gene and was cloned into wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Tests at the molecular level confirmed the successful construction of the engineered Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA. After Fe(3+)-EDTA pulsing, the intracellular iron content of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA was significantly enhanced, and the algae was used in the microbial contamination control system. In the coupled Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA production and municipal wastewater (MW, including Scenedesmus obliquus and Bacillus) treatment, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA accounted for all of the microbial activity and significantly increased from 70% of the microbial community to 95%. These results revealed that while the stored iron in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803-ftnA cells was used for growth and reproduction of this microalga in the MW, the growth of other microbes was inhibited because of the iron limitation, and these results provide a new method for microbial contamination control during a coupling process. PMID:27521949

  14. Laccase-catalyzed removal of the antimicrobials chlorophene and dichlorophen from water: Reaction kinetics, pathway and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huanhuan; Peng, Jianbiao; Li, Jianhua; Mao, Liang; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-11-01

    As active agents in cleaning and disinfecting products, antimicrobials have been widely spread in the environment and have drawn extensive attention as potential threats to the ecological system and human health. In this study, the laccase-catalyzed removal of two emerging antimicrobials, chlorophene (CP) and dichlorophen (DCP), was investigated under simulated environmental conditions. Intrinsic reaction kinetics showed that the removal of CP and DCP followed second-order reaction kinetics, first-order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate concentration. It was also found that fulvic acid could suppress the transformation of CP and DCP by reversing the oxidation reactions through its action as a scavenger of the free radical intermediates produced from reactions between laccase and the substrates. Several reaction products were identified by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and detailed reaction pathways were proposed. For both CP and DCP, direct polymerization was the principal pathway, and the coupling patterns were further corroborated based on molecular modeling. The nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by the hydroxyl group was observed, and further oxidation products capable of coupling with each other were also found. Additionally, toxicity evaluation tests using Scenedesmus obliquus confirmed that the toxicity of CP and DCP was effectively eliminated during the reaction processes.

  15. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems.

    PubMed

    Radmer, R; Cox, J; Lieberman, D; Behrens, P; Arnett, K

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. We report experiments in which cultures of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments we tested hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  16. The course of the greater occipital nerve in the suboccipital region: a proposal for setting landmarks for local anesthesia in patients with occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Natsis, K; Baraliakos, X; Appell, H J; Tsikaras, P; Gigis, I; Koebke, J

    2006-05-01

    The anatomical relationships of the greater occipital nerve (GON) to the semispinalis capitis muscle (SCM) and the trapezius muscle aponeurosis (TMA) were examined to identify topographic landmarks for use in anesthetic blockade of the GON in occipital neuralgia. The course and the diameter of the GON were studied in 40 cadavers (29 females, 11 males), and the points where it pierced the SCM and the TMA were identified. The course of the GON did not differ between males and females. A left-right difference was detected in the site of the GON in the TMA region but not in the SCM region. The nerve became wider towards the periphery. This may be relevant to entrapment of the nerve in the development of occipital neuralgia. In three cases, the GON split into two branches before piercing the TMA and reunited after having passed the TMA, and it pierced the obliquus capitis inferior muscle in another three cases. The GON and the lesser occipital nerve reunited at the level of the occiput in 80% of the specimens. The occiput and the nuchal midline are useful topographic landmarks to guide anesthetic blockade of the GON for diagnosis and therapy of occipital neuralgia. The infiltration is probably best aimed at the site where the SCM is pierced by the GON.

  17. Effects of light on respiration and development of photosynthetic cells. Renewal application and progress report, March 1-November 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, M.

    1980-11-20

    The oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/ was studied in H/sub 2/- adapted Scenedesmus obliquus by monitoring the initial rates of H/sub 2/, O/sub 2/, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake and the effect of inhibitors on these rates. Glucose and acetate respiration was competitive with H/sub 2/ uptake. KCN inhibited equally respiration and the oxyhydrogen reaction in the presence and absence of CO/sub 2/. It was concluded that the oxyhydrogen reaction both in the absence and presence of CO/sub 2/ has properties in common with components of respiration and photosynthesis. Participation of these two processes in the oxyhydrogen reaction would require a closely linked shuttle between mitochondrion and chloroplast. Protoplasts and chloroplasts will be isolated from a H/sub 2/-adapted alga in order to elucidate the cooperation between the two organelles. Acetate was shown to stimulate H/sub 2/ photoproduction in H/sub 2/-adapted algae even more so than an uncoupler of electron transport. The role of these compounds will be evaluated either in terms of the glyoxylate cycle or electron acceptors resulting in formation of alcohols. The term chloroplast respiration was proposed to account for the breakdown of polyglucan within the chloroplast. A means of reoxidizing reduced pyridine nucleotide was required to complete the cycle. A new enzyme ascorbic acid reduced pyridine nucleotide peroxidase was isolated from the chloroplast. The characterization of this enzyme will continue.

  18. Punctuated evolution of global climate cooling during the late middle to early late Miocene: High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotope records from the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, E.; Hilgen, F. J.; Lourens, L. J.; Shackleton, N. J.; Zachariasse, W. J.

    High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotope records are presented from a Mediterranean deep marine succession, dated astronomically between 12.12 and 9.78 Ma. Planktonic and benthic oxygen isotope records are punctuated by two episodes of δ18O increase, which have astronomical ages of 11.4 and 10.4 Ma and correspond to the Mi5 and Mi6 events of Miller et al. [1991a]. These ice growth events coincide with low-amplitude variations in the 1.2 Myr obliquity cycle and are accompanied by significant faunal changes in the Mediterranean, such as the arrival of neogloboquadrinids, the increase in abundance of the G. apertura-G. obliquus group, and the areal differentiation between N. atlantica and N. acostaensis. Short-term variations in the planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotope records correspond to dominantly precession-controlled sedimentary cycles. Features of the sapropel/gray marl layers indicate that the short-term astronomically controlled circum-Mediterranean climate changes remained basically the same over the last 12 Myr.

  19. Aquatic environmental safety assessment and inhibition mechanism of chemicals for targeting Microcystis aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Bo; Hao, Kai; Ling, Fei; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, fungi, bacteria and cell lines. Recently the main methods of controlling cyanobacteria are using chemicals, medicinal plants and microorganism but fewer involved the safety research in hydrophytic ecosystems. In search of an environmentally safe compound, 53 chemicals were screened against the developed heavy cyanobacteria bloom Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that 9 chemicals inhibited M. aeruginosa effectively at 20 mg L(-1) after 7 days of exposure. Among them dimethomorph, propineb, and paraquat were identified that they are safe for Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, Carassius auratus (Goldfish) and Bacillus subtilis within half maximal effective concentration (EC50) values 5.2, 4.2 and 0.06 mg L(-1) after 7 days, respectively. Paraquat as the positive control observed to be more efficient than the other compounds with the inhibitory rate (IR) of 92% at 0.5 mg L(-1). For the potential inhibition mechanism, the chemicals could destroy the cell ultrastructure in different speed. The safety assay proved dimethomorph, propineb and paraquat as harmless formulations or products having potential value in M. aeruginosa controlling, with the advantage of its cell morphology degrading ability. PMID:25139029

  20. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment. PMID:25475972

  1. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  2. Shielding property of natural biomass against gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Mavi, B; Gurbuz, L F; Ciftci, H; Akkurt, I

    2014-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are capable living under harsh conditions in the natural environments and can develop peculiar survival processes. In order to evaluate radiation shielding properties of green algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and cyanobacteria; Synechococcus sp., Planktothrix limnetica, Microcystis aeruginosa, Arthrospira maxima, Anabaena affinis, Phormidium articulatum, and Pseudoanabaena sp. were cultured in batch systems. Air dried biomass was tested for its high tolerance to gamma-radiations in terms of linear attenuation coefficients. In the present work, the linear and mass attenuation coefficients were measured at photon energies of 1173 and 1332 keV. Protection capacity of some biomass was observed to be higher than a 1-cm thick lead standard for comparison. Gamma ray related protection depends not only to thickness but also to density (g/cm3). Hence the effect of biomass density also was tested and significantly found the tested biomass absorbed more of the incoming energy on a density basis than lead. This paper discusses the a new approach to environmental protection from gamma ray. The findings suggest that the test samples, especially cyanobacteria, have a potential for reducing gamma ray more significantly than lead and can be used as shielding materials.

  3. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (P<0.001), but did not change in the endurance (P=0.875) or control group (P=0.995). CoV of force was reduced after the strength training intervention only (P<0.01). Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods.

  4. Predator evasion in zooplankton is suppressed by polyunsaturated fatty acid limitation.

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Tomasz; von Elert, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous zooplankton avoid size-selective predation by vertical migration to a deep, cold water refuge. Adaptation to low temperatures in planktonic poikilotherms depends on essential dietary lipids; the availability of these lipids often limits growth and reproduction of zooplankton. We hypothesized that limitation by essential lipids may affect habitat preferences and predator avoidance behavior in planktonic poikilotherms. We used a liposome supplementation technique to enrich the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the cyanobacterium Synecchococcus elongatus with the essential lipids, cholesterol and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and an indoor system with a stratified water-column (plankton organ) to test whether the absence of these selected dietary lipids constrains predator avoidance (habitat preferences) in four species of the key-stone pelagic freshwater grazer Daphnia. We found that the capability of avoiding fish predation through habitat shift to the deeper and colder environment was suppressed in Daphnia unless the diet was supplemented with EPA; however, the availability of cholesterol did not affect habitat preferences of the tested taxa. Thus, their ability to access a predator-free refuge and the outcome of predator-prey interactions depends upon food quality (i.e. the availability of an essential fatty acid). Our results suggest that biochemical food quality limitation, a bottom-up factor, may affect the top-down control of herbivorous zooplankton. PMID:26232092

  5. Beating the blues: is there any music in fighting cyanobacteria with ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Tolman, Yora

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis that cyanobacteria can be controlled by commercially available ultrasound transducers was tested in laboratory experiments with cultures of the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp., Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Microcystis aeruginosa and the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus that were grown in the absence or presence of ultrasound (mix of 20, 28 and 44 kHz). The Scenedesmus experiment also included a treatment with the zooplankton grazer Daphnia magna. Chlorophyll-a and biovolume-based growth of Anabaena was significantly lower in ultrasound exposed cultures than in controls. Particle based growth rates were higher in ultrasound treatments. Filaments were significantly shorter in ultrasound exposed cultures reflecting filament breakage. Photosystem II efficiency was not affected by ultrasound. In Cylindrospermopsis chlorophyll-a based growth rates and photosystem II efficiencies were similar in controls and ultrasound treatments, but biovolume-based growth was significantly lower in ultrasound exposed cultures compared to controls. Despite biovolume growth rates of the filamentous cyanobacteria were reduced in ultrasound treatments compared to controls, growth remained positive implying still a population increase. In Microcystis and Scenedesmus growth rates were similar in controls and ultrasound treatments. Hence, no effect of ultrasound on these phytoplankton species was found. Ultrasound should not be viewed "environmental friendly" as it killed all Daphnia within 15 min, releasing Scenedesmus from grazing control in the cultures. Based on our experiments and critical literature review, we conclude that there is no music in controlling cyanobacteria in situ with the commercially available ultrasound transducers we have tested. PMID:25240117

  6. Modeling the dynamic modulation of light energy in photosynthetic algae.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Ioannis A; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos; Lika, Konstadia

    2012-05-01

    An integrated cell-based dynamic mathematical model that take into account the role of the photon absorbing process, the partition of excitation energy, and the photoinactivation and repair of photosynthetic units, under variable light and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) availability is proposed. The modeling of the photon energy absorption and the energy dissipation is based on the photoadaptive changes of the underlying mechanisms. The partition of the excitation energy is based on the relative availability of light and DIC to the cell. The modeling of the photoinactivation process is based on the common aspect that it occurs under any light intensity and the modeling of the repair process is based on the evidence that it is controlled by chloroplast and nuclear-encoded enzymes. The present model links the absorption of photons and the partitioning of excitation energy to the linear electron flow and other quenchers with chlorophyll fluorescence emission parameters, and the number of the functional photosynthetic units with the photosynthetic oxygen production rate. The energy allocation to the LEF increases as DIC availability increases and/or light intensity decreases. The rate of rejected energy increases with light intensity and with DIC availability. The resulting rate coefficient of photoinactivation increases as light intensity and/or as DIC concentration increases. We test the model against chlorophyll fluorescence induction and photosynthetic oxygen production rate measurements, obtained from cultures of the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus, and find a very close quantitative and qualitative correspondence between predictions and data.

