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Sample records for observational cohort study

  1. Cultivating cohort studies for observational translational research.

    PubMed

    Ransohoff, David F

    2013-04-01

    "Discovery" research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Experimental Selected examples are used to illustrate: (i) what features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? (ii) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example, within randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT), other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like health maintenance organization (HMOs)? Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer, a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer, and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be "cultivated" in the future. By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of "cultivating cohorts" in ongoing RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy.

  2. Observational Studies: Cohort and Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae W.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2010-01-01

    Observational studies are an important category of study designs. To address some investigative questions in plastic surgery, randomized controlled trials are not always indicated or ethical to conduct. Instead, observational studies may be the next best method to address these types of questions. Well-designed observational studies have been shown to provide results similar to randomized controlled trials, challenging the belief that observational studies are second-rate. Cohort studies and case-control studies are two primary types of observational studies that aid in evaluating associations between diseases and exposures. In this review article, we describe these study designs, methodological issues, and provide examples from the plastic surgery literature. PMID:20697313

  3. Survival after postoperative morbidity: a longitudinal observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Moonesinghe, S R; Harris, S; Mythen, M G; Rowan, K M; Haddad, F S; Emberton, M; Grocott, M P W

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28-5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62-3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia.

  4. Challenges in translating endpoints from trials to observational cohort studies in oncology

    PubMed Central

    Ording, Anne Gulbech; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Ehrenstein, Vera; Lash, Timothy L; Acquavella, John; Rørth, Mikael; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for examining drug efficacy and for approval of new drugs. Medical databases and population surveillance registries are valuable resources for post-approval observational research, which are increasingly used in studies of benefits and risk of new cancer drugs. Here, we address the challenges in translating endpoints from oncology trials to observational studies. Registry-based cohort studies can investigate real-world safety issues – including previously unrecognized concerns – by examining rare endpoints or multiple endpoints at once. In contrast to clinical trials, observational cohort studies typically do not exclude real-world patients from clinical practice, such as old and frail patients with comorbidity. The observational cohort study complements the clinical trial by examining the effectiveness of interventions applied in clinical practice and by providing evidence on long-term clinical outcomes, which are often not feasible to study in a clinical trial. Various endpoints can be included in clinical trials, such as hard endpoints, soft endpoints, surrogate endpoints, and patient-reported endpoints. Each endpoint has it strengths and limitations for use in research studies. Endpoints used in oncology trials are often not applicable in observational cohort studies which are limited by the setting of standard clinical practice and by non-standardized endpoint determination. Observational studies can be more helpful moving research forward if they restrict focus to appropriate and valid endpoints. PMID:27354827

  5. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael K.; Page, Rodney L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Olson, Patricia N.; Haworth, J. David; Searfoss, Erin E.; Brown, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS) is the first prospective longitudinal study attempted in veterinary medicine to identify the major dietary, genetic and environmental risk factors for cancer and other important diseases in dogs. The GRLS is an observational study that will follow a cohort of 3000 purebred Golden Retrievers throughout their lives via annual online questionnaires from the dog owner and annual physical examinations and collection of biological samples by the primary care veterinarian. The field of comparative medicine investigating naturally occurring disorders in pets is specifically relevant to the many diseases that have a genetic basis for disease in both animals and humans, including cancer, blindness, metabolic and behavioural disorders and some neurodegenerative disorders. The opportunity for the GRLS to provide high-quality data for translational comparative medical initiatives in several disease categories is great. In particular, the opportunity to develop a lifetime dataset of lifestyle and activity, environmental exposure and diet history combined with simultaneous annual biological sample sets and detailed health outcomes will provide disease incidence data for this cohort of geographically dispersed dogs and associations with a wide variety of potential risk factors. The GRLS will provide a lifetime historical context, repeated biological sample sets and outcomes necessary to interrogate complex associations between genes and environmental influences and cancer. PMID:26056371

  6. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Perioperative patient outcomes in the African Surgical Outcomes Study: a 7-day prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Biccard, Bruce M; Madiba, Thandinkosi E; Kluyts, Hyla-Louise; Munlemvo, Dolly M; Madzimbamuto, Farai D; Basenero, Apollo; Gordon, Christina S; Youssouf, Coulibaly; Rakotoarison, Sylvia R; Gobin, Veekash; Samateh, Ahmadou L; Sani, Chaibou M; Omigbodun, Akinyinka O; Amanor-Boadu, Simbo D; Tumukunde, Janat T; Esterhuizen, Tonya M; Manach, Yannick Le; Forget, Patrice; Elkhogia, Abdulaziz M; Mehyaoui, Ryad M; Zoumeno, Eugene; Ndayisaba, Gabriel; Ndasi, Henry; Ndonga, Andrew K N; Ngumi, Zipporah W W; Patel, Ushmah P; Ashebir, Daniel Zemenfes; Antwi-Kusi, Akwasi A K; Mbwele, Bernard; Sama, Hamza Doles; Elfiky, Mahmoud; Fawzy, Maher A; Pearse, Rupert M

    2018-04-21

    There is a need to increase access to surgical treatments in African countries, but perioperative complications represent a major global health-care burden. There are few studies describing surgical outcomes in Africa. We did a 7-day, international, prospective, observational cohort study of patients aged 18 years and older undergoing any inpatient surgery in 25 countries in Africa (the African Surgical Outcomes Study). We aimed to recruit as many hospitals as possible using a convenience sampling survey, and required data from at least ten hospitals per country (or half the surgical centres if there were fewer than ten hospitals) and data for at least 90% of eligible patients from each site. Each country selected one recruitment week between February and May, 2016. The primary outcome was in-hospital postoperative complications, assessed according to predefined criteria and graded as mild, moderate, or severe. Data were presented as median (IQR), mean (SD), or n (%), and compared using t tests. This study is registered on the South African National Health Research Database (KZ_2015RP7_22) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03044899). We recruited 11 422 patients (median 29 [IQR 10-70]) from 247 hospitals during the national cohort weeks. Hospitals served a median population of 810 000 people (IQR 200 000-2 000 000), with a combined number of specialist surgeons, obstetricians, and anaesthetists totalling 0·7 (0·2-1·9) per 100 000 population. Hospitals did a median of 212 (IQR 65-578) surgical procedures per 100 000 population each year. Patients were younger (mean age 38·5 years [SD 16·1]), with a lower risk profile (American Society of Anesthesiologists median score 1 [IQR 1-2]) than reported in high-income countries. 1253 (11%) patients were infected with HIV, 6504 procedures (57%) were urgent or emergent, and the most common procedure was caesarean delivery (3792 patients, 33%). Postoperative complications occurred in 1977 (18·2%, 95% CI 17·4-18·9

  8. Plasma proteome analysis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Christopher J; Wharton, John; Ghataorhe, Pavandeep; Watson, Geoffrey; Girerd, Barbara; Howard, Luke S; Gibbs, J Simon R; Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charles A; Kiely, David G; Simonneau, Gerald; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Gall, Henning; Schermuly, Ralph T; Ghofrani, H Ardeschir; Lawrie, Allan; Humbert, Marc; Wilkins, Martin R

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension form a rare but molecularly heterogeneous disease group. We aimed to measure and validate differences in plasma concentrations of proteins that are associated with survival in patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension to improve risk stratification. In this observational cohort study, we enrolled patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension from London (UK; cohorts 1 and 2), Giessen (Germany; cohort 3), and Paris (France; cohort 4). Blood samples were collected at routine clinical appointment visits, clinical data were collected within 30 days of blood sampling, and biochemical data were collected within 7 days of blood sampling. We used an aptamer-based assay of 1129 plasma proteins, and patient clinical details were concealed to the technicians. We identified a panel of prognostic proteins, confirmed with alternative targeted assays, which we evaluated against the established prognostic risk equation for pulmonary arterial hypertension derived from the REVEAL registry. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. 20 proteins differentiated survivors and non-survivors in 143 consecutive patients with idiopathic or heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension with 2 years' follow-up (cohort 1) and in a further 75 patients with 2·5 years' follow-up (cohort 2). Nine proteins were both prognostic independent of plasma NT-proBNP concentrations and confirmed by targeted assays. The functions of these proteins relate to myocardial stress, inflammation, pulmonary vascular cellular dysfunction and structural dysregulation, iron status, and coagulation. A cutoff-based score using the panel of nine proteins provided prognostic information independent of the REVEAL equation, improving the C statistic from area under the curve 0·83 (for REVEAL risk score, 95% CI 0·77-0·89; p<0·0001) to 0·91 (for panel and REVEAL 0·87-0·96; p<0·0001) and improving

  9. Statins and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism: pooled analysis of published observational cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Seidu, Samuel; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2017-05-21

    There have been suggestions that statins may have a potential role in secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) [which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE)], but the evidence is inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate the association between statin use and risk of recurrent VTE. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies. All relevant studies which reported associations between statin use and recurrent VTE outcomes were identified from MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and manual search of bibliographies from inception to January 2017. Study specific relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals were aggregated using random effects models. Eight eligible studies comprising of 103 576 participants and 13 168 recurrent VTE outcomes were included in the pooled analysis. In pooled analysis of 7 studies, the RR for recurrent VTE was 0.73 (0.68-0.79) when comparing statin use with no use. There was no evidence of heterogeneity between contributing studies (I2=0%, 0-71%; P = 0.93). The RRs for recurrent PE (three studies) and DVT (two studies) comparing statin use with no statin use were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.96) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.60-0.71) respectively. Available evidence from observational cohort studies suggests a beneficial effect of statin use on VTE recurrence. Well-designed intervention studies are needed to corroborate these findings. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Utilisation of extended release quetiapine (Seroquel XL™): Results from an observational cohort study in England.

    PubMed

    Osborne, V; Davies, M; Layton, D; Shakir, S A W

    2016-03-01

    A post-authorisation safety study was carried out as part of the EU Risk Management Plan to examine the long-term (up to 12 months) use of quetiapine XL as prescribed in general practice in England. To present a description of the drug utilisation characteristics of quetiapine XL. An observational, population-based cohort design using the technique of Modified Prescription-Event Monitoring (M-PEM). Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by general practitioners (GPs) for quetiapine XL between September 2008 and February 2013. Questionnaires were sent to GPs 12 months following the 1st prescription for each individual patient, requesting drug utilisation information. Cohort accrual was extended to recruit additional elderly patients (special population of interest). Summary descriptive statistics were calculated. The final M-PEM cohort consisted of 13,276 patients; median age 43 years (IQR: 33, 55) and 59.0% females. Indications for prescribing included bipolar disorder (n=3820), MDD (n=2844), schizophrenia (n=2373) and other (non-licensed) indications (n=3750). Where specified, 59.3% (7869/13,276) were reported to have used quetiapine IR (immediate release formulation) previously at any time. The median start dose was highest for patients with schizophrenia (300 mg/day [IQR 150, 450]). The final elderly cohort consisted of 3127 patients and 28.5% had indications associated with dementia. The median start dose for elderly patients was highest for patients with schizophrenia or BD (both 100mg/day [IQR 50, 300]). The prevalence of off-label prescribing in terms of indication and high doses was common, as was use in special populations such as the very elderly. Whilst off-label use may be unavoidable in certain situations, GPs may need to re-evaluate prescribing in circumstances where there may be safety concerns. This study demonstrates the ongoing importance of observational studies such as M-PEM to gather real-world clinical data to support the

  11. Effects of chlorhexidine gluconate oral care on hospital mortality: a hospital-wide, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Deschepper, Mieke; Waegeman, Willem; Eeckloo, Kristof; Vogelaers, Dirk; Blot, Stijn

    2018-05-09

    Chlorhexidine oral care is widely used in critically and non-critically ill hospitalized patients to maintain oral health. We investigated the effect of chlorhexidine oral care on mortality in a general hospitalized population. In this single-center, retrospective, hospital-wide, observational cohort study we included adult hospitalized patients (2012-2014). Mortality associated with chlorhexidine oral care was assessed by logistic regression analysis. A threshold cumulative dose of 300 mg served as a dichotomic proxy for chlorhexidine exposure. We adjusted for demographics, diagnostic category, and risk of mortality expressed in four categories (minor, moderate, major, and extreme). The study cohort included 82,274 patients of which 11,133 (14%) received chlorhexidine oral care. Low-level exposure to chlorhexidine oral care (≤ 300 mg) was associated with increased risk of death [odds ratio (OR) 2.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-2.92]. This association was stronger among patients with a lower risk of death: OR 5.50 (95% CI 4.51-6.71) with minor/moderate risk, OR 2.33 (95% CI 1.96-2.78) with a major risk, and a not significant OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.90-1.41) with an extreme risk of mortality. Similar observations were made for high-level exposure (> 300 mg). No harmful effect was observed in ventilated and non-ventilated ICU patients. Increased risk of death was observed in patients who did not receive mechanical ventilation and were not admitted to ICUs. The adjusted number of patients needed to be exposed to result in one additional fatality case was 47.1 (95% CI 45.2-49.1). These data argue against the indiscriminate widespread use of chlorhexidine oral care in hospitalized patients, in the absence of proven benefit in specific populations.

  12. Utilisation and Safety of Deferasirox: Results from an Observational Cohort Study in England.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Vicki; Davies, Miranda; Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2018-03-01

    Deferasirox (EXJADE ® , Novartis, UK) is an oral iron-chelating agent primarily used to reduce chronic iron overload in patients receiving blood transfusions for various chronic anaemias and some non-transfusion dependant anaemias. The aim of this study was to examine the utilisation and safety of deferasirox used in general practice in England. A single exposure observational cohort study design was used. Patients were identified from dispensed prescriptions for deferasirox between September 2006 and September 2014. Outcome data were collected via postal questionnaires sent to prescribers ≥ 6 months after first dispensed prescription for an individual patient. Summary descriptive statistics were calculated. The evaluable cohort consisted of 122 patients, of which 41.8% were aged 2-17 years. Frequent reasons for prescribing were sickle cell anaemia (27/103 where specified, 26.2%) and beta thalassaemia (26, 25.2%). The majority of patients (43/51, 84.3%) were prescribed the licensed doses of 10 or 20 mg/kg/day at start. Prior measurements of serum creatinine were only reported for a small proportion this study (18/122, 14.8%). In total, 91 incident events were reported, including two of raised serum creatinine. These results show that deferasirox is largely being prescribed for its licensed indications in general practice in England and events reported were consistent with the known safety profile.

  13. The influence of comorbidities on mortality in sarcoidosis: a observational prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nowiński, Adam; Puścińska, Elzbieta; Goljan, Anna; Peradzynska, Joanna; Bednarek, Michal; Korzybski, Damian; Kamiński, Dariusz; Stokłosa, Anna; Czystowska, Monika; Śliwiński, Pawel; Górecka, Dorota

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and prevalence of comorbidities in sarcoid patients and to assess their influence on overall mortality in the cohort of patients with sarcoidosis. A cohort of 557 patients with histologically confirmed sarcoidosis diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 and a group of non-sarcoid controls were observed. All patients were carefully observed for comorbidities and mortality. 291 males (52.2%) and 266 females (47.8%) with mean age 48.4 ± 12.0 years in sarcoidosis group and a group of 100 controls with mean age (49.25 ± 10.3) were observed. The mean number of comorbidities in both groups was similar (0.9 ± 0.99 vs 0.81 ± 0.84 NS). The frequency of thyroid disease was significantly higher in sarcoidosis group comparing to controls at the time of diagnosis (OR = 3.62 P = 0.0144). During the observation period (median 58.0 months), 16 patients died (2.9%). The mean number of comorbidities was significantly higher in the groups of non-survivors as compared to survivors (2.8 ± 1.0, vs 0.8 ± 0.9), P < 0.0001. The comorbidity burden has strong impact on mortality in sarcoidosis. Thyroid diseases are more frequent in sarcoidosis than in non-sarcoid controls. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Pregnancy outcome after first trimester use of angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tissen-Diabaté, Tatjana; Fietz, Anne-Katrin; Zinke, Sandra; Kayser, Angela; Meister, Reinhard; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Schaefer, Christof

    2018-03-24

    Ongoing discussion about the safety of renin-angiotensin inhibitors in the first trimester and limited data on pregnancy outcomes after exposure to angiotensin AT1 receptor blockers (ARBs). Observational cohort study compares outcomes of 215 prospectively ascertained pregnancies with first trimester exposure to ARBs with 642 non-hypertensive pregnancies. The rate of major birth defects in the ARB cohort (9/168, 5.4%) was higher than in the comparison group (17/570, 3%), but not significantly increased (OR adj 1.9, 95% CI 0.7-4.9). There was no distinct pattern of anomalies among infants with birth defects. The risk of spontaneous abortions was not increased (HR adj 0.9, 95% CI 0.5-1.6), although the cumulative incidence was in the upper normal range (0.22, 95% CI 0.15-0.32). Higher rates of prematurity (OR adj 3.0; 95% CI 1.7-5.1) and a reduced birth weight after adjustment for sex and gestational age were observed. There was no evidence for an increased risk for major birth defects, spontaneous abortions, or preterm birth in a sensitivity analysis comparing ARB exposed hypertensive women to hypertensive women without ARB exposure during the first trimester. Our study supports the hypothesis that ARBs are not major teratogens. Patients inadvertently exposed to ARBs during the early pregnancy may be reassured. Nevertheless, women planning pregnancy should avoid ARBs. In selected cases, ARBs might be continued under careful monitoring of menstrual cycle and discontinued as soon as pregnancy is recognized.

  15. Antibiotic prescription strategies for acute sore throat: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Hobbs, F D Richard; Butler, Chris C; Hay, Alastair D; Delaney, Brendan; Campbell, John; Broomfield, Sue; Barratt, Paula; Hood, Kerenza; Everitt, Hazel; Mullee, Mark; Williamson, Ian; Mant, David; Moore, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Data from trials suggest that antibiotics reduce the risk of complications of sore throat by at least 50%, but few trials for complications have been done in modern settings, and datasets of delayed antibiotic prescription are underpowered. Observational evidence is important in view of poor compliance with antibiotic treatment outside trials, but no prospective observational cohort studies have been done to date. We generated a large prospective cohort from the DESCARTE study, and the PRISM component of DESCARTE, of 12,829 adults presenting with sore throat (≤ 2 weeks duration) in primary care. Our follow-up of the cohort was based on a detailed and structured review of routine medical records, and analysis of the comparison of three antibiotic prescription strategies (no antibiotic prescription, immediate antibiotic prescription, and delayed antibiotic prescription) to control for the propensity to prescribe antibiotics. Information about antibiotic prescription was recorded in 12,677 individuals (4805 prescribed no antibiotics, 6088 prescribed antibiotics immediately, and 1784 prescribed delayed antibiotics). We documented by review of patients' notes (n=11,950) the development of suppurative complications (eg, quinsy, impetigo and cellulitis, otitis media, and sinusitis) or reconsultation with new or non-resolving symptoms). We used multivariate analysis to control for variables significantly related to the propensity to prescribe antibiotics and for clustering by general practitioner. 164 (1.4%) of the 11,950 patients with information available developed complications; otitis media and sinusitis were the most common complications (101 patients [62%]). Compared with no antibiotic prescription, immediate antibiotic prescription was associated with fewer complications (adjusted risk ratio [RR] 0.62, 95% CI 0.43-0.91, estimated number needed to treat [NNT 193) as was delayed prescription of antibiotics (0.58, 0.34-0.98; NNT 174). 1787 of the 11,950 patients (15

  16. Association of postoperative pulmonary complications with delayed mobilisation following major abdominal surgery: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haines, K J; Skinner, E H; Berney, S

    2013-06-01

    Previous Australian studies reported that postoperative pulmonary complications affect 13% of patients undergoing upper abdominal laparotomy. This study measured the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications, risk factors for the diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications and barriers to physiotherapy mobilisation in a cohort of patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery. Prospective, observational cohort study. Two surgical wards in a tertiary Australian hospital. Seventy-two patients undergoing high-risk abdominal surgery (participants in a larger trial evaluating a novel model of medical co-management). Incidence of, and risk factors for, postoperative pulmonary complications, barriers to mobilisation and length of stay. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 39%. Incision type and time to mobilise away from the bed were independently associated with a diagnosis of postoperative pulmonary complications. Patients were 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.2 to 8.0) times more likely to develop a postoperative pulmonary complication for each postoperative day they did not mobilise away from the bed. Fifty-two percent of patients had a barrier to mobilisation away from the bed on the first postoperative day, with the most common barrier being hypotension, although cessation criteria were not defined objectively by physiotherapists. Development of a postoperative pulmonary complication increased median hospital length of stay (16 vs 13 days; P=0.046). This study demonstrated an association between delayed postoperative mobilisation and postoperative pulmonary complications. Randomised controlled trials are required to test the role of early mobilisation in preventing postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing high-risk upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2012 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Observational Cohort Study of Pregnancy Outcome after First-Trimester Exposure to Fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Evelin; Meister, Reinhard; Panse, Mary; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Oppermann, Marc; Schaefer, Christof

    2014-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are avoided during pregnancy due to developmental toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to assess the fetal risk after intrauterine fluoroquinolone exposure. We performed an observational study of a prospectively ascertained cohort of pregnant women exposed to a fluoroquinolone during the first trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were compared to those of a cohort exposed to neither fluoroquinolones nor teratogenic or fetotoxic drugs. The outcomes evaluated were major birth defects (structural abnormalities of medical, surgical, or cosmetic relevance), spontaneous abortion, and elective termination of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes of 949 women with fluoroquinolone treatment were compared with those of 3,796 nonexposed controls. Neither the rate of major birth defects (2.4%; adjusted odds ratio [ORadj], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 1.5) nor the risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3) was increased. However, there was a nonsignificant increase in major birth defects after exposure to moxifloxacin (6/93, 6.5%; crude odds ratio [ORcrude], 2.40; 95% CI, 0.8 to 5.6). Neither a critical exposure time window within the first trimester nor a specific pattern of birth defects was demonstrated for any of the fluoroquinolones. The rate of electively terminated pregnancies was increased among the fluoroquinolone-exposed women (HRadj, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.7). The gestational ages at delivery and birth weights did not differ between groups. Our study did not detect an increased risk of spontaneous abortion or major birth defects. These reassuring findings support the recommendation to allow fluoroquinolone use in early pregnancy in selected cases. After the use of moxifloxacin, a detailed fetal ultrasound examination should be considered. PMID:24841264

  18. Baseline Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients Enrolled in LURN: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Anne P; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Smith, Abigail R; Helfand, Brian T; Gore, John L; Clemens, J Quentin; Yang, Claire C; Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Lai, H Henry; Griffith, James W; Andreev, Victor P; Liu, Gang; Weinfurt, Kevin; Amundsen, Cindy L; Bradley, Catherine S; Kusek, John W; Kirkali, Ziya

    2018-04-01

    We described and compared the frequency and type of lower urinary tract symptoms reported by men and women at the time that they were recruited from urology and urogynecology clinics into the Symptoms of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Research Network multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study. At 6 research sites treatment seeking men and women were enrolled who reported any lower urinary tract symptoms at a frequency more than rarely during the last month on the LUTS (Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms) Tool. At baseline the study participants underwent a standardized clinical evaluation and completed validated questionnaires. Urological tests were performed, including pelvic/rectal examination, post-void residual urine measurement and urinalysis. A total of 545 women and 519 men were enrolled in the study. Mean ± SD age was 58.8 ± 14.1 years. At baseline nocturia, frequency and a sensation of incomplete emptying were similar in men and women but men experienced more voiding symptoms (90% vs 85%, p = 0.007) and women reported more urgency (85% vs 66%, p <0.001). Women also reported more of any type of urinary incontinence than men (82% vs 51% p <0.001), which was mixed incontinence in 57%. Only 1% of men reported stress incontinence but they had other urinary incontinence, including post-void dribbling in 44% and urgency incontinence in 46%. Older participants had higher odds of reporting symptoms of nocturia and urgency. In this large, treatment seeking cohort of men and women lower urinary tract symptoms varied widely by gender and age. Men reported more voiding symptoms and nonstress or urgency urinary incontinence while women reported more incontinence overall and urgency. Older participants had greater odds of urgency and nocturia. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical versus manual manipulation for low back pain: An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Michael J; Brach, Jennifer; Irrgang, James J.; Abbott, Katherine Verdolini; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Delitto, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Objective This is an observational prospective cohort study to explore the treatment effect of mechanical vs. manual manipulation for acute low back pain. Methods Ninety two patients with a history of acute low back pain were recruited from 3 private chiropractic offices, 2 of which utilized manual lumbar manipulation and 1 used mechanical instrument manipulation (Activator) as their primary modes of treatment. The chiropractors used their “treatment as usual” protocols for a maximum of 8 visits or 4 weeks, which ever occurred first. Primary outcome measures were changes in Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores from baseline to 4 weeks. The linear regression models were adjusted for baseline NPRS and ODI scores, age, and treatment expectancy. Results Comparison of baseline characteristics did not show any significant differences between the groups except for age (38.4 vs. 49.7 years; p < .001) and treatment expectancy (5.7 vs. 6.3; p = .003). Linear regression revealed significantly lower NPRS scores in the manual manipulation group at four weeks [β = −1.2; 95% CI (−2.1, −.28)] but no significant difference in ODI scores between the two groups at four weeks [β = 1.5; 95% CI (−8.3, 2.4)]. Treatment expectancy, but not age, was found to have a significant main effect on both NPRS and ODI scores at 4 weeks. Exploratory analysis of the clinical patterns of care between the clinicians revealed significant differences in treatment frequency, duration, modality and radiograph usage between the 2 cohorts. Conclusions This study highlights the challenges inherent with conducting research that allows for “treatment-as-usual”. The data and experience derived from this investigational study will be used to design a future randomized clinical trial in which tighter controls will be imposed on the treatment protocol. PMID:20350672

  20. Risk factors for dermatitis in submariners during a submerged patrol: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Flaxman, Amy; Allen, Elizabeth; Lindemann, Claudia; Yamaguchi, Yuko; O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Knox, Kyle; Wyllie, David H

    2016-06-02

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine risk factors, including Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, for dermatitis in submariners during a submarine patrol. 36 submariners undertaking a submerged 6-week patrol participated in the study. Severity of dermatitis and its impact was assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires at baseline and weekly throughout the patrol. S. aureus carriage levels in submariners were determined by nasal swabbing at baseline and shortly before disembarking the submarine. Occurrence of any skin or soft tissue infections (SSTI) were reported to the medical officer and swabs of the area were taken for subsequent analysis. S. aureus carriers were significantly more likely than non-carriers to have previously received treatment for a cutaneous abscess (39% vs 5%, OR=13 (95% CI 1.3 to 130)) with a trend to being submariners longer (p=0.051). Skin scores at baseline and on patrol were not significantly associated with carriage status. Higher dermatitis scores were observed in those who had been submariners longer (p=0.045). Smoking and allergies were not found to be linked to carriage status or skin health score in this cohort. This small pilot study investigates S. aureus carriage status and skin health in submariners. Length of submarine service but not S. aureus carriage was identified as a risk factor for worsening skin health in this small cohort during a 6-week patrol. This does not support S. aureus decolonisation to improve skin health in this population. Further investigation into causes of dermatitis in submariners is required. This data supports a better understanding of the potential impact of exposure to environmental factors that could affect skin health in submariners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Beaugerie, Laurent; Brousse, Nicole; Bouvier, Anne Marie; Colombel, Jean Frédéric; Lémann, Marc; Cosnes, Jacques; Hébuterne, Xavier; Cortot, Antoine; Bouhnik, Yoram; Gendre, Jean Pierre; Simon, Tabassome; Maynadié, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Faivre, Jean; Carrat, Fabrice

    2009-11-07

    Reports of an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease are controversial. We assessed this risk in a prospective observational cohort study. 19,486 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, of whom 11,759 (60.3%) had Crohn's disease and 7727 (39.7%) had ulcerative colitis or unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, were enrolled in a nationwide French cohort by 680 gastroenterologists, who reported details of immunosuppressive therapy during the observation period, cases of cancer, and deaths. The risk of lymphoproliferative disorder was assessed according to thiopurine exposure. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR 29-40). At baseline, 5867 (30.1%) of patients were receiving, 2809 (14.4%) had discontinued, and 10,810 (55.5%) had never received thiopurines. 23 new cases of lymphoproliferative disorder were diagnosed, consisting of one case of Hodgkin's lymphoma and 22 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoproliferative disorder. The incidence rates of lymphoproliferative disorder were 0.90 per 1000 (95% CI 0.50-1.49) patient-years in those receiving, 0.20/1000 (0.02-0.72) patient-years in those who had discontinued, and 0.26/1000 (0.10-0.57) patient-years in those who had never received thiopurines (p=0.0054). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of lymphoproliferative disorder between patients receiving thiopurines and those who had never received the drugs was 5.28 (2.01-13.9, p=0.0007). Most cases associated with thiopurine exposure matched the pathological range of post-transplant disease. Patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders. Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National (AOM05157), Association François Aupetit, Délégation Inter-régionale de la Recherche clinique Ile de France-Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Ligue contre le Cancer, and Fonds de Recherche de la Société Nationale

  2. EUropean prospective cohort study on Enterobacteriaceae showing REsistance to CArbapenems (EURECA): a protocol of a European multicentre observational study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Belén; Sojo-Dorado, Jesús; Bravo-Ferrer, José; Cuperus, Nienke; de Kraker, Marlieke; Kostyanev, Tomislav; Raka, Lul; Daikos, George; Feifel, Jan; Folgori, Laura; Pascual, Alvaro; Goossens, Herman; O'Brien, Seamus; Bonten, Marc J M; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2017-04-03

    The rapid worldwide spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) constitutes a major challenge. The aim of the EUropean prospective cohort study on Enterobacteriaceae showing REsistance to CArbapenems (EURECA), which is part of the Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking (IMI JU) funded COMBACTE-CARE project, is to investigate risk factors for and outcome determinants of CRE infections to inform randomised clinical trial designs and to provide a historical cohort that could eventually be used for future comparisons with new drugs targeting CRE. A multicentre (50 sites), multinational (11 European countries), analytical observational project was designed, comprising 3 studies. The aims of study 1 (a prospective cohort study) include characterising the features, clinical management and outcomes of hospitalised patients with intra-abdominal infection, pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infections and bloodstream infections caused by CRE (202 patients in each group). The main outcomes will be 30-day all-cause mortality and clinical response. Study 2 (a nested case-control study) will identify the risk factors for target infections caused by CRE; 248 selected patients from study 1 will be matched with patients with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (1:1) and with hospitalised patients (1:3) and will provide a historical cohort of patients with CRE infections. Study 3 (a matched cohort study) will follow patients in study 2 in order to assess mortality, length of stay and hospital costs associated with CRE. All patients will be followed for 30 days. Different, up-to-date statistical methods will be applied to come to unbiased estimates for all 3 studies. Before-study sites will be initiated, approval will be sought from appropriate regulatory agencies and local Ethics Committees of Research or Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) to conduct the study in accordance with regulatory requirements. This is an observational study and therefore no

  3. The Home Observation of Periconceptional Exposures (HOPE) study, a prospective cohort: aims, design, recruitment and compliance.

    PubMed

    Porucznik, Christina A; Cox, Kyley J; Schliep, Karen C; Wilkins, Diana G; Stanford, Joseph B

    2016-06-08

    To examine transient environmental exposures and their relationship with human fecundity, exposure assessment should occur optimally at the time of conception in both members of the couple. We performed an observational, prospective cohort study with biomonitoring in both members of a heterosexual couple trying to conceive. Couples collected urine, saliva, and semen specimens for up to two menstrual cycles on days corresponding to the time windows of fertilization, implantation, and early pregnancy, identified based on the woman's observations of her cervical fluid. Three hundred nine eligible couples were screened between 2011 and 2015, of which 183 enrolled. Eleven couples (6.0 %) withdrew or were lost to follow up. The most successful and cost effective recruiting strategies were word of mouth (40 % of participating couples), posters and flyers (37 %), and targeted Facebook advertising (13 %) with an overall investment of $37.35 spent on recruitment per couple. Both men and women collected ≥97.2 % of requested saliva samples, and men collected ≥89.9 % of requested semen samples. Within the periovulatory days (±3 days), there was at least one urine specimen collected by women in 97.1 % of cycles, and at least one by men in 91.7 % of cycles. Daily compliance with periovulatory urine specimens ranged from 66.5 to 92.4 % for women and from 55.7 to 75.0 % for men. Compliance was ≥88 % for questionnaire completion at specified time points. Couples planning to conceive can be recruited successfully for periconceptional monitoring, and will comply with intensive study protocols involving home collection of biospecimens and questionnaire data.

  4. Changes in Health and Fitness in Firefighter Recruits: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cornell, David J; Gnacinski, Stacy L; Meyer, Barbara B; Ebersole, Kyle T

    2017-11-01

    To observe longitudinal changes in health and fitness among firefighter recruits. Body composition, aerobic capacity, muscular power, muscular strength, and muscular endurance measures were longitudinally collected among 27 male firefighter recruits (mean ± SD, age = 29.9 ± 4.1 yr; height, 179.8 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 87.2 ± 9.7 kg) at the beginning (W1) and end (W14) of their firefighter training academy, as well as at the end of their probationary period (W38). Repeated-measures multivariate analyses of variance (RM MANOVA) identified significant changes across time among measures of body composition (F10,17 = 30.390, Λ = 0.053, P < 0.001), aerobic capacity (F6,21 = 55.111, Λ = 0.060, P < 0.001), muscular power (F8,17 = 2.785, Λ = 0.433, P = 0.036), muscular strength (F6,20 = 34.908, Λ = 0.087, P < 0.001), and muscular endurance (F4,23 = 25.983, Λ = 0.181, P < 0.001). Follow-up post hoc analyses indicated that all measures, except muscular power, significantly improved from W1 to W14 (P < 0.05). However, significant decrements in many of these measures were also observed from W14 to W38 (P < 0.05). The results of the current study suggest that measures of health and fitness among firefighter recruits significantly improved throughout the firefighter training academy (W1 to W14). However, many of these positive physiological adaptations are lost before these recruits finish their probationary period as active-duty firefighters (W14 to W38). These results highlight the importance of developing exercise programming that is designed for the active-duty firefighter cohort population to maintain the beneficial adaptations in health and fitness previously created during the firefighter training academy.

  5. Natural history of Niemann-Pick disease type C in a multicentre observational retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wraith, J E; Guffon, N; Rohrbach, M; Hwu, W L; Korenke, G C; Bembi, B; Luzy, C; Giorgino, R; Sedel, F

    2009-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a devastating genetic disorder characterised by progressive neurological deterioration. However, data on the progression of neurological manifestations, particularly across different patient age-of-disease onsets, are limited. This is an observational retrospective cohort study designed to assess the progression of neurological disease in patients with NP-C. Physicians were asked to retrospectively complete a web-based questionnaire for each patient, at diagnosis and at up to three follow-up visits. An NP-C-specific disability scale was used to measure disease progression. The scale comprised four key parameters of neurological disease progression; ambulation, manipulation, language and swallowing. Disease progression was evaluated based on the annual rate of change in each parameter and the composite score using a linear mixed model analysis, and by classifying patients according to the number of worsened parameters during the observation period. Data were collected from 57 patients. The rate of deterioration was similar across the four individual parameters of the disability scale. The mean (95% CI) annual disease progression was +0.12 (0.09, 0.15) units. Among patients with a time interval of at least 1 year between diagnosis and last visit (n=49), 42 (86%) patients had progressed disease and 7 (14%) patients had stable disease. Disease progression was consistently more rapid in patients diagnosed in early childhood, compared with those diagnosed in late childhood, or with juvenile or adult presentation. In conclusion, our findings showed a progression in all four parameters of the disability scale, representing a continuous, unbroken progression of neurological manifestations.

  6. Analysis of cohort studies with multivariate and partially observed disease classification data.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Sinha, Samiran; Diver, W Ryan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer

    2010-09-01

    Complex diseases like cancers can often be classified into subtypes using various pathological and molecular traits of the disease. In this article, we develop methods for analysis of disease incidence in cohort studies incorporating data on multiple disease traits using a two-stage semiparametric Cox proportional hazards regression model that allows one to examine the heterogeneity in the effect of the covariates by the levels of the different disease traits. For inference in the presence of missing disease traits, we propose a generalization of an estimating equation approach for handling missing cause of failure in competing-risk data. We prove asymptotic unbiasedness of the estimating equation method under a general missing-at-random assumption and propose a novel influence-function-based sandwich variance estimator. The methods are illustrated using simulation studies and a real data application involving the Cancer Prevention Study II nutrition cohort.

  7. Changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in adolescents with mild idiopathic scoliosis: observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaal, Ashraf Abdelaal Mohamed; Abd El Kafy, Ehab Mohamed Abo El Soad; Elayat, Mohamed Salah Eldien Mohamed; Sabbahi, Mohamed; Badghish, Mohamed Salem Saed

    2017-01-01

    Objective This observational cohort study aimed to evaluate ventilatory function (VF) and functional exercise capacity (FEC) in mild adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Methods Seventy-three adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, aged approximately 10 to 17 years (mean age: 13.43 ± 1.27 years), with a Cobb angle less than 20° (mean: 16.44° ± 1.59°), met the inclusion criteria and were assigned to group A. Another 34 healthy adolescents with normal VF and FEC served as controls (group B). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), and FEC (by the 6-minute walk test [6MWT]) were the main outcome measures. Results Post-study mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MVV, and the 6MWT were 2.42 ± 0.36 L and 3.26 ± 0.59 L, 2.14 ± 0.31 L and 3.03 ± 0.43 L, 88.13% ± 3.89% and 91.14% ± 4.67%, 76.96 ± 6.85 L/m and 107.61 ± 11.44 L/m, and 581.12 ± 12.25 m and 627.74 ± 15.27 m in groups A and B, respectively. Between-group comparisons showed significant differences in FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, MVV, and the 6MWT. Conclusion Mild pulmonary and functional restrictions start early in mild AIS. This issue requires immediate intervention to prevent further deterioration. PMID:28661261

  8. Symptom clusters predict mortality among dialysis patients in Norway: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amro, Amin; Waldum, Bård; von der Lippe, Nanna; Brekke, Fredrik Barth; Dammen, Toril; Miaskowski, Christine; Os, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis have reduced survival rates compared with the general population. Symptoms are frequent in dialysis patients, and a symptom cluster is defined as two or more related co-occurring symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between symptom clusters and mortality in dialysis patients. In a prospective observational cohort study of dialysis patients (n = 301), Kidney Disease and Quality of Life Short Form and Beck Depression Inventory questionnaires were administered. To generate symptom clusters, principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used on 11 kidney-specific self-reported physical symptoms. A Beck Depression Inventory score of 16 or greater was defined as clinically significant depressive symptoms. Physical and mental component summary scores were generated from Short Form-36. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used for the survival analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank statistics were applied to compare survival rates between the groups. Three different symptom clusters were identified; one included loading of several uremic symptoms. In multivariate analyses and after adjustment for health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms, the worst perceived quartile of the "uremic" symptom cluster independently predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.44-4.22, P = 0.001) compared with the other quartiles during a follow-up period that ranged from four to 52 months. The two other symptom clusters ("neuromuscular" and "skin") or the individual symptoms did not predict mortality. Clustering of uremic symptoms predicted mortality. Assessing co-occurring symptoms rather than single symptoms may help to identify dialysis patients at high risk for mortality. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcomes in Adults With Acute Liver Failure Between 1998 and 2013: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Reuben, Adrian; Tillman, Holly; Fontana, Robert J; Davern, Timothy; McGuire, Brendan; Stravitz, R Todd; Durkalski, Valerie; Larson, Anne M; Liou, Iris; Fix, Oren; Schilsky, Michael; McCashland, Timothy; Hay, J Eileen; Murray, Natalie; Shaikh, Obaid S; Ganger, Daniel; Zaman, Atif; Han, Steven B; Chung, Raymond T; Smith, Alastair; Brown, Robert; Crippin, Jeffrey; Harrison, M Edwyn; Koch, David; Munoz, Santiago; Reddy, K Rajender; Rossaro, Lorenzo; Satyanarayana, Raj; Hassanein, Tarek; Hanje, A James; Olson, Jody; Subramanian, Ram; Karvellas, Constantine; Hameed, Bilal; Sherker, Averell H; Robuck, Patricia; Lee, William M

    2016-06-07

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome of severe, rapid-onset hepatic dysfunction-without prior advanced liver disease-that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Intensive care and liver transplantation provide support and rescue, respectively. To determine whether changes in causes, disease severity, treatment, or 21-day outcomes have occurred in recent years among adult patients with ALF referred to U.S. tertiary care centers. Prospective observational cohort study. (ClinicalTrials .gov: NCT00518440). 31 liver disease and transplant centers in the United States. Consecutively enrolled patients-without prior advanced liver disease-with ALF (n = 2070). Clinical features, treatment, and 21-day outcomes were compared over time annually for trends and were also stratified into two 8-year periods (1998 to 2005 and 2006 to 2013). Overall clinical characteristics, disease severity, and distribution of causes remained similar throughout the study period. The 21-day survival rates increased between the two 8-year periods (overall, 67.1% vs. 75.3%; transplant-free survival [TFS], 45.1% vs. 56.2%; posttransplantation survival, 88.3% vs. 96.3% [P < 0.010 for each]). Reductions in red blood cell infusions (44.3% vs. 27.6%), plasma infusions (65.2% vs. 47.1%), mechanical ventilation (65.7% vs. 56.1%), and vasopressors (34.9% vs. 27.8%) were observed, as well as increased use of N-acetylcysteine (48.9% vs. 69.3% overall; 15.8% vs. 49.4% [P < 0.001] in patients with ALF not due to acetaminophen toxicity). When examined longitudinally, overall survival and TFS increased throughout the 16-year period. The duration of enrollment, the number of patients enrolled, and possibly the approaches to care varied among participating sites. The results may not be generalizable beyond such specialized centers. Although characteristics and severity of ALF changed little over 16 years, overall survival and TFS improved significantly. The effects of specific changes in

  10. Mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus and Addison's disease: a nationwide, matched, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chantzichristos, Dimitrios; Persson, Anders; Eliasson, Björn; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Bergthorsdottir, Ragnhildur; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-01-01

    Our hypothesis was that patients with diabetes mellitus obtain an additional risk of death if they develop Addison's disease (AD). Nationwide, matched, observational cohort study cross-referencing the Swedish National Diabetes Register with Inpatient, Cancer and Cause of Death Registers in patients with diabetes (type 1 and 2) and AD and matched controls with diabetes. Clinical characteristics at baseline, overall, and cause-specific mortality were assessed. The relative risk of death was assessed using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Between January 1996 and December 2012, 226 patients with diabetes and AD were identified and matched with 1129 controls with diabetes. Median (interquartile range) follow-up was 5.9 (2.7-8.6) years. When patients with diabetes were diagnosed with AD, they had an increased frequency of diabetes complications, but both medical history of cancer and coronary heart disease did not differ compared with controls. Sixty-four of the 226 patients with diabetes and AD (28%) died, while 112 of the 1129 controls (10%) died. The estimated relative risk increase (hazard ratio) in overall mortality in the diabetes and AD group was 3.89 (95% confidence interval 2.84-5.32) compared with controls with diabetes. The most common cause of death was cardiovascular in both groups, but patients with diabetes and AD showed an increased death rate from diabetes complications, infectious diseases and unknown causes. Patients with the rare combination of diabetes and AD showed a markedly increased mortality and died more frequently from infections and unknown causes than patients with diabetes alone. Improved strategy for the management of this combination of metabolic disorders is needed. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Caroline; Cornelius, Victoria; Love, Sharon; Graham, Jill; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Results Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Conclusion Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support. PMID:15695497

  12. Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Literacy is important for success in school and in adulthood. Book-gift programs at birth exist to help develop these foundations early on. The effectiveness of the Read to Me! Nova Scotia Family Literacy Program (a program where books and literacy materials are given to families in hospital when their baby is born) on the duration and frequency with which mothers engage in reading and other literacy based activities with their newborns was assessed. Methods An observational cohort study design was used. Mothers of babies who received the Read to Me! package in Nova Scotia born between January-August 2006 made up the intervention group (N = 1051). Mothers of babies born in Prince Edward Island between December 2006 and March 2008 made up the control group (N = 279) and did not receive any literacy package when their baby was born. A phone questionnaire was conducted consisting of questions regarding frequency and duration of maternal engagement in language and literacy-based activities with their infants. These activities included reading, singing, talking, listening to CDs and the radio and watching TV. Babies were aged 0–10 months at the time of the interview. Results Mothers who received the Read to Me! literacy package spent significantly more time reading to their babies, 17.9 ± 17.6 min/day compared to controls 12.6 ± 10.7 min/day, (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Read to Me! may be an inexpensive, easy to administer and effective intervention which results in increased shared reading of mothers and their newborns. PMID:22799492

  13. Newborn literacy program effective in increasing maternal engagement in literacy activities: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Stephanie; Coates, Chrystal; Hervas-Malo, Marilou; McGrath, Patrick J

    2012-07-16

    Literacy is important for success in school and in adulthood. Book-gift programs at birth exist to help develop these foundations early on. The effectiveness of the Read to Me! Nova Scotia Family Literacy Program (a program where books and literacy materials are given to families in hospital when their baby is born) on the duration and frequency with which mothers engage in reading and other literacy based activities with their newborns was assessed. An observational cohort study design was used. Mothers of babies who received the Read to Me! package in Nova Scotia born between January-August 2006 made up the intervention group (N = 1051). Mothers of babies born in Prince Edward Island between December 2006 and March 2008 made up the control group (N = 279) and did not receive any literacy package when their baby was born. A phone questionnaire was conducted consisting of questions regarding frequency and duration of maternal engagement in language and literacy-based activities with their infants. These activities included reading, singing, talking, listening to CDs and the radio and watching TV. Babies were aged 0-10 months at the time of the interview. Mothers who received the Read to Me! literacy package spent significantly more time reading to their babies, 17.9 ± 17.6 min/day compared to controls 12.6 ± 10.7 min/day, (p < 0.0001). Read to Me! may be an inexpensive, easy to administer and effective intervention which results in increased shared reading of mothers and their newborns.

  14. Reviewing long-term antidepressants can reduce drug burden: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Chris F; Macdonald, Hector J; Atkinson, Pauline; Buchanan, Alasdair I; Downes, Noreen; Dougall, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressant prescribing continues to rise. Contributing factors are increased long-term prescribing and possibly the use of higher selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) doses. Aim To review general practice patients prescribed the same antidepressant long-term (≥2 years) and evaluate prescribing and management pre and post-review. Design and setting Prospective observational cohort study using routine data from 78 urban general practices, Scotland. Method All patients prescribed antidepressants (excluding amitriptyline) for ≥2 years were identified from records November 2009 to March 2010. GPs selected patients for face-to-face review of clinical condition and medication, December 2009 to September 2010. Pre- and post-review data were collected; average antidepressant doses and changes in prescribed daily doses were calculated. Onward referral to support services was recorded. Results 8.6% (33 312/388 656) of all registered patients were prescribed an antidepressant, 47.1% (15 689) were defined as long-term users and 2849 (18.2%) were reviewed. 811 (28.5%) patients reviewed had a change in antidepressant therapy: 7.0% stopped, 12.8% reduced dose, 5.3% increased dose, and 3.4% changed antidepressant, resulting in 9.5% (95% CI = 9.1% to 9.8% P<0.001) reduction in prescribed daily dose and 8.1% reduction in prescribing costs. 6.3% were referred onwards, half to NHS Mental Health Services. Pre-review SSRI doses were 10–30% higher than previously reported. Conclusion Almost half of all people prescribed antidepressants were long-term users. Appropriate reductions in prescribing can be achieved by reviewing patients. Higher SSRI doses may be contributing to current antidepressant growth. PMID:23211181

  15. Post-traumatic stress symptoms 5 years after military deployment to Afghanistan: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eekhout, Iris; Reijnen, Alieke; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2016-01-01

    Deployment can put soldiers at risk of developing post-traumatic stress symptoms. Despite several longitudinal studies, little is known about the timing of an increase in post-traumatic stress symptoms relative to pre-deployment. Longitudinal studies starting pre-deployment, in which participants are repeatedly measured over time, are warranted to assess the timing of an increase in symptoms to ultimately assess the timing of an increase in treatment demand after deployment. In this large observational cohort study, Dutch military personnel who were deployed to Afghanistan as part of the International Security Assistance Forces between March, 2005, and September, 2008, were assessed for post-traumatic stress symptoms with the Self-Rating Inventory for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (SRIP) questionnaire. Participants were assessed 1 month before deployment and followed up at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, and 5 years after deployment, with changes in SRIP scores compared with pre-deployment using a mixed model analysis. The primary outcome was the total score of post-traumatic stress symptoms measured with SRIP at pre-deployment and the five follow-up assessments, with a score of 38 used as the cutoff to indicate substantial post-traumatic stress symptoms. Between March, 2005, and September, 2008, 1007 participants were recruited to this study. The results show two important effects of deployment on post-traumatic stress symptoms. A short-term symptom increase within the first 6 months after deployment (symptom increase coefficient for SRIP score vs pre-deployment [β] 0·99, 95% CI 0·50-1·48); and a long-term symptom increase at 5 years after deployment (β 1·67, 1·14-2·20). This study underlines the importance of long-term monitoring of the psychological health of soldiers after deployment because early detection of symptoms is essential to early treatment, which is related to improved psychological health. Dutch Ministry of Defense. Copyright © 2016

  16. Dynamic models for estimating the effect of HAART on CD4 in observational studies: Application to the Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Gran, Jon Michael; Ledergerber, Bruno; Young, Jim; Furrer, Hansjakob; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2017-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proved efficient in increasing CD4 counts in many randomized clinical trials. Because randomized trials have some limitations (e.g., short duration, highly selected subjects), it is interesting to assess the effect of treatments using observational studies. This is challenging because treatment is started preferentially in subjects with severe conditions. This general problem had been treated using Marginal Structural Models (MSM) relying on the counterfactual formulation. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models. We present three discrete-time dynamic models based on linear increments models (LIM): the first one based on one difference equation for CD4 counts, the second with an equilibrium point, and the third based on a system of two difference equations, which allows jointly modeling CD4 counts and viral load. We also consider continuous-time models based on ordinary differential equations with non-linear mixed effects (ODE-NLME). These mechanistic models allow incorporating biological knowledge when available, which leads to increased statistical evidence for detecting treatment effect. Because inference in ODE-NLME is numerically challenging and requires specific methods and softwares, LIM are a valuable intermediary option in terms of consistency, precision, and complexity. We compare the different approaches in simulation and in illustration on the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Atypical depression is more common than melancholic in fibromyalgia: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ross, Rebecca L; Jones, Kim D; Ward, Rachel L; Wood, Lisa J; Bennett, Robert M

    2010-06-14

    It has been postulated that atypical and melancholic depression subtypes exist in depressed fibromyalgia (FM) patients, yet no study has empirically tested this hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to determine whether major depressive disorder (MDD) with atypical features and MDD with melancholic features occurs in a FM sample and to describe their demographic, clinical and diagnostic characteristics. An observational cohort study using a descriptive cross-sectional design recruited a convenience sample of 76 outpatients with FM from an academic rheumatology clinic and a community mental health practice. Diagnoses of FM were confirmed using the 1990 ACR classification guidelines. Diagnoses of MDD and diagnostic subtypes were determined using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. Clinical characteristics were measured using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale with Atypical Depression Supplement and other standardized instruments. Odds ratios were computed on subtype-specific diagnostic criteria. Correlations assessed associations between subtype diagnoses and diagnostic criteria. Of the 76 subjects with FM, 11.8% (n = 9) were euthymic, 52.6% (n = 40) met diagnostic criteria for MDD with atypical features and 35.6% (n = 27) for MDD with melancholic features. Groups did not differ on demographic characteristics except for gender (p = 0.01). The non-depressed and atypical groups trended toward having a longer duration of FM symptoms (18.05 yrs. +/- 12.83; 20.36 yrs. +/- 15.07) compared to the melancholic group (14.11 yrs. +/- 8.82; p = 0.09). The two depressed groups experienced greater severity on all clinical features compared to the non-depressed group. The atypical group did not differ clinically from the melancholic group except the latter experienced greater depression severity (p = 0.001). The atypical group demonstrated the highest prevalence and correlations with atypical-specific diagnostic

  18. Multidisciplinary assessment of post-Ebola sequelae in Guinea (Postebogui): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Etard, Jean-François; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Leroy, Sandrine; Touré, Abdoulaye; Taverne, Bernard; Keita, Alpha Kabinet; Msellati, Philippe; Magassouba, N'Fally; Baize, Sylvain; Raoul, Hervé; Izard, Suzanne; Kpamou, Cécé; March, Laura; Savane, Ibrahima; Barry, Moumié; Delaporte, Eric

    2017-05-01

    The high number of survivors from the 2013-16 west African outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has raised several new issues: long-term clinical complications, psychosocial consequences, risks of EVD reactivation, and secondary transmission due to viral persistence in body fluids. We aimed to assess long-term clinical, psychosocial, and viral outcomes in EVD survivors in Guinea. In this multidisciplinary observational cohort study, we recruited patients aged 1 year or more in four sites in Guinea (Donka National Hospital, Conakry; Macenta Prefectoral Hospital, Macenta; N'zérékoré Regional Hospital, N'zérékoré; and Forécariah Prefectoral Hospital, Forécariah) following discharge from any Ebola treatment centre in Guinea. Eligible patients had had laboratory-confirmed EVD and had then been declared clear of the virus in the blood. All consenting patients were included, with no exclusion criteria. Trained clinicians assessed patients at enrolment to the cohort, recording clinical symptoms and signs of depression. We did routine blood examinations and examined viral persistence in body fluids using RT-PCR. We did psychological evaluations using questionnaires developed for different age groups. Follow-up is planned to 2 years, and here we present findings at enrolment. Between March 23, 2015, and July 11, 2016, we recruited 802 patients, of whom 360 (45%) were male, 442 (55%) were female; 158 (20%) were younger than 18 years. The median age was 28·4 years (range 1·0-79·9, IQR 19·4-39·8). The median delay after discharge was 350 days (IQR 223-491). The most frequent symptoms were general symptoms (324 [40%] patients), musculoskeletal pain (303 [38%]), headache (278 [35%]), depression (124 [17%] of 713 responses), abdominal pain (178 [22%]), and ocular disorders (142 [18%]). More adults than children had at least one clinical symptom (505 [78%] vs 101 [64%], p<0·0003), ocular complications (124 [19%] vs 18 [11%], p=0·0200), or musculoskeletal symptoms

  19. Risks and Cough-Aggravating Factors in Prolonged Cough. Epidemiological Observations from the Nagahama Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisako; Izuhara, Yumi; Niimi, Akio; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Murase, Kimihiko; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Isao; Muro, Shigeo; Sekine, Akihiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Kosugi, Shinji; Nakayama, Takeo; Chin, Kazuo; Mishima, Michiaki

    2017-05-01

    Chronic cough hypersensitivity, a potentially important concept of chronic or prolonged cough, is featured by heightened cough response to low-intensity stimuli, which may be generated in the absence of airflow limitations or allergic conditions. However, there is little epidemiological evidence to support this. In this large-scale community survey, we aimed to determine risks and cough-aggravating factors of prolonged cough while focusing on serum IgE levels. Prevalence of prolonged cough, defined as cough lasting 3 weeks or longer, was determined in 9,804 residents from a baseline measurement of the Nagahama Cohort Study, conducted from 2008 to 2010. Risk assessment of prolonged cough was confined to subjects without asthma (n = 9,402). A follow-up measurement of the Nagahama Study was successively conducted from 2013 to 2015, recruiting the same residents living in Nagahama City, Japan (n = 8,292). Validation analysis was performed in the follow-up measurement. In a baseline measurement, prolonged cough was reported by 9.5% of subjects without asthma and 32.3% of subjects with asthma. In subjects without asthma, various cough-aggravating factors were associated with prolonged cough. On the multivariate analysis, several cough-aggravating factors, including nighttime or early morning, weather, pollen season, and common cold, were associated with prolonged cough, independent of female sex, younger age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, postnasal drip, daytime sputum, and lower serum total IgE. Serum-specific IgE levels against Japanese cedar pollen were significantly higher in subjects who responded "yes" to "cough in the pollen season" than in those who did not respond, whereas, among subjects who responded "yes" to "cough in the pollen season," prolonged coughers showed lower serum IgE levels against Japanese cedar pollen than temporal coughers. Validation analysis in a follow-up measurement confirmed the associations between prolonged cough and

  20. Impact of Laparoscopic Repair of Large Hiatus Hernia on Quality of Life: Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Stefano; Asti, Emanuele; Milito, Pamela; Bonitta, Gianluca; Sironi, Andrea; Aiolfi, Alberto; Bonavina, Luigi

    2018-06-20

    Laparoscopic surgery has proven safe and effective in the treatment of large hiatus hernia. Differences may exist between objectively assessed surgical outcomes, symptomatic scores, and patient-reported outcomes. An observational, single-arm cohort study was conducted in patients undergoing primary laparoscopic repair with crura mesh augmentation and Toupet fundoplication for large (> 50% of intrathoracic stomach) type III-IV hiatus hernia. Data were extracted from hospital charts and a prospectively updated research database. The main study outcome was quality of life assessed by the Gastroesophageal reflux disease Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQL) score and the Short-form 36 (SF-36). Between 2013 and 2016, 37 out of 49 operated patients completed the comprehensive quality-of-life evaluation at the 2-year follow-up. The GERD-HRQL score significantly decreased compared to baseline (p < 0.001). All items of the SF-36 significantly improved compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Both Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were significantly higher than preoperative scores, with a medium Cohen's effect size (-0.77 and 0.56, respectively). At the 2-year follow-up, symptoms had disappeared in the majority of patients. The use of proton-pump inhibitors significantly decreased compared to baseline (13.5 vs. 86.4%, p < 0.001). Also, the use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines significantly decreased after surgery (8.1 vs. 32.4%, p < 0.001). The overall alimentary satisfaction score was > 8 in 92% of patients. There were no safety issues related to the use of the absorbable synthetic mesh. The incidence of anatomical hernia recurrence was 5.4%, but no patient with recurrent hernia required surgical revision. Laparoscopic repair of large hiatus hernia with mesh and partial fundoplication is associated with symptomatic relief, no side-effects, and a significant improvement in disease-specific and generic quality of life at 2-year follow-up. © 2018 S. Karger AG

  1. Candida infective endocarditis: an observational cohort study with a focus on therapy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Christopher J; Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H

    2015-04-01

    Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Candida Infective Endocarditis: an Observational Cohort Study with a Focus on Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S.; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M.; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q.; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H.

    2015-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis. PMID:25645855

  3. Alarm signs and antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Elshout, Gijs; van Ierland, Yvette; Bohnen, Arthur M; de Wilde, Marcel; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Moll, Henriëtte A; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2013-01-01

    Background Although fever in children is often self-limiting, antibiotics are frequently prescribed for febrile illnesses. GPs may consider treating serious infections by prescribing antibiotics. Aim To examine whether alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections are related to antibiotic prescription in febrile children in primary care. Design and setting Observational cohort study involving five GP out-of-hours services. Method Clinical information was registered and manually recoded. Children (<16 years) with fever having a face-to-face contact with a GP were included. Children who were already using antibiotics or referred to secondary care were excluded. The relation between alarm signs and/or symptoms for serious infections and antibiotic prescription was tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results Of the 8676 included patients (median age 2.4 years), antibiotics were prescribed in 3167 contacts (36.5%). Patient characteristics and alarm signs and/or symptoms positively related to antibiotic prescription were: increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.02 to 1.05), temperature measured by GP (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.59 to 1.86), ill appearance (OR = 3.93; 95% CI = 2.85 to 5.42), being inconsolable (OR = 2.27; 95% CI = 1.58 to 3.22), shortness of breath (OR = 2.58; 95% CI = 1.88 to 3.56), duration of fever (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.26 to 1.35). Negative associations were found for neurological signs (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.76), signs of urinary tract infection (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.82), and vomiting and diarrhoea (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.74). These variables explained 19% of the antibiotic prescriptions. Conclusion Antibiotics are often prescribed for febrile children. These data suggest that treatment of a supposed serious bacterial infection is a consideration of GPs. However, the relatively low explained variation indicates that other considerations are also involved. PMID:23834880

  4. Maternal obesity and its effect on labour duration in nulliparous women: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ellekjaer, Karen Louise; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-07-12

    Obesity is increasing among primipara women. We aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) during early-pregnancy and duration of labour in nulliparous women. Retrospective observational cohort study of 1885 nulliparous women with a single cephalic presentation from 37 0/7 to 42 6/7 weeks of completed gestation and spontaneous or induced labour at Nordsjællands Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2011 and 2012. Total duration of labour and the first and second stages of labour were compared between early-pregnancy normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m 2 ), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m 2 ), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 ) women. Proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models were applied. Early pregnancy BMI classified 1246 (66.1%) women as normal weight, 350 (18.6%) as overweight and 203 (10.8%) as obese. No difference in the duration of total or first stage of active labour was found for overweight (adjusted HR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.16) or obese (adjusted HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28) compared to normal weight women. Median active labour duration was 5.83 h for normal weight, 6.08 h for overweight and 5.90 h for obese women. The risk of caesarean delivery increased significantly for overweight and obese compared to normal weight women (odds ratios (OR) 1.62; 95%CI 1.18-2.22 and 1.76; 95%CI 1.20-2.58, respectively). Caesarean deliveries were performed earlier in labour in obese than normal-weight women (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.28-2.54). BMI had no significant effect on total duration of active labour. Risk of caesarean delivery increased with increasing BMI. Caesarean deliveries are undertaken earlier in obese women compared to normal weight women following the onset of active labour, shortening the total duration of active labour.

  5. Early predictors of outcome after mild traumatic brain injury (UPFRONT): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    van der Naalt, Joukje; Timmerman, Marieke E; de Koning, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Scheenen, Myrthe E; Jacobs, Bram; Hageman, Gerard; Yilmaz, Tansel; Roks, Gerwin; Spikman, Jacoba M

    2017-07-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for most cases of TBI, and many patients show incomplete long-term functional recovery. We aimed to create a prognostic model for functional outcome by combining demographics, injury severity, and psychological factors to identify patients at risk for incomplete recovery at 6 months. In particular, we investigated additional indicators of emotional distress and coping style at 2 weeks above early predictors measured at the emergency department. The UPFRONT study was an observational cohort study done at the emergency departments of three level-1 trauma centres in the Netherlands, which included patients with mTBI, defined by a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15 and either post-traumatic amnesia lasting less than 24 h or loss of consciousness for less than 30 min. Emergency department predictors were measured either on admission with mTBI-comprising injury severity (GCS score, post-traumatic amnesia, and CT abnormalities), demographics (age, gender, educational level, pre-injury mental health, and previous brain injury), and physical conditions (alcohol use on the day of injury, neck pain, headache, nausea, dizziness)-or at 2 weeks, when we obtained data on mood (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), emotional distress (Impact of Event Scale), coping (Utrecht Coping List), and post-traumatic complaints. The functional outcome was recovery, assessed at 6 months after injury with the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). We dichotomised recovery into complete (GOSE=8) and incomplete (GOSE≤7) recovery. We used logistic regression analyses to assess the predictive value of patient information collected at the time of admission to an emergency department (eg, demographics, injury severity) alone, and combined with predictors of outcome collected at 2 weeks after injury (eg, emotional distress and coping). Between Jan 25, 2013, and Jan 6, 2015, data from 910 patients with mTBI were collected 2 weeks after injury; the final

  6. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  7. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter; Sedrakyan, Art

    2015-10-13

    To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the "Essure" device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Population based cohort study. Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44,278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures should be discussed with patients for informed decisions making. © Mao et al 2015.

  8. Colorectal cancer health services research study protocol: the CCR-CARESS observational prospective cohort project.

    PubMed

    Quintana, José M; Gonzalez, Nerea; Anton-Ladislao, Ane; Redondo, Maximino; Bare, Marisa; Fernandez de Larrea, Nerea; Briones, Eduardo; Escobar, Antonio; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Garcia-Gutierrez, Susana; Aguirre, Urko

    2016-07-08

    Colorectal cancers are one of the most common forms of malignancy worldwide. But two significant areas of research less studied deserve attention: health services use and development of patient stratification risk tools for these patients. a prospective multicenter cohort study with a follow up period of up to 5 years after surgical intervention. Participant centers: 22 hospitals representing six autonomous communities of Spain. Participants/Study population: Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer that have undergone surgical intervention and have consented to participate in the study between June 2010 and December 2012. Variables collected include pre-intervention background, sociodemographic parameters, hospital admission records, biological and clinical parameters, treatment information, and outcomes up to 5 years after surgical intervention. Patients completed the following questionnaires prior to surgery and in the follow up period: EuroQol-5D, EORTC QLQ-C30 (The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire) and QLQ-CR29 (module for colorectal cancer), the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Barthel Index. The main endpoints of the study are mortality, tumor recurrence, major complications, readmissions, and changes in health-related quality of life at 30 days and at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years after surgical intervention. In relation to the different endpoints, predictive models will be used by means of multivariate logistic models, Cox or linear mixed-effects regression models. Simulation models for the prediction of discrete events in the long term will also be used, and an economic evaluation of different treatment strategies will be performed through the use of generalized linear models. The identification of potential risk factors for adverse events may help clinicians in the clinical decision making process. Also, the follow up by 5 years of this

  9. RADAR study: protocol for an observational cohort study to identify early warning signals on the pathways to alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Slade, Tim; Swift, Wendy; Mewton, Louise; Kypri, Kypros; Lynskey, Michael T; Butterworth, Peter; Tibbetts, Joel; McCraw, Stacey; Upton, Emily

    2017-08-21

    Harmful alcohol consumption, particularly alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a worldwide health priority, contributing substantially to global morbidity and mortality. The peak age of onset of AUD is 18-24, thus a deeper understanding of the young adult experience is vital if we are to identify modifiable risk factors and intervene early in the developmental course of this disabling disorder. Critical unanswered questions include: How soon after drinking initiation do AUD symptoms begin to emerge? Which symptoms come first? Do the symptoms unfold in a predictable pattern? In what ways do the emerging symptoms interact with individual, peer, family and environmental risk factors to impact on the transition to disorder? The proposed RADAR study will examine the prospective development of AUD symptoms over the young adulthood (18-24) years. We will capitalise on an existing cohort of 1911 community-based adolescents who were recruited at age 13 and have completed a baseline and five annual follow-up assessments as part of an observational cohort study. We will interview these adolescents every 6 months between the ages of 19 and 23 to derive monthly histories of both alcohol use and AUD symptomatology, along with a comprehensive battery of risk and protective factor scales hypothesised to predict the emergence and course of AUD. The results of this study will inform the natural history of AUD and will be used to identify specific targets for prevention and early intervention of AUD. Ethical approval has already been granted for the study (UNSW HREC 10144). We will disseminate the results of the study through published manuscripts, conferences and seminar presentations. Data used in published manuscripts will be made available through a suitable online repository (eg, Dryad-datadryad.org). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  10. Recruitment of Hispanics into an observational study of chronic kidney disease: the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study experience.

