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Sample records for observational studies involving

  1. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and nitric oxide synthase. Articles were selected for review by title and abstract excluding letter, review, in vivo and in vitro studies, and duplicates studies. Selected articles were reviewed for study design, original purposes, sample size, main outcomes, methods, and oxidative-nitrosative stress markers values. Results: In total, 4,331 non-duplicates articles were identified from electronic databases searches, of which 16 were eligible for full text searching. Data from the observational studies originate from Asian countries (50%; 8/16), South American countries (31.2%; 5/16), and Central America and the Caribbean countries (18.8%; 3/16). Case-control study was the type of design most common in researches reviewed. The 1997 World Health Organization (WHO) dengue case classification criteria were used in all studies included in this review. Conclusions: Based on published data found in peer-reviewed literature, oxidative and nitrosative stress are demonstrated by changes in plasma levels of nitric oxide, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation markers in patients with dengue infection. Additionally, elevated serum protein carbonyls and malondialdehyde levels appear to be associated with dengue disease severity. PMID:26600629

  2. Patients' and Observers' Perceptions of Involvement Differ. Validation Study on Inter-Relating Measures for Shared Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Jürgen; Heesen, Christoph; Köpke, Sascha; Fulcher, Gary; Geiger, Friedemann

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patient involvement into medical decisions as conceived in the shared decision making method (SDM) is essential in evidence based medicine. However, it is not conclusively evident how best to define, realize and evaluate involvement to enable patients making informed choices. We aimed at investigating the ability of four measures to indicate patient involvement. While use and reporting of these instruments might imply wide overlap regarding the addressed constructs this assumption seems questionable with respect to the diversity of the perspectives from which the assessments are administered. Methods The study investigated a nested cohort (N = 79) of a randomized trial evaluating a patient decision aid on immunotherapy for multiple sclerosis. Convergent validities were calculated between observer ratings of videotaped physician-patient consultations (OPTION) and patients' perceptions of the communication (Shared Decision Making Questionnaire, Control Preference Scale & Decisional Conflict Scale). Results OPTION reliability was high to excellent. Communication performance was low according to OPTION and high according to the three patient administered measures. No correlations were found between observer and patient judges, neither for means nor for single items. Patient report measures showed some moderate correlations. Conclusion Existing SDM measures do not refer to a single construct. A gold standard is missing to decide whether any of these measures has the potential to indicate patient involvement. Practice Implications Pronounced heterogeneity of the underpinning constructs implies difficulties regarding the interpretation of existing evidence on the efficacy of SDM. Consideration of communication theory and basic definitions of SDM would recommend an inter-subjective focus of measurement. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN25267500. PMID:22043310

  3. Skeletal involvement in Gaucher disease: An observational multicenter study of prognostic factors in the Argentine Gaucher disease patients.

    PubMed

    Drelichman, Guillermo; Fernández Escobar, Nicolás; Basack, Nora; Aversa, Luis; Larroude, María Silvia; Aguilar, Gabriela; Szlago, Marina; Schenone, Andrea; Fynn, Alcyra; Cuello, María Fernanda; Aznar, Marcela; Fernández, Ramiro; Ruiz, Alba; Reichel, Paola; Guelbert, Norberto; Robledo, Hugo; Watman, Nora; Bolesina, Moira; Elena, Graciela; Veber, S Ernesto; Pujal, Graciela; Galván, Graciela; Chain, Juan José; Arizo, Adriana; Bietti, Julieta; Bar, Daniel; Dragosky, Marta; Marquez, Marisa; Feldman, Leonardo; Muller, Katja; Zirone, Sandra; Buchovsky, Greogorio; Lanza, Victoria; Sanabria, Alba; Fernández, Ignacio; Jaureguiberry, Rossana; Contte, Marcelo; Barbieri María, Angie; Maro, Alejandra; Zárate, Graciela; Fernández, Gabriel; Rapetti, María Cristina; Donato, Hugo; Degano, Adriana; Kantor, Gustavo; Albina, Roberto; Á Lvarez Bollea, María; Brun, María; Bacciedoni, Viviana; Del Río, Francis; Soberón, Bárbara; Boido, Nazario; Schweri, Maya; Borchichi, Sandra; Welsh, Victoria; Corrales, Marcela; Cedola, Alejandra; Carvani, Analía; Diez, Blanca; Richard, Lucía; Baduel, Ccecilia; Nuñez, Gabriela; Colimodio, Rubén; Barazzutti, Lucía; Medici, Hugo; Meschengieser, Susana; Damiani, Germán; Nucifora, María; Girardi, Beatriz; Gómez, Sergio; Papucci, Maura; Verón, David; Quiroga, Luis; Carro, Gustavo; De Ambrosio, Patricia; Ferro, José; Pujol, Marcelo; Castella, Cristina Cabral; Franco, Liliana; Nisnovich, Gisela; Veloso, María; Pacheco, Isabel; Savarino, Mario; Marino, Andrés; Saavedra, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Patients with Gaucher type 1 (GD1) throughout Argentina were enrolled in the Argentine bone project to evaluate bone disease and its determinants. We focused on presence and predictors of bone lesions (BL) and their relationship to therapeutic goals (TG) with timing and dose of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). A total of 124 patients on ERT were enrolled in a multi-center study. All six TG were achieved by 82% of patients: 70.1% for bone pain and 91.1% for bone crisis. However, despite the fact that bone TGs were achieved, residual bone disease was present in 108 patients on ERT (87%) at time 0. 16% of patients showed new irreversible BL (bone infarcts and avascular osteonecrosis) despite ERT, suggesting that they appeared during ERT or were not detected at the moment of diagnosis. We observed 5 prognostic factors that predicted a higher probability of being free of bone disease: optimal ERT compliance; early diagnosis; timely initiation of therapy; ERT initiation dose ≥45 UI/kg/EOW; and the absence of history of splenectomy. Skeletal involvement was classified into 4 major phenotypic groups according to BL: group 1 (12.9%) without BL; group 2 (28.2%) with reversible BL; group 3 (41.9%) with reversible BL and irreversible chronic BL; and group 4 (16.9%) with acute irreversible BL. Our study identifies prognostic factors for achieving best therapeutic outcomes, introduces new risk stratification for patients and suggests the need for a redefinition of bone TG. Am. J. Hematol. 91:E448-E453, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Troponin T in Patients with Traumatic Chest Injuries with and without Cardiac Involvement: Insights from an Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Ismail; El-Menyar, Ayman; Dabdoob, Wafer; Abdulrahman, Yassir; Siddiqui, Tarriq; Atique, Sajid; Arumugam, Suresh Kumar; Latifi, Rifat; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serum troponin T (TnT) is a common marker of myocardial injury. However, its implication in the absence of clinical evidence of cardiac reason is not well established. Aims: The aim of this study was to identify the implications of positive TnT in traumatic chest injury (TCI) patients regardless of the cardiac involvement. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all TCI patients admitted to level 1 trauma center between 2008 and 2011. Patients who underwent TnT testing were divided into two groups: Group 1 (positive TnT) and Group 2 (negative TnT). The two groups were analyzed and compared, and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of TnT positivity and mortality. Results: Out of 993 blunt TCI patients, 19.3% had positive TnT (Group 1). On comparison to Group 2, patients in Group 1 were 5 years younger and more likely to have head, cardiac, hepatic, splenic, and pelvic injuries, in addition to lung contusion. Positive TnT was associated with higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (P = 0.001), higher chest Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) (P = 0.001), and longer hospital stay (P = 0.03). In addition, Group 1 patients were more likely to undergo chest tube insertion, exploratory laparotomy, mechanical ventilation, and tracheostomy. Twenty patients had cardiac involvement, and of them 14 had positive TnT. Among 973 patients who showed no evidence of cardiac involvement, 178 had positive TnT (18.3%). There were 104 deaths (60% in Group 1). On multivariate regression analysis, the predictors of hospital mortality were positive TnT, head injury, and high ISS, whereas, the predictors of TnT positivity were cardiac, hepatic, and pelvic injuries; higher ISS; and age. Conclusions: Positive TnT in blunt TCI patients is a common challenge, particularly in polytrauma cases. Patients with positive TnT tend to have the worst outcome even in the absence of clinical evidence of acute cardiac involvement. Positive TnT is

  5. Theoretical Foundations of Research Focused on HIV Prevention Among Substance-involved Women: A Review of Observational and Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Judith D.; Smith, Laramie R.

    2016-01-01

    Although substance use continues to be a significant component of HIV risk among women worldwide, to date relatively little attention has been paid in research, services, or policy to substance-involved women (SIW). HIV acquisition for SIW stems from transmission risks directly related to substance use, as well as risks associated with sexual activity where power to negotiate risk and safety are influenced by dynamics of male partnerships, sex work, and criminalization (of both drug use and sex work), among other things. As such, HIV risk for such women resides as much in the environment—physical, social, cultural, economic, and political--in which drug use occurs as it does from transmission-related behaviors of individual women. To reduce HIV infections among SIW, it is important to specify the interaction of individual- and environmental-level factors, including, but not limited to those related to women's own substance use, that can and ought to be changed. This involves theorizing about the interplay of gender, substance use, and HIV risk and incorporating that theoretical understanding into intervention design and evaluation. A review of the published literature focused on HIV prevention among SIW revealed a general lack of theoretical and conceptual foundation specific to the gender-related and environmental drivers of HIV in this population. Greater theoretical linkages to intersectionality and syndemics approaches are recommended to better identify and target relevant mechanisms by which the interplay of gender dynamics and substance use potentiate the likelihood of HIV acquisition and transmission among SIW. PMID:25978481

  6. Skylab Earth Observation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This concept illustrates Skylab Earth observation studies, an Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). EREP was designed to explore the use of the widest possible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum for Earth resource investigations with sensors that recorded data in the visible, infrared, and microwave spectral regions. Resources subject to this study included a capability of mapping Earth resources and land uses, crop and forestry cover, health of vegetation, types of soil, water storage in snow pack, surface or near-surface mineral deposits, sea surface temperature, and the location of likely feeding areas for fish, etc. A significant feature of EREP was the ability of man to operate the sensors in a laboratory fashion.

  7. Involving Learners in Planning TNO Observations with SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, C.; de Villiers, G.; Tlaka, C.

    2006-03-01

    We present a "real science project" at the Johannesburg Planetarium in which learners from less-well-resourced schools helped plan observations at SALT by "observing" home-made "minor planets" using cellphone cameras and photo-software.

  8. Observing the Forces Involved in Static Friction under Static Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Static friction is an important concept in introductory physics. Later in the year students apply their understanding of static friction under more complex conditions of static equilibrium. Traditional lab demonstrations in this case involve exceeding of the maximum level of static friction, resulting in the "onset of motion." (Contains…

  9. Parent and Community Involvement: Observations of the Reggio Emilia Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford-Thomas, Beverly

    This paper discusses the founding of the Reggio Emilia preschool system in Reggio, Italy, in 1945 and its development through the 1950s to the present. Since the schools themselves were actually founded and constructed by parents in the aftermath of World War II, the Reggio Emilia approach has always emphasized parent involvement in every facet of…

  10. Community Engagement in Observational Human Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although observational human exposure studies do not deliberately expose participants to chemicals or environmental conditions, merely involving people as research participants and conducting research inside homes raises ethical issues. Community engagement offers a promising st...

  11. Harvard Observing Project (HOP): Involving Undergraduates in Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieryla, Allyson

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Observing Project (HOP) is designed to get students excited about observational astronomy while collecting data valuable to the scientific community. The primary goal is to give undergraduates a chance to try out observing with “no strings attached”. Observations are led by experienced observers, mostly graduate students. This not only gives graduate students extra opportunities to interact and teach undergraduates, but also a chance for them to get more observing experience. Each semester, we choose an interesting target and monitor it each week over the course of the semester using Harvard University’s 16-inch DFM Clay Telescope. These observing projects often produce large amounts of data. This provides an excellent dataset for a young undergraduate to analyze. Some successful semester-long observing projects have included variable stars, supernova and binary systems. Short-term projects have included exoplanet candidate followup, asteroid and comet followup and collaborating with the Pro-Am White Dwarf Monitoring (PAWM) project in attempts to detect a transiting Earth-sized planet orbiting a white dwarf. Each dataset is an opportunity for an undergraduate to be introduced to scientific research and present the results to the community.

  12. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance.

  13. Neuroblastoma with intracranial involvement: an ENSG Study.

    PubMed

    Shaw, P J; Eden, T

    1992-01-01

    We report the experience of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group (ENSG) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement of neuroblastoma. Among this series of intensively treated patients, CNS neuroblastoma was diagnosed by computerised tomography (CT) scanning, rather than by autopsy. Cranial disease occurred in 5% of ENSG patients. Of 11 patients with intracranial disease, 4 had disease in the posterior fossa, a site rarely reported previously. Furthermore, 5 cases had CNS metastases at a time when there was no detectable disease elsewhere, rather than as part of extensive relapse. The pattern of disease we observed, at least for those with parenchymal disease, is in keeping with arterial spread. Although CT scanning is the optimal modality for identifying CNS disease, 2 cases had normal head CT scans prior to the onset of CNS disease. As most patients had symptoms of raised intracranial pressure (RICP) at the time the CNS disease was diagnosed, there does not seem to be any indication for routine CT scanning of the head at diagnosis, but this should be performed as soon as any symptoms or signs appear. With patients living longer with their disease, vigilance must be maintained during follow-up.

  14. Observing Young Children's Creative Thinking: Engagement, Involvement and Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Sue; Rowe, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at young children's creative thinking as inferred through observations of their activities. A total of 52 episodes of child-initiated and adult-initiated activities in 3- to 4-year-olds in an English Children's Centre were analysed using the Analysing Children's Creative Thinking (ACCT) Framework. Results showed that activities…

  15. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  16. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  17. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  18. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  19. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  20. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  1. 40 CFR 26.404 - Observational research not involving greater than minimal risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved... not involving greater than minimal risk. EPA will conduct or fund observational research in which the IRB finds that no greater than minimal risk to children is presented, only if the IRB finds...

  2. Who and What Does Involvement Involve? A Multi-Sited Field Study of Involvement of Relatives in Danish Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Oute, Jeppe; Petersen, Anders; Huniche, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of aspects of a multi-sited field study of involvement of relatives in Danish psychiatry. By following metaphors of involvement across three sites of the psychiatric system-a family site, a clinical site and a policy site-the first author (J.O.) investigated how, and on what grounds, involvement of relatives is perceived in Danish psychiatry. Paradoxically, the current understanding of involvement of relatives fails to take into consideration the perspectives of the relatives per se and families that were being studied. By analyzing involvement from a discourse theoretical perspective laid out by Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe, the aim of this study is to show how the dominant discourse about involvement at the political and clinical sites is constituted by understandings of mentally ill individuals and by political objectives of involvement. The analysis elucidates how a psycho-ideological discourse positions the mentally ill person as weak, incapable, and ineffective. By contrast, the supporting relative is positioned as a strong, capable, and effective co-therapist. Furthermore, the analysis considers how this dominant discourse of involvement is constituted by a broader discourse of neoliberalism and market orientation, which justifies involvement as a subtle institutionalization of social control. The article highlights that the role of the relative as a co-therapist may be contested by the families' discourse, which emphasizes issues concerning the responsibility toward the mental health of the ill individual as well as toward the psychological milieu of the family.

  3. Distracted Biking: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Elizabeth Suzanne; Arabian, Sandra Strack; Breeze, Janis L; Salzler, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Commuting via bicycle is a very popular mode of transportation in the Northeastern United States (US). Boston, MA has seen a rapid increase in bicycle ridership over the past decade which has raised concerns and awareness about bicycle safety. An emerging topic in this field is distracted bicycle riding. This study was conducted to provide descriptive data on the prevalence and type of distracted bicycling in Boston at different times of day. This was a cross-sectional study in which observers tallied bicyclists at four high traffic intersections in Boston during various peak commuting hours for two types of distractions: auditory (ear buds/phones in or on ears), and visual/tactile (electronic device or other object in hand). Nineteen hundred seventy-four bicyclists were observed and 615 (31.2%, 95% CI: 29%-33%) were distracted. Of those observed, auditory distractions were the most common (N= 349 [17.7%, 95% CI: 16%-19%], p=0.0003) followed by visual/tactile distractions (N= 266 [13.5%, 95% CI: 12%-15%]). The highest proportion (40.7%, 95% CI: 35%-46%) of distracted bicyclists was observed during the midday commute (between 13:30-15:00). Distracted bicycling is a prevalent safety concern in the city of Boston, as almost one-third of all bicyclists exhibited distracted behavior. Education and public awareness campaigns should be designed to decrease distracted bicycling behaviors and promote bicycle safety in Boston. An awareness of the prevalence of distracted biking can be utilized to promote bicycle safety campaigns dedicated to decreasing distracted bicycling and to provide a baseline against which improvements can be measured. PMID:26953533

  4. Anion induced formation of supramolecular associations involving lone pair-π and anion-π interactions in Co(II) malonate complexes: experimental observations, Hirshfeld surface analyses and DFT studies.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prankrishna; Seth, Saikat Kumar; Das, Amrita; Hemming, Joanna; Prendergast, Richard; Helliwell, Madeleine; Choudhury, Somnath Ray; Frontera, Antonio; Mukhopadhyay, Subrata

    2012-03-19

    Three Co(II)-malonate complexes, namely, (C(5)H(7)N(2))(4)[Co(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(2) (1), (C(5)H(7)N(2))(4)[Co(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](ClO(4))(2) (2), and (C(5)H(7)N(2))(4)[Co(C(3)H(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](PF(6))(2) (3) [C(5)H(7)N(2) = protonated 2-aminopyridine, C(3)H(4)O(4) = malonic acid, NO(3)(-) = nitrate, ClO(4)(-) = perchlorate, PF(6)(-) = hexafluorophosphate], have been synthesized from purely aqueous media, and their crystal structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. A thorough analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions in 1-3, which are crucial in building supramolecular architectures. When these complexes are structurally compared with their previously reported analogous Ni(II) or Mg(II) compounds, a very interesting feature regarding the role of counteranions has emerged. This phenomenon can be best described as anion-induced formation of extended supramolecular networks of the type lone pair-π/π-π/π-anion-π/π-lone pair and lone pair-π/π-π/π-anion involving various weak forces like lone pair-π, π-π, and anion-π interactions. The strength of these π contacts has been estimated using DFT calculations (M06/6-31+G*), and the formation energy of the supramolecular networks has been also evaluated. The influence of the anion (NO(3)(-), ClO(4)(-), and PF(6)(-)) on the total interaction energy of the assembly is also studied.

  5. Lung Involvement in Multiple Myeloma - Case Study

    PubMed Central

    NIŢU, MIMI; CRIȘAN, EMILIA; OLTEANU, M.; CĂLĂRAŞU, CRISTINA; OLTEANU, MĂDĂLINA; POPESCU, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Mutiple mieloma (MM) cells are rarely found in extramedullary sites. The sites of extramedullary dissemination reported in the literature are spleen, liver, lymph nodes, kidneys, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovary, tests, lung, pleura, pericardium, intestinal tract and skin. We report a case in which the myeloma was diagnosed after we discovered the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Matherial and method: a case in which diagnosis was established from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid demonstrating the presence of monoclonal plasma cells in Craiova Pneumology Departament. Results: Analysis of BAL fluid for the presence of plasma cells and for cytoplasmic immunoglobulin DNA provides a noninvasive means of establishing the diagnosis. Conclusions: Pulmonary parenchyma is an uncommon site of extramedullary involvement in multiple myeloma. Interstitial lung disease as pulmonary manifestation of multiple myeloma is even rarer; only isolated cases with histological proofs have been reported in the literature. PMID:26788357

  6. Parental Involvement, Is It Real? A Study of Viewpoints Promoting Parental Involvement That Enhances Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rucker, Lorretta Faye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore the motives, practices, attitudes, and barriers of parental involvement as recognized by administrators and teachers in southwest Tennessee in order to improve the school-home and community relationship in southwest Tennessee. This study investigated the benefits of parental involvement and…

  7. Peer Observation: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einwaechter, Nelson Frederick, Jr.

    This thesis describes a peer observation program implemented among American and Japanese teachers in the English Department of Hiroshima College of Foreign Languages, a two-year vocational college in Hiroshima, Japan. Each participant functioned as both an observer and observee, while pre- and post-observation meetings were held between the…

  8. School Observation Measure Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterbinsky, Allan; Ross, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) stimulates school-wide reform by covering virtually all aspects of school operations including instruction, assessment, classroom management, professional development, parental involvement, school management, and curriculum. Since whole-school reforms typically change practices in the classroom, educators need a…

  9. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  10. Science Studies from Archived Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Goals for spaceflight investigations include the discovery and characterization of physical features of the in- situ and remote environment. Abundant successes of flight investigations are easily documented. Prudent scientific practice dictates that to the maximum extent possible, observations should be well-characterized, reliably catalogued, and knowledgeably interpreted. This is especially true of data sets used in the publication of results in the reviewed literature. Typical scientific standards include making primary data numbers available to other investigators for replicated study. While NASA's contracts with investigators have required that data be submitted to agency official archives, the details, completeness (especially of ancillary and metadata) and forms differ from investigation to investigation and project to project. After several generations of improvements and refinements, modern computing and communications technology makes it possible to link multiple data sets at multiple locations through a unified data model. Virtual Observatories provide the overall organizational structures and SPASE-compliant XML defines the data granules that can be located. Proofs of the feasibility and value of this latest approach remain to be seen, but its ultimate goal of improving archival research using flight-derived data sets appears to depend on user acceptance and efficient use of the VxO resources. Criteria based on the authors experience in science derived from archival sources follow: 1. Interfaces and tools must be easy to learn, easy to use, and reliable. 2. Data numbers must be promptly downloadable in plain text. 3. Data must be available in or readily converted to physical units using calibrations and algorithms easily traceable as part of the search. Knowledge about (or heritage of) specific data items present in the science literature must be associated with the search for that item. 4. Data items must be trustworthy, having quoted uncertainties and

  11. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant...

  12. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant...

  13. Observational Evidence for Involvement of Nitrate Radicals in Nighttime Oxidation of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Mordechai; Tas, Eran; Obrist, Daniel; Matveev, Valeri; Moore, Christopher; Gabay, Maor; Luria, Menachem

    2015-12-15

    In the atmosphere, reactive forms of mercury species can be produced by oxidation of the dominant gaseous elemental mercury (GEM). The oxidation of GEM is an important driver for deposition, but oxidation pathways currently are poorly constrained and likely differ among regions. In this study, continuous measurements of atmospheric nitrate radical (NO3) concentrations and mercury speciation (i.e., elemental and reactive, oxidized forms) were performed during a six week period in the urban air shed of Jerusalem, Israel during summer 2012, to investigate the potential nighttime contribution of nitrate radicals to oxidized mercury formation. Average nighttime concentrations of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) were almost equivalent to daytime levels (25 pg m(-3) and 27 pg m(-3) respectively), in contrast to early morning and evening RGM levels which dropped to low levels (9 and 13 pg m(-3)). During daytime, the presence of RGM was increased when solar radiation exceeded 200 W m(-2), suggesting a photochemical process for daytime RGM formation. Ozone concentrations were largely unrelated to daytime RGM. Nighttime RGM concentrations were relatively high (with a maximum of 97 pg m(-3)) compared to nighttime levels in other urban regions. A strong correlation was observed between nighttime RGM concentrations and nitrate radical concentration (R(2) averaging 0.47), while correlations to other variables were weak (e.g., RH; R(2) = 0.35) or absent (e.g., ozone, wind speed and direction, pollution tracers such as CO or SO2). Detailed analyses suggest that advection processes or tropospheric influences were unlikely to explain the strong nighttime correlations between NO3 and RGM, although these processes may contribute to these relationships. Our observations suggest that NO3 radicals may play a role in RGM formation, possibly due to a direct chemical involvement in GEM oxidation. Since physical data, however, suggest that NO3 unlikely initiates GEM oxidation, NO3 may play a

  14. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. Results: Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). Conclusion More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients’ privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean. PMID:26755469

  15. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-01-07

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

  16. Observational study of terrestrial eigenvibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Roger A.

    1982-03-01

    wavelength. Second, though not conclusive, there may be slight systematic shifts in period (<0.65 s) and relative amplitudes within the California regional network due to different source positions and mechanisms. Differences in Q values are not statistically significant. Third, even though differences in period obtained worldwide were as great as 1.33 s (≈0.33%), differences between Q values (as great as 20%) for the same mode were not significant. The conclusion is that the damping characteristics of singlet eigenfunctions are not observed to be significantly different. Fourth, the assumption that a multiplet nS l behaves as a single oscillation is valid from at least 0S 7 through 0S 30. Fifth, no systematic pattern emerged for the shift of eigenperiod as a function of order / or posit on the Earth.

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Parents' Involvement in Mathematics Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbridge, Natalie H.

    2013-01-01

    Many areas of support are needed when educating children and youth in mathematics education. One of the untapped areas is that of parental support and involvement. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to describe the "lived" experiences of parental involvement in their children's mathematics home instruction through individual…

  18. Assessing observational studies of medical treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, Arthur; Bentler, Suzanne; Charlton, Mary; Lanska, Douglas; Butani, Yogita; Soomro, G Mustafa; Benson, Kjell

    2005-01-01

    Background Previous studies have assessed the validity of the observational study design by comparing results of studies using this design to results from randomized controlled trials. The present study examined design features of observational studies that could have influenced these comparisons. Methods To find at least 4 observational studies that evaluated the same treatment, we reviewed meta-analyses comparing observational studies and randomized controlled trials for the assessment of medical treatments. Details critical for interpretation of these studies were abstracted and analyzed qualitatively. Results Individual articles reviewed included 61 observational studies that assessed 10 treatment comparisons evaluated in two studies comparing randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The majority of studies did not report the following information: details of primary and ancillary treatments, outcome definitions, length of follow-up, inclusion/exclusion criteria, patient characteristics relevant to prognosis or treatment response, or assessment of possible confounding. When information was reported, variations in treatment specifics, outcome definition or confounding were identified as possible causes of differences between observational studies and randomized controlled trials, and of heterogeneity in observational studies. Conclusion Reporting of observational studies of medical treatments was often inadequate to compare study designs or allow other meaningful interpretation of results. All observational studies should report details of treatment, outcome assessment, patient characteristics, and confounding assessment. PMID:16137327

  19. Reported Significant Observation (RSO) studies. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eicher, R.W.

    1992-12-01

    The Reported Significant Observation (RSO) study used in the field of safety is an information-gathering technique where employee-participants describe situations they have personally witnessed involving good and bad practices and safe and unsafe conditions. This information is useful in the risk assessment process because it focuses on hazards and thereby facilitates their elimination. However, RSO cannot be the only component in a risk assessment program. Used by the Air Force in their aviation psychology program and further developed by John C. Flanagan, RSO is more commonly known as the ``Critical Incident Technique.`` However, the words ``Critical`` and ``Incident`` had other connotations in nuclear safety, prompting early users within the Aerojet Nuclear Company to coin the more fitting title of ``Reported Significant Observations.`` The technique spread slowly in the safety field primarily because the majority of users were researchers interested in after-the-fact data, with application to everyday problems and behavioral factors. RSO was formally recognized as a significant hazard reduction tool during the development of the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) program for the US Atomic Energy Commission. The Department of Energy (DOE) has, in turn, adopted MORT for its system safety program, and this has resulted in RSO being a modern and viable technique for DOE contractor safety programs.

  20. Halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen: CSD search and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhou

    2011-08-25

    The Cambridge Structure Database search shows that there are over seventy crystal structures containing halogen bonds in which hypervalent halogens, not monovalent halogens as usual, behave as acceptors of electron density. The nature of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen has been investigated by using several theoretical methods with different basis sets. The HF calculations for the complexes studied cover most of their binding energies, which indicates the electrostatic nature of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen. The MP2 methods with medium basis sets fail to predict the relative strength of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen and the corresponding halogen bond involving monovalent halogen. Accurate computational results show that the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen may be weaker than the corresponding halogen bond involving monovalent halogen even in the case that the hypervalent halogen is more positively charged than the monovalent halogen, the reasons of which were discussed in some detail. In comparison with the halogen bond involving monovalent halogen, the bonding characteristic and electron-density transfer of the halogen bond involving hypervalent halogen were also analyzed with the "atoms in molecules" theory and the natural bond orbital theory.

  1. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (i) total solar irradiance, (ii) Earth radiation budget, (iii) land cover & land use change, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (v) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (vi) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including: dust storms over the worlds deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean, with a special emphasis on satellite observations available for studying the southern African environment.