  7. Resistance training alters the sensorimotor control of vasti muscles.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y M; Ng, Gabriel

    2010-02-01

    The present study examined and compared two modes of weight training (bodybuilding and power-lifting) on the surface EMG of vasti muscles, knee joint position sense and isometric knee extension force in 48 able-bodied subjects. Subjects were randomly allocated into either a moderate loading and repetitions (bodybuilding) training or a high loading and low repetitions (power-lifting) training, or a no training control group. Training was conducted on alternate days with individual supervision. After 8 weeks of training, subjects from both training groups showed significantly earlier EMG onset timing and higher amplitude of vastus medialis obliquus relative to vastus lateralis (p=0.005 or <0.001), and improved knee joint position sense (p<0.001), but no such changes were found in the control group. However, the changes were not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two training groups. The findings suggested that the neuromotor control of the vasti muscles could be altered by regular weight training.

  8. Laccase-catalyzed removal of the antimicrobials chlorophene and dichlorophen from water: Reaction kinetics, pathway and toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huanhuan; Peng, Jianbiao; Li, Jianhua; Mao, Liang; Wang, Zunyao; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-11-01

    As active agents in cleaning and disinfecting products, antimicrobials have been widely spread in the environment and have drawn extensive attention as potential threats to the ecological system and human health. In this study, the laccase-catalyzed removal of two emerging antimicrobials, chlorophene (CP) and dichlorophen (DCP), was investigated under simulated environmental conditions. Intrinsic reaction kinetics showed that the removal of CP and DCP followed second-order reaction kinetics, first-order with respect to both the enzyme and the substrate concentration. It was also found that fulvic acid could suppress the transformation of CP and DCP by reversing the oxidation reactions through its action as a scavenger of the free radical intermediates produced from reactions between laccase and the substrates. Several reaction products were identified by a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and detailed reaction pathways were proposed. For both CP and DCP, direct polymerization was the principal pathway, and the coupling patterns were further corroborated based on molecular modeling. The nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by the hydroxyl group was observed, and further oxidation products capable of coupling with each other were also found. Additionally, toxicity evaluation tests using Scenedesmus obliquus confirmed that the toxicity of CP and DCP was effectively eliminated during the reaction processes. PMID:27262275

  9. Neoselachians and Chimaeriformes (Chondrichthyes) from the latest Cretaceous-Paleogene of Sierra Baguales, southernmost Chile. Chronostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Rodrigo A.; Oyarzún, José Luis; Soto-Acuña, Sergio; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Gutierrez, Nestor M.; Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Torres, Teresa; Hervé, Francisco

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses a well-represented fossil record of cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) from southern South America. The recovered samples allow the recognition of three assemblages with chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic value: i) typical Maastrichtian sharks and rays with affinities to eastern Pacific fauna, including the taxa Ischyrhiza chilensis, Serratolamna serrata, Centrophoroides sp. associated to Carcharias sp., and Dasyatidae indet.; ii) a scarce reworked assemblage of Paleocene-Early Eocene age including the taxa Otodus obliquus and Megascyliorhinus cooperi; iii) a rich assemblage with reworked taxa of Early to Middle Eocene age, together with autochthonous deposited Middle to Late Eocene taxa with close affinities to paleoichthyofaunas recovered from the North Atlantic, represented by Carcharias 'hopei', Odontaspis winkleri, Carcharoides catticus, Macrorhizodus praecursor, Carcharocles auriculatus, Striatolamia sp., Striatolamia macrota, Hexanchus agassizi, Notorhynchus sp., Myliobatis sp., Abdounia sp., Pristiophorus sp., Squatina sp., cf. Rhizoprionodon sp., Ischyodus sp., and one new species, Jaekelotodus bagualensis sp. nov. The studied samples include for the first time taxa with well established chronostratigraphic resolutions as well as taphonomic information that help clarifying the age of the fossil-bearing units. In addition, they provide relevant information about the evolution of the Magallanes (=Austral) Basin from the Upper Cretaceous to the Paleogene, suggesting a probable connection with the Quiriquina Basin of south-central Chile during the latest Cretaceous. Finally, the studied assemblages indicate a latitudinal pattern of distribution that provides valuable data on the environmental evolution and temperature of southern South America during the Paleogene.

  10. Polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids: Biomarkers for native and exotic mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezek, Tadej; Sverko, Ed; Ruddy, Martina D.; Zaruk, Donna; Capretta, Alfredo; Hebert, Craig E.; Fisk, Aaron T.; McGoldrick, Daryl J.; Newton, Teresa J.; Sutton, Trent M.; Koops, Marten A.; Muir, Andrew M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Ebener, Mark P.; Arts, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Freshwater organisms synthesize a wide variety of fatty acids (FAs); however, the ability to synthesize and/or subsequently modify a particular FA is not universal, making it possible to use certain FAs as biomarkers. Herein we document the occurrence of unusual FAs (polymethylene-interrupted fatty acids; PMI-FAs) in select freshwater organisms in the Laurentian Great Lakes. We did not detect PMI-FAs in: (a) natural seston from Lake Erie and Hamilton Harbor (Lake Ontario), (b) various species of laboratory-cultured algae including a green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus), two cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Synechococystis sp.), two diatoms (Asterionella formosa, Diatoma elongatum) and a chrysophyte (Dinobryon cylindricum) or, (c) zooplankton (Daphnia spp., calanoid or cyclopoid copepods) from Lake Ontario, suggesting that PMI-FAs are not substantively incorporated into consumers at the phytoplankton–zooplankton interface. However, these unusual FAs comprised 4-6% of total fatty acids (on a dry tissue weight basis) of native fat mucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and plain pocketbook (L. cardium) mussels and in invasive zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels. We were able to clearly partition Great Lakes' mussels into three separate groups (zebra, quagga, and native mussels) based solely on their PMI-FA profiles. We also provide evidence for the trophic transfer of PMI-FAs from mussels to various fishes in Lakes Ontario and Michigan, further underlining the potential usefulness of PMI-FAs for tracking the dietary contribution of mollusks in food web and contaminant-fate studies.

  11. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment.

  12. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament injured subjects.

    PubMed

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Luyckx, Thomas; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate muscle activation onset times (MAOT) of both legs during a transition task from double-leg stance (DLS) to single-leg stance (SLS) in anterior cruciate ligament injured (ACLI) (n=15) and non-injured control subjects (n=15) with eyes open and eyes closed. Significantly delayed MAOT were found in the ACLI group compared to the control group for vastus lateralis, vastus medialis obliquus, hamstrings medial, hamstrings lateral, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus and gastrocnemius in both vision conditions, for gluteus maximus and gluteus medius with eyes open and for tensor fascia latae with eyes closed. Within the ACLI group, delayed MAOT of tibialis anterior with eyes open and gastrocnemius with eyes closed were found in the injured leg compared to the non-injured leg. All other muscles were not significantly different between legs. In conclusion, the ACLI group showed delayed MAOT not only around the knee, but also at the hip and ankle muscles compared to the non-injured control group. No differences between both legs of the ACLI group were found, except for tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius. These findings indirectly support including central nervous system re-education training to target the underlying mechanisms of these altered MAOT after ACL injury.

  13. Algae-bacteria association inferred by 16S rDNA similarity in established microalgae cultures.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Dagmar; Nohynek, Liisa; Rischer, Heiko

    2014-06-01

    Forty cultivable, visually distinct bacterial cultures were isolated from four Baltic microalgal cultures Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, Isochrysis sp., and Nitzschia microcephala, which have been maintained for several years in the laboratory. Bacterial isolates were characterized with respect to morphology, antibiotic susceptibility, and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence. A total of 17 unique bacterial strains, almost all belonging to one of three families, Rhodobacteraceae, Rhizobiaceae, and Erythrobacteraceae, were subsequently isolated. The majority of isolated bacteria belong to Rhodobacteraceae. Literature review revealed that close relatives of the bacteria isolated in this study are not only often found in marine environments associated with algae, but also in lakes, sediments, and soil. Some of them had been shown to interact with organisms in their surroundings. A Basic Local Alignment Search Tool study indicated that especially bacteria isolated from the Isochrysis sp. culture were highly similar to microalgae-associated bacteria. Two of those isolates, I1 and I6, belong to the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides phylum, members of which are known to occur in close communities with microalgae. An UniFrac analysis revealed that the bacterial community of Isochrysis sp. significantly differs from the other three communities.

  14. Electromyographic activity of knee stabilizer muscles during six different balance board stimuli after anterior cruciate ligament surgery.

    PubMed

    Pereira, H M; Nowotny, A H; Santos, A B A N; Cardoso, J R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the electrical activity of the knee stabilizers, in patients with ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstructed and uninjured individuals during different balance board stimuli. Eleven post-surgery individuals and eleven uninjured controls participated in the study. The muscular activity of the vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medial were analyzed by surface electromyography during the execution of six different balance board activities. All electromyographic data were reported as percentage of RMS mean values obtained in maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) for each muscle. When comparing the individuals with ACL reconstructed and uninjured controls, minor electromyographic activity was observed (MVIC %) for all the muscles in the surgery group (P < 0.05), however, when comparing each exercise between the groups, a statistically significant difference for vastus lateralis was demonstrated in the floor exercise (P = 0.02) and for gastrocnemius on the round board (P = 0.04). Individuals ACL reconstructed presented a decrease in muscular activity during different balance board stimuli, which suggests that compensatory alterations after ACL may still exist even after a surgery to repair an ACL rupture.

  15. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance.