    PubMed

    Lora, Claudia M; Ricardo, Ana C; Brecklin, Carolyn S; Fischer, Michael J; Rosman, Robert T; Carmona, Eunice; Lopez, Amada; Balaram, Manjunath; Nessel, Lisa; Tao, Kaixiang Kelvin; Xie, Dawei; Kusek, John W; Go, Alan S; Lash, James P

    2012-11-01

    Despite the large burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Hispanics, this population has been underrepresented in research studies. We describe the recruitment strategies employed by the Hispanic Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study, which led to the successful enrollment of a large population of Hispanic adults with CKD into a prospective observational cohort study. Recruitment efforts by bilingual staff focused on community clinics with Hispanic providers in high-density Hispanic neighborhoods in Chicago, academic medical centers, and private nephrology practices. Methods of publicizing the study included church meetings, local Hispanic print media, Spanish television and radio stations, and local health fairs. From October 2005 to July 2008, we recruited 327 Hispanics aged 21-74 years with mild-to-moderate CKD as determined by age-specific estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Of 716 individuals completing a screening visit, 49% did not meet eGFR inclusion criteria and 46% completed a baseline visit. The mean age at enrollment was 57.1 and 67.1% of participants were male. Approximately 75% of enrolled individuals were Mexican American, 15% Puerto Rican, and 10% had other Latin American ancestry. Eighty two percent of participants were Spanish-speakers. Community-based and academic primary care clinics yielded the highest percentage of participants screened (45.9% and 22.4%) and enrolled (38.2% and 24.5%). However, academic and community-based specialty clinics achieved the highest enrollment yield from individuals screened (61.9% to 71.4%). A strategy focused on primary care and nephrology clinics and the use of bilingual recruiters allowed us to overcome barriers to the recruitment of Hispanics with CKD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter‐Defibrillators in Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death: Study Design and Cohort Description

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Alan; Dalal, Darshan; Butcher, Barbara; Norgard, Sanaz; Zhang, Yiyi; Dickfeld, Timm; Eldadah, Zayd A.; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A.; Guallar, Eliseo; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary‐prevention implantable cardioverter‐defibrillators (ICDs) reduce total mortality in patients with severe left ventricular systolic function. However, only a minority of patients benefit from these devices. We designed the Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter‐Defibrillators (PROSE‐ICD) to identify risk factors and enhance our understanding of the biological mechanisms that predispose to arrhythmic death in patients undergoing ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden death. Methods and Results This is a multicenter prospective cohort study with a target enrollment of 1200 patients. The primary end point is ICD shocks for adjudicated ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The secondary end point is total mortality. All patients undergo a comprehensive evaluation including history and physical examination, signal‐averaged electrocardiograms, and blood sampling for genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses. Patients are evaluated every 6 months and after every known ICD shock for additional electrocardiographic and blood sampling. As of December 2011, a total of 1177 patients have been enrolled with more nonwhite and female patients compared to previous randomized trials. A total of 143 patients have reached the primary end point, whereas a total of 260 patients died over an average follow‐up of 59 months. The PROSE‐ICD study represents a real‐world cohort of individuals with systolic heart failure receiving primary‐prevention ICDs. Conclusions Extensive electrophysiological and structural phenotyping as well as the availability of serial DNA and serum samples will be important resources for evaluating novel metrics for risk stratification and identifying patients at risk for arrhythmic sudden death. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique Identifier: NCT00733590. PMID:23525420

  12. Prenatal Treatment for Serious Neurological Sequelae of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: An Observational Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cortina-Borja, Mario; Tan, Hooi Kuan; Wallon, Martine; Paul, Malgorzata; Prusa, Andrea; Buffolano, Wilma; Malm, Gunilla; Salt, Alison; Freeman, Katherine; Petersen, Eskild; Gilbert, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of prenatal treatment to prevent serious neurological sequelae (SNSD) of congenital toxoplasmosis is not known. Methods and Findings Congenital toxoplasmosis was prospectively identified by universal prenatal or neonatal screening in 14 European centres and children were followed for a median of 4 years. We evaluated determinants of postnatal death or SNSD defined by one or more of functional neurological abnormalities, severe bilateral visual impairment, or pregnancy termination for confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis. Two-thirds of the cohort received prenatal treatment (189/293; 65%). 23/293 (8%) fetuses developed SNSD of which nine were pregnancy terminations. Prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD. The odds ratio for prenatal treatment, adjusted for gestational age at maternal seroconversion, was 0.24 (95% Bayesian credible intervals 0.07–0.71). This effect was robust to most sensitivity analyses. The number of infected fetuses needed to be treated to prevent one case of SNSD was three (95% Bayesian credible intervals 2–15) after maternal seroconversion at 10 weeks, and 18 (9–75) at 30 weeks of gestation. Pyrimethamine-sulphonamide treatment did not reduce SNSD compared with spiramycin alone (adjusted odds ratio 0.78, 0.21–2.95). The proportion of live-born infants with intracranial lesions detected postnatally who developed SNSD was 31.0% (17.0%–38.1%). Conclusion The finding that prenatal treatment reduced the risk of SNSD in infected fetuses should be interpreted with caution because of the low number of SNSD cases and uncertainty about the timing of maternal seroconversion. As these are observational data, policy decisions about screening require further evidence from a randomized trial of prenatal screening and from cost-effectiveness analyses that take into account the incidence and prevalence of maternal infection. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:20967235

  13. Impact of Hemodialysis Catheter Dysfunction on Dialysis and Other Medical Services: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robert I.; Newsome, Britt B.; Leung, Grace; Block, Geoffrey A.; Herbert, Robert J.; Danese, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Practice guidelines define hemodialysis catheter dysfunction as blood flow rate (BFR) <300 mL/min. We conducted a study using data from DaVita and the United States Renal Data System to evaluate the impact of catheter dysfunction on dialysis and other medical services. Patients were included if they had ≥8 consecutive weeks of catheter dialysis between 8/2004 and 12/2006. Actual BFR <300 mL/min despite planned BFR ≥300 mL/min was used to define catheter dysfunction during each dialysis session. Among 9,707 patients, the average age was 62,53% were female, and 40% were black. The median duration of catheter dialysis was 190 days, and the cohort accounted for 1,075,701 catheter dialysis sessions. There were 70,361 sessions with catheter dysfunction, and 6,33 1 (65.2%) patients had at least one session with catheter dysfunction. In multivariate repeated measures analysis, catheter dysfunction was associated with increased odds of missing a dialysis session due to access problems (Odds ratio [OR] 2.50; P < 0.001), having an access-related procedure (OR 2.10; P < 0.001), and being hospitalized (OR 1.10; P = 0.001). Catheter dysfunction defined according to NKF vascular access guidelines results in disruptions of dialysis treatment and increased use of other medical services. PMID:22518313

  14. An observational prospective cohort study of incidence and characteristics of failed spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.

    PubMed

    Sng, B L; Lim, Y; Sia, A T H

    2009-07-01

    A prospective cohort study was performed in 800 parturients undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia from May 2005 to April 2006 in a large maternity hospital in Singapore, in order to determine the incidence of and risk factors for total and partial failure of spinal anaesthesia. A routine single-shot spinal technique using intrathecal 0.5% heavy bupivacaine 2.0 mL (10 mg) and morphine 100 microg was administered with a 27-gauge Whitacre spinal needle via a 20-gauge introducer. Demographic, surgical and anaesthetic data were collected to determine risk factors for failure of spinal anaesthesia. Incidence of total failure requiring conversion to general anaesthesia was 0.5% (4 cases) in which three cases had inadequate block (loss of sensation to cold less than T6) and one case had no sensory block. Thirty-three parturients (4.1%) required intravenous fentanyl and seven (0.9%) required Entonox for intraoperative analgesic supplementation. Postpartum sterilization (P<0.001) was an independent risk factor for partial failure requiring intravenous fentanyl and Entonox. Spinal anaesthesia using bupivacaine 10 mg with morphine 100 microg produces reliable anaesthesia for elective caesarean section. Postpartum sterilization involves exteriorisation of the uterus with additional surgical manipulation and hence may necessitate analgesic supplementation. The initial use of a combined spinal-epidural technique or the addition of intrathecal fentanyl or clonidine or an increased dose of local anaesthetic may be considered to decrease the incidence of intraoperative pain.

  15. High-sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Elevation after Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Duma, Andreas; Pal, Swatilika; Johnston, Joshua; Helwani, Mohammad A; Bhat, Adithya; Gill, Bali; Rosenkvist, Jessica; Cartmill, Christopher; Brown, Frank; Miller, J Philip; Scott, Mitchell G; Sanchez-Conde, Francisco; Jarvis, Michael; Farber, Nuri B; Zorumski, Charles F; Conway, Charles; Nagele, Peter

    2017-04-01

    While electroconvulsive therapy is widely regarded as a lifesaving and safe procedure, evidence regarding its effects on myocardial cell injury is sparse. The objective of this investigation was to determine the incidence and magnitude of new cardiac troponin elevation after electroconvulsive therapy using a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay. This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy in a single academic center (up to three electroconvulsive therapy treatments per patient). The primary outcome was new high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I elevation after electroconvulsive therapy, defined as an increase of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I greater than 100% after electroconvulsive therapy compared to baseline with at least one value above the limit of quantification (10 ng/l). Twelve-lead electrocardiogram and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I values were obtained before and 15 to 30 min after electroconvulsive therapy; in a subset of patients, an additional 2-h high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I value was obtained. The final study population was 100 patients and a total of 245 electroconvulsive therapy treatment sessions. Eight patients (8 of 100; 8%) experienced new high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I elevation after electroconvulsive therapy with a cumulative incidence of 3.7% (9 of 245 treatments; one patient had two high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I elevations), two of whom had a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (incidence 2 of 245; 0.8%). Median high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations did not increase significantly after electroconvulsive therapy. Tachycardia and/or elevated systolic blood pressure developed after approximately two thirds of electroconvulsive therapy treatments. Electroconvulsive therapy appears safe from a cardiac standpoint in a large majority of patients. A small subset of patients with preexisting cardiovascular risk factors, however, may develop new

  16. Insulin pump use compared with intravenous insulin during labour and delivery: the INSPIRED observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Drever, E; Tomlinson, G; Bai, A D; Feig, D S

    2016-09-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion; CSII) during labour and delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes. A retrospective cohort study of 161 consecutive Type 1 diabetic pregnancies delivered during 2000-2010 at Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada. Capillary blood glucose levels during labour and delivery and time in/out of target (target: 4-6 mmol/l) were compared along with neonatal outcomes for three groups: (1) women on pumps who stayed on pumps during labour (pump/pump n = 31), (2) women on pumps who switched to intravenous (IV) insulin infusion during labour (pump/IVn = 25), and (3) women on multiple daily injections who switched to IV insulin infusion during labour (MDIn = 105). There were no significant differences between the mean or median glucose values during labour and delivery across all three groups, and no significant difference in time spent hypoglycaemic. However, women in the pump/pump group had significantly better glycaemic control as defined by mean glucose (5.5 vs. 6.4 mmol/l; P = 0.01), median glucose (5.4 vs. 6.3 mmol/l; P = 0.02), and more time spent in target (60.9% vs. 39.2%; P = 0.06) compared with women in the pump/IV group (after removing one outlier). This study demonstrates that the continuation of CSII therapy during labour and delivery appears safe and efficacious. Moreover, women who choose to continue CSII have better glucose control during delivery than those who switch to IV insulin, suggesting that it should be standard practice to allow women the option of continuing CSII during labour and delivery. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  17. Use of intravenous tigecycline in patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gergely Szabo, B; Kadar, B; Szidonia Lenart, K; Dezsenyi, B; Kunovszki, P; Fried, K; Kamotsay, K; Nikolova, R; Prinz, G

    2016-12-01

    There are only a limited number of antimicrobials for treating severe Clostridium difficile infection (sCDI). Tigecycline shows significant in vitro effect against C. difficile and is approved for management of complicated intra-abdominal infections. Our aim was to analyse the efficacy of tigecycline compared with standard therapy (oral vancomycin plus intravenous metronidazole) in adults treated for sCDI. A retrospective cohort study of such patients hospitalized at our department from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. Patients receiving tigecycline monotherapy were compared with patients treated with standard therapy alone. Diagnosis and severity of CDI were determined according to guidelines of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID). Primary outcome was clinical recovery, secondary outcomes were in-hospital and 90-day all-cause mortality and relapse, colectomy, and complication rates. Of the 359 patients hospitalized for sCDI, 90 (25.0%) were included, 45 in each group. Patients treated with tigecycline had significantly better outcomes of clinical cure (34/45, 75.6% vs. 24/45, 53.3%; p 0.02), less complicated disease course (13/45, 28.9% vs. 24/45, 53.3%; p 0.02), and less CDI sepsis (7/45, 15.6% vs. 18/45, 40.0%; p 0.009) compared with patients receiving standard therapy. Tigecycline usage was not associated with adverse drug reactions or need for colectomy. Rates of ileus, toxic megacolon, mortality, and relapse were similar between the two groups. Favourable outcomes suggest that tigecycline might be considered as a potential candidate for therapeutic use in cases of sCDI refractory to standard treatment. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining the effectiveness of parental strategies to overcome bedwetting: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Grzeda, Mariusz T; Heron, Jon; Tilling, Kate; Wright, Anne; Joinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether a range of common strategies used by parents to overcome bedwetting in 7½-year-old children (including lifting, restricting drinks before bedtime, regular daytime toilet trips, rewards, showing displeasure and using protection pants) are effective in reducing the risk of bedwetting at 9½ years. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting General community. Participants The starting sample included 1258 children (66.7% boys and 33.2% girls) who were still bedwetting at 7½ years. Outcome measure Risk of bedwetting at 9½ years. Results Using propensity score-based methods, we found that two of the parental strategies used at 7½ years were associated with an increased risk of bedwetting at 9½ years, after adjusting the model for child and family variables and other parental strategies: lifting (risk difference=0.106 (95% CI 0.009 to 0.202), ie, there is a 10.6% (0.9% to 20.2%) increase in risk of bedwetting at 9½ years among children whose parents used lifting compared with children whose parents did not use this strategy) and restricting drinks before bedtime (0.123 (0.021 to 0.226)). The effect of using the other parental strategies was in either direction (an increase or decrease in the risk of bedwetting at 9½ years), for example, showing displeasure (−0.052 (−0.214 to 0.110)). When we re-analysed the data using multivariable regression analysis, the results were mostly consistent with the propensity score-based methods. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that common strategies used to overcome bedwetting in 7½-year-olds are not effective in reducing the risk of bedwetting at 9½ years. Parents should be encouraged to seek professional advice for their child’s bedwetting rather than persisting with strategies that may be ineffective. PMID:28710225

  19. Saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry in children with neurodisability or isolated visual pathway lesions: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Vijay; Glaze, Selina; Unwin, Hilary; Bowman, Richard; Thompson, Graham; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret

    2016-10-01

    Children and adults with neurological impairments are often not able to access conventional perimetry; however, information about the visual field is valuable. A new technology, saccadic vector optokinetic perimetry (SVOP), may have improved accessibility, but its accuracy has not been evaluated. We aimed to explore accessibility, testability and accuracy of SVOP in children with neurodisability or isolated visual pathway deficits. Cohort study; recruitment October 2013-May 2014, at children's eye clinics at a tertiary referral centre and a regional Child Development Centre; full orthoptic assessment, SVOP (central 30° of the visual field) and confrontation visual fields (CVF). Group 1: age 1-16 years, neurodisability (n=16), group 2: age 10-16 years, confirmed or suspected visual field defect (n=21); group 2 also completed Goldmann visual field testing (GVFT). Group 1: testability with a full 40-point test protocol is 12.5%; with reduced test protocols, testability is 100%, but plots may be clinically meaningless. Children (44%) and parents/carers (62.5%) find the test easy. SVOP and CVF agree in 50%. Group 2: testability is 62% for the 40-point protocol, and 90.5% for reduced protocols. Corneal changes in childhood glaucoma interfere with SVOP testing. All children and parents/carers find SVOP easy. Overall agreement with GVFT is 64.7%. While SVOP is highly accessible to children, many cannot complete a full 40-point test. Agreement with current standard tests is moderate to poor. Abnormal saccades cause an apparent non-specific visual field defect. In children with glaucoma or nystagmus SVOP calibration often fails. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. The association between vitamin B12, albuminuria and reduced kidney function: an observational cohort study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Variants in CUBN, the gene encoding cubilin, a proximal tubular transport protein, have been associated with albuminuria and vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency. We hypothesized that low levels of B12 would be associated with albuminuria in a population-based cohort. Methods: We analyzed parti...

  1. Design and implementation of the canadian kidney disease cohort study (CKDCS): A prospective observational study of incident hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many nephrology observational studies use renal registries, which have well known limitations. The Canadian Kidney Disease Cohort Study (CKDCS) is a large prospective observational study of patients commencing hemodialysis in five Canadian centers. This study focuses on delineating potentially reversible determinants of adverse outcomes that occur in patients receiving dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods/Design The CKDCS collects information on risk factors and outcomes, and stores specimens (blood, dialysate, hair and fingernails) at baseline and in long-term follow-up. Such specimens will permit measurements of biochemical markers, proteomic and genetic parameters (proteins and DNA) not measured in routine care. To avoid selection bias, all consenting incident hemodialysis patients at participating centers are enrolled, the large sample size (target of 1500 patients), large number of exposures, and high event rates will permit the exploration of multiple potential research questions. Preliminary Results Data on the baseline characteristics from the first 1074 subjects showed that the average age of patients was 62 (range; 50-73) years. The leading cause of ESRD was diabetic nephropathy (41.9%), and the majority of the patients were white (80.0%). Only 18.7% of the subjects received dialysis in a satellite unit, and over 80% lived within a 50 km radius of the nearest nephrologist's practice. Discussion The prospective design, detailed clinical information, and stored biological specimens provide a wealth of information with potential to greatly enhance our understanding of risk factors for adverse outcomes in dialysis patients. The scientific value of the stored patient tissue will grow as new genetic and biochemical markers are discovered in the future. PMID:21324196

  2. Increased healing in diabetic toe ulcers in a multidisciplinary foot clinic-An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Almdal, T; Nielsen, A Anker; Nielsen, K E; Jørgensen, M E; Rasmussen, A; Hangaard, S; Siersma, V; Holstein, P E

    2015-12-01

    To study toe ulcer healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcers attending a multidisciplinary foot clinic over a 10 years period. The study was retrospective, consecutive and observational during 2001 through 2011. The patients were treated according to the International Consensus on the Diabetic Foot. During the period the chiropodist staffing in the foot clinic was doubled; new offloading material and orthopedic foot corrections for recalcitrant ulcers were introduced. Healing was investigated in toe ulcers in Cox regression models. 2634 patients developed foot ulcers, of which 1461 developed toe ulcers; in 790 patients these were neuropathic, in 551 they were neuro-ischemic and in 120 they were critically ischemic. One-year healing rates increased in the period 2001-2011 from 75% to 91% for neuropathic toe ulcers and from 72% to 80% for neuro-ischemic toe ulcers, while no changes was observed for ischemic toe ulcers. Adjusted for changes in the patient population, the overall rate of healing for neuropathic and neuro-ischemic toe ulcers almost doubled (HR=1.95 [95% CI: 1.36-2.80]). The results show that the healing of toe ulcers improved. This outcome could not be explained by changes in the patient characteristics, but coincided with a number of improvements in organization and therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of children and adolescents first prescribed proton pump inhibitors or histamine-2-receptor antagonists: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ruigómez, Ana; Kool-Houweling, Leanne M A; García Rodríguez, Luis A; Penning-van Beest, Fernie J A; Herings, Ron M C

    2017-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of pediatric patients prescribed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) vs those of pediatric patients prescribed histamine-2-receptor antagonists (H 2 RAs). Observational studies were conducted using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) and the PHARMO Database Network. Patients aged 0-18 years who were first prescribed a PPI or H 2 RA between October 1, 2009 and September 30, 2012 (THIN) or between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2011 (PHARMO) were included. Patient characteristics were identified and compared between the PPI and H 2 RA cohorts using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age and sex. The mean age (years) was higher in the PPI than in the H 2 RA cohorts (THIN 12.3 [n = 8204] vs 5.4 [n = 7937], PHARMO 11.0 [n = 15 362] vs 7.1 [n = 6168]). Previous respiratory disease was more common in the PPI than in the H 2 RA cohort in THIN (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.30), as were asthma and respiratory medication use in PHARMO (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.12-1.45 and OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.10-1.38, respectively) and oral corticosteroid use in both databases (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92 [THIN]; OR = 2.80, 95% CI = 2.11-3.71 [PHARMO]). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, and oral contraceptives were also more common in PPI than in H 2 RA cohorts in both databases. Pediatric patients receiving PPIs and those receiving H 2 RAs may represent different patient populations. PPIs may be more commonly prescribed than H 2 RAs among patients with respiratory diseases.

  4. Prevalence and Risk of Birth Defects Observed in a Prospective Cohort Study: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Tamura, Naomi; Ito, Kumiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ito, Sachiko; Minakami, Hisanori; Cho, Kazutoshi; Endo, Toshiaki; Baba, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Sengoku, Kazuo; Kishi, Reiko

    2018-03-05

    Prevalence rates of all anomalies classified as birth defects, including those identified before the 22nd gestational week, are limited in published reports, including those from the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research (ICBDSR). In our birth cohort study, we collected the data for all birth defects after 12 weeks of gestation. Subjects in this study comprised 19,244 pregnant women who visited one of 37 associated hospitals in the Hokkaido Prefecture from 2003 through 2012, and completed follow-up. All birth defects after 12 weeks of gestation, including 55 marker anomalies associated with environmental chemical exposures, were recorded. We examined parental risk factors for birth defects and the association between birth defects and risk of growth retardation. Prevalence of all birth defects was 18.9/1,000 births. The proportion of patients with birth defects delivered between 12 and 21 weeks of gestation was approximately one-tenth of all patients with birth defects. Among those with congenital malformation of the nerve system, 39% were delivered before 22 weeks of gestation. All patients with anencephaly and encephalocele were delivered before 22 weeks of gestation. We observed different patterns of parental risk factors between birth defect cases included in ISBDSR and cases not included. Cases included in ISBDSR were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Cases not included in ISBDSR were associated with an increased risk of being small for gestational age at term. Data from our study complemented the data from ICBDSR. We recommend that birth defects not included in ICBDSR also be analyzed to elucidate the etiology of birth defects.

  5. Feasibility of an Immersive Virtual Reality Intervention for Hospitalized Patients: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Virtual reality (VR) offers immersive, realistic, three-dimensional experiences that “transport” users to novel environments. Because VR is effective for acute pain and anxiety, it may have benefits for hospitalized patients; however, there are few reports using VR in this setting. Objective The aim was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of VR in a diverse cohort of hospitalized patients. Methods We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of VR in a cohort of patients admitted to an inpatient hospitalist service over a 4-month period. We excluded patients with motion sickness, stroke, seizure, dementia, nausea, and in isolation. Eligible patients viewed VR experiences (eg, ocean exploration; Cirque du Soleil; tour of Iceland) with Samsung Gear VR goggles. We then conducted semistructured patient interview and performed statistical testing to compare patients willing versus unwilling to use VR. Results We evaluated 510 patients; 423 were excluded and 57 refused to participate, leaving 30 participants. Patients willing versus unwilling to use VR were younger (mean 49.1, SD 17.4 years vs mean 60.2, SD 17.7 years; P=.01); there were no differences by sex, race, or ethnicity. Among users, most reported a positive experience and indicated that VR could improve pain and anxiety, although many felt the goggles were uncomfortable. Conclusions Most inpatient users of VR described the experience as pleasant and capable of reducing pain and anxiety. However, few hospitalized patients in this “real-world” series were both eligible and willing to use VR. Consistent with the “digital divide” for emerging technologies, younger patients were more willing to participate. Future research should evaluate the impact of VR on clinical and resource outcomes. ClinicalTrial Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02456987; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02456987 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6iFIMRNh3) PMID:27349654

  6. Feasibility of an Immersive Virtual Reality Intervention for Hospitalized Patients: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mosadeghi, Sasan; Reid, Mark William; Martinez, Bibiana; Rosen, Bradley Todd; Spiegel, Brennan Mason Ross

    2016-06-27

    Virtual reality (VR) offers immersive, realistic, three-dimensional experiences that "transport" users to novel environments. Because VR is effective for acute pain and anxiety, it may have benefits for hospitalized patients; however, there are few reports using VR in this setting. The aim was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of VR in a diverse cohort of hospitalized patients. We assessed the acceptability and feasibility of VR in a cohort of patients admitted to an inpatient hospitalist service over a 4-month period. We excluded patients with motion sickness, stroke, seizure, dementia, nausea, and in isolation. Eligible patients viewed VR experiences (eg, ocean exploration; Cirque du Soleil; tour of Iceland) with Samsung Gear VR goggles. We then conducted semistructured patient interview and performed statistical testing to compare patients willing versus unwilling to use VR. We evaluated 510 patients; 423 were excluded and 57 refused to participate, leaving 30 participants. Patients willing versus unwilling to use VR were younger (mean 49.1, SD 17.4 years vs mean 60.2, SD 17.7 years; P=.01); there were no differences by sex, race, or ethnicity. Among users, most reported a positive experience and indicated that VR could improve pain and anxiety, although many felt the goggles were uncomfortable. Most inpatient users of VR described the experience as pleasant and capable of reducing pain and anxiety. However, few hospitalized patients in this "real-world" series were both eligible and willing to use VR. Consistent with the "digital divide" for emerging technologies, younger patients were more willing to participate. Future research should evaluate the impact of VR on clinical and resource outcomes. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02456987; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02456987 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6iFIMRNh3).

  7. The clinical spectrum of Erdheim-Chester disease: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kevin J.; Xi, Liqiang; Malayeri, Ashkan A.; Gardner, Pamela J.; Alvarado Enriquez, Jhonell R.; Shah, Nikeith; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Raffeld, Mark; Gahl, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, potentially fatal multiorgan myeloid neoplasm occurring mainly in adults. The diagnosis is established by clinical, radiologic, and histologic findings; ECD tumors contain foamy macrophages that are CD68+, CD163+, CD1a−, and frequently S100−. The purpose of this report is to describe the clinical and molecular variability of ECD. Between 2011 and 2015, 60 consecutive ECD patients (45 males, 15 females) were prospectively evaluated at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center. Comprehensive imaging and laboratory studies were performed, and tissues were examined for BRAF V600E and MAPK pathway mutations. Mean age at first manifestations of ECD was 46 years; a diagnosis was established, on average, 4.2 years after initial presentation. Bone was the most common tissue affected, with osteosclerosis in 95% of patients. Other manifestations observed in one-third to two-thirds of patients included cardiac mass and periaortic involvement, diabetes insipidus, retro-orbital infiltration, retroperitoneal, lung, central nervous system, skin, and xanthelasma, affecting patients in variable ways. Methods of detection included imaging studies of various modalities. Mutation in BRAF V600E was detected in 51% of 57 biopsy specimens. One patient had an ARAF D228V mutation, and 1 patient had an activating ALK fusion. Treatments included interferon α, imatinib, anakinra, cladribine, vemurafenib, and dabrafenib with trametinib; 11 patients received no therapy. The diagnosis of ECD is elusive because of the rarity and varied presentations of the disorder. Identification of BRAF and other MAPK pathway mutations in biopsy specimens improves ECD diagnosis, allows for development of targeted treatments, and demonstrates that ECD is a neoplastic disorder. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01417520. PMID:28553668

  8. Improving predictive asthma algorithms with modelled environment data for Scotland: an observational cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Sheikh, Aziz; Reis, Stefan; Kavanagh, Kimberly; Vieno, Massimo; Clemens, Tom; Carnell, Edward J; Pan, Jiafeng; King, Abby; Beck, Rachel C; Ward, Hester J T; Dibben, Chris; Robertson, Chris; Simpson, Colin R

    2018-05-20

    Asthma has a considerable, but potentially, avoidable burden on many populations globally. Scotland has some of the poorest health outcomes from asthma. Although ambient pollution, weather changes and sociodemographic factors have been associated with asthma attacks, it remains unclear whether modelled environment data and geospatial information can improve population-based asthma predictive algorithms. We aim to create the afferent loop of a national learning health system for asthma in Scotland. We will investigate the associations between ambient pollution, meteorological, geospatial and sociodemographic factors and asthma attacks. We will develop and implement a secured data governance and linkage framework to incorporate primary care health data, modelled environment data, geospatial population and sociodemographic data. Data from 75 recruited primary care practices (n=500 000 patients) in Scotland will be used. Modelled environment data on key air pollutants at a horizontal resolution of 5 km×5 km at hourly time steps will be generated using the EMEP4UK atmospheric chemistry transport modelling system for the datazones of the primary care practices' populations. Scottish population census and education databases will be incorporated into the linkage framework for analysis. We will then undertake a longitudinal retrospective observational analysis. Asthma outcomes include asthma hospitalisations and oral steroid prescriptions. Using a nested case-control study design, associations between all covariates will be measured using conditional logistic regression to account for the matched design and to identify suitable predictors and potential candidate algorithms for an asthma learning health system in Scotland.Findings from this study will contribute to the development of predictive algorithms for asthma outcomes and be used to form the basis for our learning health system prototype. The study received National Health Service Research Ethics Committee

  9. Acute tendon changes in intense CrossFit workout: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fisker, F Y; Kildegaard, S; Thygesen, M; Grosen, K; Pfeiffer-Jensen, M

    2017-11-01

    CrossFit is a fitness program that has become increasingly popular in the Western world, but as in other sports, the risk of injury is present. Only a few studies have addressed health benefits and injuries in CrossFit. It is known that chronically overloaded tendons will thicken and increase the risk of tendinopathy. However, it remains unknown whether acute overload caused by strenuous, high-intensity exercise will exert changes in tendons and if these changes can be detected and described by ultrasonography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acute overload on tendon thickness using ultrasonography. Standardized ultrasound measurements of the patella, Achilles, and plantaris tendons were performed before and after a specific workout in 34 healthy subjects. Significant increases were observed in patella tendon thickness before (M = 4.5, SD = 0.6) and after (M = 5.0, SD = 0.7) highly intense strenuous exercise, with an estimated mean differences of 0.47 mm (95% CI: 0.35-0.59 mm; P < 0.0001) and in Achilles tendon thickness before (M = 4.4, SD = 0.4) and after (M = 4.5, SD = 0.5) workout, with an estimated difference of 0.17 mm (95% CI: 0.04-0.29 mm; P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in fascia plantaris thickness before (M = 3.4, SD = 0.5) and after (M = 3.4, SD = 0.5) workout (P = 0.97). A significant increase in the thickness of the patellar and Achilles tendons was found in response to strenuous, highly intense CrossFit exercises. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the findings and possibly utilize this to gain a better understanding, further studies must be conducted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The surgical safety checklist and patient outcomes after surgery: a prospective observational cohort study, systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abbott, T E F; Ahmad, T; Phull, M K; Fowler, A J; Hewson, R; Biccard, B M; Chew, M S; Gillies, M; Pearse, R M

    2018-01-01

    The surgical safety checklist is widely used to improve the quality of perioperative care. However, clinicians continue to debate the clinical effectiveness of this tool. Prospective analysis of data from the International Surgical Outcomes Study (ISOS), an international observational study of elective in-patient surgery, accompanied by a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature. The exposure was surgical safety checklist use. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and the secondary outcome was postoperative complications. In the ISOS cohort, a multivariable multi-level generalized linear model was used to test associations. To further contextualise these findings, we included the results from the ISOS cohort in a meta-analysis. Results are reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. We included 44 814 patients from 497 hospitals in 27 countries in the ISOS analysis. There were 40 245 (89.8%) patients exposed to the checklist, whilst 7508 (16.8%) sustained ≥1 postoperative complications and 207 (0.5%) died before hospital discharge. Checklist exposure was associated with reduced mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.49 (0.32-0.77); P<0.01], but no difference in complication rates [OR 1.02 (0.88-1.19); P=0.75]. In a systematic review, we screened 3732 records and identified 11 eligible studies of 453 292 patients including the ISOS cohort. Checklist exposure was associated with both reduced postoperative mortality [OR 0.75 (0.62-0.92); P<0.01; I 2 =87%] and reduced complication rates [OR 0.73 (0.61-0.88); P<0.01; I 2 =89%). Patients exposed to a surgical safety checklist experience better postoperative outcomes, but this could simply reflect wider quality of care in hospitals where checklist use is routine. Copyright © 2017 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental illness and intensification of diabetes medications: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Frayne, Susan M; Holmes, Tyson H; Berg, Eric; Goldstein, Mary K; Berlowitz, Dan R; Miller, Donald R; Pogach, Leonard M; Laungani, Kaajal J; Lee, Tina T; Moos, Rudolf

    2014-10-22

    Mental health condition (MHC) comorbidity is associated with lower intensity care in multiple clinical scenarios. However, little is known about the effect of MHC upon clinicians' decisions about intensifying antiglycemic medications in diabetic patients with poor glycemic control. We examined whether delay in intensification of antiglycemic medications in response to an elevated Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value is longer for patients with MHC than for those without MHC, and whether any such effect varies by specific MHC type. In this observational study of diabetic Veterans Health Administration (VA) patients on oral antiglycemics with poor glycemic control (HbA1c ≥8) (N =52,526) identified from national VA databases, we applied Cox regression analysis to examine time to intensification of antiglycemics after an elevated HbA1c value in 2003-2004, by MHC status. Those with MHC were no less likely to receive intensification: adjusted Hazard Ratio [95% CI] 0.99 [0.96-1.03], 1.13 [1.04-1.23], and 1.12 [1.07-1.18] at 0-14, 15-30 and 31-180 days, respectively. However, patients with substance use disorders were less likely than those without substance use disorders to receive intensification in the first two weeks following a high HbA1c, adjusted Hazard Ratio 0.89 [0.81-0.97], controlling for sex, age, medical comorbidity, other specific MHCs, and index HbA1c value. For most MHCs, diabetic patients with MHC in the VA health care system do not appear to receive less aggressive antiglycemic management. However, the subgroup with substance use disorders does appear to have excess likelihood of non-intensification; interventions targeting this high risk subgroup merit attention.

  12. Brace treatment is effective in idiopathic scoliosis over 45°: an observational prospective cohort controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lusini, Monia; Donzelli, Sabrina; Minnella, Salvatore; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Recently, positive results in bracing patients with idiopathic scoliosis (IS) above 45° who refused surgery have been presented in a retrospective study. Obviously, this can give only an efficacy (EA) analysis, as there is neither a control group, nor it is possible to know failures because of dropouts. To present the prospective results of bracing patients affected by IS above 45° and still growing. Prospective study including all IS patients with 45° or more, Risser stage 0 to 4, who had their first evaluation in our institute, an outpatient clinic specialized in scoliosis evaluation and conservative treatment, from March 1, 2003 to December 21, 2010 and utterly denied any surgical intervention. Of 59 patients, we excluded 2 patients still in treatment and 57 (11 males) patients were included. At the beginning of the study, they were 15 years 3±22 months of age, had 52.5° Cobb (range, 45°-93°), and Risser 2 (0-4). Thirty-nine accepted a full-time brace treatment (BG) to try avoiding surgery, 18 refused any treatment and served as controls (CG). Physiological measures: radiographic and clinical data. Treatment: A year of full-time Sforzesco brace (23 hours/day) or Risser cast (8-12 months) and gradual weaning after Risser 3; all patients performed exercises; and International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation TREATMENT management criteria were respected. Analyses: EA in patients who completed treatment/observation (34 in BG and 10 in CG) and intent-to-treat (ITT) with worst case analysis in the whole population. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) have been computed. Efficacy: failures were 23.5% in BG and 100% in CG. Intent-to-treat: failures were 20.5% in BG and 55.6% in CG. Relative risks of failure in CG were 4.3 (95% CI, 3.6-4.9) in EA and 2.7 (95% CI, 2.0-3.5) in ITT (p<.05). Percentage of patients (53.8%) improved: RRs of improvement in BG were 1.6 (95% CI, 1.46-1.9) in EA and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6-2.2) in ITT (p<.05

  13. Critical appraisal of advance directives given by patients with fatal acute stroke: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alonso, A; Dörr, D; Szabo, K

    2017-02-02

    Advance directives (AD) imply the promise of determining future medical treatment in case of decisional incapacity. However, clinical practice increasingly indicates that standardized ADs often fail to support patients' autonomy. To date, little data are available about the quality and impact of ADs on end-of-life decisions for incapacitated acute stroke patients. We analyzed the ADs of patients with fatal stroke, focusing on: (a) their availability and type, (b) stated circumstances to which the AD should apply, and (c) stated wishes regarding specific treatment options. Between 2011 and 2014, 143 patients died during their hospitalization on our stroke unit. Forty-two of them (29.4%) had a completed and signed, written AD, as reported by their family, but only 35 ADs (24.5%) were available. The circumstances in which the AD should apply were stated by 21/35 (60%) as a "terminal condition that will cause death within a relatively short time" or an ongoing "dying process." A retrospective review found only 16 of 35 ADs (45.7%) described circumstances that, according to the medical file, could have been considered applicable by the treating physicians. A majority of patients objected to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (22/35, 62.9%), mechanical ventilation (19/35, 54.3%), and artificial nutrition (26/35, 74.3%), while almost all (33/35, 94.3%) directed that treatment for alleviation of pain or discomfort should be provided at all times even if it could hasten death. The prevalence of ADs among patients who die from acute stroke is still low. A major flaw of the ADs in our cohort was their attempt to determine single medical procedures without focusing on a precise description of applicable scenarios. Therefore, less than half of the ADs were considered applicable for severe acute stroke. These findings stress the need to foster educational programs for the general public about advance care planning to facilitate the processing of timely, comprehensive, and

  14. Workload and management of childhood fever at general practice out-of-hours care: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Lepot, Julie M M; Hendrix, Dagmar A S; Loonen, Nicole; Guldemond-Hecker, Yvonne; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Even though childhood fever is mostly self-limiting, children with fever constitute a considerable workload in primary care. Little is known about the number of contacts and management during general practitioners’ (GPs) out-of-hours care. We investigated all fever related telephone contacts, consultations, antibiotic prescriptions and paediatric referrals of children during GP out-of-hours care within 1 year. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and patients We performed an observational cohort study at a large Dutch GP out-of-hours service. Children (<12 years) whose parents contacted the GP out-of-hours service for a fever related illness in 2012 were included. Main outcome measures Number of contacts and consultations, antibiotic prescription rates and paediatric referral rates. Results We observed an average of 14.6 fever related contacts for children per day at GP out-of-hours services, with peaks during winter months. Of 17 170 contacts in 2012, 5343 (31.1%) were fever related and 70.0% resulted in a GP consultation. One in four consultations resulted in an antibiotic prescription. Prescriptions increased by age and referrals to secondary care decreased by age (p<0.001). The majority of parents (89.5%) contacted the out-of-hours service only once during a fever episode (89.5%) and 7.6% of children were referred to secondary care. Conclusions This study shows that childhood fever does account for a large workload at GP out-of-hours services. One in three contacts is fever related and 70% of those febrile children are called in to be assessed by a GP. One in four consultations for childhood fever results in antibiotic prescribing and most consultations are managed in primary care without referral. PMID:25991452

  15. Risk factors for acute exacerbations of COPD in a primary care population: a retrospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Müllerová, Hana; Shukla, Amit; Hawkins, Adam; Quint, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate risk factors associated with exacerbation frequency in primary care. Information on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has mainly been generated by secondary care-based clinical cohorts. Design Retrospective observational cohort study. Setting Electronic medical records database (England and Wales). Participants 58 589 patients with COPD aged ≥40 years with COPD diagnosis recorded between 1 April 2009 and 30 September 2012, and with at least 365 days of follow-up before and after the COPD diagnosis, were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Mean age: 69 years; 47% female; mean forced expiratory volume in 1s 60% predicted. Outcome measures Data on moderate or severe exacerbation episodes defined by diagnosis and/or medication codes 12 months following cohort entry were retrieved, together with demographic and clinical characteristics. Associations between patient characteristics and odds of having none versus one, none versus frequent (≥2) and one versus frequent exacerbations over 12 months follow-up were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. Results During follow-up, 23% of patients had evidence of frequent moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations (24% one; 53% none). Independent predictors of increased odds of having exacerbations during the follow-up, either frequent episodes or one episode, included prior exacerbations, increasing dyspnoea score, increasing grade of airflow limitation, females and prior or current history of several comorbidities (eg, asthma, depression, anxiety, heart failure and cancer). Conclusions Primary care-managed patients with COPD at the highest risk of exacerbations can be identified by exploring medical history for the presence of prior exacerbations, greater COPD disease severity and co-occurrence of other medical conditions. PMID:25524545

  16. Risk factors for acute exacerbations of COPD in a primary care population: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Müllerová, Hana; Shukla, Amit; Hawkins, Adam; Quint, Jennifer

    2014-12-18

    To evaluate risk factors associated with exacerbation frequency in primary care. Information on exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has mainly been generated by secondary care-based clinical cohorts. Retrospective observational cohort study. Electronic medical records database (England and Wales). 58,589 patients with COPD aged ≥40 years with COPD diagnosis recorded between 1 April 2009 and 30 September 2012, and with at least 365 days of follow-up before and after the COPD diagnosis, were identified in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Mean age: 69 years; 47% female; mean forced expiratory volume in 1s 60% predicted. Data on moderate or severe exacerbation episodes defined by diagnosis and/or medication codes 12 months following cohort entry were retrieved, together with demographic and clinical characteristics. Associations between patient characteristics and odds of having none versus one, none versus frequent (≥2) and one versus frequent exacerbations over 12 months follow-up were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression models. During follow-up, 23% of patients had evidence of frequent moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations (24% one; 53% none). Independent predictors of increased odds of having exacerbations during the follow-up, either frequent episodes or one episode, included prior exacerbations, increasing dyspnoea score, increasing grade of airflow limitation, females and prior or current history of several comorbidities (eg, asthma, depression, anxiety, heart failure and cancer). Primary care-managed patients with COPD at the highest risk of exacerbations can be identified by exploring medical history for the presence of prior exacerbations, greater COPD disease severity and co-occurrence of other medical conditions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Achieving consensus on minimum data items (including core outcome domains) for a longitudinal observational cohort study in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Nikiphorou, Elena; Mackie, Sarah L; Kirwan, John; Boers, Martin; Isaacs, John; Morgan, Ann W; Young, Adam

    2017-04-01

    To obtain consensus on the minimum data items for an observational cohort study in RA in the UK and to make available the process for similar studies and other rheumatic conditions. Individuals with a diverse range of expertise and backgrounds were invited to participate in a process of proposing a minimum core dataset (MCD) for research studies, commissioned by Arthritis Research UK as part of the larger INBANK project. The group included patients and representatives from clinical and academic rheumatology, outcomes science, stratified medicine, health economics, and national professional and academic bodies/committees. A process was devised based on OMERACT principles for reviewing aims/objectives, defining the scope, identifying the important research questions and selecting key domains. Following the initial multistakeholder meeting, subsequent teleconferences and email communications: consensus was obtained on the most important and relevant research questions; agreement on how the OMERACT Core Areas (life impact, pathophysiological manifestations, resource use and death) could form the basis of a MCD; and consensus on 22 items for inclusion into a MCD. Workshops were undertaken for two essential items that required further exploration: work/social participation and co-morbidity. Reaching a consensus for the proposed minimal data items for long-term observational cohort studies of RA in the UK posed novel challenges and opportunities, and was largely successful. Further work is needed for selecting instruments for two important items and for achieving compatibility with other UK national initiatives, and more widely across Europe. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Fast track pathway reduces sight loss in giant cell arteritis: results of a longitudinal observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patil, P; Williams, M; Maw, W W; Achilleos, K; Elsideeg, S; Dejaco, C; Borg, F; Gupta, S; Dasgupta, B

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a fast track pathway (FTP) on sight loss in patients with suspected giant cell arteritis (GCA). A longitudinal observational cohort study was conducted in the secondary care rheumatology department. One hundred and thirty-five newly referred suspected GCA patients seen via the FTP (Jan. 2012-Dec. 2013) were compared to 81 patients seen through the conventional referral and review system (Jan. 2009-Dec. 2011). The FTP resulted in significant reduction in irreversible sight loss from 37.0% (as seen in the historical cohort 2009-2011) to 9.0 % (2012-2013, OR 0.17, p=0.001). Adjustment for clinical and demographic parameters including known risk factors for GCA associated blindness did not significantly change the primary result (OR 0.08, p=0.001). FTP resulted in a reduction of time from symptom onset to diagnosis, particularly by reduction of time from general practitioner's (GP) referral to the rheumatology review (79% of FTP patients were seen within one working day compared to 64.6 % in the conventional pathway, p=0.023). The FTP has seen a reduction in number of GP appointments. There was a significant reduction of permanent sight loss with a fast track GCA pathway. The effect may be due to multiple factors including better GP education and reduction in delayed diagnosis. These results need verification at other sites.

  19. Post-fall reporting in aged acute inpatient mental health units: an 18-month observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Furness, Trentham; Mnatzaganian, George; Garlick, Robyn; Ireland, Susan; McKenna, Brian; Hill, Keith D

    2017-12-01

    Despite the high risk of falling for people with severe mental illness, there is limited falls research in mental health settings. Therefore, the objective of this observational cohort study was to conduct a focused post-fall review of fall episodes within aged acute inpatient mental health units at one of Australia's largest publicly funded mental health organizations. A post-fall reporting tool was developed to collect intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors among three aged acute mental health inpatient units over an 18-month period. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to describe fall risk factors and predictors of fall risk. There were a total of 115 falls, of which the tool was used for 93 (80.9%) episodes. Falls occurred most often in consumer's bedroom/bathroom and were unwitnessed. Intrinsic risk factors were most often attributed to postural drop and losing balance during walking. However, that was in contrast to consumer's who self-reported feeling dizzy as the reason of the fall. Based on the cohort, future falls could be reduced by targeting those aged above 82 years, or with a diagnosis of dementia. Recurrent falls during admission could be reduced by targeting those with psychotic illness and males with a diagnosis of dementia. A clearer dialogue among consumers and clinical staff reporting about fall episodes may support future remedial interventions and inform programs to reduce fall risk and assist the challenge of describing unwitnessed falls in aged acute inpatient mental health settings.

  20. Addition of sulphonylurea to metformin does not relevantly change body weight: a prospective observational cohort study (ZODIAC-39).

    PubMed

    Schrijnders, Dennis; Wever, Raiza; Kleefstra, Nanne; Houweling, Sebastiaan T; van Hateren, Kornelis J J; de Bock, Geertruida H; Bilo, Henk J G; Groenier, Klaas H; Landman, Gijs W D

    2016-10-01

    To investigate changes in body weight trajectories after the addition of individual sulphonylureas (SUs) to metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study, in a primary care setting in the Netherlands. Patients aged ≥18 years with type 2 diabetes who were included in the ZODIAC cohort between 1998 and 2012 and who received metformin monotherapy at inclusion (n = 29 195), and had used metformin as monotherapy for at least 1 year before receiving dual therapy through the addition of an SU for at least 1 year were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome was within-drug yearly change in body weight after receiving add-on therapy with individual SUs during 5 years of follow-up. The secondary outcome was within-drug yearly change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Annual changes in weight and HbA1c were estimated with linear mixed models, adjusted for age, gender and diabetes duration. A total of 2958 patients were included. No significant weight changes were observed within and between any of the individual SUs after treatment intensification (p = 0.24). In addition, no significant difference in weight between the add-on therapy combinations was observed (p = 0.26). The average HbA1c the year before intensification was 7.2% (55 mmol/mol) and dropped below 7.0% (53 mmol/mol) the year after. In patients with type 2 diabetes treated in primary care, strict glycaemic control can be maintained with SUs used as add-on therapy to metformin, without the offset of relevant weight changes. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Classical homeopathy in the treatment of cancer patients--a prospective observational study of two independent cohorts.

    PubMed

    Rostock, Matthias; Naumann, Johannes; Guethlin, Corina; Guenther, Lars; Bartsch, Hans H; Walach, Harald

    2011-01-17

    Many cancer patients seek homeopathy as a complementary therapy. It has rarely been studied systematically, whether homeopathic care is of benefit for cancer patients. We conducted a prospective observational study with cancer patients in two differently treated cohorts: one cohort with patients under complementary homeopathic treatment (HG; n = 259), and one cohort with conventionally treated cancer patients (CG; n = 380). For a direct comparison, matched pairs with patients of the same tumour entity and comparable prognosis were to be formed. Main outcome parameter: change of quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) after 3 months. Secondary outcome parameters: change of quality of life (FACT-G, FACIT-Sp) after a year, as well as impairment by fatigue (MFI) and by anxiety and depression (HADS). HG: FACT-G, or FACIT-Sp, respectively improved statistically significantly in the first three months, from 75.6 (SD 14.6) to 81.1 (SD 16.9), or from 32.1 (SD 8.2) to 34.9 (SD 8.32), respectively. After 12 months, a further increase to 84.1 (SD 15.5) or 35.2 (SD 8.6) was found. Fatigue (MFI) decreased; anxiety and depression (HADS) did not change. CG: FACT-G remained constant in the first three months: 75.3 (SD 17.3) at t0, and 76.6 (SD 16.6) at t1. After 12 months, there was a slight increase to 78.9 (SD 18.1). FACIT-Sp scores improved significantly from t0 (31.0 - SD 8.9) to t1 (32.1 - SD 8.9) and declined again after a year (31.6 - SD 9.4). For fatigue, anxiety, and depression, no relevant changes were found. 120 patients of HG and 206 patients of CG met our criteria for matched-pairs selection. Due to large differences between the two patient populations, however, only 11 matched pairs could be formed. This is not sufficient for a comparative study. In our prospective study, we observed an improvement of quality of life as well as a tendency of fatigue symptoms to decrease in cancer patients under complementary homeopathic treatment. It would take considerably larger samples

  2. Outpatient treatment of acute poisoning by substances of abuse: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Jacobsen, Dag; Ekeberg, Øivind; Brekke, Mette

    2016-05-21

    Procedures for the clinical assessment of acute poisoning by substances of abuse should identify patients in need of hospital admission and avoid hazardous discharges, while keeping the observation time short. We assess the safety of a systematic procedure developed at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC). All patients 12 years and older treated for acute poisoning by substances of abuse at the OAEOC were included consecutively from October 2011 to September 2012. Data were collected on pre-set registration forms. Information on re-presentations to health services nation-wide during the first week following discharge was retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Register and from local electronic medical records. Information on fatalities was obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. There were 2343 cases of acute poisoning by substances of abuse. The main toxic agent was ethanol in 1291 (55 %) cases, opioids in 539 (23 %), benzodiazepines in 194 (8 %), central stimulants in 132 (6 %), and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in 105 (4 %). Median observation time was four hours. The patient was hospitalised in 391 (17 %) cases. Two patients died during the first week following discharge, both from a new opioid poisoning. Among 1952 discharges, 375 (19 %) patients re-presented at the OAEOC or a hospital within a week; 13 (0.7 %) with a diagnosis missed at the index episode, 169 (9 %) with a new poisoning, 31 (2 %) for follow-up of concomitant conditions diagnosed at index, and 162 (8 %) for unrelated events. Among the patients with missed diagnoses, five needed further treatment for the same poisoning episode, two were admitted with psychosis, one had hemorrhagic gastritis, another had fractures in need of surgery and four had minor injuries. The procedure in use at the OAEOC can be considered safe and could be implemented elsewhere. The high re-presentation rate calls for better follow-up.

  3. Mammographic breast density and risk of breast cancer in women with atypical hyperplasia: an observational cohort study from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease (BBD) cohort.

    PubMed

    Vierkant, Robert A; Degnim, Amy C; Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Heinzen, Ethan P; Frank, Ryan D; Winham, Stacey J; Frost, Marlene H; Scott, Christopher G; Jensen, Matthew R; Ghosh, Karthik; Manduca, Armando; Brandt, Kathleen R; Whaley, Dana H; Hartmann, Lynn C; Vachon, Celine M

    2017-01-31

    Atypical hyperplasia (AH) and mammographic breast density (MBD) are established risk factors for breast cancer (BC), but their joint contributions are not well understood. We examine associations of MBD and BC by histologic impression, including AH, in a subcohort of women from the Mayo Clinic Benign Breast Disease Cohort. Women with a diagnosis of BBD and mammogram between 1985 and 2001 were eligible. Histologic impression was assessed via pathology review and coded as non-proliferative disease (NP), proliferative disease without atypia (PDWA) and AH. MBD was assessed clinically using parenchymal pattern (PP) or BI-RADS criteria and categorized as low, moderate or high. Percent density (PD) was also available for a subset of women. BC and clinical information were obtained by questionnaires, medical records and the Mayo Clinic Tumor Registry. Women were followed from date of benign biopsy to BC, death or last contact. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) compared the observed number of BCs to expected counts. Cox regression estimated multivariate-adjusted MBD hazard ratios. Of the 6271 women included in the study, 1132 (18.0%) had low MBD, 2921 (46.6%) had moderate MBD, and 2218 (35.4%) had high MBD. A total of 3532 women (56.3%) had NP, 2269 (36.2%) had PDWA and 470 (7.5%) had AH. Over a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 528 BCs were observed. The association of MBD and BC risk differed by histologic impression (p-interaction = 0.03), such that there was a strong MBD and BC association among NP (p < 0.001) but non-significant associations for PDWA (p = 0.27) and AH (p = 0.96). MBD and BC associations for AH women were not significant within subsets defined by type of MBD measure (PP vs. BI-RADS), age at biopsy, number of foci of AH, type of AH (lobular vs. ductal) and body mass index, and after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Women with atypia who also had high PD (>50%) demonstrated marginal evidence of increased BC risk (SIR 4

  4. Menopausal hormone therapy is associated with having high blood pressure in postmenopausal women: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Thornton, Charlene; O'Loughlin, Aiden; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and cardiovascular risk remains controversial, with a number of studies advocating the use of MHT in reducing risk of cardiovascular diseases, while others have shown it to increase risk. The aim of this study was to determine the association between menopausal hormone therapy and high blood pressure. A total of 43,405 postmenopausal women were included in the study. Baseline data for these women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia, a large scale study of healthy ageing. These women reported being postmenopausal, having an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure prior to menopause. Odds ratios for the association between MHT use and having high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression, stratified by age (<56 years, 56-61 years, 62-70 years and over 71 years) and adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. MHT use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure: past menopausal hormone therapy use: <56 years (adjusted odds ratio 1.59, 99% confidence interval 1.15 to 2.20); 56-61 years (1.58, 1.31 to 1.90); 62-70 years (1.26, 1.10 to 1.44). Increased duration of hormone use was associated with higher odds of having high blood pressure, with the effect of hormone therapy use diminishing with increasing age. Menopausal hormone therapy use is associated with significantly higher odds of having high blood pressure, and the odds increase with increased duration of use. High blood pressure should be conveyed as a health risk for people considering MHT use.

  5. Risk indicators related to peri-implant disease: an observational retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the present study was to retrospectively investigate the influence of potential risk indicators on the development of peri-implant disease. Methods Overall, 103 patients referred for implant treatment from 2000 to 2012 were randomly enrolled. The study sample consisted of 421 conventional-length (>6 mm) non-turned titanium implants that were evaluated clinically and radiographically according to pre-established clinical and patient-related parameters by a single investigator. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis rank test and a logistic regression model were used for the statistical analysis of the recorded data at the implant level. Results The diagnosis of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis was made for 173 (41.1%) and 19 (4.5%) implants, respectively. Age (≥65 years), patient adherence (professional hygiene recalls <2/year) and the presence of plaque were associated with higher peri-implant probing-depth values and bleeding-on-probing scores. The logistic regression analysis indicated that age (P=0.001), patient adherence (P=0.03), the absence of keratinized tissue (P=0.03), implants placed in pristine bone (P=0.04), and the presence of peri-implant soft-tissue recession (P=0.000) were strongly associated with the event of peri-implantitis. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, patients aged ≥65 years and non-adherent subjects were more prone to develop peri-implant disease. Therefore, early diagnosis and a systematic maintenance-care program are essential for maintaining peri-implant tissue health, especially in older patients. PMID:27588216

  6. Lightning and its association with the frequency of headache in migraineurs: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Geoffrey V; Houle, Timothy; Nicholson, Robert; Peterlin, Albert; Martin, Vincent T

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this article is to determine if lightning is associated with the frequency of headache in migraineurs. Participants fulfilling diagnostic criteria for International Headache Society-defined migraine were recruited from sites located in Ohio ( N  = 23) and Missouri ( N  = 67). They recorded headache activity in a daily diary for three to six months. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression determined the odds ratio (OR) of headache on lightning days compared to non-lightning days. Other weather factors associated with thunderstorms were also added as covariates to the GEE model to see how they would attenuate the effect of lightning on headache. The mean age of the study population was 44 and 91% were female. The OR for headache was 1.31 (95% confidence limits (CL); 1.07, 1.66) during lighting days as compared to non-lightning days. The addition of thunderstorm-associated weather variables as covariates were only able to reduce the OR for headache on lightning days to 1.18 (95% CL; 1.02, 1.37). The probability of having a headache on lightning days was also further increased when the average current of lightning strikes for the day was more negative. This study suggests that lightning represents a trigger for headache in migraineurs that cannot be completely explained by other meteorological factors. It is unknown if lightning directly triggers headaches through electromagnetic waves or indirectly through production of bioaerosols (e.g. ozone), induction of fungal spores or other mechanisms. These results should be interpreted cautiously until replicated in a second dataset.

  7. Macroscopic findings in collagenous colitis: a multi-center, retrospective, observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Yung, Diana E.; Nemeth, Artur; Sjöberg, Klas; Giannakou, Andry; Qureshi, Raheel; Bartzis, Leonidas; McNeill, Morna; Johansson, Gabriele Wurm; Lucendo, Alfredo J.; Fineron, Paul; Trimble, Ken C.; Saeed, Athar; Plevris, John N.; Toth, Ervin

    2017-01-01

    Background Collagenous colitis (CC) is by definition a histological diagnosis. However, colonoscopy often reveals characteristic endoscopic findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and type of endoscopic findings in patients diagnosed with CC in 4 participating centers. Methods This was a retrospective study; the databases of 2 university hospitals in Edinburgh (Scotland) and Malmö (Sweden), and 2 district general hospitals in Tomelloso (Spain) and Gateshead (England) were interrogated for patients diagnosed with CC between May 2008 and August 2013. Endoscopy reports and images were retrieved and reviewed; data on lesions, sedation, bowel preparation and endoscopist experience were abstracted. Categorical data are reported as mean±SD. Fischer’s exact, chi-square and t (unpaired) tests were used to compare datasets. A two-tailed P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results 607 patients (149 male, mean age 66.9±12.25 years) were diagnosed with CC. A total of 108/607 (17.8%) patients had one or more suggestive endoscopy findings: i.e., mucosal erythema/edema, 91/607 (15%); linear colonic mucosal defects, 12/607 (2%); or mucosal scarring, 5/607 (0.82%). For colonic mucosa erythema, there was no difference in the odds of finding erythema with the use of different bowel preparation methods (P=0.997). For colonic mucosal defects there was some evidence (P=0.005) that patients colonoscoped by experienced endoscopists had 87% less odds of developing such defects. Moreover, there was evidence that analgesia reduced the odds of developing mucosal defects by 84%. Conclusion A significant minority of patients with CC have endoscopic findings in colonoscopy. The description of such findings appears to be related to the endoscopist’s experience. PMID:28469361

  8. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio SG; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca). PMID:24639444

  9. Management of cardiovascular risk factors with pioglitazone combination therapies in type 2 diabetes: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is strongly associated with cardiovascular risk and requires medications that improve glycemic control and other cardiovascular risk factors. The authors aimed to assess the relative effectiveness of pioglitazone (Pio), metformin (Met) and any sulfonylurea (SU) combinations in non-insulin-treated T2D patients who were failing previous hypoglycemic therapy. Methods Over a 1-year period, two multicenter, open-labeled, controlled, 1-year, prospective, observational studies evaluated patients with T2D (n = 4585) from routine clinical practice in Spain and Greece with the same protocol. Patients were eligible if they had been prescribed Pio + SU, Pio + Met or SU + Met serving as a control cohort, once they had failed with previous therapy. Anthropometric measurements, lipid and glycemic profiles, blood pressure, and the proportions of patients at microvascular and macrovascular risk were assessed. Results All study treatment combinations rendered progressive 6-month and 12-month lipid, glycemic, and blood pressure improvements. Pio combinations, especially Pio + Met, were associated with increases in HDL-cholesterol and decreases in triglycerides and in the atherogenic index of plasma. The proportion of patients at high risk decreased after 12 months in all study cohorts. Minor weight changes (gain or loss) and no treatment-related fractures occurred during the study. The safety profile was good and proved similar among treatments, except for more hypoglycemic episodes in patients receiving SU and for the occurrence of edema in patients using Pio combinations. Serious cardiovascular events were rarely reported. Conclusions In patients with T2D failing prior hypoglycemic therapies, Pio combinations with SU or Met (especially Pio + Met) improved blood lipid and glycemic profiles, decreasing the proportion of patients with a high microvascular or macrovascular risk. The combination of Pio with SU or Met may therefore be recommended for T2D

  10. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort.

    PubMed

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-06-01

    To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30,433 women and 7718 men aged 17-64 were used (n = 35,918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as <2.00 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours/day. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used as an analysis method to include both individual and work unit level predictors in the models. Adjustments were made for age, marital status, occupational status, job contract, smoking, and heavy drinking. Twenty five per cent of women and 27% of men had a sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak.

  11. Effort/reward imbalance and sedentary lifestyle: an observational study in a large occupational cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, A; Kivimäki, M; Elovainio, M; Pentti, J; Linna, A; Virtanen, M; Vahtera, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) at work and sedentary lifestyle. Methods Cross sectional data from the ongoing Finnish Public Sector Study related to 30 433 women and 7718 men aged 17–64 were used (n = 35 918 after exclusion of participants with missing values in covariates). From the responses to a questionnaire, an aggregated mean score for ERI in a work unit was assigned to each participant. The outcome was sedentary lifestyle defined as <2.00 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours/day. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations was used as an analysis method to include both individual and work unit level predictors in the models. Adjustments were made for age, marital status, occupational status, job contract, smoking, and heavy drinking. Results Twenty five per cent of women and 27% of men had a sedentary lifestyle. High individual level ERI was associated with a higher likelihood of sedentary lifestyle both among women (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) and men (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.33). These associations were not explained by relevant confounders and they were also independent of work unit level job strain measured as a ratio of job demands and control. Conclusions A mismatch between high occupational effort spent and low reward received in turn seems to be associated with an increased risk of sedentary lifestyle, although this association is relatively weak. PMID:16497854

  12. The immunological response to syphilis differs by HIV status; a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris; Osbak, Kara Krista; Crucitti, Tania; Kestens, Luc

    2017-01-31

    It is not known if there is a difference in the immune response to syphilis between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. We prospectively recruited all patients with a new diagnosis of syphilis and tested their plasma for IFNα, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-17A at baseline pre-treatment and 6 months following therapy. A total of 79 HIV-infected [44 primary/secondary syphilis (PSS) and 35 latent syphilis (LS)] and 12 HIV-uninfected (10 PSS and 2 LS) cases of syphilis and 30 HIV-infected controls were included in the study. At the baseline visit, compared to the control group, concentrations of IL-10 were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected and uninfected groups. The level of IL-10 was significantly higher in the HIV-infected compared to the HIV-uninfected PSS group (25.3 pg/mL (IQR, 4.56-41.76) vs 2.73 pg/mL (IQR, 1.55-9.02), P = 0.0192). In the HIV-infected PSS group (but not the HIV-infected LS or HIV-uninfected PSS groups) the IP-10, MIP-1b, IL-6 and IL-8 were raised compared to the controls. IL-10 levels decreased but did not return to control baseline values by 6 months in HIV infected PSS and LS and HIV uninfected PSS. PSS and LS in HIV-infected individuals is characterized by an increase in inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. The increase of IL-10 is greater in HIV-infected than uninfected individuals. Further work is required to ascertain if this is part of an immunological profile that correlates with adverse outcomes such as serofast syphilis and neurosyphilis, in HIV-infected individuals.