  2. Student Involvement in Wellness Policies: A Study of Pennsylvania Local Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jomaa, Lamis H.; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl; Jensen, Leif; Probart, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Explore student-involvement goals in local wellness policies (LWPs) of local education agencies (LEAs) in Pennsylvania (PA) and investigate associations with LEA characteristics. Design: An observational study that helped examine student-involvement goals. Setting: Public PA LEAs. Participants: LWPs submitted by 539 PA public LEAs. Main…

  3. Potential skin involvement in ALS: revisiting Charcot's observation - a review of skin abnormalities in ALS.

    PubMed

    Paré, Bastien; Gros-Louis, François

    2017-03-25

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive paralysis and death. Interestingly, many skin changes have been reported in ALS patients, but never as yet fully explained. These observations could be due to the common embryonic origin of the skin and neural tissue known as the ectodermal germ layer. Following the first observation in ALS patients' skin by Dr Charcot in the 19th century, in the absence of bedsores unlike other bedridden patients, other morphological and molecular changes have been observed. Thus, the skin could be of interest in the study of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This review summarizes skin changes reported in the literature over the years and discusses about a novel in vitro ALS tissue-engineered skin model, derived from patients, for the study of ALS.

  4. Practice nurse involvement in primary care depression management: an observational cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most evidence on the effect of collaborative care for depression is derived in the selective environment of randomised controlled trials. In collaborative care, practice nurses may act as case managers. The Primary Care Services Improvement Project (PCSIP) aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative models of practice nurse involvement in a real world Australian setting. Previous analyses have demonstrated the value of high level practice nurse involvement in the management of diabetes and obesity. This paper reports on their value in the management of depression. Methods General practices were assigned to a low or high model of care based on observed levels of practice nurse involvement in clinical-based activities for the management of depression (i.e. percentage of depression patients seen, percentage of consultation time spent on clinical-based activities). Linked, routinely collected data was used to determine patient level depression outcomes (proportion of depression-free days) and health service usage costs. Standardised depression assessment tools were not routinely used, therefore a classification framework to determine the patient’s depressive state was developed using proxy measures (e.g. symptoms, medications, referrals, hospitalisations and suicide attempts). Regression analyses of costs and depression outcomes were conducted, using propensity weighting to control for potential confounders. Results Capacity to determine depressive state using the classification framework was dependent upon the level of detail provided in medical records. While antidepressant medication prescriptions were a strong indicator of depressive state, they could not be relied upon as the sole measure. Propensity score weighted analyses of total depression-related costs and depression outcomes, found that the high level model of care cost more (95% CI: -$314.76 to $584) and resulted in 5% less depression-free days (95% CI: -0.15 to 0.05), compared to the

  5. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section....

  6. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section....

  7. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or... and fetuses. The provisions of 45 CFR 46.203 are applicable to this section....

  8. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  9. The Political Involvement of Social Studies Teachers in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Watt L.; And Others

    Attitudes toward and participation in politics by elementary and secondary school social studies teachers in Texas from 1976-1977 are discussed. Political involvement is interpreted to include voting, contributing time and/or money to a political party, running for political office, belonging to a teachers organization, watching news on…

  10. Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

  11. Novae a theoretical and observational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soraisam, Monika D.

    2016-02-01

    In this thesis, we present studies relating to novae that include both theoretical and ob- servational aspects. Being hosted by accreting white dwarfs (WDs), they have drawn attention in the context of the supernova Ia (SN Ia) progenitor problem. In the case of the nova explosion, the WD host is not disrupted. Instead, it continues to supply energy, even after the optical outbust, via stable nuclear burning of the remnant hydrogen envelope that survived the outburst. Accordingly, nova emission progresses toward the harder part of the electromagnetic spectrum, where it lasts longer than in the optical regime. As a consequence, novae are found to constitute the majority of the observed supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). This is particularly well established for the galaxy M31. For high mass accretion rates in the unstable nuclear burning regime (or nova regime), there is evidence that significant mass accumulation by the WD is possible. This paved the way for SN Ia progenitor models in the single degenerate (SD) scenario involving novae. Based on the statistics of novae in M31, which is the most frequently used target for nova surveys, we investigate the role that novae may play in producing SNe Ia. Using multicycle nova evolution models and the observationally inferred nova rate in M31, we estimate the maximal SN Ia rate that novae can produce, assuming that all of the involved WDs reach the Chandrasekhar mass. Comparing this rate to the observationally inferred SN Ia rate for M31 constrains the contribution of the nova channel to the SN Ia rate to 2-7%. Additionally, we demonstrate that a more powerful diagnostic can be obtained from statistics of fast novae, which are characterized by decline times t2 10 days. Most novae resulting from a typical SD SN Ia progenitor accreting in the nova regime are fast. Specifically, as the WD in the nova grows in mass, it produces novae more frequently and with decreasing decline times. We therefore investigate how efficiently fast

  12. Resveratrol supplementation worsen the dysregulation of genes involved in hepatic lipid homeostasis observed in hyperhomocysteinemic mice.

    PubMed

    Noll, Christophe; Hamelet, Julien; Ducros, Véronique; Belin, Nicole; Paul, Jean-Louis; Delabar, Jean-Maurice; Janel, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is characterized by an increase of plasma homocysteine, a thiol-containing amino acid produced during methionine metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia has often been associated with coronary artery disease, vascular thrombosis and the development of premature atherosclerosis. We have recently demonstrated that the supplementation of catechin, a polyphenol found in the red wine, significantly reduced plasma homocysteine level in cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficient mice, a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of another well-studied polyphenol found in red wine, resveratrol, on hyperhomocysteinemia. After two months on high methionine diet, heterozygous Cbs deficient mice were administrated the resveratrol in drinking water (0.001%) for one month. High methionine diet significantly increased serum homocysteine levels, and decreased the serum activity of HDL-associated enzyme paraoxonase-1. Chronic administration of resveratrol significantly increased plasma homocysteine level, which was associated with a decreased serum paraoxonase-1 activity, in hyperhomocysteinemic mice. Then we looked at gene expression of several proteins involved in HDL stability and found a down-regulation of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase. In conclusion, we found a deleterious effect of resveratrol onto homocysteine and HDL metabolism in a murine model of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  13. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Cancer.gov

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  14. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  15. Molecular Simulation Studies of Proteins Involved in Parkinson's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carloni, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    This contribution describes two recent computational studies related to proteins involved in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The first focuses on the interplay between dopamine and α-synuclein (AS), which plays a central role in PD (unpublished results). The second deals with the protein DJ-1, whose mutations are present in patients suffering from familiar PD [1]. Computational methods are used to investigate the relationship between such mutations and the protein oligomeric state, which may be important for the progression of the disease.

  16. Newly observed thalamic involvement and mutations of the HEXA gene in a Korean patient with juvenile GM2 gangliosidosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Min; Lee, Min Jung; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Heung Dong; Lee, Jin Sung; Kim, Jinna; Lee, Seung Koo; Lee, Young Mock

    2008-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies of patients with GM2 gangliosidosis are rare. The thalamus and basal ganglia are principally involved in patients affected by the infantile form of GM2 gangliosidosis. Unlike in the infantile form, in juvenile or adult type GM2 gangliosidosis, progressive cortical and cerebellar atrophy is the main abnormality seen on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); no basal ganglial or thalamic impairment were observed. This report is of a Korean girl with subacute onset, severe deficiency of hexosaminidase A activity and mutations (Arg137Term, Ala246Thr) of the HEXA gene. A 3.5-year-old girl who was previously in good health was evaluated for hypotonia and ataxia 3 months ago and showed progressive developmental deterioration, including cognitive decline. Serial brain MRI showed progressive overall volume decrease of the entire brain and thalamic atrophy. Fluorine-18 FDG PET scan showed severe decreased uptake in bilateral thalamus and diffuse cerebral cortex. We suggest, through our experience, that the thalamic involvement in MR imaging and FDG-PET can be observed in the juvenile form of GM2 gangliosidosis, and we suspect the association of mutations in the HEXA gene.

  17. Direct observation of a borane-silane complex involved in frustrated Lewis-pair-mediated hydrosilylations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, Adrian Y.; Hurmalainen, Juha; Mansikkamäki, Akseli; Piers, Warren E.; Tuononen, Heikki M.

    2014-11-01

    Perfluorarylborane Lewis acids catalyse the addition of silicon-hydrogen bonds across C=C, C=N and C=O double bonds. This ‘metal-free’ hydrosilylation has been proposed to occur via borane activation of the silane Si-H bond, rather than through classical Lewis acid/base adducts with the substrate. However, the key borane/silane adduct had not been observed experimentally. Here it is shown that the strongly Lewis acidic, antiaromatic 1,2,3-tris(pentafluorophenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-1-boraindene forms an observable, isolable adduct with triethylsilane. The equilibrium for adduct formation was studied quantitatively through variable-temperature NMR spectroscopic investigations. The interaction of the silane with the borane occurs through the Si-H bond, as evidenced by trends in the Si-H coupling constant and the infrared stretching frequency of the Si-H bond, as well as by X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. The adduct's reactivity with nucleophiles demonstrates conclusively the role of this species in metal-free ‘frustrated-Lewis-pair’ hydrosilylation reactions.

  18. 40 CFR 26.405 - Observational research involving greater than minimal risk but presenting the prospect of direct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... intervention or procedure presents more than minimal risk to children, EPA will not conduct or fund... SUBJECTS Observational Research: Additional Protections for Children Involved as Subjects in Observational... are made for soliciting the assent of the children and permission of their parents or guardians,...

  19. Religious Congregations’ Involvement in HIV: A Case Study Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Peter J.; Palar, Kartika; Kanouse, David E.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Castaneda, Laura Werber; Corbin, Dennis E.; Domínguez, Blanca X.; Hawes-Dawson, Jennifer; Mata, Michael A.; Oden, Clyde W.

    2011-01-01

    Comparative case studies were used to explore religious congregations’ HIV involvement, including types and extent of activities, interaction with external organizations or individuals, and how activities were initiated and have changed over time. The cases included 14 congregations in Los Angeles County representing diverse faith traditions and races-ethnicities. Activities fell into three broad categories: (1) prevention and education; (2) care and support; and (3) awareness and advocacy. Congregations that engaged early in the epidemic focused on care and support while those that became involved later focused on prevention and education. Most congregations interacted with external organizations or individuals to conduct their HIV activities, but promoting abstinence and teaching about condoms were conducted without external involvement. Opportunities exist for congregations to help address a variety of HIV-related needs. However, activities that are mission-congruent, such as providing pastoral care for people with HIV, raising HIV awareness, and promoting HIV testing, appear easier for congregations to undertake than activities aimed at harm reduction. PMID:20953903

  20. Earth Observing System: Global Observations to Study the Earth's Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During the last couple of years, four EOS science missions were launched, representing observations of (1) total solar irradiance, (2) Earth radiation budget, (3) land cover & land use change, (4) ocean processes (vector wind, sea surface temperature, and ocean color), (5) atmospheric processes (aerosol and cloud properties, water vapor, and temperature and moisture profiles), and (6) tropospheric chemistry. In succeeding years many more satellites will be launched that will contribute immeasurably to our understanding of the Earth's environment. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using NASA's Earth science data to examine land use and natural hazards, environmental air quality, including dust storms over the world's deserts, cloud and radiation properties, sea surface temperature, and winds over the ocean.

  1. TLR4 is involved in the pathogenic effects observed in a murine model of antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hongxiang; Kong, Xiangmin; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Yachao; Sheng, Liangju; Wang, Ting; Xia, Longfei; Yan, Jinchuan

    2015-10-01

    Antiphospholipid (aPL)/anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) antibodies are considered to play a pivotal pathogenic role in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) by inducing an intracellular signaling and procoagulant/proinflammatory phenotype that leads to thrombosis. There is increasing evidence that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) could serve as an important molecule for anti-β2GPI recognition on target cells. However, few studies have focused on the effects of TLR4 in in vivo models. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 in the pathogenic effects of aPL/anti-β2GPI more precisely using TLR4-intact (C3H/HeN) and TLR4-defective (C3H/HeJ) mice. C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice were injected with either IgG isolated from patient with APS (IgG-APS) or epitope-specific anti-β2GPI purified from β2GPI peptide-immunized rabbits. We found that, following anti-β2GPI injections and vascular injury, thrombus formation in both the carotid artery and femoral vein was markedly reduced in C3H/HeJ mice when compared with C3H/HeN mice. IgG-APS or anti-β2GPI-induced carotid artery and peritoneal macrophage tissue factor activity/expression was significantly lesser in C3H/HeJ than in C3H/HeN mice. Furthermore, the IgG-APS or anti-β2GPI induced expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin in the aorta and of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in peritoneal macrophages of C3H/HeJ mice was also significantly reduced compared to C3H/HeN mice. Together, these data suggest that TLR4 is involved in the pathogenic effects of aPL/anti-β2GPI antibodies in vivo.

  2. Child Study and Observation: Child Development 101.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna

    This syllabus outlines the structure, objectives, and lesson plans for Child Development 101, a twelve-week course on child study and observation offered at Chaffey Community College. A statement of the educational philosophy upon which the course was developed precedes a list of course objectives, competencies, and the grading system. The bulk of…

  3. Workplace Education Initiative: Case Studies and Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astrein, Bruce; And Others

    Seven workplace education projects funded in the first year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported. This report includes both general observations and specific information in case studies of the projects. Overall information is provided on students served, the importance of partnerships, the emphasis on…

  4. Diapause in tardigrades: a study of factors involved in encystment.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Roberto; Boschini, Deborah; Altiero, Tiziana; Bertolani, Roberto; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2008-07-01

    Stressful environmental conditions limit survival, growth and reproduction, or these conditions induce resting stages indicated as dormancy. Tardigrades represent one of the few animal phyla able to perform both forms of dormancy: quiescence and diapause. Different forms of cryptobiosis (quiescence) are widespread and well studied, while little attention has been devoted to the adaptive meaning of encystment (diapause). Our goal was to determine the environmental factors and token stimuli involved in the encystment process of tardigrades. The eutardigrade Amphibolus volubilis, a species able to produce two types of cyst (type 1 and type 2), was considered. Laboratory experiments and long-term studies on cyst dynamics of a natural population were conducted. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that active tardigrades collected in April produced mainly type 2 cysts, whereas animals collected in November produced mainly type 1 cysts, indicating that the different responses are functions of the physiological state at the time they were collected. The dynamics of the two types of cyst show opposite seasonal trends: type 2 cysts are present only during the warm season and type 1 cysts are present during the cold season. Temperature represents the environmental factor involved in induction, maintenance and termination of the cyst. We also obtained evidence that A. volubilis is able to perform both diapause and cryptobiosis, even overlapping the two phenomena. The induction phase of tardigrade encystment can be compared to the induction phase of insect diapause, also indicating an involvement of endogenous factors in tardigrade encystment. As in insect diapause, tardigrade encystment can be considered a diapausing state controlled by exogenous and endogenous stimuli.

  5. A statistical study of merging galaxies: Theory and observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterjee, Tapan K.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the expected frequency of merging galaxies is conducted, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate that if we consider mergers involving galaxy pairs without halos in a single crossing time or orbital period, the expected frequency of mergers is two orders of magnitude below the observed value for the present epoch. If we consider mergers involving several orbital periods or crossing times, the expected frequency goes up by an order of magnitude. Preliminary calculation indicate that if we consider galaxy mergers between pairs with massive halos, the merger is very much hastened.

  6. Middle-Class Parental Involvement in the Summer Activities of Four Elementary Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Iva B.; Chappell, Manya; Johnson, Susan; Ngassam, Marlise DePaul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explore middle-class parental involvement in summer activities of four elementary students. Many researchers discuss summer programs initiated by institutions, but fail to explain how parents' availability, experiences, and related criteria affect student summer activities. From our interviews, observations, and artifacts, we…

  7. Patient involvement in research priorities (PIRE): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Jarden, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patient involvement in healthcare has expanded from the clinical practice setting to include collaboration during the research process. There has been a growing international interest in patient and public involvement in setting research priorities to reduce the risk of discrepancy between what patients with cancer and their relatives experience as important unanswered questions and those which are actually researched. This study aims to challenge the conventional research process by inviting patients with life-threatening cancer (primary malignant brain tumours or acute leukaemia), relatives and patient organisations to join forces with clinical specialists and researchers to identify, discuss and prioritise supportive care and rehabilitation issues in future research. Methods and analysis This is an exploratory qualitative study comprising two sets of three focus group interviews (FGIs): one set for primary malignant brain tumours and the other for acute leukaemia. Separate FGIs will be carried out with patients and relatives including representation from patient organisations and clinical specialists to identify important unanswered questions and research topics within each group. The FGIs will be video/audio recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. This study will contribute to a patient-centred research agenda that captures issues that patients, their relatives, clinical specialists and researchers consider important. Ethics and dissemination The study is registered at the Danish Data Protection Agency (number: 2012-58-0004) and the Scientific Ethics Review Committee of the Capital Region of Denmark (number: H-15001485). Papers will be published describing the methods applied and the supportive care and rehabilitation issues that are identified as important for future research. Trial registration number ISRCTN57131943; Pre-results. PMID:27221126

  8. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; Sullivan, John T.; Langford, Andrew O.; Senff, Christoph J.; Alvarez, Raul; Eloranta, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  9. The Effects of Training, Feedback, and Participant Involvement in Behavioral Safety Observations on Office Ergonomic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Eleven computer terminal operators participated in an experiment that assessed effects of several interventions aimed at increasing safe ergonomic performance. All participants received ergonomics training and performance feedback while six of them collected observations of safe behavior among the remaining five participants. Effects of…

  10. An observational study of quiescent novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, V. S.

    1990-01-01

    Quiescent novae are close binary stars which are characterised by the presence of Balmer and HeII emission lines in their optical spectra. In high-inclination systems, standard theory predicts that one should observe double-peaked emission line profiles which are eclipsed once every orbital period. However, the emission lines of eclipsing quiescent novae are single-peaked and uneclipsed, in obvious conflict with currently held beliefs on the nature of these systems. It is the purpose of this thesis to solve this long-standing problem and so arrive at a theoretical model for quiescent novae which is consistent with the observational evidence. The first part of the thesis sets the scene to the problem by presenting an overview of the conflicting observational and theoretical results. The second part then reports on a number of new observations obtained during the course of this work which have shed new light on the problem. The results of these new observations are presented in Part III of the thesis, where one chapter is devoted to each of the three objects studied (V1315 Aquilae, SW Sextantis and DW Ursae Majoris). The final part of the thesis is a discussion and comparison of the various results presented in Part III. Using these results, a series of observational constraints are defined which are then applied to a number of existing theoretical models. In the case of V1315 Aql and SW Sex, the very stringent set of constraints results in there being no single model capable of explaining the observed phenomena. DW UMa is even more enigmatic, appearing in a previously unseen low-state during which the mass transfer rate appears to have reduced dramatically and the optical spectra are dominated by Balmer emission from the inner face of the secondary star. The implications of these new observations for the wider field of cataclysmic variables are discussed, followed by a short summary of future work necessary to validate the origin, evolution and behaviour of the

  11. NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

  12. Patient involvement in drug licensing: a case study.

    PubMed

    Britten, Nicky; Denford, Sarah; Harris-Golesworthy, Faith; Jibson, Steph; Pyart, Nigel; Stein, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Embodied health movements work on the boundary between lay and expert knowledge. Consumer groups, depending on their goals, may increase or decrease pharmaceuticalization. This paper reports a small case study about the retrospective evaluation of a specific second line treatment for type 2 diabetes by an existing patient involvement group. The group is part of a research collaboration between academia and the health service in England, and shares some characteristics of embodied health movements. We used the case study to explore whether an institutionally funded non activist patient group can make a more balanced contribution to drug licensing decisions than that made by either access-oriented or injury-oriented consumer groups, without being co-opted by an institutional agenda. The questions we wished to address were how this group evaluated existing mechanisms for licensing drugs; how they balanced scientific and lay knowledge; how they made their decisions; and how they viewed their experiences as panel members. The five panel members were interviewed before and after the panel discussion in July 2013. They were critical of current licensing processes, and used their own embodied experiences of medicines to evaluate expert knowledge. Their decisions on the panel were informed either by a balancing of benefits and harms, or by trust in experts. The case study suggests that such a group may have the potential both to balance the pro-pharmaceuticalization impact of access-oriented groups and to influence forms of pharmaceutical governance.

  13. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David

    2016-01-01

    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  14. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (aeosis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R.; Grant, F.; Malchow, H.; Walker, B.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of measurements were studied for estimating the orbit and/or attitude of an Earth Observation Satellite. An investigation was made into the use of known ground targets in the earth sensor imagery, in combination with onboard star sightings and/or range and range rate measurements by ground tracking stations or tracking satellites (TDRSS), to estimate satellite attitude, orbital ephemeris, and gyro bias drift. Generalized measurement equations were derived for star measurements with a particular type of star tracker, and for landmark measurements with a multispectral scanner being proposed for an advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The use of infra-red horizon measurements to estimate the attitude and gyro bias drift of a geosynchronous satellite was explored.

  15. STRengthening analytical thinking for observational studies: the STRATOS initiative.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-12-30

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even 'standard' analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved.

  16. STRengthening Analytical Thinking for Observational Studies: the STRATOS initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Willi; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Altman, Douglas G; le Cessie, Saskia; Carpenter, James

    2014-01-01

    The validity and practical utility of observational medical research depends critically on good study design, excellent data quality, appropriate statistical methods and accurate interpretation of results. Statistical methodology has seen substantial development in recent times. Unfortunately, many of these methodological developments are ignored in practice. Consequently, design and analysis of observational studies often exhibit serious weaknesses. The lack of guidance on vital practical issues discourages many applied researchers from using more sophisticated and possibly more appropriate methods when analyzing observational studies. Furthermore, many analyses are conducted by researchers with a relatively weak statistical background and limited experience in using statistical methodology and software. Consequently, even ‘standard’ analyses reported in the medical literature are often flawed, casting doubt on their results and conclusions. An efficient way to help researchers to keep up with recent methodological developments is to develop guidance documents that are spread to the research community at large. These observations led to the initiation of the strengthening analytical thinking for observational studies (STRATOS) initiative, a large collaboration of experts in many different areas of biostatistical research. The objective of STRATOS is to provide accessible and accurate guidance in the design and analysis of observational studies. The guidance is intended for applied statisticians and other data analysts with varying levels of statistical education, experience and interests. In this article, we introduce the STRATOS initiative and its main aims, present the need for guidance documents and outline the planned approach and progress so far. We encourage other biostatisticians to become involved. PMID:25074480

  17. Life under tension: Computational studies of proteins involved in mechanotransduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotomayor, Marcos Manuel

    Living organisms rely on macroscopic and microscopic structures that produce and transform force: from mechanical motion of our muscles and bones to sound transduction and cell volume regulation, handling of forces is essential to life. Investigation of the microscopic machinery behind force generation and transduction in the cell has only become possible with recent advances in x-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, single-molecule force spectroscopy, and computer modeling. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study proteins that transform forces into biochemical signals (mechanotransduction). The first protein studied is the mechanosensitive channel of small conductance MscS. This membrane channel has been proposed to act as a safety valve during osmotic shock, facilitating the release of ions and small solutes upon increase in membrane tension, thereby preventing bacterial cells from bursting. The second set of proteins studied are ankyrin and cadherin repeats, likely forming part of the transduction apparatus in hearing and other mechanical senses. Simulations of all these proteins went beyond the standard approach in which only equilibrium properties are monitored; we adopted and developed strategies in which external electric fields and forces are used to probe their response and function and at the same time produce verifiable predictions. The outcome of the simulations performed on MscS, in close collaborations with experimentalists, allowed us to establish conduction properties of different conformations and propose structural models of MscS's open and closed states. Simulations of ankyrin and cadherin repeats focused on their elastic properties, resulting in the discovery and prediction of ankyrin's tertiary and secondary structure elasticity (later on corroborated by atomic force microscopy experiments), and the discovery of a novel form of secondary structure elasticity mediated by calcium ions in

  18. Globally Gridded Satellite observations for climate studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knapp, K.R.; Ansari, S.; Bain, C.L.; Bourassa, M.A.; Dickinson, M.J.; Funk, C.; Helms, C.N.; Hennon, C.C.; Holmes, C.D.; Huffman, G.J.; Kossin, J.P.; Lee, H.-T.; Loew, A.; Magnusdottir, G.

    2011-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them that no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites exists, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multisatellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full-resolution geostationary data at ~10-km resolution at 3-hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in Network Common Data Format (netCDF) using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to process the data quickly and easily. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  19. Experimental quantum annealing: case study involving the graph isomorphism problem

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Kenneth M.; Shehab, Omar; French, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Quantum annealing is a proposed combinatorial optimization technique meant to exploit quantum mechanical effects such as tunneling and entanglement. Real-world quantum annealing-based solvers require a combination of annealing and classical pre- and post-processing; at this early stage, little is known about how to partition and optimize the processing. This article presents an experimental case study of quantum annealing and some of the factors involved in real-world solvers, using a 504-qubit D-Wave Two machine and the graph isomorphism problem. To illustrate the role of classical pre-processing, a compact Hamiltonian is presented that enables a reduced Ising model for each problem instance. On random N-vertex graphs, the median number of variables is reduced from N2 to fewer than N log2 N and solvable graph sizes increase from N = 5 to N = 13. Additionally, error correction via classical post-processing majority voting is evaluated. While the solution times are not competitive with classical approaches to graph isomorphism, the enhanced solver ultimately classified correctly every problem that was mapped to the processor and demonstrated clear advantages over the baseline approach. The results shed some light on the nature of real-world quantum annealing and the associated hybrid classical-quantum solvers. PMID:26053973

  20. Issues of reporting in observational studies in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2014-02-15

    Observational studies are common in veterinary medicine; the results may be used to inform decision-making, future research, or as inputs to systematic reviews or risk assessment. To be of use, the results must be published, all of the outcomes that were assessed must be included in the publication, and the research (methods and results) must be reported in sufficient detail that the reader can evaluate the internal and external validity. In human healthcare, concerns about the completeness of reporting - and evidence that poor reporting is associated with study results - have led to the creation of reporting guidelines; these include the STROBE statement for observational studies. There is evidence from a limited body of research that there also are reporting inadequacies in veterinary observational studies. There are differences between human and veterinary observational studies that might be relevant to recommendations for reporting. Such differences include: the use of observational studies in animal populations for simultaneously estimating disease frequency and risk-factor identification; the distinction between the animal owners who consent to participate and the animals that are the study subjects; and the complexity of organizational levels inherent in animal research (in particular, for studies in livestock species). In veterinary medicine, it is common to have clustering within outcomes (due to animal grouping) and clustering of predictor variables. We argue that there is a compelling need for the scientific community involved in veterinary observational studies to use the STROBE statement, use an amended version of STROBE, or to develop and use reporting guidelines that are specific to veterinary medicine to improve reporting of these studies.

  1. Traditional Male Ideology and Service System Involvement among Drug-Involved Men Who Perpetrate Intimate Partner Violence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; O'Connor, Meghan; Seewald, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which drug-involved men who perpetrate male-to-female intimate partner violence (IPV) are engaged with various formal service systems as well as whether adherence to traditional male ideologies--thought to drive perpetration of male-to-female IPV--affects help-seeking behavior. This study also…

  2. Case Study of Fourth Grade Families and School Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugoala, Sandra Kay Womack

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have established that family involvement is related to student academic performance. Family participation at a school in a southern state in the United States was declining after the third grade level, and educators at the school needed more information to address this problem. Self-efficacy and ecological theories of…

  3. Skeletal muscle involvement in falciparum malaria: biochemical and ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Davis, T M; Pongponratan, E; Supanaranond, W; Pukrittayakamee, S; Helliwell, T; Holloway, P; White, N J

    1999-10-01

    Biochemical evidence of skeletal muscle damage is common in malaria, but rhabdomyolysis appears to be rare. To investigate the relationship between serum creatine kinase and myoglobin levels, muscle histology, and renal function in Plasmodium falciparum infections, we studied 13 patients with uncomplicated malaria, 13 with severe noncerebral malaria, and 10 with cerebral malaria. A muscle biopsy specimen was obtained from each patient for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Mean serum creatine kinase concentrations +/- SD were raised but similar for the three groups (258 +/- 277, 149 +/- 158, and 203 +/- 197 U/L, respectively; P = .5). The mean serum myoglobin level +/- SD was highest in cerebral malaria (457 +/- 246 vs. 170 +/- 150 and 209 +/- 125 ng/mL in uncomplicated and severe malaria, respectively; P < .01) and correlated with the mean serum creatinine level (r = .39 for 36 patients; P = .02). The number of intravascular parasites, proportion of mature forms, and glycogen depletion were highest in biopsy specimens from patients with cerebral malaria. Myonecrosis was not observed. Muscle appears to be an important site for P. falciparum sequestration, which could contribute to metabolic and renal complications.