  16. Physicochemical properties and ecotoxicological effects of yttrium oxide nanoparticles in aquatic media: Role of low molecular weight natural organic acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Zhuang; Wang, Se; Fang, Hao; Chen, Mindong; Xu, Defu; Tang, Lili; Wang, Degao

    2016-05-01

    Understanding how engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) interact with natural organic acids is important to ecological risk assessment of ENPs, but this interaction remains poorly studied. Here, we investigate the dispersion stability, ion release, and toxicity of yttrium oxide nanoparticles (nY2O3) suspensions after exposure to two low molecular weight natural organic acids (LOAs), namely benzoic acid and gallic acid. We find that in the presence of LOAs the nY2O3 suspensions become more stable with surface zeta potential more positive or negative, accompanied by small agglomerated size. LOA interaction with nY2O3 is shown to promote the release of dissolved yttrium from the nanoparticles, depending on the concentrations of LOAs. Toxic effects of the nY2O3 suspensions incubated with LOAs on Scenedesmus obliquus as a function of their mixture levels show three types of signs: stimulation, inhibition, and alleviation. The mechanism of the effects of LOAs on the nY2O3 toxicity may be mainly associated with the degree of agglomeration, particle-induced oxidative stress, and dissolved yttrium. Our results stressed the importance of LOA impacts on the fate and toxicity of ENPs in the aquatic environment.

  17. Identification of a new target muscle for treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease who have lateral trunk flexion?

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Sawa, Nobuhiro; Ueno, Satoshi

    2015-11-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can present with lateral trunk flexion (LTF). Abnormal posture associated with PD has been treated, but the effectiveness of these treatments is limited, resulting in unsatisfactory outcomes. Unilateral hypertrophy and unilateral hyperactivity may be useful for deciding targets for injection of botulinum toxin or physical rehabilitation. However, such findings may be limited such as the obliquus abdominis muscle or thoracic paraspinal muscles, and several other muscles may have a causative role in LTF. We investigated 8 patients whether other muscles show unilateral hypertrophy by analyzing computed tomographic scans. Cobb's angle was 11° to 34°. The area of the paravertebral muscles was large contralateral to the bending side and this trend intensified from L4 to Th10. The lumbar quadrate muscle and psoas major muscle showed unilateral enlargement. These larger muscles were prominent contralateral to the bending side in five patients and ipsilateral to the bending side in two patients. This unilateral muscle change was mildly seen in the internal and external abdominal oblique muscles. The lumbar quadrate muscle or psoas major muscle showed two hypertrophic patterns, and these muscles might be new therapeutic targets for treatments such as botulinum toxin.

  18. Influences of the position of the head on posture while lifting.

    PubMed

    Ishida, H; Watanabe, S; Eguchi, A; Kobara, K

    2008-01-01

    In clinical training of some lower back pain patients, teaching them to control their lumbar lordosis during lifting may be difficult. Therefore, another effective method for lifting technique is required. In standing, head cannot move without some compensating postural adjustment. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of head position on lifting posture. Fourteen healthy male volunteers (22.6 +/- 4.4 years old) lifted a case while maintaining two different head positions; a downward position and an upright position. In the upright position, activities of the latissimus dorsi and vastus lateralis significantly increased, and these of the biceps femoris significantly decreased during the initial 100 msec phase of lifting. There were no differences in the activities of the upper trapezius, lumbar extensor muscles (L3, L5), and obliquus abdominis under the two conditions. There were also no differences in the lumbar angle when the case was lifted. The flexion angles of the hip, knee, and ankle significantly increased, and the lumbar spine moved closer to the case. Lifting posture was influenced by the head position. Advantages included being able to shift loads on the body from the lower back to the legs, to move the lumbar spine closer to the case, and to relatively increase the moment of lumbar extension. The weight of the head as it moved upward and back, and the weight of the rear part of the body as it moved downward and forward helped to maintain balance. PMID:18551836

  19. Shielding property of natural biomass against gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Mavi, B; Gurbuz, L F; Ciftci, H; Akkurt, I

    2014-01-01

    Algae and cyanobacteria are capable living under harsh conditions in the natural environments and can develop peculiar survival processes. In order to evaluate radiation shielding properties of green algae; Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus, and cyanobacteria; Synechococcus sp., Planktothrix limnetica, Microcystis aeruginosa, Arthrospira maxima, Anabaena affinis, Phormidium articulatum, and Pseudoanabaena sp. were cultured in batch systems. Air dried biomass was tested for its high tolerance to gamma-radiations in terms of linear attenuation coefficients. In the present work, the linear and mass attenuation coefficients were measured at photon energies of 1173 and 1332 keV. Protection capacity of some biomass was observed to be higher than a 1-cm thick lead standard for comparison. Gamma ray related protection depends not only to thickness but also to density (g/cm3). Hence the effect of biomass density also was tested and significantly found the tested biomass absorbed more of the incoming energy on a density basis than lead. This paper discusses the a new approach to environmental protection from gamma ray. The findings suggest that the test samples, especially cyanobacteria, have a potential for reducing gamma ray more significantly than lead and can be used as shielding materials. PMID:24912221

  20. Conservation of the mycelia of the medicinal mushroom Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey. in sterile distilled water

    PubMed Central

    García-García, Monserrat; Rocha-Zavaleta, Leticia; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A.; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing interest in obtaining and studying the biologically active compounds from higher basidiomycetes, such as Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Inonotus obliquus[1], but the techniques for safe long-term storage are time-consuming, susceptible to contamination, and do not prevent genetic and physiological changes during long-term maintenance [2]. A recent strategy for obtaining biologically active compounds is using mycelia submerged cultures of these mushrooms, cultured under controlled laboratory conditions [1]. However, obtaining spores of these fungi under these conditions is difficult, and in most cases the way to obtain the spores is unknown [1]. Therefore, the strategy for mycelium storage seems to be more appropriated and simple.•A modification of Castellani's method [3–7] is proposed for higher basidiomycetes, by using the mycelium of Humphreya coffeata (Berk.) Stey., whose culture filtrates demonstrated bioactivity against lymphoma cells [8].•H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. was grown on malt extract agar with filter paper disks that were removed after 4 days, placed in tubes with sterile distilled water, and stored at 4 °C.•Filter paper disks with H. coffeata (Berk.) Stey. stored at 4 °C were confirmed to be viable for up to 18 months, with no visible morphological alterations. PMID:26150929

  1. Late Neogene marine incursions and the ancestral Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    2008-01-01

    The late Neogene section in the Salton Trough, California, and along the lower Colorado River in Arizona is composed of marine units bracketed by nonmarine units. Microfossils from the marine deposits indicate that a marine incursion inundated the Salton Trough during the late Miocene. Water depths increased rapidly in the Miocene and eventually flooded the region now occupied by the Colorado River as far north as Parker, Arizona. Marine conditions were restricted in the Pliocene as the Colorado River filled the Salton Trough with sediments and the Gulf of California assumed its present configuration. Microfossils from the early part of this incursion include a diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers (Amphistegina gibbosa, Uvigerina peregrina, Cassidulina delicata, and Bolivina interjuncta), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, Discoaster aff. Discoaster surculus, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies), whereas microfossils in the final phase contain a less diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers that are diagnostic of marginal shallow-marine conditions (Ammonia, Elphidium, Bolivina, Cibicides, and Quinqueloculina). Evidence of an earlier middle Miocene marine incursion comes from reworked microfossils found near Split Mountain Gorge in the Fish Creek Gypsum (Sphenolithus moriformis) and near San Gorgonio Pass (Cyclicargolithus floridanus and Sphenolithus heteromorphus and planktic foraminifers). The middle Miocene incursion may also be represented by the older marine sedimentary rocks encountered in the subsurface near Yuma, Arizona, where rare middle Miocene planktic foraminifers are found. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Biological fate and effects of propranolol in an experimental aquatic food chain.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jiannan; Lu, Guanghua; Li, Sheng; Nie, Yang; Liu, Jianchao

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the trophic transfer of the β-blocker propranolol (PRP) in an experimental aquatic food chain involving the green algae Scenedesmus obliquus, the water flea Daphnia magna and the crucian carp Carassius auratus, as well as the metabolism and effects of PRP in the liver of crucian carp. After a 48 h PRP aqueous exposure for algae, with a subsequent 48 h dietary exposure for daphnia and an 8d dietary exposure for crucian carp, PRP was observed in each trophic level, despite significant bioaccumulation did not occur in daphnia and crucian carp. A portion of the absorbed PRP was metabolized by the crucian carp to N-desisopropylated propranolol, propranolol glucuronic acid, monohydroxylated propranolol, hydroxypropranolol glucuronide and dihydroxypropranolol glucuronide, which were similar to those in mammals. In addition, multiple biomarkers in the liver of crucian carp (7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, EROD; 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylation, BROD; superoxide dismutase, SOD and malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured. BROD and MDA were not significantly affected by PRP, while EROD and SOD did change significantly during the 8d dietary exposure. This work indicated that the trophic transfer of PRP, resulting in biochemical perturbations of fish biological systems, should be a concern for the assessment of the environmental risks to aquatic food chains.

  3. A preliminary study of the phycological degradation of natural stone masonry.

    PubMed

    Welton, Ryan G; Cuthbert, Simon J; Mclean, Roger; Hursthouse, Andrew; Hughes, John

    2003-03-01

    For many years it has been realised that the weathering of stone is not merely determined by physical and chemical factors but also by biological agents. When the stone in question is a historic building or monument, the damage done constitutes an irretrievable loss of our heritage and history. Laboratory studies have commenced in Paisley to study the effect of photoautotrophs on the major sedimentary rock forming minerals, with a view to expanding this work to study the overall effect of these micro-organisms on heritage masonry. Tests were carried out on Albite, Calcite, Dolomite, Orthoclase, Siderite and Quartz, using axenic cultures of the following: Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorococcum tetrasporum, Scenedesmus obliquus, Oocystis marsonii, Stichococcus bacillaris. The rock chips were immersed in either water or bolds basal media and exposed to a mix of the micro-organisms listed above and then tested weekly for their pH, fortnightly for the waters chemical composition using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and visually utilising the university's SEM facilities. Work so far has revealed biologically mediated etching of minerals, a well-defined pH profile over a period of 90 days, as well as a variety of elemental release patterns for the different minerals.

  4. Gene Arrangement Convergence, Diverse Intron Content, and Genetic Code Modifications in Mitochondrial Genomes of Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Fučíková, Karolina; Lewis, Paul O.; González-Halphen, Diego; Lewis, Louise A.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of our knowledge about mitochondrial genomes of Viridiplantae comes from land plants, but much less is known about their green algal relatives. In the green algal order Sphaeropleales (Chlorophyta), only one representative mitochondrial genome is currently available—that of Acutodesmus obliquus. Our study adds nine completely sequenced and three partially sequenced mitochondrial genomes spanning the phylogenetic diversity of Sphaeropleales. We show not only a size range of 25–53 kb and variation in intron content (0–11) and gene order but also conservation of 13 core respiratory genes and fragmented ribosomal RNA genes. We also report an unusual case of gene arrangement convergence in Neochloris aquatica, where the two rns fragments were secondarily placed in close proximity. Finally, we report the unprecedented usage of UCG as stop codon in Pseudomuriella schumacherensis. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes yield a fully resolved, well-supported phylogeny, showing promise for addressing systematic challenges in green algae. PMID:25106621

  5. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy and other procedures in the upper retroperitoneum using a balloon dissection technique.