  13. An observational cohort study on persistency of internal teat sealant residues in milk after calving in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kabera, Fidèle; Dufour, Simon; Keefe, Greg; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-04

    Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of quarters with an observable internal teat sealant (ITS) plug at first milking following calving and investigate persistency of ITS residues in milk after calving. An observational cohort study was carried out on 557 quarters of 156 cows treated with ITS in 6 farms in Quebec, Canada. The presence of an ITS plug at first milking and ITS residues in milk at each milking were observed by producers. The effects of various factors on the odds of observing an ITS plug and persistency of ITS residues in milk were studied using generalized logistic mixed and generalized negative binomial mixed models, respectively. Milk samples were taken on the day before dry-off and on 2 occasions after calving for bacterial identification to detect intramammary infection (IMI) using bacteriological culture followed by MALDI-TOF identification. The association between the absence of an ITS plug and the presence of new IMI was assessed using a mixed logistic regression model. Internal teat sealant plugs after calving were more often observed in rear quarters and in quarters receiving ITS alone at drying-off versus antimicrobial and ITS. We observed an average (standard deviation) persistency of 4.0 d (2.3 d). When an ITS plug was still present at first milking (83% of quarters), the elimination of ITS residues in milk after calving was significantly longer (4.5 d, on average) compared with 1.2 d when an ITS plug was absent. In cows with an ITS plug at calving, we observed a higher number of days of excretion in older cows. When a plug could not be observed, rear quarters, older cows, and cows with a long dry period duration excreted ITS residues for a significantly longer period. The lack of a significant association between the absence of a plug and the odds of new IMI at calving suggests that despite the loss of the plug, cows were still protected against new IMI. Although we were able to highlight some statistically significant risk

  14. A prospective, observational cohort study of the seasonal dynamics of airway pathogens in the aetiology of exacerbations in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Tom M A; Aris, Emmanuel; Bourne, Simon; Clarke, Stuart C; Peeters, Mathieu; Pascal, Thierry G; Schoonbroodt, Sonia; Tuck, Andrew C; Kim, Viktoriya; Williams, Nicholas; Williams, Anthony; Wootton, Stephen; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background The aetiology of acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is incompletely understood. Understanding the relationship between chronic bacterial airway infection and viral exposure may explain the incidence and seasonality of these events. Methods In this prospective, observational cohort study (NCT01360398), patients with COPD aged 40–85 years underwent sputum sampling monthly and at exacerbation for detection of bacteria and viruses. Results are presented for subjects in the full cohort, followed for 1 year. Interactions between exacerbation occurrence and pathogens were investigated by generalised estimating equation and stratified conditional logistic regression analyses. Findings The mean exacerbation rate per patient-year was 3.04 (95% CI 2.63 to 3.50). At AECOPD, the most common bacterial species were non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Moraxella catarrhalis, and the most common virus was rhinovirus. Logistic regression analyses (culture bacterial detection) showed significant OR for AECOPD occurrence when M. catarrhalis was detected regardless of season (5.09 (95% CI 2.76 to 9.41)). When NTHi was detected, the increased risk of exacerbation was greater in high season (October–March, OR 3.04 (1.80 to 5.13)) than low season (OR 1.22 (0.68 to 2.22)). Bacterial and viral coinfection was more frequent at exacerbation (24.9%) than stable state (8.6%). A significant interaction was detected between NTHi and rhinovirus presence and AECOPD risk (OR 5.18 (1.92 to 13.99); p=0.031). Conclusions AECOPD aetiology varies with season. Rises in incidence in winter may be driven by increased pathogen presence as well as an interaction between NTHi airway infection and effects of viral infection. Trial registration number Results, NCT01360398. PMID:28432209

  15. The rapid suicide protection of mood stabilizers on patients with bipolar disorder: A nationwide observational cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Jui; Cheng, Chin; Chou, Po-Han; Lin, Ching-Heng; McInnis, Melvin G; Chang, Chia-Li; Lan, Tsuo-Hung

    2016-05-15

    The suicide rate is high among bipolar disorder (BD) patients. Previous studies have focused on the anti-suicidal effect of long-term treatment with mood stabilizers but less on the immediate preventive effects of interventions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short-term and immediate anti-suicidal effects of mood stabilizers on recent-onset BD patients. The National Health Insurance Database (NHID) of Taiwan was used to perform a nationwide cohort observation study of suicide behaviors in bipolar disorder. All the recent-onset BD patients (ICD-9-CM code 296 except 296.2 and 296.3) diagnosed between 2000-2005 were collected (n=5091) and followed through 2009. The primary endpoint was the presence of a suicide code or the end of observation; exposure to mood stabilizers in the final month of observation was the independent variable. The hazard ratios (HRs) of suicide-related events, completed suicide, and all-cause mortality were significantly lower for those treated with lithium, divalproex, or carbamazepine compared with no use in the last month (HRs of suicide-related events were 0.10, 0.14 and 0.10, respectively, and all-cause mortality HRs were 0.03; P<0.0001); there was no significant difference in HR between the mood stabilizers. The NIHD does not provide information on the severity, mood status, or treatment adherence of BD patients. Neither substance-related disorder nor personality disorder were included in the analysis. We focused on the effect of the final prescription time period, not the long-term protective effect. The immediate recent use of any mood stabilizer significantly lowers the rate of death, suicide, or suicidal behavior in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and conduct of Caudwell Xtreme Everest: an observational cohort study of variation in human adaptation to progressive environmental hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The physiological responses to hypoxaemia and cellular hypoxia are poorly understood, and inter-individual differences in performance at altitude and outcome in critical illness remain unexplained. We propose a model for exploring adaptation to hypoxia in the critically ill: the study of healthy humans, progressively exposed to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH). The aim of this study was to describe the spectrum of adaptive responses in humans exposed to graded EHH and identify factors (physiological and genetic) associated with inter-individual variation in these responses. Methods Design Observational cohort study of progressive incremental exposure to EHH. Setting University human physiology laboratory in London, UK (75 m) and 7 field laboratories in Nepal at 1300 m, 3500 m, 4250 m, 5300 m, 6400 m, 7950 m and 8400 m. Participants 198 healthy volunteers and 24 investigators trekking to Everest Base Camp (EBC) (5300 m). A subgroup of 14 investigators studied at altitudes up to 8400 m on Everest. Main outcome measures Exercise capacity, exercise efficiency and economy, brain and muscle Near Infrared Spectroscopy, plasma biomarkers (including markers of inflammation), allele frequencies of known or suspected hypoxia responsive genes, spirometry, neurocognitive testing, retinal imaging, pupilometry. In nested subgroups: microcirculatory imaging, muscle biopsies with proteomic and transcriptomic tissue analysis, continuous cardiac output measurement, arterial blood gas measurement, trans-cranial Doppler, gastrointestinal tonometry, thromboelastography and ocular saccadometry. Results Of 198 healthy volunteers leaving Kathmandu, 190 reached EBC (5300 m). All 24 investigators reached EBC. The completion rate for planned testing was more than 99% in the investigator group and more than 95% in the trekkers. Unique measurements were safely performed at extreme altitude, including the highest (altitude) field measurements of exercise capacity, cerebral blood

  17. Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Østbye, Truls; Bennett, Gary G; Kravitz, Richard M; Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Iversen, Edwin; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Childcare has been associated with obesity in children in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, although some observed no association. Few studies have focused on care during infancy, a period when children may be especially vulnerable. Participants The Nurture Study is an observational birth cohort designed to assess longitudinal associations of childcare and the presence of multiple caregivers on infant adiposity and weight trajectories throughout the first year of life. We examine as potential mediators feeding, physical activity, sleep and stress. We completed recruitment in 2015. Of the 860 women who enrolled during pregnancy, 799 delivered a single live infant who met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 666 mothers (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study for themselves and their infants. Findings to date Among the 666 women in the study, 472 (71%) identified as black, 127 (19%) as white, 7 (1%) as Asian or Asian American, 6 (1%) as Native American and 49 (7%) as other race or more than one race; 43 (7%) identified as Hispanic/Latina. Just under half (48%) had a high school diploma or less, 61% had household incomes <$20 000/year and 59% were married or living with a partner. The mean (SD) infant gestational age was 41.28 weeks (2.29) and birth weight for gestational age z-score was −0.31 (0.93). Just under half (49%) of infants were females, 69% received some human milk and 40% were exclusively breast fed at hospital discharge. Data collection began in 2013, is currently underway, and is scheduled to conclude in late 2016. Future plans Results will help assess the magnitude of associations between childcare in infancy and subsequent obesity. Findings will also inform intervention and policy efforts to improve childcare environments and help prevent obesity in settings where many infants spend time. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01788644. PMID:28179416

  18. Cohort Profile: HAART Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Sophie; Cescon, Angela; Samji, Hasina; Cui, Zishan; Yip, Benita; Lepik, Katherine J; Moore, David; Lima, Viviane D; Nosyk, Bohdan; Harrigan, P Richard; Montaner, Julio S G; Shannon, Kate; Wood, Evan; Hogg, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been available free of charge to individuals living with HIV in British Columbia (BC), Canada, through the BC Centre of Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) Drug Treatment Program (DTP). The Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Observational Medical Evaluation and Research (HOMER) cohort was established in 1996 to maintain a prospective record of clinical measurements and medication profiles of a subset of DTP participants initiating HAART in BC. This unique cohort provides a comprehensive data source to investigate mortality, prognostic factors and treatment response among people living with HIV in BC from the inception of HAART. Currently over 5000 individuals are enrolled in the HOMER cohort. Data captured include socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. sex, age, ethnicity, health authority), clinical variables (e.g. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV viral load, AIDS-defining illness, hepatitis C co-infection, mortality) and treatment variables (e.g. HAART regimens, date of treatment initiation, treatment interruptions, adherence data, resistance testing). Research findings from the HOMER cohort have featured in numerous high-impact peer-reviewed journals. The HOMER cohort collaborates with other HIV cohorts on both national and international scales to answer complex HIV-specific research questions, and welcomes input from external investigators regarding potential research proposals or future collaborations. For further information please contact the principal investigator, Dr Robert Hogg (robert_hogg@sfu.ca). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Predicting out-of-office blood pressure level using repeated measurements in the clinic: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, James P.; Holder, Roger; Nichols, Linda; Bray, Emma; Hobbs, F.D. Richard; Mant, Jonathan; Little, Paul; Williams, Bryan; Greenfield, Sheila; McManus, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Identification of people with lower (white-coat effect) or higher (masked effect) blood pressure at home compared to the clinic usually requires ambulatory or home monitoring. This study assessed whether changes in SBP with repeated measurement at a single clinic predict subsequent differences between clinic and home measurements. Methods: This study used an observational cohort design and included 220 individuals aged 35–84 years, receiving treatment for hypertension, but whose SBP was not controlled. The characteristics of change in SBP over six clinic readings were defined as the SBP drop, the slope and the quadratic coefficient using polynomial regression modelling. The predictive abilities of these characteristics for lower or higher home SBP readings were investigated with logistic regression and repeated operating characteristic analysis. Results: The single clinic SBP drop was predictive of the white-coat effect with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 50%, positive predictive value of 56% and negative predictive value of 88%. Predictive values for the masked effect and those of the slope and quadratic coefficient were slightly lower, but when the slope and quadratic variables were combined, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for the masked effect were improved to 91, 48, 24 and 97%, respectively. Conclusion: Characteristics obtainable from multiple SBP measurements in a single clinic in patients with treated hypertension appear to reasonably predict those unlikely to have a large white-coat or masked effect, potentially allowing better targeting of out-of-office monitoring in routine clinical practice. PMID:25144295

  20. Developing a one-stop tinnitus service: outcomes of a joined up management strategy: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Farr, Matthew R B; Moraleda Deleito, Javier; Xu, Yanmin; Ray, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    The pressure to deliver quality care with finite resources means that dealing with single-symptom conditions like tinnitus in an efficient and individualized manner has never been more important. Both primary and secondary care practitioners have an obligation to explore efficient delivery of simple management pathways. Commissioners of health care are in a unique position to affect evidence-based strategic change in the management of uncomplicated tinnitus. This study is an attempt to explore one such option. We present the outcomes of a tinnitus patient pathway designed for one-stop management, thereby minimizing unnecessary additional appointments. A retrospective observational cohort study of 452 patients referred to a NHS one-stop tinnitus clinic from 2008 to 2012. Clinical care guided was through the use of a structured approach to history taking, neurotological examination and management. 294 out of 452 (65%) of patients referred had unilateral tinnitus. The most common associated complaints were hearing loss (387/452, 86%) and hyperacusis (329/452, 73%). 210 (46%) of patients had their presenting complaint dealt with in a single clinic visit. A structured system for referral and management of tinnitus within the health system ensures patients have timely access to evidence-based investigation and treatment. A consistent approach to imaging aimed at identifying retrocochlear pathology can benefit patients through early diagnosis of central pathology and the reassurance provided by a negative scan. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant. PMID:27916904

  2. Characteristics and outcomes of older HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: A retrospective observation cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tweya, Hannock; Feldacker, Caryl; Heller, Tom; Gugsa, Salem; Ng'ambi, Wingston; Nthala, Omisher; Kalulu, Mike; Chiwoko, Jane; Banda, Rabecca; Makwinja, Agness; Phiri, Sam

    2017-01-01

    To estimate patients enrolling on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time; describe trends in baseline characteristics; and compare immunological response, loss to follow-up (LTFU), and mortality by three age groups (25-39, 40-49 and ≥50 years). A retrospective observation cohort study. This study used routine ART data from two public clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. All HIV-infected individuals, except pregnant or breastfeeding women, aged ≥ 25 years at ART initiation between 2006 and 2015 were included. Poisson regression models estimated risk of mortality, stratified by age groups. Of 37,378 ART patients, 3,406 were ≥ 50 years old. Patients aged ≥ 50 years initiated ART with more advanced WHO clinical stage and lower CD4 cell count than their younger counterparts. Older patients had a significantly slower immunological response to ART in the first 18 months on ART compared to patients aged 25-39 years (p = 0.04). Overall mortality rates were 2.3 (95% confidence Interval (CI) 2.2-2.4), 2.9 (95% CI 2.7-3.2) and 4.6 (95% CI 4.2-5.1) per 100 person-years in patients aged 25-39 years, 40-49 years and 50 years and older, respectively. Overall LTFU rates were 6.3 (95% CI 6.1-6.5), 4.5 (95% CI 4.2-4.7), and 5.6 (95% CI 5.1-6.1) per 100 person years among increasing age cohorts. The proportion of patients aged ≥ 50 years and newly enrolling into ART care remained stable at 9% while the proportion of active ART patients aged ≥50 years increased from 10% in 2006 to 15% in 2015. Older people had slower immunological response and higher mortality. Malawi appears to be undergoing a demographic shift in people living with HIV. Increased consideration of long-term ART-related problems, drug-drug interactions and age-related non-communicable diseases is warranted.

  3. Characteristics and outcomes of older HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: A retrospective observation cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tweya, Hannock; Feldacker, Caryl; Heller, Tom; Gugsa, Salem; Ng’ambi, Wingston; Nthala, Omisher; Kalulu, Mike; Chiwoko, Jane; Banda, Rabecca; Makwinja, Agness; Phiri, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate patients enrolling on antiretroviral therapy (ART) over time; describe trends in baseline characteristics; and compare immunological response, loss to follow-up (LTFU), and mortality by three age groups (25–39, 40–49 and ≥50 years). Design A retrospective observation cohort study. Methods This study used routine ART data from two public clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. All HIV-infected individuals, except pregnant or breastfeeding women, aged ≥ 25 years at ART initiation between 2006 and 2015 were included. Poisson regression models estimated risk of mortality, stratified by age groups. Results Of 37,378 ART patients, 3,406 were ≥ 50 years old. Patients aged ≥ 50 years initiated ART with more advanced WHO clinical stage and lower CD4 cell count than their younger counterparts. Older patients had a significantly slower immunological response to ART in the first 18 months on ART compared to patients aged 25–39 years (p = 0.04). Overall mortality rates were 2.3 (95% confidence Interval (CI) 2.2–2.4), 2.9 (95% CI 2.7–3.2) and 4.6 (95% CI 4.2–5.1) per 100 person-years in patients aged 25–39 years, 40–49 years and 50 years and older, respectively. Overall LTFU rates were 6.3 (95% CI 6.1–6.5), 4.5 (95% CI 4.2–4.7), and 5.6 (95% CI 5.1–6.1) per 100 person years among increasing age cohorts. The proportion of patients aged ≥ 50 years and newly enrolling into ART care remained stable at 9% while the proportion of active ART patients aged ≥50 years increased from 10% in 2006 to 15% in 2015. Conclusion Older people had slower immunological response and higher mortality. Malawi appears to be undergoing a demographic shift in people living with HIV. Increased consideration of long-term ART-related problems, drug-drug interactions and age-related non-communicable diseases is warranted. PMID:28686636

  4. Site-specific human papillomavirus infection in adolescent men who have sex with men (HYPER): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Grulich, Andrew E; Hocking, Jane S; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Cornall, Alyssa M; Morrow, Andrea; Prestage, Garrett; Law, Matthew G; Garland, Suzanne M; Chen, Marcus Y; Fairley, Christopher K

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have an increased risk of anogenital human papilomavirus (HPV) infection, which can lead to HPV-related anogenital lesions such as warts, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and anal cancer. Some of these HPV types are preventable with vaccines. We aimed to describe the incidence of anal, penile, and oral HPV infection, and to estimate the site-specific transmission probability per partner, for teenage MSM. In our observational cohort study, we enrolled teenage MSM (aged 16-20 years) with low sexual exposure and a low prevalence of HPV in Melbourne (VIC, Australia). At baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months, we took a swab from the anal canal, and participants self-collected a swab from the penis and an oral rinse. Our primary outcome was definite and probable incident HPV infection of the anus, penis, or mouth at any time in the 12 months from baseline, assessed through the presence of HPV DNA. We defined definite incident HPV infection as the same HPV type detected more than once from the same site in men who had a negative HPV test at baseline. We defined probable incident HPV infection as only one positive test. We estimated the probability of HPV transmission per partner using HPV prevalence in MSM with a similar age to partners of men in our cohort. This study is registered at the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers ACTRN12611000857909 and NCT01422356. We enrolled 200 MSM aged 16-20 years (median 19 years [IRQ 18-20; range 16-20]) between Sept 20, 2010, and Aug 24, 2012. Over the 12 month follow-up period, we detected 48 definite (107 possible) HPV infections in the anus, ten definite (34 possible) HPV infections on the penis, and no definite (six possible) infections in the mouth. Definite incidence rate per 100 person-years for any anal HPV infection was 57 (95% CI 46-68), and for any anal HPV type in the quadrivalent vaccine was 33 (23-44). Definite incidence rate per 100 person-years for any

  5. Development and validation of a score to predict postoperative respiratory failure in a multicentre European cohort: A prospective, observational study.

    PubMed

    Canet, Jaume; Sabaté, Sergi; Mazo, Valentín; Gallart, Lluís; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Belda, Javier; Langeron, Olivier; Hoeft, Andreas; Pelosi, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    Postoperative respiratory failure (PRF) is the most frequent respiratory complication following surgery. The objective of this study was to build a clinically useful predictive model for the development of PRF. A prospective observational study of a multicentre cohort. Sixty-three hospitals across Europe. Patients undergoing any surgical procedure under general or regional anaesthesia during 7-day recruitment periods. Development of PRF within 5 days of surgery. PRF was defined by a partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) less than 8 kPa or new onset oxyhaemoglobin saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) less than 90% whilst breathing room air that required conventional oxygen therapy, noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilation. PRF developed in 224 patients (4.2% of the 5384 patients studied). In-hospital mortality [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] was higher in patients who developed PRF [10.3% (6.3 to 14.3) vs. 0.4% (0.2 to 0.6)]. Regression modelling identified a predictive PRF score that includes seven independent risk factors: low preoperative SpO2; at least one preoperative respiratory symptom; preoperative chronic liver disease; history of congestive heart failure; open intrathoracic or upper abdominal surgery; surgical procedure lasting at least 2 h; and emergency surgery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (c-statistic) was 0.82 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.85) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was 7.08 (P = 0.253). A risk score based on seven objective, easily assessed factors was able to predict which patients would develop PRF. The score could potentially facilitate preoperative risk assessment and management and provide a basis for testing interventions to improve outcomes.The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier NCT01346709).

  6. Early assessment of cancer outcomes in New York City firefighters after the 9/11 attacks: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P; Hall, Charles B; Schwartz, Theresa; Jaber, Nadia; Weakley, Jessica; Rohan, Thomas E; Cohen, Hillel W; Derman, Olga; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J

    2017-01-01

    observational study, we cannot rule out the possibility that effects in the exposed group might be due to unidentified confounders. Continued follow-up will be important and should include cancer screening and prevention strategies. Funding National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. PMID:21890054

  7. Lifestyle in progression from hypertensive disorders of pregnancy to chronic hypertension in Nurses' Health Study II: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Timpka, Simon; Stuart, Jennifer J; Tanz, Lauren J; Rimm, Eric B; Franks, Paul W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-07-12

    Objectives  To study the association between lifestyle risk factors and chronic hypertension by history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP: gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia) and investigate the extent to which these risk factors modify the association between HDP and chronic hypertension. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013). Participants  54 588 parous women aged 32 to 59 years with data on reproductive history and without previous chronic hypertension, stroke, or myocardial infarction. Main outcome measure  Chronic hypertension diagnosed by a physician and indicated through nurse participant self report. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the development of chronic hypertension contingent on history of HDP and four lifestyle risk factors: post-pregnancy body mass index, physical activity, adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and dietary sodium/potassium intake. Potential effect modification (interaction) between each lifestyle factor and previous HDP was evaluated with the relative excess risk due to interaction. Results  10% (n=5520) of women had a history of HDP at baseline. 13 971 cases of chronic hypertension occurred during 689 988 person years of follow-up. Being overweight or obese was the only lifestyle factor consistently associated with higher risk of chronic hypertension. Higher body mass index, in particular, also increased the risk of chronic hypertension associated with history of HDP (relative excess risk due to interaction P<0.01 for all age strata). For example, in women aged 40-49 years with previous HDP and obesity class I (body mass index 30.0-34.9), 25% (95% confidence interval 12% to 37%) of the risk of chronic hypertension was attributable to a potential effect of obesity that was specific to women with previous HDP. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by physical activity, DASH diet

  8. Parkinson's Disease Diagnostic Observations (PADDO): study rationale and design of a prospective cohort study for early differentiation of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    van Rumund, Anouke; Aerts, Marjolein B; Esselink, Rianne A J; Meijer, Frederick J A; Verbeek, Marcel M; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2018-05-16

    Differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from the various types of atypical parkinsonism (AP) such as multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and vascular parkinsonism (VP), can be challenging, especially early in the disease course when symptoms overlap. A major unmet need in the diagnostic workup of these disorders is a diagnostic tool that differentiates the various disorders, preferably in the earliest disease stages when the clinical presentation is similar. Many diagnostic tests have been evaluated, but their added value was studied mostly in retrospective case-control studies that included patients with a straightforward clinical diagnosis. Here, we describe the design of a prospective cohort study in patients with parkinsonism in an early disease stage who have an uncertain clinical diagnosis. Our aim is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of (1) detailed clinical examination by a movement disorder specialist, (2) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and (3) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Patients with parkinsonism with an uncertain clinical diagnosis and a disease course less than three years will be recruited. Patients will undergo extensive neurological examination, brain MRI including conventional and advanced sequences, and a lumbar puncture. The diagnosis (including level of certainty) will be defined by a movement disorders expert, neuroradiologist and neurochemist based on clinical data, MRI results and CSF results, respectively. The clinical diagnosis after three years' follow-up will serve as the "gold standard" reference diagnosis, based on consensus criteria and as established by two movement disorder specialists (blinded to the test results). Diagnostic accuracy of individual instruments and added value of brain MRI and CSF analysis after evaluation by a movement disorder expert will be calculated, expressed as the change in percentage of

  9. Early Outcomes Of Decentralized Care for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnippel, Kathryn; Mohr, Erika; Hirasen, Kamban; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Sanne, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Objective We describe baseline characteristics, time to treatment initiation and interim patient outcomes at a decentralized, outpatient treatment site for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Methods Prospective observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from March 2013 until December 2014. Study subjects were followed until completion of the intensive phase of treatment (6 months), transfer out, or a final outcome (loss from treatment (LFT) or death). Results 214 patients with RR-TB were enrolled in the study. Xpert MTB/RIF was the diagnostic test of rifampicin resistance for 87% (n = 186), followed by direct PCR on AFB positive specimen in 14 (7%) and indirect PCR on cultured isolate in 5 (2%). Median time between sputum testing and treatment initiation was 10 days (IQR 6–21). Interim outcomes were available in 148 patients of whom 78% (n = 115) were still on treatment, 9% (n = 13) had died, and 14% (n = 20) were LFT. Amongst 131 patients with culture positive pulmonary TB, 85 (64.9%) were culture negative at 6 months, 12 were still sputum culture positive (9.2%) and 34 had no culture documented or contaminated culture (26%). Patients who initiated as outpatients within 1 week of sputum collection for diagnosis of RR-TB had a significantly lower incidence of LFT (IRR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.09–0.98). HIV co-infection occurred in 178 patients (83%) with a median CD4 count 88 cells/ml3 (IQR 27–218). Conclusions Access to decentralized treatment coupled with the rapid diagnosis of RR-TB has resulted in short time to treatment initiation. Despite the lack of treatment delays, early treatment outcomes remain poor with high rates of death and loss from care. PMID:27812140

  10. Oral microbial and respiratory status of persons with mental retardation/intellectual and developmental disability: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Binkley, Catherine J; Haugh, Gilbert S; Kitchens, Dinah H; Wallace, Debra L; Sessler, Daniel I

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of select microorganisms in oral biofilms and to investigate relationships between oral and respiratory status in persons with mental retardation/intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). We conducted a 6-month-long observational cohort study with 63 persons with IDD. Oral examinations, oral sampling, and medical record reviews were performed at baseline and then monthly. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to analyze all baseline oral samples for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Prevotella melaninogenica, and Candida albicans. PCR analyses were also performed on participants' samples collected in the month before being diagnosed with a respiratory infection. All subjects had P. melaninogenica detected by PCR in their oral samples. Fifty-five percent (35 of 63) of participants had S. pneumoniae, MRSA, and C. albicans in their oral samples at baseline. No dental decay was detected clinically, oral hygiene was fair, and dysphagia was common. During the 6 months of the study, there were 22 respiratory infections (35% of participants)-12 pneumonias, 7 sinusitis, 1 bronchitis, and 1 upper respiratory tract infection. Participants with microorganisms in their baseline samples were significantly more likely to develop any respiratory infection and those who had poor oral status were significantly more likely to develop pneumonia. Almost 60% of participants who developed respiratory infections had the same microorganism detected in the sample collected in the month before infection as had been detected in their baseline sample. Potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity and poor oral status significantly increased the risk of developing respiratory infections, including pneumonia, in persons with IDD. The results suggest that colonization with these microorganisms may persist despite routine tooth brushing. Meticulous

  11. Patient-reported outcomes and associations with pleural effusion in outpatients with heart failure: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Guri H; Norekvål, Tone M; Graven, Torbjørn; Haug, Hilde H; Skjetne, Kyrre; Kleinau, Jens O; Gustad, Lise T; Dalen, Håvard

    2017-03-20

    We aimed to study whether patient-reported outcomes, measured by quality of life (QoL) and functional class, are sensitive to pleural effusion (PLE) in patients with heart failure (HF), and to study changes in QoL and functional class during follow-up of PLE. A cohort of 62 patients from an outpatient HF clinic was included. The amount of PLE was quantified using a pocket-sized ultrasound imaging device. Self-reports of QoL and functional class were collected using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification. At baseline, 26 (42%) patients had PLE of which 19 (31%) patients had moderate to severe amounts of PLE. Patients with no to mild PLE had a lower MLHFQ score (mean 42, SD 21) compared with patients with a moderate to severe amount of PLE (mean 55, SD 24), p=0.03. For 28 patients (45%) with follow-up data, we observed a linear improvement of the MLHFQ-score (3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) with each centimetre reduction of PLE. Correspondingly, patient-reported NYHA-class followed the same pattern as the MLHFQ-score. Our study indicates that patient-reported outcome measures as MLHFQ may be sensitive tools to identify patients with HF at highest risk of symptomatic PLE and that treatment targeting reduction of PLE during follow-up is essential to improvement of QoL and functional capacity of outpatients with HF. NCT01794715; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Patient-reported outcomes and associations with pleural effusion in outpatients with heart failure: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gundersen, Guri H; Norekvål, Tone M; Graven, Torbjørn; Haug, Hilde H; Skjetne, Kyrre; Kleinau, Jens O; Gustad, Lise T; Dalen, Håvard

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to study whether patient-reported outcomes, measured by quality of life (QoL) and functional class, are sensitive to pleural effusion (PLE) in patients with heart failure (HF), and to study changes in QoL and functional class during follow-up of PLE. Methods A cohort of 62 patients from an outpatient HF clinic was included. The amount of PLE was quantified using a pocket-sized ultrasound imaging device. Self-reports of QoL and functional class were collected using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification. Results At baseline, 26 (42%) patients had PLE of which 19 (31%) patients had moderate to severe amounts of PLE. Patients with no to mild PLE had a lower MLHFQ score (mean 42, SD 21) compared with patients with a moderate to severe amount of PLE (mean 55, SD 24), p=0.03. For 28 patients (45%) with follow-up data, we observed a linear improvement of the MLHFQ-score (3.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 5.1) with each centimetre reduction of PLE. Correspondingly, patient-reported NYHA-class followed the same pattern as the MLHFQ-score. Conclusions Our study indicates that patient-reported outcome measures as MLHFQ may be sensitive tools to identify patients with HF at highest risk of symptomatic PLE and that treatment targeting reduction of PLE during follow-up is essential to improvement of QoL and functional capacity of outpatients with HF. Trial registration number NCT01794715; Results PMID:28320791

  13. Early Outcomes Of Decentralized Care for Rifampicin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, Rebecca; Schnippel, Kathryn; Mohr, Erika; Hirasen, Kamban; Evans, Denise; Rosen, Sydney; Sanne, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We describe baseline characteristics, time to treatment initiation and interim patient outcomes at a decentralized, outpatient treatment site for rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Prospective observational cohort study of RR-TB patients from March 2013 until December 2014. Study subjects were followed until completion of the intensive phase of treatment (6 months), transfer out, or a final outcome (loss from treatment (LFT) or death). 214 patients with RR-TB were enrolled in the study. Xpert MTB/RIF was the diagnostic test of rifampicin resistance for 87% (n = 186), followed by direct PCR on AFB positive specimen in 14 (7%) and indirect PCR on cultured isolate in 5 (2%). Median time between sputum testing and treatment initiation was 10 days (IQR 6-21). Interim outcomes were available in 148 patients of whom 78% (n = 115) were still on treatment, 9% (n = 13) had died, and 14% (n = 20) were LFT. Amongst 131 patients with culture positive pulmonary TB, 85 (64.9%) were culture negative at 6 months, 12 were still sputum culture positive (9.2%) and 34 had no culture documented or contaminated culture (26%). Patients who initiated as outpatients within 1 week of sputum collection for diagnosis of RR-TB had a significantly lower incidence of LFT (IRR 0.30, 95% CI: 0.09-0.98). HIV co-infection occurred in 178 patients (83%) with a median CD4 count 88 cells/ml3 (IQR 27-218). Access to decentralized treatment coupled with the rapid diagnosis of RR-TB has resulted in short time to treatment initiation. Despite the lack of treatment delays, early treatment outcomes remain poor with high rates of death and loss from care.

  14. Survey Criteria for Fibromyalgia Independently Predict Increased Postoperative Opioid Consumption after Lower Extremity Joint Arthroplasty: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brummett, Chad M.; Janda, Allison M.; Schueller, Christa M.; Tsodikov, Alex; Morris, Michelle; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Variance in pain following total knee and hip arthroplasty may be due to a number of procedural and peripheral factors but also, in some individuals, to aberrant central pain processing as is described in conditions like fibromyalgia. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a prospective, observational cohort study of patients undergoing lower extremity joint arthroplasty. Methods 519 patients were preoperatively phenotyped using validated self-reported pain questionnaires, psychological measures, and health information. In addition to assessing factors previously found to be associated with poor outcomes in arthroplasty, participants also completed the American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for fibromyalgia. Previous studies have suggested that rather than being “present” or “absent,” features of fibromyalgia as measured by this instrument, occur over a wide continuum. Postoperative pain control was assessed by total postoperative opioid consumption. Results Preoperatively, patients with higher fibromyalgia survey scores were younger, more likely to be female, taking more opioids, reported higher pain severity, and had a more negative psychological profile. In the multivariate analysis, the fibromyalgia survey score, younger age, preoperative opioid use, knee (vs. hip), pain severity at baseline, and the anesthetic technique were all predictive of increased postoperative opioid consumption. Conclusions Using the survey criteria for fibromyalgia distinct phenotypic differences were found, and the measure was independently predictive of opioid consumption. This self-report measure may provide an additional simple means of predicting postoperative pain outcomes and analgesic requirements. Future studies are needed to determine whether tailored therapies can improve postoperative pain control in this population. PMID:24343289

  15. Safety of a killed oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) in pregnant women in Malawi: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson; Luquero, Francisco J; Azman, Andrew S; Debes, Amanda K; M'bang'ombe, Maurice Mwesawina; Seyama, Linly; Kachale, Evans; Zuze, Kingsley; Malichi, Desire; Zulu, Fatima; Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Kabuluzi, Storn; Sack, David A

    2017-05-01

    Pregnancy increases the risk of harmful effects from cholera for both mothers and their fetuses. A killed oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol (Shantha Biotechnics, Hydrabad, India), can protect against the disease for up to 5 years. However, cholera vaccination campaigns have often excluded pregnant women because of insufficient safety data for use during pregnancy. We did an observational cohort study to assess the safety of Shanchol during pregnancy. This observational cohort study was done in two adjacent districts (Nsanje and Chikwawa) in Malawi. Individuals older than 1 year in Nsanje were offered oral cholera vaccine during a mass vaccination campaign between March 30 and April 30, 2015, but no vaccines were administered in Chikwawa. We enrolled women who were exposed to oral cholera vaccine during pregnancy in Nsanje district, and women who were pregnant in Chikwawa district (and thus not exposed to oral cholera vaccine) during the same period. The primary endpoint of our analysis was pregnancy loss (spontaneous miscarriage or stillbirth), and the secondary endpoints were neonatal deaths and malformations. We evaluated these endpoints using log-binomial regression, adjusting for the imbalanced baseline characteristics between the groups. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02499172. We recruited 900 women exposed to oral cholera vaccine and 899 women not exposed to the vaccine between June 16 and Oct 10, 2015, and analysed 835 in each group. 361 women exposed to the vaccine and 327 not exposed to the vaccine were recruited after their pregnancies had ended. The incidence of pregnancy loss was 27·54 (95% CI 18·41-41·23) per 1000 pregnancies among those exposed to the vaccine and 21·56 (13·65-34·04) per 1000 among those not exposed. The adjusted relative risk for pregnancy loss among those exposed to oral cholera vaccine was 1·24 (95% CI 0·64-2·43; p=0·52) compared with those not exposed to the vaccine. The neonatal mortality rate

  16. Cohort profile for the Nurture Observational Study examining associations of multiple caregivers on infant growth in the Southeastern USA.

    PubMed

    Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Østbye, Truls; Bennett, Gary G; Kravitz, Richard M; Clancy, Shayna M; Stroo, Marissa; Iversen, Edwin; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-02-08

    Childcare has been associated with obesity in children in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, although some observed no association. Few studies have focused on care during infancy, a period when children may be especially vulnerable. The Nurture Study is an observational birth cohort designed to assess longitudinal associations of childcare and the presence of multiple caregivers on infant adiposity and weight trajectories throughout the first year of life. We examine as potential mediators feeding, physical activity, sleep and stress. We completed recruitment in 2015. Of the 860 women who enrolled during pregnancy, 799 delivered a single live infant who met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 666 mothers (77.4%) agreed to participate in the study for themselves and their infants. Among the 666 women in the study, 472 (71%) identified as black, 127 (19%) as white, 7 (1%) as Asian or Asian American, 6 (1%) as Native American and 49 (7%) as other race or more than one race; 43 (7%) identified as Hispanic/Latina. Just under half (48%) had a high school diploma or less, 61% had household incomes <$20 000/year and 59% were married or living with a partner. The mean (SD) infant gestational age was 41.28 weeks (2.29) and birth weight for gestational age z-score was -0.31 (0.93). Just under half (49%) of infants were females, 69% received some human milk and 40% were exclusively breast fed at hospital discharge. Data collection began in 2013, is currently underway, and is scheduled to conclude in late 2016. Results will help assess the magnitude of associations between childcare in infancy and subsequent obesity. Findings will also inform intervention and policy efforts to improve childcare environments and help prevent obesity in settings where many infants spend time. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01788644. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Effectiveness of community psychosocial and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorder: A national observational cohort study in England.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Amy; Eastwood, Brian; Jones, Andrew; Millar, Tim; Horgan, Patrick; Knight, Jonathan; Randhawa, Kulvir; White, Martin; Marsden, John

    2018-05-01

    This was a national English observational cohort study using administrative data to estimate the effectiveness of community pharmacological and psychosocial treatment for alcohol use disorder (AUD). All adults commencing AUD treatment in the community reported to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (April 1 2014-March 31 2015; N = 52,499). Past 28-day admission drinking pattern included drinks per drinking day (DDD): 0 ('Abstinent'), 1-15 ('Low-High'), 16-30 ('High-Extreme') and over 30 DDD ('Extreme'). The primary outcome was successful completion of treatment within 12 months of commencement with no re-presentation (SCNR) in the subsequent six months, analysed by multi-level, mixed effects, multivariable logistic regression. The majority reported DDD in the 'Low-High' (n = 17,698, 34%) and 'High-Extreme' (n = 21,383, 41%) range. Smaller proportions were categorised 'Extreme' (n = 7759, 15%) and 'Abstinent' (n = 5661, 11%). Three-fifths (58%) achieved SCNR. Predictors of SCNR were older age, black/minority ethnic group, employment, criminal justice system referral, and longer treatment exposure. Predictors of negative outcome were AUD treatment history, lower socio-economic status, housing problems, and 'Extreme' drinking at admission. In addition to psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions and recovery support increased the likelihood of SCNR. Pharmacological treatment was only beneficial for the 'Low-High' groups with recovery support. Over half of all patients admitted for community AUD treatment in England are reported to successfully complete treatment within 12 months and are not re-admitted for further treatment in the following 6 months. Study findings underscore efforts to tailor AUD treatment to the severity of alcohol consumption and using recovery support. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission.

  19. Effectiveness of inpatient withdrawal and residential rehabilitation interventions for alcohol use disorder: A national observational, cohort study in England.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Brian; Peacock, Amy; Millar, Tim; Jones, Andrew; Knight, Jonathan; Horgan, Patrick; Lowden, Tim; Willey, Peter; Marsden, John

    2018-05-01

    This was a national English observational cohort study to estimate the effectiveness of inpatient withdrawal (IW) and residential rehabilitation (RR) interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD) using administrative data. All adults commencing IW and/or RR intervention for AUD between April 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 reported to the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (n=3812). The primary outcome was successful completion of treatment within 12months of commencement, with no re-presentation (SCNR) in the subsequent six months, analysed by multi-level, mixed effects, multivariable logistic regression. The majority (70%, n=2682) received IW in their index treatment journey; one-quarter (24%, n=915) received RR; 6% (n=215) received both. Of treatment leavers, 59% achieved the SCNR outcome (IW: 57%; RR: 64%; IW/RR: 57%). Positive outcome for IW was associated with older age, being employed, and receiving community-based treatment prior to and subsequent to IW. Patients with housing problems were less likely to achieving the outcome. Positive outcome for RR was associated with paid employment, self/family/peer referral, longer duration of RR treatment, and community-based treatment following discharge. Community-based treatment prior to entering RR, and receiving IW during the same treatment journey as RR, were associated with lower likelihood of SCNR. In this first national effectiveness study of AUD in the English public treatment system for alcohol-use disorders, 59% of patients successfully completed treatment within 12months and did not represent for more treatment within six months. Longer duration of treatment and provision of structured continuing care is associated with better treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Soluble Suppression of Tumorigenicity-2 Predicts Hospital Mortality in Burn Patients: An Observational Prospective Cohort Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Castilla, Mireia; Bosacoma, Pau; Dos Santos, Bruce; Baena, Jacinto; Guilabert, Patricia; Marin-Corral, Judith; Masclans, Joan R; Roca, Oriol; Barret, Juan P

    2018-04-10

    The IL33/ST2 pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases. Our aim was to analyze whether plasma levels of biomarkers involved in the IL33/ST2 axis might help to predict mortality in burn patients. Single-center prospective observational cohort pilot study performed at the Burns Unit of the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona). All patients aged ≥18 years old with second or third-degree burns requiring admission to the Burns Unit were considered for inclusion. Blood samples were taken to measure levels of interleukins (IL)6, IL8, IL33, and soluble suppression of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2) within 24 h of admission to the Burns Unit and at day 3. Results are expressed as medians and interquartile ranges or as frequencies and percentages. Sixty-nine patients (58 [84.1%] male, mean age 52 [35-63] years, total body surface area burned 21% [13%-30%], Abbreviated Burn Severity Index 6 [4-8]) were included. Thirteen (18.8%) finally died in the Burns Unit. Plasma levels of sST2 measured at day 3 after admission demonstrated the best prediction accuracy for survival (area under the ROC curve 0.85 [0.71-0.99]; P < 0.001). The best cutoff point for the AUROC index was estimated to be 2,561. In the Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for potential confounding, a plasma sST2 level ≥2,561 measured at day 3 was significantly associated with mortality (HR 6.94 [1.73-27.74]; P = 0.006). Plasma sST2 at day 3 predicts hospital mortality in burn patients.

  1. Lung function, symptoms and inflammation during exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brill, Simon E; Patel, Anant R C; Singh, Richa; Mackay, Alexander J; Brown, Jeremy S; Hurst, John R

    2015-02-07

    Exacerbations of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis cause significant morbidity but there are few detailed data on their clinical course and associated physiological changes. The biology of an exacerbation has not been previously described. This was a prospective observational cohort study of 32 outpatients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis conducted between August 2010 and August 2012. Patients completed a symptom diary card and measured their peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) daily. Exacerbations were defined as oral antibiotic treatment taken for a worsening of respiratory symptoms. Symptoms and peak flow at exacerbation were analysed, and further measurements including the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and inflammatory markers were also compared to baseline values. At baseline, health status was significantly related to lung function, prognostic severity and systemic inflammation. 51 exacerbations occurred in 22 patients. Exacerbation symptoms began a median (interquartile range) of 4 (2, 7) days before treatment started and the median exacerbation duration was 16 (10, 29) days. 16% had not recovered by 35 days. At exacerbation, mean PEFR dropped by 10.6% (95% confidence interval 6.9-14.2, p < 0.001) and mean CAT score increased by 6.3 units (3.6-9.1, p = 0.001), median symptom count by 4 (2.25, 6, p < 0.001), and mean CRP by 9.0mg/L (2.3-15.8, p = 0.011). Exacerbations where PEFR fell by ≥10% were longer with more symptoms at onset. Exacerbations of non-CF bronchiectasis are inflammatory events, with worsened symptoms, lung function and health status, and a prolonged recovery period. Symptom diary cards, PEFR and CAT scores are responsive to changes at exacerbation and may be useful tools for their detection and monitoring.

  2. Cognitive function after the initiation of adjuvant endocrine therapy in early-stage breast cancer: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Patricia A; Petersen, Laura; Castellon, Steven A; Bower, Julienne E; Silverman, Daniel H S; Cole, Steven W; Irwin, Michael R; Belin, Thomas R

    2014-11-01

    This report examines cognitive complaints and neuropsychological (NP) testing outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer after the initiation of endocrine therapy (ET) to determine whether this therapy plays any role in post-treatment cognitive complaints. One hundred seventy-three participants from the Mind Body Study (MBS) observational cohort provided data from self-report questionnaires and NP testing obtained at enrollment (T1, before initiation of ET), and 6 months later (T2). Bivariate analyses compared demographic and treatment variables, cognitive complaints, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and NP functioning between those who received ET versus not. Multivariable linear regression models examined predictors of cognitive complaints at T2, including selected demographic variables, depressive symptoms, ET use, and other medical variables, along with NP domains that were identified in bivariate analyses. Seventy percent of the 173 MBS participants initiated ET, evenly distributed between tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. ET-treated participants reported significantly increased language and communication (LC) cognitive complaints at T2 (P = .003), but no significant differences in NP test performance. Multivariable regression on LC at T2 found higher LC complaints significantly associated with T1 LC score (P < .001), ET at T2 (P = .004), interaction between ET and past hormone therapy (HT) (P < .001), and diminished improvement in NP psychomotor function (P = .05). Depressive symptoms were not significant (P = .10). Higher LC complaints are significantly associated with ET 6 months after starting treatment and reflect diminished improvements in some NP tests. Past HT is a significant predictor of higher LC complaints after initiation of ET. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. Cognitive Function After the Initiation of Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, Patricia A.; Petersen, Laura; Castellon, Steven A.; Bower, Julienne E.; Silverman, Daniel H.S.; Cole, Steven W.; Irwin, Michael R.; Belin, Thomas R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This report examines cognitive complaints and neuropsychological (NP) testing outcomes in patients with early-stage breast cancer after the initiation of endocrine therapy (ET) to determine whether this therapy plays any role in post-treatment cognitive complaints. Patients and Methods One hundred seventy-three participants from the Mind Body Study (MBS) observational cohort provided data from self-report questionnaires and NP testing obtained at enrollment (T1, before initiation of ET), and 6 months later (T2). Bivariate analyses compared demographic and treatment variables, cognitive complaints, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and NP functioning between those who received ET versus not. Multivariable linear regression models examined predictors of cognitive complaints at T2, including selected demographic variables, depressive symptoms, ET use, and other medical variables, along with NP domains that were identified in bivariate analyses. Results Seventy percent of the 173 MBS participants initiated ET, evenly distributed between tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors. ET-treated participants reported significantly increased language and communication (LC) cognitive complaints at T2 (P = .003), but no significant differences in NP test performance. Multivariable regression on LC at T2 found higher LC complaints significantly associated with T1 LC score (P < .001), ET at T2 (P = .004), interaction between ET and past hormone therapy (HT) (P < .001), and diminished improvement in NP psychomotor function (P = .05). Depressive symptoms were not significant (P = .10). Conclusion Higher LC complaints are significantly associated with ET 6 months after starting treatment and reflect diminished improvements in some NP tests. Past HT is a significant predictor of higher LC complaints after initiation of ET. PMID:25267747

  4. Peripheral ARtery Atherosclerotic DIsease and SlEep disordered breathing (PARADISE) trial - protocol for an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Filip M; Gałązka, Zbigniew; Płatek, Anna E; Górko, Dariusz; Ostrowski, Tomasz; Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Łęgosz, Paweł; Ryś, Anna; Semczuk-Kaczmarek, Karolina; Celejewski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Krzysztof J

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is in fact a group of disease entities with different symptoms and course but a common underlying cause, i.e. atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is known to be aggravated by several cardiovascular risk factors, including obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Following paper is a protocol for the Peripheral ARtery Atherosclerotic DIsease and SlEep disordered breathing (PARADISE) trial, which aims to describe the prevalence of OSA in PAD patients scheduled for revascularisation, and to determine the effect of OSA on the procedure outcomes. The PARADISE study is an observational cohort trial. It plans to include 200 consecutive patients hospitalised for revascularisation due to PAD. In every patient an overnight sleep study will be performed to diagnose sleep disorders. Accord¬ing to the results of the test, patients will be divided into two groups: group A - patients with OSA, and group B - patients without OSA (control group). All patients will also be screened for classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors. In some of the patients, during surgery, a fragment of atherosclerotic plaque will be collected for further testing. Patients will be followed for one year for adverse events and end-points. Primary end-point of the study will be the failure of revascularisa¬tion defined as recurrence or new onset of the symptoms of ischaemia from the treated region, a need for re-operation or procedure revision, or recurrence of ischaemia signs on the imaging tests. The data obtained will help determine the incidence of OSA in the population of patients with PAD. The au¬thors expect to show that, as with other cardiovascular diseases associated with atherosclerosis, also in patients with PAD the incidence of undiagnosed OSA is high and its presence is associated with elevated cholesterol, inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of arterial hypertension and poor control of other cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, due to

  5. Prospective observational cohort study of patients with weaning failure admitted to a specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre

    PubMed Central

    Mifsud Bonnici, Denise; Sanctuary, Thomas; Murphy, Patrick B; Steier, Joerg; Marino, Philip; Pattani, Hina; Creagh-Brown, Ben C; Hart, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives According to National Health Service England (NHSE) specialist respiratory commissioning specification for complex home ventilation, patients with weaning failure should be referred to a specialist centre. However, there are limited data reporting the clinical outcomes from such centres. Setting Prospective observational cohort study of patients admitted to a UK specialist weaning, rehabilitation and home mechanical ventilation centre between February 2005 and July 2013. Participants 262 patients admitted with a median age of 64.2 years (IQR 52.6–73.2 years). 59.9% were male. Results 39.7% of patients had neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease, 21% were postsurgical, 19.5% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 5.3% had obesity-related respiratory failure and 14.5% had other diagnoses. 64.1% of patients were successfully weaned, with 38.2% weaned fully from ventilation, 24% weaned to nocturnal non-invasive ventilation (NIV), 1.9% weaned to nocturnal NIV with intermittent NIV during the daytime. 21.4% of patients were discharged on long-term tracheostomy ventilation. The obesity-related respiratory failure group were most likely to wean (relative risk (RR) for weaning success=1.48, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.77; p<0.001), but otherwise weaning success rates did not significantly vary by diagnostic group. The median time-to-wean was 19 days (IQR 9–33) and the median duration of stay was 31 days (IQR 16–50), with no difference observed between the groups. Weaning centre mortality was 14.5%, highest in the COPD group (RR=2.15, 95% CI 1.19 to 3.91, p=0.012) and lowest in the neuromuscular and/or chest wall disease group (RR=0.34, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.75, p=0.007). Of all patients discharged alive, survival was 71.7% at 6 months and 61.8% at 12 months postdischarge. Conclusions Following NHSE guidance, patients with weaning delay and failure should be considered for transfer to a specialist centre where available, which can demonstrate

  6. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies. PMID:26955090

  7. Methodology Series Module 1: Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Cohort design is a type of nonexperimental or observational study design. In a cohort study, the participants do not have the outcome of interest to begin with. They are selected based on the exposure status of the individual. They are then followed over time to evaluate for the occurrence of the outcome of interest. Some examples of cohort studies are (1) Framingham Cohort study, (2) Swiss HIV Cohort study, and (3) The Danish Cohort study of psoriasis and depression. These studies may be prospective, retrospective, or a combination of both of these types. Since at the time of entry into the cohort study, the individuals do not have outcome, the temporality between exposure and outcome is well defined in a cohort design. If the exposure is rare, then a cohort design is an efficient method to study the relation between exposure and outcomes. A retrospective cohort study can be completed fast and is relatively inexpensive compared with a prospective cohort study. Follow-up of the study participants is very important in a cohort study, and losses are an important source of bias in these types of studies. These studies are used to estimate the cumulative incidence and incidence rate. One of the main strengths of a cohort study is the longitudinal nature of the data. Some of the variables in the data will be time-varying and some may be time independent. Thus, advanced modeling techniques (such as fixed and random effects models) are useful in analysis of these studies.

  8. Baseline characteristics of an incident haemodialysis population in Spain: results from ANSWER—a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-García, Rafael; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; Lladós, Fina; Lozano, Javier; García, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Background. The ANSWER study aims to identify risk factors leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a Spanish incident haemodialysis population. This paper summarizes the baseline characteristics of this population. Methods. A prospective, observational, one-cohort study, including all consecutive incident haemodialysis patients from 147 Spanish nephrology services, was conducted. Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2004. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics were collected. Results. Baseline characteristics are described for 2341 incident haemodialysis patients [mean (SD) age 65.2 (14.5) years, 63% males]. The main cause of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy (26%). The majority of patients (57%) had a Karnofsky score of 80–100 and 27% were followed up by a nephrologist for ≤6 months. In total, 86% of the patients had hypertension, 43% had dyslipidaemia and 44% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Initial vascular access was obtained via a temporary catheter in 30% of patients, via a permanent catheter in 16% and via an arteriovenous fistula in 54%. Albumin levels were <3.5 g/dl in 43% of patients. Immediately prior to the onset of haemodialysis, the mean (SD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 7.6 (2.8) ml/min/1.73 m2, and only 6.7% of the patients were within the K/DOQI guidelines for all four bone mineral markers. In addition, a high proportion of patients had anaemia markers outside the EBPG guidelines (haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 59%, ferritin <100 or >500 ng/ml, 41% and saturated transferrin <20 or >40%, 50%) despite previous treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in 41% of cases. Conclusions. There is excessive use of temporary catheters and a high prevalence of uraemia-related cardiovascular risk factors among incident haemodialysis patients in Spain. The poor control of hypertension, anaemia, malnutrition and mineral metabolism and late referral to a nephrologist

  9. Retention in Care of Adult HIV Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in Tigray, Ethiopia: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Fragola, Vincenzo; Abegaz, Teshome; Lucattini, Stefano; Halifom, Atakilt; Tadesse, Eskedar; Berhe, Micheal; Pugliese, Katherina; Binelli, Andrea; De Castro, Paola; Terlizzi, Roberta; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Olivieri, Erika; Teklu, Tsigemariam; Zegeye, Teame; Haile, Amanuel; Vella, Stefano; Abraham, Loko; Godefay, Hagos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Ethiopia has been scaling up the antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, low retention in care of patients remains one of the main obstacles to treatment success. We report data on retention in care and its associated determinants in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods We used data from the CASA project, a prospective observational and multi-site study of a cohort of HIV-infected patients who initiated ART for the first time in Tigray. Four participating health facilities (HFs) located in the South of Tigray were considered for this study. Patients were followed for one year after ART initiation. The main outcome measure was represented by the current retention in care, defined as the proportion of patients who were alive and receiving ART at the same HF one year after ART initiation. Patients who started ART between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013 were included in this analysis. Patients were followed for one year after ART initiation. The determinants of retention were analysed using univariate and multivariate Cox Proportional Hazards model with robust sandwich estimates to account for within HF correlation. Results The four participating HFs in Tigray were able to retain overall 85.1% of their patients after one year from starting ART. Loss to follow-up (5.5%) and transfers to other HF (6.6) were the main determinant of attrition. A multivariate analysis shows that the factors significantly associated with retention were the type of HF, gender and active TB. Alamata health center was the HF with the highest attrition rate (HR 2.99, 95% CI: 2.77–3.23). Active TB (HR 1.72, 95% CI: 1.23–2.41) and gender (HR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.10–2.56) were also significantly associated with attrition. Conclusions Although Ethiopia has significantly improved access to the ART program, achieving and maintaining a satisfactory long-term retention rate is a future goal. This is difficult because of different retention rates among HFs. Moreover specific

  10. Vaccination coverage and out-of-sequence vaccinations in rural Guinea-Bissau: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hornshøj, Linda; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fernandes, Manuel; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Aaby, Peter; Fisker, Ane Bærent

    2012-01-01

    Objective The WHO aims for 90% coverage of the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), which in Guinea-Bissau included BCG vaccine at birth, three doses of diphtheria−tetanus−pertussis vaccine (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6, 10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months when this study was conducted. The WHO assesses coverage by 12 months of age. The sequence of vaccines may have an effect on child mortality, but is not considered in official statistics or assessments of programme performance. We assessed vaccination coverage and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations by 12 and 24 months of age. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and participants The Bandim Health Project's (BHP) rural Health and Demographic Surveillance site covers 258 randomly selected villages in all regions of Guinea-Bissau. Villages are visited biannually and vaccination cards inspected to ascertain vaccination status. Between 2003 and 2009 vaccination status by 12 months of age was assessed for 5806 children aged 12–23 months; vaccination status by 24 months of age was assessed for 3792 children aged 24–35 months. Outcome measures Coverage of EPI vaccinations and frequency of out-of-sequence vaccinations. Results Half of 12-month-old children and 65% of 24-month-old children had completed all EPI vaccinations. Many children received vaccines out of sequence: by 12 months of age 54% of BCG-vaccinated children had received DTP with or before BCG and 28% of measles-vaccinated children had received DTP with or after MV. By 24 months of age the proportion of out-of-sequence vaccinations was 58% and 35%, respectively, for BCG and MV. Conclusions In rural Guinea-Bissau vaccination coverage by 12 months of age was low, but continued to increase beyond 12 months of age. More than half of all children received vaccinations out of sequence. This highlights the need to improve vaccination services. PMID:23166127

  11. Symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and livebirth outcomes in Brazil, 2007-13: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Laura B; Siqueira, Cláudio M; Coelho, Giovanini E; Siqueira, João B

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is a major public health challenge in Brazil. We assessed the relationship between symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes in the country between 2007 and 2013. We did a retrospective observational cohort study using information reported in the Brazilian national reportable disease information system (SINAN) and the livebirth information system (SINASC) databases. We probabilistically linked confirmed dengue-positive and dengue-negative pregnancies with live childbirths using Fine-Grained Record Integration and Linkage (FRIL) software. We also included an external reference population of randomly selected newborn babies. Pregnancy was adopted as the unit of analysis. We assessed the relationship between symptomatic dengue infection during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes, using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for relevant covariates. 3898 dengue-positive pregnant women, 3165 dengue-negative women, and 3898 newborn babies from the reference population were included in the analysis. Preterm birth occurred in 322 (8·4%) of 3821 cases in the dengue-positive group versus 324 (10·4%) of 3101 in the dengue-negative group (unadjusted analysis: relative risk [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·70-0·93; adjusted analysis: odds ratio [OR] 1·26, 95% CI 1·06-1·49, p=0·006) and 349 (9·1%) of 3818 in the reference population (RR 0·92, 0·80-1·07; OR 0·98, 0·83-1·16, p=0·84). The prevalence of low birthweight (<2500 g) was similar for dengue-positive women and dengue-negative women (8·3% [322 of 3897] vs 9·8% [310 of 3163]; OR 1·17, 95% CI 0·99-1·39, p=0·07), and in the reference population (8·3% vs 9·0% [350 of 3895]; OR 1·00, 0·85-1·17, p=0·97). The prevalence of malformations did not differ significantly for the dengue-positive group (27 [0·7%] of 3789) versus the dengue-negative group (27 [0·9%] of 3059, p=0·51) or versus the reference population (32 [0·9%] of 3738, p=0·56). In the adjusted analysis, the

  12. BRCA testing, treatment patterns and survival in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer - an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Unni, Sudhir K; Schauerhamer, Marisa B; Deka, Rishi; Tyczynski, Jerzy E; Fernandes, Ancilla W; Stevens, Vanessa; Brixner, Diana I; Stenehjem, David D

    2016-03-22

    Breast cancer associated (BRCA) genes are critical for DNA repair. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCAm) result in loss of these repair mechanisms and potential carcinogenesis. Germline BRCAm are common in ovarian carcinomas, particularly in platinum-sensitive disease. The increased prevalence of BRCAm in platinum-sensitive disease is likely due to enhanced responsiveness to platinum chemotherapy from homologous recombination repair deficiency. The purpose of this study was to explore BRCA testing, treatment patterns and survival in platinum-sensitive recurrent (PSR) ovarian cancer. This was an observational cohort analysis of PSR ovarian cancer treated at the Huntsman Cancer Institute from 1995 to 2012. Germline BRCA status was ascertained through chart review and categorized as BRCAm (BRCA1/2 positive), BRCAwt (BRCA wild type or variant of uncertain significance), and untested. Treatment patterns and survival were assessed from recurrence until death or last follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate survival from recurrence by BRCA status. Logistic regression and COX proportional hazard model was used to estimate predictors of BRCA testing and survival, respectively. Of the 168 PSR patients, 15 (9 %) were BRCAm, 25 (15 %) were BRCAwt, and 128 (76 %) were untested. Median age at PSR was 56 years for BRCAm and BRCAwt (p = 0.90) and 63 years for those untested (p = 0.033 vs BRCAm). Overall survival was similar between BRCAm and BRCAwt (median 50.4 vs 67.5 months, p = 0.86) and was 24.9 months in untested patients. Significant predictors for the likelihood of BRCA testing were age (OR = 0.93, 95 % CI 0.89, 0.97, p = 0.002), family history of breast or ovarian cancer (OR = 8.33, 95 % CI: 3.08, 22.59, p < 0.001), and cancer diagnosis year (OR = 10.02, 95 % CI: 3.22, 31.21, p < 0.001). BRCA-tested patients had a lower risk of death versus untested (HR 0.35, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.68, p = 0.001). BRCAwt patients had similar outcomes to BRCAm patients, potentially

  13. Lower serum potassium associated with increased mortality in dialysis patients: A nationwide prospective observational cohort study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sunhwa; Kang, Eunjeong; Yoo, Kyung Don; Choi, Yunhee; Kim, Dong Ki; Joo, Kwon Wook; Yang, Seung Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kang, Shin-Wook; Yang, Chul Woo; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Yon Su; Lee, Hajeong

    2017-01-01

    Background Abnormal serum potassium concentration has been suggested as a risk factor for mortality in patients undergoing dialysis patients. We investigated the impact of serum potassium levels on survival according to dialysis modality. Methods A nationwide, prospective, observational cohort study for end stage renal disease patients has been ongoing in Korea since August 2008. Our analysis included patients whose records contained data regarding serum potassium levels. The relationship between serum potassium and mortality was analyzed using competing risk regression. Results A total of 3,230 patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, 64.3%) or peritoneal dialysis (PD, 35.7%) were included. The serum potassium level was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in PD (median, 4.5 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.0–4.9 mmol/L) than in HD patients (median, 4.9 mmol/L; interquartile range, 4.5–5.4 mmol/L). During 4.4 ± 1.7 years of follow-up, 751 patients (23.3%) died, mainly from cardiovascular events (n = 179) and infection (n = 120). In overall, lower serum potassium level less than 4.5 mmol/L was an independent risk factor for mortality after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and nutritional status (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval 1.10–1.53; P = 0.002). HD patients showed a U-shaped survival pattern, suggesting that both lower and higher potassium levels were deleterious, although insignificant. However, in PD patients, only lower serum potassium level (<4.5 mmol/L) was an independent predictor of mortality (sub-distribution hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.80; P = 0.048). Conclusion Lower serum potassium levels (<4.5 mmol/L) occur more commonly in PD than in HD patients. It represents an independent predictor of survival in overall dialysis, especially in PD patients. Therefore, management of dialysis patients should focus especially on reducing the risk of hypokalemia, not only that of hyperkalemia. PMID:28264031

  14. Novel Signs and Their Clinical Utility in Diagnosing Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS): A Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kuttikat, Anoop; Shaikh, Maliha; Oomatia, Amin; Parker, Richard; Shenker, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Delays in diagnosis occur with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We define and prospectively demonstrate that novel bedside tests measuring body perception disruption can identify patients with CRPS postfracture. The objectives of our study were to define and validate 4 bedside tests, to identify the prevalence of positive tests in patients with CRPS and other chronic pain conditions, and to assess the clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value) for identifying CRPS within a Fracture cohort. This was a single UK teaching hospital prospective cohort study with 313 recruits from pain-free volunteers and patients with chronic pain conditions.Four novel tests were Finger Perception (FP), Hand Laterality identification (HL), Astereognosis (AS), and Body Scheme (BS) report. Five questionnaires (Brief Pain Inventory, Upper Extremity Functional Index, Lower Extremity Functional Index, Neglect-like Symptom Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score) assessed the multidimensional pain experience. FP and BS were the best performing tests. Prospective monitoring of fracture patients showed that out of 7 fracture patients (total n=47) who had both finger misperception and abnormal BS report at initial testing, 3 developed persistent pain with 1 having a formal diagnosis of CRPS. Novel signs are reliable, easy to perform, and present in chronic pain patients. FP and BS have significant clinical utility in predicting persistent pain in a fracture group thereby allowing targeted early intervention.