  4. [The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies].

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2008-01-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September, 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed explanation and elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the websites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  5. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

    PubMed

    von Elm, Erik; Altman, Douglas G; Egger, Matthias; Pocock, Stuart J; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Vandenbroucke, Jan P

    2014-12-01

    Much biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalisability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. 18 items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the Web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.

  6. A Comparative Study of Involvement and Motivation among Casino Gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Lee, BongKoo; Bernhard, Bo Jason

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper is to investigate three different types of gamblers (which we label "non-problem", "some problem", and "probable pathological gamblers") to determine differences in involvement and motivation, as well as differences in demographic and behavioral variables. Methods The analysis takes advantage of a unique opportunity to sample on-site at a major casino in South Korea, and the resulting purposive sample yielded 180 completed questionnaires in each of the three groups, for a total number of 540. Factor analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan tests, and Chi-square tests are employed to analyze the data collected from the survey. Results Findings from ANOVA tests indicate that involvement factors of importance/self-expression, pleasure/interest, and centrality derived from the factor analysis were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. The "probable pathological" and "some problem" gamblers were found to have similar degrees of involvement, and higher degrees of involvement than the non-problem gamblers. The tests also reveal that motivational factors of escape, socialization, winning, and exploring scenery were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, "probable pathological" gamblers were more likely to seek winning, the "some problem" group appeared to be more likely to seek escape, and the "non-problem" gamblers indicate that their motivations to visit centered around explorations of scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Conclusion The tools for exploring motivations and involvements of gambling provide valuable and discerning information about the entire spectrum of gamblers. PMID:20046388

  7. Observational and Modeling Study of Mesopheric Bores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughmiller, P.; Kelley, M.; Hickey, M.

    In our studies of the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, some of the most intriguing mesospheric phenomena we observe high over the Hawaiian night skies are internal bores. These events affecting chemiluminescence are documented in monochromatic airglow images taken by high performance all-sky CCD imaging systems operating at the Maui Space Surveillance Site on top of Haleakala Crater. Data is collected as part of the ongoing, collaborative Maui - Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MALT) campaign, jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Bolstered by the Maui-MALT dataset, several theories now exist for mesospheric bores, agreeing in principle that they are likely nonlinear structures spawned by gravity waves and propagating within ducted waveguide regions, such as thermal inversion layers. A new investigation will model optical emissions using a robust, time-dependent, chemical dynamics model to explore the airglow response to ducted gravity waves and, in turn, the geographical and vertical coupling relationships which may exist.

  8. Studying evolved stars with Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Santos, João Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A systematic inspection of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of evolved stars allows not only to constrain physical models, but also to understand the chemical evolution that takes place in the end of their lives. In this work we intend to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) on a sample of stars in the THROES catalogue from AGB/post-AGB stars to planetary nebulae using photometry and spectroscopy provided by the PACS instrument on-board Herschel telescope. In the first part we are interested in obtaining an estimate of the size of FIR emitting region and to sort our targets in two classes: point-like and extended. Secondly, we focus on the molecular component of the envelope traced by carbon monoxide (CO) rotational lines. We conduct a line survey on a sample of evolved stars by identifying and measuring flux of both 12CO and 13CO isotopologues in the PACS range, while looking at the overall properties of the sample. Lastly, we will be interested in obtaining physical parameters of the CSE, namely gas temperature, mass and mass-loss rate on a sample of carbon stars. For that, we make use of PACS large wavelength coverage, which enables the simultaneous study of a large number of CO transitions, to perform the rotational diagram analysis. We report the detection of CO emission in a high number of stars from the catalogue, which were mostly classified as point-like targets with a few exceptions of planetary nebulae. High J rotational number transitions were detected in a number of targets, revealing the presence of a significant amount of hot gas (T ˜ 400-900 K) and high mass-loss rates. We conclude that Herschel/PACS is in a privileged position to detect a new population of warmer gas, typically missed in sub-mm/mm observations.

  9. Using Art to Teach Students Science Outdoors: How Creative Science Instruction Influences Observation, Question Formation, and Involvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Christina Schull

    Elementary education has become increasingly divided into subjects and focused on the demand for high math and reading scores. Consequently, teachers spend less time devoted to science and art instruction. However, teaching art and science is crucial to developing creative and rational thinking, especially for observation and questioning skills. In this study, third grade students attending an urban school in Portland, Oregon received instruction of an art strategy using observational and quantifying drawing techniques. This study examines, "Will an art strategy observing the local environment help students make observations and ask questions?" and "In what ways are student learning and perspectives of science affected by the art strategy?" The independent variable is the art strategy developed for this study. There are three dependent variables: quality of student observations, quality of questions, and themes on student learning and perspectives of science. I predicted students would develop strong observation and questioning skills and that students would find the strategy useful or have an increased interest in science. The art scores were high for relevance and detail, but not for text. There were significant correlations between art scores and questions. Interviews revealed three themes: observations create questions, drawing is helpful and challenging, and students connected to science. By examining science through art, students were engaged and created strong observations and questions. Teachers need to balance unstructured drawing time with scaffolding for optimal results. This study provides an integrated science and art strategy that teachers can use outdoors or adapt for the classroom.

  10. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  11. Caregiver Involvement in the Education of Youth in Foster Care: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beisse, Kay; Tyre, Ashli

    2013-01-01

    This study was an exploratory investigation of caregiver involvement in the education of youth in foster care. In this study, foster caregivers reported that they are involved in the education of children in their care and participate in at-home involvement activities more often than at-school involvement activities. Caregivers in this study…

  12. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  13. Structural equation modeling for observational studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) represents a framework for developing and evaluating complex hypotheses about systems. This method of data analysis differs from conventional univariate and multivariate approaches familiar to most biologists in several ways. First, SEMs are multiequational and capable of representing a wide array of complex hypotheses about how system components interrelate. Second, models are typically developed based on theoretical knowledge and designed to represent competing hypotheses about the processes responsible for data structure. Third, SEM is conceptually based on the analysis of covariance relations. Most commonly, solutions are obtained using maximum-likelihood solution procedures, although a variety of solution procedures are used, including Bayesian estimation. Numerous extensions give SEM a very high degree of flexibility in dealing with nonnormal data, categorical responses, latent variables, hierarchical structure, multigroup comparisons, nonlinearities, and other complicating factors. Structural equation modeling allows researchers to address a variety of questions about systems, such as how different processes work in concert, how the influences of perturbations cascade through systems, and about the relative importance of different influences. I present 2 example applications of SEM, one involving interactions among lynx (Lynx pardinus), mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon), and rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and the second involving anuran species richness. Many wildlife ecologists may find SEM useful for understanding how populations function within their environments. Along with the capability of the methodology comes a need for care in the proper application of SEM.

  14. Newspapers in Science Education: A Study Involving Sixth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ching-San; Wang, Yun-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning performance of sixth grade elementary school students using newspapers in science teaching. A quasi-experimental design with a single group was used in this study. Thirty-three sixth grade elementary school students participated in this study. The research instruments consisted of three…

  15. The involvement of model-based but not model-free learning signals during observational reward learning in the absence of choice

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Simon; D’Souza, Arun; O’Doherty, John P.

    2016-01-01

    A major open question is whether computational strategies thought to be used during experiential learning, specifically model-based and model-free reinforcement-learning, also support observational learning. Furthermore, the question of how observational learning occurs when observers must learn about the value of options from observing outcomes in the absence of choice, has not been addressed. In the present study we used a multi-armed bandit task that encouraged human participants to employ both experiential and observational learning while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found evidence for the presence of model-based learning signals during both observational and experiential learning in the intraparietal sulcus. However, unlike in experiential learning, model-free learning signals in the ventral striatum were not detectable during this form of observational learning. These results provide insight into the flexibilty of the model-based learning system, implicating this system in learning during observation as well as from direct experience, and further suggest that the model-free reinforcement-learning system may be less flexible with regard to its involvement in observational learning. PMID:27052578

  16. STUDY OF DOSHIC INVOLVEMENT IN APASMARA (EPILEPSY) AND ITS UTILITY

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraghavan, S.; Rajagopalan, V.; Srinivasan, Kanchana

    1987-01-01

    68 cases of epilepsy are studied here for assessing the doshic dominance to understand prognosis with a view to supplement the treatment with some doshahara compounds or drugs. Most of the cases studied or vata or pitta dominant cases, thereby, requiring vatahara or pittahara treatment. PMID:22557563

  17. Potential New Lidar Observations for Cloud Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winker, Dave; Hu, Yong; Narir, Amin; Cai, Xia

    2015-01-01

    The response of clouds to global warming represents a major uncertainty in estimating climate sensitivity. These uncertainties have been tracked to shallow marine clouds in the tropics and subtropics. CALIOP observations have already been used extensively to evaluate model predictions of shallow cloud fraction and top height (Leahy et al. 2013; Nam et al 2012). Tools are needed to probe the lowest levels of the troposphere. The large footprint of satellite lidars gives large multiple scattering from clouds which presents new possibilities for cloud retrievals to constrain model predictions.

  18. Microfluidics for genome-wide studies involving next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Travis W.; Lu, Chang

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized how molecular biology studies are conducted. Its decreasing cost and increasing throughput permit profiling of genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic features for a wide range of applications. Microfluidics has been proven to be highly complementary to NGS technology with its unique capabilities for handling small volumes of samples and providing platforms for automation, integration, and multiplexing. In this article, we review recent progress on applying microfluidics to facilitate genome-wide studies. We emphasize on several technical aspects of NGS and how they benefit from coupling with microfluidic technology. We also summarize recent efforts on developing microfluidic technology for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies, with emphasis on single cell analysis. We envision rapid growth in these directions, driven by the needs for testing scarce primary cell samples from patients in the context of precision medicine.

  19. Experimental land observing data system feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, J. L.; Kraiman, H.

    1982-01-01

    An end-to-end data system to support a Shuttle-based Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) mission in the mid-1980's was defined. The experimental Land Observing System (ELOS) is discussed. A ground system that exploits extensive assets from the LANDSAT-D Program to effectively meet the objectives of the ELOS Mission was defined. The goal of 10 meter pixel precision, the variety of data acquisition capabilities, and the use of Shuttle are key to the mission requirements, Ground mission management functions are met through the use of GSFC's Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC). The MLA Image Generation Facility (MIGF) combines major hardware elements from the Applications Development Data System (ADDS) facility and LANDSAT Assessment System (LAS) with a special purpose MLA interface unit. LANDSAT-D image processing techniques, adapted to MLA characteristics, form the basis for the use of existing software and the definition of new software required.

  20. Advanced Earth Observation System Instrumentation Study (AEOSIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Var, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility, practicality, and cost are investigated for establishing a national system or grid of artificial landmarks suitable for automated (near real time) recognition in the multispectral scanner imagery data from an earth observation satellite (EOS). The intended use of such landmarks, for orbit determination and improved mapping accuracy is reviewed. The desirability of using xenon searchlight landmarks for this purpose is explored theoretically and by means of experimental results obtained with LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2. These results are used, in conjunction with the demonstrated efficiency of an automated detection scheme, to determine the size and cost of a xenon searchlight that would be suitable for an EOS Searchlight Landmark Station (SLS), and to facilitate the development of a conceptual design for an automated and environmentally protected EOS SLS.

  1. Case Studies Involving Displaced Workers' Transition to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lillian R.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this qualitative study is how community college transition programs and services accommodated students who experienced a major life transition event (job loss) using Schlosberg's (1984) Life Transition Model and the updated model with Anderson and Goodman (2006). Students' perceptions of transition programs and services were…

  2. Community Involvement in Arts Education: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rademaker, Linnea L.

    2003-01-01

    Reports a case study of a non profit arts advocacy group. Explores how Arts Collaborators, Inc. (ACI) advocated arts education, how they chose and developed arts education activities, and how individual and corporate beliefs about art influenced those choices. Offers recommendations about effectively evaluating and incorporating outside influences…

  3. Involvement of Professional Staff in Conducting an Organizational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibodeau, Janice A.; Vance, Carmen L.

    1986-01-01

    An organizational study of the residential life staff shows responses on time, personal and physical space, and motivation and morale. Provides a systematic, objective database upon which to develop departmental objectives and priorities. Affords staff the opportunity to further develop research skills and to work on team-building skills.…

  4. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  5. An experimental study of steam explosions involving chemically reactive metal

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, D.H.; Armstrong, D.R.; Gunther, W.H.; Basu, S.

    1997-07-01

    An experimental study of molten zirconium-water explosions was conducted. A 1-kg mass of zirconium melt was dropped into a column of water. Explosions took place only when an external trigger was used. In the triggered tests, the extent of oxidation of the zirconium melt was very extensive. However, the explosion energetics estimated were found to be very small compared to the potential chemical energy available from the oxidation reaction. Zirconium is of particular interest, since it is a component of the core materials of the current nuclear power reactors. This paper describes the test apparatus and summarizes the results of four tests conducted using pure zirconium melt.

  6. Driving violations observed: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Glendon, A Ian

    2007-08-01

    This study analyses 2,765 cases of driving behaviours in three Australian states - New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria. Data were gathered from in-car coordinated video and audio recording sequences in free-flowing traffic along two-, three- and four-lane highways with varying speed limits on all days of the week in daylight and fine weather conditions. Explanatory variables included driver age group and gender, passenger characteristics and vehicle age and type. Response variables included driving violations and other driving behaviours, including lane use, speeding, close following (tailgating), driver's hands position and mobile phone use. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. By focusing upon vehicle and driver characteristics, and their impact on driving behaviours, including identified violations, this study explores some implications both for future research and for traffic policy makers.

  7. Spaces for Citizen Involvement in Healthcare: An Ethnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Marston, Cicely

    2015-01-01

    This ethnographic study examines how participatory spaces and citizenship are co-constituted in participatory healthcare improvement efforts. We propose a theoretical framework for participatory citizenship in which acts of citizenship in healthcare are understood in terms of the spaces they are in. Participatory spaces consist of material, temporal and social dimensions that constrain citizens’ actions. Participants draw on external resources to try to make participatory spaces more productive and collaborative, to connect and expand them. We identify three classes of tactics they use to do this: ‘plotting’, ‘transient combination’ and ‘interconnecting’. All tactics help participants assemble to a greater or lesser extent a less fragmented participatory landscape with more potential for positive impact on healthcare. Participants’ acts of citizenship both shape and are shaped by participatory spaces. To understand participatory citizenship, we should take spatiality into account, and track the ongoing spatial negotiations and productions through which people can improve healthcare. PMID:26038612

  8. Coordinating Observational Campaigns to Study the Tropical Tropopause Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Gary A.; Gettelman, Andrew; Hasebe, Fumio

    2013-02-01

    The tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is the dominant region for entry of tropospheric air into the global stratosphere. Despite significant theoretical advances and a rapidly growing archive of satellite data, important science questions related to the control of humidity and the chemical composition of air entering the stratosphere remain unanswered. Many processes are involved, including large-scale ascent, atmospheric waves, and cloud microphysics. Further progress requires better analysis of current and past observations as well as new observational campaigns in which in situ observations on both balloons and aircraft platforms are coordinated with satellite observations.

  9. CNS involvement in OFD1 syndrome: a clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral-facial-digital type 1 syndrome (OFD1; OMIM 311200) belongs to the expanding group of disorders ascribed to ciliary dysfunction. With the aim of contributing to the understanding of the role of primary cilia in the central nervous system (CNS), we performed a thorough characterization of CNS involvement observed in this disorder. Methods A cohort of 117 molecularly diagnosed OFD type I patients was screened for the presence of neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities on the basis of the available information supplied by the collaborating clinicians. Seventy-one cases showing CNS involvement were further investigated through neuroimaging studies and neuropsychological testing. Results Seventeen patients were molecularly diagnosed in the course of this study and five of these represent new mutations never reported before. Among patients displaying neurological symptoms and/or cognitive/behavioral abnormalities, we identified brain structural anomalies in 88.7%, cognitive impairment in 68%, and associated neurological disorders and signs in 53% of cases. The most frequently observed brain structural anomalies included agenesis of the corpus callosum and neuronal migration/organisation disorders as well as intracerebral cysts, porencephaly and cerebellar malformations. Conclusions Our results support recent published findings indicating that CNS involvement in this condition is found in more than 60% of cases. Our findings correlate well with the kind of brain developmental anomalies described in other ciliopathies. Interestingly, we also described specific neuropsychological aspects such as reduced ability in processing verbal information, slow thought process, difficulties in attention and concentration, and notably, long-term memory deficits which may indicate a specific role of OFD1 and/or primary cilia in higher brain functions. PMID:24884629

  10. A Phenomenological Study of Parental Involvement and the Undergraduate College Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parents highly involved in the academic lives of their college-going children have become increasingly common and yet the effect of such involvement on students is poorly understood by student services administrators and faculty. The purpose of this study was to better define the phenomenon of parental involvement in college through an…

  11. A Multidimensional Study of School-Family-Community Partnership Involvement: School, School Counselor, and Training Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Julia A.; Griffin, Dana

    2010-01-01

    A multidimensional study examines both the dimensions of school counselors' involvement in school-family-community partnerships and the factors related to their involvement in partnerships. The School Counselor Involvement in Partnerships Survey was revised and its factor structure examined. Principal factor analyses revealed three dimensions of…

  12. The Management of Parental Involvement in Multicultural Schools in South Africa: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Sathiapama; Wolhuter, Charl C.; van Wyk, Noleen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the management of parental involvement in three multicultural schools in the Umlazi District in Durban, South Africa. A literature survey resulting in a theoretical framework on parental involvement in schools, multicultural schools, and the managing of parental involvement in schools has been done. The…

  13. Fathers of Children in Public Preschool Programs: A Study of School Involvement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noggle, Amy Kappel

    2012-01-01

    In this quantitative study, I examined the involvement levels of fathers of children attending public preschool programs using the Family Involvement Questionnaire; I also examined fathers' satisfaction with school contact and involvement experiences using the Parent Satisfaction with Educational Experiences scale. Additionally, I…

  14. Studying Triggers for Interest and Engagement Using Observational Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renninger, K. Ann; Bachrach, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the contribution of observational methods to understanding the processes involved in triggering interest and establishing engagement. We begin by reviewing the literatures on interest and engagement, noting their similarities, differences, and the utility to each of better understanding the triggering process. We then…

  15. Role of the Wasp Venom Peptide Mastoparan in the Study of Mechanisms Involved in Cell Death

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-23

    Involved in Cell Death 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...study of mechanisms involved in cell death " beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and will save and hold harmless...Dissertation: Role of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan in the study of mechanisms involved in cell death . Samuel P. Eng, Master of Science, 1989

  16. Parent Involvement Training with Hispanic Parents: A Report from Tomas Rivera Elementary School. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Arminta L.; Huffman, Jane B.; Rositas, Maria C.; de Corredor, Yamile Quintero

    The Center for Parent Education at the University of North Texas conducted a case study based on parent involvement training sessions offered in the spring of 1997 at Tomas Rivera Elementary School, Denton, Texas. The study involved low income English- and Spanish-speaking Hispanic parents whose children were considered high-risk students. The…

  17. A 3-Year Study of a School-Based Parental Involvement Program in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim

    2015-01-01

    Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…

  18. The Effects of Student Involvement on Graduate Student Satisfaction: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Kelsey; McKee, Mallory; Brooks, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The pilot study discussed in this article investigates the perception of counselor education students' level of involvement and their satisfaction regarding their graduate program experience. It is believed, more involved students are more satisfied. Because there is limited existing data, this study seeks to ignite the conversation and future…

  19. Changes in Parental Involvement in Secondary Education: An Exploration Study Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaliotis, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Empirical research on parental involvement in children's education often makes the assumption that levels of involvement remain fixed over time. This paper highlights evidence from a longitudinal study that half of parents of young people in Year 9 reported becoming more or less involved in their child's school life over a two-year period and…

  20. On Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Michael B.

    Involvement Ratings In Settings (IRIS), a multi-dimensional non-verbal scale of involvement adaptable to a time-sampling method of data collection, was constructed with the aid of the videotapes of second-grade Follow Through classrooms made by CCEP. Scales were defined through observations of involved and alienated behavior, and the IRIS was…

  1. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  2. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  3. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind and Adolescent Involvement in Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Sania; Jaffee, Sara R.; Bowes, Lucy; Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Andreou, Penelope; Happe, Francesca; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) allows the understanding and prediction of other people's behaviours based on their mental states (e.g. beliefs). It is important for healthy social relationships and thus may contribute towards children's involvement in bullying. The present study investigated whether children involved in bullying during early…

  4. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  5. Latino Parents' Motivations for Involvement in Their Children's Schooling: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joan M. T.; Ice, Christa L.; Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V.; Sandler, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the ability of a theoretical model of the parental involvement process to predict Latino parents' involvement in their children's schooling. A sample of Latino parents (N = 147) of grade 1 through 6 children in a large urban public school district in the southeastern United States responded to surveys assessing model-based…

  6. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  7. A Study of the Relationship between Parental Involvement and Mental Health of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake Payne, Ruthanna

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of parental involvement and mental health in a sample of traditionally aged college students and investigate the variance parental involvement predicts in mental health. Five hundred and eighty-eight freshmen at a large research university responded to a 97 question survey. Parental…

  8. Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…

  9. Active Bleeding after Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Observational Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Fellahi, Jean-Luc; Bertet, Héléna; Faucanie, Marie; Amour, Julien; Blanloeil, Yvonnick; Lanquetot, Hervé; Ouattara, Alexandre; Picot, Marie Christine

    2016-01-01

    Main Objectives To estimate the incidence of active bleeding after cardiac surgery (AB) based on a definition directly related on blood flow from chest drainage; to describe the AB characteristics and its management; to identify factors of postoperative complications. Methods AB was defined as a blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or in case of reoperation for hemostasis during the first 12 postoperative hours. The definition was applied in a prospective longitudinal observational study involving 29 French centers; all adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included over a 3-month period. Perioperative data (including blood product administration) were collected. To study possible variation in clinical practice among centers, patients were classified into two groups according to the AB incidence of the center compared to the overall incidence: “Low incidence” if incidence is lower and “High incidence” if incidence is equal or greater than overall incidence. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors of postoperative complications. Results Among 4,904 patients, 129 experienced AB (2.6%), among them 52 reoperation. Postoperative bleeding loss was 1,000 [820;1,375] ml and 1,680 [1,280;2,300] ml at 6 and 24 hours respectively. Incidence of AB varied between centers (0 to 16%) but was independent of in-centre cardiac surgical experience. Comparisons between groups according to AB incidence showed differences in postoperative management. Body surface area, preoperative creatinine, emergency surgery, postoperative acidosis and red blood cell transfusion were risk factors of postoperative complication. Conclusions A blood loss > 1.5 ml/kg/h for 6 consecutive hours within the first 24 hours or early reoperation for hemostasis seems a relevant definition of AB. This definition, independent of transfusion, adjusted to body weight, may assess real time bleeding occurring

  10. Controlling Involvement: A Naturalistic Study of Peer Interaction in a Bilingual, Bicultural Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Thomas F.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of 4-year-old Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans and English-speaking African Americans in Head Start revealed that, during free play, children were determined to exercise control over their involvement with others. Most significantly, Hispanic children were reluctant to enter into verbal play with English speakers and thus received…

  11. Role of Brachytherapy in the Boost Management of Anal Carcinoma With Node Involvement (CORS-03 Study)

    SciTech Connect

    Moureau-Zabotto, Laurence; Ortholan, Cecile; Hannoun-Levi, Jean-Michel; Teissier, Eric; Cowen, Didier; Salem, Nagi; Lemanski, Claire; Ellis, Steve; Resbeut, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To assess retrospectively the clinical outcome in anal cancer patients, with lymph node involvement, treated with split-course radiation therapy and receiving a boost through external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) or brachytherapy (BCT). Methods and Materials: From 2000 to 2005, among 229 patients with invasive nonmetastatic anal squamous cell carcinoma, a selected group of 99 patients, with lymph node involvement, was studied. Tumor staging reported was T1 in 4 patients, T2 in 16 patients, T3 in 49 patients, T4 in 16 patients, and T unknown in 14 patients and as N1 in 67 patients and N2/N3 in 32 patients. Patients underwent a first course of EBRT (mean dose, 45.1 Gy) followed by a boost (mean dose, 18 Gy) using EBRT (50 patients) or BCT (49 patients). All characteristics of patients and tumors were well balanced between the BCT and EBRT groups. Prognostic factors of cumulative rate of local recurrence (CRLR), cumulative rate of distant (including nodal) recurrence (CRDR), colostomy-free survival (CFS) rate, and overall survival (OS) rate were analyzed for the overall population and according to the nodal status classification. Results: The median follow-up was 71.5 months. The 5-year CRLR, CRDR, CFS rate, and OS rate were 21%, 19%, 63%, and 74.4%, respectively. In the overall population, the type of node involvement (N1 vs N2/N3) was the unique independent prognostic factor for CRLR. In N1 patients, by use of multivariate analysis, BCT boost was the unique prognostic factor for CRLR (4% for BCT vs 31% for EBRT; hazard ratio, 0.08; P=.042). No studied factors were significantly associated with CRDR, CFS, and OS. No difference with regard to boost technique and any other factor studied was observed in N2/N3 patients for any kind of recurrence. Conclusion: In anal cancer, even in the case of initial perirectal node invasion, BCT boost is superior to EBRT boost for CRLR, without an influence on OS, suggesting that N1 status should not be a contraindication to

  12. Case Study Observational Research: A Framework for Conducting Case Study Research Where Observation Data Are the Focus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Sonya J; Pullon, Susan R H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; McKinlay, Eileen M; Gray, Ben V

    2016-05-22

    Case study research is a comprehensive method that incorporates multiple sources of data to provide detailed accounts of complex research phenomena in real-life contexts. However, current models of case study research do not particularly distinguish the unique contribution observation data can make. Observation methods have the potential to reach beyond other methods that rely largely or solely on self-report. This article describes the distinctive characteristics of case study observational research, a modified form of Yin's 2014 model of case study research the authors used in a study exploring interprofessional collaboration in primary care. In this approach, observation data are positioned as the central component of the research design. Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.

  13. Cause versus association in observational studies in psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-08-01

    Hypotheses may be generated (and conclusions drawn) from observational studies in areas where information from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is unavailable. However, observational studies can only establish that significant associations exist between predictor and outcome variables. Observational studies cannot establish that the associations identified represent cause-and-effect relationships. This article discusses examples of associations that were identified in observational studies and that were subsequently refuted in RCTs. Examples are also provided of associations that have yet to be confirmed or refuted but that are nevertheless influential in psychopharmacologic practice. Explanations are offered about how confounding might explain significant relationships between variables that are not related by cause and effect. As a conclusion of this exercise, clinicians are cautioned against placing too much reliance on the findings of observational research.

  14. In-Hospital Recruitment to Observational Studies of Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, Ruth M.; Kunkel, Dorit; Fitton, Carolyn; Ashburn, Ann; Jenkinson, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine recruitment in three observational follow-up studies of patients with stroke, focusing on reasons for nonparticipation and the role of potential factors in explaining recruitment rates. It comprised secondary analysis of the three studies. Recruitment rates varied between the studies. Between 10 and 50%…

  15. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  16. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  17. Empirical Performance of Covariates in Education Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Vivian C.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Miller-Bains, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article summarizes results from 12 empirical evaluations of observational methods in education contexts. We look at the performance of three common covariate-types in observational studies where the outcome is a standardized reading or math test. They are: pretest measures, local geographic matching, and rich covariate sets with a strong…

  18. An Observational Study of Skilled Memory in Waitresses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Joy

    A two-phase study about skilled memory as it is used by waitresses included a participant-observer phase and an observational phase. Participants were three experienced waitresses who had worked at a midtown Manhattan restaurant for 14, 7, and 3 years respectively and a team of 5 confederate customers. Waitresses and customers wore microphones.…

  19. Organizational values in general practice and public involvement: case studies in an urban district.

    PubMed

    Brown, I

    2001-05-01

    A multiple case study design was used to explore dimensions of organizational values in general practice with respect to developing public involvement. The study was undertaken in an urban district in England with data collected through in-depth individual and focus group interviews with service providers and service users. Four general practice organizations were randomly selected for study after sorting all in the district according to their record of developing involvement activities. The case studies provide evidence of how organizational values can differ markedly in general practice in relation to ideas of public involvement, with consequences for the quantity and quality of activities for involving local people and service users. The differences manifest themselves in the beliefs and attitudes of service providers about the purpose of the organization and the types of relationships that are appropriate with service users and local people. Service users appear to be very perceptive to the underlying ethos and purpose to their practice organization and this affects their responsiveness to initiatives for their involvement. The dimensions of the different values found in the study appear to be essentially the same as a number of established empirical findings of variations in values in general practice: an orientation to a narrow medical role and to general practice as a business are associated with a low valuation of involvement; an orientation to teamwork and to a broader social role appear more congruent with the development of involvement. Power is a critical issue in this setting with evidence in the study of the dominance of the medical practitioners in establishing organizational values and the nature of public involvement activities.