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, J J; Henkel, T O; Stoch, C; Greschner, M; Becker, P; Preminger, G M; Schulman, C C; Frede, T; Alken, P

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a hydraulic balloon dissection technique. The retroperitoneum is developed via a small lumbodorsal incision between the edges of the musculus latissimus dorsi and musculus obliquus externus and then after visualization of its correct position the balloon catheter is filled with 500-1,200 ml of warm normal saline (according to patient size). The device consists of the finger of a surgeon's glove ligated around the end of a rigid bladder catheter. The balloon insufflation is maintained for 5 min to guarantee adequate hemostasis. Recently, we have replaced the balloon catheter by a balloon trocar sheath allowing direct endoscopic control of the hydraulic dissection. After retrieval of the balloon the CO2 insufflator is connected to the first trocar. All secondary trocars are placed under endoscopic control. The hydraulic dissection techniques also enable optimal creation of an effective pneumoperitoneum in children. Until now, we have used this technique for twelve procedures in the upper retroperitoneum including five nephrectomies, two nephroureterectomies, one tumor nephrectomy, one nephropexy, one renal cyst marsupialization and two renal biopsies. Up to now we have encountered no major complications. Three of the nephrectomized patients had undergone multiple previous abdominal surgical interventions. The retroperitoneal approach allows the surgeon to apply similar dissecting techniques as used in respective open procedures. It has become the routine approach for laparoscopic procedures in benign renal disease. This procedure can be performed even in cases with previous abdominal surgery.

  6. Energy efficiency of an outdoor microalgal photobioreactor sited at mid-temperate latitude.

    PubMed

    Hulatt, Chris J; Thomas, David N

    2011-06-01

    This work examined the energetic performance of a 6-month semi-continuous cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in an outdoor photobioreactor at mid-temperate latitude, without temperature control. By measuring the seasonal biomass production (mean 11.31, range 1.39-23.67 g m(-2)d(-1)), higher heating value (22.94 kJ g(-1)) and solar irradiance, the mean seasonally-averaged photosynthetic efficiency (2.18%) and gross energy productivity (0.27 MJ m(-2) d(-1)) was calculated. When comparing the solar energy conversion efficiency to the energy investment for culture circulation, significant improvements in reactor energy input must be made to make the system viable. Using the data collected to model the energetic performance of a substitute photobioreactor design, we conclude that sustainable photobioreactor cultivation of microalgae in similar temperate climates requires a short light path and low power input, only reasonably obtained by flat-panel systems. However, temperature control was not necessary for effective long-term cultivation. PMID:21511466

  7. Genetic relationships among freshwater mussel species from fifteen Amazonian rivers and inferences on the evolution of the Hyriidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida).

    PubMed

    Santos-Neto, Guilherme da Cruz; Beasley, Colin Robert; Schneider, Horacio; Pimpão, Daniel Mansur; Hoeh, Walter Randolph; Simone, Luiz Ricardo Lopes de; Tagliaro, Claudia Helena

    2016-07-01

    The current phylogenetic framework for the South American Hyriidae is solely based on morphological data. However, freshwater bivalve morphology is highly variable due to both genetic and environmental factors. The present study used both mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S-ITS1) sequences in molecular phylogenetic analyses of nine Neotropical species of Hyriidae, collected from 15 South American rivers, and sequences of hyriids from Australia and New Zealand obtained from GenBank. The present molecular findings support traditional taxonomic proposals, based on morphology, for the South American subfamily Hyriinae, currently divided in three tribes: Hyriini, Castaliini and Rhipidodontini. Phylogenetic trees based on COI nucleotide sequences revealed at least four geographical groups of Castalia ambigua: northeast Amazon (Piriá, Tocantins and Caeté rivers), central Amazon, including C. quadrata (Amazon and Aripuanã rivers), north (Trombetas river), and C. ambigua from Peru. Genetic distances suggest that some specimens may be cryptic species. Among the Hyriini, a total evidence data set generated phylogenetic trees indicating that Paxyodon syrmatophorus and Prisodon obliquus are more closely related, followed by Triplodon corrugatus. The molecular clock, based on COI, agreed with the fossil record of Neotropical hyriids. The ancestor of both Australasian and Neotropical Hyriidae is estimated to have lived around 225million years ago. PMID:27071805

  8. Energy efficiency of an outdoor microalgal photobioreactor sited at mid-temperate latitude.

    PubMed

    Hulatt, Chris J; Thomas, David N

    2011-06-01

    This work examined the energetic performance of a 6-month semi-continuous cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in an outdoor photobioreactor at mid-temperate latitude, without temperature control. By measuring the seasonal biomass production (mean 11.31, range 1.39-23.67 g m(-2)d(-1)), higher heating value (22.94 kJ g(-1)) and solar irradiance, the mean seasonally-averaged photosynthetic efficiency (2.18%) and gross energy productivity (0.27 MJ m(-2) d(-1)) was calculated. When comparing the solar energy conversion efficiency to the energy investment for culture circulation, significant improvements in reactor energy input must be made to make the system viable. Using the data collected to model the energetic performance of a substitute photobioreactor design, we conclude that sustainable photobioreactor cultivation of microalgae in similar temperate climates requires a short light path and low power input, only reasonably obtained by flat-panel systems. However, temperature control was not necessary for effective long-term cultivation.

  9. Implementation of a portable electronic system for providing pain relief to patellofemoral pain syndrome patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang Chien, Jia-Ren; Lin, Guo-Hong; Hsu, Ar-Tyan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a portable electromyogram (EMG) system and a stimulator are developed for patellofemoral pain syndrome patients, with the objective of reducing the pain experienced by these patients; the patellar pain is caused by an imbalance between the vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) and the vastus lateralis (VL). The EMG measurement circuit and the electrical stimulation device proposed in this study are specifically designed for the VMO and the VL; they are capable of real-time waveform recording, possess analyzing functions, and can upload their measurement data to a computer for storage and analysis. The system can calculate and record the time difference between the EMGs of the VMO and the VL, as well as the signal strengths of both the EMGs. As soon as the system detects the generation of the EMG of the VL, it quickly calculates and processes the event and stimulates the VMO as feedback through electrical stimulation units, in order to induce its contraction. The system can adjust the signal strength, time length, and the sequence of the electrical stimulation, both manually and automatically. The output waveform of the electrical stimulation circuit is a dual-phase asymmetrical pulse waveform. The primary function of the electrical simulation circuit is to ensure that the muscles contract effectively. The performance of the device can be seen that the width of each pulse is 20-1000 μs, the frequency of each pulse is 10-100 Hz, and current strength is 10-60 mA.

  10. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Lars L; Kirk, Niels; Pedersen, Mogens T; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. All recorded muscles reached sufficiently high levels of activity during the coordination exercises for strength gain (>60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.

  11. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona. PMID:17154285

  12. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  13. Neck pain

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    , physical treatments, postural techniques (yoga, pilates, Alexander technique), pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) treatment, soft collars and special pillows, spray and stretch, surgery, traction, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). PMID:19445809

  14. Use of complementary and alternative medicine at Norwegian and Danish hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that a high proportion of the population in western countries use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, little is known about whether CAM is offered in hospitals. The aim of this study was to describe to what extent CAM is offered in Norwegian and Danish hospitals and investigate possible changes in Norway since 2001. Methods A one-page questionnaire was sent to all included hospitals in both countries. The questionnaire was sent to the person responsible for the clinical activity, typically the medical director. 99 hospitals in the authority (85%) in Norway and 126 in Denmark (97%) responded. Given contact persons were interviewed. Results CAM is presently offered in about 50% of Norwegian hospitals and one-third of Danish hospitals. In Norway CAM was offered in 50 hospitals, 40 of which involved acupuncture. 19 hospitals gave other alternative therapies like biofeedback, hypnosis, cupping, ear-acupuncture, herbal medicine, art therapy, homeopathy, reflexology, thought field therapy, gestalt therapy, aromatherapy, tai chi, acupressure, yoga, pilates and other. 9 hospitals offered more than one therapy form. In Denmark 38 hospitals offered acupuncture and one Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Light Therapy. The most commonly reported reason for offering CAM was scientific evidence in Denmark. In Norway it was the interest of a hospital employee, except for acupuncture where the introduction is more often initiated by the leadership and is more based on scientific evidence of effect. All persons (except one) responsible for the alternative treatment had a medical or allied health professional background and their education/training in CAM treatment varied substantially. Conclusions The extent of CAM being offered has increased substantially in Norway during the first decade of the 21st century. This might indicate a shift in attitude regarding CAM within the conventional health care system. PMID

  15. Three dimensional quantitative structure-toxicity relationship modeling and prediction of acute toxicity for organic contaminants to algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangqin; Jin, Minghao; Sheng, Lianxi

    2014-08-01

    Although numerous chemicals have been identified to have significant toxicological effect on aquatic organisms, there is still lack of a reliable, high-throughput approach to evaluate, screen and monitor the presence of organic contaminants in aquatic system. In the current study, we proposed a synthetic pipeline to automatically model and predict the acute toxicity of chemicals to algae. In the procedure, a new alignment-free three dimensional (3D) structure characterization method was described and, with this method, several 3D-quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (3D-QSTR) models were developed, from which two were found to exhibit strong internal fitting ability and high external predictive power. The best model was established by Gaussian process (GP), which was further employed to perform extrapolation on a random compound library consisting of 1014 virtually generated substituted benzenes. It was found that (i) substitution number can only exert slight influence on chemical׳s toxicity, but low-substituted benzenes seem to have higher toxicity than those of high-substituted entities, and (ii) benzenes substituted by nitro group and halogens exhibit high acute toxicity as compared to other substituents such as methyl and carboxyl groups. Subsequently, several promising candidates suggested by computational prediction were assayed by using a standard algal growth inhibition test. Consequently, four substituted benzenes, namely 2,3-dinitrophenol, 2-chloro-4-nitroaniline, 1,2,3-trinitrobenzene and 3-bromophenol, were determined to have high acute toxicity to Scenedesmus obliquus, with their EC50 values of 2.5±0.8, 10.5±2.1, 1.4±0.2 and 42.7±5.4μmol/L, respectively. PMID:24960624

  16. Fuel cells, electrolyzers, and microalgae photobioreactors: technologies for long-duration missions in human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, Stefan; Bretschneider, Jens; Nathanson, Emil; Buchert, Melanie

    Long-duration and far-distant missions in human spaceflight have higher requirements on life support systems (LSS) technologies than for missions into low Earth orbit (LEO). LSS technologies have to ensure that humans can survive, live, and work in space. Enhancements of existing technologies, new technological developments and synergetic components integration help to close the oxygen, water and carbon loops. For these reasons, the approach of a synergetic integration of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEFC), Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolyzers (PEL) and Photobioreactors (PBR) for microalgae cultivation into the LSS is investigated. It is demonstrated in which mission scenarii the application of PEFC, PEL, and PBR are useful in terms of mass, reliability, and cycle closures. The paper represents the current status of research at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) of University of Stuttgart on PEFC, PEL, and PBR development. A final configuration of a prototype of a PEFC system includes the gas, water, and thermal management. The PEL is a state-of-the-art technology for space application, but the specific requirements by a synergetic integration are focused. A prototype configuration of a PBR system, which was tested under microgravity conditions in a parabolic experiment, consists of a highly sophisticated cultivation chamber, adapted sensorics, pumps, nutrients supply and harvesting unit. Additionally, the latest results of the cultivation of the microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in the laboratories of the IRS are represented. Both species are robust, nutrient-rich for human diet. An outlook of the next steps is given for in-orbit verification.