  15. Clinical and laboratory predictors of Lassa fever outcome in a dedicated treatment facility in Nigeria: a retrospective, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Okokhere, Peter; Colubri, Andres; Azubike, Chukwuemeka; Iruolagbe, Christopher; Osazuwa, Omoregie; Tabrizi, Shervin; Chin, Elizabeth; Asad, Sara; Ediale, Ehi; Rafiu, Mojeed; Adomeh, Donatus; Odia, Ikponmwosa; Atafo, Rebecca; Aire, Chris; Okogbenin, Sylvanus; Pahlman, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Asogun, Danny; Fradet, Terrence; Fry, Ben; Schaffner, Stephen F; Happi, Christian; Akpede, George; Günther, Stephan; Sabeti, Pardis C

    2018-03-06

    Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic disease endemic to west Africa. No large-scale studies exist from Nigeria, where the Lassa virus (LASV) is most diverse. LASV diversity, coupled with host genetic and environmental factors, might cause differences in disease pathophysiology. Small-scale studies in Nigeria suggest that acute kidney injury is an important clinical feature and might be a determinant of survival. We aimed to establish the demographic, clinical, and laboratory factors associated with mortality in Nigerian patients with Lassa fever, and hypothesised that LASV was the direct cause of intrinsic renal damage for a subset of the patients with Lassa fever. We did a retrospective, observational cohort study of consecutive patients in Nigeria with Lassa fever, who tested positive for LASV with RT-PCR, and were treated in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital. We did univariate and multivariate statistical analyses, including logistic regression, of all demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables available at presentation to identify the factors associated with patient mortality. Of 291 patients treated in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital between Jan 3, 2011, and Dec 11, 2015, 284 (98%) had known outcomes (died or survived) and seven (2%) were discharged against medical advice. Overall case-fatality rate was 24% (68 of 284 patients), with a 1·4 times increase in mortality risk for each 10 years of age (p=0·00017), reaching 39% (22 of 57) for patients older than 50 years. Of 284 patients, 81 (28%) had acute kidney injury and 104 (37%) had CNS manifestations and thus both were considered important complications of acute Lassa fever in Nigeria. Acute kidney injury was strongly associated with poor outcome (case-fatality rate of 60% [49 of 81 patients]; odds ratio [OR] 15, p<0·00001). Compared with patients without acute kidney injury, those with acute kidney injury had higher incidence of proteinuria (32 [82%] of 39 patients) and haematuria (29 [76%] of 38

  16. Observational longitudinal cohort study to determine progression to heart failure in a screened community population: the Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening Extension (ECHOES-X) study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Clare J; Roalfe, Andrea K; Tait, Lynda; Davis, Russell C; Iles, Rachel; Derit, Marites; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Rescreen a large community cohort to examine the progression to heart failure over time and the role of natriuretic peptide testing in screening. Design Observational longitudinal cohort study. Setting 16 socioeconomically diverse practices in central England. Participants Participants from the original Echocardiographic Heart of England Screening (ECHOES) study were invited to attend for rescreening. Outcome measures Prevalence of heart failure at rescreening overall and for each original ECHOES subgroup. Test performance of N Terminal pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) levels at different thresholds for screening. Results 1618 of 3408 participants underwent screening which represented 47% of survivors and 26% of the original ECHOES cohort. A total of 176 (11%, 95% CI 9.4% to 12.5%) participants were classified as having heart failure at rescreening; 103 had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) and 73 had heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Sixty-eight out of 1232 (5.5%, 95% CI 4.3% to 6.9%) participants who were recruited from the general population over the age of 45 and did not have heart failure in the original study, had heart failure on rescreening. An NT-proBNP cut-off of 400 pg/mL had sensitivity for a diagnosis of heart failure of 79.5% (95% CI 72.4% to 85.5%) and specificity of 87% (95% CI 85.1% to 88.8%). Conclusions Rescreening identified new cases of HFREF and HFPEF. Progression to heart failure poses a significant threat over time. The natriuretic peptide cut-off level for ruling out heart failure must be low enough to ensure cases are not missed at screening. PMID:25015472

  17. Excess risk of urinary tract cancers in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bourrier, A; Carrat, F; Colombel, J-F; Bouvier, A-M; Abitbol, V; Marteau, P; Cosnes, J; Simon, T; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Beaugerie, L

    2016-01-01

    The risk of urinary tract cancers, including kidney and bladder cancers, was increased in transplant recipients receiving thiopurines. To assess the risk of urinary tract cancers in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving thiopurines in the CESAME observational cohort. Between May 2004 and June 2005, 19 486 patients with IBD, 30.1% of whom were receiving thiopurines, were enrolled. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR: 29-40). Ten and six patients developed respectively kidney and bladder cancer. The incidence rates of urinary tract cancer were 0.48/1000 patient-years in patients receiving thiopurines (95% CI: 0.21-0.95), 0.10/1000 patient-years in patients who discontinued thiopurines (95% CI: 0.00-0.56) and 0.30/1000 patient-years in patients never treated with thiopurines (95% CI: 0.12-0.62) at entry. The standardised incidence ratio of urinary tract cancer was 3.40 (95% CI: 1.47-6.71, P = 0.006) in patients receiving thiopurines, 0.64 (95% CI: 0.01-3.56, P = 0.92) in patients previously exposed to thiopurines and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.47-12.42, P = 0.78) in patients never treated with thiopurines. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of urinary tract cancer between patients receiving thiopurines and those not receiving thiopurines was 2.82 (95% CI: 1.04-7.68, P = 0.04). Other significant risk factors were male gender (HR: 3.98, 95% CI: 1.12-14.10, P = 0.03) and increasing age (HR after 65 years (ref <50): 13.26, 95% CI: 3.52-50.03, P = 0.0001). Patients with IBD receiving thiopurines have an increased risk of urinary tract cancers. Clinically relevant excess risk is observed in older men. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Design of the long-term observational cohort study with recombinant human growth hormone in Korean children: LG Growth Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sochung; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Choi, Jin Ho; Rhie, Young-Jun; Chae, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Jae Hyun; Hwang, Il Tae; Shin, Choong Ho; Kim, Eun Young

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Regarding recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) use in the pediatric population, no long-term follow-up data are available for Korean patients. To fill in the gap of knowledge, a registry study (LG Growth Study) was initiated to assess the safety and effectiveness of four types of rhGH products in real-life settings. Methods A total of 4,000 children will be registered and prospectively followed up at 6-month intervals until 2 years after epiphyseal closure to collect data on treatment and adverse events, with primary interest in malignancies and growth outcomes. Results As of 22 March 2017, approximately 50% (2,024) of the target number of patients have been included in the analysis set: growth hormone deficiency, 1,297 (64.1%); idiopathic short stature, 315 (15.6%); small for gestational age, 206 (10.2%); Turner syndrome, 197 (9.7%); and chronic renal failure, 9 (0.4%). At baseline, median age (years) was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5–11); 52% (1,048) were boys; and the majority were at Tanner stage I (83% based on breast/external genitalia, 97% on pubic hair). Median height standard deviation score was -2.26 (IQR, -2.69 to -2.0), and median bone age delay (years) was -1.46 (IQR, -2.26 to -0.78). Conclusions This registry study will provide the opportunity to assess the risk of malignancies as well as the general safety data in Korean pediatric patients receiving rhGH. In addition, the long-term effectiveness of rhGH and comparative data between different disease entities will provide practical insight on the standard rhGH treatment. PMID:29609449

  19. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and childhood growth and overweight: results from a large Norwegian prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Botton, Jérémie; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Bacelis, Jonas; Elfvin, Anders; Jacobsson, Bo; Sengpiel, Verena

    2018-04-23

    To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child's weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years. Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. A total of 50 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy. Child's body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1 year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories. Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%), women with average (50-199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200-299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy, after adjustment for confounders (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.22, OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.93, respectively). In utero exposure to any caffeine was associated with higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, while the association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. Any caffeine intake was associated with increased body mass index from infancy to childhood. Children prenatally exposed to caffeine intake >200 mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years. Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the current advice to reduce caffeine intake during pregnancy. © Article author(s) (or

  20. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sengpiel, Verena; Bacelis, Jonas; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Devold Pay, Aase Serine; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Magnus, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2014-11-02

    Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid supplementation to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of dietary folate intake and folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 66,014 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 2002-2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until pregnancy week 24. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4-5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,755). The median total folate intake was 313 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 167-558) in the overall population and 530 μg/d (IQR 355-636) in the supplement users. Eighty-five percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while only 44% initiated folic acid supplementation before pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of dietary folate intake (hazard ratio HR 1.00; confidence interval 95% CI 0.61-1.65) and supplemental folate intake (HR 1.00; CI 1.00-1.00) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for spontaneous PTD (HR 1.18; CI 1.05-1.32) compared to no folic acid supplementation preconception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks preconception (HR 0.99; CI 0.87-1.13). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and socioeconomic, health and dietary variables. Our findings

  1. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sengpiel, Verena; Bacelis, Jonas; Myhre, Ronny; Myking, Solveig; Pay, Aase Devold; Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Nilsen, Roy M; Magnus, Per; Vollset, Stein Emil; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2013-08-12

    Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999-2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4-5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154-543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369-651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and socioeconomic, health and dietary variables

  2. Folic acid supplementation, dietary folate intake during pregnancy and risk for spontaneous preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health authorities in numerous countries recommend periconceptional folic acid to pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to examine the association of folic acid supplementation during different periods of pregnancy and of dietary folate intake with the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). Methods The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based prospective cohort study. A total of 65,668 women with singleton pregnancies resulting in live births in 1999–2009 were included. Folic acid supplementation was self-reported from 26 weeks before pregnancy until week 24 during pregnancy. At gestational week 22, the women completed a food frequency questionnaire, which allowed the calculation of their average total folate intake from foods and supplements for the first 4–5 months of pregnancy. Spontaneous PTD was defined as the spontaneous onset of delivery between weeks 22+0 and 36+6 (n = 1,628). Results The median total folate intake was 266 μg/d (interquartile range IQR 154–543) in the overall population and 540 μg/d (IQR 369–651) in the supplement users. Eighty-three percent reported any folic acid supplementation from <8 weeks before to 24 weeks after conception while 42% initiated folic acid supplementation before their pregnancy. Cox regression analysis showed that the amount of folate intake from the diet (hazard ratio HR 1.16; confidence interval CI 0.65-2.08) and from the folic acid supplements (HR 1.04; CI 0.95-1.13) was not significantly associated with the risk of PTD. The initiation of folic acid supplementation more than 8 weeks before conception was associated with an increased risk for PTD (HR 1.19; CI 1.05-1.34) compared to no folic acid supplementation pre-conception. There was no significant association with PTD when supplementation was initiated within 8 weeks pre-conception (HR 1.01; CI 0.88-1.16). All analyses were adjusted for maternal characteristics and

  3. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and childhood growth and overweight: results from a large Norwegian prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Botton, Jérémie; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Bacelis, Jonas; Elfvin, Anders; Jacobsson, Bo; Sengpiel, Verena

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and the child’s weight gain and overweight risk up to 8 years. Design Prospective nationwide pregnancy cohort. Setting The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Participants A total of 50 943 mothers recruited from 2002 to 2008 and their children, after singleton pregnancies, with information about average caffeine intake assessed at mid-pregnancy. Outcome measure Child’s body size information at 11 age points from 6 weeks to 8 years. We defined excess growth in infancy as a WHO weight gain z-score of >0.67 from birth to age 1 year, and overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force. We used a growth model to assess individual growth trajectories. Results Compared with pregnant women with low caffeine intake (<50 mg/day, 46%), women with average (50–199 mg/day, 44%), high (≥200–299 mg/day, 7%) and very high (≥300 mg/day, 3%) caffeine intakes had an increased risk of their child experiencing excess growth in infancy, after adjustment for confounders (OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.22, OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.93, respectively). In utero exposure to any caffeine was associated with higher risk of overweight at age 3 years and 5 years, while the association persisted at 8 years, only for very high exposures. Any caffeine intake was associated with increased body mass index from infancy to childhood. Children prenatally exposed to caffeine intake >200 mg/day had consistently higher weight. Very high caffeine exposures were associated with higher weight gain velocity from infancy to age 8 years. Conclusion Any caffeine consumption during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of excess infant growth and of childhood overweight, mainly at preschool ages. Maternal caffeine intake may modify the overall weight growth trajectory of the child from birth to 8 years. This study adds supporting evidence for the

  4. Effect of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in Guinea: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Delamou, Alexandre; El Ayadi, Alison M; Sidibe, Sidikiba; Delvaux, Therese; Camara, Bienvenu S; Sandouno, Sah D; Beavogui, Abdoul H; Rutherford, Georges W; Okumura, Junko; Zhang, Wei-Hong; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The 2014 west African epidemic of Ebola virus disease posed a major threat to the health systems of the countries affected. We sought to quantify the consequences of Ebola virus disease on maternal and child health services in the highly-affected Forest region of Guinea. We did a retrospective, observational cohort study of women and children attending public health facilities for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and immunisation services in six of seven health districts in the Forest region (Beyla, Guéckédou, Kissidougou, Lola, Macenta, and N'Zérékoré). We examined monthly service use data for eight maternal and child health services indicators: antenatal care (≥1 antenatal care visit and ≥3 antenatal care visits), institutional delivery, and receipt of five infant vaccines: polio, pentavalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B virus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b), yellow fever, measles, and tuberculosis. We used interrupted time series models to estimate trends in each indicator across three time periods: pre-Ebola virus disease epidemic (January, 2013, to February, 2014), during-epidemic (March, 2014, to February, 2015) and post-epidemic (March, 2015, to Feb, 2016). We used segmented ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression using Newey-West standard errors to accommodate for serial autocorrelation, and adjusted for any potential effect of birth seasonality on our outcomes. In the months before the Ebola virus disease outbreak, all three maternal indicators showed a significantly positive change in trend, ranging from a monthly average increase of 61 (95% CI 38-84) institutional deliveries to 119 (95% CI 79-158) women achieving at least three antenatal care visits. These increasing trends were reversed during the epidemic: fewer institutional deliveries occurred (-240, 95% CI -293 to -187), and fewer women achieved at least one antenatal care visit (-418, 95% CI -535 to -300) or at least three antenatal care visits (-363, 95% CI -485

  5. Intraoperative red blood cell transfusion, delayed graft function, and infection after kidney transplant: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mazzeffi, Michael; Jonna, Srikar; Blanco, Natalia; Mavrothalassitis, Orestes; Odekwu, Obi; Fontaine, Magali; Rock, Peter; Tanaka, Kenichi; Thom, Kerri

    2018-06-01

    Kidney transplant patients are frequently anemic and at risk for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Previous studies suggest that pre-transplant RBC transfusion may improve kidney transplant outcomes; however, RBC transfusion is also associated with infection. The purpose of our study was to characterize the relationships between intraoperative RBC transfusion, delayed graft function (DGF), postoperative surgical site infection (SSI), and sepsis. Analysis was performed on a historical cohort of adult kidney transplant patients from a single medical center during a two-year period. Crude odds ratios for DGF, superficial and deep SSI, and sepsis were calculated for transfused patients and multivariate regression was used to control for potential confounders when significant relationships were identified. Four hundred forty-one patients had kidney transplant during the study period; 27.0% had RBC transfusion, 38.8% had DGF, 7.0% had superficial SSI, 7.9% had deep SSI, and 1.8% had sepsis. High dose RBC transfusion was associated with improved graft function, but this was negated after adjusting for confounders (OR = 0.86, 95% CI  0.26 to 2.88). There was no association between RBC transfusion and SSI. RBC transfusion was independently associated with sepsis (OR = 8.98, 95% CI  1.52 to 53.22), but the confidence interval was wide. Intraoperative RBC transfusion during kidney transplant is not associated with improved allograft function or incisional SSI, but is associated with postoperative sepsis. RBCs should not be liberally transfused during kidney transplant surgery to improve graft outcomes.

  6. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Lisa M; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-10-10

    Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry) was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence). General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills), both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033) and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044). MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  7. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome in ankylosing spondylitis: a large cohort observation study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ho, Huei-Huang; Yeh, San-Jou; Tsai, Wen-Pin; Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Ji Yih

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the associations of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We conducted a retrospective cohort study by reviewing the medical records of 1503 consecutive AS patients diagnosed at a tertiary medical center. The clinical and electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics of 641 AS patients having 12-lead ECG available were further analyzed in a precise manner. Among the 641 AS patients with 12-lead ECG available for detecting cardiac abnormalities, 14 were identified as having PSVT, including 3 with WPW syndrome and 1 having a WPW (ventricular preexcitation) ECG pattern. A higher proportion of AS patients presented with PSVT (21.8/1000) compared with a general population-based study (2.25/1000). Also, AS patients demonstrated a higher prevalence of WPW syndrome or WPW pattern (6.24/1000) than found in general population-based studies (0.9 to 1.5/1000). Ankylosing spondylitis patients with PSVT or WPW syndrome had significantly higher rates of peripheral arthritis (78.6%; P = 0.002), acute anterior uveitis (64.3%; P = 0.003), bamboo spine (64.3%; P = 0.001), and other cardiovascular disorders (85.7%; P < 0.0001) than the remaining 627 patients without PSVT. Ankylosing spondylitis patients had a high probability of developing PSVT and WPW syndrome. Detailed ECG and electrophysiological examinations are required for early detection of PSVT and WPW syndrome for prompt resolution of potentially life-threatening complications in all AS patients, especially those presenting with the symptoms of palpitation, dizziness, dyspnea, or syncope. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Clinical Research Center for Depression Study: Baseline Characteristics of a Korean Long-Term Hospital-Based Observational Collaborative Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Jeong, Seung Hee; Kim, Jung-Bum; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Yim, Hyeon-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study is a 9-year observational collaborative prospective cohort study for the clinical outcomes in participants with depressive disorders in Korea. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of the depressive participants as the hospital-based cohort. Methods Participants were assessed using various instruments including the Clinical Global Impression scale, 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Scale for Suicide Ideation, and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment instruments-abbreviated version. Also, personal histories of medical and psychiatric illnesses and the range of socio-epidemiologic and clinical data were collected from each participant. Results One thousand one hundred eighty three participants were recruited from 18 hospitals. The mean age of the participants was 47.9±15.9 year-old, 74.4% were female, 82.9% had been diagnosed of major depressive disorder, 40.9% were experiencing their first depressive episode, and 21.4% had a past history of suicide attempts. The majority (85.3%) of the participants were moderately to severely ill. The average HDRS-17 was 19.8±6.1. Significant gender differences at baseline were shown in age, education, marriage, employment, religion, and first depressive episode. Conclusion The baseline findings in the CRESCEND study showed some different characteristics of depression in Korea, suggesting a possibility of ethnic and cultural factors in depression. PMID:21519530

  9. The predictive value of the borderline ankle-brachial index for long-term clinical outcomes: An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shingo; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Shinya; Takai, Hideaki; Otsuka, Takayuki; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Sagara, Koichi; Yajima, Junji; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    Low ankle-brachial index (ABI) is associated with increased mortality and an increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to investigate the value of borderline ABI in predicting clinical outcomes. The data were derived from the Shinken Database 2004-2012, from a single hospital-based cohort study (N = 19,994). ABI was measured in 5205 subjects; 4756 subjects whose ABI was 0.91-1.39 and having no history of peripheral artery disease were enrolled. The subjects were classified into two groups as follows: borderline ABI (0.91-1.00; n = 324) and normal ABI (1.01-1.39; n = 4432). Subjects in the borderline ABI group had more comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, aortic disease, and stroke. Moreover, the borderline ABI group was associated with higher levels of hemoglobin A1c and brain natriuretic peptide, larger diameters of left atrium and left ventricle, and lower levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and left ventricular ejection fraction. All-cause death and cardiovascular death occurred in 9.3% and 4.6% of subjects in the borderline ABI group, and in 2.0% and 0.8% of subjects in the normal ABI group, respectively. An adjusted Cox regression model showed that borderline ABI was associated with a higher incidence of all-cause death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.27, p = 0.005) and cardiovascular death (HR 3.47, p = 0.003). A borderline ABI was independently associated with worse clinical outcomes in relatively high risk population. Our data should be confirmed in larger populations including those with low risk profiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-Term Persistence with Injectable Therapy in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: An 18-Year Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhornitsky, Simon; Greenfield, Jamie; Koch, Marcus W.; Patten, Scott B.; Harris, Colleen; Wall, Winona; Alikhani, Katayoun; Burton, Jodie; Busche, Kevin; Costello, Fiona; Davenport, Jeptha W.; Jarvis, Scott E.; Lavarato, Dina; Parpal, Helene; Patry, David G.; Yeung, Michael; Metz, Luanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduce the frequency of relapses and accumulation of disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). Long-term persistence with treatment is important to optimize treatment benefit. This long-term, cohort study was conducted at the Calgary MS Clinic. All consenting adults with relapsing-remitting MS who started either glatiramer acetate (GA) or interferon-β 1a/1b (IFN-β) between January 1st, 1996 and July 1st, 2011 were included. Follow-up continued to February 1st, 2014. Time-to-discontinuation of the initial and subsequently-prescribed DMTs (switches) was analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses. Group differences were compared using log-rank tests and multivariable Cox regression models. Analysis included 1471 participants; 906 were initially prescribed GA and 565 were initially prescribed IFN-β. Follow-up information was available for 87%; 29 (2%) were lost to follow-up and 160 (11%) moved from Southern Alberta while still using DMT. Median time-to-discontinuation of all injectable DMTs was 11.1 years. Participants with greater disability at treatment initiation, those who started treatment before age 30, and those who started between 2006 and 2011 were more likely to discontinue use of all injectable DMTs. Median time-to-discontinuation of the initial DMT was 8.6 years. Those initially prescribed GA remained on treatment longer. Of 610 participants who discontinued injectable DMT, 331 (54%) started an oral DMT, or a second-line DMT, or resumed injectable DMT after 90 days. Persistence with injectable DMTs was high in this long-term population-based study. Most participants who discontinued injectable DMT did not remain untreated. Further research is required to understand treatment outcomes and outcomes after stopping DMT. PMID:25867095

  11. Non-viral liver disease burden in HIV-monoinfected individuals: a longitudinal observational retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Shur, Natalie F; Tan, Yishi; Goubet, Stephanie; Fisher, Martin; Gilleece, Yvonne; Verma, Sumita

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in antiviral therapy have improved outcomes in HIV-positive individuals co-infected with hepatitis B and C virus (HBV/HCV). Our aim was to assess prevalence and predictors of chronic liver disease (CLD) due to the metabolic syndrome (MS), alcohol and antiretrovirals (ARVs) use in HIV-monoinfected individuals. This was a retrospective cohort study (2005-2012). HIV-positive patients with negative HBV/HCV serology and at least two elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels six months apart were included. Data are presented as mean ± SD or percentage. Despite negative viral serology, 27% (1047/3872) of HIV-positive individuals had persistently elevated ALT. Only 243 (23.2%) were investigated (by imaging in the majority, only 58 undergoing liver biopsy/transient elastography). CLD was identified in 66.2%, this being clinically significant in one in four individuals. Potential CLD risk factors were alcohol (44.2%), hepatotoxic ARVs (74.1%) and MS risk factors (68%) with 68.7% having >1 risk factor. On multivariate logistic regression analysis serum triglyceride (OR 1.482, 95% CI 1.053-2.086, p = .024) was the only independent predictor of CLD. Overall, 4.3% were referred to Hepatology services. In conclusion, less than 6% of HIV-monoinfected individuals with persistently elevated ALT undergo objective assessment of hepatic fibrosis. Despite non-stringent criteria, some degree of non-viral CLD is identified in approximately two-thirds of those investigated, risk factors being synonymous with those for the MS. This increasing yet under-recognised non-viral CLD burden warrants timely recognition to prevent long-term morbidity and mortality.

  12. Observational cohort study of the natural history of Niemann-Pick disease type C in the UK: a 5-year update from the UK clinical database.

    PubMed

    Imrie, Jackie; Heptinstall, Lesley; Knight, Stephen; Strong, Kate

    2015-12-15

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare neurovisceral lipid storage disorder characterised by progressive, disabling neurological symptoms and premature death in most patients. During the last decade, national cohort studies have accrued a great deal of data on the symptomatology and natural history of NP-C. In an observational cohort study, we present a substantial update based on the clinical presentation and follow-up of all known UK-based patients with a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C who have been tracked on an electronic database at the Department of Genetic Medicine, University of Manchester, UK. Patients were stratified according to accepted age-at-neurological-onset categories. Data on patients' clinical signs and symptoms, medical history and genetic studies are summarised using descriptive methods. A total of 146 patients with NP-C were included, representing the full known UK NP-C cohort, as observed from database information between 1999 and the end of 2011: 72 patients (49 %) were alive at the end of the observation period. Among a total of 116 patients (79 %) who possessed at least one identified, disease-causing NP-C gene mutation, 114 (98 %) had NPC1 and two (2 %) had NPC2 mutations. Overall, 53/194 (27 %) identified mutations were novel. Six patients (4 %) had an early, non-neurological neonatal onset form of NP-C. The numbers (%) of patients with accepted age-at-neurological onset forms were: 8 (5 %) early-infantile onset, 51 (35 %) late-infantile onset, 42 (29 %) juvenile onset, and 25 (17 %) adolescent/adult onset. Fourteen patients diagnosed based on visceral symptoms and/or sibling history, confirmed in most cases by genetic analysis, did not have any neurological manifestations at last follow up (11 patients with mean [SD] age at last follow up 2.5 [1.8] years: 3 with mean [SD] age at death 20.8 [15.9] years). A total of 51 patients (35 %) received miglustat therapy. The mean (SD) overall treatment duration up to the end of the

  13. Observations of a large Dent disease cohort.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Guyon-Roger, Tiphaine; Kahila, Diana; Treard, Cyrielle; Baudouin, Véronique; Bérard, Etienne; Champion, Gérard; Cochat, Pierre; Dubourg, Julie; de la Faille, Renaud; Devuyst, Olivier; Deschenes, Georges; Fischbach, Michel; Harambat, Jérôme; Houillier, Pascal; Karras, Alexandre; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Lavocat, Marie-Pierre; Loirat, Chantal; Merieau, Elodie; Niaudet, Patrick; Nobili, François; Novo, Robert; Salomon, Rémi; Ulinski, Tim; Jeunemaître, Xavier; Vargas-Poussou, Rosa

    2016-08-01

    Dent disease classically combines low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis, and renal failure. Nephrotic range proteinuria, normal calciuria, and hypokalemia have been rarely reported. It is unknown whether the changes in phenotype observed over time are explained by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) or whether there is any phenotype-genotype relationship. To answer this we retrospectively analyzed data from 109 male patients with CLCN5 mutations (Dent-1) and 9 patients with mutation of the OCRL gene (Dent-2). In Dent-1 disease, the estimated GFR decreased with age, by 1.0 to 1.6 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr in the absence and presence of nephrocalcinosis, respectively, with no significant difference. Median values of low-molecular-weight proteinuria were in the nephrotic range and remained at the same level even in late renal disease. End-stage renal disease occurred in 12 patients, at a median age of 40 years. Hypercalciuria decreased with glomerular filtration and was absent in 40% of the patients under 30 and 85% of those over the age of 30. Hypophosphatemia did not resolve with age and calcitriol concentrations were in the upper normal range. Kalemia decreased with age, with half of the patients over the age of 18 presenting with hypokalemia. Thus, no phenotype/genotype correlation was observed in this cohort of patients with Dent disease. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Potential Utility of Urinary Biomarkers for Risk Prediction in Combat Casualties: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-16

    are associated with poor outcomes, including death and the need for renal replacement therapy. Methods : We conducted a prospective, observational study...penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 16 JUN 2015...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Potential Utility of Urinary Biomarkers for Risk Prediction in Combat

  15. Vitamin D insufficiency over 5 years is associated with increased fracture risk-an observational cohort study of elderly women.

    PubMed

    Buchebner, D; McGuigan, F; Gerdhem, P; Malm, J; Ridderstråle, M; Akesson, K

    2014-12-01

    This study of elderly Swedish women investigated the association between chronic vitamin D insufficiency and osteoporotic fractures occurring between ages 80-90. The incidence and risk of hip and major osteoporotic fractures was significantly higher in elderly women with low vitamin D levels maintained over 5 years. Vitamin D insufficiency among the elderly is common; however, relatively little is known about the effects of long-term hypovitaminosis D on fracture. We investigated sequential assessment of serum 25(OH)D at age 75 and 80 to determine if continuously low 25(OH)D levels are associated with increased 10-year fracture incidence. One thousand forty-four Swedish women from the population-based OPRA cohort, all 75 years old, attended at baseline (BL); 715 attended at 5 years. S-25(OH)D was available in 987 and 640, respectively and categorized as: <50 (Low), 50-75 (Intermediate), and >75 nmol/L (High). Incident fracture data was collected with maximum follow-up to 90 years of age. Hip fracture incidence between age 80-85 was higher in women who had low 25(OH)D at both baseline and 5 years (22.2 % (Low) vs. 6.6 % (High); p = 0.003). Between age 80-90, hip fracture incidence was more than double that of women in the high category (27.9 vs. 12.3 %; p = 0.006). Within 5-years, 50 % of women in the continuously low group compared to 34 % in the continuously high 25(OH)D group had an osteoporotic fracture (p = 0.004) while 10-year incidence was higher compared to the intermediate (p = 0.020) but not the high category (p = 0.053). The 10-year relative risk of hip fracture was almost three times higher and osteoporotic fracture risk almost doubled for women in the lowest 25(OH)D category compared to the high category (HR 2.7 and 1.7; p = 0.003 and 0.023, respectively). In these elderly women, 25(OH)D insufficiency over 5-years was associated with increased 10-year risk of hip and major osteoporotic fractures.

  16. Use of atomoxetine and suicidal ideation in children and adolescents: Results of an observational cohort study within general practice in England.

    PubMed

    Davies, M; Coughtrie, A; Layton, D; Shakir, S A S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between atomoxetine, a drug used in the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and suicidal ideation, within a cohort of 2-18-year-old patients in England. The study was conducted using the observational cohort technique of Modified prescription event monitoring (M-PEM). Patients prescribed atomoxetine were identified from dispensed prescriptions issued by primary care physicians. A customised postal GP questionnaire was used to capture outcome data for suicidal ideation. A matched pair cohort analysis was performed within patients to compare the risk of suicidal ideation in the period after starting atomoxetine with the risk prior to starting atomoxetine; this was stratified by age and concomitant use of methylphenidate. Additional information on patient characteristics, and events of interest was also collected; individual cases of suicidal ideation were qualitatively assessed for drug relatedness. Of the final cohort (n=4509); 85.5% male (n=3857), median age 11 years (IQR: 9,14). Primary prescribing indication for atomoxetine was ADHD (n=4261, 94.6%). Almost a quarter of the cohort had been co-prescribed methylphenidate. Results of the matched pair cohort analysis indicated that the period after starting atomoxetine was not associated with an increase in the incidence of suicidal ideation compared to the period prior to starting treatment (RR: 0.71; CI: 0.48-1.07; P-value: 0.104). Individual case assessment of suicidal ideation suggested a causal association within a number of cases. This study found no evidence of an increased risk of suicidal ideation during treatment with atomoxetine, compared to the period prior to starting treatment. Amongst age specific subgroups, this risk may change. Nonetheless, individual case assessment suggested a causal relationship in some patients, hence physicians need to be aware of the possibility of developing this event, and furthermore consider how best to detect it in

  17. Physical Trauma Patients with Symptoms of an Acute and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Protocol for an Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Visser, Eva; Gosens, Taco; Den Oudsten, Brenda; De Vries, Jolanda

    2018-03-29

    Injury, medical treatment, and rehabilitation can have major impacts on patients' wellbeing. About 25-33% of the patients experience an acute stress disorder (ASD) or a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after injury. ASD is a relatively new diagnosis. Therefore, knowledge about patients' experiences, the course of ASD and PTSD, and who is at risk for developing ASD or PTSD is lacking. The aims of this multi-method study are to explore patients' experiences with injury (and their care) using a focus group study. Then, in the observational study, different courses of ASD, PTSD, and quality of life will be examined. In addition, this study will examine if these courses could be characterized by socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological variables. Consequently, a risk profile will be developed to determine which patients are at risk for developing ASD or PTSD during the 12 months after injury. Trauma patients treated in the shock room (in 2015) of the Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital will share their experiences with injury in the focus group study. Open, axial, and selective coding will be used to analyze the data. Concerning the observational study, patients treated in the shock room (during 2016 and 2017, Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital and Erasmus Medical Centre) will be asked to participate. The inclusion period is 12 months. Participants will complete the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, MINI-plus, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF after inclusion and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after injury. The NEO-Five Factor Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait are completed after inclusion only. Repeated measures of latent class analysis and linear mixed models will be used to examine the research aims. This project was funded in August 2015 by ZonMw. The results of the focus group study are expected in the first trimester of 2018. With regard to the observational study, recruitment is currently

  18. Understanding health behaviours in a cohort of pregnant women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Harrison, C L; Lombard, C B; Teede, H J

    2012-05-01

    To assess health behaviours, physical activity levels, weight gain and development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in high-risk women. An observational sub-study of a larger randomised controlled trial. A large tertiary hospital in Australia. Ninety-seven women (mean age 31.7 ± 4.5 years; body mass index 30.3 ± 5.9 kg/m(2) ) at risk of developing GDM. Women were identified as at risk of GDM based on a validated screening tool. Baseline measures were completed at 12-15 weeks of gestation and repeated at 26-28 weeks of gestation. Anthropometric (weight and height) and physical activity assessment (Yamax pedometer and International physical activity questionnaire), questionnaires (self-efficacy) and GDM screening. By 28 weeks of gestation, there was a high GDM prevalence of 26% using the recent International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Weight gain in overweight (body mass index 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (body mass index >30.0 kg/m(2)) women exceeded minimum total weight gain recommendations set by the Institute of Medicine (P < 0.01). Physical activity levels were low and declined during pregnancy (5437 ± 2951 steps/day to 4096 ± 2438 steps/day, respectively, P < 0.001). Despite reduced activity levels, increased weight gain and high GDM incidence many women did not accurately perceive GDM risk and were confident in their ability to control weight. A significant association with physical activity, weight and GDM outcome was not observed. Overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for developing GDM demonstrate excessive weight gain and a reduced level of physical activity observed from early pregnancy to 28 weeks of gestation. Results highlight the need for targeted intervention in women at risk for developing GDM. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  19. Observational cohort study of pediatric inpatients with central venous catheters at "intermediate risk" of thrombosis and eligible for anticoagulant prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Harney, Kathy M; McCabe, Margaret; Branowicki, Patricia; Kalish, Leslie A; Neufeld, Ellis J

    2010-01-01

    The risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) among hospitalized children is rising.The optimal approach to DVT prophylaxis in children is unclear. This study set out to ascertain the prevalence of DVT among pediatric inpatients who neither have contraindications to nor absolute indications for prophylactic therapy. A prospective surveillance of at-risk children plus a retrospective chart review were conducted. Patients were considered to be at risk after the first 2 days of their admission. Of 1,637 patients reviewed, 198 patients met criteria; among these, 84% did not receive prophylaxis. Of 2,354 observed days at risk for nonprophylaxed patients (including days at risk prior to initiating prophylaxis among prophlyaxed patients), there were 9 DVT events, for a rate 3.82/1,000 days observed. A total of 31 patients received prophylaxis. Three of these patients experienced a DVT. One patient had a bleeding event, hematuria. These results describe patients who may be eligible for prophylaxis and should be screened for further risk factors.

  20. Protocol for a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: the BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jassil, Friedrich C; Carnemolla, Alisia; Kingett, Helen; Paton, Bruce; O’Keeffe, Aidan G; Doyle, Jacqueline; Morris, Stephen; Lewis, Neville; Kirk, Amy; Pucci, Andrea; Chaiyasoot, Kusuma; Batterham, Rachel L

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. Methods and analysis The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK. Participants will be followed up four times during the study period; presurgery baseline (T0) and at 3 (T1), 6 (T2) and 12 months (T3) postsurgery. In addition to the standard follow-up investigations, assessments including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, bioelectric impedance analysis, 6 min walk test, sit-to-stand test and handgrip test will be undertaken together with completion of questionnaires. Physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using accelerometer, and dietary intake will be recorded using a 3-day food diary. Outcome measures will include body weight, body fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mineral density, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life, remission of comorbidities, healthcare resource utilisation and costs. Ethics and dissemination This study has been reviewed and given a favourable ethical opinion by London-Dulwich Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0950). The results will be presented to stakeholder groups locally, nationally and internationally and published in peer-reviewed medical journals. The lay-person summary of the findings will be published on the Centre for

  1. Oral health and orofacial pain in people with dementia admitted to acute hospital wards: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    van de Rijt, Liza J M; Weijenberg, Roxane A F; Feast, Alexandra R; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Lobbezoo, Frank; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2018-05-23

    Orofacial pain in people with dementia is difficult to detect, and often under-treated. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial pain in people with dementia in acute hospitals in the UK. Secondary aims were to examine oral health status and explore associations between orofacial pain and oral health factors. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in two UK hospitals. Using the Orofacial Pain Scale in Non-Verbal Individuals (OPS-NVI) to identify orofacial pain, 101 participants with dementia, admitted to acute medical wards, were observed for at least 3 min during rest and chewing. Verbal participants were then asked about presence of orofacial pain, using self-report pain scales. Finally, a brief oral assessment was performed. Orofacial pain, assessed with the OPS-NVI, was present in 11.9% (95% C.I. 5.9, 18.8) of participants at rest and 21.9% (95% C.I. 14.6, 31.3) whilst chewing. Participants who were no longer able to self-report pain were significantly more likely to experience orofacial pain. Oral health in both dentate and edentate participants was poor. Brush frequency, indication of chewing quality, consistency of the food, presence of extra-oral abnormalities, person who performed mouth care, and oral hygiene in dentate participants were significant predictors for the presence of orofacial pain. Improving oral care in acute hospital patients with dementia, particularly those who cannot self-report pain, may significantly reduce pain and suffering in this population.

  2. An observational cohort study on pre-operative investigations and referrals: How far are we following recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Habib Md Reazaul; Yunus, Md; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Pre-operative investigations are often required to supplement information for risk stratification and assessing reserve for undergoing surgery. Although there are evidence-based recommendations for which investigations should be done, clinical practice varies. The present study aimed to assess the pre-operative investigations and referral practices and compare it with the standard guidelines. Methods: The present observational study was carried out during 2014–appen2015 in a teaching institute after the approval from Institute Ethical Committee. A designated anaesthesiologist collected data from the completed pre-anaesthetic check-up (PAC) sheets. Investigations already done, asked by anaesthesiologists as well as referral services sought were noted and compared with an adapted master table prepared from standard recommendations and guidelines. Data were expressed in frequencies, percentage and statistically analysed using INSTAT software (GraphPad Prism software Inc., La Zolla, USA). Results: Seventy-five out of 352 patients (42.67% male, 57.33% female; American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III) were included in this study. Nearly, all patients attended PAC with at least 5 investigations done. Of them, 89.33% were subjected to at least one unnecessary investigation and 91.67% of the referral services were not required which lead to 3.5 ( SD ±1.64) days loss. Anaesthesiologist-ordered testing was more focused than surgeons. Conclusion: More than two-third of pre-operative investigations and referral services are unnecessary. Anaesthesiologists are relatively more rational in ordering pre-operative tests yet; a lot can be done to rationalise the practice as well as reducing healthcare cost. PMID:27601737

  3. The management and outcome for patients with chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul M; Kolias, Angelos G; Joannides, Alexis J; Shapey, Jonathan; Marcus, Hani J; Gregson, Barbara A; Grover, Patrick J; Hutchinson, Peter J; Coulter, Ian C

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) will become an increasingly common presentation in neurosurgical practice as the population ages, but quality evidence is still lacking to guide the optimal management for these patients. The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative (BNTRC) was established by neurosurgical trainees in 2012 to improve research by combining the efforts of trainees in each of the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland's neurosurgical units (NSUs). The authors present the first study by the BNTRC that describes current management and outcomes for patients with CSDH throughout the UK and Ireland. This provides a resource both for current clinical practice and future clinical research on CSDH. METHODS Data on management and outcomes for patients with CSDH referred to UK and Ireland NSUs were collected prospectively over an 8-month period and audited against criteria predefined from the literature: NSU mortality < 5%, NSU morbidity < 10%, symptomatic recurrence within 60 days requiring repeat surgery < 20%, and unfavorable functional status (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6) at NSU discharge < 30%. RESULTS Data from 1205 patients in 26 NSUs were collected. Bur-hole craniostomy was the most common procedure (89%), and symptomatic recurrence requiring repeat surgery within 60 days was observed in 9% of patients. Criteria on mortality (2%), rate of recurrence (9%), and unfavorable functional outcome (22%) were met, but morbidity was greater than expected (14%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that failure to insert a drain intraoperatively independently predicted recurrence and unfavorable functional outcome (p = 0.011 and p = 0.048, respectively). Increasing patient age (p < 0.00001), postoperative bed rest (p = 0.019), and use of a single bur hole (p = 0.020) independently predicted unfavorable functional outcomes, but prescription of high-flow oxygen or preoperative use of antiplatelet medications did not. CONCLUSIONS This

  4. The management and outcome for patients with chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Paul M; Kolias, Angelos G; Joannides, Alexis J; Shapey, Jonathan; Marcus, Hani J; Gregson, Barbara A; Grover, Patrick J; Hutchinson, Peter J; Coulter, Ian C

    2017-03-17

    OBJECTIVE Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) will become an increasingly common presentation in neurosurgical practice as the population ages, but quality evidence is still lacking to guide the optimal management for these patients. The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative (BNTRC) was established by neurosurgical trainees in 2012 to improve research by combining the efforts of trainees in each of the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland's neurosurgical units (NSUs). The authors present the first study by the BNTRC that describes current management and outcomes for patients with CSDH throughout the UK and Ireland. This provides a resource both for current clinical practice and future clinical research on CSDH. METHODS Data on management and outcomes for patients with CSDH referred to UK and Ireland NSUs were collected prospectively over an 8-month period and audited against criteria predefined from the literature: NSU mortality < 5%, NSU morbidity < 10%, symptomatic recurrence within 60 days requiring repeat surgery < 20%, and unfavorable functional status (modified Rankin Scale score of 4-6) at NSU discharge < 30%. RESULTS Data from 1205 patients in 26 NSUs were collected. Bur-hole craniostomy was the most common procedure (89%), and symptomatic recurrence requiring repeat surgery within 60 days was observed in 9% of patients. Criteria on mortality (2%), rate of recurrence (9%), and unfavorable functional outcome (22%) were met, but morbidity was greater than expected (14%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that failure to insert a drain intraoperatively independently predicted recurrence and unfavorable functional outcome (p = 0.011 and p = 0.048, respectively). Increasing patient age (p < 0.00001), postoperative bed rest (p = 0.019), and use of a single bur hole (p = 0.020) independently predicted unfavorable functional outcomes, but prescription of high-flow oxygen or preoperative use of antiplatelet medications did not. CONCLUSIONS This

  5. Real-world geographic variations in the use of cardiac implantable electronic devices - The PANORAMA 2 observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bastian, Dirk; Ebrahim, Iftikhar O; Chen, Ju-Yi; Chen, Mien-Cheng; Huang, Dejia; Huang, Jin-Long; Kuznetsov, Vadim A; Maus, Bärbel; Naik, Ajay M; Verhees, Koen J P; Fagih, Ahmed R Al

    2018-06-13

    Currently, several geographies around the world remain underrepresented in medical device trials. The PANORAMA 2 study was designed to assess contemporary region-specific differences in clinical practice patterns of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). In this prospective, multicenter, observational, multi-national study, baseline and implant data of 4,706 patients receiving Medtronic CIEDs (either de novo device implants, replacements, or upgrades) were analyzed, consisting of: 54% implantable pulse generators (IPGs), 20.3% implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), 15% cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds), 5.1% cardiac resynchronization therapy pacemakers (CRT-Ps), from 117 hospitals in 23 countries across 4 geographical regions between 2012 and 2016. For all device types, in all regions, there were less females than males enrolled, and women were less likely to have ischemic cardiomyopathy. Implant procedure duration differed significantly across the geographies for all device types. Subjects from emerging countries, women and older patients were less likely to receive a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible device. Defibrillation testing differed significantly between the regions. European patients had the highest rates of atrial fibrillation (AF), and the lowest number of implanted single-chamber IPGs. Evaluation of stroke history suggested that the general embolic risk is more strongly associated with stroke than AF. We provide comprehensive descriptive data on patients receiving Medtronic CIEDs from several geographies, some of which are understudied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We found significant variations in patient characteristics. Several medical decisions appear to be affected by socioeconomic factors. Long-term follow-up data will help evaluate if these variations require adjustments to outcome expectations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is

  6. Haemochromatosis: unexplained metacarpophalangeal or ankle arthropathy should prompt diagnostic tests: findings from two UK observational cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, A; Prideaux, A; Kiely, P

    2017-01-01

    To examine demographic and clinical features leading to the diagnosis of hereditary haemochromatosis and assess factors that might enhance earlier diagnosis, with particular attention to arthritic symptoms. Diagnostic features were captured directly from patients with haemochromatosis attending a specialist rheumatology clinic (group 1) and from analysis of a specifically designed questionnaire circulated to members of the UK Haemochromatosis Society (group 2). In groups 1 (n = 62) and 2 (n = 470), respectively, the diagnosis of haemochromatosis was made at a mean age of 52.8 and 56.4 years with 77% and 76% reporting joint symptoms with a mean duration of 8.3 and 8.1 years. The first joints to be affected in group 1 were the metacarpophalangeal (MCP; 38.5%) and ankle (29.5%) followed by the knee, hip, and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints. At the time of clinical assessment or questionnaire completion, the most prevalent regions with arthropathy in group 1 were PIP (64.5%), knee (64%), ankle (61%), and MCP (60%) and in group 2 the most prevalent joint regions self-reported were the first carpometacarpal (CMC; 59%), wrist (52%), PIP (47%), MCP (46%), knee (42%), and ankle (35%). Data from both cohorts confirm the high prevalence of joint symptoms in haemochromatosis predating the diagnosis by many years. Discriminatory features of the arthropathy include the involvement of MCP joints and ankles at a relatively young age in the absence of trauma, all of which are unusual features of primary osteoarthritis (OA). The finding of this presentation should prompt diagnostic tests for haemochromatosis.

  7. Short-term outcome of treatment limitation discussions for newborn infants, a multicentre prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Aladangady, Narendra; Shaw, Chloe; Gallagher, Katie; Stokoe, Elizabeth; Marlow, Neil

    2017-03-01

    To determine the short-term outcomes of babies for whom clinicians or parents discussed the limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LST). Prospective multicentre observational study. Two level 3, six level 2 and one level 1 neonatal units in the North-East London Neonatal Network. A total of 87 babies including 68 for whom limiting LST was discussed with parents and 19 babies died without discussion of limiting LST in the labour ward or neonatal unit. Final decision reached after discussions about limiting LST and neonatal unit outcomes (death or survived to discharge) for babies. Withdrawing LST, withholding LST and do not resuscitate (DNR) order was discussed with 48, 16 and 4 parents, respectively. In 49/68 (72%) cases decisions occurred in level 3 and 19 cases in level 2 units. Following the initial discussions, 34/68 parents made the decision to continue LST. In 33/68 cases, a second opinion was obtained. The parents of 14/48 and 2/16 babies did not agree to withdraw and withhold LST, respectively. Forty-seven out of 87 babies (54%) died following limitation of LST, 28/87 (32%) died receiving full intensive care support, 5/87 (6%) survived following a decision to limit LST and 7/87 (8%) babies survived following decision to continue LST. A significant proportion of parents chose to continue treatment following discussions regarding limiting LST for their babies, and a proportion of these babies survived to neonatal unit discharge. The long-term outcomes of babies who survive following limiting LST discussion need to be investigated. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Effects of high CD4 cell counts on death and attrition among HIV patients receiving antiretroviral treatment: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhenzhu; Pan, Stephen W; Ruan, Yuhua; Liu, Xuanhua; Su, Jinming; Zhu, Qiuying; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhang, Heng; Chen, Yi; Lan, Guanghua; Xing, Hui; Liao, Lingjie; Feng, Yi; Shao, Yiming

    2017-06-09

    Current WHO guidelines recommend initiating ART regardless of CD4+ cell count. In response, we conducted an observational cohort study to assess the effects of pre-ART CD4+ cell count levels on death, attrition, and death or attrition in HIV treated patients. This large HIV treatment cohort study (n = 49,155) from 2010 to 2015 was conducted in Guangxi, China. We used a Cox regression model to analyze associations between pre-ART CD4+ cell counts and death, attrition, and death or attrition. The average mortality and ART attrition rates among all treated patients were 2.63 deaths and 5.32 attritions per 100 person-years, respectively. Compared to HIV patients with <350 CD4+ cells/mm 3 at ART initiation, HIV patients with >500 CD4+ cells/mm 3 at ART initiation had a significantly lower mortality rate (Adjusted hazard ratio: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.40-0.79), but significantly higher ART attrition rate (AHR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.33). Results from this study suggest that HIV patients with high CD4+ cell counts at the time of ART initiation may be at greater risk of treatment attrition. To further reduce ART attrition, it is imperative that patient education and healthcare provider training on ART adherence be enhanced and account for CD4 levels at ART initiation.

  9. Jackhammer esophagus: Observations on a European cohort.

    PubMed

    Herregods, T V K; Smout, A J P M; Ooi, J L S; Sifrim, D; Bredenoord, A J

    2017-04-01

    With the advent of high-resolution manometry (HRM), a new diagnosis, jackhammer esophagus, was introduced. Little is known about this rare condition, and the relationship between symptoms and hypercontractility is not always straightforward. The aim of our study was to describe a large cohort of patients with jackhammer esophagus and to investigate whether manometric findings are associated with the presence of symptoms. All patients from 06, 2014 until 12, 2015 seen at two tertiary centers with at least one hypercontractile swallow (distal contractile integral [DCI] >8000 mm Hg/s/cm) on HRM were analyzed. Patients with ≥20% premature swallows, or patients with another diagnosis explaining their symptoms were excluded. Of the 34 patients identified with jackhammer esophagus, most suffered from dysphagia (67.6%) and/or chest pain (47.1%). The symptom chest pain was not associated with any of the manometric findings, whereas dysphagia was associated with the DCI of the hypercontractile swallows and with intrabolus pressure. In addition, all patients who had an isolated DCI of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) zone >2000 mm Hg/s/cm had dysphagia. The differences in HRM and clinical characteristics between subgroups based on the contraction type (single- or multi-peaked) or based on meeting criteria of the Chicago Classification v3.0 and v2.0 were limited. The symptom dysphagia is accompanied with strong contractions of the LES, signs of a possible outflow obstruction, and a very high DCI. The presence of a multipeaked contraction seems to be of limited relevance, and caution is warranted in labeling patients with one hypercontractile swallow as normal. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. Methods and analysis The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three ‘all-comer’ studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. Ethics and dissemination The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and

  11. Preoperative platelet transfusions to reverse antiplatelet therapy for urgent non-cardiac surgery: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baschin, M; Selleng, S; Hummel, A; Diedrich, S; Schroeder, H W; Kohlmann, T; Westphal, A; Greinacher, A; Thiele, T

    2018-04-01

    Essentials An increasing number of patients requiring surgery receive antiplatelet therapy (APT). We analyzed 181 patients receiving presurgery platelet transfusions to reverse APT. No coronary thrombosis occurred after platelet transfusion. This justifies a prospective trial to test preoperative platelet transfusions to reverse APT. Background Patients receiving antiplatelet therapy (APT) have an increased risk of perioperative bleeding and cardiac adverse events (CAE). Preoperative platelet transfusions may reduce the bleeding risk but may also increase the risk of CAE, particularly coronary thrombosis in patients after recent stent implantation. Objectives To analyze the incidence of perioperative CAE and bleeding in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery using a standardized management of transfusing two platelet concentrates preoperatively and restart of APT within 24-72 h after surgery. Methods A cohort of consecutive patients on APT treated with two platelet concentrates before non-cardiac surgery between January 2012 and December 2014 was retrospectively identified. Patients were stratified by the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary objective was the incidence of CAE (myocardial infarction, acute heart failure and cardiac troponine T increase). Secondary objectives were incidences of other thromboembolic events, bleedings, transfusions and mortality. Results Among 181 patients, 88 received aspirin, 21 clopidogrel and 72 dual APT. MACCE risk was high in 63, moderate in 103 and low in 15 patients; 67 had cardiac stents. Ten patients (5.5%; 95% CI, 3.0-9.9%) developed a CAE (three myocardial infarctions, four cardiac failures and three troponin T increases). None was caused by coronary thrombosis. Surgery-related bleeding occurred in 22 patients (12.2%; 95% CI, 8.2-17.7%), making 12 re-interventions necessary (6.6%; 95% CI, 3.8-11.2%). Conclusion Preoperative platelet transfusions and early restart of APT allowed

  12. Pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive women in Ukraine, 2000-12 (European Collaborative Study in EuroCoord): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bagkeris, Emmanouil; Malyuta, Ruslan; Volokha, Alla; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Bailey, Heather; Townsend, Claire L; Thorne, Claire

    2015-09-01

    Women living with HIV are potentially at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, due to a range of factors, including immunosuppression, use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), and injecting drug use. Rates of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Ukraine have declined to around 2-4%, but little is known about other pregnancy outcomes in this setting. We used data from an observational prospective cohort study to assess pregnancy outcomes among HIV-positive women in Ukraine. The European Collaborative Study (ECS) in EuroCoord is a continuing cohort study, established in Ukraine in 2000. Eligible women are those with a diagnosis of HIV infection before or during pregnancy (including intrapartum) who deliver liveborn babies at seven sites. Maternal sociodemographic, HIV-related, and delivery (mother and infant) data were collected with study-specific questionnaires. We used Poisson regression models to identify factors associated with preterm delivery (before 37 weeks' gestation) and small weight for gestational age (less than the tenth percentile of weight for gestational age), based on complete cases. Between January, 2000, and July, 2012, data were collected on 8884 HIV-positive mother and liveborn infant pairs. Median maternal age was 26·5 years (IQR 23·1-30·3). 832 (11%) women had WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV and 1474 (17%) had a history of injecting drug use. 7348 (83%) had received antenatal ART. Among 7435 for whom ART type was available, 4396 (50%) had received zidovudine monotherapy and 2949 (33%) combination ART. Preterm delivery was seen in 780 (9%, 95% CI 8-9) of 8860 births overall and in 77 (9%, 7-11) of 889 babies with small size for gestational age. Factors associated with preterm delivery were history of injecting drug use (adjusted risk ratio 1·64, 95% CI 1·38-1·95), no ART (2·94, 2·43-3·57 vs zidovudine monotherapy), antenatal combination ART (1·40, 1·14-1·73 vs zidovudine monotherapy), WHO stage 4 HIV (2·42, 1·71-3·41 vs

  13. Insulin detemir improves glycemic control and reduces hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes: findings from the Turkish cohort of the PREDICTIVE observational study.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Selim; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Pirgon, Ozgur; Isguven, Pinar; Emek, Sevil

    2009-09-01

    Insulin detemir is a basal insulin analog designed to produce a superior pharmacokinetic profile to basal formulations of human insulin. It has shown consistently improved tolerability in comparison to neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in adult cohorts, but there are relatively few publications involving pediatric cohorts. The efficacy and safety of insulin detemir in children with type 1 diabetes was assessed using data from the Turkish cohort of PREDICTIVE (a large, multinational, observational) study. The children investigated were using basal-bolus therapy involving NPH insulin or insulin glargine at baseline but were switched to insulin detemir as part of routine clinical care by their physicians. Twelve weeks of treatment with insulin detemir significantly reduced mean hemoglobin A1c (9.7-8.9%, p < 0.001) and mean fasting glucose [185-162 mg/dL (10.3-9 mmol/L), p < 0.01]. Fasting glucose variability was also lower after treatment with insulin detemir than previously (on either NPH or glargine, p < 0.05). The frequencies of total, major and nocturnal hypoglycemic events were significantly reduced with insulin detemir relative to baseline, with an estimated mean of 6.89 fewer events/patient/yr overall (p < 0.001) and 2.6 fewer nocturnal events/patient/yr (p < 0.01). Weight and insulin dose remained relatively unchanged. Twelve weeks of treatment with insulin detemir improved glycemic control and reduced hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. This improved tolerability might allow further dose titration and therefore additional improvements in glucose control.

  14. Protocol for a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy: the BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study.

    PubMed

    Jassil, Friedrich C; Carnemolla, Alisia; Kingett, Helen; Paton, Bruce; O'Keeffe, Aidan G; Doyle, Jacqueline; Morris, Stephen; Lewis, Neville; Kirk, Amy; Pucci, Andrea; Chaiyasoot, Kusuma; Batterham, Rachel L

    2018-03-16

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy are the two most common bariatric surgery performed in the UK that result in comparable weight loss and remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. However, there is a paucity of studies examining the impact of these procedures on body composition, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life and costs. The BARI-LIFESTYLE observational study is a 1-year prospective, longitudinal cohort study within a real-world routine clinical care setting aiming to recruit 100 patients with severe obesity undergoing either primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy from two bariatric centres in London, UK. Participants will be followed up four times during the study period; presurgery baseline (T0) and at 3 (T1), 6 (T2) and 12 months (T3) postsurgery. In addition to the standard follow-up investigations, assessments including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, bioelectric impedance analysis, 6 min walk test, sit-to-stand test and handgrip test will be undertaken together with completion of questionnaires. Physical activity levels and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using accelerometer, and dietary intake will be recorded using a 3-day food diary. Outcome measures will include body weight, body fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mineral density, physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour, physical function and strength, dietary intake, health-related quality of life, remission of comorbidities, healthcare resource utilisation and costs. This study has been reviewed and given a favourable ethical opinion by London-Dulwich Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0950). The results will be presented to stakeholder groups locally, nationally and internationally and published in peer-reviewed medical journals. The lay-person summary of the findings will be published on the Centre for Obesity Research, University College London website (http

  15. Characterizing Durations of Heroin Abstinence in the California Civil Addict Program: Results From a 33-Year Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Nosyk, Bohdan; Anglin, M. Douglas; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Lima, Viviane Dias; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the chronic disease model of opioid dependence, cessation is often observed as a longitudinal process rather than a discrete endpoint. We aimed to characterize and identify predictors of periods of heroin abstinence in the natural history of recovery from opioid dependence. Data were collected on participants from California who were enrolled in the Civil Addict Program from 1962 onward by use of a natural history interview. Multivariate regression using proportional hazards frailty models was applied to identify independent predictors and correlates of repeated abstinence episode durations. Among 471 heroin-dependent males, 387 (82.2%) reported 932 abstinence episodes, 60.3% of which lasted at least 1 year. Multivariate analysis revealed several important findings. First, demographic factors such as age and ethnicity did not explain variation in durations of abstinence episodes. However, employment and lower drug use severity predicted longer episodes. Second, abstinence durations were longer following sustained treatment versus incarceration. Third, individuals with multiple abstinence episodes remained abstinent for longer durations in successive episodes. Finally, abstinence episodes initiated >10 and ≤20 years after first use lasted longer than others. Public policy facilitating engagement of opioid-dependent individuals in maintenance-oriented drug treatment and employment is recommended to achieve and sustain opioid abstinence. PMID:23445901

  16. An observational cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed digital ulcer disease secondary to systemic sclerosis registered in the EUSTAR database.

    PubMed

    Brand, Monika; Hollaender, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Daniel; Scott, Martin; Hunsche, Elke; Tyndall, Alan; Denaro, Valentina; Carreira, Patricia; Varju, Cecilia; Gabrielli, Barbara; Zingarelli, Stefania; Caramaschi, Paola; Simic-Pasalic, Katarina; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Vasile, Massimiliano; Mihai, Carina; Rosato, Edoardo; Vacca, Alessandra; Zenone, Thierry; Mohamed, Walid A; Ancuta, Codrina; Zampogna, Giuseppe; Rednic, Simona; Jabaar, Nadia; Belloli, Laura; Pozzi, Maria R; Foti, Rosario; Walker, Ulrich A

    2015-01-01

    This study describes clinical characteristics, prognostic factors, and quality of life in patients with newly diagnosed (incident) digital ulcers (DU). Observational cohort study of 189 consecutive SSc patients with incident DU diagnosis identified from the EUSTAR database (22 centres in 10 countries). Data were collected from medical charts and during one prospective visit between 01/2004 and 09/2010. Median age at DU diagnosis was 51 years, majority of patients were female (88%), and limited cutaneous SSc was the most common subtype (61%). At incident DU diagnosis, 41% of patients had one DU and 59% had ≥2 DU; at the prospective visit 52% had DU. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and multiple DU at diagnosis were associated with presence of any DU at the prospective visit (odds ratios: 4.34 and 1.32). During the observation period (median follow-up was 2 years) 127 patients had ≥1 hospitalisation. The event rate of new DU per person-year was 0.66, of DU-associated complications was 0.10, and of surgical or diagnostic procedures was 0.12. At the prospective visit, patients with ≥1 DU reported impairment in daily activities by 57%, those with 0 DU by 37%. The mean difference between patients with or without DU in the SF-36 physical component was 2.2, and in the mental component 1.4. DU patients were not routinely prescribed endothelin receptor antagonists or prostanoids. This real world cohort demonstrates that DU require hospital admission, and impair daily activity. PAH and multiple DU at diagnosis were associated with future occurrence of DU.

  17. Implementation of guidelines for management of possible multidrug-resistant pneumonia in intensive care: an observational, multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kett, Daniel H; Cano, Ennie; Quartin, Andrew A; Mangino, Julie E; Zervos, Marcus J; Peyrani, Paula; Cely, Cynthia M; Ford, Kimbal D; Scerpella, Ernesto G; Ramirez, Julio A

    2011-03-01

    The American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America provide guidelines for management of hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and health-care-associated pneumonias, consisting of empirical antibiotic regimens for patients at risk for multidrug-resistant pathogens. We aimed to improve compliance with these guidelines and assess outcomes. We implemented a performance-improvement initiative in four academic medical centres in the USA with protocol-based education and prospective observation of outcomes. Patients were assessed for severity of illness and followed up until death, hospital discharge, or day 28. We included patients in intensive-care units who were at risk for multidrug-resistant pneumonia and were treated empirically. 303 patients at risk for multidrug-resistant pneumonia were treated empirically, and prescribed treatment was guideline compliant in 129 patients and non-compliant in 174 patients. 44 (34%) patients died before 28 days in the compliance group and 35 (20%) died in the non-compliance group. Five patients in the compliance group and seven in the non-compliance group were lost to follow-up after day 14. Kaplan-Meier estimated survival to 28 days was 65% in the compliance group and 79% in the non-compliance group (p=0·0042). This difference persisted after adjustment for severity of illness. Median length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation did not differ between groups. Compliance failures included non-use of dual treatment for Gram-negative pathogens in 154 patients and absence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus coverage in 24 patients. For patients in whom pathogens were subsequently identified, empirical treatment was active in 79 (81%) of 97 of patients receiving compliant therapy compared with 109 (85%) of 128 of patients receiving non-compliant therapy. Because adherence with empirical treatment was associated with increased mortality, we recommend a randomised trial be done before further

  18. Influence of large hiatus hernia on cardiac volumes. A prospective observational cohort study by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Milito, Pamela; Lombardi, Massimo; Asti, Emanuele; Bonitta, Gianluca; Fina, Dario; Bandera, Francesco; Bonavina, Luigi

    2018-05-09

    Large hiatus hernia (LHH) is often associated with post-prandial dyspnea, palpitations or chest discomfort, but its effect on cardiac volumes and performance is still debated. Before and 3-months after laparoscopic repair, 35 patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the fasting state and after a standardized meal. Preoperatively, LHH size increased significantly after meal (p < 0.010). Compared to the fasting state, a systematic trend of volume reduction of the cardiac chambers was observed. In addition, both the left ventricle stroke volume (p = 0.012) and the ejection fraction (p = 0.010) were significantly reduced. At 3-months after surgery there was a statistically significant increase in left atrial volume (p = 0.029), overall left ventricle volume (p < 0.05) and right ventricle end-systolic volume (p = 0.046). Both FEV 1 (Forced expiratory volume) (p = 0.02) and FVC (Forced Vital Capacity) (p = 0.01) values significantly improved after surgery. Cardiorespiratory symptoms significantly improved compared to pre-operative values (p < 0.01). The global heart function was significantly impaired by a standardized meal in the presence of a LHH. Restoration of the cardiac physiological status and improvement of clinical symptoms were noted after surgery. A multidisciplinary evaluation and CMR with a challenge meal may be added to routine pre-operative testing to select symptomatic patients for surgical hernia repair. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cognitive ability and risk of post-traumatic stress disorder after military deployment: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Vedtofte, Mia S.; Nielsen, Anni B.S.; Osler, Merete; Mortensen, Erik L.; Christensen, Gunhild T.; Andersen, Søren B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between pre-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have shown mixed results. Aims To study the influence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on PTSD symptoms 6–8 months post-deployment in a large population while controlling for pre-deployment education and deployment-related variables. Method Study linking prospective pre-deployment conscription board data with post-deployment self-reported data in 9695 Danish Army personnel deployed to different war zones in 1997–2013. The association between pre-deployment cognitive ability and post-deployment PTSD was investigated using repeated-measure logistic regression models. Two models with cognitive ability score as the main exposure variable were created (model 1 and model 2). Model 1 was only adjusted for pre-deployment variables, while model 2 was adjusted for both pre-deployment and deployment-related variables. Results When including only variables recorded pre-deployment (cognitive ability score and educational level) and gender (model 1), all variables predicted post-deployment PTSD. When deployment-related variables were added (model 2), this was no longer the case for cognitive ability score. However, when educational level was removed from the model adjusted for deployment-related variables, the association between cognitive ability and post-deployment PTSD became significant. Conclusions Pre-deployment lower cognitive ability did not predict post-deployment PTSD independently of educational level after adjustment for deployment-related variables. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:29163983

  20. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency after pancreaticoduodenectomy is more prevalent with pancreaticogastrostomy than with pancreaticojejunostomy. A retrospective multicentre observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roeyen, Geert; Jansen, Miet; Ruyssinck, Laure; Chapelle, Thiery; Vanlander, Aude; Bracke, Bart; Hartman, Vera; Ysebaert, Dirk; Berrevoet, Frederik

    2016-12-01

    Recently, pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) has attracted renewed interest as a reconstruction technique after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), as it may imply a lower risk of clinical pancreatic fistula than reconstruction by pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ). We hypothesise that pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is more common during clinical follow-up after PG than it is after PJ. This study compares the prevalence of PEI in patients undergoing PD for malignancy with reconstruction by PG versus reconstruction by PJ. PEI during the first year of follow-up was defined as the intake of pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) within one year postoperatively and/or an abnormal exocrine function test. A total of 186 patients, having undergone surgery at two university hospitals, were included in the study. PEI during the first year postoperatively was present in 75.0% of the patients with PG, compared to 45.7% with PJ (p < 0.001). Intake of PERT within one year after surgery was found to be more prevalent in the PG group, i.e. 75.8% versus 38.5% (p < 0.001). There was a trend towards more disturbed exocrine function tests after PG (p = 0.061). PEI is more common with PG reconstruction than with PJ reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever 17D vaccine in adults receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kernéis, Solen; Launay, Odile; Ancelle, Thierry; Iordache, Laura; Naneix-Laroche, Véronique; Méchaï, Frédéric; Fehr, Thierry; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Issartel, Bertrand; Dunand, Jean; van der Vliet, Diane; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Hanslik, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    To assess the safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine in adults receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy. All adult travelers on systemic corticosteroid therapy who had received the YF17D vaccine in 24 French vaccination centers were prospectively enrolled and matched with healthy controls (1:2) on age and history of YF17D immunization. Safety was assessed in a self-administered standardized questionnaire within 10 days after immunization. YF-specific neutralizing antibody titers were measured 6 months after vaccination in patients receiving corticosteroids. Between July 2008 and February 2011, 102 vaccine recipients completed the safety study (34 receiving corticosteroids and 68 controls). The median age was 54.9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 45.1-60.3 years) and 45 participants had a history of previous YF17D immunization. The median time receiving corticosteroid therapy was 10 months (IQR 1-67 months) and the prednisone or equivalent dosage was 7 mg/day (IQR 5-20). Main indications were autoimmune diseases (n = 14), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 9), and upper respiratory tract infections (n = 8). No serious adverse event was reported; however, patients receiving corticosteroids reported more frequent moderate/severe local reactions than controls (12% and 2%, respectively; relative risk 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4-45.9). All subjects receiving corticosteroids who were tested (n = 20) had neutralizing antibody titers >10 after vaccination. After YF17D immunization, moderate/severe local reactions may be more frequent in patients receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy. Immunogenicity seems satisfactory. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Association between severity of untreated sleep apnoea and postoperative complications following major cardiac surgery: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mason, Martina; Hernández Sánchez, Jules; Vuylsteke, Alain; Smith, Ian

    2017-09-01

    To examine whether untreated sleep apnoea is associated with prolonged Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay and increased frequency of postoperative ICU complications, in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Adult patients, undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting with or without cardiac valve surgery, between March 2013 and July 2014, were considered. We excluded patients participating in other interventional studies, those who had a tracheostomy before surgery, required emergency surgery or were due to be admitted on the day of surgery. Patients underwent inpatient overnight oximetry on the night prior to their surgery to assess for the presence of sleep apnoea. Since oximetry alone cannot differentiate obstructive from central apnoea, the results are reported as sleep apnoea which was diagnosed in patients with an arterial oxygen desaturation index (ODI) ≥ 5/h. The primary outcome measure was length of stay (LoS) in ICU in days. The secondary outcome was a composite measure of postoperative complications in ICU. Multivariate models were developed to assess associations between ODI and the primary and secondary outcome measures, adjusting for preselected predictor variables, relative to primary and secondary outcomes. There was no significant association between ODI and ICU LoS, HR 1.0, 95% CI 0.99-1.02; p = 0.12. However we did find a significant association between ODI and postoperative complications in the ICU, OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.02-1.17; p = 0.014. The probability of developing complications rose with higher ODI, reflecting sleep apnoea severity. Acknowledging the limitations of this prospective study, untreated sleep apnoea did not predict an increased length of stay in ICU but we do report an association with postoperative complications in patients undergoing major cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation of data management and effect on chronic disease coding in a primary care organisation: A parallel cohort observational study.