  20. Observational and Modeling Studies of Clouds and the Hydrological Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Our approach involved validating parameterizations directly against measurements from field programs, and using this validation to tune existing parameterizations and to guide the development of new ones. We have used a single-column model (SCM) to make the link between observations and parameterizations of clouds, including explicit cloud microphysics (e.g., prognostic cloud liquid water used to determine cloud radiative properties). Surface and satellite radiation measurements were used to provide an initial evaluation of the performance of the different parameterizations. The results of this evaluation will then used to develop improved cloud and cloud-radiation schemes, which were tested in GCM experiments.

  1. [Chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction in community-dwelling elderly: the Fibra study].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2013-12-01

    The scope of this article is to describe variations in the measurement of chronic diseases, functional ability, social involvement and satisfaction with respect to memory, problem solving, social relationships, environment, health services and transportation. This is done according to gender, age and income. It analyzes correlations between social involvement and functional ability in independent community dwelling-elderly aged 65 and above. 2,472 seniors without cognitive deficit, from probabilistic samples of seven Brazilian locations, were submitted to self-reported measurement concerning all variables, with the exception of grip strength and gait speed assessed by objective tests. Mean age was 72.2 ± 5.5 years and mean income was 3.9 ± 4.9 MW; 65.7% were women, who had more diseases, worse functional performance and greater social involvement than men; those aged 80 and above and the poorest participants had worse functional performance and less social involvement. Correlations were observed between functional ability and social involvement. Level of income was related to satisfaction concerning memory, problem solving, health and transport services. Health, functionality and satisfaction interact in old age, influencing patterns of activity and social involvement.

  2. "Lies, damned lies ..." and observational studies in comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Albert, Richard K

    2013-06-01

    A new federal initiative has allocated $1.1 billion to comparative effectiveness research, and many have emphasized the importance of including observational studies in this effort. The rationale for using observational studies to assess comparative effectiveness is based on concerns that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are not "real world" because they enroll homogeneous patient populations, measure study outcomes that are not important to patients, use protocols that are overly complex, are conducted in specialized centers, and use study treatments that are not consistent with usual care, and that RCTs are not always feasible because of a lack of equipoise, the need to assess delayed endpoints, and concerns that they take years to complete and are expensive. This essay questions the validity of each of these proposed limitations, summarizes concerns raised about the accuracy of results generated by observational studies, provides some examples of discrepancies between results of observational studies and RCTs that pertain to pulmonary and critical care, and suggests that using observational studies for comparative effectiveness research may increase rather than decrease the cost of health care and may harm patients.

  3. Basement-involved thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics: case study Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of continental crust during continental collision by folding and thrusting follows three types of structural styles: (1) In a true thin-skinned style only cover rocks are involved. This style necessitates a detachment horizon (typically evaporites or shales), and the detachment is accompanied by internal shortened by imbricate thrusting and associated folding of the cover rocks. (2) In case of a thin-skinned basement-involved style thin slabs of crystalline basement rocks are involved and form the main body of the ensuing nappe stack. Nappe-internal deformation was largely controlled by Late Palaeozoic graben structures and Jurassic normal faults. (3) In a true thick-skinned style most of the crust is involved in the deformation. In some cases thrust faults may reach all the way down into the lower crust while in other cases large-scale shearing and folding affects the lower crust. In the Alps all three styles can be recognized. The Helvetic nappes and parts of the Penninic nappes formed by true thin-skinned tectonics. Basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics is typical for the Penninic nappes in the core of the orogen. In these units thrust faults are overprinted by large-scale folds, a process referred to as "post-nappe folding". A kinematic analysis reveals that the detachment of the cover units by thin-skinned tectonics occurred first and was followed by basement-involved thin-skinned tectonics, suggesting a top-down propagation. The incipient thrusting in the basement occurred under relatively low temperatures; prograde conditions then led to the ductile overprint indicated by "post-nappe folding". When considering the Alpine orogen as a whole it is clear that nappe formation propagated from the core towards the external part of the orogen. The thick-skinned style observed in the lower crust evolved seemingly independent from the upper crustal deformation and was responsible for much of the observed crustal thickening.

  4. A School Action Plan with Stakeholder Involvement: A Case Study of One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Jacob J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This case study focused on a school action plan, using a planning and implementation process that focused on improving stakeholder involvement and responsibility for student reading achievement at Eisenberg Elementary School. This study examined the impact of the school action process on the development of a new plan compared to other traditional…

  5. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  6. Study of Biochemical Pathways and Enzymes Involved in Pyrene Degradation by Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. Strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, ...

  7. A Mixed-Methods Study of Paternal Involvement in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Eva Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    The research reported here examined Chinese fathers' direct interaction or engagement in children's education both at home and in preschool during the early childhood years using a Hong Kong sample in two studies. In Study 1, comparisons between father and mother involvement practices and examination of the associations between family background…

  8. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  9. Study of elementary reactions and energy transfer processes involving the NH and CN free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdigian, Paul J.; Alexander, Millard H.

    1991-06-01

    Collaborative theoretical and experimental studies of a variety of elementary chemical reactions and collisional energy transfer processes involving small molecular free radicals, with particular emphasis on the NH and CN molecules, have been carried out. Specific topics studied include: molecular free radicals, collisional energy transfer, chemical reactions, excited states, and molecular decomposition.

  10. [Registration of observational studies: it is time to comply with the Declaration of Helsinki requirement].

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael; Delgado, Miguel; Bolumar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Publication bias is a serious deficiency in the current system of disseminating the results of human research studies. Clinical investigators know that, from an ethical standpoint, they should prospectively register clinical trials in a public registry before starting them. In addition, it is believed that this approach will help to reduce publication bias. However, most studies conducted in humans are observational rather than experimental. It is estimated that less than 2% out of 2 million concluded or ongoing observational studies have been registered. The 2013 revision of the Declaration of Helsinki requires registration of any type of research study involving humans or identifiable samples or data. It is proposed that funding agencies, such as the Fondo de Investigaciones Sanitarias, as well as private companies, require preregistration of observational studies before providing funding. It is also proposed that Research Ethics Committees which, following Spanish regulation, have been using the Declaration as the framework for assessing the ethics of clinical trials with medicines since 1990, should follow the same provisions for the assessment of health-related observational studies: therefore, they should require prospective registration of studies before granting their final approval. This would allow observational study investigators to be educated in complying with an ethical requirement recently introduced in the most important ethical code for research involving humans.

  11. Teacher Effectiveness and Causal Inference in Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Roderick A.

    2013-01-01

    An important target of education policy is to improve overall teacher effectiveness using evidence-based policies. Randomized control trials (RCTs), which randomly assign study participants or groups of participants to treatment and control conditions, are not always practical or possible and observational studies using rigorous quasi-experimental…

  12. Radiation energy budget studies using collocated AVHRR and ERBE observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, S.A.; Inoue, Toshiro

    1994-03-01

    Changes in the energy balance at the top of the atmosphere are specified as a function of atmospheric and surface properties using observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner. By collocating the observations from the two instruments, flown on NOAA-9, the authors take advantage of the remote-sensing capabilities of each instrument. The AVHRR spectral channels were selected based on regions that are strongly transparent to clear sky conditions and are therefore useful for characterizing both surface and cloud-top conditions. The ERBE instruments make broadband observations that are important for climate studies. The approach of collocating these observations in time and space is used to study the radiative energy budget of three geographic regions: oceanic, savanna, and desert. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Tendon involvement in patients with gout: an ultrasound study of prevalence.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Sánchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Pineda, Carlos; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Reginato, Anthony; Alva, Magaly; Audisio, Marcelo; Bertoli, Ana; Cazenave, Tomas; Gutiérrez, Marwin; Mora, Claudia; Py, Guillermo; Sedano, Oscar; Solano, Carla; de Miguel, Eugenio

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate, by ultrasonography (US), the prevalence in the quadriceps, patellar, and Achilles tendon involvement of gout compared to that of patients with osteoarthritis and asymptomatic marathon runners. This is a multicenter, multinational, transverse cross-sectional, and comparative study comprising 80 patients with the diagnosis of gout according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, compared with two control groups: 35 patients with generalized osteoarthritis according to the ACR criteria and 35 subjects who were healthy marathon runners. Demographics and clinical characteristics, such as age, gender, comorbidity, disease duration, pain at the enthesis in the knee and ankle, frequency of disease exacerbations, uric acid level more than 7.2 mg at the time of evaluation, and type of treatment, were recorded. All participants were examined by ultrasound at the quadriceps, the patellar at its proximal and distal insertion, and the Achilles tendon to detect intra-tendinous tophus or aggregates according to the OMERACT definitions. Descriptive statistics and differences between groups were analyzed by chi-square test. Sensitivity and specificity by US were calculated. The prevalence of intra-tendinous aggregates and tophi in gout was significant compared with the other groups. Both lesions were the most frequent at the distal patellar insertion, followed by the quadriceps, Achilles, and proximal patellar insertion ones. In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), intra-tendinous hyperechoic aggregates were observed in 20 % of quadriceps tendons and in 11 % of patellar tendons at its proximal insertion, while in the healthy marathon runner group, the Achilles tendon had this kind of lesion in 17 % of the subjects. Neither the OA nor the healthy marathon runners had intra-tendinous tophi. The sensitivity and specificity of US to detect tophi or aggregates were 69.6 and 92 %, respectively, tendon involvement at

  14. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: III: TOO Observations of Atoll Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9244 provided funds for the research projects 'ASM-Triggered TOO Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Five Atoll Sources' and 'Further Measurements of the Kilohertz Oscillations in 4U 1705-44' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposals was Dr. E. C. Ford (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/15/2000. The original ADP proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. Wilham S. Padesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. Further systematic studies of systems with known QPOs are required in order to better understand the phenomenon. The proposals were intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by observing the sources as they vary over a wide range of X-ray flux. RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of six transient atoll sources, 4U 0614+09, KS 1732-260, Ser X-1, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1705-44 were to be performed at various flux levels based on ASM measurements.

  15. Involvement of informal caregivers in supporting patients with COPD: a review of intervention studies

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jamie; Mansfield, Elise; Boyes, Allison W; Waller, Amy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Regan, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Caregivers of individuals with COPD have a key role in maintaining patient adherence and optimizing patient function. However, no systematic review has examined how the caregiver role has been operationalized in interventions to improve outcomes of individuals with COPD or the quality or effectiveness of these interventions. The aims of this review were to 1) determine whether caregivers have been involved as part of interventions to improve outcomes of individuals with COPD; 2) determine the risk of bias within included intervention studies; and 3) examine the effectiveness of interventions that have involved caregivers in improving outcomes of individuals with COPD. The electronic databases of Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2000 to November 2015. Experimental studies testing interventions that involved a caregiver to improve COPD patient outcomes were eligible. Nine studies involving caregivers met inclusion criteria. No studies reported any intervention components targeted solely at caregivers, with most instead including caregivers in dyadic or group education sessions about COPD delivered by health care professionals. The risk of bias identified in included studies was mixed. Seven of the nine studies were effective in improving a broad range of outcomes. These findings highlight that there is an urgent need for methodologically rigorous interventions to examine the effectiveness of strategies to assist caregivers to provide direct care, encourage adherence to health care provider recommendations, act as a health care advocate, and provide emotional and psychosocial support to individuals with COPD. PMID:27478372

  16. Retrospective study of sonographic findings in bone involvement associated with rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy: preliminary results of a case series*

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello H.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Lorenzato, Mario Muller

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at investigating bone involvement secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendonitis at ultrasonography. Materials and Methods Retrospective study of a case series. The authors reviewed shoulder ultrasonography reports of 141 patients diagnosed with rotator cuff calcific tendonitis, collected from the computer-based data records of their institution over a four-year period. Imaging findings were retrospectively and consensually analyzed by two experienced musculoskeletal radiologists looking for bone involvement associated with calcific tendonitis. Only the cases confirmed by computed tomography were considered for descriptive analysis. Results Sonographic findings of calcific tendinopathy with bone involvement were observed in 7/141 (~ 5%) patients (mean age, 50.9 years; age range, 42-58 years; 42% female). Cortical bone erosion adjacent to tendon calcification was the most common finding, observed in 7/7 cases. Signs of intraosseous migration were found in 3/7 cases, and subcortical cysts in 2/7 cases. The findings were confirmed by computed tomography. Calcifications associated with bone abnormalities showed no acoustic shadowing at ultrasonography, favoring the hypothesis of resorption phase of the disease. Conclusion Preliminary results of the present study suggest that ultrasonography can identify bone abnormalities secondary to rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, particularly the presence of cortical bone erosion. PMID:26811551

  17. Child involvement in interparental conflict and child adjustment problems: a longitudinal study of violent families.

    PubMed

    Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents' conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and internalizing problems, and physical intimate partner violence. Measures were completed at three assessments, spaced 6 months apart. Results indicated that children's involvement in their parents' conflicts was positively associated with child adjustment problems. These associations emerged in between-subjects and within-subjects analyses, and for child externalizing as well as internalizing problems, even after controlling for the influence of physical intimate partner violence. In addition, child involvement in parental conflicts predicted later child reports of externalizing problems, but child reports of externalizing problems did not predict later involvement in parental conflicts. These findings highlight the importance of considering children's involvement in their parents' conflicts in theory and clinical work pertaining to high-conflict families.

  18. Evidence for Thalamic Involvement in the Thermal Grill Illusion: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lindstedt, Fredrik; Johansson, Bo; Martinsen, Sofia; Kosek, Eva; Fransson, Peter; Ingvar, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Perceptual illusions play an important role in untangling neural mechanisms underlying conscious phenomena. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) has been suggested as a promising model for exploring percepts involved in neuropathic pain, such as cold-allodynia (pain arising from contact with innocuous cold). The TGI is an unpleasant/painful sensation from touching juxtapositioned bars of cold and warm innocuous temperatures. Aim To develop an MRI-compatible TGI-unit and explore the supraspinal correlates of the illusion, using fMRI, in a group of healthy volunteers. Methods We constructed a TGI-thermode allowing the rapid presentation of warm(41°C), cold(18°C) and interleaved(41°C+18°C = TGI) temperatures in an fMRI-environment. Twenty volunteers were tested. The affective-motivational (“unpleasantness”) and sensory-disciminatory (“pain-intensity”) dimensions of each respective stimulus were rated. Functional images were analyzed at a corrected α-level <0.05. Results The TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant and painful than stimulation with each of its constituent temperatures. Also, the TGI was rated as significantly more unpleasant than painful. Thermal stimulation versus neutral baseline revealed bilateral activations of the anterior insulae and fronto-parietal regions. Unlike its constituent temperatures the TGI displayed a strong activation of the right (contralateral) thalamus. Exploratory contrasts at a slightly more liberal threshold-level also revealed a TGI-activation of the right mid/anterior insula, correlating with ratings of unpleasantness(rho = 0.31). Conclusion/Significance To the best of our knowledge, this is the first fMRI-study of the TGI. The activation of the anterior insula is consistent with this region's putative role in processing of homeostatically relevant feeling-states. Our results constitute the first neurophysiologic evidence of thalamic involvement in the TGI. Similar thalamic activity has

  19. Factors that influence research involvement among registered dietitians working as university faculty: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Kevin; Markless, Sharon

    2012-07-01

    Research involvement is fundamental to the practice of dietetics and dietetics faculty should be ideally placed to contribute to this. Studies have identified a range of factors that influence faculty research involvement, many of which are relevant to registered dietitians. The aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence research involvement among dietetics faculty using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Thirteen dietetics faculty members were purposively sampled and participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed thematically by the same researcher. Eight themes emerged that influenced research involvement among dietetics faculty and these related to the following distinct factors: institution and department (ie, size and structure, research philosophy, being established in research); activities (ie, faculty roles, time and teaching, research and grants); and individuals (ie, significant others, self). There was complex interaction between each of the eight themes. Many of the themes were very specific to the dietetics context, including being a small discipline, being in newer universities without established research portfolios, having greater teaching responsibilities, and the availability of grants in areas related to nutrition. The factors influencing research involvement among dietetics faculty members are complex and interact; therefore, solutions to overcome these barriers will need to account for this. These findings provide understanding that can contribute to this endeavor.

  20. A Comparison Study of Adults with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder with and without Forensic Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, P.; Lunsky, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to…

  1. A Neuroimaging Study of Premotor Lateralization and Cerebellar Involvement in the Production of Phonemes and Syllables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Satrajit S.; Tourville, Jason A.; Guenther, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the network of brain regions involved in overt production of vowels, monosyllables, and bisyllables to test hypotheses derived from the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model of speech production (Guenther, Ghosh, & Tourville, 2006). The DIVA model predicts left lateralized activity in inferior…

  2. A Study of Lipscomb University Students' Internet Use and Involvement in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Samuel Aarron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Lipscomb University students' Internet use and involvement in extracurricular activities. A survey of students at Lipscomb University was conducted. As confirmed by the data the research was able to determine that the type of extracurricular activity a student participates in most often is related to the…

  3. Parent Involvement in Children's Education: An Exploratory Study of Urban, Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…

  4. The Role of Jahoda's Latent and Financial Benefits for Work Involvement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of the latent and financial benefits of work as defined by Marie Jahoda (1982) in explaining a person's work involvement. Drawing upon theoretical frameworks on work commitment and work motivation, the latent benefits were expected to have a positive, whereas the financial benefits were expected to have a negative…

  5. Department Involvement in Instructional Materials Development for ODL Study at the Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai; Mutambanengwe, Betty

    2015-01-01

    The teaching and designing of modules at Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) is the principal responsibility of a single body of teaching staff, although some authors and content reviewers could be sourced from elsewhere if they are not available in ZOU. This survey, through a case study, examines the involvement of lecturers and staff in the…

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF CFD SIMULATIONS IN SUPPORT OF AIR QUALITY STUDIES INVOLVING BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need to properly develop the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods in support of air quality studies involving pollution sources near buildings at industrial sites. CFD models are emerging as a promising technology for such assessments, in part due ...

  7. Interpersonal Involvement Strategies in Online Textual Conversations: A Case Study of a Learning Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simich-Dudgeon, Carmen

    A study investigated the involvement strategies present in the textual conversations of four graduate students enrolled in a fully online graduate course in language education. The students interacted through an asynchronous interactive computer conferencing system that allowed communication from two continents. Two 2-week ongoing discussions were…

  8. American Business and the Public School: Case Studies of Corporate Involvement in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Marsha, Ed.; Trachtman, Roberta, Ed.

    This document provides case studies, written by the people involved, of the following private sector/public school collaborations: (1) Honeywell; (2) Metropolitan Life Insurance and the American Educator; (3) Burger King Corporation; (4) Murray Bergtraum High School for Business Careers; (5) The Public Education Fund; (6) The Boston Compact; and…

  9. Landmark estimation of survival and treatment effects in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Parast, Layla; Griffin, Beth Ann

    2017-04-01

    Clinical studies aimed at identifying effective treatments to reduce the risk of disease or death often require long term follow-up of participants in order to observe a sufficient number of events to precisely estimate the treatment effect. In such studies, observing the outcome of interest during follow-up may be difficult and high rates of censoring may be observed which often leads to reduced power when applying straightforward statistical methods developed for time-to-event data. Alternative methods have been proposed to take advantage of auxiliary information that may potentially improve efficiency when estimating marginal survival and improve power when testing for a treatment effect. Recently, Parast et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 109(505):384-394, 2014) proposed a landmark estimation procedure for the estimation of survival and treatment effects in a randomized clinical trial setting and demonstrated that significant gains in efficiency and power could be obtained by incorporating intermediate event information as well as baseline covariates. However, the procedure requires the assumption that the potential outcomes for each individual under treatment and control are independent of treatment group assignment which is unlikely to hold in an observational study setting. In this paper we develop the landmark estimation procedure for use in an observational setting. In particular, we incorporate inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) in the landmark estimation procedure to account for selection bias on observed baseline (pretreatment) covariates. We demonstrate that consistent estimates of survival and treatment effects can be obtained by using IPTW and that there is improved efficiency by using auxiliary intermediate event and baseline information. We compare our proposed estimates to those obtained using the Kaplan-Meier estimator, the original landmark estimation procedure, and the IPTW Kaplan-Meier estimator. We illustrate our resulting reduction in bias

  10. SABRE observations of Pi2 pulsations: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, E. G.; Lester, M.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of substorm-associated Pi2 pulsations observed by the SABRE coherent radar system during three separate case studies are presented. The SABRE field of view is well positioned to observe the differences between the auroral zone pulsation signature and that observed at mid-latitudes. During the first case study the SABRE field of view is initially in the eastward electrojet, equatorward and to the west of the substorm-enhanced electrojet current. As the interval progresses, the western, upward field-aligned current of the substorm current wedge moves westward across the longitudes of the radar field of view. The westward motion of the wedge is apparent in the spatial and temporal signatures of the associated Pi2 pulsation spectra and polarisation sense. During the second case study, the complex field-aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the pulsation generation region move equatorward into the SABRE field of view and then poleward out of it again after the third pulsation in the series. The spectral content of the four pulsations during the interval indicate different auroral zone and mid-latitude signatures. The final case study is from a period of low magnetic activity when SABRE observes a Pi2 pulsation signature from regions equatorward of the enhanced substorm currents. There is an apparent mode change between the signature observed by SABRE in the ionosphere and that on the ground by magnetometers at latitudes slightly equatorward of the radar field of view. The observations are discussed in terms of published theories of the generation mechanisms for this type of pulsation. Different signatures are observed by SABRE depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the SABRE field of view relative to the pulsation generation region. A twin source model for Pi2 pulsation generation provides the clearest explanation of the signatures observed Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood

  11. The Indiana Science Initiative: Lessons from a Classroom Observation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Nicole D.; Walker, William S.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Sorge, Brandon H.

    2015-01-01

    The Indiana Science Initiative (ISI) is a systemic effort to reform K-8 science education. The program provides teachers with professional development, reform-oriented science modules, and materials support. To examine the impact of the initiative's professional development, a participant observation study was conducted in the program's pilot…

  12. Scientific and Ethical Approaches for Observational Exposure Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers conduct observational human exposure studies to understand how and the extent to which people come into contact with chemicals and environmental stressors in their everyday lives, through the air they breathe, the food and liquids they consume, and the things they tou...

  13. Studies of the observed and theoretical variations of atmospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    London, Julius

    1990-01-01

    The four related topics covered include: (1) distributions of total and upper atmospheric ozone and their time and space variations; (2) observed and theoretical models of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) ozone variation; (3) radiative processes in the upper atmosphere; and (4) relations between ozone and solar variations. The results of these studies are presented. They come from twenty-three published papers.

  14. The status of blue straggler studies (II): observational properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Deng, Li-Cai; Liang, Yan-Chun

    2006-09-01

    The obervational features of blue stragglers (BSs) show great differences among the different stellar systems, such as Galactic halo, open clusters, globular clusters, and dwarf galaxies. These differences reveal the distinctive formation of BSs and the physical conditions of the systems and their stellar populations. Therefore, studying the observational properties of BSs could be an effective method for studying the formation mechanisms of BSs, the evolution of single stars and binary systems, and the dynamical evolution of stellar systems.

  15. Observer study to evaluate the simulation of mammographic calcification clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Maria A. Z.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    Numerous breast phantoms have been developed to be as realistic as possible to ensure the accuracy of image quality analysis, covering a greater range of applications. In this study, we simulated three different densities of the breast parenchyma using paraffin gel, acrylic plates and PVC films. Hydroxyapatite was used to simulate calcification clusters. From the images acquired with a GE Senographe DR 2000D mammography system, we selected 68 regions of interest (ROIs) with and 68 without a simulated calcification cluster. To validate the phantom simulation, we selected 136 ROIs from the University of South Florida's Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM). Seven trained observers performed two observer experiments by using a high-resolution monitor Barco mod. E-3620. In the first experiment, the observers had to distinguish between real or phantom ROIs (with and without calcification). In the second one, the observers had to indicate the ROI with calcifications between a pair of ROIs. Results from our study show that the hydroxyapatite calcifications had poor contrast in the simulated breast parenchyma, thus observers had more difficulty in identifying the presence of calcification clusters in phantom images. Preliminary analysis of the power spectrum was conducted to investigate the radiographic density and the contrast thresholds for calcification detection. The values obtained for the power spectrum exponent (β) were comparable with those found in the literature.

  16. Compliance with antithrombotic guidelines in surgery patients in German hospitals: a multicenter study involving pharmacy interns.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Carina; Eickhoff, Christiane; Kaemmerer, Wolfgang; Schulz, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Despite the existence of antithrombotic guidelines, there is low compliance with these guidelines in clinical practice. Until now pharmacy interns (PIs) have not been involved in this process. The objectives were to involve PIs to evaluate compliance with antithrombotic guidelines for VTE prophylaxis in surgery patients, and in cases of noncompliance to carry out pharmaceutical interventions. The study was conducted in 7 hospitals in Germany involving 27 PIs within the project "Pharmacy interns on the ward" (P-STAT 2). Pharmacy interns determined the thromboembolic risk, documented antithrombotic medication, and checked the compliance with current antithrombotic guidelines. A total of 6491 patients were enrolled; 5695 patients received antithrombotic prophylaxis. Antithrombotic guideline was followed in 77.5% patients. Many patients are not receiving appropriate VTE prophylaxis or heparin bridging regimen despite the fact that evidence-based antithrombotic guidelines are available. Pharmacy interns may play an important role in antithrombotic management.

  17. Parental Involvement and Student Motivation: A Quantitative Study of the Relationship between Student Goal Orientation and Student Perceptions of Parental Involvement among 5th Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Christine Daryabigi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a possible relationship between student perceptions of parental involvement and student goal orientation for an ethnically diverse fifth grade elementary population from high-poverty schools. This study was quantitative in nature and employed the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to assess the…

  18. Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS), feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, D. L.; Hall, D. W.; Mcelveen, R. P.

    1987-01-01

    The Carbon Dioxide Observational Platform System (CO-OPS) is a near-space, geostationary, multi-user, unmanned microwave powered monitoring platform system. This systems engineering feasibility study addressed identified existing requirements such as: carbon dioxide observational data requirements, communications requirements, and eye-in-the-sky requirements of other groups like the Defense Department, the Forestry Service, and the Coast Guard. In addition, potential applications in: earth system science, space system sciences, and test and verification (satellite sensors and data management techniques) were considered. The eleven month effort is summarized. Past work and methods of gathering the required observational data were assessed and rough-order-of magnitude cost estimates have shown the CO-OPS system to be most cost effective (less than $30 million within a 10 year lifetime). It was also concluded that there are no technical, schedule, or obstacles that would prevent achieving the objectives of the total 5-year CO-OPS program.

  19. Involvement in bullying and suicidal ideation in middle adolescence: a 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Hanna-Kaisa; Väänänen, Juha; Helminen, Mika; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to ascertain whether involvement in bullying increases the risk for subsequent suicidal ideation. A total of 2,070 Finnish girls and boys aged 15 were surveyed in the ninth grade (age 15) in schools, and followed up 2 years later in the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study. Involvement in bullying was elicited at age 15 by two questions focusing on being a bully and being a victim of bullying. Suicidal ideation was elicited by one item of the short Beck Depression Inventory at age 17. Baseline depressive symptoms and externalizing symptoms, age and sex were controlled for. Statistical analyses were carried out using cross-tabulations with Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was 3-4 times more prevalent among those who had been involved in bullying at age 15 than among those not involved. Suicidal ideation at age 17 was most prevalent among former victims of bullying. Being a victim of bullying at age 15 continued to predict subsequent suicidal ideation when depressive and externalizing symptoms were controlled for. Being a bully at age 15 also persisted as borderline significantly predictive of suicidal ideation when baseline symptoms were controlled for. Findings indicate adolescent victims and perpetrators of bullying alike are at long-term risk for suicidal ideation.

  20. Statistical study of seismo-electromagnetic effects observed by DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Parrot, M.; Berthelier, J.