  17. Metagenome Survey of a Multispecies and Alga-Associated Biofilm Revealed Key Elements of Bacterial-Algal Interactions in Photobioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Krohn-Molt, Ines; Wemheuer, Bernd; Alawi, Malik; Poehlein, Anja; Güllert, Simon; Schmeisser, Christel; Pommerening-Röser, Andreas; Grundhoff, Adam; Daniel, Rolf; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Photobioreactors (PBRs) are very attractive for sunlight-driven production of biofuels and capturing of anthropogenic CO2. One major problem associated with PBRs however, is that the bacteria usually associated with microalgae in nonaxenic cultures can lead to biofouling and thereby affect algal productivity. Here, we report on a phylogenetic, metagenome, and functional analysis of a mixed-species bacterial biofilm associated with the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in a PBR. The biofilm diversity and population dynamics were examined through 16S rRNA phylogeny. Overall, the diversity was rather limited, with approximately 30 bacterial species associated with the algae. The majority of the observed microorganisms were affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. A combined approach of sequencing via GS FLX Titanium from Roche and HiSeq 2000 from Illumina resulted in the overall production of 350 Mbp of sequenced DNA, 165 Mbp of which was assembled in larger contigs with a maximum size of 0.2 Mbp. A KEGG pathway analysis suggested high metabolic diversity with respect to the use of polymers and aromatic and nonaromatic compounds. Genes associated with the biosynthesis of essential B vitamins were highly redundant and functional. Moreover, a relatively high number of predicted and functional lipase and esterase genes indicated that the alga-associated bacteria are possibly a major sink for lipids and fatty acids produced by the microalgae. This is the first metagenome study of microalga- and PBR-associated biofilm bacteria, and it gives new clues for improved biofuel production in PBRs. PMID:23913425

  18. The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, R. C.; Buschbacher, R. M.; Newton, G. L.

    1987-01-01

    Of the many roles ascribed to glutathione (GSH) the one most clearly established is its role in the protection of higher eucaryotes against oxygen toxicity through destruction of thiol-reactive oxygen byproducts. If this is the primary function of GSH then GSH metabolism should have evolved during or after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. That many bacteria do not produce GSH is consistent with this view. In the present study we have examined the low-molecular-weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms to ascertain how evolution of GSH production is related to evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols to fluorescent derivatives, which were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Significant levels of GSH were not found in the green bacteria (Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus). Substantial levels of GSH were present in the purple bacteria (Chromatium vinosum, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Rhodocyclus gelatinosa), the cyanobacteria [Anacystis nidulans, Microcoleus chthonoplastes S.G., Nostoc muscorum, Oscillatoria amphigranulata, Oscillatoria limnetica, Oscillatoria sp. (Stinky Spring, Utah), Oscillatoria terebriformis, Plectonema boryanum, and Synechococcus lividus], and eucaryotic algae (Chlorella pyrenoidsa, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide; several unidentified thiols were also detected. Many of the organisms examined also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability that was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5'-bisdithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of

  19. Effects of muscle fiber type on glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in different Tibetan pig muscles and their association with glycolysis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L Y; Luo, J; Lei, H G; Jiang, Y Z; Bai, L; Li, M Z; Tang, G Q; Li, X W; Zhang, S H; Zhu, L

    2015-11-13

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition, glycolytic potential, mitochondrial content, and gene expression related to energy metabolism were analyzed in eight muscles from Tibetan pigs, to study how meat quality develops in different muscle tissues. The muscles were classified into three clusters, based on MyHC composition: masseter, trapezius, and latissimus dorsi as 'slow-oxidative-type'; psoas major and semimembranosus as 'intermediate-type'; and longissimus dorsi, obliquus externus abdominis, and semitendinosus as 'fast-glycolytic-type'. The 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles had the highest MyHC I and MyHC IIA content (P < 0.01); 'intermediate-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIx content (P < 0.01); and 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIb content (P < 0.01). The pH values measured in 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles were higher than those in the other clusters were; however, the color of 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles was palest (P < 0.01). Mitochondrial content increased in the order: fast-glycolytic-type < intermediate-type < slow-oxidative-type. In the 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles, the expression levels of genes related to ATP synthesis were higher, but were lower for those related to glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Mitochondrial content was significantly positively correlated with MyHC I content, but negatively correlated with MyHC IIb content. MyHC I and mitochondrial content were both negatively correlated with glycolytic potential. Overall, muscles used frequently in exercise had a higher proportion of type I fibers. 'Slow-oxidative-type' muscles, rich in type I fibers with higher mitochondrial and lower glycogen and glucose contents, had a higher ATP synthesis efficiency and lower glycolytic capacity, which contributed to their superior meat quality.

  20. Lateral facet syndrome of the patella. Lateral restraint analysis and use of lateral resection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R P

    1989-01-01

    Thirty-eight knees in 34 patients with an average age of 22 years were diagnosed as having lateral facet syndrome (LFS), a painful compressive arthropathy of the lateral facet of the patella. This diagnosis was based on the physical findings of tenderness at the lateral patellofemoral joint line, tenderness over the vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO) tendon just above the patella, a positive medial apprehension test, and marked resistance to medial patellar displacement with the knee flexed 30 degrees. The most common complaints were patellar pain with activity, pain with prolonged knee flexion, intermittent knee swelling, and giving way. At surgery, the VLO, the lateral retinaculum (LR), and the anterior fibers of the iliotibial tract (ITT) were sequentially divided from the lateral border of the patella. Each was temporarily reattached to a cuff of soft tissue left on the patella using surgical clamps to determine its contribution to lateral restraint. The VLO was found to be the primary restraint in one-half of the knees. In one-third of the knees, all three of the structures contributed equally. In six knees, the primary restraint was the anterior fibers of the ITT, whereas the LR was the primary restraint in only two. The distal ends of these three structures were then resected to prevent rescarring and retethering. At a minimum follow-up period of two years, 87% had satisfactory relief of their patellar pain, had returned to normal activities, and had no or minimal physical findings of LFS. The procedure is recommended for patients who have failed other procedures and in those whose symptoms cannot be controlled by activity modification, exercises, bracing, or medication. PMID:2910595

  1. Retroconversion of docosapentaenoic acid (n-6): an alternative pathway for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Ursula; Taipale, Sami J; Kainz, Martin J; Brett, Michael T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic pathways for arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) biosynthesis in Daphnia magna. Neonates of D. magna were maintained on [(13)C] enriched Scenedesmus obliquus and supplemented with liposomes that contained separate treatments of unlabeled docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6), 20:4n-6, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) or oleic acid (18:1n-9). Daphnia in the control treatment, without any supplementary fatty acids (FA) containing only trace amounts of 20:4n-6 (~0.3% of all FA). As expected, the highest proportion of 20:4n-6 (~6.3%) was detected in Daphnia that received liposomes supplemented with this FA. Higher availability of 18:2n-6 in the diet increased the proportion of 18:2n-6 in Daphnia, but the proportion of 20:4n-6 was not affected. Daphnia supplemented with 22:5n-6 contained ~3.5% 20:4n-6 in the lipids and FA specific stable isotope analyses validated that the increase in the proportion of 20:4n-6 was due to retroconversion of unlabeled 22:5n-6. These results suggest that chain shortening of 22:5n-6 is a more efficient pathway to synthesize 20:4n-6 in D. magna than elongation and desaturation of 18:2n-6. These results may at least partially explain the discrepancies noticed between phytoplankton FA composition and the expected FA composition in freshwater cladocerans. Finally, retroconversion of dietary 22:5n-6 to 20:4n-6 indicates Daphnia efficiently retain long chain n-6 FA in lake food webs, which might be important for the nutritional ecology of fish.

  2. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  3. Metagenome survey of a multispecies and alga-associated biofilm revealed key elements of bacterial-algal interactions in photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Krohn-Molt, Ines; Wemheuer, Bernd; Alawi, Malik; Poehlein, Anja; Güllert, Simon; Schmeisser, Christel; Pommerening-Röser, Andreas; Grundhoff, Adam; Daniel, Rolf; Hanelt, Dieter; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2013-10-01

    Photobioreactors (PBRs) are very attractive for sunlight-driven production of biofuels and capturing of anthropogenic CO2. One major problem associated with PBRs however, is that the bacteria usually associated with microalgae in nonaxenic cultures can lead to biofouling and thereby affect algal productivity. Here, we report on a phylogenetic, metagenome, and functional analysis of a mixed-species bacterial biofilm associated with the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus in a PBR. The biofilm diversity and population dynamics were examined through 16S rRNA phylogeny. Overall, the diversity was rather limited, with approximately 30 bacterial species associated with the algae. The majority of the observed microorganisms were affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. A combined approach of sequencing via GS FLX Titanium from Roche and HiSeq 2000 from Illumina resulted in the overall production of 350 Mbp of sequenced DNA, 165 Mbp of which was assembled in larger contigs with a maximum size of 0.2 Mbp. A KEGG pathway analysis suggested high metabolic diversity with respect to the use of polymers and aromatic and nonaromatic compounds. Genes associated with the biosynthesis of essential B vitamins were highly redundant and functional. Moreover, a relatively high number of predicted and functional lipase and esterase genes indicated that the alga-associated bacteria are possibly a major sink for lipids and fatty acids produced by the microalgae. This is the first metagenome study of microalga- and PBR-associated biofilm bacteria, and it gives new clues for improved biofuel production in PBRs.

  4. Punctuated Evolution of Global Climate Cooling during the late Middle to early Late Miocene: High-Resolution Planktonic Foraminiferal and Oxygen Isotope Records from the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, E.; Hilgen, F. J.; Lourens, L. J.; Shackleton, N. J.; Zachariasse, W. J.; Kruk, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotope records are presented from a deep marine succession of late Middle to early Late Miocene age in the Mediterranean, dated astronomically between 12.12 and 9.78 Ma. Long-term changes in the faunal composition reflect the overall late Neogene cooling trend. The planktonic and benthic oxygen isotope records are punctuated by two episodes of δ 18O increase, which have astronomical ages of 11.4 and 10.4 Ma and correspond to the Mi5 and Mi6 events of Miller et al. (1991a). The first-order comparison with the astronomical time series for the variations in the tilt of the Earth's axis revealed that these ice growth events coincide with low amplitude variations in the 1.2 myr obliquity cycle. This phase relation is different from that found during the last 5 myr, pointing to a fundamentally different response of the ice sheets to long-term obliquity induced variations in insolation. The inferred global cooling during Mi5 and Mi6 is accompanied by significant faunal changes in the Mediterranean, such as the arrival of neogloboquadrinids, the increase in abundance of the G. apertura-G. obliquus group, and the areal differentiation between N. atlantica and N. acostaensis. Other faunal events, such as the disappearance of P. mayeri and the coiling changes in neogloboquadrinids are not related to these glacial episodes, but may have been controlled by short-term climate fluctuations superimposed on long-term astronomically and/or tectonically induced climate changes. Short-term variations in the planktonic foraminiferal and oxygen isotope records correspond to dominantly precession-controlled sedimentary cycles. The micropaleontological and stable isotopic features of sapropel/grey marl layers are identical to those observed for Late Miocene to Pleistocene sapropels, indicating that the short-term astronomically controlled circum-Mediterranean climate changes remained basically the same over the last 12 myr.