    PubMed

    Greiver, Michelle; Wintemute, Kimberly; Aliarzadeh, Babak; Martin, Ken; Khan, Shahriar; Jackson, Dave; Leggett, Jannet; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Siu, Maggie

    2016-10-12

    Consistent and standardized coding for chronic conditions is associated with better care; however, coding may currently be limited in electronic medical records (EMRs) used in Canadian primary care.Objectives To implement data management activities in a community-based primary care organisation and to evaluate the effects on coding for chronic conditions. Fifty-nine family physicians in Toronto, Ontario, belonging to a single primary care organisation, participated in the study. The organisation implemented a central analytical data repository containing their EMR data extracted, cleaned, standardized and returned by the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN), a large validated primary care EMR-based database. They used reporting software provided by CPCSSN to identify selected chronic conditions and standardized codes were then added back to the EMR. We studied four chronic conditions (diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dementia). We compared changes in coding over six months for physicians in the organisation with changes for 315 primary care physicians participating in CPCSSN across Canada. Chronic disease coding within the organisation increased significantly more than in other primary care sites. The adjusted difference in the increase of coding was 7.7% (95% confidence interval 7.1%-8.2%, p < 0.01). The use of standard codes, consisting of the most common diagnostic codes for each condition in the CPCSSN database, increased by 8.9% more (95% CI 8.3%-9.5%, p < 0.01). Data management activities were associated with an increase in standardized coding for chronic conditions. Exploring requirements to scale and spread this approach in Canadian primary care organisations may be worthwhile.

  4. Risk factors associated with incident sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, B P; Wright, S T; De La Mata, N; Allen, D; Brown, K; Dickson, B; Grotowski, M; Jackson, E; Petoumenos, K; Foster, R; Read, T; Russell, D; Smith, D J; Templeton, D J; Fairley, C K; Law, M G

    2016-09-01

    We established a subcohort of HIV-positive individuals from 10 sexual health clinics within the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). The aim of this study was to assess demographic and other factors that might be associated with an incident sexually transmitted infection (STI). The cohort follow-up was from March 2010 to March 2013, and included patients screened at least once for an STI. We used survival methods to determine time to first new and confirmed incident STI infection (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis or genital warts). Factors evaluated included sex, age, mode of HIV exposure, year of AHOD enrolment, hepatitis B or C coinfection, time-updated CD4 cell count, time-updated HIV RNA viral load, and prior STI diagnosis. There were 110 first incident STI diagnoses observed over 1015 person-years of follow-up, a crude rate of 10.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) 9.0-13.0] per 100 person-years. Factors independently associated with increased risk of incident STI included younger age [≥ 50 vs. 30-39 years old, adjusted hazards ratio (aHR) 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8; P < 0.0001]; prior STI infection (aHR 2.5; 95% CI 1.6-3.8; P < 0.001), and heterosexual vs. men who have sex with men (MSM) as the likely route of exposure (aHR 0.2; 95% CI 0.1-0.6; P < 0.001). In this cohort of individualsbeing treated with antiretroviral drugs, those who were MSM, who were 30-39 years old, and who had a prior history of STI, were at highest risk of a further STI diagnosis. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  5. The clinical and economic burden of pneumonia in patients enrolled in Medicare receiving dialysis: a retrospective, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sibbel, Scott; Sato, Reiko; Hunt, Abigail; Turenne, Wendy; Brunelli, Steven M

    2016-12-12

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving dialysis are at particular risk for infection. We assessed the clinical and economic burden of pneumonia in a population of Medicare-enrolled ESRD patients with respect to incidence and case fatality rates, rates of all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization, and costs. Patients received dialysis between 01 January 2009 and 31 December 2011 and were enrolled in Medicare Parts A and B. Pneumonia episodes were identified from institutional and supplier claims. Patients were considered at-risk from first date of Medicare coverage and were censored upon transplant, withdrawal from dialysis, recovery of renal function, loss of Medicare benefits, or death. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess hospitalization rates and costs over the 3 months prior to and 12 months following pneumonia episodes. The pneumonia incidence rate for the study period was 21.4 events/100 patient-years; the majority of episodes (90.1%) required inpatient treatment. The 30-day case fatality rate was 10.7%. Compared to month -3 prior to event, rates of all-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization were higher in the month of the pneumonia episode (IRR, 4.61 and 4.30). All-cause admission rates remained elevated through month 12; cardiovascular admission rates remained elevated through month 6. Mean per-patient per-month costs were $10,976 higher in the month of index episode compared to month -3, largely driven by increased inpatient costs, and remained elevated through end of 12-month follow-up. Pneumonia episodes are frequent among ESRD patients and result in hospitalizations and greater overall costs to Medicare over the following year.

  6. [Comparison between Endoscopic Therapy and Medical Therapy in Peptic Ulcer Patients with Adherent Clot: A Multicenter Prospective Observational Cohort Study].

    PubMed

    Kim, Si Hye; Jung, Jin Tae; Kwon, Joong Goo; Kim, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Wook; Jeon, Seong Woo; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Si Hyung; Park, Jeong Bae; Ha, Chang Yoon; Park, Youn Sun

    2015-08-01

    The optimal management of bleeding peptic ulcer with adherent clot remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcome between endoscopic therapy and medical therapy. We also evaluated the risk factors of rebleeding in Forrest type IIB peptic ulcer. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding registry data from 8 hospitals in Korea between February 2011 and December 2013 were reviewed and categorized according to the Forrest classification. Patients with acute UGI bleeding from peptic ulcer with adherent clots were enrolled. Among a total of 1,101 patients diagnosed with peptic ulcer bleeding, 126 bleedings (11.4%) were classified as Forrest type IIB. Of the 126 patients with adherent clots, 84 (66.7%) received endoscopic therapy and 42 (33.3%) were managed with medical therapy alone. The baseline characteristics of patients in two groups were similar except for higher Glasgow Blatchford Score and pre-endoscopic Rockall score in medical therapy group. Bleeding related mortality (1.2% vs.10%; p=0.018) and all cause mortality (3.7% vs. 20.0%; p=0.005) were significantly lower in the endoscopic therapy group. However, there was no difference between endoscopic therapy and medical therapy regarding rebleeding (7.1% vs. 9.5%; p=0.641). In multivariate analysis, independent risk factors of rebleeding were previous medication with aspirin and/or NSAID (OR, 13.1; p=0.025). In patients with Forrest type IIB peptic ulcer bleeding, endoscopic therapy was associated with a significant reduction in bleeding related mortality and all cause mortality compared with medical therapy alone. Important risk factor of rebleeding was use of aspirin and/or NSAID.

  7. Predictors of hydrocephalus as a complication of non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective observational cohort study in 107 patients.

    PubMed

    Vinas Rios, Juan Manuel; Sanchez-Aguilar, Martin; Kretschmer, Thomas; Heinen, Christian; Medina Govea, Fatima Azucena; Jose Juan, Sanchez-Rodriguez; Schmidt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The predictors of shunt dependency such as amount of subarachnoid blood, acute hydrocephalus (HC), mode of aneurysm repair, clinical grade at admission and cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) drainage in excess of 1500 ml during the 1st week after the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have been identified as predictors of shunt dependency. Therefore our main objective is to identify predictors of CSF shunt dependency following non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. We performed a retrospective study including patients from January 1st 2012 to September 30th 2014 between 16 and 89 years old and had a non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in cranial computed tomography (CCT). We excluded patients with the following characteristics: Patients who died 3 days after admittance, lesions in brainstem, previous surgical treatment in another clinic, traumatic brain injury, pregnancy and disability prior to SAH.We performed a descriptive and comparative analysis as well as a logistic regression with the variables that showed a significant difference ( p  < 0.05). Hence we identified the variables concerning HC after non traumatic SAH and its correlation. One hundred and seven clinical files of patients with non-traumatic SAH were analyzed. Twenty one (48%) later underwent shunt treatment. Shunt patients had significantly clinical and corroborated with doppler ultrasonography vasospasmus ( p  = 0.015), OR = 5.2. The amount of subarachnoidal blood according to modified Fisher grade was ( p  = 0.008) OR = 10.9. Endovascularly treated patients were less often shunted as compared with those undergoing surgical aneurysm repair ( p  = 0.004). Vasospasmus and a large amount of ventricular blood seem to be a predictor concerning hydrocephalus after non-traumatic SAH. Hence according to our results the presence of these two variables could alert the treating physician in the decision whether an early shunt implantation < 7 days after SAH should be necessary.

  8. Understanding the Risk Factors and Long-Term Consequences of Cisplatin-Associated Acute Kidney Injury: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Zeenat Yousuf; Cadnapaphornchai, Pravit; Ginsburg, Kevin; Sivagnanam, Milani; Chopra, Shamit; Treadway, Corey K; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Yoo, George; Sukari, Ammar; Doshi, Mona D

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-known complication of cisplatin-based chemotherapy; however, its impact on long-term patient survival is unclear. We sought to determine the incidence and risk factors for development of cisplatin-associated AKI and its impact on long-term renal function and patient survival. We identified 233 patients who received 629 cycles of high-dose cisplatin (99±9mg/m2) for treatment of head and neck cancer between 2005 and 2011. These subjects were reviewed for development of AKI. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity (CN) was defined as persistent rise in serum creatinine, with a concomitant decline in serum magnesium and potassium, in absence of use of nephrotoxic agents and not reversed with hydration. All patients were hydrated per protocol and none had baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR) via CKD-EPI<60mL/min/1.73m2. The patients were grouped based on development of AKI and were staged for levels of injury, per KDIGO-AKI definition. Renal function was assessed via serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) via CKD-EPI at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Patients with AKI were screened for the absence of nephrotoxic medication use and a temporal decline in serum potassium and magnesium levels. Logistic regression models were constructed to determine risk factors for cisplatin-associated AKI. Twelve-month renal function was compared among groups using ANOVA. Kaplan-Maier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were constructed to study its impact on patient survival. Of 233 patients, 158(68%) developed AKI; 77 (49%) developed stage I, 55 (35%) developed stage II, and 26 (16%) developed stage III AKI. Their serum potassium and magnesium levels correlated negatively with level of injury (p<0.05). African American race was a significant risk factor for cisplatin-associated AKI, OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.3 to 6.3) and 2.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 6.7) patients with stage III AKI had the lowest eGFR value at 12 months (p = 0.05) and long

  9. Changes in Serum Bicarbonate Levels Caused by Acetate-Containing Bicarbonate-Buffered Hemodialysis Solution: An Observational Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Panesar, Mandip; Shah, Neal; Vaqar, Sarosh; Ivaturi, Kaushik; Gudleski, Gregory; Muscarella, Mary; Lambert, Judy; Su, Winnie; Murray, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Fresenius Medical Care's NaturaLyte dialysate has been associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death by causing metabolic alkalosis from its acetate content based on retrospective data using pre-dialysis bicarbonate levels only. The study objective was to measure inter/intra-dialytic changes in serum bicarbonate and degree of alkalosis conferred by varying concentrations of NaturaLyte bicarbonate dialysate. Thirty-nine hemodialysis patients were divided into four groups based on prescribed bicarbonate dialysate concentrations; Group 1 (N = 9): 30-32 mEq/L, Group 2 (N = 5): 33-34 mEq/L, Group 3 (N = 10): 35-36 mEq/L, Group 4 (N = 15): 37-40 mEq/L. Serial (pre-dialysis, immediate post-dialysis, 2 h post-dialysis, and 68 h post-dialysis) bicarbonate levels were measured. Mean pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate levels (representing 44 h post-dialysis levels) in all four groups were not statistically different. Pre-dialysis and 68 h post-dialysis bicarbonate levels in each group were also not significantly different. However, immediate post-dialysis and 2 h post-dialysis bicarbonate levels were significantly increased in all four groups proportional to dialysate dose. There was statistically significant inter-group bicarbonate level difference (P < 0.05) except between the first and second (P = 0.43) and second and third (P = 0.07) groups in the immediate post-dialysis period. Similar results were obtained for the 2 h post-dialysis period. High bicarbonate dialysate causes large and rapid fluctuations in serum bicarbonate levels during the intra/inter-dialytic period, which returns to baseline within 44 to 68 h after dialysis. This refutes the necessity to correct pre-dialysis acidosis with high bicarbonate dialysate since rapid equilibration is likely to occur and unnecessarily exposes patients to large shifts in their acid base balance. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for

  10. Timing of probiotic milk consumption during pregnancy and effects on the incidence of preeclampsia and preterm delivery: a prospective observational cohort study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Nordqvist, Mahsa; Jacobsson, Bo; Brantsæter, Anne-Lise; Myhre, Ronny; Nilsson, Staffan; Sengpiel, Verena

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the timing of probiotic milk intake before, during early or late pregnancy influences associations with preeclampsia and preterm delivery. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting Norway, between 1999 and 2008. Participants 70 149 singleton pregnancies resulting in live-born babies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (no chronic disease, answered questionnaires, no placenta previa/cerclage/serious malformation of fetus, first enrolment pregnancy). Only nulliparous women (n=37 050) were included in the preeclampsia analysis. Both iatrogenic and spontaneous preterm delivery (between gestational weeks 22+0 and 36+6) with spontaneous term controls (between gestational weeks 39+0 and 40+6) were included in the preterm delivery analysis resulting in 34 458 cases. Main outcome measures Adjusted OR for preeclampsia and preterm delivery according to consumption of probiotic milk at three different time periods (before pregnancy, during early and late pregnancy). Results Probiotic milk intake in late pregnancy (but not before or in early pregnancy) was significantly associated with lower preeclampsia risk (adjusted OR: 0.80 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.94) p-value: 0.007). Probiotic intake during early (but not before or during late pregnancy) was significantly associated with lower risk of preterm delivery (adjusted OR: 0.79 (0.64 to 0.97) p-value: 0.03). Conclusions In this observational study, we found an association between timing of probiotic milk consumption during pregnancy and the incidence of the adverse pregnancy outcomes preeclampsia and preterm delivery. If future randomised controlled trials could establish a causal association between probiotics consumption and reduced risk of preeclampsia and preterm delivery, recommending probiotics would be a promising public health measure to reduce these adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:29362253

  11. Sites, frequencies, and causes of self-reported fractures in 9,720 rheumatoid arthritis patients: a large prospective observational cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Kensuke; Furuya, Takefumi; Ikari, Katsunori; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Momohara, Shigeki

    2013-01-01

    Sites, frequencies, and causes of self-reported fractures in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated in a prospective, observational cohort study. The incidence and cause of fracture differ by anatomical site, sex, and age. These differences may be considered in establishing custom strategies for preventing fractures in RA patients in the future. The literature contains limited data describing the details of fractures at different skeletal sites in patients with RA. We evaluated the details of fractures in Japanese RA patients on the basis of our Institute of Rheumatology Rheumatoid Arthritis cohort study in 9,720 RA patients (82 % women; mean age, 56 years) who were enrolled from 2000 to 2010. The details of fractures were obtained through biannual patient self-report questionnaires. Over a mean duration of 5.2 years, 1,317 patients (13.5 %) reported 2,323 incident fractures comprising 563 (24.2 %) clinical vertebral fractures and 1,760 (75.8 %) nonvertebral fractures. Rib fractures were the most common fractures in men, followed by clinical vertebral and hip fractures; the most common fractures in women were clinical vertebral fractures, followed by rib, foot, and hip fractures. There was a significant difference between sexes in the rates of rib, clavicle, shoulder, and ankle fractures. Spontaneous event was the primary cause of clinical vertebral fracture (65.4 %), whereas falls were the primary cause of upper extremity (76.5 %) and lower extremity (57.8 %) fractures. Rates of clinical vertebral and hip fractures increased, while those of rib and foot fractures decreased with increasing age. Incidence of falls, as causes of nonvertebral fractures, also increased in older age groups. Our results suggest that the causes of fractures may differ depending on anatomical site and that prevention of falls may be the most effective way to reduce upper and lower extremity fractures, especially in older patients with RA.

  12. Rationale and design of three observational, prospective cohort studies including biobanking to evaluate and improve diagnostics, management strategies and risk stratification in venous thromboembolism: the VTEval Project.

    PubMed

    Frank, Bernd; Ariza, Liana; Lamparter, Heidrun; Grossmann, Vera; Prochaska, Jürgen H; Ullmann, Alexander; Kindler, Florentina; Weisser, Gerhard; Walter, Ulrich; Lackner, Karl J; Espinola-Klein, Christine; Münzel, Thomas; Konstantinides, Stavros V; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) with its two manifestations deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) is a major public health problem. The VTEval Project aims to investigate numerous research questions on diagnosis, clinical management, treatment and prognosis of VTE, which have remained uncertain to date. The VTEval Project consists of three observational, prospective cohort studies on VTE comprising cohorts of individuals with a clinical suspicion of acute PE (with or without DVT), with a clinical suspicion of acute DVT (without symptomatic PE) and with an incidental diagnosis of VTE (PE or DVT). The VTEval Project expects to enrol a total of approximately 2000 individuals with subsequent active and passive follow-up investigations over a time period of 5 years per participant. Time points for active follow-up investigations are at months 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 after diagnosis (depending on the disease cohort); passive follow-up investigations via registry offices and the cancer registry are performed 48 and 60 months after diagnosis for all participants. Primary short-term outcome is defined by overall mortality (PE-related death and all other causes of death), primary long-term outcome by symptomatic VTE (PE-related death, recurrence of non-fatal PE or DVT). The VTEval Project includes three 'all-comer' studies and involves the standardised acquisition of high-quality data, covering the systematic assessment of VTE including symptoms, risk profile, psychosocial, environmental and lifestyle factors as well as clinical and subclinical disease, and it builds up a large state-of-the-art biorepository containing various materials from serial blood samplings. The VTEval Project has been approved by the local data safety commissioner and the responsible ethics committee (reference no. 837.320.12 (8421-F)). Trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international scientific meetings. NCT02156401. Published by the

  13. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-08-12

    The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Observational cohort study. Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Tackle-related injury severity ('time-loss' and 'medical attention'), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ(2) analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater 'time-loss' injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of 'overall' ('time-loss' and 'medical attention' combined) and 'time-loss' tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of 'overall' and 'time-loss' injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies targeting the tackle may only be effective once the rate and nature of injuries have been accurately determined

  14. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  15. Core Outcomes in Ventilation Trials (COVenT): protocol for a core outcome set using a Delphi survey with a nested randomised trial and observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, Bronagh; Ringrow, Suzanne; Clarke, Mike; Marshall, John; Rose, Louise; Williamson, Paula; McAuley, Danny

    2015-08-20

    Among clinical trials of interventions that aim to modify time spent on mechanical ventilation for critically ill patients there is considerable inconsistency in chosen outcomes and how they are measured. The Core Outcomes in Ventilation Trials (COVenT) study aims to develop a set of core outcomes for use in future ventilation trials in mechanically ventilated adults and children. We will use a mixed methods approach that incorporates a randomised trial nested within a Delphi study and a consensus meeting. Additionally, we will conduct an observational cohort study to evaluate uptake of the core outcome set in published studies at 5 and 10 years following core outcome set publication. The three-round online Delphi study will use a list of outcomes that have been reported previously in a review of ventilation trials. The Delphi panel will include a range of stakeholder groups including patient support groups. The panel will be randomised to one of three feedback methods to assess the impact of the feedback mechanism on subsequent ranking of outcomes. A final consensus meeting will be held with stakeholder representatives to review outcomes. The COVenT study aims to develop a core outcome set for ventilation trials in critical care, explore the best Delphi feedback mechanism for achieving consensus and determine if participation increases use of the core outcome set in the long term.

  16. Liver Match, a prospective observational cohort study on liver transplantation in Italy: study design and current practice of donor-recipient matching.

    PubMed

    Angelico, Mario; Cillo, Umberto; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gavrila, Caius; Marianelli, Tania; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Nardi, Alessandra; Strazzabosco, Mario; Burra, Patrizia; Agnes, Salvatore; Baccarani, Umberto; Calise, Fulvio; Colledan, Michele; Cuomo, Oreste; De Carlis, Luciano; Donataccio, Matteo; Ettorre, Giuseppe M; Gerunda, Giorgio E; Gridelli, Bruno; Lupo, Luigi; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Pinna, Antonio; Risaliti, Andrea; Salizzoni, Mauro; Tisone, Giuseppe; Valente, Umberto; Rossi, Giorgio; Rossi, Massimo; Zamboni, Fausto

    2011-02-01

    The Liver Match is an observational cohort study that prospectively enrolled liver transplantations performed at 20 out of 21 Italian Transplant Centres between June 2007 and May 2009. Aim of the study is to investigate the impact of donor/recipient matching on outcomes. In this report we describe the study methodology and provide a cross-sectional description of donor and recipient characteristics and of graft allocation. Adult primary transplants performed with deceased heart-beating donors were included. Relevant information on donors and recipients, organ procurement and allocation were prospectively entered in an ad hoc database within the National Transplant Centre web-based Network. Data were blindly analysed by an independent Biostatistical Board. The study enrolled 1530 donor/recipient matches. Median donor age was 56 years. Female donors (n = 681, median 58, range 12-92 years) were older than males (n = 849, median 53, range 2-97 years, p < 0.0001). Donors older than 60 years were 42.2%, including 4.2% octogenarians. Brain death was due to non-traumatic causes in 1126 (73.6%) cases. Half of the donor population was overweight, 10.1% was obese and 7.6% diabetic. Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) was present in 245 (16.0%) donors. The median Donor Risk Index (DRI) was 1.57 (>1.7 in 35.8%). The median cold ischaemia time was 7.3h (≥ 10 in 10.6%). Median age of recipients was 54 years, and 77.7% were males. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was the most frequent indication overall (44.4%), being a coindication in roughly 1/3 of cases, followed by viral cirrhosis without HCC (28.2%) and alcoholic cirrhosis without HCC (10.2%). Hepatitis C virus infection (with or without HCC) was the most frequent etiologic factor (45.9% of the whole population and 71.4% of viral-related cirrhosis), yet hepatitis B virus infection accounted for 28.6% of viral-related cirrhosis, and HBcAb positivity was found in 49.7% of recipients. The median Model for End Stage Liver Disease

  17. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people - A Danish observational register-based historical cohort study, using propensity score.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first prescription. The hazard ratio for suicide attempts after redeeming a prescription was estimated to 5.23, 95% CI 4.82-5.68. We conclude that the risk of suicide attempt is higher for young people in the first months after redeeming their first prescription for SSRIs, compared to non-users. For SSRI users with lower propensity score (fewer risk factors for SSRIs) the risk of suicide attempt is estimated to be highest. Although the design may miss some explicit reason for prescription of SSRIs and SSRIs might be a marker for those in high risk rather than a causal risk factor, we would recommend systematic risk assessment in the period after redeeming the first prescription.

  18. Clinical application of the Melbourne risk prediction tool in a high-risk upper abdominal surgical population: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Parry, S; Denehy, L; Berney, S; Browning, L

    2014-03-01

    (1) To determine the ability of the Melbourne risk prediction tool to predict a pulmonary complication as defined by the Melbourne Group Scale in a medically defined high-risk upper abdominal surgery population during the postoperative period; (2) to identify the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications; and (3) to examine the risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications in this high-risk population. Observational cohort study. Tertiary Australian referral centre. 50 individuals who underwent medically defined high-risk upper abdominal surgery. Presence of postoperative pulmonary complications was screened daily for seven days using the Melbourne Group Scale (Version 2). Postoperative pulmonary risk prediction was calculated according to the Melbourne risk prediction tool. (1) Melbourne risk prediction tool; and (2) the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications. Sixty-six percent (33/50) underwent hepatobiliary or upper gastrointestinal surgery. Mean (SD) anaesthetic duration was 377.8 (165.5) minutes. The risk prediction tool classified 84% (42/50) as high risk. Overall postoperative pulmonary complication incidence was 42% (21/50). The tool was 91% sensitive and 21% specific with a 50% chance of correct classification. This is the first study to externally validate the Melbourne risk prediction tool in an independent medically defined high-risk population. There was a higher incidence of pulmonary complications postoperatively observed compared to that previously reported. Results demonstrated poor validity of the tool in a population already defined medically as high risk and when applied postoperatively. This observational study has identified several important points to consider in future trials. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous hypothermia on intensive care unit admission is a predictor of unfavorable neurological outcome in patients after resuscitation: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, Alexander W; de Pont, Anne-Cornélie J M; Robillard, Laure B M; Binnekade, Jan M; Schultz, Marcus J; Horn, Janneke

    2010-01-01

    A large number of patients resuscitated for primary cardiac arrest arrive in the intensive care unit (ICU) with a body temperature < 35.0 degrees C. The aim of this observational cohort study was to determine the association between ICU admission temperature and neurological outcome in this patient group. Demographics and parameters influencing neurological outcome were retrieved from the charts of all patients resuscitated for primary cardiac arrest and treated with induced mild hypothermia in our ICU from January 2006 until January 2008. Patients were divided into two groups according to their body temperature on ICU admission: a hypothermia group (< 35.0 degrees C) and a non-hypothermia group (>or=35.0 degrees C). Neurological outcome after six months was assessed by means of the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), with GOS 1 to 3 defined as unfavorable and GOS 4 to 5 as favorable. A logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence of the different parameters on neurological outcome. The data of 105 consecutive patients resuscitated for primary cardiac arrest and treated with induced mild hypothermia were analyzed. Median ICU admission temperature was 35.1 degrees C (interquartile range (IQR) 34.3 to 35.7). After six months, 61% of the patients had an unfavorable outcome (59% died and 2% were severely disabled), whereas 39% had a favorable outcome (moderate disability or good recovery). Among patients with spontaneous hypothermia on ICU admission, the percentage with unfavorable outcome was higher (69% versus 50%, P = 0.05). Logistic regression showed that age, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and spontaneous hypothermia on ICU admission all had an increased odds ratio (OR) for an unfavorable outcome after six months. Spontaneous hypothermia had the strongest association with unfavorable outcome (OR 2.6, 95% CI (confidence interval) 1.1 to 5.9), which became even stronger after

  20. Effect of the male factor on the clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection combined with preimplantation aneuploidy testing: observational longitudinal cohort study of 1,219 consecutive cycles.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Rossella; Cimadomo, Danilo; Vaiarelli, Alberto; Capalbo, Antonio; Dovere, Lisa; Alviggi, Erminia; Dusi, Ludovica; Foresta, Carlo; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Tournaye, Herman; Alviggi, Carlo; Rienzi, Laura; Ubaldi, Filippo Maria

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of the male factor on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles combined with preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A). Observational longitudinal cohort study. Private in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. A total of 1,219 oocyte retrievals divided into five study groups according to sperm parameters: normozoospermia (N), moderate male factor (MMF), severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT-S), obstructive azoospermia (OA), and nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). ICSI with ejaculated/surgically retrieved sperm, blastocyst culture, trophectoderm-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction PGT-A, and frozen-warmed euploid embryo transfer (ET). The primary outcome measures were fertilization, blastocyst development, and euploidy rates; the secondary outcome measures were live birth and miscarriage rates. Perinatal and obstetrical outcomes were monitored as well. A total of 9,042 metaphase II oocytes were inseminated. The fertilization rate was significantly reduced in MMF, OAT-S, OA, and NOA compared with N (74.8%, 68.7%, 67.3%, and 53.1% vs. 77.2%). The blastocyst rate per fertilized oocyte was significantly reduced in MMF and NOA compared with N (48.6% and 40.6% vs. 49.3%). The timing of blastocyst development also was affected in OA and NOA. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders highlighted NOA as a negative predictor of obtaining an euploid blastocyst per OPU (odds ratio 0.5). When the analysis was performed per obtained blastocyst, however, no correlation between male factor and euploidy rate was observed. Embryo transfers also resulted in similar live birth and miscarriage rates. No impact of sperm factor on obstetrical/perinatal outcomes was observed. Severe male factor impairs early embryonic competence in terms of fertilization rate and developmental potential. However, the euploidy rate and implantation potential of the obtained blastocysts are independent from sperm quality

  1. A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2–30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work. PMID:21212203

  2. Risk factors associated with catheter-related upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients with peripherally inserted central venous catheters: a prospective observational cohort study: part 2.

    PubMed

    Maneval, Rhonda E; Clemence, Bonnie J

    2014-01-01

    This is the second part of a 2-part series that reports on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Part 1, published in the May/June 2014 issue of the Journal of Infusion Nursing, provided an extensive review and critique of the literature regarding risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT and identified 28 suspected risk factors. A study was undertaken to examine each of the risk factors among 203 acute care patients with PICCs, 13 of whom experienced a UEDVT, yielding an incidence of 6.4%. The most common reason for admission was infection (33.5%), and the primary reason for insertion of the PICC was venous access (58.6%). Hypertension (P = .022) and obesity (P = .008), defined as a body mass index ≥30, were associated with UEDVT. The clinical symptoms of edema (P < .001) and a 3-cm or more increase in arm circumference (P < .001) in the PICC arm after PICC placement were associated with UEDVT. All other variables were not statistically significant. The results suggest that patients who are obese and hypertensive may be at greater risk for the development of UEDVT and that the physical finding of edema and increased arm circumference in the PICC arm are possibly suggestive of UEDVT.

  3. LONGITUDINAL COHORT METHODS STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...

  4. Late HIV diagnosis is a major risk factor for intensive care unit admission in HIV-positive patients: a single centre observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV positive patients are at risk of infectious and non-infectious complications that may necessitate intensive care unit (ICU) admission. While the characteristics of patients requiring ICU admission have been described previously, these studies did not include information on the denominator population from which these cases arose. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of ICU admissions among 2751 HIV positive patients attending King’s College Hospital, South London, UK. Poisson regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICU admission. Results The overall incidence rate of ICU admission was 1.0 [95% CI 0.8, 1.2] per 100 person-years of follow up, and particularly high early (during the first 3 months) following HIV diagnosis (12.4 [8.7, 17.3] per 100 person-years compared to 0.37 [0.27, 0.50] per 100 person-years thereafter; incidence rate ratio 33.5 [23.4, 48.1], p < 0.001). In time-updated analyses, AIDS and current CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 were associated with an increased incidence of ICU admission while receipt of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) was associated with a reduced incidence of ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis (initial CD4 cell count <350 or AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis) applied to 81% of patients who were first diagnosed HIV positive during the study period and who required ICU admission. Late HIV diagnosis was significantly associated with ICU admission in the first 3 months following HIV diagnosis (adjusted incidence rate ratio 8.72, 95% CI 2.76, 27.5). Conclusions Late HIV diagnosis was a major risk factor for early ICU admission in our cohort. Earlier HIV diagnosis allowing cART initiation at CD4 cell counts of 350 cells/mm3 is likely to have a significant impact on the need for ICU care. PMID:23331544

  5. Changes in the physical activity of acute stroke survivors between inpatient and community living with early supported discharge: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kerr, A; Rowe, P; Esson, D; Barber, M

    2016-12-01

    To describe and compare patterns of physical activity among stroke survivors during their hospital stay and community living with early supported discharge. Observational cohort study of physical activity before and after early supported discharge. UK National Health Service stroke units and participants' homes. Forty-one stroke survivors with a mean age of 69 (standard deviation 11) years, and a median Modified Rivermead Mobility Index of 33.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 25.8 to 35.3]. The primary outcome measures were time spent in sitting/standing/walking and number of steps taken, as recorded by a physical activity monitor. There were statistical differences (P<0.001) for all categories of physical activity. After early supported discharge to the community, participants took more than twice the number of steps {median 474 (IQR 189 to 773) vs. 1193 (IQR 512 to 2856), median difference 636 [95% confidence interval (CI) 262 to 931]} and spent more than double the time in standing [median 51 (IQR 22 to 128) minutes vs. 100 (IQR 51 to 178) minutes, median difference 28 (95% CI 11 to 68)] compared with their hospital stay. Community living with early supported discharge promoted higher levels of physical activity in medically stable stroke survivors. The near-doubling of activity may serve as a guideline for what is achievable during stroke rehabilitation. Number UKCRN 15472. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of acquisition and interpretation on total inter-observer variability in echocardiography: results from the quality assurance program of the STAAB cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morbach, Caroline; Gelbrich, Götz; Breunig, Margret; Tiffe, Theresa; Wagner, Martin; Heuschmann, Peter U; Störk, Stefan

    2018-02-14

    Variability related to image acquisition and interpretation is an important issue of echocardiography in clinical trials. Nevertheless, there is no broadly accepted standard method for quality assessment of echocardiography in clinical research reports. We present analyses based on the echocardiography quality-assurance program of the ongoing STAAB cohort study (characteristics and course of heart failure stages A-B and determinants of progression). In 43 healthy individuals (mean age 50 ± 14 years; 18 females), duplicate echocardiography scans were acquired and mutually interpreted by one of three trained sonographers and an EACVI certified physician, respectively. Acquisition (AcV), interpretation (InV), and inter-observer variability (IOV; i.e., variability between the acquisition-interpretation sequences of two different observers), were determined for selected M-mode, B-mode, and Doppler parameters. We calculated Bland-Altman upper 95% limits of absolute differences, implying that 95% of measurement differences were smaller/equal to the given value: e.g. LV end-diastolic volume (mL): 25.0, 25.0, 27.9; septal e' velocity (cm/s): 3.03, 1.25, 3.58. Further, 90, 85, and 80% upper limits of absolute differences were determined for the respective parameters. Both, acquisition and interpretation, independently and sizably contributed to IOV. As such, separate assessment of AcV and InV is likely to aid in echocardiography training and quality-assurance. Our results further suggest to routinely determine IOV in clinical trials as a comprehensive measure of imaging quality. The derived 95, 90, 85, and 80% upper limits of absolute differences are suggested as reproducibility targets of future studies, thus contributing to the international efforts of standardization in quality-assurance.

  7. Effect of Several Negative Rounds of Human Papillomavirus and Cytology Co-testing on Safety Against Cervical Cancer: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Castle, Philip E; Kinney, Walter K; Xue, Xiaonan; Cheung, Li C; Gage, Julia C; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas S; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark

    2018-01-02

    Current U.S. cervical cancer screening and management guidelines do not consider previous screening history, because data on multiple-round human papillomavirus (HPV) and cytology "co-testing" have been unavailable. To measure cervical cancer risk in routine practice after successive negative screening co-tests at 3-year intervals. Observational cohort study. Integrated health care system (Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California). 990 013 women who had 1 or more co-tests from 2003 to 2014. 3- and 5-year cumulative detection of (risk for) cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer (≥CIN3) in women with different numbers of negative co-tests, overall and within subgroups defined by previous co-test results or baseline age. Five-year ≥CIN3 risks decreased after each successive negative co-test screening round (0.098%, 0.052%, and 0.035%). Five-year ≥CIN3 risks for an HPV-negative co-test, regardless of the cytology result, nearly matched the performance (reassurance) of a negative co-test for each successive round of screening (0.114%, 0.061%, and 0.041%). By comparison, ≥CIN3 risks for the cytology-negative co-test, regardless of the HPV result, also decreased with each successive round, but 3-year risks were as high as 5-year risks after an HPV-negative co-test (0.199%, 0.065%, and 0.043%). No interval cervical cancer cases were diagnosed after the second negative co-test. Independently, ≥CIN3 risks decreased with age. Length of previous screening interval did not influence future ≥CIN3 risks. Interval-censored observational data. After 1 or more negative cervical co-tests (or HPV tests), longer screening intervals (every 5 years or more) might be feasible and safe. National Cancer Institute Intramural Research Program.

  8. Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Amy C.; Dombrowski, Elizabeth; Conigliaro, Joseph; Fultz, Shawn L.; Gibson, Deborah; Madenwald, Tamra; Goulet, Joseph; Simberkoff, Michael; Butt, Adeel A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Oursler, Kris Ann K.; Brown, Sheldon; Leaf, David A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Bryant, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Background The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected patients seen in infectious disease and general medical clinics. VACS includes the earlier 3 and 5 site studies (VACS 3 and VACS 5) as well as the ongoing 8 site study. Objectives We sought to provide background and context for analyses based upon VACS data, including study design and rationale as well as its basic protocol and the baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample. Research Design We undertook a prospectively consented multisite observational study of veterans in care with and without HIV infection. Measures Data were derived from patient and provider self report, telephone interviews, blood and DNA samples, focus groups, and full access to the national VA “paperless” electronic medical record system. Results More than 7200 veterans have been enrolled in at least one of the studies. The 8 site study (VACS) has enrolled 2979 HIV-infected and 3019 HIV-uninfected age–race–site matched comparators and has achieved stratified enrollment targets for race/ethnicity and age and 99% of its total target enrollment as of October 30, 2005. Participants in VACS are similar to other veterans receiving care within the VA. VACS participants are older and more predominantly black than those reported by the Centers for Disease Control. Conclusions VACS has assembled a rich, in-depth, and representative sample of veterans in care with and without HIV infection to conduct longitudinal analyses of questions concerning the association between alcohol use and related comorbid and AIDS-defining conditions. PMID:16849964

  9. Use of CPAP to reduce arterial stiffness in moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea, without excessive daytime sleepiness (STIFFSLEEP): an observational cohort study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mineiro, Maria Alexandra; Marques da Silva, Pedro; Alves, Marta; Virella, Daniel; Marques Gomes, Maria João; Cardoso, João

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sleepiness is a cardinal symptom in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but most patients have unspecific symptoms. Arterial stiffness, evaluated by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Arterial stiffness was reported to be higher in patients with OSA, improving after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This study aims to assess whether the same effect occurs in patients with OSA and without sleepiness. Methods and analysis This observational study assesses the CV effect of CPAP therapy on a cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe OSA; the effect on the subcohorts of sleepy and non-sleepy patients will be compared. A systematic and consecutive sample of patients advised CPAP therapy will be recruited from a single outpatient sleep clinic (Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central—CHLC, Portugal). Eligible patients are male, younger than 65 years, with confirmed moderate-to-severe OSA and apnoea–hypopnea index (AHI) above 15/hour. Other sleep disorders, diabetes or any CV disease other than hypertension are exclusion criteria. Clinical evaluation at baseline includes Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and sleepiness is defined as ESS above 10. OSA will be confirmed by polygraphic study (cardiorespiratory, level 3). Participants are advised to undertake an assessment of carotid-femoral PWV (cf-PWV) and 24 hours evaluation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), at baseline and after 4 months of CPAP therapy. Compliance and effectiveness of CPAP will be assessed. The main outcome is the variation of cf-PWV over time. Ethics and dissemination This protocol was approved by the Ethics Committees of CHLC (reference number 84/2012) and NOVA Medical School (number36/2014/CEFCM), Lisbon. Informed, written consent will be obtained. Its results will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Trial registration number NCT02273089; Pre-results. PMID:27406645

  10. Long-term mortality after community-acquired pneumonia—impacts of diabetes and newly discovered hyperglycaemia: a prospective, observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Heikki O; Salonen, Päivi H; Romppanen, Jarkko; Niskanen, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with a significant long-term mortality after initial recovery. It has been acknowledged that additional research is urgently needed to examine the contributors to this long-term mortality. The objective of the present study was to assess whether diabetes or newly discovered hyperglycaemia during pneumonia affects long-term mortality. Design A prospective, observational cohort study. Setting A single secondary centre in eastern Finland. Participants 153 consecutive hospitalised patients who survived at least 30 days after mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Interventions Plasma glucose levels were recorded seven times during the first day on the ward. Several possible confounders were also recorded. The surveillance status and causes of death were recorded after median of 5 years and 11 months. Results In multivariate Cox regression analysis, a previous diagnosis of diabetes among the whole population (adjusted HR 2.84 (1.35–5.99)) and new postprandial hyperglycaemia among the non-diabetic population (adjusted HR 2.56 (1.04–6.32)) showed independent associations with late mortality. New fasting hyperglycaemia was not an independent predictor. The mortality rates at the end of follow-up were 54%, 37% and 10% among patients with diabetes, patients without diabetes with new postprandial hyperglycaemia and patients without diabetes without postprandial hyperglycaemia, respectively (p<0.001). The underlying causes of death roughly mirrored those in the Finnish general population with a slight excess in mortality due to chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumonia was the immediate cause of death in just 8% of all late deaths. Conclusions A previous diagnosis of diabetes and newly discovered postprandial hyperglycaemia increase the risk of death for several years after community-acquired pneumonia. As the knowledge about patient subgroups with an increased late mortality risk is gradually gathering

  11. Burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japanese adults 60 years of age or older: Results from an observational, prospective, physician practice-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Adachi, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Asano, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Akihiro; Adachi, Riri; Kiuchi, Mariko; Kobayashi, Keiju; Matsuki, Taizo; Kaise, Toshihiko; Gopala, Kusuma; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2017-04-01

    Approximately one in three persons will develop herpes zoster during their lifetime, and it can lead to serious complications such as postherpetic neuralgia. However, evidence on burden of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in Japan is limited. This prospective, observational, multicenter, physician practice-based cohort study was conducted in Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01873365) to assess the incidence and hospitalization rates of herpes zoster, and the proportion, clinical burden and risk factors for postherpetic neuralgia in adults aged 60 years or more. Within the study area, 800 subjects developed herpes zoster and 412 were eligible for the study. Herpes zoster incidence was 10.2/1000 person-years and higher among women and older subjects. Subjects with herpes zoster required on average 5.7 outpatient consultations. Herpes zoster-associated hospitalization rate was 3.4% (27/800). The proportion of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications was 9.2% (38/412) and 26.5% (109/412), respectively. Statistically significant association with the development of postherpetic neuralgia was male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.38), age of 70-74 years (OR, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.09-11.3), immunosuppressive therapy (OR, 6.44; 95% CI, 1.26-32.9), severe herpes zoster pain at first consultation (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.10-8.62) and rash on upper arms (vs no rash on upper arms; OR, 3.46; 95% CI, 1.10-10.9). Considerable herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia burden exists among elderly in Japan, and there may be predictive factors at the first visit which could be indicative of the risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.

  12. An Ai Chi-based aquatic group improves balance and reduces falls in community-dwelling adults: A pilot observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Elizabeth H; Dinh, Tammy; Hewitt, Melissa; Piper, Ross; Thwaites, Claire

    2016-11-01

    Falls are associated with morbidity, loss of independence, and mortality. While land-based group exercise and Tai Chi programs reduce the risk of falls, aquatic therapy may allow patients to complete balance exercises with less pain and fear of falling; however, limited data exist. The objective of the study was to pilot the implementation of an aquatic group based on Ai Chi principles (Aquabalance) and to evaluate the safety, intervention acceptability, and intervention effect sizes. Pilot observational cohort study. Forty-two outpatients underwent a single 45-minute weekly group aquatic Ai Chi-based session for eight weeks (Aquabalance). Safety was monitored using organizational reporting systems. Patient attendance, satisfaction, and self-reported falls were also recorded. Balance measures included the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, the Four Square Step Test (FSST), and the unilateral Step Tests. Forty-two patients completed the program. It was feasible to deliver Aquabalance, as evidenced by the median (IQR) attendance rate of 8.0 (7.8, 8.0) out of 8. No adverse events occurred and participants reported high satisfaction levels. Improvements were noted on the TUG, 10-meter walk test, the Functional Reach Test, the FSST, and the unilateral step tests (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients defined as high falls risk reduced from 38% to 21%. The study was limited by its small sample size, single-center nature, and the absence of a control group. Aquabalance was safe, well-attended, and acceptable to participants. A randomized controlled assessor-blinded trial is required.

  13. Incidence, characteristics and risk factors of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized children – a prospective observational cohort study of 6,601 admissions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important cause of harm in children. Current data are incomplete due to methodological differences between studies: only half of all studies provide drug data, incidence rates vary (0.6% to 16.8%) and very few studies provide data on causality, severity and risk factors of pediatric ADRs. We aimed to determine the incidence of ADRs in hospitalized children, to characterize these ADRs in terms of type, drug etiology, causality and severity and to identify risk factors. Methods We undertook a year-long, prospective observational cohort study of admissions to a single UK pediatric medical and surgical secondary and tertiary referral center (Alder Hey, Liverpool, UK). Children between 0 and 16 years 11 months old and admitted for more than 48 hours were included. Observed outcomes were occurrence of ADR and time to first ADR for the risk factor analysis. Results A total of 5,118 children (6,601 admissions) were included, 17.7% of whom experienced at least one ADR. Opiate analgesics and drugs used in general anesthesia (GA) accounted for more than 50% of all drugs implicated in ADRs. Of these ADRs, 0.9% caused permanent harm or required admission to a higher level of care. Children who underwent GA were at more than six times the risk of developing an ADR than children without a GA (hazard ratio (HR) 6.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.30 to 7.70). Other factors increasing the risk of an ADR were increasing age (HR 1.06 for each year; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.07), increasing number of drugs (HR 1.25 for each additional drug; 95% CI 1.22 to 1.28) and oncological treatment (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.40 to 2.60). Conclusions ADRs are common in hospitalized children and children who had undergone a GA had more than six times the risk of developing an ADR. GA agents and opiate analgesics are a significant cause of ADRs and have been underrepresented in previous studies. This is a concern in view of the increasing number of pediatric short

  14. Heart Failure Due to Age-Related Cardiac Amyloid Disease Associated With Wild-Type Transthyretin: A Prospective, Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Lawreen H.; Sam, Flora; Skinner, Martha; Salinaro, Francesco; Sun, Fangui; Ruberg, Frederick L.; Berk, John L.; Seldin, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure due to wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) is an under-appreciated cause of morbidity and mortality in the aging population. The aims of this study were to examine features of disease and characterize outcomes in a large ATTRwt cohort. Methods and Results Over 20 years, 121 patients with ATTRwt were enrolled in a prospective observational study. Median age at enrollment was 75.6 years (range, 62.6–87.8); 97% of patients were Caucasian. The median survival, measured from biopsy diagnosis, was 46.69 months (95% CI, 41.95–56.77); 78% of deaths were due to cardiac causes. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 5-year survival was 35.7% (95% CI, 25–46). Impaired functional capacity (mean VO2 max of 13.5 mL/kg/min) and atrial fibrillation (67%) were common clinical features. Multivariate predictors of reduced survival were elevated serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, 482 ± 337 pg/mL) and uric acid (8.2 ± 2.6 mg/dL), decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, 50% median ranging 10-70%), and increased relative wall thickness (RWT, 0.75 ± 0.19). Conclusions In this series of patients with biopsy-proven ATTRwt amyloidosis, poor functional capacity and atrial arrhythmias were common clinical features. Elevated BNP and uric acid, decreased LVEF, and increased RWT were associated with limited survival of only 35.7% at 5 years for the group as a whole. These data establish the natural history of ATTRwt, provide statistical basis for the design of future interventional clinical trials, and highlight the need for more sensitive diagnostic tests and disease-specific treatments for this disease. PMID:26660282

  15. Obesity and diabetes mellitus association in rural community of Katana, South Kivu, in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Bukavu Observ Cohort Study Results.

    PubMed

    Katchunga, Philippe Bianga; Cikomola, Justin; Tshongo, Christian; Baleke, Arsene; Kaishusha, David; Mirindi, Patrick; Tamburhe, Théodore; Kluyskens, Yves; Sadiki, Antoine; Bwanamudogo, Socrate; Kashongwe, Zacharie; Twagirumukiza, Marc

    2016-11-11

    Factual data exploring the relationship between obesity and diabetes mellitus prevalence from rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa remain scattered and are unreliable. To address this scarceness, this work reports population study data describing the relationship between the obesity and the diabetes mellitus in the general population of the rural area of Katana (South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo). A cohort of three thousand, nine hundred, and sixty-two (3962) adults (>15 years old) were followed between 2012 and 2015 (or 4105 person-years during the observation period), and data were collected using the locally adjusted World Health Organization's (WHO) STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) methodology. The hazard ratio for progression of obesity was calculated. The association between diabetes mellitus and obesity was analyzed with logistic regression. The diabetes mellitus prevalence was 2.8 % versus 3.5 % for obese participants and 7.2 % for those with metabolic syndrome, respectively. Within the diabetes group, 26.9 % had above-normal waist circumference and only 9.8 % were obese. During the median follow-up period of 2 years, the incidence of obesity was 535/100,000 person-years. During the follow-up, the prevalence of abdominal obesity significantly increased by 23 % (p <0.0001), whereas the increased prevalence of general obesity (7.8 %) was not significant (p = 0.53). Finally, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with age, waist circumference, and blood pressure but not body mass index. This study confirms an association between diabetes mellitus and abdominal obesity but not with general obesity. On the other hand, the rapid increase in abdominal obesity prevalence in this rural area population within the follow-up period calls for the urgent promoting of preventive lifestyle measures.

  16. Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery-incidence and predictors from a prospective observational cohort study at an Indian tertiary care centre.

    PubMed

    George, Rubin; Menon, Vidya P; Edathadathil, Fabia; Balachandran, Sabarish; Moni, Merlin; Sathyapalan, Dipu; Prasanna, Preetha; S, Gokuldas; Paul, Jerry; K K, Chandrababu; Kumar, Lakshmi; Pillai, Ashok

    2018-05-01

    Asymptomatic myocardial injury following noncardiac surgery (MINS) is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality and may go unrecognized based on standard diagnostic definition for myocardial infarction (MI). Given lack of published research on MINS in India, our study aims to determine incidence of MINS in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery at our tertiary care hospital, and evaluate the clinical characteristics including 30-day outcome.The prospective observational study included patients >65 years or >45 years with either hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or peripheral arterial disease undergoing noncardiac surgery. MINS was peak troponin level of ≥0.03 ng/dL at 12-hour or 24-hour postoperative. All patients were followed for 30 days postoperatively. Predictors of MINS and mortality were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Patients categorized based on peak troponin cut-off values determined by receiver operating characteristic curve were analyzed by Kaplan-Meir test to compare the survival of patients between the groups.Among 1075 patients screened during 34-month period, the incidence of MINS was 17.5% (188/1075). Patients with DM, CAD, or who underwent peripheral nerve block anaesthesia were 1.5 (P < .01), 2 (P < .001), and 12 (P < .001) times, respectively, more likely to develop MINS than others. Patients with heart rates ≥96 bpm before induction of anesthesia were significantly associated with MINS (P = .005) and mortality (P = .02). The 30-day mortality in MINS cohort was 11.7% (22/188, 95% CI 7.5%-17.2%) vs 2.5% (23/887, 95% CI 1.7%-3.9%) in patients without MINS (P < .001). ECG changes (P = .002), peak troponin values >1 ng/mL (P = .01) were significantly associated with mortality. A peak troponin cut-off of >0.152 ng/mL predicted mortality among MINS patients at 72% sensitivity and 58% specificity. Lack of antithrombotic

  17. Cerebral microbleeds and intracranial haemorrhage risk in patients anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (CROMIS-2): a multicentre observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Duncan; Ambler, Gareth; Shakeshaft, Clare; Brown, Martin M; Charidimou, Andreas; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Lip, Gregory Y H; Cohen, Hannah; Banerjee, Gargi; Houlden, Henry; White, Mark J; Yousry, Tarek A; Harkness, Kirsty; Flossmann, Enrico; Smyth, Nigel; Shaw, Louise J; Warburton, Elizabeth; Muir, Keith W; Jäger, Hans Rolf; Werring, David J

    2018-06-01

    Cerebral microbleeds are a potential neuroimaging biomarker of cerebral small vessel diseases that are prone to intracranial bleeding. We aimed to determine whether presence of cerebral microbleeds can identify patients at high risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage when anticoagulated for atrial fibrillation after recent ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Our observational, multicentre, prospective inception cohort study recruited adults aged 18 years or older from 79 hospitals in the UK and one in the Netherlands with atrial fibrillation and recent acute ischaemic stroke or transient ischaemic attack, treated with a vitamin K antagonist or direct oral anticoagulant, and followed up for 24 months using general practitioner and patient postal questionnaires, telephone interviews, hospital visits, and National Health Service digital data on hospital admissions or death. We excluded patients if they could not undergo MRI, had a definite contraindication to anticoagulation, or had previously received therapeutic anticoagulation. The primary outcome was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage occurring at any time before the final follow-up at 24 months. The log-rank test was used to compare rates of intracranial haemorrhage between those with and without cerebral microbleeds. We developed two prediction models using Cox regression: first, including all predictors associated with intracranial haemorrhage at the 20% level in univariable analysis; and second, including cerebral microbleed presence and HAS-BLED score. We then compared these with the HAS-BLED score alone. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02513316. Between Aug 4, 2011, and July 31, 2015, we recruited 1490 participants of whom follow-up data were available for 1447 (97%), over a mean period of 850 days (SD 373; 3366 patient-years). The symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage rate in patients with cerebral microbleeds was 9·8 per 1000 patient-years (95% CI 4·0-20·3

  18. The Paget Trial: A Multicenter, Observational Cohort Intervention Study for the Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Immunological Response of Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream for Vulvar Paget Disease.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, Michelle; Meeuwis, Kim; van Hees, Colette; van Dorst, Eleonora; Bulten, Johan; Bosse, Tjalling; IntHout, Joanna; Boll, Dorry; Slangen, Brigitte; van Seters, Manon; van Beurden, Marc; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte; de Hullu, Joanne

    2017-09-06

    Vulvar Paget disease is a rare skin disorder, which is most common in postmenopausal Caucasian women. They usually present with an erythematous plaque that may show fine or typical "cake icing" scaling or ulceration that may cause itching, pain, irritation, or a burning sensation. Although most cases are noninvasive, vulvar Paget disease may be invasive or associated with an underlying vulvar or distant adenocarcinoma. The histological evidence of so-called "Paget cells" with abundant pale cytoplasm in the epithelium confirms the diagnosis. The origin of these Paget cells is still unclear. Treatment of choice is wide local excision with negative margins. Obtaining clear surgical margins is challenging and may lead to extensive and mutilating surgery. Even then, recurrence rates are high, ranging from 15% to 70%, which emphasizes the need for new treatment options. A number of case reports, retrospective case series, and one observational study have shown promising results using the topical immune response modifier imiquimod. This study aims to investigate the efficacy, safety, and immunological response in patients with noninvasive vulvar Paget disease using a standardized treatment schedule with 5% imiquimod cream. Topical 5% imiquimod cream might be an effective and safe treatment alternative for vulvar Paget disease. The Paget Trial is a multicenter observational cohort study including eight tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. It is ethically approved by the Medical-Ethical Committee of Arnhem-Nijmegen and registered in the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) Register by as NL51648.091.14. Twenty patients with (recurrent) noninvasive vulvar Paget disease will be treated with topical 5% imiquimod cream three times a week for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome is the reduction in lesion size at 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are safety, immunological response, and quality of life. Safety will be

  19. The Paget Trial: A Multicenter, Observational Cohort Intervention Study for the Clinical Efficacy, Safety, and Immunological Response of Topical 5% Imiquimod Cream for Vulvar Paget Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meeuwis, Kim; van Hees, Colette; van Dorst, Eleonora; Bulten, Johan; Bosse, Tjalling; IntHout, Joanna; Boll, Dorry; Slangen, Brigitte; van Seters, Manon; van Beurden, Marc; van Poelgeest, Mariëtte; de Hullu, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Vulvar Paget disease is a rare skin disorder, which is most common in postmenopausal Caucasian women. They usually present with an erythematous plaque that may show fine or typical “cake icing” scaling or ulceration that may cause itching, pain, irritation, or a burning sensation. Although most cases are noninvasive, vulvar Paget disease may be invasive or associated with an underlying vulvar or distant adenocarcinoma. The histological evidence of so-called “Paget cells” with abundant pale cytoplasm in the epithelium confirms the diagnosis. The origin of these Paget cells is still unclear. Treatment of choice is wide local excision with negative margins. Obtaining clear surgical margins is challenging and may lead to extensive and mutilating surgery. Even then, recurrence rates are high, ranging from 15% to 70%, which emphasizes the need for new treatment options. A number of case reports, retrospective case series, and one observational study have shown promising results using the topical immune response modifier imiquimod. Objective This study aims to investigate the efficacy, safety, and immunological response in patients with noninvasive vulvar Paget disease using a standardized treatment schedule with 5% imiquimod cream. Methods Topical 5% imiquimod cream might be an effective and safe treatment alternative for vulvar Paget disease. The Paget Trial is a multicenter observational cohort study including eight tertiary referral hospitals in the Netherlands. It is ethically approved by the Medical-Ethical Committee of Arnhem-Nijmegen and registered in the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) Register by as NL51648.091.14. Twenty patients with (recurrent) noninvasive vulvar Paget disease will be treated with topical 5% imiquimod cream three times a week for 16 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome is the reduction in lesion size at 12 weeks after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are safety, immunological response, and

  20. A two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amland, Robert C; Lyons, Jason J; Greene, Tracy L; Haley, James M

    2015-10-01

    To examine the diagnostic accuracy of a two-stage clinical decision support system for early recognition and stratification of patients with sepsis. Observational cohort study employing a two-stage sepsis clinical decision support to recognise and stratify patients with sepsis. The stage one component was comprised of a cloud-based clinical decision support with 24/7 surveillance to detect patients at risk of sepsis. The cloud-based clinical decision support delivered notifications to the patients' designated nurse, who then electronically contacted a provider. The second stage component comprised a sepsis screening and stratification form integrated into the patient electronic health record, essentially an evidence-based decision aid, used by providers to assess patients at bedside. Urban, 284 acute bed community hospital in the USA; 16,000 hospitalisations annually. Data on 2620 adult patients were collected retrospectively in 2014 after the clinical decision support was implemented. 'Suspected infection' was the established gold standard to assess clinical decision support clinimetric performance. A sepsis alert activated on 417 (16%) of 2620 adult patients hospitalised. Applying 'suspected infection' as standard, the patient population characteristics showed 72% sensitivity and 73% positive predictive value. A postalert screening conducted by providers at bedside of 417 patients achieved 81% sensitivity and 94% positive predictive value. Providers documented against 89% patients with an alert activated by clinical decision support and completed 75% of bedside screening and stratification of patients with sepsis within one hour from notification. A clinical decision support binary alarm system with cross-checking functionality improves early recognition and facilitates stratification of patients with sepsis.

  1. Can virtual autopsy with postmortem CT improve clinical diagnosis of cause of death? A retrospective observational cohort study in a Dutch tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Sonnemans, Lianne J P; Kubat, Bela; Prokop, Mathias; Klein, Willemijn M

    2018-03-16

    To investigate whether virtual autopsy with postmortem CT (PMCT) improves clinical diagnosis of the immediate cause of death. Retrospective observational cohort study. inhospital and out-of-hospital deaths over the age of 1 year in whom virtual autopsy with PMCT and conventional autopsy were performed. forensic cases, postmortal organ donors and cases with incomplete scanning procedures. Cadavers were examined by virtual autopsy with PMCT prior to conventional autopsy. The clinically determined cause of death was recorded before virtual autopsy and was then adjusted with the findings of virtual autopsy. Using conventional autopsy as reference standard, we investigated the increase in sensitivity for immediate cause of death, type of pathology and anatomical system involved before and after virtual autopsy. Tertiary referral centre. 86 cadavers that underwent conventional and virtual autopsy between July 2012 and June 2016. PMCT consisted of brain, cervical spine and chest-abdomen-pelvis imaging. Conventional autopsy consisted of thoracoabdominal examination with/without brain autopsy. Increase in sensitivity for the immediate cause of death, type of pathology (infection, haemorrhage, perfusion disorder, other or not assigned) and anatomical system (pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, other or not assigned) involved, before and after virtual autopsy. Using PMCT, the sensitivity for immediate cause of death increased with 12% (95% CI 2% to 22%) from 53% (41% to 64%) to 64% (53% to 75%), with 18% (9% to 27%) from 65% (54% to 76%) to 83% (73% to 91%) for type of pathology and with 19% (9% to 30%) from 65% (54% to 76%) to 85% (75% to 92%) for anatomical system. While unenhanced PMCT is an insufficient substitute for conventional autopsy, it can improve diagnosis of cause of death over clinical diagnosis alone and should therefore be considered whenever autopsy is not performed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of

  2. Effectiveness and Value of Prophylactic 5-Layer Foam Sacral Dressings to Prevent Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injuries in Acute Care Hospitals: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Padula, William V

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and value of prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings to prevent hospital-acquired pressure injury rates in acute care settings. Retrospective observational cohort. We reviewed records of adult patients 18 years or older who were hospitalized at least 5 days across 38 acute care hospitals of the University Health System Consortium (UHC) and had a pressure injury as identified by Patient Safety Indicator #3 (PSI-03). All facilities are located in the United States. We collected longitudinal data pertaining to prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings purchased by hospital-quarter for 38 academic medical centers between 2010 and 2015. Longitudinal data on acute care, hospital-level patient outcomes (eg, admissions and PSI-03 and pressure injury rate) were queried through the UHC clinical database/resource manager from the Johns Hopkins Medicine portal. Data on volumes of dressings purchased per UHC hospital were merged with UHC data. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression was used to test the longitudinal association of prophylactic foam sacral dressings on pressure injury rates, adjusted for hospital case-mix and Medicare payments rules. Significant pressure injury rate reductions in US acute care hospitals between 2010 and 2015 were associated with the adoption of prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings within a prevention protocol (-1.0 cases/quarter; P = .002) and changes to Medicare payment rules in 2014 (-1.13 cases/quarter; P = .035). Prophylactic 5-layer foam sacral dressings are an effective component of a pressure injury prevention protocol. Hospitals adopting these technologies should expect good value for use of these products.

  3. Utility of prior cultures in predicting antibiotic resistance of bloodstream infections due to Gram-negative pathogens: a multicentre observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    MacFadden, D R; Coburn, B; Shah, N; Robicsek, A; Savage, R; Elligsen, M; Daneman, N

    2018-05-01

    Appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy in patients with bloodstream infections due to Gram-negative pathogens can improve outcomes. We evaluated the utility of prior microbiologic results for guiding empiric treatment in Gram-negative bloodstream infections. We conducted a multicentre observational cohort study in two large health systems in Canada and the United States, including 1832 hospitalized patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infection (community, hospital and intensive care unit acquired) from April 2010 to March 2015. Among 1832 patients with Gram-negative bloodstream infection, 28% (n = 504) of patients had a documented prior Gram-negative organism from a nonscreening culture within the previous 12 months. A most recent prior Gram-negative organism resistant to a given antibiotic was strongly predictive of the current organism's resistance to the same antibiotic. The overall specificity was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-0.93), and positive predictive value was 0.66 (95% CI 0.61-0.70) for predicting antibiotic resistance. Specificities and positive predictive values ranged from 0.77 to 0.98 and 0.43 to 0.78, respectively, across different antibiotics, organisms and patient subgroups. Increasing time between cultures was associated with a decrease in positive predictive value but not specificity. An heuristic based on a prior resistant Gram-negative pathogen could have been applied to one in four patients and in these patients would have changed therapy in one in five. In patients with a bloodstream infection with a Gram-negative organism, identification of a most recent prior Gram-negative organism resistant to a drug of interest (within the last 12 months) is highly specific for resistance and should preclude use of that antibiotic. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Media Coverage, Journal Press Releases and Editorials Associated with Randomized and Observational Studies in High-Impact Medical Journals: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Michael T. M.; Bolland, Mark J.; Gamble, Greg; Grey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Publication of clinical research findings in prominent journals influences health beliefs and medical practice, in part by engendering news coverage. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should be most influential in guiding clinical practice. We determined whether study design of clinical research published in high-impact journals influences media coverage. Methods and Findings We compared the incidence and amount of media coverage of RCTs with that of observational studies published in the top 7 medical journals between 1 January 2013 and 31 March 2013. We specifically assessed media coverage of the most rigorous RCTs, those with >1000 participants that reported ‘hard’ outcomes. There was no difference between RCTs and observational studies in coverage by major newspapers or news agencies, or in total number of news stories generated (all P>0.63). Large RCTs reporting ‘hard’ outcomes did not generate more news coverage than small RCTs that reported surrogate outcomes and observational studies (all P>0.32). RCTs were more likely than observational studies to attract a journal editorial (70% vs 46%, P = 0.003), but less likely to be the subject of a journal press release (17% vs 50%, P<0.001). Large RCTs that reported ‘hard’ outcomes did not attract an editorial more frequently than other studies (61% vs 58%, P>0.99), nor were they more likely to be the subject of a journal press release (14% vs 38%, P = 0.14). Conclusions The design of clinical studies whose results are published in high-impact medical journals is not associated with the likelihood or amount of ensuing news coverage. PMID:26701758

  5. Media Coverage, Journal Press Releases and Editorials Associated with Randomized and Observational Studies in High-Impact Medical Journals: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael T M; Bolland, Mark J; Gamble, Greg; Grey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Publication of clinical research findings in prominent journals influences health beliefs and medical practice, in part by engendering news coverage. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) should be most influential in guiding clinical practice. We determined whether study design of clinical research published in high-impact journals influences media coverage. We compared the incidence and amount of media coverage of RCTs with that of observational studies published in the top 7 medical journals between 1 January 2013 and 31 March 2013. We specifically assessed media coverage of the most rigorous RCTs, those with >1000 participants that reported 'hard' outcomes. There was no difference between RCTs and observational studies in coverage by major newspapers or news agencies, or in total number of news stories generated (all P>0.63). Large RCTs reporting 'hard' outcomes did not generate more news coverage than small RCTs that reported surrogate outcomes and observational studies (all P>0.32). RCTs were more likely than observational studies to attract a journal editorial (70% vs 46%, P = 0.003), but less likely to be the subject of a journal press release (17% vs 50%, P<0.001). Large RCTs that reported 'hard' outcomes did not attract an editorial more frequently than other studies (61% vs 58%, P>0.99), nor were they more likely to be the subject of a journal press release (14% vs 38%, P = 0.14). The design of clinical studies whose results are published in high-impact medical journals is not associated with the likelihood or amount of ensuing news coverage.

  6. Risk factors associated with incident sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database- a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen T; De La Mata, Nicole; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Foster, Rosalind; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    Background We established a sub-cohort of HIV positive individuals from ten sexual health clinics within the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). The aim of this paper was to assess demographic and other factors that might be associated with an incident sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods The cohort follow-up was from March 2010 to March 2013, and included patients screened at least once for an STI. We used survival methods to determine time-to first new and confirmed incident STI infection (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis or genital warts). Factors evaluated included sex, age, mode of HIV exposure, year of AHOD enrolment, hepatitis B or C coinfection, time-updated CD4 cell count, time-updated HIV RNA viral load, and prior STI diagnosis. Results There were 110 first incident STI diagnoses observed over 1015 person-years of follow-up, a crude rate of 10.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]:9.0-13.0) per 100 person-years. Factors independently associated with increased risk of incident STI included younger age (≥50 vs 30-39 years old, adjusted hazards ratio, [aHR]=0.4; 95% CI:0.2-0.8, p<0.0001); prior STI infection, (aHR=2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.8, p<0.001); and heterosexual vs men who have sex with men (MSM) as likely exposure (aHR=0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.6; p<0.001). Conclusions In this cohort of individuals being treated with anti-retroviral drugs (ARV), who are MSM, 30-39 years old, and with a prior history of STI, are at highest risk of a further STI diagnosis PMID:27019207

  7. Indicators of drug-seeking aberrant behaviours: the feasibility of use in observational post-marketing cohort studies for risk management.