    2006-12-01

    We present results of a statistical study of VLF electromagnetic waves observed in the vicinity of earthquakes. Survey mode data obtained by the French micro-satellite DEMETER (launched in June, 2004, inclination ~98 degrees, altitude ~700 km, designed specifically to analyze seismo-electromagnetic emissions) are used. Altogether, more than 5000 hours of data and more than 4500 earthquakes that occurred in the satellite zone are analyzed. A robust two-step data processing method has been developed and applied in order to distinguish very weak phenomena connected with the seismic activity from the natural background. In the first step, a map in the form of a histogram expressing the expected values of intensity of electromagnetic emissions at a given point of the satellite orbit under given conditions is constructed. In the second step, the intensity of emissions measured close to the earthquakes is compared with the distribution of intensities that could be expected from the previous step. Statistical consequences of the described data processing are thoroughly discussed and it is concluded that the observed fluctuations of wave intensity are most probably connected to the earthquakes. The frequency spectrum of the observed emissions, shape and dimensions of the affected area, as well as the most favorable natural conditions and earthquake properties to observe the phenomenon are studied.

  1. Theoretical and Observational Studies of Meteor Interactions with the Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    Spaceborne Ultraviolet 251-384 nm Spectroscopy of a Meteor During the 1997 Leonid Shower , Meteorites and Planetary Science, 37. Jones, W., 1997...RTO-MP-IST-056 12 - 1 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED Theoretical and Observational Studies of Meteor Interactions with the...ABSTRACT An intense flux of small-mass meteors has been seen in large-aperture radar scattering for many years. At high altitudes, these meteoroids

  2. Strategies GeoCape Intelligent Observation Studies @ GSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cappelaere, Pat; Frye, Stu; Moe, Karen; Mandl, Dan; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Flatley, Tom; Geist, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides information a summary of the tradeoff studies conducted for GeoCape by the GSFC team in terms of how to optimize GeoCape observation efficiency. Tradeoffs include total ground scheduling with simple priorities, ground scheduling with cloud forecast, ground scheduling with sub-area forecast, onboard scheduling with onboard cloud detection and smart onboard scheduling and onboard image processing. The tradeoffs considered optimzing cost, downlink bandwidth and total number of images acquired.

  3. There and back again: The study of mental disorder and terrorist involvement.

    PubMed

    Gill, Paul; Corner, Emily

    2017-04-01

    For the past 40 years, researchers studied the relationship between mental disorder and terrorist involvement. The literature developed in 4 paradigms, each of which differs in terms of their empirical evidence, the specific mental disorders studied, and their conceptualizations of terrorist involvement. These paradigms have not, however, witnessed linear and incremental improvements upon 1 another. Although 1 paradigm has generally tended to dominate a temporal period, many false assumptions and incorrect interpretations of earlier work permeate into today's discourse. This article provides a history of the study of mental disorders and the terrorist. First, we briefly outline the core fundamental principles of the first 2 paradigms, The article then outlines the core arguments produced by the seminal reviews conducted in Paradigm 3. We highlight how these findings were consistently misinterpreted in subsequent citations. We then highlight recent innovations in the study of terrorism and mental disorder since the various influential literature reviews of 1997-2005. We conclude by outlining how future research in this area may improve in the coming years by broadening our understanding of both terrorist involvement and psychopathology away from simple dichotomous thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Skin features in myotonic dystrophy type 1: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Giannoni, M; Buratti, L; Cagnetti, C; Giuliodori, K; Ganzetti, G; Silvestrini, M; Provinciali, L; Offidani, A

    2015-05-01

    Poor data regarding skin involvement in Myotonic Dystrophy, also named Dystrophia Myotonica type 1, have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and types of skin disorders in adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. Fifty-five patients and one hundred age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were referred to a trained dermatologist for a complete skin examination to check for potential cutaneous hallmarks of disease. No difference in prevalence of preneoplastic, neoplastic, and cutaneous lesions was detected between the two groups. Among morphofunctional, proliferative and inflammatory lesions, focal hyperhidrosis (p < 0.0001), follicular hyperkeratosis (p = 0.0003), early androgenic alopecia (p = 0.01), nail pitting (p = 0.003), pedunculus fibromas (p = 0. 01), twisted hair (p = 0.01), seborrheic dermatitis (p = 0.02), macules of hyperpigmentation (p = 0.03) were significantly more frequent in patients compared with controls. In patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 significant differences according to sex were found for: early androgenic alopecia, twisted hair and seborrheic dermatitis, whose prevalence was higher in males (p < 0.0001). Our preliminary results seem to rule out an increased prevalence of pre-neoplastic, and neoplastic skin lesions in Myotonic Dystrophy type 1. On the other hand, an increased prevalence of morphofunctional, inflammatory, and proliferative diseases involving adnexal structures seems to characterize adult patients with Myotonic Dystrophy type 1.

  5. A Comparative Study of Cloud Observation between Instrumental Measurements and Visual Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.; Jeong, J. Y.; Park, D. O.; Kang, J. J.; Choi, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    The microphysical observations of clouds have been performed by human observers who record the amount, height, and type of cloud. However, the observational methods of clouds by human observers have their limitations due to its difficulties in the punctuality and weakness of assessment. The Automatic Cloud Observation System(ACOS) has been developed by NIMR to obtain continuous informationof the amount and height of clouds. A set of ACOS is composed of two cameras and the amounts and heights of clouds are retrieved from the sky images. Four sets of the ACOS were installed during last 4 years at four locations in South Korea. They are compared with cloud observation data from visual observations and instrumental measurements using ceilometers, radiometers, and another camera-type instrument named "Sky View". Recent two-year observation data are analyzed, focused on the differences of cloud amounts and heights between cloud observation methods.

  6. Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation for Causal Inference in Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Megan S; Rose, Sherri

    2017-01-01

    Estimation of causal effects using observational data continues to grow in popularity in the epidemiologic literature. While many applications of causal effect estimation use propensity score methods or G-computation, targeted maximum likelihood estimation (TMLE) is a well-established alternative method with desirable statistical properties. TMLE is a doubly robust maximum-likelihood-based approach that includes a secondary "targeting" step that optimizes the bias-variance tradeoff for the target parameter. Under standard causal assumptions, estimates can be interpreted as causal effects. Because TMLE has not been as widely implemented in epidemiologic research, we aim to provide an accessible presentation of TMLE for applied researchers. We give step-by-step instructions for using TMLE to estimate the average treatment effect in the context of an observational study. We discuss conceptual similarities and differences between TMLE and 2 common estimation approaches (G-computation and inverse probability weighting) and present findings on their relative performance using simulated data. Our simulation study compares methods under parametric regression misspecification; our results highlight TMLE's property of double robustness. Additionally, we discuss best practices for TMLE implementation, particularly the use of ensembled machine learning algorithms. Our simulation study demonstrates all methods using super learning, highlighting that incorporation of machine learning may outperform parametric regression in observational data settings.

  7. Tropospheric Chemistry Studies using Observations from GOME and TOMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gleason, James F.

    2003-01-01

    Studies to quantitatively determine trace gas and aerosol amounts from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) and the Total Ozone Monitoring Experiment (TOMS) and to perform chemical modeling studies which utilize these results are given. This includes: 1. Analysis of measurements from the GOME and TOMS instruments for troposphere distributions of O3 and HCHO; troposphere enhancements of SO2, NO2 and aerosols associated with major sources; and springtime events of elevated BrO in the lower Arctic troposphere. 2. Application of a global 3-dimensional model of troposphere chemistry to interpret the GOME observations in terms of the factors controlling the abundances of troposphere ozone and OH.

  8. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  9. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  10. Phylogenetic Study of Polyketide Synthases and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases Involved in the Biosynthesis of Mycotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Antonia; Ferrara, Massimo; Perrone, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide toxins produced by fungi. Furthermore, hybrid enzymes, in which a reducing PKS region is fused to a single NRPS module, are also responsible of the synthesis of peptide-polyketide metabolites in fungi. The genes encoding for PKSs and NRPSs have been exposed to complex evolutionary mechanisms, which have determined the great number and diversity of metabolites. In this study, we considered the most important polyketide and peptide mycotoxins and, for the first time, a phylogenetic analysis of both PKSs and NRPSs involved in their biosynthesis was assessed using two domains for each enzyme: β-ketosynthase (KS) and acyl-transferase (AT) for PKSs; adenylation (A) and condensation (C) for NRPSs. The analysis of both KS and AT domains confirmed the differentiation of the three classes of highly, partially and non-reducing PKSs. Hybrid PKS-NRPSs involved in mycotoxins biosynthesis grouped together in the phylogenetic trees of all the domains analyzed. For most mycotoxins, the corresponding biosynthetic enzymes from distinct fungal species grouped together, except for PKS and NRPS involved in ochratoxin A biosynthesis, for which an unlike process of evolution could be hypothesized in different species. PMID:23604065

  11. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention.

  12. Linking Indigenous Knowledge and Observed Climate Change Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Chief Clarence; Bynum, Nora; Johnson, Liz; King, Ursula; Mustonen, Tero; Neofotis, Peter; Oettle, Noel; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Sakakibara, Chie; Shadrin, Chief Vyacheslav; Vicarelli, Marta; Waterhouse, Jon; Weeks, Brian

    2010-01-01

    We present indigenous knowledge narratives and explore their connections to documented temperature and other climate changes and observed climate change impact studies. We then propose a framework for enhancing integration of these indigenous narratives of observed climate change with global assessments. Our aim is to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data and analysis, so that this rich body of knowledge can inform science, and so that indigenous and traditional peoples can use the tools and methods of science for the benefit of their communities if they choose to do so. Enhancing ways of understanding such connections are critical as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment process gets underway.

  13. Studies of Tropical/Mid-Latitude Exchange Using UARS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avallone, Linnea

    2001-01-01

    At the time this proposal was submitted, recent publications had suggested an important role for transport of midlatitude air into the tropical lower stratosphere. Most of these studies had employed data that gave only a time-averaged picture, making it difficult to determine the nature of the transport processes responsible for the observed behavior. We proposed to analyze observations of long-lived trace gases, such as nitric acid, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, made from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, to investigate the seasonal behavior of mixing between the midlatitudes and tropics. We planned to construct probability distributions of the concentrations of these species over small altitude ranges and to compare them to expectations based on modeled mean concentrations and knowledge of instrument precision. Differences from expectation were to be analyzed with respect to meteorological parameters to determine whether wave activity may have induced apparent mixing.

  14. Concept study of an observation preparation tool for MICADO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Michael; Schlichter, Jörg

    2016-07-01

    MICADO, the near-infrared Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations and first light instrument for the European ELT, will provide capabilities for imaging, coronagraphy, and spectroscopy. As usual, MICADO observations will have to be prepared in advance, including AO and secondary guide star selection, offset/dither pattern definition, and an optimization for the most suitable configuration. A visual representation of the latter along with graphical and scripting interfaces is desirable. We aim at developing a flexible and user-friendly application that enhances or complements the ESO standard preparation software. Here, we give a summary of the requirements on such a tool, report on the status of our conceptual study and present a first proof-of-concept implementation.

  15. Supplementing Oscat winds with Saral Altika observations for cyclone studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niharika, K.; Usha Sundari, H. S. V.; Prasad, A. V. V.; Kumari, E. V. S. Sita; Dadhwal, V. K.; Ali, M. M.

    2014-11-01

    Accurate prediction of life cycle of cyclone is very critical to the disaster management practices. Since the cyclones originate over the oceans where in situ observations are limited, we have to resort to the remote sensing techniques. Both optical and microwave sensors help studying the cyclones. While scatterometer provide wind vectors, altimeters can give only wind speed. In this paper we present how altimeter measurements can supplement the scatterometer observations in determining the radius of maximum winds (RMW). Sustained maximum winds, indicator for the intensity of the cyclone, are within the eye wall of a cyclone at a distance of RMW. This parameter is also useful in predicting right time of the storm surge. In this paper we used the wind speed estimations from AltiKa, an altimeter operating at Ka band.

  16. Phylogenomic study of lipid genes involved in microalgal biofuel production-candidate gene mining and metabolic pathway analyses.

    PubMed

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil.

  17. Phylogenomic Study of Lipid Genes Involved in Microalgal Biofuel Production—Candidate Gene Mining and Metabolic Pathway Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-01-01

    Optimizing microalgal biofuel production using metabolic engineering tools requires an in-depth understanding of the structure-function relationship of genes involved in lipid biosynthetic pathway. In the present study, genome-wide identification and characterization of 398 putative genes involved in lipid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Volvox carteri, Ostreococcus lucimarinus, Ostreococcus tauri and Cyanidioschyzon merolae was undertaken on the basis of their conserved motif/domain organization and phylogenetic profile. The results indicated that the core lipid metabolic pathways in all the species are carried out by a comparable number of orthologous proteins. Although the fundamental gene organizations were observed to be invariantly conserved between microalgae and Arabidopsis genome, with increased order of genome complexity there seems to be an association with more number of genes involved in triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis and catabolism. Further, phylogenomic analysis of the genes provided insights into the molecular evolution of lipid biosynthetic pathway in microalgae and confirm the close evolutionary proximity between the Streptophyte and Chlorophyte lineages. Together, these studies will improve our understanding of the global lipid metabolic pathway and contribute to the engineering of regulatory networks of algal strains for higher accumulation of oil. PMID:23032611

  18. Observational studies of regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Heather Danielle Blythe

    2013-03-01

    Massive stars have a profound influence on their surroundings. However, relatively little is known about their formation. The study of massive star formation is hindered by a lack of observational evidence, primarily due to difficulties observing massive stars at early stages in their development. The Red MSX Source survey (RMS survey) is a valuable tool with which to address these issues. Near-infrared H- and K-band spectra were taken for 247 candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), selected from the RMS survey. 195 (∼80%) of the targets are YSOs, of which 131 are massive YSOs (LBOL>5E3L⊙, M>8 M⊙). This is the largest spectroscopic study of massive YSOs to date. This study covers minimally obscured objects right through to very red, dusty sources. Almost all YSOs show some evidence for emission lines, though there is a wide variety of observed properties, with HI, H2 Fe II, and CO among the most commonly observed lines. Evidence for disks and outflows was frequently seen. Comparisons of Brγ and H2 emission with low mass YSOs suggest that the emission mechanism for these lines is the same for low-, intermediate-, and high-mass YSOs, i.e. high-mass YSOs appear to resemble scaled-up versions of low-mass YSOs. It was found that the YSOs form an evolutionary sequence, based on their spectra, consistent with the existing theoretical models. Type I YSOs have strong H2 emission, no ionized lines, and are redder than the other two subtypes. As such, these are considered to be the youngest sources. The Type III sources are bluest, and therefore considered to be the oldest subtype. They have strong H I lines and fluorescent Fe II 1.6878 μm emission. They may also have weak H2 emission. Type III sources may even be beginning to form a mini-H II region. XSHOOTER data from 10 Herbig Be stars were analysed. The evidence suggests that winds and disks are common among Herbig stars, as they are among their main sequence classical Be star counterparts. Line

  19. Gender differences in the association between religious involvement and depression: the Cache County (Utah) study.

    PubMed

    Norton, Maria C; Skoog, Ingmar; Franklin, Lynn M; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Zandi, Peter P; Breitner, John C S; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Steffens, David C

    2006-05-01

    We examined the relation between religious involvement, membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, and major depression in a population-based study of aging and dementia in Cache County, Utah. Participants included 4,468 nondemented individuals between the ages of 65 and 100 years who were interviewed in person. In logistic regression models adjusting for demographic and health variables, frequent church attendance was associated with a reduced prevalence of depression in women but increased prevalence in men. Social role loss and the potential impact of organizational power differential by sex are discussed. Though causality cannot be determined here, these findings suggest that the association between religious involvement and depression may differ substantially between men and women.

  20. Involvement of the larynx motor area in singing-voice perception: a TMS study(†).

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Yohana; Muggleton, Neil; Stewart, Lauren; Schön, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has reported that the motor system has a role in speech or emotional vocalization discrimination. In the present study we investigated the involvement of the larynx motor representation in singing perception. Twenty-one non-musicians listened to short tones sung by a human voice or played by a machine and performed a categorization task. Thereafter continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied over the right larynx premotor area or on the vertex and the test administered again. Overall, reaction times (RTs) were shorter after stimulation over both sites. Nonetheless and most importantly, RTs became longer for sung than for "machine" sounds after stimulation on the larynx area. This effect suggests that the right premotor region is functionally involved in singing perception and that sound humanness modulates motor resonance.

  1. Peri- and paracardial involvement in lymphoma: a radiographic study of 11 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Jochelson, M.S.; Balikian, J.P.; Mauch, P.; Liebman, H.

    1983-03-01

    Eleven patients with pericardiac and paracardiac lymphomatous involvement were studied. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest was compared to plain chest films for its ability to define the sites and extent of involvement in the paracardiac area. Nine of the 11 patients had abnormalities on chest radiography, which included abnormal contours in the fat pad areas and along the heart border, or an enlarged cardiac silhouette. Two patients had normal cardiac silhouettes; however, CT showed definite abnormalities. CT differentiated adenopathy from fat pads in two patients and pericardial effusion from cardiomegaly or paracardiac adenopathy in two patients. The exact location and extent of the paracardiac adenopathy initially seen on chest film was defined by CT. Careful analysis of the peri- and paracardiac areas by plain films and CT is essential to the diagnosis and the proper management of patients with Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  2. An Exploratory Study to Measure Excessive Involvement in Multitasking Interaction with Smart Devices.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubo; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2016-06-01

    This study developed a scale measuring excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices. An online questionnaire was designed and surveyed in a sample of 380 respondents. The sample was split into two groups for exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, respectively. A four-factor structure was identified with an acceptable goodness of fit. The first two factors, "Obsession and neglect" and "Problematic control," described the obsessive feelings, neglect behaviors, and behavior control problems accompanied by excessive multitasking interaction with smart devices. The latter two factors, "Multitasking preference" and "Polychronic orientation," referred to multitaskers' preference of engaging in multiple media use or interaction tasks rather than a single task from the time orientation perspective. The four-factor structure indicates that excessive involvement in multitasking interaction with smart devices shares some similarities with other behavioral addiction types, but demonstrates uniqueness compared with excessive engagement in single media use.

  3. From awareness to involvement? A qualitative study of respiratory patients’ awareness of health service change

    PubMed Central

    Kielmann, Tara; Huby, Guro; Powell, Alison; Sheikh, Aziz; Price, David; Williams, Sian; Pinnock, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background  Despite the policy rhetoric, patient involvement in health service decisions remains limited. Highlighted barriers include a concern that most patients are unable to see beyond personal aspects of their care in order to contribute meaningfully to health service development, and a perception that professionals do not welcome patient involvement. Objectives  We aimed to explore respiratory patients’ awareness of changes in local health service provision and provide insight into health professionals’ attitudes to engaging patients. Methods  Nested within an ethnographic study of health service reconfiguration, we recruited 31 patients with a range of respiratory diseases from four case study areas in England and Wales. Data from telephone interviews, illness diaries and focus groups with patients, and interviews with health professionals and managers were transcribed and analysed using the Framework approach. Results  Participants were not only aware of trends in health service provision (e.g. emergence of new professional roles, shift from secondary to primary care) but interpreted changes in the light of local and national events. Despite this awareness, none of the patients was formally involved in service development, though some contributed to local voluntary groups. Professionals generally welcomed the need for patients’ views to be heard. Discussion and conclusions  Our data give grounds for optimism. Patients are aware of and interested in a broad range of health‐related issues. Professionals’ motivation to involve patients in service development may be underestimated. Although practical obstacles remain, our findings should encourage the ongoing search for effective models of promoting patient engagement in health‐care services. PMID:21029282

  4. Driving with pets and motor vehicle collision involvement among older drivers: a prospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Huisingh, Carrie; Levitan, Emily B.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    front of the vehicle had similar rates of MVC involvement compared to those who did not drive with a pet in the front. A similar pattern of results was observed for at-fault MVCs. This association was not modified by visual processing impairment status. Conclusion The current study demonstrates a positive but non-significant association between frequently driving with pets and MVC involvement. More research is needed, particularly on restraint use and whether the pet was in the car at the time of the crash, to help characterize the public safety benefit of regulations on driving with pets. PMID:26774042

  5. Globally Gridded Satellite (GridSat) Observations for Climate Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knapp, Kenneth R.; Ansari, Steve; Bain, Caroline L.; Bourassa, Mark A.; Dickinson, Michael J.; Funk, Chris; Helms, Chip N.; Hennon, Christopher C.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Huffman, George J.; Kossin, James P.; Lee, Hai-Tien; Loew, Alexander; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    Geostationary satellites have provided routine, high temporal resolution Earth observations since the 1970s. Despite the long period of record, use of these data in climate studies has been limited for numerous reasons, among them: there is no central archive of geostationary data for all international satellites, full temporal and spatial resolution data are voluminous, and diverse calibration and navigation formats encumber the uniform processing needed for multi-satellite climate studies. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project set the stage for overcoming these issues by archiving a subset of the full resolution geostationary data at approx.10 km resolution at 3 hourly intervals since 1983. Recent efforts at NOAA s National Climatic Data Center to provide convenient access to these data include remapping the data to a standard map projection, recalibrating the data to optimize temporal homogeneity, extending the record of observations back to 1980, and reformatting the data for broad public distribution. The Gridded Satellite (GridSat) dataset includes observations from the visible, infrared window, and infrared water vapor channels. Data are stored in the netCDF format using standards that permit a wide variety of tools and libraries to quickly and easily process the data. A novel data layering approach, together with appropriate satellite and file metadata, allows users to access GridSat data at varying levels of complexity based on their needs. The result is a climate data record already in use by the meteorological community. Examples include reanalysis of tropical cyclones, studies of global precipitation, and detection and tracking of the intertropical convergence zone.

  6. How safe do teenagers behave on Facebook? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin; Raes, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    The substantial use of social network sites by teenagers has raised concerns about privacy and security. Previous research about behavior on social network sites was mostly based on surveys and interviews. Observational research overcomes problems inherent to this research method, for example social desirability. However, existing observational research mostly focuses on public profiles of young adults. Therefore, the current observation-study includes 1050 public and non-public Facebook-profiles of teenagers (13-18) to investigate (1) what kind of information teenagers post on their profile, (2) to what extent they protect this information using privacy-settings and (3) how much risky information they have on their profile. It was found that young people mostly post pictures, interests and some basic personal information on their profile. Some of them manage their privacy-settings as such that this information is reserved for friends' eyes only, but a lot of information is accessible on the friends-of-friends' pages. Although general risk scores are rather low, more detailed analyses show that teenagers nevertheless post a significant amount of risky information. Moreover, older teenagers and girls post more (risky) information while there are no differences in applying privacy settings. We found no differences in the Facebook behavior of teenagers enrolled in different education forms. Implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation

    PubMed Central

    Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. Methods: A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. Results: The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Conclusion: Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources. PMID:27226663

  8. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cohet, Catherine; Dos Santos, Gaël; Ferreira, Germano LC; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Bauchau, Vincent; Shinde, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates. We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate. PMID:26379011

  9. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies.

    PubMed

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cohet, Catherine; Dos Santos, Gaël; Ferreira, Germano Lc; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Bauchau, Vincent; Shinde, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates. We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate.

  10. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  11. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; ...

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal,more » gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.« less

  12. An observational study of entrainment rate in deep convection

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xiaohao; Lu, Chunsong; Zhao, Tianliang; Zhang, Guang Jun; Liu, Yangang

    2015-09-22

    This study estimates entrainment rate and investigates its relationships with cloud properties in 156 deep convective clouds based on in-situ aircraft observations during the TOGA-COARE (Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Response Experiment) field campaign over the western Pacific. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the probability density function of entrainment rate, the relationships between entrainment rate and cloud microphysics, and the effects of dry air sources on the calculated entrainment rate in deep convection from an observational perspective. Results show that the probability density function of entrainment rate can be well fitted by lognormal, gamma or Weibull distribution, with coefficients of determination being 0.82, 0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Entrainment tends to reduce temperature, water vapor content and moist static energy in cloud due to evaporative cooling and dilution. Inspection of the relationships between entrainment rate and microphysical properties reveals a negative correlation between volume-mean radius and entrainment rate, suggesting the potential dominance of homogeneous mechanism in the clouds examined. The entrainment rate and environmental water vapor content show similar tendencies of variation with the distance of the assumed environmental air to the cloud edges. Their variation tendencies are non-monotonic due to the relatively short distance between adjacent clouds.

  13. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  14. Is ankle involvement underestimated in rheumatoid arthritis? Results of a multicenter ultrasound study.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Marwin; Pineda, Carlos; Salaffi, Fausto; Raffeiner, Bernd; Cazenave, Tomas; Martinez-Nava, Gabriela A; Bertolazzi, Chiara; Vreju, Florentin; Inanc, Nevsun; Villaman, Eduardo; Delle Sedie, Andrea; Dal Pra, Fernando; Rosemffet, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of subclinical ankle involvement by ultrasound in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study was conducted on 216 patients with RA and 200 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Patients with no history or clinical evidence of ankle involvement underwent US examination. For each ankle, tibio-talar (TT) joint, tibialis anterior (TA) tendon, extensor halux (EH) and extensor common (EC) tendons, tibialis posterior (TP) tendon, flexor common (FC) tendon and flexor hallux (FH) tendon, peroneous brevis (PB) and longus (PL) tendons, Achilles tendon (AT) and plantar fascia (PF) were assessed. The following abnormalities were recorded: synovitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, enthesopathy and rupture. BMI, DAS28, RF ESR and CRP were also obtained. A total of 432 ankles of patients with RA and 400 ankles of healthy controls were assessed. In 188 (87%) patients with RA, US showed ankle abnormalities whereas, in control group, US found abnormalities in 57 (28.5 %) subjects (p = 0.01). The most frequent US abnormality in RA patients was TP tenosynovits (69/216) (31.9 %), followed by PL tenosynovitis (58/216) (26.9 %), TT synovitis (54/216) (25 %), PB tenosynovitis (51/216) (23.6 %), AT enthesopathy (41/216) (19 %) and AT bursitis (22/216) (10.2 %). In 118 RA patients out of 216 (54.6%), a positive PD was found. No statistically significant correlation was found between the US findings and age, disease duration, BMI, DAS28, RF, ESR and CRP. The present study provides evidence of the higher prevalence of subclinical ankle involvement in RA patients than in age- and gender-matched healthy controls identified by US.

  15. Collaboration in Technology. An Exploratory Study of United States Involvement in International Cooperative Technology Programs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN N 3 OHAN UNCLSSIFIED NAY 66 F/ O 5/𔃽 "L 7.0 j 1600 Wn. 22 I~1i L 12 1&0I M2. 1.25 1LAi ff . MICROcOPy RESOLUTiON TEST CHART...NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOAROS-1963-A _•S S. o I I- S m " 0 COLLABORATION IN TECHNOLOGY: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF UNITED STATES INVOLVEMENT IN INTERNATIONAL...nature of success in the interna - tional joint technology program environment and associations wittl success of possible independent or controllable

  16. Transgenic Studies on the Involvement of Cytokinin and Gibberellin in Male Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shihshieh; Cerny, R. Eric; Qi, Youlin; Bhat, Deepti; Aydt, Carrie M.; Hanson, Doris D.; Malloy, Kathleen P.; Ness, Linda A.

    2003-01-01

    Numerous plant hormones interact during plant growth and development. Elucidating the role of these various hormones on particular tissue types or developmental stages has been difficult with exogenous applications or constitutive expression studies. Therefore, we used tissue-specific promoters expressing CKX1 and gai, genes involved in oxidative cytokinin degradation and gibberellin (GA) signal transduction, respectively, to study the roles of cytokinin and GA in male organ development. Accumulation of CKX1 in reproductive tissues of transgenic maize (Zea mays) resulted in male-sterile plants. The male development of these plants was restored by applications of kinetin and thidiazuron. Similarly, expression of gai specifically in anthers and pollen of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis resulted in the abortion of these respective tissues. The gai-induced male-sterile phenotype exhibited by the transgenic plants was reversible by exogenous applications of kinetin. Our results provide molecular evidence of the involvement of cytokinin and GA in male development and support the hypothesis that the male development is controlled in concert by multiple hormones. These studies also suggest a potential method for generating maintainable male sterility in plants by using existing agrochemicals that would reduce the expense of seed production for existing hybrid crops and provide a method to produce hybrid varieties of traditionally non-hybrid crops. PMID:12644677

  17. A new GP with special interest headache service: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ridsdale, Leone; Doherty, Jane; McCrone, Paul; Seed, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background There is poor access to neurology services for patients in the community. Aim To describe the training of GPs with special interest (GPwSI) in headache and the setting up of a GPwSI clinic in general practice, and report on a comparison with the existing neurology service in terms of case severity, patient satisfaction, and cost. Design of study New service provision and evaluation by a questionnaire survey. Setting General practice and hospital neurology service in inner-city London. Method The intervention involved training GPs as GPwSIs and setting up a GP headache service. A questionnaire survey was conducted, measuring headache impact, satisfaction, and cost estimates. Results Headache impact was not significantly different between the two groups of patients, referred to hospital and to a GPwSI. Patients were significantly more satisfied with the GPwSI service, particularly that the service was effective in helping to relieve their symptoms (89% versus 76%; adjusted odds ratio = 7.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.7 to 22.4). The cost per first appointment was estimated to be £136, with £68 for subsequent contacts. These are lower than costs for neurologist contacts. Conclusion GPwSI services can satisfy the needs of patients with similar headache impact at costs that are lower than those for secondary care services. PMID:18611313

  18. [Quality of the clinical reports: observational study in Sassari].