  5. Impacts of warming revealed by linking resource growth rates with consumer functional responses.

    PubMed

    West, Derek C; Post, David M

    2016-05-01

    Warming global temperatures are driving changes in species distributions, growth and timing, but much uncertainty remains regarding how climate change will alter species interactions. Consumer-Resource interactions in particular can be strongly impacted by changes to the relative performance of interacting species. While consumers generally gain an advantage over their resources with increasing temperatures, nonlinearities can change this relation near temperature extremes. We use an experimental approach to determine how temperature changes between 5 and 30 °C will alter the growth of the algae Scenedesmus obliquus and the functional responses of the small-bodied Daphnia ambigua and the larger Daphnia pulicaria. The impact of warming generally followed expectations, making both Daphnia species more effective grazers, with the increase in feeding rates outpacing the increases in algal growth rate. At the extremes of our temperature range, however, warming resulted in a decrease in Daphnia grazing effectiveness. Between 25 and 30 °C, both species of Daphnia experienced a precipitous drop in feeding rates, while algal growth rates remained high, increasing the likelihood of algal blooms in warming summer temperatures. Daphnia pulicaria performed significantly better at cold temperatures than D. ambigua, but by 20 °C, there was no significant difference between the two species, and at 25 °C, D. ambigua outperformed D. pulicaria. Warming summer temperatures will favour the smaller D. ambigua, but only over a narrow temperature range, and warming beyond 25 °C could open D. ambigua to invasion from tropical species. By fitting our results to temperature-dependent functions, we develop a temperature- and density-dependent model, which produces a metric of grazing effectiveness, quantifying the grazer density necessary to halt algal growth. This approach should prove useful for tracking the transient dynamics of other density-dependent consumer

  6. Effects of integrating hip movements into bridge exercises on electromyographic activities of selected trunk muscles in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-ju; Oh, Duck-won; Kim, Suhn-yeop

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the electromyographic (EMG) effects in selected trunk muscles after incorporating hip movement into bridging exercise. Twenty-six healthy adults (13 men and 13 women) volunteered for this experiment. EMG data (% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) were recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), obliquus internus (OI), erector spinae (ES), and multifidus (MF) muscles of the dominant side while the subjects performed 3 types of bridging exercise, including bridging alone (Bridging 1), bridging with unilateral hip movements (Bridging 2), and bridging with bilateral hip movements (Bridging 3) in a sling suspension system. The RA and OI showed greater EMG activity during Bridging 2 and 3 compared to Bridging 1, with the greatest OI activity during Bridging 3 (p < 0.05), and the activity of the MF appeared to be greater during Bridging 3 than during Bridging 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the OI/RA and MF/ES ratios were significantly higher for Bridging 2 (OI/RA = 1.89 ± 1.41; MF/ES = 1.03 ± 0.19) and Bridging 3 (OI/RA = 2.34 ± 1.86; MF/ES = 1.03 ± 0.15) than Bridging 1 (IO/RA = 1.35 ± 0.92; MF/ES = 0.98 ± 0.16). The OI/RA ratio was significantly higher for Bridging 3 than for Bridging 2. Based on these results, adding hip abduction and adduction, particularly bilateral movements, could be a useful method to enhance OI and MF EMG activity and their activities relative to global muscles during bridging exercise. PMID:24290206

  7. Photosynthetic sensitivity of phytoplankton to commonly used pharmaceuticals and its dependence on cellular phosphorus status.

    PubMed

    Grzesiuk, Malgorzata; Wacker, Alexander; Spijkerman, Elly

    2016-05-01

    Recently pharmaceuticals have become significant environmental pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, that could affect primary producers such as microalgae. Here we analyzed the effect of pharmaceuticals on the photosynthesis of microalgae commonly found in freshwater-two species of Chlorophyceae and a member of the Eustigmatophyceae, via PAM fluorometry. As pharmaceuticals, three medicines often consumed in households were chosen: (i) fluoxetine, an antidepressant, (ii) propranolol, a β-blocker and (iii) ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic medicine. The EC50 for the quantum yield of photosystem II in phytoplankton acclimated to inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-replete and Pi-limited conditions was estimated. Acute toxicity experiments over a 5 h exposure revealed that Nannochloropsis limnetica was the least sensitive to pharmaceuticals in its photosynthetic yield out of all species tested. Although the estimation of sub-lethal effects can be vital in contrast to that of LC50s, the EC50 values in all species and for all medicines were orders of magnitude higher than concentrations found in polluted surface water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was the most sensitive to fluoxetine (EC50 of 1.6 mg L(-1)), and propranolol (EC50 of 3 mg L(-1)). Acutodesmus obliquus was most sensitive to ibuprofen (EC50 of 288 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sensitivity to the pharmaceuticals changed under a Pi-limitation; the green algae became less sensitive to fluoxetine and propranolol. In contrast, Pi-limited algal species were more sensitive to ibuprofen. Our results suggest that the sensitivity of algae to pharmaceuticals is (i) highly compound- and species-specific and (ii) dependent on the cellular P status.

  8. Removal of triclosan via peroxidases-mediated reactions in water: Reaction kinetics, products and detoxification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Peng, Jianbiao; Zhang, Ya; Ji, Yuefei; Shi, Huanhuan; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated and compared reaction kinetics, product characterization, and toxicity variation of triclosan (TCS) removal mediated by soybean peroxidase (SBP), a recognized potential peroxidase for removing phenolic pollutants, and the commonly used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) with the goal of assessing the technical feasibility of SBP-catalyzed removal of TCS. Reaction conditions such as pH, H2O2 concentration and enzyme dosage were found to have a strong influence on the removal efficiency of TCS. SBP can retain its catalytic ability to remove TCS over broad ranges of pH and H2O2 concentration, while the optimal pH and H2O2 concentration were 7.0 and 8μM, respectively. 98% TCS was removed with only 0.1UmL(-1) SBP in 30min reaction time, while an HRP dose of 0.3UmL(-1) was required to achieve the similar conversion. The catalytic performance of SBP towards TCS was more efficient than that of HRP, which can be explained by catalytic rate constant (KCAT) and catalytic efficiency (KCAT/KM) for the two enzymes. MS analysis in combination with quantum chemistry computation showed that the polymerization products were generated via CC and CO coupling pathways. The polymers were proved to be nontoxic through growth inhibition of green alga (Scenedesmus obliquus). Taking into consideration of the enzymatic treatment cost, SBP may be a better alternative to HRP upon the removal and detoxification of TCS in water/wastewater treatment. PMID:26921508

  9. Photosynthetic sensitivity of phytoplankton to commonly used pharmaceuticals and its dependence on cellular phosphorus status.

    PubMed

    Grzesiuk, Malgorzata; Wacker, Alexander; Spijkerman, Elly

    2016-05-01

    Recently pharmaceuticals have become significant environmental pollutants in aquatic ecosystems, that could affect primary producers such as microalgae. Here we analyzed the effect of pharmaceuticals on the photosynthesis of microalgae commonly found in freshwater-two species of Chlorophyceae and a member of the Eustigmatophyceae, via PAM fluorometry. As pharmaceuticals, three medicines often consumed in households were chosen: (i) fluoxetine, an antidepressant, (ii) propranolol, a β-blocker and (iii) ibuprofen, an anti-inflammatory and analgesic medicine. The EC50 for the quantum yield of photosystem II in phytoplankton acclimated to inorganic phosphorus (Pi)-replete and Pi-limited conditions was estimated. Acute toxicity experiments over a 5 h exposure revealed that Nannochloropsis limnetica was the least sensitive to pharmaceuticals in its photosynthetic yield out of all species tested. Although the estimation of sub-lethal effects can be vital in contrast to that of LC50s, the EC50 values in all species and for all medicines were orders of magnitude higher than concentrations found in polluted surface water. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was the most sensitive to fluoxetine (EC50 of 1.6 mg L(-1)), and propranolol (EC50 of 3 mg L(-1)). Acutodesmus obliquus was most sensitive to ibuprofen (EC50 of 288 mg L(-1)). Additionally, the sensitivity to the pharmaceuticals changed under a Pi-limitation; the green algae became less sensitive to fluoxetine and propranolol. In contrast, Pi-limited algal species were more sensitive to ibuprofen. Our results suggest that the sensitivity of algae to pharmaceuticals is (i) highly compound- and species-specific and (ii) dependent on the cellular P status. PMID:26894612

  10. The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Fahey, R C; Buschbacher, R M; Newton, G L

    1987-01-01

    Of the many roles ascribed to glutathione (GSH) the one most clearly established is its role in the protection of higher eucaryotes against oxygen toxicity through destruction of thiol-reactive oxygen byproducts. If this is the primary function of GSH then GSH metabolism should have evolved during or after the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. That many bacteria do not produce GSH is consistent with this view. In the present study we have examined the low-molecular-weight thiol composition of a variety of phototrophic microorganisms to ascertain how evolution of GSH production is related to evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols to fluorescent derivatives, which were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Significant levels of GSH were not found in the green bacteria (Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chloroflexus aurantiacus). Substantial levels of GSH were present in the purple bacteria (Chromatium vinosum, Rhodospirillum rubrum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Rhodocyclus gelatinosa), the cyanobacteria [Anacystis nidulans, Microcoleus chthonoplastes S.G., Nostoc muscorum, Oscillatoria amphigranulata, Oscillatoria limnetica, Oscillatoria sp. (Stinky Spring, Utah), Oscillatoria terebriformis, Plectonema boryanum, and Synechococcus lividus], and eucaryotic algae (Chlorella pyrenoidsa, Chlorella vulgaris, Euglena gracilis, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii). Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide; several unidentified thiols were also detected. Many of the organisms examined also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability that was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5'-bisdithio-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of

  11. A high throughput colorimetric assay of β-1,3-D-glucans by Congo red dye.

    PubMed

    Semedo, Magda C; Karmali, Amin; Fonseca, Luís

    2015-02-01

    Mushroom strains contain complex nutritional biomolecules with a wide spectrum of therapeutic and prophylactic properties. Among these compounds, β-d-glucans play an important role in immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities. The present work involves a novel colorimetric assay method for β-1,3-d-glucans with a triple helix tertiary structure by using Congo red. The specific interaction that occurs between Congo red and β-1,3-d-glucan was detected by bathochromic shift from 488 to 516 nm (>20 nm) in UV-Vis spectrophotometer. A micro- and high throughput method based on a 96-well microtiter plate was devised which presents several advantages over the published methods since it requires only 1.51 μg of polysaccharides in samples, greater sensitivity, speed, assay of many samples and very cheap. β-D-Glucans of several mushrooms (i.e., Coriolus versicolor, Ganoderma lucidum, Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma carnosum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Inonotus obliquus, Auricularia auricular, Polyporus umbellatus, Cordyseps sinensis, Agaricus blazei, Poria cocos) were isolated by using a sequence of several extractions with cold and boiling water, acidic and alkaline conditions and quantified by this microtiter plate method. FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the structural features of β-1,3-D-glucans in these mushroom samples as well as the specific interaction of these polysaccharides with Congo red. The effect of NaOH on triple helix conformation of β-1,3-D-glucans was investigated in several mushroom species.