    PubMed

    Layton, Deborah; Osborne, Vicki; Al-Shukri, Mohammad; Shakir, Saad A W

    2014-08-01

    Problematic prescription drug use is reflected by or associated with drug-seeking aberrant behaviours. Research gaps include lack of post-marketing evidence and instruments. As part of the pharmacovigilance requirements, a risk management plan was developed for fentanyl buccal tablets (FEBT) by the manufacturer, with an additional pharmacovigilance activity requested by the regulatory authority, to investigate the risks of misuse, abuse, criminal use, off-label use and accidental exposure to FEBT after the product became commercially available. A Modified Prescription-Event Monitoring (M-PEM), observational, post-authorisation safety surveillance (PASS) study was conducted, with an overall aim to examine the use of FEBT in relation to their safety as prescribed in primary care in England. One of the exploratory objectives included estimating the prevalence of aberrant behaviours during FEBT treatment. To determine the feasibility of estimating the prevalence of risk factors associated with dependence on starting treatment and aberrant behaviours in patients during treatment with a prototypical abuse liable substance (fentanyl), as based on the application of an existing index (the Chabal criteria). Data were collected as part of the M-PEM PASS study; exposure and outcome data (including risk factors for dependence and aberrant behaviours based on behavioural not clinical manifestations) were derived from questionnaires sent to primary care physicians in England during April 2008 to June 2011. For the exploratory objective of interest, descriptive statistics and simple (non-weighted) risk scores were constructed on aggregate counts (score ≥3 considered 'high-risk'). Supplementary analyses explored the relationship between the two indices and the characteristics of patients with aberrant behaviours and those without (crude odds ratios plus 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated). In a cohort of 551 patients, the prevalence of at least one pre-existing risk

  8. Impact of statin therapy on mortality in patients with sepsis-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) depends on ARDS severity: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Ashham; Steinau, Maximilian; Popov, Aron Frederik; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Bauer, Martin; Hinz, José

    2015-06-01

    Previous investigations have presumed a potential therapeutic effect of statin therapy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Statins are expected to attenuate inflammation in the lungs of patients with ARDS due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Clinical investigations of the role of statin therapy have revealed contradictory results. This study aimed to investigate whether pretreatment and continuous therapy with statins in patients with sepsis-associated ARDS are associated with 28-day survival according to disease severity (mild, moderate, or severe). Patients with sepsis-associated ARDS from the surgical intensive care were enrolled in this prospective observational investigation. ARDS was classified into three groups (mild, moderate, and severe); 28-day mortality was recorded as the primary outcome variable and organ failure was recorded as secondary outcome variable. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and the requirements for organ support were evaluated throughout the observational period to assess organ failure. 404 patients with sepsis-associated ARDS were enrolled in this investigation. The distribution of the ARDS subgroups was 13 %, 59 %, and 28 % for mild, moderate, and severe disease, respectively. Statin therapy improved 28-day survival exclusively in the patients with severe ARDS compared with patients without statin therapy (88.5 % and 62.5 %, respectively; P = 0.0193). To exclude the effects of several confounders, we performed multivariate Cox regression analysis, which showed that statin therapy remained a significant covariate for mortality (hazard ratio, 5.46; 95 % CI, 1.38-21.70; P = 0.0156). Moreover, after carrying a propensity score-matching in the severe ARDS cohort, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis confirmed the improved 28-day survival among patients with statin therapy (P = 0.0205). Patients with severe ARDS who received statin therapy had significantly more vasopressor-free days compared with those

  9. Determinants of antibody persistence across doses and continents after single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV vaccination for Ebola virus disease: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huttner, Angela; Agnandji, Selidji Todagbe; Combescure, Christophe; Fernandes, José F; Bache, Emmanuel Bache; Kabwende, Lumeka; Ndungu, Francis Maina; Brosnahan, Jessica; Monath, Thomas P; Lemaître, Barbara; Grillet, Stéphane; Botto, Miriam; Engler, Olivier; Portmann, Jasmine; Siegrist, Denise; Bejon, Philip; Silvera, Peter; Kremsner, Peter; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2018-04-04

    The recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vaccine expressing the Zaire Ebola virus (ZEBOV) glycoprotein is efficacious in the weeks following single-dose injection, but duration of immunity is unknown. We aimed to assess antibody persistence at 1 and 2 years in volunteers who received single-dose rVSV-ZEBOV in three previous trials. In this observational cohort study, we prospectively followed-up participants from the African and European phase 1 rVSV-ZEBOV trials, who were vaccinated once in 2014-15 with 300 000 (low dose) or 10-50 million (high dose) plaque-forming units (pfu) of rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine to assess ZEBOV glycoprotein (IgG) antibody persistence. The primary outcome was ZEBOV glycoprotein-specific IgG geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) measured yearly by ELISA compared with 1 month (ie, 28 days) after immunisation. We report GMCs up to 2 years (Geneva, Switzerland, including neutralising antibodies up to 6 months) and 1 year (Lambaréné, Gabon; Kilifi, Kenya) after vaccination and factors associated with higher antibody persistence beyond 6 months, according to multivariable analyses. Trials and the observational study were registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (Geneva: NCT02287480 and NCT02933931; Kilifi: NCT02296983) and the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry (Lambaréné PACTR201411000919191). Of 217 vaccinees from the original studies (102 from the Geneva study, 75 from the Lambaréné study, and 40 from the Kilifi study), 197 returned and provided samples at 1 year (95 from the Geneva study, 63 from the Lambaréné, and 39 from the Kilifi study) and 90 at 2 years (all from the Geneva study). In the Geneva group, 44 (100%) of 44 participants who had been given a high dose (ie, 10-50 million pfu) of vaccine and who were seropositive at day 28 remained seropositive at 2 years, whereas 33 (89%) of 37 who had been given the low dose (ie, 300 000 pfu) remained seropositive for 2 years (p=0·042). In participants who had received a high dose

  10. The Association between Serum Biomarkers and Disease Outcome in Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: Results of Two International Observational Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Richard T.; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcello H.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Wentworth, Deborah; Lane, H. Clifford; Dewar, Robin; Rupert, Adam; Metcalf, Julia A.; Pett, Sarah L.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Bruguera, Jose Maria; Angus, Brian; Cummins, Nathan; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment were analyzed in two international observational cohort studies. Methods Among patients with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, odds ratios (ORs) estimated by logistic regression were used to summarize the associations of biomarkers measured at enrollment with worsened disease outcome or death after 14 days of follow-up for those seeking outpatient care (FLU 002) or after 60 days for those hospitalized with influenza complications (FLU 003). Biomarkers that were significantly associated with progression in both studies (p<0.05) or only in one (p<0.002 after Bonferroni correction) were identified. Results In FLU 002 28/528 (5.3%) outpatients had influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection that progressed to a study endpoint of complications, hospitalization or death, whereas in FLU 003 28/170 (16.5%) inpatients enrolled from the general ward and 21/39 (53.8%) inpatients enrolled directly from the ICU experienced disease progression. Higher levels of 12 of the 25 markers were significantly associated with subsequent disease progression. Of these, 7 markers (IL-6, CD163, IL-10, LBP, IL-2, MCP-1, and IP-10), all with ORs for the 3rd versus 1st tertile of 2.5 or greater, were significant (p<0.05) in both outpatients and inpatients. In contrast, five markers (sICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-α, D-dimer, and sVCAM-1), all with ORs for the 3rd versus 1st tertile greater than 3.2, were significantly (p≤.002) associated with disease progression among hospitalized patients only. Conclusions In patients presenting with varying severities of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, a baseline elevation in several biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulation, or

  11. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vaughan-Williams, Charles H; Raman, Jaishree; Raswiswi, Eric; Immelman, Etienne; Reichel, Holger; Gate, Kelly; Knight, Steve

    2012-12-28

    Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1) gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N). Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK) at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt); three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study suggests lumefantrine resistance has yet to emerge in Kwa

  12. The association between serum biomarkers and disease outcome in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection: results of two international observational cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Davey, Richard T; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Losso, Marcello H; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Wentworth, Deborah; Lane, H Clifford; Dewar, Robin; Rupert, Adam; Metcalf, Julia A; Pett, Sarah L; Uyeki, Timothy M; Bruguera, Jose Maria; Angus, Brian; Cummins, Nathan; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D

    2013-01-01

    Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment were analyzed in two international observational cohort studies. Among patients with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, odds ratios (ORs) estimated by logistic regression were used to summarize the associations of biomarkers measured at enrollment with worsened disease outcome or death after 14 days of follow-up for those seeking outpatient care (FLU 002) or after 60 days for those hospitalized with influenza complications (FLU 003). Biomarkers that were significantly associated with progression in both studies (p<0.05) or only in one (p<0.002 after Bonferroni correction) were identified. In FLU 002 28/528 (5.3%) outpatients had influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection that progressed to a study endpoint of complications, hospitalization or death, whereas in FLU 003 28/170 (16.5%) inpatients enrolled from the general ward and 21/39 (53.8%) inpatients enrolled directly from the ICU experienced disease progression. Higher levels of 12 of the 25 markers were significantly associated with subsequent disease progression. Of these, 7 markers (IL-6, CD163, IL-10, LBP, IL-2, MCP-1, and IP-10), all with ORs for the 3(rd) versus 1(st) tertile of 2.5 or greater, were significant (p<0.05) in both outpatients and inpatients. In contrast, five markers (sICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-α, D-dimer, and sVCAM-1), all with ORs for the 3(rd) versus 1(st) tertile greater than 3.2, were significantly (p≤.002) associated with disease progression among hospitalized patients only. In patients presenting with varying severities of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, a baseline elevation in several biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulation, or immune function strongly predicted

  13. Assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent malaria epidemics in KwaZulu-Natal indicate that effective anti-malarial therapy is essential for malaria control. Although artemether-lumefantrine has been used as first-line treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in northern KwaZulu-Natal since 2001, its efficacy has not been assessed since 2002. The objectives of this study were to quantify the proportion of patients treated for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine who failed treatment after 28 days, and to determine the prevalence of molecular markers associated with artemether-lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Methods An observational cohort of 49 symptomatic patients, diagnosed with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria by rapid diagnostic test, had blood taken for malaria blood films and P. falciparum DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Following diagnosis, patients were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem®) and invited to return to the health facility after 28 days for repeat blood film and PCR. All PCR P. falciparum positive samples were analysed for molecular markers of lumefantrine and chloroquine resistance. Results Of 49 patients recruited on the basis of a positive rapid diagnostic test, only 16 were confirmed to have P. falciparum by PCR. At follow-up, 14 were PCR-negative for malaria, one was lost to follow-up and one blood specimen had insufficient blood for a PCR analysis. All 16 with PCR-confirmed malaria carried a single copy of the multi-drug resistant (mdr1) gene, and the wild type asparagine allele mdr1 codon 86 (mdr1 86N). Ten of the 16 samples carried the wild type haplotype (CVMNK) at codons 72-76 of the chloroquine resistance transporter gene (pfcrt); three samples carried the resistant CVIET allele; one carried both the resistant and wild type, and in two samples the allele could not be analysed. Conclusions The absence of mdr1 gene copy number variation detected in this study suggests lumefantrine

  14. Treatment and prognostic factors for long-term outcome in patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Titulaer, Maarten J; McCracken, Lindsey; Gabilondo, Iñigo; Armangué, Thaís; Glaser, Carol; Iizuka, Takahiro; Honig, Lawrence S; Benseler, Susanne M; Kawachi, Izumi; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Aguilar, Esther; Gresa-Arribas, Núria; Ryan-Florance, Nicole; Torrents, Abiguei; Saiz, Albert; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Graus, Francesc; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-02-01

    Anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disorder in which the use of immunotherapy and the long-term outcome have not been defined. We aimed to assess the presentation of the disease, the spectrum of symptoms, immunotherapies used, timing of improvement, and long-term outcome. In this multi-institutional observational study, we tested for the presence of NMDAR antibodies in serum or CSF samples of patients with encephalitis between Jan 1, 2007, and Jan 1, 2012. All patients who tested positive for NMDAR antibodies were included in the study; patients were assessed at symptom onset and at months 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24, by use of the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Treatment included first-line immunotherapy (steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis), second-line immunotherapy (rituximab, cyclophosphamide), and tumour removal. Predictors of outcome were determined at the Universities of Pennsylvania (PA, USA) and Barcelona (Spain) by use of a generalised linear mixed model with binary distribution. We enrolled 577 patients (median age 21 years, range 8 months to 85 years), 211 of whom were children (<18 years). Treatment effects and outcome were assessable in 501 (median follow-up 24 months, range 4-186): 472 (94%) underwent first-line immunotherapy or tumour removal, resulting in improvement within 4 weeks in 251 (53%). Of 221 patients who did not improve with first-line treatment, 125 (57%) received second-line immunotherapy that resulted in a better outcome (mRS 0-2) than those who did not (odds ratio [OR] 2·69, CI 1·24-5·80; p=0·012). During the first 24 months, 394 of 501 patients achieved a good outcome (mRS 0-2; median 6 months, IQR 2-12) and 30 died. At 24 months' follow-up, 203 (81%) of 252 patients had good outcome. Outcomes continued to improve for up to 18 months after symptom onset. Predictors of good outcome were early treatment (0·62, 0·50-0·76; p<0·0001) and no admission to an intensive care unit (0·12, 0·06-0·22; p

  15. High Rates of Sexually transmitted infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database - a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Read, Phillip; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) may directly increase the risk of HIV infection, or may indicate sexual practices that increase the risk of HIV infection. In persons with HIV they probably also increase the infectiousness of HIV, even in the context of treatment with antiretroviral drugs (ARV). Estimating STI in this group has proved problematic, and there are few longitudinal studies able to accurately measure incidence. Methods In 2010, we established a cohort of individuals from ten widely dispersed sexual health clinics that were already enrolled in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). We calculated retrospective diagnosis rates for four STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, infectious syphilis, anogenital warts) from 2005-2010, and prospective incidence rates from 2010-2011. Results At baseline (2010) , the patient characteristics (n=554) were similar to the rest of AHOD (n=1767), namely they were predominantly male, homosexual, middle-aged, and pre- treated with ARV. Overall, the incidence of any STI was 12.5/100 person years (py). There was a gradual increase in chlamydial infections , from 3.4/100 py (95% CI 1.9-5.7) in 2005 to 6.7/100py (95% CI 4.5-9.5) in 2011, with a substantial peak of 8.1/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2) in 2010. The cases were distributed between rectal ( 61.9%), urethral (34%), and pharyngeal (6.3%) sites. Similarly, gonococcal infections increased, with a peak in 2010 of 4.7/100py (95% CI 5.6-11.2), (p value for trend=0.0099), distributed between rectal (63.9%), urethral (27.9%), and pharyngeal (14.8%) sites. Infectious syphilis showed several peaks, the largest in 2008 (5.3/100py , (95% CI 3.3-8.0), but the overall trend was not significant (p=0.113). Diagnoses of genital warts declined from 7.5/100py (95% CI 4.8-11.3) in 2005 (95% CI 4.8-11.3) to 2.4/100py (95% CI 1.1-4.5) in 2011 (p value for trend=0.0016). Conclusions The incidence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in this cohort was higher than previous

  16. Durability of viral suppression with first-line antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV in the UK: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Jemma; Smith, Colette; Lampe, Fiona C; Johnson, Margaret A; Chadwick, David R; Nelson, Mark; Dunn, David; Winston, Alan; Post, Frank A; Sabin, Caroline; Phillips, Andrew N

    2017-07-01

    The length of time that people with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with viral load suppression will be able to continue before developing viral rebound is unknown. We aimed to investigate the rate of first viral rebound in people that have achieved initial suppression with ART, to determine factors associated with viral rebound, and to use these estimates to predict long-term durability of viral suppression. The UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) Study is an ongoing multicentre cohort study that brings together in a standardised format data on people with HIV attending clinics around the UK. We included participants who started ART with three or more drugs and who had achieved viral suppression (≤50 copies per mL) by 9 months after the start of ART (baseline). Viral rebound was defined as the first single viral load of more than 200 copies per mL or treatment interruption (for ≥1 month). We investigated factors associated with viral rebound with Poisson regression. These results were used to calculate the rate of viral rebound according to several key factors, including age, calendar year at start of ART, and time since baseline. Of the 16 101 people included, 4519 had a first viral rebound over 58 038 person-years (7·8 per 100 person-years, 95% CI 7·6-8·0). Of the 4519 viral rebounds, 3105 (69%) were defined by measurement of a single viral load of more than 200 copies per mL, and 1414 (31%) by a documented treatment interruption. The rate of first viral rebound declined substantially over time until 7 years from baseline. The other factors associated with viral rebound were current age at follow-up and calendar year at ART initiation (p<0·0001) and HIV risk group (p<0·0001); higher pre-ART CD4 count (p=0·0008) and pre-ART viral load (p=0·0003) were associated with viral rebound in the multivariate analysis only. For 1322 (29%) of the 3105 people with observed viral rebound, the next viral load value after rebound was 50 copies per mL or

  17. Implications of insecticide resistance for malaria vector control with long-lasting insecticidal nets: a WHO-coordinated, prospective, international, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Immo; Bradley, John; Knox, Tessa Bellamy; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kafy, Hmooda Toto; Mbogo, Charles; Ismail, Bashir Adam; Bigoga, Jude D; Adechoubou, Alioun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Cook, Jackie; Malik, Elfatih M; Nkuni, Zinga José; Macdonald, Michael; Bayoh, Nabie; Ochomo, Eric; Fondjo, Etienne; Awono-Ambene, Herman Parfait; Etang, Josiane; Akogbeto, Martin; Bhatt, Rajendra M; Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Swain, Dipak K; Kinyari, Teresa; Subramaniam, Krishanthi; Massougbodji, Achille; Okê-Sopoh, Mariam; Ogouyemi-Hounto, Aurore; Kouambeng, Celestin; Abdin, Mujahid Sheikhedin; West, Philippa; Elmardi, Khalid; Cornelie, Sylvie; Corbel, Vincent; Valecha, Neena; Mathenge, Evan; Kamau, Luna; Lines, Jonathan; Donnelly, Martin James

    2018-04-09

    Scale-up of insecticide-based interventions has averted more than 500 million malaria cases since 2000. Increasing insecticide resistance could herald a rebound in disease and mortality. We aimed to investigate whether insecticide resistance was associated with loss of effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets and increased malaria disease burden. This WHO-coordinated, prospective, observational cohort study was done at 279 clusters (villages or groups of villages in which phenotypic resistance was measurable) in Benin, Cameroon, India, Kenya, and Sudan. Pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets were the principal form of malaria vector control in all study areas; in Sudan this approach was supplemented by indoor residual spraying. Cohorts of children from randomly selected households in each cluster were recruited and followed up by community health workers to measure incidence of clinical malaria and prevalence of infection. Mosquitoes were assessed for susceptibility to pyrethroids using the standard WHO bioassay test. Country-specific results were combined using meta-analysis. Between June 2, 2012, and Nov 4, 2016, 40 000 children were enrolled and assessed for clinical incidence during 1·4 million follow-up visits. 80 000 mosquitoes were assessed for insecticide resistance. Long-lasting insecticidal net users had lower infection prevalence (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·63, 95% CI 0·51-0·78) and disease incidence (adjusted rate ratio [RR] 0·62, 0·41-0·94) than did non-users across a range of resistance levels. We found no evidence of an association between insecticide resistance and infection prevalence (adjusted OR 0·86, 0·70-1·06) or incidence (adjusted RR 0·89, 0·72-1·10). Users of nets, although significantly better protected than non-users, were nevertheless subject to high malaria infection risk (ranging from an average incidence in net users of 0·023, [95% CI 0·016-0·033] per person-year in India, to 0·80 [0·65-0·97] per person

  18. Use of CPAP to reduce arterial stiffness in moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea, without excessive daytime sleepiness (STIFFSLEEP): an observational cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Mineiro, Maria Alexandra; Marques da Silva, Pedro; Alves, Marta; Virella, Daniel; Marques Gomes, Maria João; Cardoso, João

    2016-07-12

    Sleepiness is a cardinal symptom in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) but most patients have unspecific symptoms. Arterial stiffness, evaluated by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Arterial stiffness was reported to be higher in patients with OSA, improving after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). This study aims to assess whether the same effect occurs in patients with OSA and without sleepiness. This observational study assesses the CV effect of CPAP therapy on a cohort of patients with moderate-to-severe OSA; the effect on the subcohorts of sleepy and non-sleepy patients will be compared. A systematic and consecutive sample of patients advised CPAP therapy will be recruited from a single outpatient sleep clinic (Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central-CHLC, Portugal). Eligible patients are male, younger than 65 years, with confirmed moderate-to-severe OSA and apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) above 15/hour. Other sleep disorders, diabetes or any CV disease other than hypertension are exclusion criteria. Clinical evaluation at baseline includes Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and sleepiness is defined as ESS above 10. OSA will be confirmed by polygraphic study (cardiorespiratory, level 3). Participants are advised to undertake an assessment of carotid-femoral PWV (cf-PWV) and 24 hours evaluation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), at baseline and after 4 months of CPAP therapy. Compliance and effectiveness of CPAP will be assessed. The main outcome is the variation of cf-PWV over time. This protocol was approved by the Ethics Committees of CHLC (reference number 84/2012) and NOVA Medical School (number36/2014/CEFCM), Lisbon. Informed, written consent will be obtained. Its results will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. NCT02273089; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  19. Nutritional Status Changes and Activities of Daily Living after Hip Fracture in Convalescent Rehabilitation Units: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Momosaki, Ryo

    2018-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that malnutrition impedes functional recovery in patients with hip fracture, but there are few reports on improvement in nutritional status and return to activities of daily living (ADL) in these patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in nutritional status and recovery of ADL in malnourished patients after hip fracture and to identify predictors of functional recovery among the characteristic features of undernutrition. This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Data for patients aged ≥65 years with hip fracture and malnutrition (Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form [MNA-SF] score ≤7) at the time of admission to convalescent rehabilitation units were obtained from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database between November 2015 and August 2017. The main outcome measures were Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge and the proportion of patients discharged home. Patients were divided into two groups based on MNA-SF scores at discharge: improvement in nutritional status (>7, IN group) and non-improvement in nutritional status (≤7, NN group). Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between the groups. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounders including age, sex, comorbidity, pre-fracture ADL level, and FIM score on admission. Of 876 patients, 110 met the eligibility criteria (mean age, 85 years; 78.2% female); 77 of the patients were assigned to the IN group and 33 to the NN group. The patients in the IN group were younger and had higher FIM and MNA-SF scores on admission than those in the NN group. At discharge, the median FIM score was significantly higher in the IN group than in the NN group (110 vs 83, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed a significant association between improvement in nutritional status and higher FIM score at discharge (B=7.377 [B=partial regression coefficient], P=0.036) but no association with

  20. Long-term mortality after community-acquired pneumonia--impacts of diabetes and newly discovered hyperglycaemia: a prospective, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Heikki O; Salonen, Päivi H; Romppanen, Jarkko; Niskanen, Leo

    2014-08-21

    Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with a significant long-term mortality after initial recovery. It has been acknowledged that additional research is urgently needed to examine the contributors to this long-term mortality. The objective of the present study was to assess whether diabetes or newly discovered hyperglycaemia during pneumonia affects long-term mortality. A prospective, observational cohort study. A single secondary centre in eastern Finland. 153 consecutive hospitalised patients who survived at least 30 days after mild-to-moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Plasma glucose levels were recorded seven times during the first day on the ward. Several possible confounders were also recorded. The surveillance status and causes of death were recorded after median of 5 years and 11 months. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, a previous diagnosis of diabetes among the whole population (adjusted HR 2.84 (1.35-5.99)) and new postprandial hyperglycaemia among the non-diabetic population (adjusted HR 2.56 (1.04-6.32)) showed independent associations with late mortality. New fasting hyperglycaemia was not an independent predictor. The mortality rates at the end of follow-up were 54%, 37% and 10% among patients with diabetes, patients without diabetes with new postprandial hyperglycaemia and patients without diabetes without postprandial hyperglycaemia, respectively (p<0.001). The underlying causes of death roughly mirrored those in the Finnish general population with a slight excess in mortality due to chronic respiratory diseases. Pneumonia was the immediate cause of death in just 8% of all late deaths. A previous diagnosis of diabetes and newly discovered postprandial hyperglycaemia increase the risk of death for several years after community-acquired pneumonia. As the knowledge about patient subgroups with an increased late mortality risk is gradually gathering, more studies are needed to evaluate the possible postpneumonia interventions to

  1. Determination of the best method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine in adult patients with sickle cell disease: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Arlet, Jean-Benoît; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Chatellier, Gilles; Eladari, Dominique; De Seigneux, Sophie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Friedlander, Gérard; de Montalembert, Marianne; Pouchot, Jacques; Prié, Dominique; Courbebaisse, Marie

    2012-08-06

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) leads to tissue hypoxia resulting in chronic organ dysfunction including SCD associated nephropathy. The goal of our study was to determine the best equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in SCD adult patients. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study. Since 2007, all adult SCD patients in steady state, followed in two medical departments, have had their GFR measured using iohexol plasma clearance (gold standard). The Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD-v4, CKP-EPI and finally, MDRD and CKD-EPI equations without adjustment for ethnicity were tested to estimate GFR from serum creatinine. Estimated GFRs were compared to measured GFRs according to the graphical Bland and Altman method. Sixty-four SCD patients (16 men, median age 27.5 years [range 18.0-67.5], 41 with SS-genotype were studied. They were Sub-Saharan Africa and French West Indies natives and predominantly lean (median body mass index: 22 kg/m2 [16-33]). Hyperfiltration (defined as measured GFR >110 mL/min/1.73 m2) was detected in 53.1% of patients. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was higher in patients with hyperfiltration than in patients with normal GFR (4.05 mg/mmol [0.14-60] versus 0.4 mg/mmol [0.7-81], p = 0.01). The CKD-EPI equation without adjustment for ethnicity had both the lowest bias and the greatest precision. Differences between estimated GFRs using the CKP-EPI equation and measured GFRs decreased with increasing GFR values, whereas it increased with the Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD-v4 equations. We confirm that SCD patients have a high rate of glomerular hyperfiltration, which is frequently associated with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. In non-Afro-American SCD patients, the best method for estimating GFR from serum creatinine is the CKD-EPI equation without adjustment for ethnicity. This equation is particularly accurate to estimate high GFR values, including glomerular hyperfiltration, and thus should be recommended to screen SCD adult patients

  2. Effects of CYP4F2 polymorphism on response to warfarin during induction phase: a prospective, open-label, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bejarano-Achache, Idit; Levy, Liran; Mlynarsky, Liat; Bialer, Meir; Muszkat, Mordechai; Caraco, Yoseph

    2012-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) 4F2 isozyme has been reported to metabolize vitamin K(1) in vitro, and the V433M polymorphism in the CYP4F2 gene has been associated with reduced vitamin K(1) metabolism and the need for a higher maintenance dosage in patients receiving warfarin. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of V433M polymorphism on warfarin response during the induction phase. Warfarin-naive white patients in whom warfarin was scheduled to be initiated with a target INR of 2 to 3 were enrolled into the study. On enrollment, a single blood sample for the genotyping of CYP4F2, CYP2C9, and VKORC1 was drawn. The international normalized ratio (INR) was followed daily during induction and twice weekly until stable anticoagulation was reached. The relationships between several markers of warfarin response during induction and CYP4F2 polymorphism were determined. The cohort consisted of 241 patients (115 men; mean [SD] age, 55.2 [19.4] years; weight, 79.5 [18.3] kg). Most of the patients were carriers of the CYP4F2 CC genotype (112 patients) or the CT genotype (104 patients). In carriers of the TT genotype (25 patients), INR >3 was >4-fold lower compared with that in carriers of the CC or CT genotype, suggesting that patients with the TT genotype were less sensitive to warfarin during induction. Also in TT carriers, the extent of excessive anticoagulation was >10-fold lower than in the other carriers. Both of these findings had a nominal P value of <0.05. After adjustment for false discovery rate, none of the findings remained significant at a threshold q value of <0.05. Among CC carriers, the concurrent use of a statin was associated with a 1-mg/d reduction in warfarin maintenance dosage. No similar effect was noted in the CT or TT carriers, suggesting a possible genetic influence on warfarin-statin interaction. These preliminary findings suggest that among white patients treated with warfarin, CYP4F2 polymorphism had a measurable effect on

  3. Comparison of success criteria based on long-term symptoms and new-onset hypertension in mandibular advancement device treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wee, Jee Hye; Lim, Jae Hyun; Gelera, January E; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2018-05-08

    To identify adequate criteria to determine the success or failure of mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) based on long-term symptoms and new-onset hypertension. Observational cohort study. A tertiary care hospital setting in South Korea. Patients (age >18 years) who were diagnosed with OSA by a polysomnography (PSG) or Watch peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and who had been treated with MAD between January 2007 and December 2014 were enrolled. Patients underwent PSG or Watch PAT twice; before and 3 months after the application of MAD. The patients were categorised into success and failure groups using seven different criteria. MAD compliance, witnessed apnoea and snoring, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score and occurrence of new-onset hypertension were surveyed via telephonic interview to determine the criteria that could identify success and failure of MAD. A total of 97 patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 60.5 months, and the mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was 35.5/hour. Two of the seven criteria could significantly differentiate the success and failure groups based on long-term symptoms, including (1) AHI<10/hour with MAD and (2) AHI<10/hour and AHI reduction of >50% with MAD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that one criterion of AHI<15/hour with MAD could differentiate the success and failure groups based on new-onset hypertension (p=0.035). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the cut-off AHI for new-onset hypertension was 16.8/hour (71.4% sensitivity and 75.0% specificity). Our long-term follow-up survey for symptoms and new-onset hypertension suggested that some of the polysomnographic success criteria, that is, AHI<10/hour with MAD, AHI<10/hour and AHI reduction of >50% with MAD and AHI<15/hour with MAD may be useful in distinguishing the success group from failure one. Further prospective longitudinal studies are warranted to validate these criteria.

  4. Historic cohort study in Montreal's fur industry.

    PubMed

    Guay, D; Siemiatycki, J

    1987-01-01

    A historic cohort mortality study was carried out among two groups of male workers in the Montreal fur industry: 263 dressers and dyers and 599 fur garment manufacturers. The first group is exposed to a very wide variety of chemicals used in tanning, cleaning, and dyeing fur, including substances considered to be carcinogenic and/or mutagenic. The second group is exposed to residue from the dressing and dyeing stage and to respirable fur dust. The cohorts consisted of all active members of two unions as of January 1, 1966. The mean age of the workers was 43.2 and the mean number of years since first employment 14.1. The follow-up period was from January 1, 1966, to December 31, 1981; 95% of the workers were successfully traced. Observed deaths were compared with those expected based on mortality rates of the population of metropolitan Montreal. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for the manufacturers were significantly low, probably because of the ethnic composition of the cohort and a healthy worker effect. SMRs for the dressers and dyers were also low, but not as low as for the manufacturers. When attention was restricted to the French Canadians in the cohort, the observed deaths were close to the expected; there was a noteworthy excess of colorectal cancer (four observed, 0.8 expected) for dressers and dyers. Apart from this weak suggestive evidence, the results did not indicate any excess mortality risks in the fur industry. However, because of the relatively small number of expected and observed deaths in the cohort and especially among the heavily exposed dressers and dyers, the confidence intervals around SMR estimates were wide and excess risks cannot be ruled out.

  5. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children’s neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  6. Moving a randomized clinical trial into an observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Phyllis J; Hartline, Jo Ann; Tangen, Catherine M; Crowley, John J; Minasian, Lori M; Klein, Eric A; Cook, Elise D; Darke, Amy K; Arnold, Kathryn B; Anderson, Karen; Yee, Monica; Meyskens, Frank L; Baker, Laurence H

    2013-02-01

    The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prostate cancer prevention study funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and conducted by the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). A total of 35,533 men were assigned randomly to one of the four treatment groups (vitamin E + placebo, selenium + placebo, vitamin E + selenium, and placebo + placebo). The independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC) recommended the discontinuation of study supplements because of the lack of efficacy for risk reduction and because futility analyses demonstrated no possibility of benefit of the supplements to the anticipated degree (25% reduction in prostate cancer incidence) with additional follow-up. Study leadership agreed that the randomized trial should be terminated but believed that the cohort should be maintained and followed as the additional follow-up would contribute important information to the understanding of the biologic consequences of the intervention. Since the participants no longer needed to be seen in person to assess acute toxicities or to be given study supplements, it was determined that the most efficient and cost-effective way to follow them was via a central coordinated effort. A number of changes were necessary at the local Study Sites and SELECT Statistical Center to transition to following participants via a Central Coordinating Center. We describe the transition process from a randomized clinical trial to the observational Centralized Follow-Up (CFU) study. The process of transitioning SELECT, implemented at more than 400 Study Sites across the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico, entailed many critical decisions and actions including updates to online documents such as the SELECT Workbench and Study Manual, a protocol amendment, reorganization of the Statistical Center, creation of a Transition Committee, development of materials for SELECT Study Sites, development of procedures

  7. Moving a Randomized Clinical Trial into an Observational Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hartline, Jo Ann; Tangen, Catherine M.; Crowley, John J.; Minasian, Lori M.; Klein, Eric A.; Cook, Elise D.; Darke, Amy K.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Anderson, Karen; Yee, Monica; Meyskens, Frank L.; Baker, Laurence H.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled prostate cancer prevention study funded by the National Cancer Institute and conducted by SWOG (Southwest Oncology Group). A total of 35,533 men were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (vitamin E + placebo, selenium + placebo, vitamin E + selenium, placebo + placebo. The independent Data and Safety Monitoring Committee recommended the discontinuation of study supplements because of the lack of efficacy for risk reduction and because futility analyses demonstrated no possibility of benefit of the supplements to the anticipated degree (25% reduction in prostate cancer incidence) with additional follow-up. Study leadership agreed that the randomized trial should be terminated but believed that the cohort should be maintained and followed as the additional follow-up would contribute important information to the understanding of the biologic consequences of the intervention. Since the participants no longer needed to be seen in person to assess acute toxicities or to be given study supplements, it was determined that the most efficient and cost-effective way to follow them was via a central coordinated effort. Purpose A number of changes were necessary at the local Study Sites and SELECT Statistical Center to transition to following participants via a Central Coordinating Center. We describe the transition process from a randomized clinical trial to the observational Centralized Follow-up (CFU) study. Methods The process of transitioning SELECT, implemented at more than 400 Study Sites across the United States, Canada and Puerto Rico, entailed many critical decisions and actions including updates to online documents such as the SELECT Workbench and Study Manual, a protocol amendment, reorganization of the Statistical Center, creation of a Transition Committee, development of materials for SELECT Study Sites, development of procedures

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of a Web-Based Psychological Screening Tool in Adolescents Undergoing Minimally Invasive Pectus Surgery: Single-Center Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wildemeersch, Davina; Bernaerts, Lisa; D'Hondt, Michiel; Hans, Guy

    2018-05-31

    Preoperative anxiety and depression are predominant risk factors for increased postoperative pain. Thoracic wall deformities in adolescents often cause low self-esteem, which contributes to psychological concerns. Several studies have suggested a relationship between preoperative mental health support and enhanced recovery after surgery. This study investigated the validity of screening questionnaires concerning psychological trait and state characteristics via a patient-specific online platform. Patients scheduled for elective pectus surgery between June 2017 and August 2017 were invited to participate in clinical interviews and online self-report questionnaires. All patients were recruited in the Anesthesiology Department, Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium. This single-center observational cohort study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of the International Council for Harmonisation-Good Clinical Practice guidelines and the Declaration of Helsinki after obtaining study approval by the Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee of the Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium (study identifier: 17/08/082). An online preoperative psychological inventory was performed using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Postoperatively, pain intensity and interference were assessed using the Multidisciplinary Pain Inventory, Coping With Pain Questionnaire, and numeric pain rating scale assessment. Patient satisfaction of the Web-based platform was evaluated. A total of 21 adolescent patients used our Web-based psychological perioperative screening platform. Patients rated the mobile phone app, usability, and accessibility of the digital platform as good or excellent in 85% (17/20), 89% (17/19), and 95% (20/21) of the cases, respectively. A total of 89% (17/19) of the patients rated the effort of generating answers to the online questionnaires as low. The results from the completed

  9. PRospective Observational POLIsh Study on post-stroke delirium (PROPOLIS): methodology of hospital-based cohort study on delirium prevalence, predictors and diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Klimiec, Elzbieta; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Kowalska, Katarzyna; Szyper, Aleksandra; Pera, Joanna; Potoczek, Paulina; Slowik, Agnieszka; Klimkowicz-Mrowiec, Aleksandra

    2015-06-19

    Between 10 % to 48 % of patients develop delirium in acute phase of stroke. Delirium determinants and its association with other neuropsychiatric disturbances in stroke are poorly understood. The wildly accepted predictive model of post-stroke delirium is still lacking. This is a prospective, observational, single-center study in patients with acute phase of stroke. We aim to include 750 patients ≥18 years with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack admitted to the stroke unit within 48 hours after stroke onset. The goals of the study are: 1) to determine frequency of delirium and subsyndromal delirium in Polish stroke patients within 7 days after admission to the hospital; 2) to determine factors associated with incidence, severity and duration of delirium and subsyndromal delirium and to create a predictive model for post-stroke delirium; 3) to determine the association between delirium and its cognitive, psychiatric, behavioral and functional short and long-term consequences; 4) to validate scales used for delirium diagnosis in stroke population. Patients will be screened for delirium on daily basis. The diagnosis of delirium will be based on DSM-V criteria. Abbreviated version of Confusion Assessment Method and Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit will be used for delirium and sub-delirium screening. Severity of delirium symptoms will be assessed by Delirium Rating Scale Revised 98 and Cognitive Test for Delirium. Patients who survive will undergo extensive neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric and functional assessment 3 and 12 months after the stroke. This study is designed to provide information on clinical manifestation, diagnostic methods and determinants of delirium spectrum disorders in acute stroke phase and their short and long-term consequences. Collected information allow us to create a predictive model for post-stroke delirium.

  10. Incidence of infection following internal fixation of open and closed tibia fractures in India (INFINITI): a multi-centre observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Prakash; Gopalan, Hitesh; Sprague, Sheila; Pradhan, Chetan; Kulkarni, Sunil; Bhandari, Mohit

    2017-04-14

    Trauma is a major public health problem, particularly in India due to the country's rapid urbanization. Tibia fractures are a common and often complicated injury that is at risk of infection following surgical fixation. The primary objectives of this cohort study were to determine the incidence of infection within one year of surgery and to describe the distribution of infections by location and time of diagnosis for tibia fractures in India. We conducted a multi-center, prospective cohort study. Patients who presented with an open or closed tibia fracture treated with internal fixation to one of the participating hospitals in India were invited to participate in the study. Participants attended follow-up visits at 3, 6, and 12 months post-surgery, where they were assessed for infections, fracture healing, and health-related quality of life as measured by the EurQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D). Seven hundred eighty-seven participants were included in the study and 768 participants completed the 12 month follow-up. The overall incidence of infection was 2.9% (23 infections). The incidence of infection was 1.6% (10 infections) in closed and 8.0% (13 infections) in open fractures. There were 7 deep and 16 superficial infections, with 5 being early, 7 being delayed, and 11 being late infections. Intra-operative antibiotics were given to 92.1% of participants and post-operative antibiotics were given to 96.8% of participants. Antibiotics were prescribed for an average of 8.3 days for closed fractures and 9.1 days for open fractures. Infected fractures took significantly longer to heal, and participants who had an infection had significantly lower EQ-5D scores. The incidence of infection within this cohort is similar to those seen in developed countries. The duration of prophylactic antibiotic use was longer than standard practice in North America, raising concern for the potential development of antibiotic resistant microbes within Indian orthopaedic settings. Future

  11. Impact of the Adalimumab Patient Support Program's Care Coach Calls on Persistence and Adherence in Canada: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John K; Bessette, Louis; Thorne, Carter; Shear, Neil H; Lebovic, Gerald; Gerega, Sebastien K; Millson, Brad; Oraichi, Driss; Gaetano, Tania; Gazel, Sandra; Latour, Martin G; Laliberté, Marie-Claude

    2018-03-01

    Adalimumab (ADA) is a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor indicated for use in various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Patients receiving ADA in Canada are eligible to enroll in the AbbVie Care's Patient Support Program (PSP), which provides personalized services, including tailored interventions in the form of nurse-provided care coach calls (CCCs), with the goal of improving patients' experiences and outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PSP services, including CCCs and patient characteristics, on persistence with and adherence to ADA for those patients enrolled in the PSP. A secondary objective was to estimate the effect of initial CCCs on treatment-initiation abandonment (ie, failure to initiate therapy after enrollment in the PSP). An observational retrospective cohort study was conducted. A patient linkage algorithm based on probabilistic matching was developed to link the AbbVie Care PSP database to the QuintilesIMS longitudinal pharmacy transaction database. Patients who started ADA therapy between July 2010 and August 2014 were selected, and their prescriptions were evaluated for 12 months after the date of ADA start to calculate days until drug discontinuation, that is, the end of persistence, defined as >90 days without therapy. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used for estimating hazard ratios for the association between persistence and patient characteristics and each PSP service. Adherence, measured by medication possession ratio, was calculated, and multivariate logistic regression provided adjusted odds ratios for the relationship between being adherent (medication possession ratio ≥80%) and patient characteristics and each PSP service. Treatment-initiation abandonment among patients who received an initial CCC compared with those who did not was analyzed using the χ 2 test. Analysis of 10,857 linked patients yielded statistically significant differences in the hazard ratio of discontinuation and

  12. Temporal associations between national outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup W and C disease in the Netherlands and England: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Knol, Mirjam J; Hahné, Susan J M; Lucidarme, Jay; Campbell, Helen; de Melker, Hester E; Gray, Stephen J; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary E; van der Ende, Arie

    2017-10-01

    Since 2009, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease has increased rapidly in the UK because of a single strain (the so-called original UK strain) belonging to the hypervirulent sequence type-11 clonal complex (cc11), with a variant outbreak strain (the so-called 2013 strain) emerging in 2013. Subsequently, the Netherlands has had an increase in the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease. We assessed the temporal and phylogenetic associations between the serogroup W outbreaks in the Netherlands and England, and the historical serogroup C outbreaks in both countries. For this observational cohort study, we used national surveillance data for meningococcal serogroup W and serogroup C disease in the Netherlands and England for the epidemiological years (July to June) 1992-93 to 2015-16. We also did whole genome sequencing and core genome multilocus sequence typing (1546 loci) on serogroup W disease isolates from both countries for surveillance years 2008-09 to 2015-16. We used Poisson regression to compare the annual relative increase in the incidence of serogroup W and serogroup C between both countries. In the Netherlands, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease increased substantially in 2015-16 compared with 2014-15, with an incidence rate ratio of 5·2 (95% CI 2·0-13·5) and 11% case fatality. In England, the incidence increased substantially in 2012-13 compared with 2011-12, with an incidence rate ratio of 1·8 (1·2-2·8). The relative increase in the Netherlands from 2014-15 to 2015-16 was 418% (95% CI 99-1248), which was significantly higher than the annual relative increase of 79% (61-99) per year in England from 2011-12 to 2014-15 (p=0·03). Cases due to meningococcal serogroup W cc11 (MenW:cc11) emerged in 2012-13 in the Netherlands. Of 29 MenW:cc11 cases found up to 2015-16, 26 (90%) were caused by the 2013 strain. For both the current serogroup W outbreak and the historical serogroup C outbreak, the increase in incidence

  13. What could we learn from the sub-analysis of a single nation cohort in a worldwide study? Lessons from the results observed in the Italian cohort of the GO-MORE trial.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, Roberto; Ruscitti, Piero; Bombardieri, Stefano; Cuomo, Giovanna; De Vita, Salvatore; Galeazzi, Mauro; Mecchia, Monica

    2017-01-01

    GO-MORE Trial investigated the use of Golimumab (GLM) in 3280 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients worldwide. At present, the burden of arthritis is greater in poorer countries than in developed countries due to socioeconomic disparities, thus suggesting the usefulness of subgroup investigations. We aimed to evaluate GLM as add-on therapy for RA patients in the Italian cohort of GO-MORE trial and compared the clinical characteristics between Italian patients and the enrolled patients worldwide. Ninety-eight Italian patients with active RA, fulfilling the 1987 ACR criteria were enrolled. Statistical analyses were performed to assess: i. the differences in baseline characteristics; ii. the efficacy after 6 months; between Italian and Rest of the World GO-MORE populations. Compared to the worldwide population, Italian patients showed a lower value of disease activity and a significantly short disease duration. Unlike the worldwide patients, the large majority of Italian patients received biologic therapy after the failure of the first synthetic DMARD and were not treated by high methotrexate dosage. After 6 months of GLM treatment, no differences were observed in the therapeutic response. Italian patients reported a positive autoinjection experience mirroring the worldwide results. The analysis of the Italian GO-MORE subset confirms that differences among patients may be shown, depending on different approaches in different health systems. GLM in the Italian patients showed a favourable benefit/risk profile and the positive autoinjection experience may help with patient's compliance and survival of the treatment.

  14. Determining Surgical Complications in the Overweight (DISCOVER): a multicentre observational cohort study to evaluate the role of obesity as a risk factor for postoperative complications in general surgery.

    PubMed

    Nepogodiev, Dmitri; Chapman, Stephen J; Glasbey, James; Kelly, Michael; Khatri, Chetan; Drake, Thomas M; Kong, Chia Yew; Mitchell, Harriet; Harrison, Ewen M; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Bhangu, Aneel

    2015-07-20

    Obesity is increasingly prevalent among patients undergoing surgery. Conflicting evidence exists regarding the impact of obesity on postoperative complications. This multicentre study aims to determine whether obesity is associated with increased postoperative complications following general surgery. This prospective, multicentre cohort study will be performed utilising a collaborative methodology. Consecutive adults undergoing open or laparoscopic, elective or emergency, gastrointestinal, bariatric or hepatobiliary surgery will be included. Day case patients will be excluded. The primary end point will be the overall 30-day major complication rate (Clavien-Dindo grade III-V complications). Data will be collected to risk-adjust outcomes for potential confounding factors, such as preoperative cardiac risk. This study will be disseminated through structured medical student networks using established collaborative methodology. The study will be powered to detect a two-percentage point increase in the major postoperative complication rate in obese versus non-obese patients. Following appropriate assessment, an exemption from full ethics committee review has been received, and the study will be registered as a clinical audit or service evaluation at each participating hospital. Dissemination will take place through national and local research collaborative networks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Stable or improved neurological manifestations during miglustat therapy in patients from the international disease registry for Niemann-Pick disease type C: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Marc C; Mengel, Eugen; Vanier, Marie T; Schwierin, Barbara; Muller, Audrey; Cornelisse, Peter; Pineda, Mercè

    2015-05-28

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare neurovisceral disease characterised by progressive neurological degeneration, where the rate of neurological disease progression varies depending on age at neurological onset. We report longitudinal data on functional disease progression and safety observations in patients in the international NPC Registry who received continuous treatment with miglustat. The NPC Registry is a prospective observational cohort of NP-C patients. Enrolled patients who received ≥1 year of continuous miglustat therapy (for ≥90 % of the observation period, with no single treatment interruption >28 days) were included in this analysis. Disability was measured using a scale rating the four domains, ambulation, manipulation, language and swallowing from 0 (normal) to 1 (worst). Neurological disease progression was analysed in all patients based on: 1) annual progression rates between enrolment and last follow up, and; 2) categorical analysis with patients categorised as 'improved/stable' if ≥3/4 domain scores were lower/unchanged, and as 'progressed' if <3 scores were lower/unchanged between enrolment and last follow-up visit. In total, 283 patients were enrolled from 28 centers in 13 European countries, Canada and Australia between September 2009 and October 2013; 92 patients received continuous miglustat therapy. The mean (SD) miglustat exposure during the observation period (enrolment to last follow-up) was 2.0 (0.7) years. Among 84 evaluable patients, 9 (11 %) had early-infantile (<2 years), 27 (32 %) had late-infantile (2 to <6 years), 30 (36 %) had juvenile (6 to <15 years) and 18 (21 %) had adolescent/adult (≥15 years) onset of neurological manifestations. The mean (95%CI) composite disability score among all patients was 0.37 (0.32,0.42) at enrolment and 0.44 (0.38,0.50) at last follow-up visit, and the mean annual progression rate was 0.038 (0.018,0.059). Progression of composite disability scores appeared highest

  16. Informed consent, and an ethico-legal framework for paediatric observational research and biobanking: the experience of an Italian birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Toccaceli, Virgilia; Serino, Laura; Stazi, Maria Antonietta

    2014-12-01

    Birth cohort studies are important tools for life-course epidemiology, given the spectrum of the environmental, behavioural, and genetic factors that should be considered when making judgements on human health. Biobanks are valuable components of studies designed to investigate the genetic variability of diseases and improve phenotypic characterisation. In studies involving vulnerable populations and biobanks, it is essential to provide ethical reasoning and analyse the legal requirements. We describe the processes and the tools used in the iterative design of an appropriate informed consent model and the ethico-legal framework of the Piccolipiù study. The Piccolipiù study is a prospective population-based study funded by the Italian Ministry of Health that intends to enrol 3,000 newborns and their mothers in five Italian cities, and to store biological samples for future use. To realise these objectives, we performed a thorough evaluation of the literature, of national and international guidelines, and of the impact of the Italian legal requirements for research biobanking. Discussions among stakeholders facilitated the design of the informed consent and the ethico-legal framework. Several topics are addressed, including the suitability of a broad informed consent for paediatric biobanks, infant vulnerability, access to and sharing of data, and the disclosure of individual's genetic results. Discussion of the ethical and legal procedures adopted in epidemiological biobanking might be a fruitful ground for comparison both at the national level, where standardization and homogeneity are lacking, and at the international level, where different regulatory issues are often in the background and might hamper research biobanks networking.

  17. Louis I. Dublin and the development of the observational study: the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company natural history (cohort) studies of typhoid fever and scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Lilienfeld, David E

    2009-06-01

    During 1911-1914, using the resources of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, Louis I. Dublin conducted two national studies into the survival of those surviving episodes of typhoid fever or scarlet fever. He identified an elevated risk of such mortality, associated with specific causes of death, among those having had typhoid fever but not among the scarlet fever survivors. The studies were methodologically sophisticated, resembling those conducted three to four decades later. The studies appear to have been accepted by the medical and public health communities. However, the absence of modern data processing technology and the lack of financial support for such studies by other investigators precluded the further development of modern epidemiology until World War II.

  18. High rates of sexually transmissible infections in HIV-positive patients in the Australian HIV Observational Database: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mulhall, Brian P; Wright, Stephen; Allen, Debbie; Brown, Katherine; Dickson, Bridget; Grotowski, Miriam; Jackson, Eva; Petoumenos, Kathy; Read, Phillip; Read, Timothy; Russell, Darren; Smith, David J; Templeton, David J; Fairley, Christopher K; Law, Matthew G

    2014-09-01

    Background In HIV-positive people, sexually transmissible infections (STIs) probably increase the infectiousness of HIV. In 2010, we established a cohort of individuals (n=554) from clinics in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD). We calculated retrospective rates for four STIs for 2005-10 and prospective incidence rates for 2010-11. At baseline (2010), patient characteristics were similar to the rest of AHOD. Overall incidence was 12.5 per 100 person-years. Chlamydial infections increased from 3.4 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.7) in 2005 to 6.7 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.5-9.5) in 2011, peaking in 2010 (8.1 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 5.6-11.2). Cases were distributed among rectal (61.9%), urethral (34%) and pharyngeal (6.3%) sites. Gonococcal infections increased, peaking in 2010 (4.7 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 5.6-11.2; Ptrend=0.0099), distributed among rectal (63.9%), urethral (27.9%) and pharyngeal (14.8%) sites. Syphilis showed several peaks, the largest in 2008 (5.3 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 3.3-8.0); the overall trend was not significant (P=0.113). Genital warts declined from 7.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 4.8-11.3) in 2005 to 2.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 1.1-4.5) in 2011 (Ptrend=0.0016). For chlamydial and gonococcal infections, incidence was higher than previous Australian estimates among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, increasing during 2005-2011. Rectal infections outnumbered infections at other sites. Syphilis incidence remained high but did not increase; that of genital warts was lower and decreased.

  19. Workplace Digital Health Is Associated with Improved Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Frequency-Dependent Fashion: A Large Prospective Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Widmer, R Jay; Allison, Thomas G; Keane, Brendie; Dallas, Anthony; Bailey, Kent R; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Emerging employer-sponsored work health programs (WHP) and Digital Health Intervention (DHI) provide monitoring and guidance based on participants' health risk assessments, but with uncertain success. DHI--mobile technology including online and smartphone interventions--has previously been found to be beneficial in reducing CVD outcomes and risk factors, however its use and efficacy in a large, multisite, primary prevention cohort has not been described to date. We analyzed usage of DHI and change in intermediate markers of CVD over the course of one year in 30,974 participants of a WHP across 81 organizations in 42 states between 2011 and 2014, stratified by participation log-ins categorized as no (n = 14,173), very low (<12/yr, n = 12,260), monthly (n = 3,360), weekly (n = 651), or semi-weekly (at least twice per week). We assessed changes in weight, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, lipids, and glucose at one year, as a function of participation level. We utilized a Poisson regression model to analyze variables associated with increased participation. Those with the highest level of participation were slightly, but significantly (p<0.0001), older (48.3±11.2 yrs) than non-participants (47.7±12.2 yr) and more likely to be females (63.7% vs 37.3% p<0.0001). Significant improvements in weight loss were demonstrated with every increasing level of DHI usage with the largest being in the semi-weekly group (-3.39±1.06 lbs; p = 0.0013 for difference from weekly). Regression analyses demonstrated that greater participation in the DHI (measured by log-ins) was significantly associated with older age (p<0.001), female sex (p<0.001), and Hispanic ethnicity (p<0.001). The current study demonstrates the success of DHI in a large, community cohort to modestly reduce CVD risk factors in individuals with high participation rate. Furthermore, participants previously

  20. Insecticide exposure and farm history in relation to risk of lymphomas and leukemias in the Women's Health Initiative observational study cohort.

    PubMed

    Schinasi, Leah H; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Ray, Roberta M; Edlefsen, Kerstin L; Parks, Christine G; Howard, Barbara V; Meliker, Jaymie R; Bonner, Matthew R; Wallace, Robert B; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2015-11-01

    Relationships of farm history and insecticide exposure at home or work with lymphohematopoietic (LH) neoplasm risk were investigated in a large prospective cohort of US women. In questionnaires, women self-reported history living or working on a farm, personally mixing or applying insecticides, insecticide application in the home or workplace by a commercial service, and treating pets with insecticides. Relationships with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, plasma cell neoplasms, and myeloid leukemia were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. Age and farming history were explored as effect modifiers. The analysis included 76,493 women and 822 NHL cases. Women who ever lived or worked on a farm had 1.12 times the risk of NHL (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.95-1.32) compared to those who did not. Women who reported that a commercial service ever applied insecticides in their immediate surroundings had 65% higher risk of CLL/SLL (95% CI = 1.15-2.38). Women aged less than 65 years who ever applied insecticides had 87% higher risk of DLBCL (95% CI = 1.13-3.09). Insecticide exposures may contribute to risk of CLL/SLL and DLBCL. Future studies should examine relationships of LH subtypes with specific types of household insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Insecticide exposure and farm history in relation to risk of lymphomas and leukemias in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) observational study cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schinasi, L; De Roos, AJ; Ray, RM; Edlefsen, KL; Parks, CG; Howard, BV; Meliker; Bonner, MR; Wallace, RB; LaCroix, AZ

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Relationships of farm history and insecticide exposure at home or work with lymphohematopoietic (LH) neoplasm risk were investigated in a large prospective cohort of United States women. Methods In questionnaires, women self-reported history living or working on a farm, personally mixing or applying insecticides, insecticide application in the home or workplace by a commercial service, and treating pets with insecticides. Relationships with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, plasma cell neoplasms, and myeloid leukemia were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. Age and farming history were explored as effect modifiers. Results The analysis included 76,493 women and 822 NHL cases. Women who ever lived or worked on a farm had 1.12 times the risk of NHL (95% CI: 0.95–1.32) compared to those who did not. Women who reported that a commercial service ever applied insecticides in their immediate surroundings had 65% higher risk of CLL/SLL (95% CI: 1.15–2.38). Women younger than 65 who ever applied insecticides had 87% higher risk of DLBCL (95% CI: 1.13–3.09). Conclusions Insecticide exposures may contribute to risk of CLL/SLL and DLBCL. Future studies should examine relationships of LH subtypes with specific types of household insecticides. PMID:26365305

  2. A belgian multicenter prospective observational cohort study shows safe and efficient use of a composite mesh with incorporated oxidized regenerated cellulose in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Berrevoet, F; Tollens, T; Berwouts, L; Bertrand, C; Muysoms, F; De Gols, J; Meir, E; De Backer, A

    2014-01-01

    A variety of anti-adhesive composite mesh products have become available to use inside the peritoneal cavity. However, reimbursement of these meshes by the Belgian Governemental Health Agency (RIZIV/INAMI) can only be obtained after conducting a prospective study with at least one year of clinical follow-up. This -Belgian multicentric cohort study evaluated the experience with the use of Proceed®-mesh in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. During a 25 month period 210 adult patients underwent a laparoscopic primary or incisional hernia repair using an intra-abdominal placement of Proceed®-mesh. According to RIZIV/INAMI criteria recurrence rate after 1 year was the primary objective, while postoperative morbidity, including seroma formation, wound and mesh infections, quality of life and recurrences after 2 years were evaluated as secondary endpoints (NCT00572962). In total 97 primary ventral and 103 incisional hernias were repaired, of which 28 (13%) were recurrent. There were no conversions to open repair, no enterotomies, no mesh infections and no mortality. One year cumulative follow-up showed 10 recurrences (n = 192, 5.2%) and chronic discomfort or pain in 4.7% of the patients. Quality of life could not be analyzed due to incomplete data set. More than 5 years after introduction of this mesh to the market, this prospective multicentric study documents a favorable experience with the Proceed mesh in laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. However, it remains to be discussed whether reimbursement of these meshes in Belgium should be limited to the current strict criteria and therefore can only be obtained after at least 3-4 years of clinical data gathering and necessary follow-up. Copyright© Acta Chirurgica Belgica.

  3. A prospective observational cohort study to assess the incidence of acute otitis media among children 0-5 years of age in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Cunha, Clóvis Arns da; Cunha, Rejane B; Arguello, D Fermin; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Sanchez, Nervo; Barria, Eduardo Ortega

    To estimate acute otitis media incidence among young children and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers in a southern Brazilian city. Prospective cohort study including children 0-5 years of age registered at a private pediatric practice. Acute otitis media episodes diagnosed by a pediatrician and impact on quality of life of parents/caregivers were assessed during a 12-month follow-up. During September 2008-March 2010, of 1,136 children enrolled in the study, 1074 (95%) were followed: 55.0% were ≤2 years of age, 52.3% males, 94.7% white, and 69.2% had previously received pneumococcal vaccine in private clinics. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 95.7 (95% confidence interval: 77.2-117.4) overall, 105.5 (95% confidence interval: 78.3-139.0) in children ≤2 years of age and 63.6 (95% confidence interval: 43.2-90.3) in children 3-5 years of age. Acute otitis media incidence per 1000 person-years was 86.3 (95% confidence interval: 65.5-111.5) and 117.1 (95% confidence interval: 80.1-165.3) among vaccinated and unvaccinated children, respectively. Nearly 68.9% of parents reported worsening of their overall quality of life. Acute otitis media incidence among unvaccinated children in our study may be useful as baseline data to assess impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction in the Brazilian National Immunization Program in April 2010. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. The Moment Study: protocol for a mixed method observational cohort study of the Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) initiation process among adult cigarette smokers.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Smiley, Sabrina L; Rubin, Leslie F; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Elmasry, Hoda; Davis, Megan; DeAtley, Teresa; Harvey, Emily; Kirchner, Thomas; Abrams, David B

    2016-04-22

    Alternative Nicotine Delivery Systems (ANDS) such as e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that aerosolize nicotine and other substances to simulate smoking without using tobacco. Little is known about the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers. The aims of this research are threefold to: (1) examine how ANDS use affects cigarette use; (2) examine how the immediate environmental and psychosocial contexts of cigarette and ANDS use vary within-and between-participants in general and by menthol preference and race; and, (3) examine participants' 'lived experience' of the subjective perceptions, meaning, influences and utility of cigarette and ANDS use. This study's mixed method, 6-week longitudinal design will produce a detailed description of the ANDS initiation process among adult smokers (N=100). Qualitative and quantitative data collection will include 3 weeks of: (1) ecological momentary assessment of patterns of cigarette/ANDS use, satisfaction, mood and craving; (2) geospatial assessment of participants' environment, including indoor and outdoor cigarette/ANDS norms and rules; (3) in-depth interviews about the meaning and utility of cigarette smoking and ANDS use; and, (4) saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) biomarkers. A diverse sample will be recruited with an equal number of menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. As the primary independent variable, we will investigate how ANDS use affects cigarette consumption. We will also examine how smoking-related and ANDS-related rules and norms surrounding product use influence cigarette and ANDS product use, and how the subjective effects of ANDS use affect ANDS perceptions, beliefs and use. This study was funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the US National Institutes of Health (1R21DA036472), registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02261363), and approved by the Chesapeake IRB (Pro00008526). Findings will be disseminated to the scientific and lay community through presentations

  5. Pain Severity in Relation to the Final Menstrual Period in a Prospective Multiethnic Observational Cohort: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Yu, Zhi; Liu, Chih-Chin; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pain is common in midlife, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the longitudinal trajectory of overall bodily pain among women during the transition between the reproductive years and menopause. We conducted analyses on a community-based, longitudinal cohort of women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. One thousand four hundred and ninety-five women met inclusion criteria, including: 1) defined date of the final menstrual period (FMP) and 2) complete data on SF-36 bodily pain. The primary exposure was time to/from FMP. The primary outcome was the rate of change in SF-36 bodily pain, measured on a scale of 0-100 with 100 being the most severe pain. We performed within-person trajectory analyses using piecewise regression following nonparametric modeling of functional forms. Mean bodily pain score at the time of the FMP was 29. Mean bodily pain increased at a rate of 0.26 per year during the transmenopause (the interval spanning 4.5 years prior to the FMP through 0.5 years after FMP), and decreased at a rate of 0.23 per year after that. Depression and sleep problems were associated with greater increases in pain during the late reproductive years, whereas abdominal cramps at baseline predicted greater decreases in pain during the late reproductive years. Perspectives This article demonstrates that bodily pain increases during the transmenopause and then diminishes during postmenopause. These differences may reflect differences in underlying mechanisms of pain in the two periods. Although mean changes were small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful, the magnitude of change varied across subgroups of women. PMID:27836812

  6. Pain Severity in Relation to the Final Menstrual Period in a Prospective Multiethnic Observational Cohort: Results From the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yvonne C; Karlamangla, Arun S; Yu, Zhi; Liu, Chih-Chin; Finkelstein, Joel S; Greendale, Gail A; Harlow, Siobán D; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-02-01

    The development of pain is common in midlife, resulting in increased health care utilization and costs. The aim of this study was to determine the longitudinal trajectory of overall bodily pain among women during the transition between the reproductive years and menopause. We conducted analyses on a community-based, longitudinal cohort of women enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. One thousand four hundred ninety-five women met inclusion criteria, including: 1) defined date of the final menstrual period (FMP), and 2) complete data on Short Form-36 bodily pain. The primary exposure was time to/from the FMP. The primary outcome was the rate of change in Short Form-36 bodily pain, measured on a scale of 0 to 100 with 100 being the most severe pain. We performed within-person trajectory analyses using piecewise regression following nonparametric modeling of functional forms. Mean bodily pain score at the time of the FMP was 29. Mean bodily pain increased at a rate of .26 per year during the transmenopause (the interval spanning 4.5 years before the FMP through .5 years after the FMP), and decreased at a rate of .23 per year after that. Depression and sleep problems were associated with greater increases in pain during the late reproductive years, whereas abdominal cramps at baseline predicted greater decreases in pain during the late reproductive years. This article shows that bodily pain increases during the transmenopause and then diminishes during postmenopause. These differences may reflect differences in underlying mechanisms of pain in the 2 periods. Although mean changes were small and unlikely to be clinically meaningful, the magnitude of change varied across subgroups of women. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Low Educational Status and Childhood Obesity Associated with Insufficient Mid-Term Weight Loss After Sleeve Gastrectomy: a Retrospective Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dilektasli, Evren; Erol, Mehmet Fatih; Cayci, Haci Murat; Ozkaya, Guven; Bayam, Mehmet Emrah; Duman, Ugur; Tihan, Necdet D; Erdogdu, Umut; Kisakol, Gurcan

    2017-01-01

    Successful weight loss after bariatric surgery has been associated with a variety of factors. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of educational status on surgical weight loss for patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy (SG). This retrospective cohort study was carried out on patients undergoing SG between September 2013 and July 2015. Six months after surgery, the patients were classified into two groups according to their success in the percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL). Group 1: <%50EWL (insufficient WL) and group 2: ≥%50EWL (successful WL) in the sixth month. The independent predictors for insufficient weight loss six months after SG were analyzed. In the sixth post-operative month, their mean %EWL and percentage of excess body mass index loss (%EBMIL) were 50 ± 15.4 and 58.2 ± 19.3, respectively. In univariate analysis, group 1 patients were found to be significantly older when compared to group 2 patients while the education level of group 2 patients was significantly higher when compared to group 1. A tertiary educational level at a university or higher was associated with a nearly fourfold increased success in weight loss (AOR 3.772, p = 0.03) 6 months after SG. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with a history of childhood obesity were more likely to have insufficient weight loss (AOR 0.390, p = 0.045). Childhood obesity and a lower level of education are associated with insufficient weight loss 6 months after SG. However, prospective external validation is warranted, with a long-term follow-up of a large bariatric surgery population.