    PubMed

    Virdis, A; Licheri, N; Ruiu, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the program of clinical risk management, and in particular in the phase of the "knowledge" of company reality, the work deals with the topic of the case history in Sassari' local health authority. A study is treated where, on a sample of about 400 cases history, four definite aspects are considered, in particular those that are regarded as the most important in the risk management and about medical responsability: 1) formal consent; 2) daily clinical allowance; 3) therapeutic card; 4) operating card. The results we got show the presence of a formal consent filled in correctly in 36 cases (9%), completed a daily allowance in 36 cases (9%), therapeutic card in 14 (3.5%) cases, operation card in 21 cases (19% su 116 surgical cases). These data, that have permitted to estimate the specific company reality as from pointed out critical states, show the necessity of working, with involvement of professional doctors, to build a history case model with clear and shared rules where you can clearly find the clinical path of a patient, where everything made is quoted and easily readable when necessary.

  19. Simulation Study Of Early Afterglows Observed With Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2006-09-01

    A 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell code has been used to simulate the dynamics of forward and reverse shocks with thin and thick shells within the parameter constraints provided by present Swift observations and the present models of GRB emission. Our 3-D RPIC simulations have provided the dynamics of collisionless shocks in electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas with and without initial ambient magnetic fields and revealed the importance of ``jitter radiation'' with prompt and afterglow spectra due to the inhomogeneous magnetic fields generated by the Weibel instability. It is different from synchrotron radiation, which is usually assumed to be the dominant radiation process. We have investigated gamma-ray burst emissions from prompt, early, and late afterglows considering microscopic processes. Based on our previous investigation of the Weibel instability for each stage of evolution of ejecta propagating in the ISM, we have incorporated the plasma conditions (relativistic jets) with the density and composition of the plasmas, the magnetic field strength ($\\sigma$-values (the ratio of the electromagnetic energy flux to the particle energy flux)) and its direction, and the Lorentz factor for the different stages in prompt and afterglows. Systematic simulation studies of the relativistic collisionless shocks, associated particle acceleration, magnetic field generation and self-consistent radiation provide insight into undetermined issues in prompt and afterglows observed by Swift. Self-consistently calculated lightcurves, spectra, spectral evolutions, and polarization as function of viewing angle will be done to light a shed on recent new observations by Swift, in particular, X-ray flares, early steep decay, and shallow decay.

  20. A systematic review of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jennifer A.; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T. Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R.; Omer, Saad B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. Aims: To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. Method: We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Results: Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. Conclusion: This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant

  1. Husbands' involvement in delivery care utilization in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A primary cause of high maternal mortality in Bangladesh is lack of access to professional delivery care. Examining the role of the family, particularly the husband, during pregnancy and childbirth is important to understanding women's access to and utilization of professional maternal health services that can prevent maternal mortality. This qualitative study examines husbands' involvement during childbirth and professional delivery care utilization in a rural sub-district of Netrokona district, Bangladesh. Methods Using purposive sampling, ten households utilizing a skilled attendant during the birth of the youngest child were selected and matched with ten households utilizing an untrained traditional birth attendant, or dhatri. Households were selected based on a set of inclusion criteria, such as approximate household income, ethnicity, and distance to the nearest hospital. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted in Bangla with husbands in these households in June 2010. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results By purposefully selecting households that differed on the type of provider utilized during delivery, common themes--high costs, poor transportation, and long distances to health facilities--were eliminated as sufficient barriers to the utilization of professional delivery care. Divergent themes, namely husbands' social support and perceived social norms, were identified as underlying factors associated with delivery care utilization. We found that husbands whose wives utilized professional delivery care provided emotional, instrumental and informational support to their wives during delivery and believed that medical intervention was necessary. By contrast, husbands whose wives utilized an untrained dhatri at home were uninvolved during delivery and believed childbirth should take place at home according to local traditions. Conclusions This study provides novel evidence about male

  2. A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stohs, Sidney J.; Preuss, Harry G.; Shara, Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This review summarizes the published as well as unpublished human studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine, providing information and an assessment of the safety and efficacy of these widely used products. The results of over 20 studies involving a total of approximately 360 subjects that consumed p-synephrine alone or in combination with other ingredients are reviewed and critiqued. Over 50 % of the subjects involved in these studies were overweight/obese, and approximately two-thirds of these overweight/obese subjects consumed caffeine (132-528 mg/day) in conjunction with p-synephrine (10-53 mg/day). Bitter orange/p-synephrine containing products were consumed for up to 12 weeks. Approximately 44 % of the subjects consumed a bitter orange/p-synephrine only product, while the remainder consumed a complex product that contained multiple ingredients in addition to p-synephrine. In general, bitter orange extract alone (p-synephrine) or in combination with other herbal ingredients did not produce significant adverse events as an increase in heart rate or blood pressure, or alter electrocardiographic data, serum chemistry, blood cell counts or urinalysis. p-Synephrine alone as well as in combination products were shown to increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss were observed with bitter orange extract/p-synephrine-containing products when given for six to 12 weeks. Longer term studies are needed to further assess the efficacy of these products and affirm their safety under these conditions. PMID:22991491

  3. An approach to space weather studies from ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarovjech, M.; Rušin, V.; Rybanský, M.; Kudela, K.; Kollár, V.

    2004-10-01

    We use daily values of the green corona hole areas, as prepared from the ground-based observations above the E-limb of the Sun and cosmic ray flux observed at Climax and Huancayo/Haleakala, to study a relation between them during a long-term period. A cross-correlation method has been used in the period 1953-2002 (the end of solar cycle 18 to mid-cycle 23). There were found green coronal hole areas that precede the cosmic ray of 200 - 270 days, with the maximum of 230 days (an average of 8 months). The 27-day rotational periodicity is stored around the maximum of correlation coefficients that reached values of 0.78 and 0.72, respectively. This correlation could be used to forecast the level of the cosmic ray daily flux at neutron monitor energies. We try to explain this behavior in a framework of the total coronal mass and its expansion into the heliosphere.

  4. Sea Ice Observations from the Winter Weddell Gyre Study - 󈨝

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    c.ed for DIViSION OF POLAR PROGRAMS NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDAlION Applovl fo p t C re’eose d,,trnbutD s~ mted 91-2 a US Army Corps of Engineers Cold...V. Govom. Physical S.tent Technician. of the Snon o Ice Branch. Research Division. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory and V...8217 tio,2 ,,,’’,~, ~ 6 Sea Ice Observations From the Winhter W’leddEll Gyre Study--:9I DOBRA A. XMESE MMio %~ GO*’%1 %ADDaR Catx vBC2 r - 1 %iCot oswvR %MR

  5. Swarm Observations of Field-Aligned Currents: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Stolle, C.; Luhr, H.; Park, J.; Rauberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a few case studies of multi-point magnetic field measurements of field-aligned currents (FACs) from Swarm constellation mission to understand their temporal and spatial characteristics. During the commissioning phase, the three Swarm spacecraft were in an identical polar orbit with a string-of-pearl configuration with small separations. During the science operational phase (since April, 2014), the three spacecraft were placed in slightly different polar orbits: one spacecraft in a higher altitude orbit (507km x 512km) and two side-by-side in lower altitude orbits (459km x 462km). We analyze a few FAC events in both orbital phases and during periods of active geomagnetic conditions. The multi-point observations enable us to examine the FACs' temporal evolution and separate their temporal and spatial variations.

  6. Forces involved in lower limb lengthening: an in vivo biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Lauterburg, Martin Th; Exner, G Ulrich; Jacob, Hilaire A C

    2006-09-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques for limb-lengthening procedures, the complication rate remains high. Bone fixators must cope with the forces involved during treatment, providing sufficient strength to maintain integrity of the limb in the course of lengthening, while permitting some "micromotion" across the bone gap that could enhance healing during the final phase of bone consolidation. This study reports on the forces generated during limb lengthening in the distraction and consolidation phases. Forces were measured on 19 patients between 6 and 22 years of age with 10 femoral and 11 tibial lengthenings of 1 mm/day by means of a monotube external fixator, fitted diaphysially, and modified to measure tension and weight-bearing forces. Peak force measured during the lengthening period amounted to about 14 N/kg of body mass. Generally, distraction forces leveled off at between 8 and 10 N/kg of body mass. During the consolidation period, the average force carried by the fixator dropped from 55% initially to about 10% of the force transmitted to the ground, consistent with increased load carrying capacity of the bone as healing progressed. Studying the forces involved in limb lengthening is important to gain knowledge of the forces required to overcome the resistance offered by the tissues that bridge the osteotomy site, to understand the biology of distraction osteogenesis and histiogenesis across the regenerate over time, and to provide scientific guidelines for frame removal.

  7. Cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy (Steinert's disease): a prospective study of 25 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Perloff, J.K.; Stevenson, W.G.; Roberts, N.K.; Cabeen, W.; Weiss, J.

    1984-11-01

    The presence, degree and frequency of disorders of cardiac conduction and rhythm and of regional or global myocardial dystrophy or myotonia have not previously been studied prospectively and systematically in the same population of patients with myotonic dystrophy. Accordingly, 25 adults with classic Steinert's disease underwent electrocardiography, 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography, vectorcardiography, chest x-rays, echocardiography, electrophysiologic studies, and technetium-99m angiography. Clinically important cardiac manifestations of myotonic dystrophy reside in specialized tissues rather than in myocardium. Involvement is relatively specific, primarily assigned to the His-Purkinje system. The cardiac muscle disorder takes the form of dystrophy rather than myotonia, and is not selective, appearing with approximately equal distribution in all 4 chambers. Myocardial dystrophy seldom results in clinically overt ventricular failure, but may be responsible for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Since myotonic dystrophy is genetically transmitted, a primary biochemical defect has been proposed with complete expression of the gene toward striated muscle tissue, whether skeletal or cardiac. Specialized cardiac tissue and myocardium have close, if not identical, embryologic origins, so it is not surprising that the genetic marker affects both. Cardiac involvement is therefore an integral part of myotonic dystrophy, targeting particularly the infranodal conduction system, to a lesser extent the sinus node, and still less specifically, the myocardium.

  8. Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, M. G.

    1988-12-01

    This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

  9. Obesity in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Norris, T; Hawton, K; Hamilton-Shield, J; Crawley, E

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the prevalence of obesity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) compared with healthy adolescents, and those identified with CFS in a population cohort. Design Cross-sectional analysis of multiple imputed data. Setting Data from UK paediatric CFS/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) services compared with data collected at two time points in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Patients 1685 adolescents who attended a CFS/ME specialist service between 2004 and 2014 and 13 978 adolescents aged approximately 13 years and 16 years participating in the ALSPAC study. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2), sex-specific and age-specific BMI Z-scores (relative to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs) and prevalence of obesity (%). Results Adolescents who had attended specialist CFS/ME services had a higher prevalence of obesity (age 13 years: 9.28%; age 16 years: 16.43%) compared with both adolescents classified as CFS/ME in ALSPAC (age 13 years: 3.72%; age 16 years: 5.46%) and those non-CFS in ALSPAC (age 13 years: 4.18%; age 16 years: 4.46%). The increased odds of obesity in those who attended specialist services (relative to non-CFS in ALSPAC) was apparent at both 13 years (OR: 2.31 (1.54 to 3.48)) and 16 years, with a greater likelihood observed at 16 years (OR: 4.07 (2.04 to 8.11)). Conclusions We observed an increased prevalence of obesity in adolescents who were affected severely enough to be referred to a specialist CFS/ME service. Further longitudinal research is required in order to identify the temporal relationship between the two conditions. PMID:27655658

  10. Molecular Carbon in the Galaxy: Laboratory and Observational Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saykally, Richard James

    2003-01-01

    In a collaboration with the Mats Larsson group from Stockholm, we carried out a new measurement of the rate of dissociative recombination of H(sup *, sub j), using a new pulsed supersonic beam source of rotationally cold H(sup *, sub j). This source was first designed and characterized in our lab by IR cavity ringdown spectroscopy, determining a rotationaYtranslationa1 temperature of 20-60K, depending on conditions. This new source was then taken to Stockholm for the recombination rate studies at the CRYRING storage ring. The recombination rate constant measured against temperature yields values consistent with the most recent calculations, whereas previous experimental measurements varied over a range of 10(exp 4) and were poor agreement with theory. This is a crucial achievement for understanding the ion chemistry of diffuse clouds. Moreover, this result in combination with recent observations implies a greatly enhanced (factor of 40) cosmic ray ionization rate in a diffuse cloud (zeta Persei) relative to previous studies. The implications of this are discussed in our recent Nature paper. An enhanced cosmic-ray flux towards zeta Persei inferred from a laboratory study of the H(sup *, sub j)-e(sup -) recombination rate.

  11. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: II: Too Observations of Transient LMXBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9045 provided funds for the research project 'TOO Observations of Transient LMxBs' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposal was Dr. M. Mendez (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/1/2000. The original proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. William S. Pauesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. The proposal was intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by making RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of two transient LMXBs, Aql X-1 and 4U 1608-52, if the sources became sufficiently bright.

  12. Aneurysm Study of Pipeline in an Observational Registry (ASPIRe)

    PubMed Central

    Kallmes, David F.; Brinjikji, Waleed; Boccardi, Edoardo; Ciceri, Elisa; Diaz, Orlando; Tawk, Rabih; Woo, Henry; Jabbour, Pascal; Albuquerque, Felipe; Chapot, Rene; Bonafe, Alain; Dashti, Shervin R.; Almandoz, Josser E. Delgado; Given, Curtis; Kelly, Michael E.; Cross, DeWitte T.; Duckwiler, Gary; Razack, Nasser; Powers, Ciaran J.; Fischer, Sebastian; Lopes, Demetrius; Harrigan, Mark R.; Huddle, Daniel; Turner, Raymond; Zaidat, Osama O.; Defreyne, Luc; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Cekirge, Saruhan; Fiorella, David; Hanel, Ricardo A.; Lylyk, Pedro; McDougall, Cameron; Siddiqui, Adnan; Szikora, Istvan; Levy, Elad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Few prospective studies exist evaluating the safety and efficacy of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The Aneurysm Study of Pipeline In an observational Registry (ASPIRe) study prospectively analyzed rates of complete aneurysm occlusion and neurologic adverse events following PED treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Materials and Methods We performed a multicenter study prospectively evaluating patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms treated with PED. Primary outcomes included (1) spontaneous rupture of the Pipeline-treated aneurysm; (2) spontaneous nonaneurysmal intracranial hemorrhage (ICH); (3) acute ischemic stroke; (4) parent artery stenosis, and (5) permanent cranial neuropathy. Secondary endpoints were (1) treatment success and (2) morbidity and mortality at the 6-month follow-up. Vascular imaging was evaluated at an independent core laboratory. Results One hundred and ninety-one patients with 207 treated aneurysms were included in this registry. The mean aneurysm size was 14.5 ± 6.9 mm, and the median imaging follow-up was 7.8 months. Twenty-four aneurysms (11.6%) were small, 162 (78.3%) were large and 21 (10.1%) were giant. The median clinical follow-up time was 6.2 months. The neurological morbidity rate was 6.8% (13/191), and the neurological mortality rate was 1.6% (3/191). The combined neurological morbidity/mortality rate was 6.8% (13/191). The most common adverse events were ischemic stroke (4.7%, 9/191) and spontaneous ICH (3.7%, 7/191). The complete occlusion rate at the last follow-up was 74.8% (77/103). Conclusions Our prospective postmarket study confirms that PED treatment of aneurysms in a heterogeneous patient population is safe with low rates of neurological morbidity and mortality. Patients with angiographic follow-up had complete occlusion rates of 75% at 8 months. PMID:27610126

  13. Reporting practices of pharmacodynamic studies involving invasive research procedures in cancer trials

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, G A; Kimmelman, J; Dancey, J; Monzon, J G

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tumour biopsy for pharmacodynamic (PD) study is increasingly common in early-phase cancer trials. As they are non-diagnostic, the ethical justification for such procedures rests on their knowledge value. On the premise that knowledge value is related to reporting practices and outcome diversity, we assessed in a sample of recent invasive PD studies within cancer trials. Methods: We assessed reporting practices and outcomes for PD studies in a convenience sample of cancer trials published from 2000 to 2010 that employed invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. Extracted data were used to measure outcome reporting in individual trials. Using a reporting scale we developed for exploratory purposes, we tested whether reporting varied with study characteristics, such as funding source or drug novelty. Results: Reporting varied widely within and across studies. Some practices were sporadically reported, including results of all planned tests (78% trials reporting), use of blinded histopathological assessment (43% trials reporting), biopsy dimensions (38% trials reporting), and description of patient flow through PD analysis (62%). Pharmacodynamic analysis as a primary end point and mandatory biopsy had statistically significant positive relationships with overall quality of reporting. A preponderance of positive results (61% of the studies described positive PD results) suggests possible publication bias. Conclusion: Our results highlight the need for PD-reporting guidelines, and suggest several avenues for improving the risk/benefit for studies involving invasive, non-diagnostic tissue procurement. PMID:23887602

  14. Involvement of the German Research Center for GeoSciences (GFZ) in the EPOS Implementation Phase 2015-18 (European Plate Observing System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Lauterjung, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under the Horizon 2020 Programme INFRADEV-3, the European Commission (EC) has awarded a prioritized grant for the establishment of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) during a four-year Implementation Phase 2015-18. As laid in detail during the EPOS Preparatory Phase 2010-14, the EPOS cyberinfrastructure will be established as an ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium) and it will encompass the implementation of both the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS) for solid Earth Science and a multitude of EPOS Thematic Core Services (TCS). As one of the 29 awardees of the EC grant, the German Research Center for Geosciences (GFZ) will play an important role in the implementation of EPOS and its Thematic and Integrated Core Services. The presented poster will give an overview of GFZ's involvement in the different Work Packages, including administrative tasks (WP3 Harmonization) as well as the technical implementation efforts (WP7 ICS Development, WP8 Seismology, WP11 Volcano Observations, WP12 Satellite Data, WP13 Geomagnetic Observations, WP14 Anthropogenic Hazards, WP15 Geological Information and Modelling, WP16 Multi-Scale Laboratories and WP17 Geo Energy Test Beds).

  15. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma: A multi-institutional retrospective study of 172 patients in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro; Czepiel, Jacek; Cerase, Alfonso; Hungria, Vania; Crusoe, Edvan; Silva Dias, Ana Luiza Miranda; Vij, Ravi; Fiala, Mark A; Caers, Jo; Rasche, Leo; Nooka, Ajay K; Lonial, Sagar; Vesole, David H; Philip, Sandhya; Gangatharan, Shane; Druzd-Sitek, Agnieszka; Walewski, Jan; Corso, Alessandro; Cocito, Federica; Vekemans, Marie-Christine M; Atilla, Erden; Beksac, Meral; Leleu, Xavier; Davila, Julio; Badros, Ashraf; Aneja, Ekta; Abildgaard, Niels; Kastritis, Efstathios; Fantl, Dorotea; Schutz, Natalia; Pika, Tomas; Butrym, Aleksandra; Olszewska-Szopa, Magdalena; Usnarska-Zubkiewicz, Lidia; Usmani, Saad Z; Nahi, Hareth; Chim, Chor S; Shustik, Chaim; Madry, Krzysztof; Lentzsch, Suzanne; Swiderska, Alina; Helbig, Grzegorz; Guzicka-Kazimierczak, Renata; Lendvai, Nikoletta; Waage, Anders; Andersen, Kristian T; Murakami, Hirokazu; Zweegman, Sonja; Castillo, Jorge J

    2016-06-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for survival. The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Thirty-eight patients (22%) were diagnosed with CNS involvement at the time of initial MM diagnosis and 134 (78%) at relapse/progression. Upon diagnosis of CNS MM, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated and treated patients had median OS of 2 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). At least one previous line of therapy for MM before the diagnosis of CNS disease and >1 cytogenetic abnormality detected by FISH were independently associated with worse OS. The median OS for patients with 0, 1 and 2 of these risk factors were 25 months, 5.5 months and 2 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Neurological manifestations, not considered chemotherapy-related, observed at any time after initial diagnosis of MM should raise a suspicion of CNS involvement. Although prognosis is generally poor, the survival of previously untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Am. J. Hematol. 91:575-580, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Observation of interactive behavior increases corticospinal excitability in humans: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Tsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Mori, Hirotaka; Kushiro, Keisuke; Uehara, Shintaro

    2015-11-01

    In humans, observation of others' behaviors increases corticospinal excitability (CSE), which is interpreted in the contexts of motor resonance and the "mirror neuron system" (MNS). It has been suggested that observation of another individual's behavior manifests an embodied simulation of his/her mental state through the MNS. Thus, the MNS may involve understanding others' intentions of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions (i.e., social cognition), and may therefore exhibit a greater response when observing human-interactive behaviors that require a more varied and complex understanding of others. In the present study, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the primary motor cortex of participants observing human-interactive behaviors between two individuals (c.f. one person reaching toward an object in another person's hand) and non-interactive individual behavior (c.f. one person reaching toward an object on a dish). We carefully controlled the kinematics of behaviors in these two conditions to exclude potential effects of MNS activity changes associated with kinematic differences between visual stimuli. Notably, motor evoked potentials, that reflect CSE, from the first dorsal interosseous muscle exhibited greater amplitude when the participants observed interactive behaviors than when they observed non-interactive behavior. These results provide neurophysiological evidence that the MNS is activated to a greater degree during observation of human-interactive behaviors that contain additional information about the individuals' mental states, supporting the view that the MNS plays a critical role in social cognition in humans.

  17. Coordinated Regional Benefit Studies of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Ocean observing systems are a primary source of this information. Science Education and Communication: Real-time data from ocean observing systems...can be used to enhance science education in the classroom and can bring benefits directly to users of ocean observing information, such as

  18. Sensory-motor networks involved in speech production and motor control: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Shebek, Rachel; Hansen, Daniel R; Oya, Hiroyuki; Robin, Donald A; Howard, Matthew A; Greenlee, Jeremy D W

    2015-04-01

    Speaking is one of the most complex motor behaviors developed to facilitate human communication. The underlying neural mechanisms of speech involve sensory-motor interactions that incorporate feedback information for online monitoring and control of produced speech sounds. In the present study, we adopted an auditory feedback pitch perturbation paradigm and combined it with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recordings in order to identify brain areas involved in speech production and motor control. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while they produced a steady vowel sound /a/ (speaking) or listened to the playback of their own vowel production (playback). During each condition, the auditory feedback from vowel production was either normal (no perturbation) or perturbed by an upward (+600 cents) pitch-shift stimulus randomly. Analysis of BOLD responses during speaking (with and without shift) vs. rest revealed activation of a complex network including bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl's gyrus, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area (SMA), Rolandic operculum, postcentral gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Performance correlation analysis showed that the subjects produced compensatory vocal responses that significantly correlated with BOLD response increases in bilateral STG and left precentral gyrus. However, during playback, the activation network was limited to cortical auditory areas including bilateral STG and Heschl's gyrus. Moreover, the contrast between speaking vs. playback highlighted a distinct functional network that included bilateral precentral gyrus, SMA, IFG, postcentral gyrus and insula. These findings suggest that speech motor control involves feedback error detection in sensory (e.g. auditory) cortices that subsequently activate motor-related areas for the adjustment of speech parameters during speaking.

  19. Telemedicine for post-myocardial infarction patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Roth, Arie; Malov, Nomi; Steinberg, David M; Yanay, Yigal; Elizur, Mayera; Tamari, Mira; Golovner, Michal

    2009-01-01

    "SHL" Telemedicine (established 1987 in Israel) provides professional care to subscribers who use cardiobeepers and contact its medical call center via telecommunication networks. The extended 6-month Acute Coronary Syndrome Israel Survey (ACSIS) 2004 involved all 26 intensive cardiac care units in Israeli hospitals. We compared the 1-year survival rates of the "SHL" Telemedicine subscribers and ACSIS participants who survived hospitalization after sustaining an acute myocardial infarction. The myocardial infarction data for the ACSIS cohort (3,899 patients) and the SHL Telemedicine cohort (699 subscribers) were provided for this study by the ACSIS executive and SHL's files, respectively. One-year mortality was ascertained by telephone contacts with patients or their relatives. Mortality at 1 year was 4.4% for the "SHL" patients and 9.7% for the ACSIS patients (p < 0.0001). The "SHL" cohort was significantly older (p < 0.0001) than the ACSIS cohort (mean age [+/-SD] 69 +/- 11 versus 63 +/- 13 years), had significantly more past myocardial infarctions (p < 0.001), more past strokes (p < 0.0032), more heart failure (p < 0.0001), more hypertension (p = 0.002), and more hyperlipidemia (p < 0.0001). Gender distribution and diabetes status were similar for both groups. In spite of having more risk factors than the ACSIS subjects, the "SHL" Telemedicine subscribers had significantly higher survival rates at 1 year compared to the ACSIS patients, whose outcome is consistent with that of the Western world. Availability of medical call centers in the out-of-hospital setting for patients with suspected cardiac symptoms improves their motivation to seek timely and appropriate medical assistance.

  20. Evaluation of Xerostomia in Different Psychological Disorders: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Patil, Snehal; Roodmal, Seema Yadav; Kumarswamy, Akshay; Chappi, Mounesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. These diseases can affect the quantity and quality of saliva leading to multiple oral diseases. Although many researchers have evaluated xerostomia in general population, its prevalence is not been assessed in patients suffering from different psychological disorders. Aim To investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and to assess the correlation between xerostomia and dryness of lip and mucosa in different psychological disorders. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of six months in Department of Psychiatry and Department of Oral Medicine. Patients with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were given a questionnaire to evaluate the xerostomia. Patients with symptoms of xerostomia were subjected to oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for dryness of lips and mucosa. One hundred patients from each group of psychiatric diseases were included in the study using a consecutive sampling technique. An equal number of healthy individuals reporting to oral medicine department for routine oral screening were included as control group after initial psychiatric evaluation. Results In this study statistically significant increase in the xerostomia in psychiatric patients was recorded when compared to the control group (p<0.01). Xerostomia was significantly higher in anxiety patients (51%) followed by depression (47%), bipolar disorder (41%), schizophrenia (39%) and control group (27%). The majority of the psychiatric patients had ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ xerostomia whereas the control group had ‘mild’ xerostomia. Xerostomia was significantly higher in younger age group (18–49 years) than in older age group and females patients had higher xerostomia than male patients. Psychiatric patients had

  1. The Saturn Ring Observer: In situ studies of planetary rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, P. D.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Spilker, L. J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey recently undertaken by the NRC's Space Studies Board for the National Academy of Sciences, studies were commissioned for a number of potential missions to outer planet targets. One of these studies examined the technological feasibility of a mission to carry out in situ studies of Saturn's rings, from a spacecraft placed in a circular orbit above the ring plane: the Saturn Ring Observer. The technical findings and background are discussed in a companion poster by T. R. Spilker et al. Here we outline the science goals of such a mission. Most of the fundamental interactions in planetary rings occur on spatial scales that are unresolved by flyby or orbiter spacecraft. Typical particle sizes in the rings of Saturn are in the 1 cm - 10 m range, and average interparticle spacings are a few meters. Indirect evidence indicates that the vertical thickness of the rings is as little as 5 - 10 m, which implies a velocity dispersion of only a few mm/sec. Theories of ring structure and evolution depend on the unknown characteristics of interparticle collisions and on the size distribution of the ring particles. The SRO could provide direct measurements of both the coefficient of restitution -- by monitoring individual collisions -- and the particles’ velocity dispersion. High-resolution observations of individual ring particles should also permit estimates of their spin states. Numerical simulations of Saturn’s rings incorporating both collisions and self-gravity predict that the ring particles are not uniformly distributed, but are instead clustered into elongated structures referred to as “self-gravity wakes”, which are continually created and destroyed on an orbital timescale. Theory indicates that the average separation between wakes in the A ring is of order 30-100 m. Direct imaging of self-gravity wakes, including their formation and subsequent dissolution, would provide critical validation of these models. Other

  2. Observational Study of Contracts Processing at 29 CTSA Sites

    PubMed Central

    Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We measured contracts Final Negotiation (FN) and Full Execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of Master Agreements (MAs) and Previously Negotiated Terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p<0) and 22 days (p<0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p<.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study startup time by examining causes of variation and outliers. PMID:23919362

  3. Prognostic factors of Bell's palsy: prospective patient collected observational study.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi; Yanagihara, Naoaki

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate various parameters potentially influencing poor prognosis in Bell's palsy and to assess the predictive value for Bell's palsy. A single-center prospective patient collected observation and validation study was conducted. To evaluate the correlation between patient characteristics and poor prognosis, we performed univariate and multivariate analyzes of age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and facial grading score 1 week after onset. To evaluate the accuracy of the facial grading score, we prepared a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and calculated the area under the ROC curve (AUROC). We also calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio, and positive/negative predictive value. We included Bell's palsy patients who attended Ehime University Hospital within 1 week after onset between 1977 and 2011. We excluded patients who were less than 15 years old and lost-to-follow-up within 6 months. The main outcome was defined as non-recovery at 6 months after onset. In total, 679 adults with Bell's palsy were included. The facial grading score at 1 week showed a correlation with non-recovery in the multivariate analysis, although age, gender, side of palsy, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension did not. The AUROC of the facial grading score was 0.793. The Y-system score at 1 week moderate accurately predicted non-recovery at 6 months in Bell's palsy.