  12. The carboxyl modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) inhibits half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in photosystem II membrane fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.; Seibert, M. )

    1991-10-08

    The diphenylcarbazide (DPC)/Mn{sup 2+} assay was used to assess the amount of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach and Scenedesmus obliquus. The assay mechanism at high DPC concentration was shown to involve noncompetitive inhibition of only half of the control level of DPC donation to PS II by micromolar concentrations of Mn at pH 6.5. At low DPC concentration both DPC and Mn{sup 2+} donate to PS II additively. Treatment with the carboxyl amino acid modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3(dimethylamino) propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) inhibited half of the high affinity Mn-binding site in spinach and Scenedesmus WT PS II membranes and all of the available site in Scenedesmus LF-1 mutant PS II membranes. A similar EDC concentration dependence was observed in all cases. This protection was specific for Mn{sup 2+}; six other divalent cations were ineffective. The authors conclude that EDC modifies that half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site that is insensitive to the histidine modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and directly affects ligands that bind Mn. The effects of EDC and DEPC that influence the high-affinity site are mutually exclusive and are specific to the lumenal side of the PS II membrane. They suggest that carboxyl residues on reaction center proteins are associated with half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in PS II and are involved along with histidine residues in binding Mn functional in the O{sub 2}-evolving process.

  13. Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ≥1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (≥2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima. PMID:22847362

  14. Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.

    PubMed

    Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ≥1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (≥2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima.

  15. The good, the bad and the plenty: interactive effects of food quality and quantity on the growth of different Daphnia species.

    PubMed

    Bukovinszky, Tibor; Verschoor, Antonie M; Helmsing, Nico R; Bezemer, T Martijn; Bakker, Elisabeth S; Vos, Matthijs; de Senerpont Domis, Lisette N

    2012-01-01

    Effects of food quality and quantity on consumers are neither independent nor interchangeable. Although consumer growth and reproduction show strong variation in relation to both food quality and quantity, the effects of food quality or food quantity have usually been studied in isolation. In two experiments, we studied the growth and reproduction in three filter-feeding freshwater zooplankton species, i.e. Daphnia galeata x hyalina, D. pulicaria and D. magna, on their algal food (Scenedesmus obliquus), varying in carbon to phosphorus (C∶P) ratios and quantities (concentrations). In the first experiment, we found a strong positive effect of the phosphorus content of food on growth of Daphnia, both in their early and late juvenile development. Variation in the relationship between the P-content of animals and their growth rate reflected interspecific differences in nutrient requirements. Although growth rates typically decreased as development neared maturation, this did not affect these species-specific couplings between growth rate and Daphnia P-content. In the second experiment, we examined the effects of food quality on Daphnia growth at different levels of food quantity. With the same decrease in P-content of food, species with higher estimated P-content at zero growth showed a larger increase in threshold food concentrations (i.e. food concentration sufficient to meet metabolic requirements but not growth). These results suggest that physiological processes such as maintenance and growth may in combination explain effects of food quality and quantity on consumers. Our study shows that differences in response to variation in food quality and quantity exist between species. As a consequence, species-specific effects of food quality on consumer growth will also determine how species deal with varying food levels, which has implications for resource-consumer interactions. PMID:23049734

  16. Electromyographic activity of selected trunk muscles during stabilization exercises using a gym ball.

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    2004-01-01

    Trunk stabilization is very important for the injured lower back. The use of a gym ball, the surface of which is labile, is becoming more popular for strengthening the trunk muscles and challenging the motor control system in trunk stabilization exercises. However, little is known about the activity of the trunk muscles during such exercises. The purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trunk muscles during seven stabilization exercises using a gym ball. Eleven healthy men (19.9 +/- 1.8 years old) without low back pain volunteered to participate in the study. Bipolar surface electrodes were attached to the right side of the upper and lower rectus abdominis, the obliquus externus abdominis and the upper and lower back extensor muscles. EMG signals were recorded during seven types of stabilization exercises using a gym ball and normalized to maximal voluntary contraction (% MVC). A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on % MVC from each task for each of the five trunk muscle sites (p < 0.05). Push-up exercise, supporting with both hands on the gym ball and toes on the floor in prone position, resulted in the highest activity of all abdominal muscles, and an exercise of the lifting the gym ball up, holding it actively between both legs with both knees flexed in supine position resulted in the lowest. Lifting up of the pelvis in a bridged position exercise, supporting the head with the gym ball and with the feet on the floor in supine position, resulted in higher muscle activity of the back extensor muscles than another exercise. It is very important for physical therapists to make clear the purpose of the trunk stabilization exercises, because different kinds of exercises with the gym ball demand various levels of muscular activity and use of various parts of the trunk muscles.

  17. Quantification of diagenesis in Cenozoic sharks: Elemental and mineralogical changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labs-Hochstein, Joann; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2006-10-01

    Diagenesis of bone during fossilization is pervasive, however, the extent of this process varies with depositional environment. This study quantifies diagenesis of shark vertebral centra through analysis of a suite of physical and chemical characters including crystallinty index (CI), carbonate content, and elemental concentrations. Although shark skeletons are initially cartilaginous, the soft cartilage of the vertebral centra is replaced with carbonate hydroxyapatite during growth. Nine vertebral centra are analyzed from lamnoid (Lamnoidea) sharks ranging in age from the cretaceous to recent using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The variables CI, carbonate content, rare earth element (REE) concentrations, Ca/P, Ba/Ca, Sr/Ba, (La/Yb) N, (La/Y) N, (La/Yb) N vs. (La/Sm) N, La/Yb, and Ce anomalies elucidate the diagenetic and depositional environments of the seven fossil vertebral centra. The two extant centra demonstrate the initial, unaltered end-member conditions for these variables. Two fossil vertebral centra ( Carcharodon megalodon and Isurus hastalis) demonstrate a strong terrestrial influence during diagenesis (distinctive flattening of shale-normalized REE patterns) that masked the seawater signal. Three centra ( Carcharodon auriculatus, Carcharodon angustidens, and Creotxyrhina mantelli) have indications of some terrestrial influx evident by some flattening of the REE patterns relative to seawater. The terrestrial influence in these five shark centra ( C. megalodon, I. hastalis, C. auriculatus, C. angustidens and C. mantelli) are interpreted to represent a primarily nearshore habitat for these species. In contrast, the two Otodus obliquus centra have REE patterns that represent the original seawater signal and have no indications of terrigenous input. These results indicate that fossil shark vertebral centra have the potential to understand diagenesis and reconstruct

  18. A profile of the demographics and training characteristics of professional modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David S; Shah, Selina; Burchette, Raoul J

    2008-01-01

    Modern dancers are a unique group of artists, performing a diverse repertoire in dance companies of various sizes. In this study, 184 professional modern dancers in the United States (males N=49, females N=135), including members of large and small companies as well as freelance dancers, were surveyed regarding their demographics and training characteristics. The mean age of the dancers was 30.1 +/- 7.3 years, and they had danced professionally for 8.9 +/- 7.2 years. The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.6 +/- 2.4 for males and 20.5 +/- 1.7 for females. Females had started taking dance class earlier (age 6.5 +/- 4.2 years) as compared to males (age 15.6 +/- 6.2 years). Females were more likely to have begun their training in ballet, while males more often began with modern classes (55% and 51% respectively, p < 0.0001). The professional modern dancers surveyed spent 8.3 +/- 6.0 hours in class and 17.2 +/- 12.6 hours in rehearsal each week. Eighty percent took modern technique class and 67% reported that they took ballet technique class. The dancers who specified what modern technique they studied (N=84) reported between two and four different techniques. The dancers also participated in a multitude of additional exercise regimens for a total of 8.2 +/- 6.6 hours per week, with the most common types being Pilates, yoga, and upper body weightlifting. The dancers wore many different types of footwear, depending on the style of dance being performed. For modern dance alone, dancers wore 12 different types of footwear. Reflecting the diversity of the dancers and companies surveyed, females reported performing for 23.3 +/- 14.0 weeks (range: 2-52 weeks) per year; males reported performing 20.4 +/- 13.9 weeks (range: 1-40) per year. Only 18% of the dancers did not have any health insurance, with 54% having some type of insurance provided by their employer. However, 23% of the dancers purchased their own insurance, and 22% had insurance provided by their families. Only

  19. Maladie dermatophytique de revelation tardive

    PubMed Central

    Aboutou, Christelle Natacha Ebongo; Hali, Fouzia; Chihab, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    La maladie dermatophytique, décrite pour la première fois en 1959 par Hadida et Schousboe, est une infection dermatophytique chronique de la peau et des viscères. C'est une maladie rare principalement décrite au Maghreb. Les études immunologiques ont permis de mettre en évidence un déficit de l'immunité cellulaire à transmission autosomale récessive responsable d'un état de tolérance vis-à-vis du dermatophyte. Les premiers signes de cette pathologie surviennent généralement pendant l'enfance. Notre patient présente depuis l'âge de 50 ans une pachyonychie de tous les ongles et des lésions érythémato-squameuses circinées et prurigineuses généralisées à tout le tégument auxquelles se sont progressivement ajoutées une alopécie et une dépilation de toutes les aires pilaires, une kératodermie palmo-plantaire ainsi que des adénopathies axillaires et inguinales bilatérales. Tricophyton violaceum a été isolé sur les ongles. Aucun déficit immunitaire n'a été retrouvé ni atteinte viscérale dans la limite des bilans réalisés. L'évolution est marquée par des améliorations transitoires, la résistance des adénopathies et des atteintes phanériennes ainsi que les multiples rechutes malgré la mise sous griséofulvine. La maladie dermatophytique est une maladie grave mettant en jeu le pronostic vital du fait de l'évolution inexorable vers les atteintes viscérales. L'amélioration du statut immunitaire associée au traitement antifongique pourrait être la meilleure thérapeutique. PMID:27795791

  20. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines. PMID:24833780

  1. A profile of the demographics and training characteristics of professional modern dancers.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David S; Shah, Selina; Burchette, Raoul J