  8. Mobile phone interventions for tuberculosis should ensure access to mobile phones to enhance equity - A prospective, observational cohort study in Peruvian shantytowns.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Matthew J; Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A; Herlihy, Niamh; Rocha, Claudio; Zevallos, Karine; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Datta, Sumona; Evans, Carlton A

    2018-06-04

    Mobile phone interventions have been advocated for tuberculosis care, but little is known about access of target populations to mobile phones. We studied mobile phone access amongst patients with tuberculosis, focusing on vulnerable patients and patients who later had adverse treatment outcomes. In a prospective cohort study in Callao, Peru, we recruited and interviewed 2,584 patients with tuberculosis between 2007-2013 and followed them until 2016 for adverse treatment outcomes using national treatment registers. Subsequently, we recruited a further 622 patients between 2016-2017. Data were analysed using logistic regression and by calculating relative risks (RR). Between 2007-2013, the proportion of the general population of Peru without mobile phone access averaged 7.8% but for patients with tuberculosis was 18% (p<0.001). Patients without access were more likely to hold a lower socioeconomic position, suffer from food insecurity and be older than 50 years (all p<0.01). Compared to patients with mobile phone access, patients without access at recruitment were more likely to subsequently have incomplete treatment (20% versus 13%, RR=1.5; p=0.001) or an adverse treatment outcome (29% versus 23% RR=1.3; p=0.006). Between 2016 and 2017, the proportion of patients without access dropped to 8.9% overall, but remained the same (18%) as in 2012 among the poorest third. Access to mobile phones among patients with tuberculosis is insufficient, and rarest in patients who are poorer and later have adverse treatment outcomes. Thus, mobile phone interventions to improve tuberculosis care may be least accessed by the priority populations for whom they are intended. Such interventions should ensure access to mobile phones to enhance equity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. An Observational Cohort Feasibility Study to Identify Microvesicle and Micro-RNA Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury Following Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sullo, Nikol; Mariani, Silvia; JnTala, Maria; Kumar, Tracy; Woźniak, Marcin J; Smallwood, Dawn; Pais, Paolo; Westrope, Claire; Lotto, Attilio; Murphy, Gavin J

    2018-06-15

    Micro-RNA, small noncoding RNA fragments involved in gene regulation, and microvesicles, membrane-bound particles less than 1 μm known to regulate cellular processes including responses to injury, may serve as disease-specific biomarkers of acute kidney injury. We evaluated the feasibility of measuring these signals as well as other known acute kidney injury biomarkers in a mixed pediatric cardiac surgery population. Single center prospective cohort feasibility study. PICU. Twenty-four children (≤ 17 yr) undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass without preexisting inflammatory state, acute kidney injury, or extracorporeal life support. None. Acute kidney injury was defined according to modified Kidney Diseases Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Blood and urine samples were collected preoperatively and at 6-12 and 24 hours. Microvesicles derivation was assessed using flow cytometry and NanoSight analysis. Micro-RNAs were isolated from plasma and analyzed by microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data completeness for the primary outcomes was 100%. Patients with acute kidney injury (n = 14/24) were younger, underwent longer cardiopulmonary bypass, and required greater inotrope support. Acute kidney injury subjects had different fractional content of platelets and endothelial-derived microvesicles before surgery. Platelets and endothelial microvesicles levels were higher in acute kidney injury patients. A number of micro-RNA species were differentially expressed in acute kidney injury patients. Pathway analysis of candidate target genes in the kidney suggested that the most often affected pathways were phosphatase and tensin homolog and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling. Microvesicles and micro-RNAs expression patterns in pediatric cardiac surgery patients can be measured in children and potentially serve as tools for stratification of patients at risk of acute kidney injury.

  10. Impact of Home Environment Interventions on the Risk of Influenza-Associated ARI in Andean Children: Observations from a Prospective Household-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Budge, Philip J.; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Williams, John V.; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M.; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Grigalva, Carlos G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Respiratory Infections in Andean Peruvian Children (RESPIRA-PERU) study enrolled children who participated in a community-cluster randomized trial of improved stoves, solar water disinfection, and kitchen sinks (IHIP trial) and children from additional Andean households. We quantified the burden of influenza-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) in this household-based cohort. Methods From May 2009 to September 2011, we conducted active weekly ARI surveillance in 892 children age <3 years, of whom 272 (30.5%) had participated in the IHIP trial. We collected nasal swabs during ARI, tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by RT-PCR, and determined influenza incidence and risk factors using mixed-effects regression models. Results The overall incidence of influenza-associated ARI was 36.6/100 child-years; incidence of influenza A, B, and C was 20.5, 8.7, and 5.2/100 child-years, respectively. Influenza C was associated with fewer days of subjective fever (median 1 vs. 2) and malaise (median 0 vs. 2) compared to influenza A. Non-influenza ARI also resulted in fewer days of fever and malaise, and fewer healthcare visits than influenza A-associated ARI. Influenza incidence varied by calendar year (80% occurred in the 2010 season) and IHIP trial participation. Among households that participated in the IHIP trial, influenza-associated ARI incidence was significantly lower in intervention than in control households (RR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20–0.82). Conclusions Influenza burden is high among Andean children. ARI associated with influenza A and B had longer symptom duration and higher healthcare utilization than influenza C-associated ARI or non-influenza ARI. Environmental community interventions may reduce influenza morbidity. PMID:24622044

  11. Impact of home environment interventions on the risk of influenza-associated ARI in Andean children: observations from a prospective household-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Budge, Philip J; Griffin, Marie R; Edwards, Kathryn M; Williams, John V; Verastegui, Hector; Hartinger, Stella M; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Johnson, Monika; Klemenc, Jennifer M; Zhu, Yuwei; Gil, Ana I; Lanata, Claudio F; Grigalva, Carlos G

    2014-01-01

    The Respiratory Infections in Andean Peruvian Children (RESPIRA-PERU) study enrolled children who participated in a community-cluster randomized trial of improved stoves, solar water disinfection, and kitchen sinks (IHIP trial) and children from additional Andean households. We quantified the burden of influenza-associated acute respiratory illness (ARI) in this household-based cohort. From May 2009 to September 2011, we conducted active weekly ARI surveillance in 892 children age <3 years, of whom 272 (30.5%) had participated in the IHIP trial. We collected nasal swabs during ARI, tested for influenza and other respiratory viruses by RT-PCR, and determined influenza incidence and risk factors using mixed-effects regression models. The overall incidence of influenza-associated ARI was 36.6/100 child-years; incidence of influenza A, B, and C was 20.5, 8.7, and 5.2/100 child-years, respectively. Influenza C was associated with fewer days of subjective fever (median 1 vs. 2) and malaise (median 0 vs. 2) compared to influenza A. Non-influenza ARI also resulted in fewer days of fever and malaise, and fewer healthcare visits than influenza A-associated ARI. Influenza incidence varied by calendar year (80% occurred in the 2010 season) and IHIP trial participation. Among households that participated in the IHIP trial, influenza-associated ARI incidence was significantly lower in intervention than in control households (RR 0.40, 95% CI: 0.20-0.82). Influenza burden is high among Andean children. ARI associated with influenza A and B had longer symptom duration and higher healthcare utilization than influenza C-associated ARI or non-influenza ARI. Environmental community interventions may reduce influenza morbidity.

  12. Work productivity is associated with disease activity and functional ability in Italian patients with early axial spondyloarthritis: an observational study from the SPACE cohort.

    PubMed

    de Hooge, Manouk; Ramonda, Roberta; Lorenzin, Mariagrazia; Frallonardo, Paola; Punzi, Leonardo; Ortolan, Augusta; Doria, Andrea

    2016-11-16

    Spondyloarthritis often affects young people, typically in their working years. The aim of our study was to investigate work productivity and its relationship with disease activity and physical functioning in Italian patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) with chronic back pain (CBP) for ≥3 months and ≤2 years, and onset  < 45 years of age. Baseline absenteeism, presenteeism, work productivity loss (assessed by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire (WPAI)), and disease activity (assessed by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI)/Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS)) and functional ability (assessed by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Functional Index (BASFI)) of patients with axSpA (rheumatologist's diagnosis) included in the Italian section of the Spondyloarthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were collected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the associations between work productivity and disease activity/physical functioning. Absenteeism in 51 patients with axSpA was low (8.3 %). A decrease in work productivity was related to an increase in disease activity. Disease activity was strongly correlated with absenteeism (p < 0.01), presenteeism (p < 0.01) and work productivity loss (p < 0.001). In addition, decreased work productivity was related to a decrease in functional ability. Physical functioning was correlated with absenteeism (p < 0.001), presenteeism (p < 0.05) and work productivity loss (p < 0.001). Impairment of work productivity was correlated with disease activity and physical functioning in Italian patients with axSpA with CBP for ≥3 months and ≤2 years, with onset <45 years of age.

  13. Incident CTS in a large pooled cohort study: associations obtained by a Job Exposure Matrix versus associations obtained from observed exposures.

    PubMed

    Dale, Ann Marie; Ekenga, Christine C; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Merlino, Linda; Thiese, Matthew S; Bao, Stephen; Meyers, Alysha Rose; Harris-Adamson, Carisa; Kapellusch, Jay; Eisen, Ellen A; Gerr, Fred; Hegmann, Kurt T; Silverstein, Barbara; Garg, Arun; Rempel, David; Zeringue, Angelique; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2018-03-29

    There is growing use of a job exposure matrix (JEM) to provide exposure estimates in studies of work-related musculoskeletal disorders; few studies have examined the validity of such estimates, nor did compare associations obtained with a JEM with those obtained using other exposures. This study estimated upper extremity exposures using a JEM derived from a publicly available data set (Occupational Network, O*NET), and compared exposure-disease associations for incident carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) with those obtained using observed physical exposure measures in a large prospective study. 2393 workers from several industries were followed for up to 2.8 years (5.5 person-years). Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes were assigned to the job at enrolment. SOC codes linked to physical exposures for forceful hand exertion and repetitive activities were extracted from O*NET. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models to describe exposure-disease associations for incident CTS for individually observed physical exposures and JEM exposures from O*NET. Both exposure methods found associations between incident CTS and exposures of force and repetition, with evidence of dose-response. Observed associations were similar across the two methods, with somewhat wider CIs for HRs calculated using the JEM method. Exposures estimated using a JEM provided similar exposure-disease associations for CTS when compared with associations obtained using the 'gold standard' method of individual observation. While JEMs have a number of limitations, in some studies they can provide useful exposure estimates in the absence of individual-level observed exposures. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcome and postpartum weight retention: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with pregnancy complications, and Norwegian Health Authorities have adopted the GWG recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (IOM). The aim of this study was to evaluate if a GWG outside the IOM recommendation in a Norwegian population is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications like hypertension, low and high birth weight, preeclampsia, emergency caesarean delivery, and maternal post-partum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 and 18 months. Methods This study was performed in 56 101 pregnant women included in the prospective national Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) in the years 1999 to 2008. Women who delivered a singleton live born child during gestational week 37 to 42 were included. Maternal prepregnant and postpartum weight was collected from questionnaires at 17th week of gestation and 6 and 18 months postpartum. Results A weight gain less than the IOM recommendations (GWG < IOM rec.) increased the risk for giving birth to a low weight baby among normal weight nulliparous women. A weight gain higher than the IOM recommendations (GWG > IOM rec.) significantly increased the risk of pregnancy hypertension, a high birth weight baby, preeclampsia and emergency cesarean delivery in both nulliparous and parous normal weight women. Similar results were found for overweight women except for no increased risk for gestational hypertension in parous women with GWG > IOM rec. Seventy-four percent of the overweight nulliparous women and 66% of the obese women had a GWG > IOM rec. A GWG > IOM rec. resulted in increased risk of PPWR > 2 kg in all weight classes, but most women attained their prepregnant weight class by 18 months post-partum. Conclusions For prepregnant normal weight and overweight women a GWG > IOM rec. increased the risk for unfavorable birth outcomes in both nulliparous and parous women. A GWG

  15. The Relationship Between Individual Characteristics and Interest in Using a Mobile Phone App for HIV Self-Management: Observational Cohort Study of People Living With HIV.

    PubMed

    Lucero, Robert James; Frimpong, Jemima A; Fehlberg, Elizabeth A; Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Weaver, Michael T; Cook, Christa; Modave, Francois; Rathore, Mobeen H; Morano, Jamie P; Ibanez, Gladys; Cook, Robert L

    2017-07-27

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major health issue in the United States, and an estimated 1.2 million people in the United States are living with HIV. As part of Healthy People 2020, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion has targeted the persistent demographic and geographic disparities in HIV prevalence and management. Preliminary evidence suggests that mobile health technology (smartphone apps) may be a promising way to support HIV self-management among vulnerable populations of people living with HIV (PLWH) who lack access to appropriate health care services. This study examines the association between individual characteristics of PLWH and level of interest in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management. This study was conducted using cross-sectional survey data collected in the Florida Cohort Study between 2014 and 2016 (N=766). Associations between individual characteristics of PLWH and level of interest in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management were examined using bivariate analysis and logistic regression. Overall, 85.5% (655/766) of respondents were interested in using a free mobile phone app that supports HIV self-management. Participants expressed the highest interest in app functions that facilitate communication with health care providers (568/740, 76.8%) or help to identify relevant health care services (556/745 74.6%). Age (OR 0.959, 95% CI 0.936-0.982), education (OR 1.281, 95% CI 1.027-1.598) and disability or inability to work (OR 0.296, 95% CI 0.145-0.606) were all significantly associated with being interested in using a free mobile phone app for HIV self-management. This study indicates that a majority of PLWH are interested in using a free mobile phone app to self-manage their condition. The findings can inform the development of mobile phone apps that support effective HIV self-management. ©Robert James Lucero, Jemima A Frimpong, Elizabeth A Fehlberg, Ragnhildur I Bjarnadottir

  16. Associations of pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcome and postpartum weight retention: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Margaretha; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Winkvist, Anna; Lissner, Lauren; Alexander, Jan; Oftedal, Bente; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2014-06-11

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with pregnancy complications, and Norwegian Health Authorities have adopted the GWG recommendations of the US Institute of Medicine and National Research Council (IOM). The aim of this study was to evaluate if a GWG outside the IOM recommendation in a Norwegian population is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications like hypertension, low and high birth weight, preeclampsia, emergency caesarean delivery, and maternal post-partum weight retention (PPWR) at 6 and 18 months. This study was performed in 56 101 pregnant women included in the prospective national Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) in the years 1999 to 2008. Women who delivered a singleton live born child during gestational week 37 to 42 were included. Maternal prepregnant and postpartum weight was collected from questionnaires at 17th week of gestation and 6 and 18 months postpartum. A weight gain less than the IOM recommendations (GWG < IOM rec.) increased the risk for giving birth to a low weight baby among normal weight nulliparous women. A weight gain higher than the IOM recommendations (GWG > IOM rec.) significantly increased the risk of pregnancy hypertension, a high birth weight baby, preeclampsia and emergency cesarean delivery in both nulliparous and parous normal weight women. Similar results were found for overweight women except for no increased risk for gestational hypertension in parous women with GWG > IOM rec. Seventy-four percent of the overweight nulliparous women and 66% of the obese women had a GWG > IOM rec. A GWG > IOM rec. resulted in increased risk of PPWR > 2 kg in all weight classes, but most women attained their prepregnant weight class by 18 months post-partum. For prepregnant normal weight and overweight women a GWG > IOM rec. increased the risk for unfavorable birth outcomes in both nulliparous and parous women. A GWG > IOM rec. increased the risk of a PPWR

  17. SYNTAX score based on coronary computed tomography angiography may have a prognostic value in patients with complex coronary artery disease: An observational study from a retrospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Joo; Han, Kyunghwa; Chang, Suyon; Kim, Jin Young; Im, Dong Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Hur, Jin; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2017-09-01

    The SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) score is an invasive coronary angiography (ICA)-based score for quantifying the complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although the SYNTAX score was originally developed based on ICA, recent publications have reported that coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a feasible modality for the estimation of the SYNTAX score.The aim of our study was to investigate the prognostic value of the SYNTAX score, based on CCTA for the prediction of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs) in patients with complex CAD.The current study was approved by the institutional review board of our institution, and informed consent was waived for this retrospective cohort study. We included 251 patients (173 men, mean age 66.0 ± 9.29 years) who had complex CAD [3-vessel disease or left main (LM) disease] on CCTA. SYNTAX score was obtained on the basis of CCTA. Follow-up clinical outcome data regarding composite MACCEs were also obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were developed to predict the risk of MACCEs based on clinical variables, treatment, and computed tomography (CT)-SYNTAX scores.During the median follow-up period of 1517 days, there were 48 MACCEs. Univariate Cox hazards models demonstrated that MACCEs were associated with advanced age, low body mass index (BMI), and dyslipidemia (P < .2). In patients with LM disease, MACCEs were associated with a higher SYNTAX score. In patients with CT-SYNTAX score ≥23, patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention had significantly lower hazard ratios than patients who were treated with medication alone. In multivariate Cox hazards model, advanced age, low BMI, and higher SYNTAX score showed an increased hazard ratio for MACCE, while treatment with CABG showed a lower hazard ratio (P < .2).On the basis of our results, CT-SYNTAX score

  18. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with birth weight but not with gestational length: results from a large prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pregnant women consume caffeine daily. The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal caffeine intake from different sources and (a) gestational length, particularly the risk for spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD), and (b) birth weight (BW) and the baby being small for gestational age (SGA). Methods This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. A total of 59,123 women with uncomplicated pregnancies giving birth to a live singleton were identified. Caffeine intake from different sources was self-reported at gestational weeks 17, 22 and 30. Spontaneous PTD was defined as spontaneous onset of delivery between 22+0 and 36+6 weeks (n = 1,451). As there is no consensus, SGA was defined according to ultrasound-based (Marsal, n = 856), population-based (Skjaerven, n = 4,503) and customized (Gardosi, n = 4,733) growth curves. Results The main caffeine source was coffee, but tea and chocolate were the main sources in women with low caffeine intake. Median pre-pregnancy caffeine intake was 126 mg/day (IQR 40 to 254), 44 mg/day (13 to 104) at gestational week 17 and 62 mg/day (21 to 130) at gestational week 30. Coffee caffeine, but not caffeine from other sources, was associated with prolonged gestation (8 h/100 mg/day, P <10-7). Neither total nor coffee caffeine was associated with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake from different sources, measured repeatedly during pregnancy, was associated with lower BW (Marsal-28 g, Skjaerven-25 g, Gardosi-21 g per 100 mg/day additional total caffeine for a baby with expected BW 3,600 g, P <10-25). Caffeine intake of 200 to 300 mg/day increased the odds for SGA (OR Marsal 1.62, Skjaerven 1.44, Gardosi 1.27, P <0.05), compared to 0 to 50 mg/day. Conclusions Coffee, but not caffeine, consumption was associated with marginally increased gestational length but not with spontaneous PTD risk. Caffeine intake was consistently

  19. First month prednisone dose predicts prednisone burden during the following 11 months: an observational study from the RELES cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Irastorza, G; Garcia, M; Espinosa, G; Caminal, L; Mitjavila, F; González-León, R; Sopeña, B; Canora, J; Villalba, M V; Rodríguez-Carballeira, M; López-Dupla, J M; Callejas, J L; Castro, A; Tolosa, C; Sánchez-García, M E; Pérez-Conesa, M; Navarrete-Navarrete, N; Rodríguez, A P; Herranz, M T; Pallarés, L

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the influence of prednisone dose during the first month after systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) diagnosis (prednisone-1) on glucocorticoid burden during the subsequent 11 months (prednisone-2–12). Methods 223 patients from the Registro Español de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico inception cohort were studied. The cumulative dose of prednisone-1 and prednisone-2–12 were calculated and recoded into a four-level categorical variable: no prednisone, low dose (up to 7.5 mg/day), medium dose (up to 30 mg/day) and high dose (over 30 mg/day). The association between the cumulative prednisone-1 and prednisone-2–12 doses was tested. We analysed whether the four-level prednisone-1 categorical variable was an independent predictor of an average dose >7.5 mg/day of prednisone-2–12. Adjusting variables included age, immunosuppressives, antimalarials, methyl-prednisolone pulses, lupus nephritis and baseline SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Results Within the first month, 113 patients (51%) did not receive any prednisone, 24 patients (11%) received average low doses, 46 patients (21%) received medium doses and 40 patients (18%) received high doses. There was a strong association between prednisone-1 and prednisone-2–12 dose categories (p<0.001). The cumulative prednisone-1 dose was directly associated with the cumulative prednisone-2–12 dose (p<0.001). Compared with patients on no prednisone, patients taking medium (adjusted OR 5.27, 95% CI 2.18 to 12.73) or high-dose prednisone-1 (adjusted OR 10.5, 95% CI 3.8 to 29.17) were more likely to receive prednisone-2–12 doses of >7.5 mg/day, while patients receiving low-dose prednisone-1 were not (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 0. 0.38 to 5.2). If the analysis was restricted to the 158 patients with a baseline SLEDAI of ≥6, the model did not change. Conclusion The dose of prednisone during the first month after the diagnosis of SLE is an independent predictor of prednisone burden during the following

  20. The impact of voluntary counselling and testing services on sexual behaviour change and HIV incidence: observations from a cohort study in rural Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Cawley, Caoimhe; Wringe, Alison; Slaymaker, Emma; Todd, Jim; Michael, Denna; Kumugola, Yusufu; Urassa, Mark; Zaba, Basia

    2014-03-22

    It is widely assumed that voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) services contribute to HIV prevention by motivating clients to reduce sexual risk-taking. However, findings from sub-Saharan Africa have been mixed, particularly among HIV-negative persons. We explored associations between VCT use and changes in sexual risk behaviours and HIV incidence using data from a community HIV cohort study in northwest Tanzania. Data on VCT use, sexual behaviour and HIV status were available from three HIV serological surveillance rounds undertaken in 2003-4 (Sero4), 2006-7 (Sero5) and 2010 (Sero6). We used multinomial logistic regression to assess changes in sexual risk behaviours between rounds, and Poisson regression to estimate HIV incidence. The analyses included 3,613 participants attending Sero4 and Sero5 (3,474 HIV-negative and 139 HIV-positive at earlier round) and 2,998 attending Sero5 and Sero6 (2,858 HIV-negative and 140 HIV-positive at earlier round). Among HIV-negative individuals VCT use was associated with reductions in the number of sexual partners in the last year (aRR Seros 4-5: 1.42, 95% CI 1.07-1.88; aRR Seros 5-6: 1.68, 95% CI 1.25-2.26) and in the likelihood of having a non-cohabiting partner in the last year (aRR Seros 4-5: 1.57, 95% CI 1.10-2.25; aRR Seros 5-6: 1.48, 95% CI 1.07-2.04) or a high-risk partner in the last year (aRR Seros 5-6 1.57, 95% CI 1.06-2.31). However, VCT was also associated with stopping using condoms with non-cohabiting partners between Seros 4-5 (aRR 4.88, 95% CI 1.39-17.16). There were no statistically significant associations between VCT use and changes in HIV incidence, nor changes in sexual behaviour among HIV-positive individuals, possibly due to small sample sizes. We found moderate associations between VCT use and reductions in some sexual risk behaviours among HIV-negative participants, but no impacts among HIV-positive individuals in the context of low overall VCT uptake. Furthermore, there were no significant changes

  1. Dehydration and hyponatremia in professional rugby union players: a cohort study observing english premiership rugby union players during match play, field, and gym training in cool environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin L; OʼHara, John P; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick F G J

    2015-01-01

    Fluid and sodium balance is important for performance and health; however, limited data in rugby union players exist. The purpose of the study was to evaluate body mass (BM) change (dehydration) and blood[Na] change during exercise. Data were collected from 10 premiership rugby union players, over a 4-week period. Observations included match play (23 subject observations), field (45 subject observations), and gym (33 subject observations) training sessions. Arrival urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, and samples during exercise were analyzed for [Na]. Body mass and blood[Na] were determined pre- and postexercise. Sweat[Na] was analyzed from sweat patches worn during exercise, and fluid intake was measured during exercise. Calculations of fluid and Na loss were made. Mean arrival urine osmolality was 423 ± 157 mOsm·kg, suggesting players were adequately hydrated. After match play, field, and gym training, BM loss was 1.0 ± 0.7, 0.3 ± 0.6, and 0.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. Fluid loss was significantly greater during match play (1.404 ± 0.977 kg) than field (1.008 ± 0.447 kg, p = 0.021) and gym training (0.639 ± 0.536 kg, p < 0.001). Fluid intake was 0.955 ± 0.562, 1.224 ± 0.601, and 0.987 ± 0.503 kg during match play, field, and gym training, respectively. On 43% of observations, players were hyponatremic when BM increased, 57% when BM was maintained, and 35% when there was a BM loss of 0.1-0.9%. Blood[Na] was the representative of normonatremia when BM loss was >1.0%. The findings demonstrate that rugby union players are adequately hydrated on arrival, fluid intake is excessive compared with fluid loss, and some players are at risk of developing hyponatremia.

  2. Efficacy, safety, and effect on sexual behaviour of on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV in men who have sex with men: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Molina, Jean-Michel; Charreau, Isabelle; Spire, Bruno; Cotte, Laurent; Chas, Julie; Capitant, Catherine; Tremblay, Cecile; Rojas-Castro, Daniela; Cua, Eric; Pasquet, Armelle; Bernaud, Camille; Pintado, Claire; Delaugerre, Constance; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Mestre, Soizic Le; Chidiac, Christian; Pialoux, Gilles; Ponscarme, Diane; Fonsart, Julien; Thompson, David; Wainberg, Mark A; Doré, Veronique; Meyer, Laurence

    2017-09-01

    Data for on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) are scarce. We implemented a cohort study to assess its efficacy, safety, and effect on sexual behaviour. We invited men and transgender women who have sex with men, previously enrolled in the randomised placebo-controlled ANRS IPERGAY trial at seven sites (six in France and one in Canada), to participate in an open-label extension with on-demand tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) to be taken before and after sexual intercourse. We assessed the incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), PrEP adherence, safety, and sexual behaviour. Statistical analyses included comparisons of proportions and incidence between the randomised phase of the ANRS IPERGAY trial and the open-label phase, and all participants were included in safety analyses. ANRS IPERGAY is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01473472. Between Nov 4, 2014, and Jan 27, 2015, we enrolled 361 participants. Median follow-up was 18·4 months (IQR 17·7-19·1). One participant who discontinued PrEP acquired HIV infection. HIV incidence was 0·19 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0·01-1·08), compared with 6·60 per 100 person-years (3·60-11·05) in the placebo group of the randomised study, indicating a relative reduction of 97% (95% CI 81-100) in the incidence of HIV with on-demand PrEP. Participants used a median of 18 pills of study drugs per month (IQR 11-25), and at the 6 month visit 240 (71%) of 336 participants had tenofovir detected in plasma. Drug-related gastrointestinal events were reported in 49 participants (14%) but were self-limited. Only four participants (1%) discontinued PrEP, three because of an increase in plasma creatinine. The proportion of participants reporting condomless sex at their last receptive anal intercourse significantly increased from 77% (136 of 176 participants) at baseline to 86% (66 of 77 participants) at 18 months' follow-up (p for trend=0·0004). The incidence

  3. Impairments of motor function among children with a familial risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder at 7 years old in Denmark: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burton, Birgitte Klee; Thorup, Anne A E; Jepsen, Jens Richardt; Poulsen, Gry; Ellersgaard, Ditte; Spang, Katrine S; Christiani, Camilla Jerlang; Hemager, Nicoline; Gantriis, Ditte; Greve, Aja; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Plessen, Kerstin Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the genetic overlap between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, we aimed to assess domain-specific motor aberrations and disorder specificity among 7-year-old children with a familial risk of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder by comparing children in familial risk groups with each other and with children not in these risk groups. In the Danish High Risk and Resilience Study, we established a cohort of 7-year-old children with no, one, or two parents with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder in Denmark between Jan 1, 2013, and Jan 31, 2016. We matched children of parents diagnosed with schizophrenia to children of parents without schizophrenia on the basis of their home address, age, and sex. Even though we did not match children of parents with bipolar disorder directly to controls because of resource constraints, we only recruited children into the three groups who did not differ in terms of age, sex, and urbanicity. We investigated motor function in children using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition. Motor function raters were masked to participants' clinical risk status during assessments. We assessed the effects of familial risk group in a mixed-model analysis with repeated measures with an unstructured variance component matrix. We studied 514 children (198 [39%] children of parents with schizophrenia, 119 [23%] of parents with bipolar disorder, and 197 [38%] of parents without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder). Children of parents with schizophrenia showed impaired motor performance compared with those of parents without in the subdomains of manual dexterity (mean difference -1·42 [95% CI -2·08 to -0·77]; p<0·0001) and balance (-1·38 [-2·03 to -0·72]; p<0·0001), but not of aiming and catching (-0·39 [-0·97 to 0·19]; p=0·18). Children of parents with bipolar disorder did not show any significant difference in motor performance to children of parents without in the subdomains of manual dexterity (-0·69 [-1·44 to 0

  4. Comparative effectiveness of immediate antiretroviral therapy versus CD4-based initiation in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Sara; Phillips, Andrew; Logan, Roger; Olson, Ashley; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Miró, José M; Ferrer, Elena; Justice, Amy; Gandhi, Neel; Bucher, Heiner C; Furrer, Hansjakob; Moreno, Santiago; Monge, Susana; Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Sterne, Jonathan; Young, Jessica G; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Dabis, Francois; Vandehende, Marie-Anne; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Jose, Sophie; Sabin, Caroline; Hernán, Miguel A

    2015-08-01

    Recommendations have differed nationally and internationally with respect to the best time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared effectiveness of three strategies for initiation of ART in high-income countries for HIV-positive individuals who do not have AIDS: immediate initiation, initiation at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL, and initiation at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL. We used data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration of cohort studies in Europe and the USA. We included 55,826 individuals aged 18 years or older who were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection between January, 2000, and September, 2013, had not started ART, did not have AIDS, and had CD4 count and HIV-RNA viral load measurements within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. We estimated relative risks of death and of death or AIDS-defining illness, mean survival time, the proportion of individuals in need of ART, and the proportion of individuals with HIV-RNA viral load less than 50 copies per mL, as would have been recorded under each ART initiation strategy after 7 years of HIV diagnosis. We used the parametric g-formula to adjust for baseline and time-varying confounders. Median CD4 count at diagnosis of HIV infection was 376 cells per μL (IQR 222-551). Compared with immediate initiation, the estimated relative risk of death was 1·02 (95% CI 1·01-1·02) when ART was started at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL, and 1·06 (1·04-1·08) with initiation at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL. Corresponding estimates for death or AIDS-defining illness were 1·06 (1·06-1·07) and 1·20 (1·17-1·23), respectively. Compared with immediate initiation, the mean survival time at 7 years with a strategy of initiation at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL was 2 days shorter (95% CI 1-2) and at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL was 5 days shorter (4-6). 7 years after diagnosis of HIV, 100%, 98·7% (95% CI 98·6-98·7), and 92·6% (92·2-92·9) of individuals would have

  5. Impact of folic acid fortification on global DNA methylation and one-carbon biomarkers in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sajin; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bailey, Lynn B; Malysheva, Olga; Brown, Elissa C; Maneval, David R; Neuhouser, Marian L; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Miller, Joshua W; Zheng, Yingye; Xiao, Liren; Hou, Lifang; Song, Xiaoling; Buck, Katharina; Beresford, Shirley A A; Caudill, Marie A

    2014-03-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene expression and can be modified by one-carbon nutrients. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of folic acid (FA) fortification of the US food supply on leukocyte global DNA methylation and the relationship between DNA methylation, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and other one-carbon biomarkers among postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. We selected 408 women from the highest and lowest tertiles of RBC folate distribution matching on age and timing of the baseline blood draw, which spanned the pre- (1994-1995), peri- (1996-1997), or post-fortification (1998) periods. Global DNA methylation was assessed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as a percentage of total cytosine. We observed an interaction (P = 0.02) between fortification period and RBC folate in relation to DNA methylation. Women with higher (vs. lower) RBC folate had higher mean DNA methylation (5.12 vs. 4.99%; P = 0.05) in the pre-fortification period, but lower (4.95 vs. 5.16%; P = 0.03) DNA methylation in the post-fortification period. We also observed significant correlations between one-carbon biomarkers and DNA methylation in the pre-fortification period, but not in the peri- or post-fortification period. The correlation between plasma homocysteine and DNA methylation was reversed from an inverse relationship during the pre-fortification period to a positive relationship during the post-fortification period. Our data suggest that (1) during FA fortification, higher RBC folate status is associated with a reduction in leukocyte global DNA methylation among postmenopausal women and; (2) the relationship between one-carbon biomarkers and global DNA methylation is dependent on folate availability.

  6. REGRESSION MODELS FOR COHORT MORTALITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cohort studies evaluate suspect health hazards from occupational or environmental exposures by recording tile facts and causes of deaths in the exposed group as they occur over an extended time period. his article reviews several methods for analyzing cohort: mortality data and s...

  7. Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.

    PubMed

    Jaul, Efraim

    2014-12-01

    Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pregnancy physiology pattern prediction study (4P study): protocol of an observational cohort study collecting vital sign information to inform the development of an accurate centile-based obstetric early warning score.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Fiona; Kemp, Jude; Edwards, Clare; Pullon, Rebecca M; Loerup, Lise; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Salvi, Dario; Gibson, Oliver; Gerry, Stephen; MacKillop, Lucy H; Tarassenko, Lionel; Watkinson, Peter J

    2017-09-01

    Successive confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the UK have identified an urgent need to develop a national early warning score (EWS) specifically for pregnant or recently pregnant women to aid more timely recognition, referral and treatment of women who are developing life-threatening complications in pregnancy or the puerperium. Although many local EWS are in use in obstetrics, most have been developed heuristically. No current obstetric EWS has defined the thresholds at which an alert should be triggered using evidence-based normal ranges, nor do they reflect the changing physiology that occurs with gestation during pregnancy. An observational cohort study involving 1000 participants across three UK sites in Oxford, London and Newcastle. Pregnant women will be recruited at approximately 14 weeks' gestation and have their vital signs (heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation and temperature) measured at 4 to 6-week intervals during pregnancy. Vital signs recorded during labour and delivery will be extracted from hospital records. After delivery, participants will measure and record their own vital signs daily for 2 weeks. During the antenatal and postnatal periods, vital signs will be recorded on an Android tablet computer through a custom software application and transferred via mobile internet connection to a secure database. The data collected will be used to define reference ranges of vital signs across normal pregnancy, labour and the immediate postnatal period. This will inform the design of an evidence-based obstetric EWS. The study has been approved by the NRES committee South East Coast-Brighton and Sussex (14/LO/1312) and is registered with the ISRCTN (10838017). All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point. All data collected will be managed anonymously. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences.

  9. [Topic efficacy of ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine (Connettivina Plus) in the treatment of pressure sores: a prospective observational cohort study].

    PubMed

    Paghetti, Angela; Bellingeri, Andrea; Pomponio, Giovanni; Sansoni, Julita; Paladino, Dario

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and methods of application of ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine (Connettivina Plus) in routine clinical activity, on a target of "complex" patients with pressure sores, for the most realistic assessment possible. The study comprised 127 patients hospitalized between January 2006 and December 2007, who received ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine in addition to the standard treatment. Inclusion criteria were th presence of at least one stage 2 or 3 pressure sore (NPUAP '89 classification), pressure sore that the researcher had already decided to treat using ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine , according to hospital protocol, area of the lesion less than 25cm2, patient age 18 years or more, informed patient consensus. Patients with these characteristics were , however, excluded if they did not provide written consent or if they had one of the following: presence of pressure sores with escara, concomitant neoplastic disease, concomitant insulin-dependent diabetes or other pathologies that interfere with skin regeneration, allergic diasthesis (acclaimed or presumed) to ialuronic acid - argentic sulphadiazine, inability / refusal to undergo all the subsequent controls required by the study. Improvement or complete healing of the pressure sores was observed in 67% of patients at early follow-up (10 days), increasing to 76% and 87% at 20 and 35 day controls respectively. The Push tool further improved in patients who carried on treatment. Use of ialuronic acid associated with argentic sulphadiazine was effective for treating grade 2-3 pressure sores in patients with chronic lesions and its efficacy was confirmed in association with both advanced and traditional types of medication.

  10. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach - An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Hanna; Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Learning and training basic life support (BLS)-especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm-are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton's four-step approach for BLS training. A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory. Students' BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. The findings of this work show that the four-step-approach for

  11. Influence of learning styles on the practical performance after the four-step basic life support training approach – An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Alexandra; Stieger, Lina; Beckers, Stefan; Biermann, Henning; Rossaint, Rolf; Sopka, Saša

    2017-01-01

    Background Learning and training basic life support (BLS)—especially external chest compressions (ECC) within the BLS-algorithm—are essential resuscitation training for laypersons as well as for health care professionals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of learning styles on the performance of BLS and to identify whether all types of learners are sufficiently addressed by Peyton’s four-step approach for BLS training. Methods A study group of first-year medical students (n = 334) without previous medical knowledge was categorized according to learning styles using the German Lernstilinventar questionnaire based on Kolb’s Learning Styles Inventory. Students’ BLS performances were assessed before and after a four-step BLS training approach lasting 4 hours. Standardized BLS training was provided by an educational staff consisting of European Resuscitation Council-certified advanced life support providers and instructors. Pre- and post-intervention BLS performance was evaluated using a single-rescuer-scenario and standardized questionnaires (6-point-Likert-scales: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree). The recorded points of measurement were the time to start, depth, and frequency of ECC. Results The study population was categorized according to learning styles: diverging (5%, n = 16), assimilating (36%, n = 121), converging (41%, n = 138), and accommodating (18%, n = 59). Independent of learning styles, both male and female participants showed significant improvement in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance. Based on the Kolb learning styles, no significant differences between the four groups were observed in compression depth, frequency, time to start CPR, or the checklist-based assessment within the baseline assessment. A significant sex effect on the difference between pre- and post-interventional assessment points was observed for mean compression depth and mean compression frequency. Conclusions The findings

  12. Incidence and risk factors for relapses in HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma as observed in the German HIV-related lymphoma cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schommers, Philipp; Gillor, Daniel; Hentrich, Marcus; Wyen, Christoph; Wolf, Timo; Oette, Mark; Zoufaly, Alexander; Wasmuth, Jan-Christian; Bogner, Johannes R; Müller, Markus; Esser, Stefan; Schleicher, Alisa; Jensen, Björn; Stoehr, Albrecht; Behrens, Georg; Schultze, Alexander; Siehl, Jan; Thoden, Jan; Taylor, Ninon; Hoffmann, Christian

    2018-05-01

    Outcome of HIV-infected patients with AIDS-related lymphomas has improved during recent years. However, data on incidence, risk factors, and outcome of relapses in AIDS-related lymphomas after achieving complete remission are still limited. This prospective observational multicenter study includes HIV-infected patients with biopsy- or cytology-proven malignant lymphomas since 2005. Data on HIV infection and lymphoma characteristics, treatment and outcome were recorded. For this analysis, AIDS-related lymphomas patients in complete remission were analyzed in terms of their relapse- free survival and potential risk factors for relapses. In total, 254 of 399 (63.7%) patients with AIDS-related lymphomas reached a complete remission with their first-line chemotherapy. After a median follow up of 4.6 years, 5-year overall survival of the 254 patients was 87.8% (Standard Error 3.1%). Twenty-nine patients relapsed (11.4%). Several factors were independently associated with a higher relapse rate, including an unclassifiable histology, a stage III or IV according to the Ann Arbor Staging System, no concomitant combined antiretroviral therapy during chemotherapy and R-CHOP-based compared to more intensive chemotherapy regimens in Burkitt lymphomas. In conclusion, complete remission and relapse rates observed in our study are similar to those reported in HIV-negative non-Hodgkin lymphomas. These data provide further evidence for the use of concomitant combined antiretroviral therapy during chemotherapy and a benefit from more intensive chemotherapy regimens in Burkitt lymphomas. Modifications to the chemotherapy regimen appear to have only a limited impact on relapse rate. Copyright © 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  13. Commonly available activity tracker apps and wearables as a mental health outcome indicator: A prospective observational cohort study among young adults with psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Knight, Alissa; Bidargaddi, Niranjan

    2018-08-15

    Monitoring is integral to adequately recognise and track mental health indicators of symptoms and functioning. Early identification of warning signs from digital footprints could facilitate adaptive and dynamic just in-time monitoring and care for individuals with common mental disorders. Self-report data on mental health and lifestyle behaviour from 120 male and female Australian young adults experiencing psychological distress were collected online. API software was used to download participant's daily activity duration measurements over eight months from linked commercial activity tracker apps and wearables in real time. An independent samples t-test was conducted to compare the differences in daily durations of recorded physical activity between wearable devises and smartphone apps. Entropy techniques using R interpol package were used to analyse volatility in daily activity duration. DASS-21 depression, stress and anxiety sub-scale scores indicated the study sample on average, had a moderate level of psychological distress. Daily activity duration was significantly greater from wearable devices when compared with smartphone apps (t-test = 25.4, p < 0.001). Entropy indices were not related with any of the DASS-21 measures. However, significant correlation between DASS-21 anxiety subscale scores and entropy of those with over 45 days measurements (r = 0.58, p = 0.02) was observed. The observational nature of this study prohibits causal inference. As a convenience sample was used, the results may lack generalisability to the wider population. Continuous monitoring using commercial apps and wearables as a resource to help clinicians augment clinical care for common mental disorders appears viable. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Rationale, design, and cohort enrolment of a prospective observational study of the clinical performance of the new contraceptive implant (Femplant) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Hameed, Waqas; Lendvay, Anja; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Mustafa, Ghulam; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ahmed; Brohi, Sajid; Karim, Asif; Ishaque, Muhammad; Hussain, Wajahat; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Feldblum, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The use of hormonal implants has gained positive traction in family planning programs in recent times. Compared to other popular methods, such as long-term reversible intrauterine devices, the use of hormonal implants as a family planning method has distinct advantages in terms of long-term efficiency and better user compliance and availability. This paper presents a study protocol to document and evaluate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of Femplant (contraceptive implant) in Pakistan during the first year of its use among married women of reproductive age (18-44 years) at clinics in two provinces of Pakistan (Sindh and Punjab). A total of 724 married women were enrolled in a noncomparative prospective observational study. The study involved six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department in Sindh Province and 13 clinics run by the Marie Stopes Society (a local nongovernmental organization) in both provinces. The participation of women was subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. All respondents were interviewed at baseline and subsequently at each scheduled visit during the study period. Side effects, complications and adverse events, if any, were recorded for every participant at each visit to the facility. Over the next 5-year period (2013-2018), 27 million hormonal implants will be made available in lower- to middle-income countries by international donors and agencies. The evidence generated from this study will identify factors affecting the acceptability and satisfaction of end users with Femplant (Sino-implant II). This will help to guide policies to enhance access to and the use of long-acting contraceptive implants in Pakistan and similar developing countries.

  15. A hospital-based observational cohort study exploring pain and biomarkers in patients with hand osteoarthritis in Norway: The Nor-Hand protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gløersen, Marthe; Mulrooney, Elisabeth; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Slatkowsky-Christensen, Barbara; Faraj, Karwan; Isaksen, Thore; Neogi, Tuhina; Kvien, Tore K; Magnusson, Karin; Haugen, Ida Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We have limited knowledge about the underlying disease mechanisms and causes of pain in hand osteoarthritis (OA). Consequently, no disease-modifying drug exists, and more knowledge about the pathogenesis of hand OA is needed, as well as a validation of different outcome measures. Our first aim of this study is to explore the validity of various imaging modalities for the assessment of hand OA. Second, we want to gain a better understanding of the disease processes, with a special focus on pain mechanisms. Methods and analysis The Nor-Hand study is a hospital-based observational study including 300 patients with evidence of hand OA by ultrasound and/or clinical examination. The baseline examination consists of functional tests and joint assessment of the hands, medical assessment, pain sensitisation tests, ultrasound (hands, acromioclavicular joint, hips, knees and feet), CT and MRI of the dominant hand, conventional radiographs of the hands and feet, fluorescence optical imaging of the hands, collection of blood and urine samples as well as self-reported demographic factors and OA-related questionnaires. Two follow-up examinations are planned. Cross-sectional analyses will be used to investigate agreements and associations between different relevant measures at the baseline examination, whereas the longitudinal data will be used for evaluation of predictors for clinical outcomes. Ethics and dissemination The protocol is approved by the Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (Ref. no: 2014/2057). The participants receive oral and written information about the project and sign a consent form before participation. They can, whenever they want, withdraw from the study, and all de-identified data will be safely stored on the research server at Diakonhjemmet Hospital. Results will be presented at international and national congresses and in peer-reviewed rheumatology journals. Trial registration number NCT03083548; Pre

  16. Cysticlean® a highly pac standardized content in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: an observational, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Ballester, Francisco; Ruiz Vidal, Vicente; López Alcina, Emilio; Domenech Perez, Cristina; Escudero Fontano, Eva; Oltra Benavent, Ana; Montoliu García, Ana; Sobrón Bustamante, Marco

    2013-06-05

    The present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of American cranberry (AC) extract (Cysticlean®) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (PCUTI), non-consumer of AC extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (QoL). This was a single center, observational, prospective study in a total of 20 women (mean age 35.2 years; 50.0% were married). Patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months during treatment. The number of PCUTIs in the previous 3 months prior to start the treatment with Cysticlean® was 2.8±1.3 and it was reduced to 0.2±0.5 at Month 6 (P<0.0001), which represent a 93% improvement. At baseline, the mean score on the VAS scale (range from 0 to 100) for assessing the QoL was 62.4±19.1, increasing to 78.2±12.4 at Month 6 (P=0.0002), which represents a 20% improvement. All patients had an infection with positive urine culture at baseline, after 6 months there were only 3 symptomatic infections (P<0.001). The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli. Prophylaxis with American cranberry extract (Cysticlean®) could be an alternative to classical therapies with antibiotics. Further studies are needed to confirm results obtained in this pilot study.

  17. Cysticlean® a highly pac standardized content in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: an observational, prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of American cranberry (AC) extract (Cysticlean®) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (PCUTI), non-consumer of AC extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (QoL). Methods This was a single center, observational, prospective study in a total of 20 women (mean age 35.2 years; 50.0% were married). Patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months during treatment. Results The number of PCUTIs in the previous 3 months prior to start the treatment with Cysticlean® was 2.8±1.3 and it was reduced to 0.2±0.5 at Month 6 (P<0.0001), which represent a 93% improvement. At baseline, the mean score on the VAS scale (range from 0 to 100) for assessing the QoL was 62.4±19.1, increasing to 78.2±12.4 at Month 6 (P=0.0002), which represents a 20% improvement. All patients had an infection with positive urine culture at baseline, after 6 months there were only 3 symptomatic infections (P<0.001). The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli. Conclusions Prophylaxis with American cranberry extract (Cysticlean®) could be an alternative to classical therapies with antibiotics. Further studies are needed to confirm results obtained in this pilot study. PMID:23738867

  18. A hospital-based observational cohort study exploring pain and biomarkers in patients with hand osteoarthritis in Norway: The Nor-Hand protocol.

    PubMed

    Gløersen, Marthe; Mulrooney, Elisabeth; Mathiessen, Alexander; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Slatkowsky-Christensen, Barbara; Faraj, Karwan; Isaksen, Thore; Neogi, Tuhina; Kvien, Tore K; Magnusson, Karin; Haugen, Ida Kristin

    2017-09-24

    We have limited knowledge about the underlying disease mechanisms and causes of pain in hand osteoarthritis (OA). Consequently, no disease-modifying drug exists, and more knowledge about the pathogenesis of hand OA is needed, as well as a validation of different outcome measures. Our first aim of this study is to explore the validity of various imaging modalities for the assessment of hand OA. Second, we want to gain a better understanding of the disease processes, with a special focus on pain mechanisms. The Nor-Hand study is a hospital-based observational study including 300 patients with evidence of hand OA by ultrasound and/or clinical examination. The baseline examination consists of functional tests and joint assessment of the hands, medical assessment, pain sensitisation tests, ultrasound (hands, acromioclavicular joint, hips, knees and feet), CT and MRI of the dominant hand, conventional radiographs of the hands and feet, fluorescence optical imaging of the hands, collection of blood and urine samples as well as self-reported demographic factors and OA-related questionnaires. Two follow-up examinations are planned. Cross-sectional analyses will be used to investigate agreements and associations between different relevant measures at the baseline examination, whereas the longitudinal data will be used for evaluation of predictors for clinical outcomes. The protocol is approved by the Norwegian Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics (Ref. no: 2014/2057). The participants receive oral and written information about the project and sign a consent form before participation. They can, whenever they want, withdraw from the study, and all de-identified data will be safely stored on the research server at Diakonhjemmet Hospital. Results will be presented at international and national congresses and in peer-reviewed rheumatology journals. NCT03083548; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  19. A real-world observational cohort of patients with primary biliary cholangitis: TARGET-primary biliary cholangitis study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Levy, Cynthia; Bowlus, Christopher L; Carey, Elizabeth; Crawford, Julie M; Deane, Karen; Mayo, Marlyn J; Kim, W Ray; Fried, Michael W

    2018-05-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare chronic cholestatic liver disease that may progress to biliary cirrhosis if left untreated. The first-line therapy for PBC is ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Unfortunately, 1 of 3 patients does not respond to UDCA. These patients are at risk for developing clinical events, including cirrhosis, complications of portal hypertension, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver transplant, or death. Recently, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved obeticholic acid to be used in certain patients with PBC. Off-label therapies are also used, and several other therapies are currently under evaluation. Real-world effectiveness of newly approved and off-label therapies remains unknown. TARGET-PBC is a 5-year, longitudinal, observational study of patients with PBC that will evaluate the effectiveness of clinical practice interventions and provide practical information unobtainable in registration trials. Enrollment will take place at both academic and community sites. In addition to consenting to medical records review, participants will be asked to provide an annual blood sample and complete patient reported outcome surveys at predetermined intervals. Any available liver biopsies will be digitally preserved. Conclusion: Key study outcomes will be the evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of PBC interventions and the assessment of disease progression under real-world conditions. ( Hepatology Communications 2018;2:484-491).

  20. Effects of prehospital epinephrine during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with initial non-shockable rhythm: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few clinical trials have provided evidence that epinephrine administration after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves long-term survival. Here we determined whether prehospital epinephrine administration would improve 1-month survival in OHCA patients. Methods We analyzed the data of 209,577 OHCA patients; the data were prospectively collected in a nationwide Utstein-style Japanese database between 2009 and 2010. Patients were divided into the initial shockable rhythm (n = 15,492) and initial non-shockable rhythm (n = 194,085) cohorts. The endpoints were prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-month survival, and 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (cerebral performance category scale, category 1 or 2) after OHCA. We defined epinephrine administration time as the time from the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services personnel to the first epinephrine administration. Results In the initial shockable rhythm cohort, the ratios of prehospital ROSC, 1-month survival, and 1-month favorable neurological outcomes in the non-epinephrine group were significantly higher than those in the epinephrine group (27.7% vs. 22.8%, 27.0% vs. 15.4%, and 18.6% vs. 7.0%, respectively; all P < 0.001). However, in the initial non-shockable rhythm cohort, the ratios of prehospital ROSC and 1-month survival in the epinephrine group were significantly higher than those in the non-epinephrine group (18.7% vs. 3.0% and 3.9% vs. 2.2%, respectively; all P < 0.001) and there was no significant difference between the epinephrine and non-epinephrine groups for 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (P = 0.62). Prehospital epinephrine administration for OHCA patients with initial non-shockable rhythms was independently associated with prehospital ROSC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.83, 6.18, 4.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.01-9.73, 5.82-6.56, 3.98-4.69; for epinephrine administration times ≤9 min, 10-19 min, and

  1. Design and rationale for a real-world observational cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: The TARGET-NASH study.

    PubMed

    Barritt, A S; Gitlin, Norman; Klein, Samuel; Lok, Anna S; Loomba, Rohit; Malahias, Laura; Powell, Margaret; Vos, Miriam B; Weiss, L Michael; Cusi, Kenneth; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A; Sanyal, Arun

    2017-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent and can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD comprises the spectrum from simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), to steatosis with inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH). Current primary therapy recommended for NAFLD is weight loss induced by lifestyle modification. The difficulty in achieving this has led to robust pharmacological therapy development. While new drugs may show efficacy in selected phase II/III clinical trial populations, their real-world effectiveness is unknown. TARGET-NASH is a 5-year, longitudinal, observational study of patients with NAFLD designed to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical practice interventions and provide practical information unobtainable in registration trials. A biological specimen repository is included in TARGET-NASH for translational studies of genomics and biomarkers of disease activity. Patients are enrolling at adult and pediatric sites representing multiple specialties. All patients being managed for NAFLD are eligible, whereas those in other NASH registries or clinical trials will be excluded. Enrolled patients range in age from 6 and up and will have 3years of clinical data reviewed. Patient comorbidities, concomitant medications, disease progression and off-label interventions will be assessed, and adverse outcomes, monitored. Confirming the use, safety and effectiveness of NAFLD interventions in children and adults and establishing pragmatic methods of assessing disease progression under real-world conditions are key study outcomes. Ultimately, TARGET-NASH will establish a large, diverse registry of NAFLD patients at academic and community practices to be leveraged to improve health and reduce development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Case-Cohort Studies: Design and Applicability to Hand Surgery.

    PubMed

    Vojvodic, Miliana; Shafarenko, Mark; McCabe, Steven J

    2018-04-24

    Observational studies are common research strategies in hand surgery. The case-cohort design offers an efficient and resource-friendly method for risk assessment and outcomes analysis. Case-cohorts remain underrepresented in upper extremity research despite several practical and economic advantages over case-control studies. This report outlines the purpose, utility, and structure of the case-cohort design and offers a sample research question to demonstrate its value to risk estimation for adverse surgical outcomes. The application of well-designed case-cohort studies is advocated in an effort to improve the quality and quantity of observational research evidence in hand and upper extremity surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. Materials and methods In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement) is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events) and acceptance (compliance) of the dietary therapy were documented. Results After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A total of 16 adverse

  4. Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Michael; Völp, Andreas; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela

    2010-09-24

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential nutrients for humans. They are structural and functional components of cell membranes and pre-stages of the hormonally and immunologically active eicosanoids. Recent discoveries have shown that the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) also play an important role in the central nervous system. They are essential for normal brain functioning including attention and other neuropsychological skills. In our large observational study we monitored 810 children from 5 to 12 years of age referred for medical help and recommended for consuming polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in combination with zinc and magnesium by a physician over a period of at least 3 months. The food supplement ESPRICO® (further on referred to as the food supplement) is developed on the basis of current nutritional science and containing a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc. Study objective was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the PUFA-zinc-magnesium combination on symptoms of attention deficit, impulsivity, and hyperactivity as well as on emotional problems and sleep related parameters. Assessment was performed by internationally standardised evaluation scales, i.e. SNAP-IV and SDQ. Tolerance (adverse events) and acceptance (compliance) of the dietary therapy were documented. After 12 weeks of consumption of a combination of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids as well as magnesium and zinc most subjects showed a considerable reduction in symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity/impulsivity assessed by SNAP-IV. Further, the assessment by SDQ revealed fewer emotional problems at the end of the study period compared to baseline and also sleeping disorders. Mainly problems to fall asleep, decreased during the 12 week nutritional therapy. Regarding safety, no serious adverse events occurred. A total of 16 adverse events with a possible causal relationship to

  5. Integrated assessment of exposure to PM2.5 in South India and its relation with cardiovascular risk: Design of the CHAI observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tonne, Cathryn; Salmon, Maëlle; Sanchez, Margaux; Sreekanth, V; Bhogadi, Santhi; Sambandam, Sankar; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Kinra, Sanjay; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-08-01

    While there is convincing evidence that fine particulate matter causes cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, little of the evidence is based on populations outside of high income countries, leaving large uncertainties at high exposures. India is an attractive setting for investigating the cardiovascular risk of particles across a wide concentration range, including concentrations for which there is the largest uncertainty in the exposure-response relationship. CHAI is a European Research Council funded project that investigates the relationship between particulate air pollution from outdoor and household sources with markers of atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular pathology. The project aims to (1) characterize the exposure of a cohort of adults to particulate air pollution from household and outdoor sources (2) integrate information from GPS, wearable cameras, and continuous measurements of personal exposure to particles to understand where and through which activities people are most exposed and (3) quantify the association between particles and markers of atherosclerosis. CHAI has the potential to make important methodological contributions to modeling air pollution exposure integrating outdoor and household sources as well as in the application of wearable camera data in environmental exposure assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Twenty-one days of isolation: A prospective observational cohort study of an Ebola-exposed hot zone community in Liberia.

    PubMed

    Williams, George Sie; Naiene, Jeremias; Gayflor, Joseph; Malibiche, Theophil; Zoogley, Bentoe; Frank, Wimot G; Nayeri, Fariba

    2015-08-01

    As West Africa continues to suffer from a deadly Ebola epidemic, the national health sectors struggle to minimize the damages and stop the spread of disease. A cohort of inhabitants of a small village and an Ebola hot zone in Sinoe County of Liberia was followed on a day-by-day basis to search for new cases and to minimize the spread of Ebola to the other community members or to other regions. Technical, clinical, and humanistic aspects of the response are discussed in this report. Of the 22 confirmed Ebola cases in Sinoe County since the beginning of outbreak (June 16, 2014), 7 cases were inhabitants of Polay Town, a small village 5.5 miles east of Greenville, the Sinoe County capital. After the last wave of outbreak at the beginning of December, enhanced response activity provided essential coordination and mobilized the resources to stop the epidemic. Despite unprotected contacts in crowded houses, no new cases were detected among the contact families, or in the surrounding houses or communities. Strong national mobilization in a decentralized but harmonized system at the community level has been of great value in controlling the epidemic in Liberia. The major interventions include epidemiological surveillance, public information dissemination, effective communication, case management, and infection control. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Preoperative Red Cell Distribution Width and 30-day mortality in older patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort observational study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, H R; Sim, Y E; Sim, Y T; Ang, A L; Chan, Y H; Richards, T; Ong, B C

    2018-04-18

    Increased red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with poorer outcomes in various patient populations. We investigated the association between preoperative RDW and anaemia on 30-day postoperative mortality among elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. Medical records of 24,579 patients aged 65 and older who underwent surgery under anaesthesia between 1 January 2012 and 31 October 2016 were retrospectively analysed. Patients who died within 30 days had higher median RDW (15.0%) than those who were alive (13.4%). Based on multivariate logistic regression, in our cohort of elderly patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, moderate/severe preoperative anaemia (aOR 1.61, p = 0.04) and high preoperative RDW levels in the 3rd quartile (>13.4% and ≤14.3%) and 4th quartile (>14.3%) were significantly associated with increased odds of 30-day mortality - (aOR 2.12, p = 0.02) and (aOR 2.85, p = 0.001) respectively, after adjusting for the effects of transfusion, surgical severity, priority of surgery, and comorbidities. Patients with high RDW, defined as >15.7% (90th centile), and preoperative anaemia have higher odds of 30-day mortality compared to patients with anaemia and normal RDW. Thus, preoperative RDW independently increases risk of 30-day postoperative mortality, and future risk stratification strategies should include RDW as a factor.

  8. What impact did a Paediatric Early Warning system have on emergency admissions to the paediatric intensive care unit? An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sefton, G; McGrath, C; Tume, L; Lane, S; Lisboa, P J G; Carrol, E D

    2015-04-01

    The ideology underpinning Paediatric Early Warning systems (PEWs) is that earlier recognition of deteriorating in-patients would improve clinical outcomes. To explore how the introduction of PEWs at a tertiary children's hospital affects emergency admissions to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) and the impact on service delivery. To compare 'in-house' emergency admissions to PICU with 'external' admissions transferred from District General Hospitals (without PEWs). A before-and-after observational study August 2005-July 2006 (pre), August 2006-July 2007 (post) implementation of PEWs at the tertiary children's hospital. The median Paediatric Index of Mortality (PIM2) reduced; 0.44 vs 0.60 (p<0.001). Fewer admissions required invasive ventilation 62.7% vs 75.2% (p=0.015) for a shorter median duration; four to two days. The median length of PICU stay reduced; five to three days (p=0.002). There was a non-significant reduction in mortality (p=0.47). There was no comparable improvement in outcome seen in external emergency admissions to PICU. A 39% reduction in emergency admission total beds days reduced cancellation of major elective surgical cases and refusal of external PICU referrals. Following introduction of PEWs at a tertiary children's hospital PIM2 was reduced, patients required less PICU interventions and had a shorter length of stay. PICU service delivery improved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective observational cohort study in primary care practices to identify factors associated with treatment failure in Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Grace C; Hall, Ronald G; Boyd, Natalie K; Dallas, Steven D; Du, Liem C; Treviño, Lucina B; Treviño, Sylvia B; Retzloff, Chad; Lawson, Kenneth A; Wilson, James; Olsen, Randall J; Wang, Yufeng; Frei, Christopher R

    2016-11-22

    The incidence of outpatient visits for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) has substantially increased over the last decade. The emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has made the management of S. aureus SSTIs complex and challenging. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors contributing to treatment failures associated with community-associated S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections SSTIs. This was a prospective, observational study among 14 primary care clinics within the South Texas Ambulatory Research Network. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 90 days of the initial visit. Univariate associations between the explanatory variables and treatment failure were examined. A generalized linear mixed-effect model was developed to identify independent risk factors associated with treatment failure. Overall, 21% (22/106) patients with S. aureus SSTIs experienced treatment failure. The occurrence of treatment failure was similar among patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus and those with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus SSTIs (19 vs. 24%; p = 0.70). Independent predictors of treatment failure among cases with S. aureus SSTIs was a duration of infection of ≥7 days prior to initial visit [aOR, 6.02 (95% CI 1.74-19.61)] and a lesion diameter size ≥5 cm [5.25 (1.58-17.20)]. Predictors for treatment failure included a duration of infection for ≥7 days prior to the initial visit and a wound diameter of ≥5 cm. A heightened awareness of these risk factors could help direct targeted interventions in high-risk populations.

  10. The relationship between cognitive impairment, mortality and discharge characteristics in a large cohort of older adults with unscheduled admissions to an acute hospital: a retrospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, Carole; Meredith, Paul; Bridges, Jackie; Gould, Gill P; Griffiths, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background older people with dementia admitted to hospital for acute illness have higher mortality and longer hospital stays compared to those without dementia. Cognitive impairment (CI) is common in older people, and they may also be at increased risk of poor outcomes. Methods retrospective observational study of unscheduled admissions aged ≥75 years. Admission characteristics, mortality rates and discharge outcomes were compared between three groups: (i) known dementia diagnosis (DD), (ii) CI but no diagnosis of dementia and (iii) no CI. Results of 19,269 admissions (13,652 patients), 19.8% had a DD, 11.6% had CI and 68.6% had neither. Admissions with CI or DD were older and had more females than those with no CI, and were more likely to be admitted through the Emergency Department (88.4% and 90.7%, versus 82.0%) and to medical wards (89.4% and 84.4%, versus 76.8%). Acuity levels at admission were similar between the groups. Patients with CI or DD had more admissions at ‘high risk’ from malnutrition than patients with no CI (28.0% and 33.7% versus 17.5%), and a higher risk of dying in hospital (11.8% [10.5–13.3] and 10.8% [9.8–11.9] versus (6.6% [6.2–7.0])). Conclusions the admission characteristics, mortality and length of stay of patients with CI resemble those of patients with diagnosed dementia. Whilst attention has been focussed on the need for additional support for people with dementia, patients with CI, which may include those with undiagnosed dementia or delirium, appear to have equally bad outcomes from hospitalisation. PMID:28338808

  11. Effectiveness of Early Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination Among 6-14-Month-Old Infants During an Epidemic in the Netherlands: An Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, Tom; van der Maas, Nicoline A T; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester; van Binnendijk, Rob S; Hahné, Susan J M

    2017-04-15

    Routinely, the first measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine dose is given at 14 months of age in the Netherlands. However, during a measles epidemic in 2013-2014, MMR vaccination was also offered to 6-14-month-olds in municipalities with <90% MMR vaccination coverage. We studied the effectiveness of the early MMR vaccination schedule. Parents of all infants targeted for early MMR vaccination were asked to participate. When parent(s) suspected measles, their infant's saliva was tested for measles-specific antibodies. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) against laboratory-confirmed and self-reported measles was estimated using Cox regression, with VE calculated as 1 minus the hazard ratio. Three vaccinated and 10 unvaccinated laboratory-confirmed cases occurred over observation times of 106631 and 23769 days, respectively. The unadjusted VE against laboratory-confirmed measles was 94% (95% confidence interval [CI], 79%-98%). After adjustment for religion and sibling's vaccination status, the VE decreased to 71% (-72%-95%). For self-reported measles, the unadjusted and adjusted VE was 67% (40%-82%) and 43% (-12%-71%), respectively. Infants vaccinated between 6 and 14 months of age had a lower risk of measles than unvaccinated infants. However, part of the effect was caused by herd immunity, since vaccinated infants were more likely to be surrounded by other vaccinated individuals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Colonization of patients, healthcare workers, and the environment with healthcare-associated Staphylococcus epidermidis genotypes in an intensive care unit: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Widerström, Micael; Wiström, Johan; Edebro, Helén; Marklund, Elisabeth; Backman, Mattias; Lindqvist, Per; Monsen, Tor

    2016-12-09

    During the last decades, healthcare-associated genotypes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (HA-MRSE) have been established as important opportunistic pathogens. However, data on potential reservoirs on HA-MRSE is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamics and to which extent HA-MRSE genotypes colonize patients, healthcare workers (HCWs) and the environment in an intensive care unit (ICU). Over 12 months in 2006-2007, swab samples were obtained from patients admitted directly from the community to the ICU and patients transferred from a referral hospital, as well as from HCWs, and the ICU environment. Patients were sampled every third day during hospitalization. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed according to EUCAST guidelines. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing were used to determine the genetic relatedness of a subset of MRSE isolates. We identified 620 MRSE isolates from 570 cultures obtained from 37 HCWs, 14 patients, and 14 environmental surfaces in the ICU. HA-MRSE genotypes were identified at admission in only one of the nine patients admitted directly from the community, of which the majority subsequently were colonized by HA-MRSE genotypes within 3 days during hospitalization. Almost all (89%) of HCWs were nasal carriers of HA-MRSE genotypes. Similarly, a significant proportion of patients transferred from the referral hospital and fomites in the ICU were widely colonized with HA-MRSE genotypes. Patients transferred from a referral hospital, HCWs, and the hospital environment serve as important reservoirs for HA-MRSE. These observations highlight the need for implementation of effective infection prevention and control measures aiming at reducing HA-MRSE transmission in the healthcare setting.