  4. An Observational Study of Pulsations in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Henson, Gary D.; Hillwig, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    We have been carrying out a long-term monitoring program to study the light variability in proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). PPNe are post-Asymptotic Giant Branch objects in transition between the AGB and PN phases in the evolution of low and intermediate-mass stars. As such, it is not surprising that they display pulsational variability. We have been carrying out photometric monitoring of 30 of these at the Valparaiso University campus observatory over the last 20 years, with the assistance of undergraduate students. The sample size has been enlarged over the past six years by observations made using telescopes in the SARA consortium at KPNO and CTIO. Periods have been determined for those of F-G spectral types. We have also enlarged the sample with PPNe from outside the Milky Way by determining periods of eight PPNe in the lower metalicity environment of the Magellanic Clouds. Periods for the entire sample range from 35 to 160 days. Some clear patterns have emerged, with those of higher temperature possessing shorter periods and smaller amplitudes, indicating a reduction in period and pulsation amplitude as the objects evolve. Radial velocity monitoring of several of the brightest of these has allowed us to document their changes in brightness, color, and size during a pulsation cycle. The results of this study will be presented. This research is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (most recently AST 1413660), with additional student support from the Indiana Space Grant Consortium.

  5. Observational study of contracts processing at 29 CTSA sites.

    PubMed

    Kiriakis, James; Gaich, Nicholas; Johnston, S Claiborne; Kitterman, Darlene; Rosenblum, Daniel; Salberg, Libby; Rifkind, Adam

    2013-08-01

    We measured contracts final negotiation (FN) and full execution (FE) times using shared definitions in a prospective observational study of management of contracts for clinical trials at 29 CTSA institutions. Median FN and FE times were reached in 39 and 91 days, respectively; mean times for FN and FE were 55 and 103 days, respectively. Individual site medians ranged from 3 to 116 days for FN and 34 to 197 days for FE. The use of master agreements (MAs) and previously negotiated terms (PNTs) was associated with significant reduction of FN times by a mean of 33 days (p < 0) and 22 days (p < 0.001), respectively. PNTs, but not MAs, were associated with significantly reduced FE time (22 days, p < 0.007). Gap analysis revealed a gap of 22 days between contracts negotiation and Institutional Review Board (IRB) review and intervals of 33 days (contracts) and 48 days (IRB review) during which the process steps were being conducted alone, suggesting a potential benefit with parallel processing. These baseline data support a plan to investigate root causes of prolonged study start-up time by examining causes of variation and outliers.

  6. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  7. A large Italian observational multicentre study on vascular ulcers of the lower limbs (Studio Ulcere Vascolari).

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Alessandro; Antignani, Pier L; Di Salvo, Michelangelo; Failla, Giacomo; Guarnera, Giorgio; Mosti, Giovanni; Ricci, Elia

    2016-02-01

    An observational study of 2 years was promoted by the Italian Association for Cutaneous Ulcers (AIUC) in order to monitor the epidemiology of leg ulcers, the trend of healing and the more frequent therapeutic approaches in lower limb ulcers. Fifty-nine sites in 14 different Italian regions involved in the study, with 1333 enrolled patients (1163 patients fully evaluated and followed up for 9 months). A prevalence of females (62%) was observed with a mean age of 70 years and a high rate of hypertension (62%), diabetes (38%) and obesity (29%). Venous ulcer was most frequent (55%), followed by mixed (25%) and diabetic (8·3%) ulcers. Basically, all patients received a local therapy (LT) (compression and advanced local therapies), while 63% of patients have an associated systemic pharmaceutical treatment. Ulcer healing rates progressively increased throughout the study and despite the type of observational study does not allow conclusions on the treatment, it was observed that the patients receiving additional systemic drugs were associated with a more rapid acceleration of healing rates of ulcers compared to LT alone (3 months: 39·7% versus 29·2%; 6 months: 62·0% versus 47·0%; 9 months: 74·7% versus 63·8%). In particular, the Studio Ulcere Vascolari (SUV) study showed that a combination treatment with sulodexide and compression therapy allows for a greater increase in the healing rates in venous ulcers.

  8. Food worker hand washing practices: an observation study.

    PubMed

    Green, Laura R; Selman, Carol A; Radke, Vincent; Ripley, Danny; Mack, James C; Reimann, David W; Stigger, Tammi; Motsinger, Michelle; Bushnell, Lisa

    2006-10-01

    Improvement of food worker hand washing practices is critical to the reduction of foodborne illness and is dependent upon a clear understanding of current hand washing practices. To that end, this study collected detailed observational data on food worker hand washing practices. Food workers (n = 321) were observed preparing food, and data were recorded on specific work activities for which hand washing is recommended (e.g., food preparation, handling dirty equipment). Data were also recorded on hand washing behaviors that occurred in conjunction with these work activities. Results indicated that workers engaged in approximately 8.6 work activities per hour for which hand washing is recommended. However, workers made hand washing attempts (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, and placed hands in running water) in only 32% of these activities and washed their hands appropriately (i.e., removed gloves, if worn, placed hands in running water, used soap, and dried hands) in only 27% of these work activities. Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates varied by work activity--they were significantly higher in conjunction with food preparation than other work activities (46 versus < or = 37% for attempted hand washing; 41 versus < or = 30% for appropriate hand washing) and were significantly lower in conjunction with touching the body than other work activities (13 versus > or = 27% for attempted hand washing; 10 versus > or = 23% for appropriate hand washing). Attempted and appropriate hand washing rates were significantly lower when gloves were worn (18 and 16%) than when gloves were not worn (37 and 30%). These findings suggest that the hand washing practices of food workers need to be improved, glove use may reduce hand washing, and restaurants should consider reorganizing their food preparation activities to reduce the frequency with which hand washing is needed.

  9. CASSCF Computational Study of Pseudopericyclic Character in Electrocyclic Rearrangements Involving Heteroatoms.

    PubMed

    Bierzynski, Irena R; Settle, Cassandra A; Kreiman, Henry W; Duncan, James A

    2016-01-15

    The Complete Active Space Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) computational method, with the 6-31G* basis set, was used to examine six electrocyclic rearrangements, each involving a 1,2,4,6-heptatetraene skeleton with two variously located oxygen and/or nitrogen heteroatoms, as a way to determine which, if any, are pseudopericyclic as opposed to pericyclic. Primarily through the close examination of the active space orbitals, but also considering transition structure geometries and activation energies, it was concluded that rearrangements 3 → 4, 5 → 6, 7 → 8, and 9 → 10 are pseudopericyclic with two orbital disconnections each, whereas the 13 → 14 and 15 → 16 rearrangements are pericyclic. Our conclusions agreed with those of others in two of the four cases that had been studied previously by density functional theory (3 → 4 and 7 → 8) but ran contrary to the previous conclusions that the 5 → 6 rearrangement is pericyclic and that the 15 → 16 rearrangement is pseudopericyclic. Our results are also compared and contrasted to previous similar ones of ours involving the 3 → 4 electrocyclization (essentially pericyclic), the 11 → 12 [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangement (pseudopericyclic), and similar [3,3] sigmatropic rearrangements (all pericyclic), and detailed rationales for these latest results are provided.

  10. A Pilot Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Potential Metabolic Pathways Involved in Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, Annick; Van Camp, Guy; Van de Heyning, Paul; Fransen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of an auditory phantom sound in the form of ringing, buzzing, roaring, or hissing in the absence of an external sound source, is perceived by ~15% of the population and 2.5% experiences a severely bothersome tinnitus. The contribution of genes on the development of tinnitus is still under debate. The current manuscript reports a pilot Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) into tinnitus, in a small cohort of 167 independent tinnitus subjects, and 749 non-tinnitus controls, who were collected as part of a cross-sectional study. After genotyping, imputation, and quality checking, the association between the tinnitus phenotype and 4,000,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was tested followed by gene set enrichment analysis. None of the SNPs reached the threshold for genome-wide significance (p < 5.0e–8), with the most significant SNPs, situated outside coding genes, reaching a p-value of 3.4e–7. By using the Genetic Analysis of Complex Traits (GACT) software, the percentage of the variance explained by all SNPs in the GWAS was estimated to be 3.2%, indicating that additive genetic effects explain only a small fraction of the tinnitus phenotype. Despite the lack of genome-wide significant SNPs, which is, at least in part, due to the limited sample size of the current study, evidence was found for a genetic involvement in tinnitus. Gene set enrichment analysis showed several metabolic pathways to be significantly enriched with SNPs having a low p-value in the GWAS. These pathways are involved in oxidative stress, endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress, and serotonin reception mediated signaling. These results are a promising basis for further research into the genetic basis of tinnitus, including GWAS with larger sample sizes and considering tinnitus subtypes for which a greater genetic contribution is more likely. PMID:28303087

  11. A comparative modeling and molecular docking study on Mycobacterium tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fakhar, Zeynab; Naiker, Suhashni; Alves, Claudio N; Govender, Thavendran; Maguire, Glenn E M; Lameira, Jeronimo; Lamichhane, Gyanu; Kruger, Hendrik G; Honarparvar, Bahareh

    2016-11-01

    An alarming rise of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and the continuous high global morbidity of tuberculosis have reinvigorated the need to identify novel targets to combat the disease. The enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan in M. tuberculosis are essential and noteworthy therapeutic targets. In this study, the biochemical function and homology modeling of MurI, MurG, MraY, DapE, DapA, Alr, and Ddl enzymes of the CDC1551 M. tuberculosis strain involved in the biosynthesis of peptidoglycan cell wall are reported. Generation of the 3D structures was achieved with Modeller 9.13. To assess the structural quality of the obtained homology modeled targets, the models were validated using PROCHECK, PDBsum, QMEAN, and ERRAT scores. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to calculate root mean square deviation (RMSD) and radius of gyration (Rg) of MurI and MurG target proteins and their corresponding templates. For further model validation, RMSD and Rg for selected targets/templates were investigated to compare the close proximity of their dynamic behavior in terms of protein stability and average distances. To identify the potential binding mode required for molecular docking, binding site information of all modeled targets was obtained using two prediction algorithms. A docking study was performed for MurI to determine the potential mode of interaction between the inhibitor and the active site residues. This study presents the first accounts of the 3D structural information for the selected M. tuberculosis targets involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  12. Animal Models to Study Host-Bacteria Interactions Involved in Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Dana T.; Kang, Jun; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Wada, Keisuke; Rossa, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have distinct advantages because they can mimic cellular complexities that occur in humans in vivo and are often more accurate than in vitro studies that take place on plastic surfaces with limited numbers of cell types present. Furthermore, cause and effect relationships can be established by applying inhibitors or activators or through the use of genetically modified animals. Such gain or loss of function studies are often difficult to achieve in human clinical studies, particularly in obtaining target tissue due to important ethical considerations. Animal models in periodontal disease are particularly important at this point in the development of the scientific basis for understanding the predominant pathological processes. Periodontal disease can be broken down into discrete steps, each of which may be studied separately depending upon the animal model. These steps involve the development of a pathogenic biofilm, invasion of connective tissue by bacteria or their products, induction of a destructive host response in connective tissue and limitation of a repair process that follows tissue breakdown. Animal studies can test hypotheses related to each of these steps, and should be evaluated by their capacity to test a specific hypothesis rather than recapitulating all aspects of periodontal disease. Thus, each of the models described below can be adapted to test discrete components of the pathological process of periodontal disease, but not necessarily all of them. PMID:22142960

  13. Cardiovascular events in patients with obesity: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Buitrago, Francisco; Calvo, Juan Ignacio; Redondo-López, Verónica; Cañón-Barroso, Lourdes; Rodríguez-Pérez, Leoncio; Hinojosa-Díaz, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are positively correlated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Aim To evaluate whether obesity may be considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients of ages from 35 to 74 years followed-up for 10 years. Design of study Observational, longitudinal retrospective study. Setting Primary care practices in Badajoz (Spain). Method A cohort of 899 patients (mean 55.7 years; 58.2% female) without evidence of cardiovascular disease was studied. Results A total of 33.5% of the population were obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2). Patients meeting the obesity criteria were more commonly female (36.6%) and were older, had higher mean values of blood pressure and triglycerides, higher percentages of diabetes, and higher coronary risk using either the original Framingham or the Framingham function calibrated for the Spanish population (Framingham-REGICOR). During the follow-up period, the rates of cardiovascular events and death in patients with obesity tended to be higher: 16.3% versus 11.7%, P = 0.056 and 4.7% versus 2.2%, P<0.05, respectively. In the final model of the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with obesity were age, sex (male), diastolic blood pressure, diabetes, and smoking. The highest odds ratio corresponded to smoking (odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.22 to 3.38). Conclusion Obesity may not be considered an independent cardiovascular risk factor in patients aged from 35 to 74 years followed-up for 10 years. PMID:20822691

  14. Association between day of delivery and obstetric outcomes: observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bottle, A; Aylin, P

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the association between day of delivery and measures of quality and safety of maternity services, particularly comparing weekend with weekday performance? Methods This observational study examined outcomes for maternal and neonatal records (1 332 835 deliveries and 1 349 599 births between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2012) within the nationwide administrative dataset for English National Health Service hospitals by day of the week. Groups were defined by day of admission (for maternal indicators) or delivery (for neonatal indicators) rather than by day of complication. Logistic regression was used to adjust for case mix factors including gestational age, birth weight, and maternal age. Staffing factors were also investigated using multilevel models to evaluate the association between outcomes and level of consultant presence. The primary outcomes were perinatal mortality and—for both neonate and mother—infections, emergency readmissions, and injuries. Study answer and limitations Performance across four of the seven measures was significantly worse for women admitted, and babies born, at weekends. In particular, the perinatal mortality rate was 7.3 per 1000 babies delivered at weekends, 0.9 per 1000 higher than for weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1.07, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.13). No consistent association between outcomes and staffing was identified, although trusts that complied with recommended levels of consultant presence had a perineal tear rate of 3.0% compared with 3.3% for non-compliant services (adjusted odds ratio 1.21, 1.00 to 1.45). Limitations of the analysis include the method of categorising performance temporally, which was mitigated by using a midweek reference day (Tuesday). Further research is needed to investigate possible bias from unmeasured confounders and explore the nature of the causal relationship. What this study adds This study provides an evaluation of the “weekend effect” in obstetric care

  15. Testing the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in lucid dreaming: a tDCS study.

    PubMed

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schredl, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that lucid dreaming (awareness of dreaming while dreaming) might be associated with increased brain activity over frontal regions during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to manipulate the activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during REM sleep to increase dream lucidity. Nineteen participants spent three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. On the second and third nights they randomly received either 1 mA tDCS for 10 min or sham stimulation during each REM period starting with the second one. According to the participants' self-ratings, tDCS over the DLPFC during REM sleep increased lucidity in dreams. The effects, however, were not strong and found only in frequent lucid dreamers. While this indicates some preliminary support for the involvement of the DLPFC in lucid dreaming, further research, controlling for indirect effects of stimulation and including other brain regions, is needed.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological study of chronic heart involvment in Chagas' disease*

    PubMed Central

    Puigbó, J. J.; Rhode, J. R. Nava; Barrios, H. García; Suárez, J. A.; Yépez, C. Gil

    1966-01-01

    It has been estimated that, in vast areas of the American continent, there is a high prevalence of human infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Such infection can lead to a variety of heart diseases, predominantly with involvement of the myocardium. The aim of the present work was to determine the prevalence of heart disease in two rural areas of Venezuela with a high endemicity of Chagas' disease and to try to determine the natural history of the disease. It is shown that a form of chronic myocardial disease in patients with positive specific serology and good functional capacity is highly prevalent. Electrocardiographic patterns typical of the initial and developing stages of the disease, as well as early abnormalities of the cardiac rhythm, are described and illustrated. The present work forms part of a longitudinal study still in progress. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 3FIG. 5FIG. 4 PMID:4957485

  17. User involvement in the ergonomic development of a medical instrument: a longitudinal case study.

    PubMed

    Tóvölgyi, Sarolta

    2016-01-01

    In this study the focus is on the continuous ergonomic-focused development of a medical instrument that is capable of performing blood group serological tests. Primarily, a medical device must be clinically effective and safe. At the same time it must also meet the needs of its users. This calls for consideration of numerous ergonomic aspects. The development process of the product line in question was supported by a longitudinal series of carefully designed focus groups. Altogether, the 23 focus groups conducted included 245 participants from 72 laboratories. The aim of the empirical research was to collect users' experiences, ideas and needs as inputs for the following phase of the product development process. During the mentioned focus group analyses, around 100 development proposals were conceived. Besides presenting more of the mentioned development proposals, the focus group analysis was shown as a proper methodology to involve end-users in the development and implementation of new technology or devices.

  18. A comparison study of adults with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorder with and without forensic involvement.

    PubMed

    Raina, P; Lunsky, Y

    2010-01-01

    The current study describes and compares profiles of patients in the same specialized hospital program for patients with intellectual disability with and without forensic involvement. A retrospective chart review of 78 individuals (39 forensic and 39 non-forensic) served between 2006 and 2008 was completed. The forensic sample was more likely to have a diagnosis of borderline to mild IQ and psychotic disorder was more common. Forensic patients were also more likely to have previously used drugs or alcohol. Forensic inpatients had significantly longer lengths of stay, and were more likely to change residence from admission to discharge than the non-forensic inpatients but the GAF scores did not differ between the two groups at admission or discharge. Although there are many similarities between the two groups, there are also some important differences that exist which should be considered in the design of inpatient and outpatient mental health and intellectual disability services.

  19. A study of ASRS reports involving general aviation and weather encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, T. H.; Roach, D. E.; Griffin, W. C.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to the nature and characteristics of problems involving dissemination of weather information, use of this information by pilots, its adequacy for the purpose intended, the ability of the air traffic control system to cope with weather related incidents, and the various aspects of pilot behavior, aircraft equipment, and NAVAIDS affecting flights in which weather figures. It is concluded from the study that skill and training deficiencies of general aviation pilots are not major factors in weather related occurrences, nor is lack of aircraft equipment. Major problem causes are identified with timely and easily interpreted weather information, judgement and attitude factors of pilots, and the functioning of the air traffic control system.

  20. Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill: a five-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Monique; LeFevre, Jo-Anne

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the findings of the final phase of a 5-year longitudinal study with 168 middle- and upper middle-class children in which the complex relations among early home literacy experiences, subsequent receptive language and emergent literacy skills, and reading achievement were examined. Results showed that children's exposure to books was related to the development of vocabulary and listening comprehension skills, and that these language skills were directly related to children's reading in grade 3. In contrast, parent involvement in teaching children about reading and writing words was related to the development of early literacy skills. Early literacy skills directly predicted word reading at the end of grade 1 and indirectly predicted reading in grade 3. Word reading at the end of grade 1 predicted reading comprehension in grade 3. Thus, the various pathways that lead to fluent reading have their roots in different aspects of children's early experiences.

  1. Systematic review of genetic association studies involving histologically confirmed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kayleigh L; Miller, Michael H; Dillon, John F

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has an increasing prevalence in Western countries, affecting up to 20% of the population. Objective The aim of this project was to systematically review and summarise the genetic association studies that investigate possible genetic influences that confer susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Design The MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched to identify candidate gene studies on histologically diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Results A total of 85 articles have been summarised and categorised on the basis of the general pathway each candidate gene is involved in, including lipid metabolism, lipoprotein processing, cholesterol synthesis, glucose homoeostasis, inflammatory response, protection against oxidative stress and whole body metabolism. Conclusions The main findings demonstrate a small but consistent association of PNPLA3 with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Genetic association studies have investigated general disease susceptibility, histological characteristics, severity and progression. However, further study is required to better elucidate the genetic factors influencing fatty liver disease. PMID:26462272

  2. Studies on Cu(II) ternary complexes involving an aminopenicillin drug and imidazole containing ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regupathy, Sthanumoorthy; Nair, Madhavan Sivasankaran

    2010-02-01

    Equilibrium studies on the ternary complex systems involving ampicillin (amp) as ligand (A) and imidazole containing ligands viz., imidazole (Him), benzimidazole (Hbim), histamine (Hist) and histidine (His) as ligands (B) at 37 °C and I = 0.15 mol dm -3 (NaClO 4) show the presence of CuABH, CuAB and CuAB 2. The proton in the CuABH species is attached to ligand A. In the ternary complexes the ligand, amp(A) binds the metal ion via amino nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen atom. The CuAB (B = Hist/His)/CuAB 2 (B = Him/Hbim) species have also been isolated and the analytical data confirmed its formation. Non-electrolytic behavior and monomeric type of chelates have been assessed from their low conductance and magnetic susceptibility values. The electronic and vibrational spectral results were interpreted to find the mode of binding of ligands to metal and geometry of the complexes. This is also supported by the g tensor values calculated from ESR spectra. The thermal behaviour of complexes were studied by TGA/DTA. The redox behavior of the complexes has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The antimicrobial activity and CT DNA cleavage study of the complexes show higher activity for ternary complexes.

  3. The involvement of supratentorial white matter in multiple system atrophy: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po-Shan; Yeh, Chien-Li; Lu, Chia-Feng; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Yu-Te

    2017-03-01

    It has been assumed that cognitive disorder and visual-spatial disturbance in multiple system atrophy of the predominantly cerebellar type (MSA-C) are attributable to degradation of cerebellar function. The purpose of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to determine if patients with MSA-C characterized in part by visual-spatial disorders and cognitive disorders have changes of the structural connectivity network of nerve fibers, and to further describe the structural connectivity network. The study included 20 patients with MSA-C and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. A 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner was used to obtain images for DTI tractography. Image preprocessing was done by large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Whole-brain connectivity analysis was carried out. The patients had decreased numbers of long association fibers connecting the right parietal lobe to the frontal lobe. The commissural fibers and short association fibers connecting the bilateral frontal and occipital lobes and the number of short association fibers at the bilateral frontal and occipital region were also decreased significantly. The patients had a significant decrease in fiber density in the cerebellum compared to the healthy subjects. Our results provide DTI evidence suggesting that frontal and occipital white matter is involved in patients with MSA-C. This finding may correlate with their clinical symptoms such as cognitive disturbance as well as visual-spatial impairment. Therefore, cognitive disturbance and visual-spatial deficits in MSA-C might not be due to cerebellar lesions only as is widely believed but also involve cerebral lesions.

  4. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radosław; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; K2 Campaign 9 Microlensing Science Team; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Mullally, F.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; OGLE Project, The; Sumi, T.; Abe, F.; Asakura, Y.; Barry, R. K.; Bhattacharya, A.; Bond, I. A.; Donachie, M.; Freeman, M.; Fukui, A.; Hirao, Y.; Itow, Y.; Koshimoto, N.; Li, M. C. A.; Ling, C. H.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Muraki, Y.; Nagakane, M.; Ohnishi, K.; Oyokawa, H.; Rattenbury, N.; Saito, To.; Sharan, A.; Sullivan, D. J.; Tristram, P. J.; Yonehara, A.; MOA Collaboration; Bachelet, E.; Bramich, D. M.; Cassan, A.; Dominik, M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Horne, K.; Hundertmark, M.; Mao, S.; Ranc, C.; Schmidt, R.; Snodgrass, C.; Steele, I. A.; Tsapras, Y.; Wambsganss, J.; RoboNet Project, The; Bozza, V.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Evans, D. F.; Hessman, F. V.; Hinse, T. C.; Husser, T.-O.; Mancini, L.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Skottfelt, J.; Southworth, J.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; The MiNDSTEp Team; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Haas, M. R.; Larson, K.; McCalmont, K.; Packard, M.; Peterson, C.; Putnam, D.; Reedy, L.; Ross, S.; Van Cleve, J. E.; K2C9 Engineering Team; Akeson, R.; Batista, V.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Ciardi, D.; Cole, A.; Coutures, C.; Foreman-Mackey, D.; Fouqué, P.; Friedmann, M.; Gelino, C.; Kaspi, S.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Lang, D.; Lee, C.-H.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Maoz, D.; Marquette, J.-B.; Mogavero, F.; Morales, J. C.; Nataf, D.; Pogge, R. W.; Santerne, A.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Suzuki, D.; Tamura, M.; Tisserand, P.; Wang, D.

    2016-12-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a ˜3.7 deg2 survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax {π }{{E}} for ≳ 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  5. Campaign 9 of the K2 Mission: Observational Parameters, Scientific Drivers, and Community Involvement for a Simultaneous Space- and Ground-based Microlensing Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Calen B.; Poleski, Radoslaw; Penny, Matthew; Street, Rachel A.; Bennett, David P.; Hogg, David W.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Zhu, W.; Barclay, T.; Barentsen, G.; Howell, S. B.; Mullally, F.; Barry, R. K.; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Haas, M. R.; Beichman, C. A.; Bryden, G.; Van Cleve, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    K2's Campaign 9 (K2C9) will conduct a approximately 3.7 sq. deg survey toward the Galactic bulge from 2016 April 22 through July 2 that will leverage the spatial separation between K2 and the Earth to facilitate measurement of the microlens parallax Pi(sub E) for approximately greater than 170 microlensing events. These will include several that are planetary in nature as well as many short-timescale microlensing events, which are potentially indicative of free-floating planets (FFPs). These satellite parallax measurements will in turn allow for the direct measurement of the masses of and distances to the lensing systems. In this article we provide an overview of the K2C9 space- and ground-based microlensing survey. Specifically, we detail the demographic questions that can be addressed by this program, including the frequency of FFPs and the Galactic distribution of exoplanets, the observational parameters of K2C9, and the array of resources dedicated to concurrent observations. Finally, we outline the avenues through which the larger community can become involved, and generally encourage participation in K2C9, which constitutes an important pathfinding mission and community exercise in anticipation of WFIRST.

  6. Digital clubbing in HIV-infected patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Dever, Lisa L; Matta, Jyoti S

    2009-01-01

    Digital clubbing is characterized by bulbous enlargement of the distal phalanges due to an increase in soft tissue. It has been associated with a variety of conditions including cyanotic heart disease, neoplasms and infections of the lungs, bronchiectasis, liver cirrhosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. We conducted an observational study at an urban Veterans Affairs Medical Center outpatient HIV clinic to confirm our clinical impression that clubbing is common in HIV-infected patients and to identify factors that might be associated with it. Clinical, laboratory, and physical examination data including measurement of the circumference of the nail bed and distal phalanx of each finger were obtained on 78 HIV-infected patients seen for their routine care over a 3-month period. A digital index (DI), the ratio of the nail bed:distal phalanx circumference was determined for each patient. Clubbing was found in 28 patients (36%). Clubbed patients did not differ from nonclubbed patients with respect to most patient characteristics; CD4 cell counts and quantitative HIV RNA were similar in both groups. Clubbed patients had a significantly higher DI than controls (1.03 versus 0.96, p < 0.001), were younger (45 versus 49 years, p = 0.04), and had longer duration of HIV disease (48 versus, 42 months, p = 0.03). HIV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired digital clubbing.