    2008-01-01

    Modern dancers are a unique group of artists, performing a diverse repertoire in dance companies of various sizes. In this study, 184 professional modern dancers in the United States (males N=49, females N=135), including members of large and small companies as well as freelance dancers, were surveyed regarding their demographics and training characteristics. The mean age of the dancers was 30.1 +/- 7.3 years, and they had danced professionally for 8.9 +/- 7.2 years. The average Body Mass Index (BMI) was 23.6 +/- 2.4 for males and 20.5 +/- 1.7 for females. Females had started taking dance class earlier (age 6.5 +/- 4.2 years) as compared to males (age 15.6 +/- 6.2 years). Females were more likely to have begun their training in ballet, while males more often began with modern classes (55% and 51% respectively, p < 0.0001). The professional modern dancers surveyed spent 8.3 +/- 6.0 hours in class and 17.2 +/- 12.6 hours in rehearsal each week. Eighty percent took modern technique class and 67% reported that they took ballet technique class. The dancers who specified what modern technique they studied (N=84) reported between two and four different techniques. The dancers also participated in a multitude of additional exercise regimens for a total of 8.2 +/- 6.6 hours per week, with the most common types being Pilates, yoga, and upper body weightlifting. The dancers wore many different types of footwear, depending on the style of dance being performed. For modern dance alone, dancers wore 12 different types of footwear. Reflecting the diversity of the dancers and companies surveyed, females reported performing for 23.3 +/- 14.0 weeks (range: 2-52 weeks) per year; males reported performing 20.4 +/- 13.9 weeks (range: 1-40) per year. Only 18% of the dancers did not have any health insurance, with 54% having some type of insurance provided by their employer. However, 23% of the dancers purchased their own insurance, and 22% had insurance provided by their families. Only

  2. Timed-daily ingestion of whey protein and exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass and improves insulin resistance: the PRISE study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Baur, Daniel; Connelly, Scott; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of timed ingestion of supplemental protein (20-g servings of whey protein, 3×/day), added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults and subsequently randomized to either whey protein only (P; n = 24), whey protein and resistance exercise (P + RT; n = 27), or a whey protein and multimode exercise training program [protein and resistance exercise, intervals, stretching/yoga/Pilates, endurance exercise (PRISE); n = 28]. Total and regional body composition and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], plasma lipids and adipokines, and feelings of hunger and satiety (visual analog scales) were measured before and after the 16-wk intervention. All groups lost body weight, fat mass (FM), and abdominal fat; however, PRISE lost significantly (P < 0.01) more body weight (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.7 kg, P + RT) and FM (2.8 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.5 kg, P + RT) and gained (P < 0.05) a greater percentage of lean body mass (2 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 and 0.6 ± 0.4%, P + RT and P, respectively). Only P + RT (0.1 ± 0.04 kg) and PRISE (0.21 ± 0.07 kg) lost VAT mass (P < 0.05). Fasting glucose decreased only in P + RT (5.1 ± 2.5 mg/dl) and PRISE (15.3 ± 2.1 mg/dl), with the greatest decline occurring in PRISE (P < 0.05). Similarly, HOMA-IR improved (0.6 ± 0.3, 0.6 ± 0.4 units), and leptin decreased (4.7 ± 2.2, 4.7 ± 3.1 ng/dl), and adiponectin increased (3.8 ± 1.1, 2.4 ± 1.1 μg/ml) only in P + RT and PRISE, respectively, with no change in P. In conclusion, we find evidence to support exercise training and timed ingestion of whey protein added to the habitual diet of free-living overweight/obese adults, independent of caloric restriction on total and regional body fat distribution, insulin resistance, and adipokines.

  3. Muscle-Activation Onset Times With Shoes and Foot Orthoses in Participants With Chronic Ankle Instability

    PubMed Central

    Dingenen, Bart; Peeraer, Louis; Deschamps, Kevin; Fieuws, Steffen; Janssens, Luc; Staes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Context Participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) use an altered neuromuscular strategy to shift weight from double-legged to single-legged stance. Shoes and foot orthoses may influence these muscle-activation patterns. Objective To evaluate the influence of shoes and foot orthoses on onset times of lower extremity muscle activity in participants with CAI during the transition from double-legged to single-legged stance. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Musculoskeletal laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 15 people (9 men, 6 women; age = 21.8 ± 3.0 years, height = 177.7 ± 9.6 cm, mass = 72.0 ± 14.6 kg) who had CAI and wore foot orthoses were recruited. Intervention(s) A transition task from double-legged to single-legged stance was performed with eyes open and with eyes closed. Both limbs were tested in 4 experimental conditions: (1) barefoot (BF), (2) shoes only, (3) shoes with standard foot orthoses, and (4) shoes with custom foot orthoses (SCFO). Main Outcome Measure(s) The onset of activity of 9 lower extremity muscles was recorded using surface electromyography and a single force plate. Results Based on a full-factorial (condition, region, limb, vision) linear model for repeated measures, we found a condition effect (F3,91.8 = 9.39, P < .001). Differences among experimental conditions did not depend on limb or vision condition. Based on a 2-way (condition, muscle) linear model within each region (ankle, knee, hip), earlier muscle-activation onset times were observed in the SCFO than in the BF condition for the peroneus longus (P < .001), tibialis anterior (P = .003), vastus medialis obliquus (P = .04), and vastus lateralis (P = .005). Furthermore, the peroneus longus was activated earlier in the shoes-only (P = .02) and shoes-with-standard-foot-orthoses (P = .03) conditions than in the BF condition. No differences were observed for the hip muscles. Conclusions Earlier onset of muscle activity was most apparent in the SCFO

  4. Age and paleoenvironment of the imperial formation near San Gorgonio Pass, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.; Poore, R.Z.; Matti, J.

    1999-01-01

    Microfossiliferous marine sediments of the Imperial Formation exposed in the Whitewater and Cabazon areas, near San Gorgonio Pass, southern California, are late Miocene in age and were deposited at intertidal to outer neritic depths, and possibly upper bathyal depths. A late Miocene age of 7.4 to >6.04 Ma is based on the ranges of age-diagnostic benthic foraminifers (Cassidulina delicata and Uvigerina peregrina), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes; zones N17-N19), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, D. aff. D. surculus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicata, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies; zones CN9a-CN11) coupled with published K/Ar dates from the underlying Coachella Formation (10.1 ?? 1.2 Ma; Peterson, 1975) and overlying Painted Hill Formation (6.04 ?? 0.18 and 5.94 ?? 0.18 Ma; J. L. Morton in Matti and others, 1985 and Matti and Morton, 1993). Paleoecologic considerations (sea-level fluctuations and paleotemperature) restrict the age of the Imperial Formation to 6.5 through 6.3 Ma. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate that the Imperial Formation in the Whitewater and Cabazon sections accumulated at inner neritic to outer neritic (0-152 m) and possibly upper bathyal (152-244 m) depths. Shallowing to inner neritic depths occurred as the upper part of the section was deposited. This sea-level fluctuation corresponds to a global highstand at 6.3 Ma (Haq and others, 1987). Planktic foraminifers suggest an increase in surface-water temperatures upsection. A similar increase in paleotemperatures is interpreted for the North Pacific from 6.5 to 6.3 Ma (warm interval W10 of Barron and Keller, 1983). Environmental contrasts between the Whitewater and Cabazon sections of the Imperial Formation provide evidence for right-lateral displacements on the Banning fault, a late Miocene strand of the San Andreas fault system. The Cabazon section lies south of the Banning fault, and has been displaced west

  5. The pathways responsible for the characteristic head posture produced by lesions of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal in the cat.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, K; Fukushima, J; Terashima, T

    1987-01-01

    (1) Experiments were performed in cats to examine effects of lesion of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) on head posture and the responsible pathway. Unilateral INC lesions resulted in lateral tilt of the head to the opposite side, and bilateral INC lesions resulted in dorsiflexion of the head as reported earlier. Such characteristic head posture was produced by successful kainic acid injections as well as by electrolytic lesions, suggesting that it was not due to damage of nerve fibers passing through the INC, but was produced most probably by damage of nerve cells in the INC. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings in unilateral INC-lesioned cats showed that activity was higher in the ipsilateral than in the contralateral major dorsal neck muscles (biventer, splenius, complexus, and rectus), and also higher in the contralateral than in the ipsilateral obliquus capitis caudalis muscle. The pattern of EMG activity was basically similar either when the cats presented typical head tilt or when their head was fixed to the frame at the stereotaxic plane. Characteristic head posture resulting from INC lesions seems consistent with the head posture produced by activation of these muscles. (2) Interruption of the medial and lateral vestibulospinal tracts did not significantly influence head tilt that had been produced by INC lesions. Characteristic head tilt was produced by INC lesions after cats had received bilateral labyrinthectomies, bilateral lesions of most of the vestibular nuclei, and bilateral aspiration of the cerebellar vermis and most of the lateral vestibular nuclei, indicating that typical head tilt can be produced without the vestibular nuclei and cerebellar vermis. (3) The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) was interrupted at different levels to cut the major descending fibers from the INC. MLF interruption at the caudal midbrain produced typical head tilt, although MLF cut at the caudal pons and medulla was ineffective. Bilateral parasagittal cuts

  6. Dynamics of Populations of Planetary Systems (IAU C197)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Zoran; Milani, Andrea

    2005-05-01

    1. Resonances and stability of extra-solar planetary systems C. Beaugé, N. Callegari, S. Ferraz-Mello and T. A. Michtchenko; 2. Formation, migration, and stability of extrasolar planetary systems Fred C. Adams; 3. Dynamical evolution of extrasolar planetary systems Ji-Lin Zhou and Yi-Sui Sun; 4. Dynamics of planetesimals: the role of two-body relaxation Eiichiro Kokubo; 5. Fitting orbits Andrzej J. Maciejewski, Krzysztof Gozdziewski and Szymon Kozlowski; 6. The secular planetary three body problem revisited Jacques Henrard and Anne-Sophie Libert; 7. Dynamics of extrasolar systems at the 5/2 resonance: application to 47 UMa Dionyssia Psychoyos and John D. Hadjidemetriou; 8. Our solar system as model for exosolar planetary systems Rudolf Dvorak, Áron Süli and Florian Freistetter; 9. Planetary motion in double stars: the influence of the secondary Elke Pilat-Lohinger; 10. Planetary orbits in double stars: influence of the binary's orbital eccentricity Daniel Benest and Robert Gonczi; 11. Astrometric observations of 51 Peg and Gliese 623 at Pulkovo observatory with 65 cm refractor N. A. Shakht; 12. Observations of 61 Cyg at Pulkovo Denis L. Gorshanov, N. A. Shakht, A. A. Kisselev and E. V. Poliakow; 13. Formation of the solar system by instability Evgeny Griv and Michael Gedalin; 14. Behaviour of a two-planetary system on a cosmogonic time-scale Konstantin V. Kholshevnikov and Eduard D. Kuznetsov; 15. Boundaries of the habitable zone: unifying dynamics, astrophysics, and astrobiology Milan M. Cirkovic; 16. Asteroid proper elements: recent computational progress Fernando Roig and Cristian Beaugé; 17. Asteroid family classification from very large catalogues Anne Lemaitre; 18. Non-gravitational perturbations and evolution of the asteroid main belt David Vokrouhlicky, M. Broz and W. F. Bottke, D. Nesvorny and A. Morbidelli; 19. Diffusion in the asteroid belt Harry Varvoglis; 20. Accurate model for the Yarkovsky effect David Capek and David Vokrouhlicky; 21. The