  13. Long-term Outcomes With Planned Multistage Reduced Dose Repeat Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Treatment of Inoperable High-Grade Arteriovenous Malformations: An Observational Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Marciscano, Ariel E; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J; Hu, Chen; Khattab, Mohamed H; Aggarwal, Sameer; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Rigamonti, Daniele; Kleinberg, Lawrence R

    2017-07-01

    There is no consensus regarding the optimal management of inoperable high-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). This long-term study of 42 patients with high-grade AVMs reports obliteration and adverse event (AE) rates using planned multistage repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). To evaluate the efficacy and safety of multistage SRS with treatment of the entire AVM nidus at each treatment session to achieve complete obliteration of high-grade AVMs. Patients with high-grade Spetzler-Martin (S-M) III-V AVMs treated with at least 2 multistage SRS treatments from 1989 to 2013. Clinical outcomes of obliteration rate, minor/major AEs, and treatment characteristics were collected. Forty-two patients met inclusion criteria (n = 26, S-M III; n = 13, S-M IV; n = 3, S-M V) with a median follow-up was 9.5 yr after first SRS. Median number of SRS treatment stages was 2, and median interval between stages was 3.5 yr. Twenty-two patients underwent pre-SRS embolization. Complete AVM obliteration rate was 38%, and the median time to obliteration was 9.7 yr. On multivariate analysis, higher S-M grade was significantly associated ( P = .04) failure to achieve obliteration. Twenty-seven post-SRS AEs were observed, and the post-SRS intracranial hemorrhage rate was 0.027 events per patient year. Treatment of high-grade AVMs with multistage SRS achieves AVM obliteration in a meaningful proportion of patients with acceptable AE rates. Lower obliteration rates were associated with higher S-M grade and pre-SRS embolization. This approach should be considered with caution, as partial obliteration does not protect from hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  14. Effectiveness of icatibant for treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks is not affected by body weight: findings from the Icatibant Outcome Survey, a cohort observational study.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Teresa; Zanichelli, Andrea; Aberer, Werner; Maurer, Marcus; Longhurst, Hilary J; Bouillet, Laurence; Andresen, Irmgard

    2018-01-01

    Icatibant is a bradykinin B2-receptor antagonist used for the treatment of hereditary angioedema attacks resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency. Treatment is not adjusted by body weight however the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the effectiveness of icatibant is not documented in the literature. We examined disease characteristics and icatibant treatment effectiveness in patients stratified by BMI in the Icatibant Outcome Survey, an ongoing, international, observational study monitoring the real-world safety and effectiveness of icatibant. Attack and treatment characteristics as well as outcomes following treatment with icatibant were compared among patients with underweight, normal, overweight, and obese BMI. Data from 2697 icatibant-treated attacks in 342 patients (3.5, 44.7, 34.8, and 17.0% patients of underweight, normal, overweight, and obese BMI, respectively) were analyzed. There was no significant difference in the frequency and severity of attacks across BMI groups, although obese patients tended to have more attacks of high severity. There was no impact of BMI on the frequency of laryngeal attacks, but patients with normal BMI had fewer cutaneous attacks and more abdominal attacks. Most attacks (71.9-83.8%) were treated with a single icatibant injection without the need for rescue with plasma-derived C1-inhibitor (pdC1-INH), regardless of BMI. Patients with obese BMI used pdC1-INH as rescue treatment more often (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0232 excluding 2 outliers) and treated attacks earlier than patients with normal BMI (P = 0.007). Furthermore, time to resolution and duration of attack were shorter for patients with high BMI (P < 0.001 for overweight and P < 0.05 for obese versus normal). Overall, icatibant was comparatively effective in treating attacks in patients across all BMI groups. Trial registration NCT01034969.

  15. Incidence and Risk of Cardiac Events in Patients With Previously Treated Multiple Myeloma Versus Matched Patients Without Multiple Myeloma: An Observational, Retrospective, Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Kristin D; Kalman, Jill; Sahni, Gagan; Murphy, Brian; Werther, Winifred; Rajangam, Kanya; Chari, Ajai

    2017-02-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have age-, disease-, and treatment-related risk factors for cardiac events. We analyzed the 2006 to 2011 MarketScan database to determine whether the risk of cardiac events is greater in MM patients than in non-MM patients. Included were 1723 MM patients treated with corticosteroids and ≥ 3 drugs (bortezomib, immunomodulatory derivatives, and alkylating agents or anthracyclines). The index date (ID) was the date on which the 3-drug exposure criterion was met. Also included were 8615 age- and gender-matched non-MM patients (5:1). The distribution of non-MM patients' IDs matched that of the MM patients' IDs. Baseline was 6 months before the ID. The follow-up duration was from the ID to study end (ie, 2011 or end of enrollment or prescription drug coverage). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for baseline variables when the univariate analyses showed a 10% difference. The median duration of observation was 9 months (range, 0-60 months) for MM patients and 19 months (range, 0-66 months) for non-MM patients. The risk of any cardiac event (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.9-2.5), dysrhythmia (HR, 4.1; 95% CI, 3.5-4.8), congestive heart failure (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.2-3.7), cardiomyopathy (HR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8), and conduction disorders (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5) was significantly greater for MM than for non-MM patients. The incidence of hypertensive or arterial events and ischemic heart disease was similar between the 2 groups. The present study provides the first known comparison of cardiac event risk in patients with MM versus age- and gender-matched patients without MM. The cardiac event risk was greater in MM patients with ≥ 3 previous drugs for any cardiac event, dysrhythmias, congestive heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and conduction disorders compared with patients without MM. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis receiving extended dosing regimens of darbepoetin alfa: long-term results of the EXTEND observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Galle, Jan-Christoph; Addison, Janet; Suranyi, Michael G; Claes, Kathleen; Di Giulio, Salvatore; Guerin, Alain; Herlitz, Hans; Kiss, István; Farouk, Mourad; Manamley, Nick; Wirnsberger, Gerhard; Winearls, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Extended dosing of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) darbepoetin alfa (DA) once biweekly or monthly reduces anaemia treatment burden. This observational study assessed outcomes and dosing patterns in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis (CKD-NoD) commencing extended dosing of DA. Adult CKD-NoD patients starting extended dosing of DA in Europe or Australia in June 2006 or later were followed up until December 2012. Outcomes included haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, ESA dosing, mortality rates and receipt of dialysis and renal transplantation. Subgroup analyses were conducted for selected outcomes. Of 6035 enrolled subjects, 5723 (94.8%) met analysis criteria; 1795 (29.7%) received dialysis and 238 (3.9%) underwent renal transplantation. Mean (standard deviation) Hb concentration at commencement of extended dosing was 11.0 (1.5) g/dL. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] Hb 12 months after commencement of extended dosing (primary outcome) was 11.6 g/dL (11.5, 11.6) overall and was similar across countries, with no differences between subjects previously treated with an ESA versus ESA-naïve subjects, subjects with versus without prior renal transplant or diabetics versus non-diabetics. Weekly ESA dose gradually decreased following commencement of extended DA dosing and was similar across subgroups. The decrease in weekly DA dose was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of patients receiving iron therapy. Hb concentrations declined following changes in ESA labels and treatment guidelines. The mortality rate (95% CI) was 7.06 (6.68, 7.46) deaths per 100 years of follow-up. Subjects alive at study end had stable Hb concentrations in the preceding year, while those who died had lower and declining Hb concentrations in their last year. Long-term, extended dosing of DA maintained Hb concentrations in patients already treated with an ESA and corrected and maintained Hb in ESA-naïve patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  17. Outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis receiving extended dosing regimens of darbepoetin alfa: long-term results of the EXTEND observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Galle, Jan-Christoph; Addison, Janet; Suranyi, Michael G.; Claes, Kathleen; Di Giulio, Salvatore; Guerin, Alain; Herlitz, Hans; Kiss, István; Farouk, Mourad; Manamley, Nick; Wirnsberger, Gerhard; Winearls, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Extended dosing of the erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) darbepoetin alfa (DA) once biweekly or monthly reduces anaemia treatment burden. This observational study assessed outcomes and dosing patterns in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis (CKD-NoD) commencing extended dosing of DA. Methods Adult CKD-NoD patients starting extended dosing of DA in Europe or Australia in June 2006 or later were followed up until December 2012. Outcomes included haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, ESA dosing, mortality rates and receipt of dialysis and renal transplantation. Subgroup analyses were conducted for selected outcomes. Results Of 6035 enrolled subjects, 5723 (94.8%) met analysis criteria; 1795 (29.7%) received dialysis and 238 (3.9%) underwent renal transplantation. Mean (standard deviation) Hb concentration at commencement of extended dosing was 11.0 (1.5) g/dL. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] Hb 12 months after commencement of extended dosing (primary outcome) was 11.6 g/dL (11.5, 11.6) overall and was similar across countries, with no differences between subjects previously treated with an ESA versus ESA-naïve subjects, subjects with versus without prior renal transplant or diabetics versus non-diabetics. Weekly ESA dose gradually decreased following commencement of extended DA dosing and was similar across subgroups. The decrease in weekly DA dose was accompanied by an increase in the proportion of patients receiving iron therapy. Hb concentrations declined following changes in ESA labels and treatment guidelines. The mortality rate (95% CI) was 7.06 (6.68, 7.46) deaths per 100 years of follow-up. Subjects alive at study end had stable Hb concentrations in the preceding year, while those who died had lower and declining Hb concentrations in their last year. Conclusions Long-term, extended dosing of DA maintained Hb concentrations in patients already treated with an ESA and corrected and maintained Hb in ESA-naïve patients. PMID

  18. Effect of hyperglycaemia on inflammatory and stress responses and clinical outcome of pneumonia in non-critical-care inpatients: results from an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schuetz, Philipp; Friedli, Natalie; Grolimund, Eva; Kutz, Alexander; Haubitz, Sebastian; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Thomann, Robert; Zimmerli, Werner; Hoess, Claus; Henzen, Christoph; Mueller, Beat

    2014-02-01

    Despite the condition's high prevalence, the influence of hyperglycaemia on clinical outcomes in non-critical-care inpatients with infections remains ill defined. In this study, we analysed associations of glucose levels at admission and during initial inpatient treatment with the inflammatory response and clinical outcome in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. This secondary observational analysis included 880 confirmed CAP patients. We used severity-adjusted multivariate regression models to investigate associations of initial and 96 h mean glucose levels with serially measured biomarker levels over 7 days (C-reactive protein [CRP], procalcitonin, white blood cell count [WBC], pro-adrenomedullin [ProADM]) and adverse clinical course (death and intensive-care unit admission). In the 724 non-diabetic patients (82.3% of the study population), moderate or severe hyperglycaemia (glucose 6-11 mmol/l and >11 mmol/l, respectively) was associated with increased risk for adverse clinical course (adjusted OR [95% CI] 1.4 [0.8, 2.4] and 3.0 [1.1, 8.0], respectively) and with higher CRP, WBC and ProADM levels over 7 days (p < 0.05, ANOVA, all days). In diabetic patients (n = 156), no similar associations were found for initial hyperglycaemia, although mean 96 h glucose levels  ≥ 9 mmol/l were associated with adverse clinical course (adjusted OR 5.4 [1.1, 25.8]; p = 0.03). No effect modification by insulin treatment was detected (interaction terms p > 0.2 for all analyses). Initial hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic CAP patients, and prolonged hyperglycaemia in diabetic or non-diabetic CAP patients, are associated with a more pronounced inflammatory response and CAP-related adverse clinical outcome. Optimal glucose targets for insulin treatment of hyperglycaemia in non-critical-care settings should be defined.

  19. [Ethical considerations in genomic cohort study].

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2007-03-01

    During the last decade, genomic cohort study has been developed in many countries by linking health data and genetic data in stored samples. Genomic cohort study is expected to find key genetic components that contribute to common diseases, thereby promising great advance in genome medicine. While many countries endeavor to build biobank systems, biobank-based genome research has raised important ethical concerns including genetic privacy, confidentiality, discrimination, and informed consent. Informed consent for biobank poses an important question: whether true informed consent is possible in population-based genomic cohort research where the nature of future studies is unforeseeable when consent is obtained. Due to the sensitive character of genetic information, protecting privacy and keeping confidentiality become important topics. To minimize ethical problems and achieve scientific goals to its maximum degree, each country strives to build population-based genomic cohort research project, by organizing public consultation, trying public and expert consensus in research, and providing safeguards to protect privacy and confidentiality.

  20. Novel use of non-echo-planar diffusion weighted MRI in monitoring disease activity and treatment response in active Grave's orbitopathy: An initial observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lingam, Ravi Kumar; Mundada, Pravin; Lee, Vickie

    2018-01-10

    To examine the novel use of non-echo-planar diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) in depicting activity and treatment response in active Grave's orbitopathy (GO) by assessing, with inter-observer agreement, for a correlation between its apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) and conventional Short tau Inversion Recovery (STIR) MRI signal-intensity ratios (SIRs). A total of 23 actively inflamed muscles and 30 muscle response episodes were analysed in patients with active GO who underwent medical treatment. The MRI orbit scans included STIR sequences and non-echo-planar DWI were evaluated. Two observers independently assessed the images qualitatively for the presence of activity in the extraocular muscles (EOMs) and recorded the STIR signal-intensity (SI), SIR (SI ratio of EOM/temporalis muscle), and ADC values of any actively inflamed muscle on the pre-treatment scans and their corresponding values on the subsequent post-treatment scans. Inter-observer agreement was examined. There was a significant positive correlation (0.57, p < 0.001) between ADC and both SIR and STIR SI of the actively inflamed EOM. There was also a significant positive correlation (0.75, p < 0.001) between SIR and ADC values depicting change in muscle activity associated with treatment response. There was good inter-observer agreement. Our preliminary results indicate that quantitative evaluation with non-echo-planar DWI ADC values correlates well with conventional STIR SIR in detecting active GO and monitoring its treatment response, with good inter-observer agreement.

  1. International Guillain-Barré Syndrome Outcome Study: protocol of a prospective observational cohort study on clinical and biological predictors of disease course and outcome in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bart C; van den Berg, Bianca; Verboon, Christine; Chavada, Govindsinh; Cornblath, David R; Gorson, Kenneth C; Harbo, Thomas; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hughes, Richard A C; Kusunoki, Susumu; van Doorn, Pieter A; Willison, Hugh J

    2017-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute polyradiculoneuropathy with a highly variable clinical presentation, course, and outcome. The factors that determine the clinical variation of GBS are poorly understood which complicates the care and treatment of individual patients. The protocol of the ongoing International GBS Outcome Study (IGOS), a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study that aims to identify the clinical and biological determinants and predictors of disease onset, subtype, course and outcome of GBS is presented here. Patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for GBS, regardless of age, disease severity, variant forms, or treatment, can participate if included within 2 weeks after onset of weakness. Information about demography, preceding infections, clinical features, diagnostic findings, treatment, course, and outcome is collected. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid and serial blood samples for serum and DNA is collected at standard time points. The original aim was to include at least 1,000 patients with a follow-up of 1-3 years. Data are collected via a web-based data entry system and stored anonymously. IGOS started in May 2012 and by January 2017 included more than 1,400 participants from 143 active centers in 19 countries across 5 continents. The IGOS data/biobank is available for research projects conducted by expertise groups focusing on specific topics including epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, clinimetrics, electrophysiology, antecedent events, antibodies, genetics, prognostic modeling, treatment effects, and long-term outcome of GBS. The IGOS will help to standardize the international collection of data and biosamples for future research of GBS. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  2. Using full-cohort data in nested case-control and case-cohort studies by multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2013-10-15

    In many large prospective cohorts, expensive exposure measurements cannot be obtained for all individuals. Exposure-disease association studies are therefore often based on nested case-control or case-cohort studies in which complete information is obtained only for sampled individuals. However, in the full cohort, there may be a large amount of information on cheaply available covariates and possibly a surrogate of the main exposure(s), which typically goes unused. We view the nested case-control or case-cohort study plus the remainder of the cohort as a full-cohort study with missing data. Hence, we propose using multiple imputation (MI) to utilise information in the full cohort when data from the sub-studies are analysed. We use the fully observed data to fit the imputation models. We consider using approximate imputation models and also using rejection sampling to draw imputed values from the true distribution of the missing values given the observed data. Simulation studies show that using MI to utilise full-cohort information in the analysis of nested case-control and case-cohort studies can result in important gains in efficiency, particularly when a surrogate of the main exposure is available in the full cohort. In simulations, this method outperforms counter-matching in nested case-control studies and a weighted analysis for case-cohort studies, both of which use some full-cohort information. Approximate imputation models perform well except when there are interactions or non-linear terms in the outcome model, where imputation using rejection sampling works well. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Accelerometer-based physical activity in a large observational cohort--study protocol and design of the activity and function of the elderly in Ulm (ActiFE Ulm) study.

    PubMed

    Denkinger, Michael D; Franke, Sebastian; Rapp, Kilian; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Duran-Tauleria, Enric; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Peter, Richard

    2010-07-27

    A large number of studies have demonstrated a positive effect of increased physical activity (PA) on various health outcomes. In all large geriatric studies, however, PA has only been assessed by interview-based instruments which are all subject to substantial bias. This may represent one reason why associations of PA with geriatric syndromes such as falls show controversial results. The general aim of the Active-Ulm study was to determine the association of accelerometer-based physical activity with different health-related parameters, and to study the influence of this standardized objective measure of physical activity on health- and disability-related parameters in a longitudinal setting. We have set up an observational cohort study in 1500 community dwelling older persons (65 to 90 years) stratified by age and sex. Addresses have been obtained from the local residents registration offices. The study is carried out jointly with the IMCA--Respiratory Health Survey in the Elderly implemented in the context of the European project IMCA II. The study has a cross-sectional part (1) which focuses on PA and disability and two longitudinal parts (2) and (3). The primary information for part (2) is a prospective 1 year falls calendar including assessment of medication change. Part (3) will be performed about 36 months following baseline. Primary variables of interest include disability, PA, falls and cognitive function. Baseline recruitment has started in March 2009 and will be finished in April 2010.All participants are visited three times within one week, either at home or in the study center. Assessments included interviews on quality of life, diagnosed diseases, common risk factors as well as novel cognitive tests and established tests of physical functioning. PA is measured using an accelerometer-based sensor device, carried continuously over a one week period and accompanied by a prospective activity diary. The assessment of PA using a high standard accelerometer

  4. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  5. Comparative effectiveness of echinocandins versus fluconazole therapy for the treatment of adult candidaemia due to Candida parapsilosis: a retrospective observational cohort study of the Mycoses Study Group (MSG-12).

    PubMed

    Chiotos, Kathleen; Vendetti, Neika; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Baddley, John; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Pappas, Peter; Fisher, Brian T

    2016-12-01

    A polymorphism in the gene encoding β-1,3-glucan synthase, the target of the echinocandin class of antifungals, results in increased in vitro MICs of the echinocandins. This has resulted in controversy surrounding use of the echinocandins for treatment of Candida parapsilosis candidaemia. We aimed to compare 30 day mortality in adults with C. parapsilosis candidaemia treated with echinocandins versus fluconazole. This is a retrospective observational cohort study. We used the Premier Perspective Database to identify adult patients with C. parapsilosis candidaemia treated with only fluconazole or only an echinocandin as definitive therapy. The primary outcome was 30 day mortality. Propensity scores were derived to estimate the probability the patient would have received either an echinocandin or fluconazole. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used in a weighted logistic regression to calculate odds of 30 day mortality. There were 307 unique patients with C. parapsilosis candidaemia. One hundred and twenty-six (41%) received fluconazole and 181 (59%) received an echinocandin. Age, gender, race, year of admission, need for ICU resources in the week prior to candidaemia onset, and receipt of vasopressors on the day of candidaemia onset were included in the propensity score model used to calculate inverse probability of treatment weights. Weighted logistic regression demonstrated no difference in 30 day mortality between patients receiving an echinocandin as compared with fluconazole (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.33-2.07). Our result supports the 2016 IDSA invasive candidiasis guidelines, which no longer clearly favour treatment with fluconazole over an echinocandin for C. parapsilosis candidaemia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia with intermediate-dose and step-down to low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole: lessons from an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Creemers-Schild, Dina; Kroon, Frank P; Kuijper, Ed J; de Boer, Mark G J

    2016-06-01

    The recommended treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) in an equivalent of TMP 15-20 mg/kg/day and SMX 75-100 mg/kg/day for 2 or 3 weeks. High rates of adverse events are reported with this dose, which raises the question if lower doses are possible. All adult patients diagnosed with PCP in various immune dysfunctions and treated with TMP-SMX between January 1, 2003 and July 1, 2013 in a tertiary university hospital were included. Per institutional protocol, patients initiated treatment on intermediate-dose TMP-SMX (TMP 10-15 mg/kg/day) and could be stepped down to low-dose TMP-SMX (TMP 4-6 mg/kg/day) during treatment. Clinical variables at presentation, relapse rate and mortality rates were compared between intermediate- and step-down treatment groups by uni- and multivariate analyses. A total of 104 patients were included. Twenty-four patients (23 %) were switched to low-dose TMP-SMX after a median of 4.5 days (IQR 2.8-7.0 days). One relapse (4 %) occurred in the step-down group versus none in the intermediate-dose group. The overall 30-day mortality was 13 %. There was 1 death in the step-down group (4 %) compared to 13 deaths (16 %) in the intermediate-dose group. We observed high cure rates of PCP by treatment with intermediate-dose TMP-SMX. In addition, a step-down strategy to low-dose TMP-SMX during treatment in selected patients appears to be safe and does not compromise the outcome of treatment.

  7. Evaluating discussion board engagement in the MoodSwings online self-help program for bipolar disorder: protocol for an observational prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, Emma; Lauder, Sue; Berk, Lesley; Cosgrove, Victoria; Grimm, David; Dodd, Seetal; Suppes, Trisha; Berk, Michael

    2015-10-14

    Online, self-guided programs exist for a wide range of mental health conditions, including bipolar disorder, and discussion boards are often part of these interventions. The impact engagement with these discussion boards has on the psychosocial well-being of users is largely unknown. More specifically we need to clarify the influence of the type and level of engagement on outcomes. The primary aim of this exploratory study is to determine if there is a relationship between different types (active, passive or none) and levels (high, mid and low) of discussion board engagement and improvement in outcome measures from baseline to follow up, with a focus on self-reported social support, stigma, quality of life and levels of depression and mania. The secondary aim of this study is to identify any differences in demographic variables among discussion users. The present study is a sub-study of the MoodSwings 2.0 3-arm randomised controlled trial (discussion board only (arm 1), discussion board plus psychoeducation (arm 2), discussion board, psychoeducation plus cognitive behavioural therapy-based tools (arm 3)). Discussion engagement will be measured via online participant activity monitoring. Assessments include online self-report as well as blinded phone interviews at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow up. The results of this study will help to inform future programs about whether or not discussion boards are a beneficial inclusion in online self-help interventions. It will also help to determine if motivating users to actively engage in online discussion is necessary, and if so, what level of engagement is optimal to produce the most benefit. Future programs may benefit through being able to identify those most likely to poorly engage, based on demographic variables, so motivational strategies can be targeted accordingly. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02118623 registered April 15 2014 and NCT02106078 registered May 16 2013.

  8. Quality of oral anticoagulation with phenprocoumon in regular medical care and its potential for improvement in a telemedicine-based coagulation service--results from the prospective, multi-center, observational cohort study thrombEVAL.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, Jürgen H; Göbel, Sebastian; Keller, Karsten; Coldewey, Meike; Ullmann, Alexander; Lamparter, Heidrun; Jünger, Claus; Al-Bayati, Zaid; Baer, Christina; Walter, Ulrich; Bickel, Christoph; ten Cate, Hugo; Münzel, Thomas; Wild, Philipp S

    2015-01-23

    The majority of studies on quality of oral anticoagulation (OAC) therapy with vitamin K-antagonists are performed with short-acting warfarin. Data on long-acting phenprocoumon, which is frequently used in Europe for OAC therapy and is considered to enable more stable therapy adjustment, are scarce. In this study, we aimed to assess quality of OAC therapy with phenprocoumon in regular medical care and to evaluate its potential for optimization in a telemedicine-based coagulation service. In the prospective observational cohort study program thrombEVAL we investigated 2,011 patients from regular medical care in a multi-center cohort study and 760 patients from a telemedicine-based coagulation service in a single-center cohort study. Data were obtained from self-reported data, computer-assisted personal interviews, and laboratory measurements according to standard operating procedures with detailed quality control. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) was calculated by linear interpolation method to assess quality of OAC therapy. Study monitoring was carried out by an independent institution. Overall, 15,377 treatment years and 48,955 international normalized ratio (INR) measurements were analyzed. Quality of anticoagulation, as measured by median TTR, was 66.3% (interquartile range (IQR) 47.8/81.9) in regular medical care and 75.5% (IQR 64.2/84.4) in the coagulation service (P <0.001). Stable anticoagulation control within therapeutic range was achieved in 63.8% of patients in regular medical care with TTR at 72.1% (IQR 58.3/84.7) as compared to 96.4% of patients in the coagulation service with TTR at 76.2% [(IQR 65.6/84.7); P = 0.001)]. Prospective follow-up of coagulation service patients with pretreatment in regular medical care showed an improvement of the TTR from 66.2% (IQR 49.0/83.6) to 74.5% (IQR 62.9/84.2; P <0.0001) in the coagulation service. Treatment in the coagulation service contributed to an optimization of the profile of time outside therapeutic range, a

  9. Risk-adjusted survival for adults following in-hospital cardiac arrest by day of week and time of day: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emily J; Smith, Gary B; Power, Geraldine S; Harrison, David A; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Spearpoint, Ken; Gwinnutt, Carl; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-11-01

    Internationally, hospital survival is lower for patients admitted at weekends and at night. Data from the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) indicate that crude hospital survival was worse after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at night versus day, and at weekends versus weekdays, despite similar frequency of events. To describe IHCA demographics during three day/time periods-weekday daytime (Monday to Friday, 08:00 to 19:59), weekend daytime (Saturday and Sunday, 08:00 to 19:59) and night-time (Monday to Sunday, 20:00 to 07:59)-and to compare the associated rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for >20 min (ROSC>20 min) and survival to hospital discharge, adjusted for risk using previously developed NCAA risk models. To consider whether any observed difference could be attributed to differences in the case mix of patients resident in hospital and/or the administered care. We performed a prospectively defined analysis of NCAA data from 27 700 patients aged ≥16 years receiving chest compressions and/or defibrillation and attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in response to a resuscitation (2222) call in 146 UK acute hospitals. Risk-adjusted outcomes (OR (95% CI)) were worse (p<0.001) for both weekend daytime (ROSC>20 min 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95); hospital survival 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80)), and night-time (ROSC>20 min 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76); hospital survival 0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)) compared with weekday daytime. The effects were stronger for non-shockable than shockable rhythms, but there was no significant interaction between day/time of arrest and age, or day/time of arrest and arrest location. While many daytime IHCAs involved procedures, restricting the analyses to IHCAs in medical admissions with an arrest location of ward produced results that are broadly in line with the primary analyses. IHCAs attended by the hospital-based resuscitation team during nights and weekends have substantially worse outcomes than during weekday daytimes

  10. Risk-adjusted survival for adults following in-hospital cardiac arrest by day of week and time of day: observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily J; Power, Geraldine S; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Spearpoint, Ken; Gwinnutt, Carl; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Background Internationally, hospital survival is lower for patients admitted at weekends and at night. Data from the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) indicate that crude hospital survival was worse after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at night versus day, and at weekends versus weekdays, despite similar frequency of events. Objective To describe IHCA demographics during three day/time periods—weekday daytime (Monday to Friday, 08:00 to 19:59), weekend daytime (Saturday and Sunday, 08:00 to 19:59) and night-time (Monday to Sunday, 20:00 to 07:59)—and to compare the associated rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for >20 min (ROSC>20 min) and survival to hospital discharge, adjusted for risk using previously developed NCAA risk models. To consider whether any observed difference could be attributed to differences in the case mix of patients resident in hospital and/or the administered care. Methods We performed a prospectively defined analysis of NCAA data from 27 700 patients aged ≥16 years receiving chest compressions and/or defibrillation and attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in response to a resuscitation (2222) call in 146 UK acute hospitals. Results Risk-adjusted outcomes (OR (95% CI)) were worse (p<0.001) for both weekend daytime (ROSC>20 min 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95); hospital survival 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80)), and night-time (ROSC>20 min 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76); hospital survival 0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)) compared with weekday daytime. The effects were stronger for non-shockable than shockable rhythms, but there was no significant interaction between day/time of arrest and age, or day/time of arrest and arrest location. While many daytime IHCAs involved procedures, restricting the analyses to IHCAs in medical admissions with an arrest location of ward produced results that are broadly in line with the primary analyses. Conclusions IHCAs attended by the hospital-based resuscitation team during nights and weekends have

  11. Risk factors for differential outcome following directly observed treatment (DOT) of slum and non-slum tuberculosis patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Robert E; Marlow, Mariel A; Phuphanich, Melissa E; Riley, Lee W; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2016-09-20

    Brazil's National Tuberculosis Control Program seeks to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment in vulnerable populations. Slum residents are more vulnerable to TB due to a variety of factors, including their overcrowded living conditions, substandard infrastructure, and limited access to healthcare compared to their non-slum dwelling counterparts. Directly observed treatment (DOT) has been suggested to improve TB treatment outcomes among vulnerable populations, but the program's differential effectiveness among urban slum and non-slum residents is not known. We retrospectively compared the impact of DOT on TB treatment outcome in residents of slum and non-slum census tracts in Rio de Janeiro reported to the Brazilian Notifiable Disease Database in 2010. Patient residential addresses were geocoded to census tracts from the 2010 Brazilian Census, which were identified as slum (aglomerados subnormais -AGSN) and non-slum (non-AGSN) by the Census Bureau. Homeless and incarcerated cases as well as those geocoded outside the city's limits were excluded from analysis. In 2010, 6,601 TB cases were geocoded within Rio de Janeiro; 1,874 (27.4 %) were residents of AGSN, and 4,794 (72.6 %) did not reside in an AGSN area. DOT coverage among AGSN cases was 35.2 % (n = 638), while the coverage in non-AGSN cases was 26.2 % (n = 1,234). Clinical characteristics, treatment, follow-up, cure, death and abandonment were similar in both AGSN and non-AGSN TB patients. After adjusting for covariates, AGSN TB cases on DOT had 1.67 (95 % CI: 1.17, 2.4) times the risk of cure, 0.61 (95 % CI: 0.41, 0.90) times the risk of abandonment, and 0.1 (95 % CI: 0.01, 0.77) times the risk of death from TB compared to non-AGSN TB cases not on DOT. While DOT coverage was low among TB cases in both AGSN and non-AGSN communities, it had a greater impact on TB cure rate in AGSN than in non-AGSN populations in the city of Rio de Janeiro.

  12. Cohort Profile: The JS High School study (JSHS): a cohort study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2017-04-01

    Major aetiologies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases begin in childhood and atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities can be observed among children and adolescents. Adolescent cohort studies have important advantages because they can observe earlier changes in vascular structure and function. The purpose of the JS High School study (JSHS) is to identify biomarkers predicting or indicating early structural and functional vascular change in adolescents. The JSHS is a prospective cohort study of a Korean adolescent population. The target population of the JSHS was first-graders (aged 14 to17 years) at a high school of South Korea. Enrolment and baseline examinations were conducted in years 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Among the total eligible population of 1115 students, 1071 (96.1%) participated in the study and completed all baseline examinations. Informed consent forms were obtained from each participant and his/her parent or guardian. Baseline examinations include: questionnaires on demographics, health behaviours, medical history, and depression symptoms; fasting blood analysis; anthropometric measurement; body impedance analysis; blood pressure measurement; radial artery tonometry; bone densitometry; pulmonary function tests; and carotid ultrasonography. Participants enrolled from 2007 through 2012 were re-examined after 30 months of follow-up, and those who enrolled in 2012 were re-examined after 24 months of follow-up. The corresponding author may be contacted for potential collaboration and data access. © The Author 2015; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  13. Are facial injuries really different? An observational cohort study comparing appearance concern and psychological distress in facial trauma and non-facial trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Rahtz, Emmylou; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Hutchison, Iain; Korszun, Ania

    2018-01-01

    Facial injuries are widely assumed to lead to stigma and significant psychosocial burden. Experimental studies of face perception support this idea, but there is very little empirical evidence to guide treatment. This study sought to address the gap. Data were collected from 193 patients admitted to hospital following facial or other trauma. Ninety (90) participants were successfully followed up 8 months later. Participants completed measures of appearance concern and psychological distress (post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms). Participants were classified by site of injury (facial or non-facial injury). The overall levels of appearance concern were comparable to those of the general population, and there was no evidence of more appearance concern among people with facial injuries. Women and younger people were significantly more likely to experience appearance concern at baseline. Baseline and 8-month psychological distress, although common in the sample, did not differ according to the site of injury. Changes in appearance concern were, however, strongly associated with psychological distress at follow-up. We conclude that although appearance concern is severe among some people with facial injury, it is not especially different to those with non-facial injuries or the general public; changes in appearance concern, however, appear to correlate with psychological distress. We therefore suggest that interventions might focus on those with heightened appearance concern and should target cognitive bias and psychological distress. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of low birth weight on time to BCG vaccination in an urban poor settlement in Nairobi, Kenya: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Martin Kavao; Ochako, Rhoune; Ettarh, Remare; Ravn, Henrik; Echoka, Elizabeth; Mwaniki, Peter

    2015-04-18

    The World Health Organization recommends Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis be given at birth. However, in many developing countries, pre-term and low birth weight infants get vaccinated only after they gain the desired weight. In Kenya, the ministry of health recommends pre-term and low birth weight infants to be immunized at the time of discharge from hospital irrespective of their weight. This paper seeks to understand the effects of birth weight on timing of BCG vaccine. The study was conducted in two Nairobi urban informal settlements, Korogocho and Viwandani which hosts the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance system. All infants born in the study area since September 2006 were included in the study. Data on immunization history and birth weight of the infant were recorded from child's clinic card. Follow up visits were done every four months to update immunization status of the child. A total of 3,602 infants were included in this analysis. Log normal accelerated failure time parametric model was used to assess the association between low birth weight infants and time to BCG immunization. In total, 229 (6.4%) infants were low birth weight. About 16.6% of the low birth weight infants weighed less than 2000 grams and 83.4% weighed between 2000 and 2490 grams. Results showed that, 60% of the low birth weight infants received BCG vaccine after more than five weeks of life. Private health facilities were less likely to administer a BCG vaccine on time compared to public health facilities. The effects of low birth weight on females was 0.60 and 0.97-times that of males for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and for infants weighing <2000 grams respectively. The effect of low birth weight among infants born in public health facilities was 1.52 and 3.94-times that of infants delivered in private health facilities for infants weighing 2000-2499 grams and those weighing < 2000 grams respectively. Low birth weight infants

  15. Outcomes of off- and on-hours admission in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: A retrospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jin; Ye, Xiao; Liu, Chen; Xie, Jun; Chen, Jianzhou; Xu, Biao; Wang, Bingjian

    2016-07-01

    Studies evaluating the outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are scarce, particularly in China. The purpose of present study was therefore to compare the impact of off-hours and on-hours admission on clinical outcomes in STEMI patients from China.We retrospectively analyzed 1594 patients from 4 hospitals. Of these, 903 patients (56.65%) were admitted during off-hours (weekdays from 18:00 to 08:00, weekends and holidays) and 691 (43.35%) were during on-hours (weekdays from 08:00 to 18:00).Patients admitted during off-hours had higher thrombolysis in myocardial infarction risk score (4.67 ± 2.27 vs 4.39 ± 2.10, P = 0.012) and longer door-to-balloon time (72 [50-96] vs 64 [42-92] minutes, P < 0.001) than those admitted during on-hours. Off-hours admission had no association with in-hospital (unadjusted odds ratio 2.069, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.956-4.480, P = 0.060) and long-term mortality (unadjusted hazards ratio [HR] 1.469, 95%CI 0.993-2.173, P = 0.054), even after adjustment for confounders. However, long-term outcomes, the composite of deaths and other adverse events, differed between groups with an unadjusted HR of 1.327 (95%CI, 1.102-1.599, P = 0.003), which remained significant in regression models. In a subgroup analysis, off-hours admission was associated with higher long-term mortality in the high-risk subgroup (unadjusted HR 1.965, 95%CI 1.103-3.512, P = 0.042), but not in low- and moderate-risk subgroups.This study showed no association between off-hours admission and in-hospital and long-term mortality. Stratified analysis indicated that off-hours admission was significantly associated with long-term mortality in the high-risk subgroup.

  16. Influence of patient and provider factors on the workload of on-call physicians: A general internal medicine cohort observational study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Che; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Yang, Ming-Chin; Chang, Ray-E; Ko, Wen-Je; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with the physician workload are scarcely reported. The study aims to investigate the associated factors of on-call physician workload based on a published conceptual framework.The study was conducted in a general internal medicine unit of National Taiwan University Hospital. On-call physician workloads were recorded on a shift basis from 1198 hospitalized patients between May 2010 and April 2011. The proxy of on-call workloads included night calls, bedside evaluation/management (E/M), and performing clinical procedures in a shift. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models were used to determine the factors associated with the workloads of on-call physicians.During the study period, 378 (31.6%) of patients had night calls with related workloads. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of patients with unstable conditions in a shift (odds ratio [OR] 1.89 and 1.66, respectively) and the intensive care unit (ICU) training of the nurse leader (OR 2.87 and 3.08, respectively) resulted in higher likelihood of night calls to and bedside E/M visits by the on-call physician. However, ICU training of nurses (OR = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.86) decreased the demand of performing clinical procedures by the on-call physician. Moreover, number of patients with unstable conditions (risk ratio [RR] 1.52 and 1.55, respectively) had significantly increased the number of night calls and bedside E/M by on-call physicians by around 50%. Nurses with N1 level (RR 2.16 and 2.71, respectively) were more likely to place night calls and facilitate bedside E/M by the on-call physician compared to nurses with N0 level. In addition, the nurse leaders with ICU training (RR 1.72 and 3.07, respectively) had significant increases in night calls and bedside E/M by the on-call physician compared to those without ICU training.On-call physician workload is associated with patient factors and the training of nurses. Number of unstable patients

  17. Use of effective contraception 6 months after emergency contraception with a copper intrauterine device or ulipristal acetate - a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Envall, Niklas; Groes Kofoed, Nina; Kopp-Kallner, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Emergency contraception must be followed by the use of an effective method of contraception in order to reduce future risk of unintended pregnancies. Provision of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is highly effective in this regard. The aim of our study was to compare use of an effective method of contraception 6 months following insertion of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) or intake of ulipristal acetate (UPA) for emergency contraception (EC). Women (n = 79) presenting with need for EC at an outpatient midwifery clinic chose either Cu-IUD or UPA according to preference. Follow up was 3 and 6 months later through telephone interviews. Primary outcome was use of an effective contraceptive method at the 6-month follow up. Secondary outcomes included use of an effective contraceptive method at 3 months follow up and acceptability of Cu-IUD. A total of 30/36 (83.3%) women who opted for Cu-IUD for EC used an effective contraceptive method 6 months after their first visit compared with 18/31 (58.1%) women who opted for UPA (p = 0.03). In the Cu-IUD group 28/36 (77.8%) were still using Cu-IUD at 6 months and 31/36 (86%) stated that they would recommend the Cu-IUD to others as an EC method. Significantly more women who chose Cu-IUD for EC used an effective method for contraception at the 6-month follow up. The results of this study support increased use of Cu-IUDs for EC. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  19. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young. PMID:29553058

  20. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors' Offspring.

    PubMed

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-04-05

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors' children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  1. Retention in care during the first 3 years of antiretroviral therapy for women in Malawi's option B+ programme: an observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Haas, Andreas D; Tenthani, Lyson; Msukwa, Malango T; Tal, Kali; Jahn, Andreas; Gadabu, Oliver J; Spoerri, Adrian; Chimbwandira, Frank; van Oosterhout, Joep J; Keiser, Olivia

    2016-04-01

    Studies of Malawi's option B+ programme for HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women have reported high loss to follow-up during pregnancy and at the start of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but few data exist about retention during breastfeeding and after weaning. We examined loss to follow-up and retention in care in patients in the option B+ programme during their first 3 years on ART. We analysed two data sources: aggregated facility-level data about patients in option B+ who started ART between Oct 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012, at 546 health facilities; and patient-level data from 20 large facilities with electronic medical record system for HIV-positive women who started ART between Sept 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013, under option B+ or because they had WHO clinical stages 3 or 4 disease or had CD4 counts of less than 350 cells per μL. We used facility-level data to calculate representative estimates of retention and loss to follow-up. We used patient-level data to study temporal trends in retention, timing of loss to follow-up, and predictors of no follow-up and loss to follow-up. We defined patients who were more than 60 days late for their first follow-up visit as having no follow-up and patients who were more than 60 days late for a subsequent visit as being lost to follow-up. We calculated proportions and cumulative probabilities of patients who had died, stopped ART, had no follow-up, were lost to follow-up, or were retained alive on ART for 36 months. We calculated odds ratios and hazard ratios to examine predictors of no follow-up and loss to follow-up. Analysis of facility-level data about patients in option B+ who had not transferred to a different facility showed retention in care to be 76·8% (20 475 of 26,658 patients) after 12 months, 70·8% (18,306 of 25,849 patients) after 24 months, and 69·7% (17,787 of 25,535 patients) after 36 months. Patient-level data included 29,145 patients. 14,630 (50·2%) began treatment under option B+. Patients in

  2. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  3. Feasibility and safety of setting up a donor breastmilk bank in a neonatal prem unit in a resource limited setting: An observational, longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Coutsoudis, Irene; Adhikari, Miriam; Nair, Nadia; Coutsoudis, Anna

    2011-05-20

    The beneficial effects of human milk on decreasing rates of paediatric infections such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis have been clearly demonstrated. Donor breastmilk has been encouraged as the milk of choice when a mother's own breastmilk is not available. The objectives of this study were to assess feasibility of providing donor breastmilk to infants in a resource limited Neonatal Prem Unit (NPU). In addition we sought to determine whether donor breastmilk could be safely pasteurized and administered to infants without any adverse events. Low birth weight infants < 1800 g and under 32 weeks gestational age were followed up in the NPU over a 3 week period; feeding data and morbidity data was collected in order to determine if there were any adverse events associated with donor breastmilk. Samples of pasteurized breastmilk were cultured to check for any bacterial contamination. 191 infants met the inclusion criteria of whom 96 received their mother's own breastmilk. Of the 95 infants who were potentially eligible to receive donor milk, only 40 did in fact receive donor milk. There was no evidence of bacterial contamination in the samples analyzed, and no evidence of adverse events from feeding with donor breastmilk. It is feasible to supply donor breastmilk to infants in an NPU in a resource limited setting, however staff needs to be sensitized to the importance of donor breastmilk to improve uptake rates. Secondly we showed that it is possible to supply donor breastmilk according to established guidelines with no adverse events therefore making it possible to prevent NEC and other side effects often associated with formula feeding of premature infants.

  4. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history - observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-12-01

    To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow's milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow's milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow's milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history.

  5. Differential Drug Survival of Second-Line Biologic Therapies in Patients with Psoriasis: Observational Cohort Study from the British Association of Dermatologists Biologic Interventions Register (BADBIR).

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Ireny Y K; Warren, Richard B; Lunt, Mark; Mason, Kayleigh J; Evans, Ian; McElhone, Kathleen; Smith, Catherine H; Reynolds, Nick J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Griffiths, Christopher E M

    2018-04-01

    Little is known about the drug survival of second-line biologic therapies for psoriasis in routine clinical practice. We assessed drug survival of second-line biologic therapies and estimated the risk of recurrent discontinuation due to adverse events or ineffectiveness in patients with psoriasis who had failed a first biologic therapy and switched to a second in a large, multicenter pharmacovigilance registry (n = 1,239; adalimumab, n = 538; etanercept, n = 104; ustekinumab, n = 597). The overall drug survival rate in the first year after switching was 77% (95% confidence interval = 74-79%), falling to 58% (55-61%) in the third year. Female sex, multiple comorbidities, concomitant therapy with cyclosporine, and a high Psoriasis Area and Severity Index at switching to the second-line biologic therapy were predictors of overall discontinuation (multivariable Cox proportional hazard model). Compared to adalimumab, patients receiving etanercept were more likely to discontinue therapy (hazard ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.83), whereas patients receiving ustekinumab were more likely to persist (hazard ratio = 0.46; 95% confidence interval = 0.33-0.64). Discontinuation of the first biologic therapy because of adverse events was associated with an increased rate of second drug discontinuation because of adverse events (hazard ratio = 2.55; 95% confidence interval = 1.50-4.32). In conclusion, drug survival rates differed among biologic therapies and decreased over time; second-line discontinuation because of adverse events was more common among those who discontinued first-line treatment for this reason. The results of this study should support clinical decision making when choosing second-line biologic therapy for patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistent stress urinary incontinence during pregnancy and one year after delivery; its prevalence, risk factors and impact on quality of life in Taiwanese women: An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Hao; Chang, Shuenn-Dhy; Hsieh, Wu-Chiao; Chang, Yao-Lung; Chueh, Ho-Yen; Chao, An-Shine; Liang, Ching-Chung

    2018-06-01

    The study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and its impact on the quality of life during pregnancy and 12 months after delivery. 866 women delivering their newborns at a tertiary hospital were recruited. All women were asked to complete several questionnaires including demographic and obstetric data, Short Form 12 health survey (SF-12), Urogenital Distress Inventory Short Form (UDI-6), and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire Short Form (IIQ-7). All women were interviewed via telephone to answer the same questionnaires at 12 months postpartum. There were 446 (51.5%) self-reported SUI women during pregnancy. Out of 560 women delivered vaginally, 70 (12.5%) had SUI at 12 months postpartum; in 306 women undergoing Cesarean delivery, 22 (7.2%) experienced SUI 12 months after delivery. Risk factors of SUI during pregnancy included body weight and body mass index at first visit. At 12 months postpartum, parity stood out as the risk factor of persistent SUI in vaginal delivery group, but no significant risk factor was found in Cesarean group. Women with SUI during pregnancy featured worse mental component summary (MCS) score of SF-12, compared to women without SUI. At 12 months postpartum, women with persistent SUI in vaginal delivery group had higher mean UDI-6 and IIQ-7 scores than those without SUI. Persistent SUI is more prevalent in the vaginal delivery group than Cesarean group. Both SUI during pregnancy and after childbirth have negative impact on the quality of life in women undergoing vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. An evaluation of the usefulness of consensus definitions of sarcopenia in older men: results from the observational Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Blackwell, Terri L; Cauley, Jane; Kado, Deborah M; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Lee, Christine G; Hoffman, Andrew R; Nevitt, Michael M; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, several consensus definitions for sarcopenia have been developed. Objective To evaluate the associations and discriminative ability of definitions of sarcopenia against clinical outcomes. Design Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study Setting Six clinical centers Participants 5,934 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 yrs Measurements Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group (IWG), European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons (EWGSOP), Foundation for the NIH (FNIH) Sarcopenia, Baumgartner, and Newman. Recurrent falls were defined as ≥2 self-reported falls in the year after baseline (N=694, 11.9%). Incident hip fractures (N=207, 3.5 %) and deaths (N=2003, 34.1%) were confirmed by central review of medical records over 9.8 years. Self-reported functional limitations were assessed at baseline and again 4.6 years later. Logistic regression or proportional hazards models estimated associations between sarcopenia and falls, hip fractures or death. The discriminative ability of the sarcopenia definitions (compared to referent models) for these outcomes was evaluated with areas under the receiver operator curve (AUCs) or C-statistics. Referent models included age alone for falls, function limitations and mortality, and age and BMD for hip fractures. Results The association between sarcopenia by the various definitions and risk of falls, functional limitations, and hip fractures was variable; all definitions were associated with increased mortality risk. However, none of the definitions materially changed discrimination based on AUC and C-statistic when compared to referent models (change ≤1% in all models). Conclusions Sarcopenia definitions as currently constructed did not consistently improve prediction of clinical outcomes in relatively healthy older men. PMID:26502831

  8. To what extent does the Health Professions Admission Test-Ireland predict performance in early undergraduate tests of communication and clinical skills? An observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maureen E; Regan, Daniel; Dunne, Fidelma; Henn, Patrick; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun

    2013-05-10

    Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity.A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks.In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the predictive power was modest. We found

  9. To what extent does the Health Professions Admission Test-Ireland predict performance in early undergraduate tests of communication and clinical skills? – An observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Internationally, tests of general mental ability are used in the selection of medical students. Examples include the Medical College Admission Test, Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test and the UK Clinical Aptitude Test. The most widely used measure of their efficacy is predictive validity. A new tool, the Health Professions Admission Test- Ireland (HPAT-Ireland), was introduced in 2009. Traditionally, selection to Irish undergraduate medical schools relied on academic achievement. Since 2009, Irish and EU applicants are selected on a combination of their secondary school academic record (measured predominately by the Leaving Certificate Examination) and HPAT-Ireland score. This is the first study to report on the predictive validity of the HPAT-Ireland for early undergraduate assessments of communication and clinical skills. Method Students enrolled at two Irish medical schools in 2009 were followed up for two years. Data collected were gender, HPAT-Ireland total and subsection scores; Leaving Certificate Examination plus HPAT-Ireland combined score, Year 1 Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) scores (Total score, communication and clinical subtest scores), Year 1 Multiple Choice Questions and Year 2 OSCE and subset scores. We report descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients and Multiple linear regression models. Results Data were available for 312 students. In Year 1 none of the selection criteria were significantly related to student OSCE performance. The Leaving Certificate Examination and Leaving Certificate plus HPAT-Ireland combined scores correlated with MCQ marks. In Year 2 a series of significant correlations emerged between the HPAT-Ireland and subsections thereof with OSCE Communication Z-scores; OSCE Clinical Z-scores; and Total OSCE Z-scores. However on multiple regression only the relationship between Total OSCE Score and the Total HPAT-Ireland score remained significant; albeit the

  10. Red blood cell transfusion and increased length of storage are not associated with deep vein thrombosis in medical and surgical critically ill patients: a prospective observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction With prolonged storage times, cell membranes of red blood cells (RBCs) undergo morphologic and biochemical changes, termed 'RBC storage lesions'. Storage lesions may promote inflammation and thrombophilia when transfused. In trauma patients, RBC transfusion was an independent risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), specifically when RBC units were stored > 21 days or when 5 or more units were transfused. The objective of this study was to determine if RBC transfusions or RBC storage age predicts incident DVT in medical or surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods Using a database which prospectively enrolled 261 patients over the course of 1 year with an ICU stay of at least 3 days, we analyzed DVT and RBC transfusions using Cox proportional hazards regression. Transfusions were analyzed with 4 thresholds, and storage age using 3 thresholds. DVTs were identified by twice-weekly proximal leg ultrasounds. Multivariable analyses were adjusted for 4 significant DVT predictors in this population (venous thrombosis history, chronic dialysis, platelet transfusion and inotropes). Results Of 261 patients, 126 (48.3%) had at least 1 RBC transfusion; 46.8% of those transfused had ≥ 5 units in ICU. Patients receiving RBCs were older (68.8 vs 64.1 years), more likely to be female (47.0 vs 30.7), sicker (APACHEII 26.8 vs 24.4), and more likely to be surgical (21.4 vs 8.9) (P < 0.05). The total number of RBCs per patient was 1-64, mean was 6.3 (SD 7.5), median was 4 (IQR 2,8). In univariate analyses, there was no association between DVT and RBC exposure (1 day earlier, 3 days earlier, 7 days earlier, or ever) or RBC storage (≤ 7 or > 7 days, ≤ 14 or > 14 days, ≤ 21 or > 21 days). Among patients transfused, no multivariable analyses showed that RBC transfusion or storage age predicted DVT. Trends were counter to the hypothesis (e.g., RBC storage for ≤ 7 days suggested a higher DVT risk compared to > 7 days (HR 5.3; 95% CI 1

  11. Conditioned Pain Modulation and Situational Pain Catastrophizing as Preoperative Predictors of Pain following Chest Wall Surgery: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Grosen, Kasper; Vase, Lene; Pilegaard, Hans K.; Pfeiffer-Jensen, Mogens; Drewes, Asbjørn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Variability in patients' postoperative pain experience and response to treatment challenges effective pain management. Variability in pain reflects individual differences in inhibitory pain modulation and psychological sensitivity, which in turn may be clinically relevant for the disposition to acquire pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing on postoperative pain and pain persistency. Methods Preoperatively, 42 healthy males undergoing funnel chest surgery completed the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Beck's Depression Inventory before undergoing a sequential conditioned pain modulation paradigm. Subsequently, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was introduced and patients were instructed to reference the conditioning pain while answering. Ratings of movement-evoked pain and consumption of morphine equivalents were obtained during postoperative days 2–5. Pain was reevaluated at six months postoperatively. Results Patients reporting persistent pain at six months follow-up (n = 15) were not significantly different from pain-free patients (n = 16) concerning preoperative conditioned pain modulation response (Z = 1.0, P = 0.3) or level of catastrophizing (Z = 0.4, P = 1.0). In the acute postoperative phase, situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain, independently of anxiety and depression (β = 1.0, P = 0.007) whereas conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption (β = −0.005, P = 0.001). Conclusions Preoperative conditioned pain modulation and situational pain catastrophizing were not associated with the development of persistent postoperative pain following funnel chest repair. Secondary outcome analyses indicated that conditioned pain modulation predicted morphine consumption and situational pain catastrophizing predicted movement-evoked pain intensity in the acute postoperative

  12. The Hokkaido Birth Cohort Study on Environment and Children's Health: cohort profile-updated 2017.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Ait Bamai, Yu; Yamazaki, Keiko; Miura, Ryu; Tamura, Naomi; Ito, Kumiko; Goudarzi, Houman

    2017-05-18

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking. The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the Hokkaido Study, to summarize the recent results, and to suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the basic characteristics of the cohort populations, discusses the population remaining in the cohorts and those who were lost to follow-up at birth, and introduces the newly added follow-up studies and case-cohort study design. In the Sapporo cohort of 514 enrolled pregnant women, various specimens, including maternal and cord blood, maternal hair, and breast milk, were collected for the assessment of exposures to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, bisphenol A, and methylmercury. As follow-ups, face-to-face neurobehavioral developmental tests were conducted at several different ages. In the Hokkaido cohort of 20,926 enrolled pregnant women, the prevalence of complicated pregnancies and birth outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age were examined. The levels of exposure to environmental chemicals were relatively low in these study populations compared to those reported previously. We also studied environmental chemical exposure in association with health outcomes

  13. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  14. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  15. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well-annotated urine , blood...with no coordinating center and each site will be responsible for maintaining/storing their own data/ samples . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer...Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well-annotated urine , blood, and tissue specimens as part of a multi-institutional Department of

  16. Prostate Cancer Biospecimen Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army...SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES...14. ABSTRACT The goal of the study is development of a Prostate Cancer Biorepository Network (PCBN) resource site with high quality and well

  17. Outcome in lacunar stroke: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mantero, V; Scaccabarozzi, C; Botto, E; Giussani, G; Aliprandi, A; Lunghi, A; Ciusani, E; Brenna, G; Salmaggi, A

    2018-05-16

    We evaluated a prospective cohort of 150 patients under observation in our centre for lacunar strokes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome at time of discharge and 6 months after lacunar stroke, as well as the correlation with cardiovascular risk factors and selected biochemical parameters already evaluated on admission. Focus was to identify possible prognostic factors, which might be targeted through appropriate intervention concentrating on reduction in the incidence and impact of early clinical deterioration. 150 patients with a lacunar stroke were included in the present study. A clinical 6-month follow-up was available for 98.7% of the patients. Infarcts were classified by size, shape and location. The most important predictors of high NIHSS score at time of discharge resulted NIHSS on admission (P < .001), leukocytosis (P = .013), in-hospital infections (P = .016) and size of lacunae (P = .005). Similarly, the most important predictors of poor outcome 6 months later were NIHSS on admission (P = .01), leukocytosis (P = .014), elevated CRP (P = .019), in addition to pre-admission Rankin (P < .001). Although infections are not causatively related to lacunar strokes, their prompt recognition and early treatment, control of inflammatory markers and fever are most important in influencing functional outcome in lacunar stroke. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An Observational Cohort Study Examining the Effect of the Duration of Skin-to-Skin Contact on the Physiological Parameters of the Neonate in a Neonatal Intensive Special Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hannah; Santamaria, Nick

    2018-06-01

    Focus on skin-to-skin contact (SSC) as a family-centered care intervention in Neonatal Intensive Special Care (NISC) Units continues to increase. Previously, SSC has been shown to improve neonatal physiological stability, support brain development, and promote bonding and attachment. Limited research exists investigating SSC duration and neonatal physiological responses. This study examined the relationship between SSC duration and the neonate's oxygen saturation, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and temperature. An observational cohort study was conducted at The Royal Women's Hospital NISC Unit in Melbourne, Australia. For each neonate participant, 1 SSC with their parent was studied (parent convenience) and neonatal physiological parameters recorded, with a bivariate correlation used to explore the relationship between the duration of SSC and the percentage of time during SSC that the neonate's physiological variables remained within a target range. No correlation existed between the duration of SSC and the neonatal physiological variables of oxygen saturation, HR, RR, and temperature. However, neonatal oxygen requirement was more often reduced across the duration of SSC. Due to previously documented benefits to neonates physiologically from SSC, and our supportive finding that SSC reduces neonatal oxygen requirement, we believe that this study adds to the evidence to support promotion of SSC in NISC Units. The duration of SSC does not appear to negatively impact the physiological effects to the neonate. Thus, SSC should be encouraged in all NISC Units to be conducted for the length of time the parent is able. This study should be repeated with a larger sample size.

  19. Odontogenic sinus tracts: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Slutzky-Goldberg, Iris; Tsesis, Igor; Slutzky, Hagay; Heling, Ilana

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence,location, and distribution of sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic consultation. This cohort study included 1,119 subjects referred for endodontic consultation, 108 of whom presented with sinus tracts. Following clinical and radiographic examination, the diameter of the rarifying osteitis lesion on the radiograph was measured and the path and origin of the sinus tracts determined. Signs and symptoms, tooth site,buccal/lingual location, and diameter were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using Pearson chi-square test. Sinus tracts originated mainly from maxillary teeth (63.1%); only 38.9% originated from mandibular teeth. Chronic periapical abscess was the most prevalent diagnosed origin (71.0%). Broken restorations were highly associated with the presence of sinus tracts (53.0%). The most frequent site of orifices was buccal(82.4%), followed by lingual or palatal (12.0%). Orifices on the lingual aspect of the gingiva were observed in mandibularmolars. There was an 86.8% correlation between the occurrence of an apically located sinus tract and apical rarifying osteitis(P<.01). Sinus tract in the lingual or palatal aspect of the gingiva is relatively common. Practitioners should look for signs of sinus tract during routine examination

  20. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    PubMed

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. High colonization rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli in Swiss travellers to South Asia- a prospective observational multicentre cohort study looking at epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kuenzli, Esther; Jaeger, Veronika K; Frei, Reno; Neumayr, Andreas; DeCrom, Susan; Haller, Sabine; Blum, Johannes; Widmer, Andreas F; Furrer, Hansjakob; Battegay, Manuel; Endimiani, Andrea; Hatz, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    International travel contributes to the worldwide spread of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Rates of travel-related faecal colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary for different destinations. Especially travellers returning from the Indian subcontinent show high colonization rates. So far, nothing is known about region-specific risk factors for becoming colonized. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to South Asia. Before and after travelling, rectal swabs were screened for third-generation cephalosporin- and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Participants completed questionnaires to identify risk factors for becoming colonized. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Hundred and seventy persons were enrolled, the largest data set on travellers to the Indian subcontinent so far. The acquired colonization rate with ESBL-producing Escherichia coli overall was 69.4% (95% CI 62.1-75.9%), being highest in travellers returning from India (86.8%; 95% CI 78.5-95.0%) and lowest in travellers returning from Sri Lanka (34.7%; 95% CI 22.9-48.7%). Associated risk factors were travel destination, length of stay, visiting friends and relatives, and eating ice cream and pastry. High colonization rates with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in travellers returning from South Asia. Though risk factors were identified, a more common source, i.e. environmental, appears to better explain the high colonization rates.

  2. Influence of quality of care and individual patient characteristics on quality of life and return to work in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome: protocol for a prospective, observational, multi-centre patient cohort study (DACAPO).

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, Susanne; Dodoo-Schittko, Frank; Blecha, Sebastian; Sebök, Philipp; Thomann-Hackner, Kathrin; Quintel, Michael; Weber-Carstens, Steffen; Bein, Thomas; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2015-12-17

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and return to work are important outcomes in critical care medicine, reaching beyond mortality. Little is known on factors predictive of HRQoL and return to work in critical illness, including the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and no evidence exists on the role of quality of care (QoC) for outcomes in survivors of ARDS. It is the aim of the DACAPO study ("Surviving ARDS: the influence of QoC and individual patient characteristics on quality of life") to investigate the role of QoC and individual patient characteristics on quality of life and return to work. A prospective, observational, multi-centre patient cohort study will be performed in Germany, using hospitals from the "ARDS Network Germany" as the main recruiting centres. It is envisaged to recruit 2400 patients into the DACAPO study and to analyse a study population of 1500 survivors. They will be followed up until 12 months after discharge from hospital. QoC will be assessed as process quality, structural quality and volume at the institutional level. The main outcomes (HRQoL and return to work) will be assessed by self-report questionnaires. Further data collection includes general medical and ARDS-related characteristics of patients as well as sociodemographic and psycho-social parameters. Multilevel hierarchical modelling will be performed to analyse the effects of QoC and individual patient characteristics on outcomes, taking the cluster structure of the data into account. By obtaining comprehensive data at patient and hospital level using a prospective multi-centre design, the DACAPO-study is the first study investigating the influence of QoC on individual outcomes of ARDS survivors.

  3. Can commonly prescribed drugs be repurposed for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases? Protocol for an observational cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Walker, Venexia M; Davies, Neil M; Jones, Tim; Kehoe, Patrick G; Martin, Richard M

    2016-12-13

    Current treatments for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases have only limited effectiveness meaning that there is an urgent need for new medications that could influence disease incidence and progression. We will investigate the potential of a selection of commonly prescribed drugs, as a more efficient and cost-effective method of identifying new drugs for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer's disease dementias, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our research will focus on drugs used for the treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and type 2 diabetes, all of which have previously been identified as potentially cerebroprotective and have variable levels of preclinical evidence that suggest they may have beneficial effects for various aspects of dementia pathology. We will conduct a hypothesis testing observational cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Our analysis will consider four statistical methods, which have different approaches for modelling confounding. These are multivariable adjusted Cox regression; propensity matched regression; instrumental variable analysis and marginal structural models. We will also use an intention-to-treat analysis, whereby we will define all exposures based on the first prescription observed in the database so that the target parameter is comparable to that estimated by a randomised controlled trial. This protocol has been approved by the CPRD's Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC). We will publish the results of the study as open-access peer-reviewed publications and disseminate findings through national and international conferences as are appropriate. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Can commonly prescribed drugs be repurposed for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases? Protocol for an observational cohort study in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil M; Jones, Tim; Kehoe, Patrick G; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Current treatments for Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases have only limited effectiveness meaning that there is an urgent need for new medications that could influence disease incidence and progression. We will investigate the potential of a selection of commonly prescribed drugs, as a more efficient and cost-effective method of identifying new drugs for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer's disease dementias, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our research will focus on drugs used for the treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and type 2 diabetes, all of which have previously been identified as potentially cerebroprotective and have variable levels of preclinical evidence that suggest they may have beneficial effects for various aspects of dementia pathology. Methods and analysis We will conduct a hypothesis testing observational cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). Our analysis will consider four statistical methods, which have different approaches for modelling confounding. These are multivariable adjusted Cox regression; propensity matched regression; instrumental variable analysis and marginal structural models. We will also use an intention-to-treat analysis, whereby we will define all exposures based on the first prescription observed in the database so that the target parameter is comparable to that estimated by a randomised controlled trial. Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the CPRD's Independent Scientific Advisory Committee (ISAC). We will publish the results of the study as open-access peer-reviewed publications and disseminate findings through national and international conferences as are appropriate. PMID:27965247

  5. Medication safety research by observational study design.

    PubMed

    Lao, Kim S J; Chui, Celine S L; Man, Kenneth K C; Lau, Wallis C Y; Chan, Esther W; Wong, Ian C K

    2016-06-01

    Observational studies have been recognised to be essential for investigating the safety profile of medications. Numerous observational studies have been conducted on the platform of large population databases, which provide adequate sample size and follow-up length to detect infrequent and/or delayed clinical outcomes. Cohort and case-control are well-accepted traditional methodologies for hypothesis testing, while within-individual study designs are developing and evolving, addressing previous known methodological limitations to reduce confounding and bias. Respective examples of observational studies of different study designs using medical databases are shown. Methodology characteristics, study assumptions, strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed in this review.

  6. [Quality standards for epidemiologic cohort studies : An evaluated catalogue of requirements for the conduct and preparation of cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Krabbe, Christine E M; Schössow, Janka; Berger, Klaus; Enzenbach, Cornelia; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Schöne, Gina; Houben, Robin; Meisinger, Christa; Bamberg, Fabian; Hendel, Thomas; Selder, Sonja; Nonnemacher, Michael; Moebus, Susanne; Stausberg, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    Cohort studies are a longitudinal observational study type. They are firmly established within epidemiology to assess the course of diseases and risk factors. Yet, standards to describe and evaluate quality characteristics of cohort studies need further development. Within the TMF ("Technologie- und Methodenplattform für die vernetzte medizinische Forschung e. V.") project "Quality management standards in cohort studies", a catalogue of requirements was compiled and evaluated, focusing on the preparation and conduct of epidemiologic cohort studies. The catalogue of requirements was established based on a consensus process between representatives of seven German epidemiologic cohort studies. For this purpose, a set of expert meetings (telephone, face-to-face, web-based) was conducted and the importance of each element of the catalogue was assessed as well as its implementation. A catalogue of requirements with 138 requirements was consented. It is structured into ten sections: 1. Study documentation; 2. Selection of instruments; 3. Study implementation, 4. Organizational structure; 5. Qualification and certification; 6. Participant recruitment; 7. Preparation, conduct and follow-up processing of examinations; 8. Study logistics and maintenance, 9. Data capture and data management; 10. Reporting and monitoring. In total, 41 elements were categorized as being essential, 91 as important, and 6 as less important. The catalogue of requirements provides a guideline to improve the preparation and operation of cohort studies. The evaluation of the importance and degree of implementation of requirements depended on the study design. With adaptations, the catalogue might be transferable to other study types.

  7. Feasibility of cohort studies in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Innos, K.; Rahu, M.; Rahu, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology and feasibility of follow up for vital status in retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. METHODS: A cohort of 7412 workers who had been employed at two factories in Tallinn between 1946 and 1988 was followed up for vital status from the date of first employment until death, emigration, or the end of the study, 31 December 1995, whichever occurred first. The cohort was electronically linked with the National Population Registry of Estonia that was created in 1992 and includes personal identification numbers of Estonian citizens and residents, and the Mortality Database that contains information from death certificates issued in 1983-95. A manual search was carried out on several non-computerised population data sources and archives. RESULTS: By 31 December 1995, the vital status of 6780 (91.5%) subjects could be traced (4495 (60.6%) subjects were alive, 1993 (26.9%) had died, and 292 (3.9%) had emigrated). Analysis by calendar period of leaving work showed that the propo