  7. From (Un)Willingness to InvolveMENt: Development of a Successful Study Brand for Recruitment of Diverse MSM to a Longitudinal HIV Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Williams, Victoria A.; Shapiro, Eve T.; Sanchez, Travis; Rosenberg, Eli S.; Fenimore, Vincent L.; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV continues to be a major concern among MSM, yet Black MSM have not been enrolled in HIV research studies in proportionate numbers to White MSM. We developed an HIV prevention research brand strategy for MSM. Methods Questionnaires and focus groups were conducted with 54 participants. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed and qualitative data were transcribed and content analyzed to identify common themes. Results Formative research results indicated that younger Black MSM (18–29 years) were less likely to think about joining prevention studies compared to older (≥30 years) Black MSM (x2 = 5.92, P = 0.015). Qualitative and quantitative results indicate four prominent themes related to brand development: (1) communication sources (message deliverer), (2) message (impact of public health messaging on perceptions of HIV research), (3) intended audience (underlying issues that influence personal relevance of HIV research), and (4) communication channels (reaching intended audiences). Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of behavioral communication translational research to effectively engage hard-to-reach populations. Despite reservations, MSM in our formative study expressed a need for active involvement and greater education to facilitate their engagement in HIV prevention research. Thus, the brand concept of “InvolveMENt” emerged. PMID:24639900

  8. Observational and numerical studies of extreme frontal scale contraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven E.

    1995-01-01

    The general objective of this effort is to increase understanding of how frontal scale contraction processes may create and sustain intense mesoscale precipitation along intensifying cold fronts. The five-part project (an expansion of the originally proposed two-part project) employed conventional meteorological data, special mesoscale data, remote sensing measurements, and various numerical models. First an idealized hydrostatic modeling study of the scale contraction effects of differential cloud cover on low-level frontal structure and dynamics was completed and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The second objective was to complete and publish the results from a three dimensional numerical model simulation of a cold front in which differential sensible heating related to cloud coverage patterns was apparently crucial in the formation of a severe frontal squall line. The third objective was to use a nonhydrostatic model to examine the nonlinear interactions between the transverse circulation arising from inhomogeneous cloud cover, the adiabatic frontal circulation related to semi-geostrophic forcing, and diabatic effects related to precipitation processes, in the development of a density current-like microstructure at the leading edge of cold fronts. Although the development of a frontal model that could be used to initialize such a primitive equation model was begun, we decided to focus our efforts instead on a project that could be successfully completed in this short time, due to the lack of prospects for continued NASA funding beyond this first year (our proposal was not accepted for future funding). Thus, a fourth task was added, which was to use the nonhydrostatic model to test tentative hypotheses developed from the most detailed observations ever obtained on a density current (primarily sodar and wind profiler data). These simulations were successfully completed, the findings were reported at a scientific conference, and the results have recently been

  9. Observational study of multiple myeloma in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Hungria, Vania T M; Maiolino, Angelo; Martinez, Gracia; Duarte, Gislaine Oliveira; Bittencourt, Rosane; Peters, Lygia; Colleoni, Gisele; Oliveira, Luciana C O; Crusoé, Edvan; Coelho, Érika O D M; Pasquini, Ricardo; Magalhães, Sílvia M M; Nunes, Renata; Neto, Jorge V Pinto; Faria, Rosa Malena O; Souza, Mair; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Flantl, Dorotea; Navarro, J R; Conte, Guillermo; Gomez-Almaguer, David; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo; Durie, Brian G M

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the outcomes of multiple myeloma in Latin America, a world region where incorporation of novel agents is generally slow. In the current retrospective-prospective study, we aimed to describe the patterns of care and treatment results in five Latin American countries. Between April 2007 and October 2009, patients who had been diagnosed from January 2005 to December 2007 were registered at 23 institutions from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. We divided patients into two cohorts, according to transplantation eligibility, and analyzed them with regard to first-line treatment and overall survival (OS). We analyzed a total of 852 patients, 46.9 % of whom were female. The median follow-up was 62 months. Among transplantation-ineligible patients (N = 461), the mean age was 67.4 years, approximately one third of patients received a thalidomide-based treatment in the first line, and the median OS was 43.0 months. Transplantation-eligible patients (N = 391) had a mean age of 54.7 years and a median OS of 73.6 months. Autologous transplantation was performed in 58.6 % of the patients for whom this procedure was initially planned and in only 26.9 % of the overall patients. Our long-term results reflect the contemporary literature for patients with multiple myeloma treated with autologous transplantation and thalidomide-based regimens in clinical trials and observational studies. However, further efforts are needed to approve and incorporate novel agents in Latin American countries, as well as to increase access to transplantation, in order to achieve the expected improvements in patient outcomes.

  10. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  11. Observing power blackouts from space - A disaster related study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrecht, C.; Elvidge, C. D.; Ziskin, D.; Baugh, K. E.; Tuttle, B.; Erwin, E.; Kerle, N.

    2009-04-01

    In case of emergency disaster managers worldwide require immediate information on affected areas and estimations of the number of affected people. Natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tornados, wind and ice storms often involve failures in the electrical power generation system and grid. Near real time identification of power blackouts gives a first impression of the area affected by the event (Elvidge et al. 2007), which can subsequently be linked to population estimations. Power blackouts disrupt societal activities and compound the difficulties associated with search and rescue, clean up, and the provision of food and other supplies following a disastrous event. Locations and spatial extents of power blackouts are key considerations in planning and execution of the primary disaster missions of emergency management organizations. To date only one satellite data source has been used successfully for the detection of power blackouts. Operated by NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) offers a unique capability to observe lights present at the Earth's surface at night. Including a pair of visible and thermal spectral bands and originally designed to detect moonlit clouds, this sensor enables mapping of lights from cities and towns, gas flares and offshore platforms, fires, and heavily lit fishing boats. The low light imaging of the OLS is accomplished using a photomultiplier tube (PMT) which intensifies the visible band signal at night. With 14 orbits collected per day and a 3.000 km swath width, each OLS is capable of collecting a complete set of images of the Earth every 24 hours. NGDC runs the long-term archive for OLS data with the digital version extending back to 1992. OLS data is received by NGDC in near real time (1-2 hours from acquisition) and subscription based services for the near real time data are provided for users all over the

  12. Multivariate analysis of variance of designed chromatographic data. A case study involving fermentation of rooibos tea.

    PubMed

    Marini, Federico; de Beer, Dalene; Walters, Nico A; de Villiers, André; Joubert, Elizabeth; Walczak, Beata

    2017-03-17

    An ultimate goal of investigations of rooibos plant material subjected to different stages of fermentation is to identify the chemical changes taking place in the phenolic composition, using an untargeted approach and chromatographic fingerprints. Realization of this goal requires, among others, identification of the main components of the plant material involved in chemical reactions during the fermentation process. Quantitative chromatographic data for the compounds for extracts of green, semi-fermented and fermented rooibos form the basis of preliminary study following a targeted approach. The aim is to estimate whether treatment has a significant effect based on all quantified compounds and to identify the compounds, which contribute significantly to it. Analysis of variance is performed using modern multivariate methods such as ANOVA-Simultaneous Component Analysis, ANOVA - Target Projection and regularized MANOVA. This study is the first one in which all three approaches are compared and evaluated. For the data studied, all tree methods reveal the same significance of the fermentation effect on the extract compositions, but they lead to its different interpretation.

  13. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units.

    PubMed

    Gummow, B; Myburgh, J G; Thompson, P N; van der Lugt, J J; Spencer, B T

    1999-03-01

    Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was of secondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farm and serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  14. Freshwater drowning and near-drowning accidents involving children: a five-year total population study.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Wilkey, I

    A large total population study of childhood fresh water immersion accidents is reported. The study was undertaken in the City of Brisbane over the five-year period 1971 to 1975 inclusive, and 111 fresh water immersion accidents involving children were studied and analysed. The childhood fresh water immersion accident rate, including drowning and near-drownings, of 10-43 per year per 100,000 at risk (fatality rate of 5-17) is the highest reported. If an unsupervised child gets into difficulties in fresh water and loses consciousness he has a 50% chance of dying. The immersion accident rate has doubled over the last six years. Age-specific immersion accident rates have been calculated, and have revealed that, in the toddler group (12 months to 23 months), the fresh water immersion accident rate is 50-01 per 100,000 (fatality rate of 22-55). Rates for drowning and near-drowning accidents after a fresh water immersion, by site, age and outcome (survival versus fatality), are also presented for the first time. Swimming pools produce 6-20 immersion accidents per year per 100,000 children at risk, and the domestic family bath tub produces 1-78. Possible factors explaining the high incidence are discussed, and comparisons of drowning rates from other centres are made.

  15. An Ecological Approach to Prospective and Retrospective Timing of Long Durations: A Study Involving Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, Simon; Bisson, Nicolas; Grondin, Simon

    2010-01-01

    To date, most studies comparing prospective and retrospective timing have failed to use long durations and tasks with a certain degree of ecological validity. The present study assessed the effect of the timing paradigm on playing video games in a “naturalistic environment” (gaming centers). In addition, as it involved gamers, it provided an opportunity to examine the effect of gaming profile on time estimation. A total of 116 participants were asked to estimate prospectively or retrospectively a video game session lasting 12, 35 or 58 minutes. The results indicate that time is perceived as longer in the prospective paradigm than in the retrospective one, although the variability of estimates is the same. Moreover, the 12-minute session was perceived as longer, proportionally, than the 35- and 58-minute sessions. The study also revealed that the number of hours participants spent playing video games per week was a significant predictor of time estimates. To account for the main findings, the differences between prospective and retrospective timing are discussed in quantitative terms using a proposed theoretical framework, which states that both paradigms use the same cognitive processes, but in different proportions. Finally, the hypothesis that gamers play more because they underestimate time is also discussed. PMID:20174648

  16. Study of the Genes and Mechanism Involved in the Radioadaptive Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, Pushan R.

    2009-01-01

    The radioadaptive response is a phenomenon where exposure to a prior low dose of radiation reduces the level of damage induced by a subsequent high radiation dose. The molecular mechanism behind this is still not well understood. Learning more about the radioadaptive response is critical for long duration spaceflight since astronauts are exposed to low levels of cosmic radiation. The micronucleus assay was used to measure the level of damage caused by radiation. Although cells which were not washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) after a low priming dose of 5cGy did not show adaptation to the challenge dose, washing the cells with PBS and giving the cells fresh media after the low dose did allow radioadaptation to occur. This is consistent with the results of a previous publication by another research group. In the present study, genes involved in DNA damage signaling and the oxidative stress response were studied using RT PCR techniques in order to look at changes in expression level after the low dose with or without washing. Our preliminary results indicate that upregulation of oxidative stress response genes ANGPTL7, NCF2, TTN, and SRXN1 may be involved in the radioadaptive response. The low dose of radiation alone was found to activate the oxidative stress response genes GPR156 and MTL5, whereas, washing the cells alone caused relatively robust upregulation of the oxidative stress response genes DUSP1 and PTGS2. Washing after the priming dose showed some changes in the expression level of several DNA damage signaling genes. In addition, we studied whether washing the cells after the priming dose has an effect on the level of nitric oxide in both the media and cells, since nitric oxide levels are known to increase in the media of the cells after a high dose of radiation only if the cells were already exposed to a low priming dose. Based on this preliminary study, we propose that washing the cells after priming exposure actually eliminates some factor

  17. Prevalence of uterine and adnexal involvement in pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: a clinicopathologic study of 10 patients.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takuo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Mitani, Keiko; Terao, Yasuhisa; Watanabe, Masao; Oide, Takashi; Nakatani, Yukio; Hebisawa, Akira; Konno, Ryo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Yao, Takashi; Seyama, Kuniaki

    2011-12-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM), a systemic disorder affecting almost exclusively young women, is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells). LAM can occur either in association with the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) (TSC-LAM) or without TSC (sporadic LAM). Recent studies have demonstrated that LAM is a neoplasm arising from constitutive activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway dysregulated by a functional loss of TSC genes, but the primary organ of origin remains unclear. Therefore, we performed histologic and immunohistologic analyses of gynecologic organs in 20 patients, half with and the other half without pulmonary LAM, to determine how often LAM involves the uterus. The results showed that 9 of 10 (90%) patients with pulmonary LAM had uterine LAM lesions. In contrast, no patients without pulmonary LAM had so. All uterine LAM lesions were accompanied by LAM lesions in retroperitoneal or pelvic lymph nodes and LAM cell clusters, each enveloped by a monolayer of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3-positive lymphatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, when we compared uterine lesions of TSC-LAM with those of sporadic LAM, proliferation of HMB45-positive epithelioid-shaped LAM cells and infiltrates with a tongue-like growth pattern was more prominent in the former, whereas the extent of lymphangiogenesis within the myometrium was greater in the latter. These results indicate that uterine involvement is a common manifestation of LAM, and, possibly, that the uterus or an adjacent locale in the retroperitoneum or pelvic cavity is the primary site of origin of LAM.

  18. Differential involvement of cortical and cerebellar areas using dominant and nondominant hands: An FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S; D'Angelo, Egidio; Friston, Karl J; Toosy, Ahmed T; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2015-12-01

    Motor fMRI studies, comparing dominant (DH) and nondominant (NDH) hand activations have reported mixed findings, especially for the extent of ipsilateral (IL) activations and their relationship with task complexity. To date, no study has directly compared DH and NDH activations using an event-related visually guided dynamic power-grip paradigm with parametric (three) forces (GF) in healthy right-handed subjects. We implemented a hierarchical statistical approach aimed to: (i) identify the main effect networks engaged when using either hand; (ii) characterise DH/NDH responses at different GFs; (iii) assess contralateral (CL)/IL-specific and hemisphere-specific activations. Beyond confirming previously reported results, this study demonstrated that increasing GF has an effect on motor response that is contextualised also by the use of DH or NDH. Linear analysis revealed increased activations in sensorimotor areas, with additional increased recruitments of subcortical and cerebellar areas when using the NDH. When looking at CL/IL-specific activations, CL sensorimotor areas and IL cerebellum were activated with both hands. When performing the task with the NDH, several areas were also recruited including the CL cerebellum. Finally, there were hand-side-independent activations of nonmotor-specific areas in the right and left hemispheres, with the right hemisphere being involved more extensively in sensori-motor integration through associative areas while the left hemisphere showing greater activation at higher GF. This study shows that the functional networks subtending DH/NDH power-grip visuomotor functions are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct and this should be taken into consideration when performing fMRI studies, particularly when planning interventions in patients with specific impairments.

  19. Differential involvement of cortical and cerebellar areas using dominant and nondominant hands: An FMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Friston, Karl J.; Toosy, Ahmed T.; Gandini Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Motor fMRI studies, comparing dominant (DH) and nondominant (NDH) hand activations have reported mixed findings, especially for the extent of ipsilateral (IL) activations and their relationship with task complexity. To date, no study has directly compared DH and NDH activations using an event‐related visually guided dynamic power‐grip paradigm with parametric (three) forces (GF) in healthy right‐handed subjects. We implemented a hierarchical statistical approach aimed to: (i) identify the main effect networks engaged when using either hand; (ii) characterise DH/NDH responses at different GFs; (iii) assess contralateral (CL)/IL‐specific and hemisphere‐specific activations. Beyond confirming previously reported results, this study demonstrated that increasing GF has an effect on motor response that is contextualised also by the use of DH or NDH. Linear analysis revealed increased activations in sensorimotor areas, with additional increased recruitments of subcortical and cerebellar areas when using the NDH. When looking at CL/IL‐specific activations, CL sensorimotor areas and IL cerebellum were activated with both hands. When performing the task with the NDH, several areas were also recruited including the CL cerebellum. Finally, there were hand‐side‐independent activations of nonmotor‐specific areas in the right and left hemispheres, with the right hemisphere being involved more extensively in sensori‐motor integration through associative areas while the left hemisphere showing greater activation at higher GF. This study shows that the functional networks subtending DH/NDH power‐grip visuomotor functions are qualitatively and quantitatively distinct and this should be taken into consideration when performing fMRI studies, particularly when planning interventions in patients with specific impairments. Hum Brain Mapp 36:5079–5100, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26415818

  20. A comparative study of different factors involved in mass cultivation of rhizobia, using shakers and fermentors.

    PubMed

    Gulati, S L

    1978-01-01

    Growth was proportionally linear to increasing load of inoculum although an inoculum load of 6 to 8% was optimum to obtain uniform number of viable cells, beyond which the number of viable cells did not increase. From the point of view of contamination with other microorganisms and the nodulating ability of cultures, fermentor cultures were better than shake cultures. When growth of Rhizobium was studied in relation to unit of mannitol consumed, it was observed that fermentors are more economical for culturing rhizobia than shakers.

  1. The Relationship Between Father Involvement and Child Problem Behaviour in Intact Families: A 7-Year Cross-Lagged Study.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Narayanan, Martina K

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the cross-lagged relationship between father involvement and child problem behaviour across early-to-middle childhood, and tested whether temperament modulated any cross-lagged child behaviour effects on father involvement. It used data from the first four waves of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, when children (50.3 % male) were aged 9 months, and 3, 5 and 7 years. The sample was 8302 families where both biological parents were co-resident across the four waves. Father involvement (participation in play and physical and educational activities with the child) was measured at ages 3, 5 and 7, as was child problem behaviour (assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Key child and family covariates related to father involvement and child problem behaviour were controlled. Little evidence was found that more father involvement predicted less child problem behaviour two years later, with the exception of father involvement at child's age 5 having a significant, but small, effect on peer problems at age 7. There were two child effects. More hyperactive children at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5, and children with more conduct problems at age 3 had more involved fathers at age 5. Child temperament did not moderate any child behaviour effects on father involvement. Thus, in young, intact UK families, child adjustment appears to predict, rather than be predicted by, father involvement in early childhood. When children showed more problematic behaviours, fathers did not become less involved. In fact, early hyperactivity and conduct problems in children seemed to elicit more involvement from fathers. At school age, father involvement appeared to affect children's social adjustment rather than vice versa.

  2. Quantitative study of the interactome of PKCζ involved in the EGF-induced tumor cell chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruibing; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Fei; Shieh, Chia-Hui Paul; Yang, De; Zhang, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Chemotaxis plays an important role in metastasis. In our previous studies, we reported that protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) mediated cancer cell chemotaxis by regulating cytoskeleton rearrangement and cell adhesion. To further study the molecular mechanism of chemotaxis, mass spectrometry-based approaches were employed to investigate the interactome of PKCζ and its changes upon stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF). As a result, 233 proteins were identified as potential PKCζ binding partners. Label free quantification was applied to examine the quantitative changes of these interactions involved in the EGF induced chemotaxis. Fifteen identified proteins were enriched and 9 proteins were reduced in the presence of EGF (≥ 1.5 folds, p ≤ 0.05). The interaction between cofilin-1 (CFL1) and PKCζ was evidenced and this interaction was enhanced in the EGF induced chemotaxis signaling transduction. In addition, novel PKCζ interacting proteins potentially related with chemotaxis were characterized, such as isoform 1 of nucleophosmin (NPM1). Furthermore, Western blotting and chemotaxis assays were also applied to validate the proteomics result and explore its biological implications. Collectively, the combination of quantitative proteomics and biological assays provides a powerful strategy for elucidating the signaling pathway of tumor cell chemotaxis.

  3. Identification of miRNAs Potentially Involved in Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Politano, Gianfranco; Inghilleri, Simona; Morbini, Patrizia; Calabrese, Fiorella; Benso, Alfredo; Savino, Alessandro; Cova, Emanuela; Zampieri, Davide; Meloni, Federica

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (BOS), the main clinical phenotype of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic regulation of microRNAs might play a role in its development. In this paper we present the application of a complex computational pipeline to perform enrichment analysis of miRNAs in pathways applied to the study of BOS. The analysis considered the full set of miRNAs annotated in miRBase (version 21), and applied a sequence of filtering approaches and statistical analyses to reduce this set and to score the candidate miRNAs according to their potential involvement in BOS development. Dysregulation of two of the selected candidate miRNAs–miR-34a and miR-21 –was clearly shown in in-situ hybridization (ISH) on five explanted human BOS lungs and on a rat model of acute and chronic lung rejection, thus definitely identifying miR-34a and miR-21 as pathogenic factors in BOS and confirming the effectiveness of the computational pipeline. PMID:27564214

  4. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear bone malformations with posterior labyrinth involvement: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Palomeque Vera, Juan Miguel; Platero Sánchez-Escribano, María; Gómez Hervás, Javier; Fernández Prada, María; González Ramírez, Amanda Rocío; Sainz Quevedo, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Inner ear bone malformations are one cause of profound sensorineural hearing loss. This investigation focused on those affecting the posterior labyrinth, especially enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, which is associated with fluctuating and progressive hearing loss. The objectives of this study were to analyze the behavior of the electrical stimulation, auditory functionality and linguistic development in patients with inner ear malformations involving the posterior labyrinth. The study included ten patients undergoing cochlear implantation (cases: five with enlarged vestibular aqueduct, two with vestibular aqueduct stenosis/aplasia, and three with semicircular canal disorders). Post-implantation, data were gathered on the electrical stimulation threshold and maximum comfort levels and on the number of functioning electrodes. Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech (EARS) subtests were used to assess auditory functionality and language acquisition at 6, 12, and 24 months post-implantation. Results were compared with findings in a control group of 28 cochlear implantation patients without these malformations. No significant differences were found between case and control groups in electrical stimulation parameters; auditory functionality subtest scores were lower in cases than controls, although the difference was only statistically significant for some subtests. In conclusion, cochlear implantation patients with posterior labyrinth bone malformations and profound hearing loss, including those with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome, showed no significant difference in electrical stimulation threshold with controls. Although some auditory functionality test results were lower in cases than in controls, cochlear implantation appears to be beneficial for all patients with these malformations.

  5. Evidence for bilateral involvement in idiom comprehension: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zempleni, Monika-Zita; Haverkort, Marco; Renken, Remco; A Stowe, Laurie

    2007-02-01

    The goal of the current study was to identify the neural substrate of idiom comprehension using fMRI. Idioms are familiar, fixed expressions whose meaning is not dependent on the literal interpretation of the component words. We presented literally plausible idioms in a sentence forcing a figurative or a literal interpretation and contrasted them with sentences containing idioms for which no literal interpretation was available and with unambiguously literal sentences. The major finding of the current study is that figurative comprehension in the case of both ambiguous and unambiguous idioms is supported by bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left middle temporal gyrus. The right middle temporal gyrus is also involved, but seems to exclusively process the ambiguous idioms. Therefore, our data suggest a bilateral neural network underlying figurative comprehension, as opposed to the exclusive participation of the right hemisphere. The data also provide evidence against proposed models of idiom comprehension in which literal processing is by-passed, since figurative processing demanded more resources than literal processing in the language network.

  6. Observational studies and the difficult quest for causality: lessons from vaccine effectiveness and impact studies.

    PubMed

    Lipsitch, Marc; Jha, Ayan; Simonsen, Lone

    2016-07-24

    Although randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCT) are critical to establish efficacy of vaccines at the time of licensure, important remaining questions about vaccine effectiveness (VE)-used here to include individual-level measures and population-wide impact of vaccine programmes-can only be answered once the vaccine is in use, from observational studies. However, such studies are inherently at risk for bias. Using a causal framework and illustrating with examples, we review newer approaches to detecting and avoiding confounding and selection bias in three major classes of observational study design: cohort, case-control and ecological studies. Studies of influenza VE, especially in seniors, are an excellent demonstration of the challenges of detecting and reducing such bias, and so we use influenza VE as a running example. We take a fresh look at the time-trend studies often dismissed as 'ecological'. Such designs are the only observational study design that can measure the overall effect of a vaccination programme [indirect (herd) as well as direct effects], and are in fact already an important part of the evidence base for several vaccines currently in use. Despite the great strides towards more robust observational study designs, challenges lie ahead for evaluating best practices for achieving robust unbiased results from observational studies. This is critical for evaluation of national and global vaccine programme effectiveness.

  7. Responsibility Study: Main Illicit Psychoactive Substances Among Car Drivers Involved in Fatal Road Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Gadegbeku, Blandine; Amoros, Emmanuelle; Laumon, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, in France, before considering modifications in drug legislation, the government requested a study of the effect of illicit drugs on the risk of road crashes. It implemented a systematic screening of illicit drugs for all drivers involved in fatal crashes between October 2001 and September 2003. Within the European DRUID project, the study was restricted to car drivers. The project reported here is a responsibility analysis and, as such, it belongs to the framework of case-control studies; the outcome of interest is “being responsible for a fatal crash”. It was assessed with a method adapted from Robertson and Drummer. Cases are the 4,946 car drivers who are responsible for the crash; controls are the 1,986 car drivers selected from the non-responsible car drivers, in a way that makes the control group similar to the general driving population. The effect of cannabis on fatal crash responsibility is significant after adjustment for age, sex and alcohol: adjusted odds ratio is 1.89 [1.43–2.51]. The dose-response effect is significant (p=0.0001). For alcohol (≥0.1 g/l), the adjusted odds ratio for responsibility is 8.39 [6.95–10.11]. No interaction was found between alcohol and cannabis. For amphetamine, cocaine and opiates, adjusted odds ratios were not significantly different from 1. However the statistical power is low. The study finds similar odds ratios for alcohol as previously published. For cannabis, the significant odds ratio together with the significant dose-response effect indicates a causal relationship between cannabis and road crashes. A multiplicative effect between cannabis and alcohol was noted. PMID:22105404

  8. An fMRI Study of Parietal Cortex Involvement in the Visual Guidance of Locomotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billington, Jac; Field, David T.; Wilkie, Richard M.; Wann, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Locomoting through the environment typically involves anticipating impending changes in heading trajectory in addition to maintaining the current direction of travel. We explored the neural systems involved in the "far road" and "near road" mechanisms proposed by Land and Horwood (1995) using simulated forward or backward travel where participants…

  9. Increasing Parent Involvement among Head Start Families: A Randomized Control Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoatche, Kendall Jeffries; Bradley-Klug, Kathy L.; Ogg, Julia; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.

    2015-01-01

    Parent involvement (PI) during preschool has been linked with strong pre-literacy skills, acquisition of mathematical skills, well-developed social skills, and positive attitudes toward school. Parents' active involvement in their children's learning is a recommended strategy in engaging families in children's education experiences. The purpose of…

  10. What Happens When Parents and Children Go Grocery Shopping? An Observational Study of Latino Dyads in Southern California, USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Joanna; Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Elder, John P.; Belch, George E.; Castro, Iana A.; Weibel, Nadir; Pickrel, Julie

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe parent-child interactions in "tiendas," limited assortment food stores catering to Latinos in the United States, and to examine the extent to which child involvement influenced these interactions and their purchase outcomes. Two confederates, one posing as a "tienda" employee and one…

  11. Teachers' and Pupils' Behavior in Large and Small Classes: A Systematic Observation Study of Pupils Aged 10 and 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined class size effects on teacher-pupil interactions, pupil engagement, and pupil-pupil interaction. They extended previous research by recognizing the hierarchical nature of observation data and the possible influence of other variables. The study used a time sampling method involving 257 children (aged 10-11 years) in 16 small…

  12. How reproducibly can human ear ossicles be measured? A study of inter-observer error.

    PubMed

    Flohr, Stefan; Leckelt, Jasmin; Kierdorf, Uwe; Kierdorf, Horst

    2010-12-01

    Ear ossicles have thus far received little attention in biological anthropology. For the use of these bones as a source of biological information, it is important to know how reproducibly they can be measured. We determined inter-observer errors for measurements recorded by two observers on mallei (N = 119) and incudes (N = 124) obtained from human skeletons recovered from an early medieval cemetery in southern Germany. Measurements were taken on-screen on images of the bones obtained with a digital microscope. In the case of separately acquired images, mean inter-observer error ranged between 0.50 and 9.59% (average: 2.63%) for malleus measurements and between 0.67 and 7.11% (average: 2.01%) for incus measurements. Coefficients of reliability ranged between 0.72 and 0.99 for the malleus measurements and between 0.61 and 0.98 for those of the incus. Except for one incus measurement, readings performed by the two observers on the same set of photographs produced lower inter-observer errors and higher coefficients of reliability than the method involving separate acquisition of images by the observers. Across all linear measurements, absolute inter-observer error was independent of the mean size of the measured variable for both bones. So far, studies on human ear ossicles have largely neglected the issue of measurement error and its potential implication for the interpretation of the data. Knowledge of measurement error is of special importance if results obtained by different researchers are combined into a single database. It is, therefore, suggested that the reproducibility of measurements should be addressed in all future studies of ear ossicles.

  13. An observational study of driving distractions on urban roads in Spain.

    PubMed

    Prat, F; Planes, M; Gras, M E; Sullman, M J M

    2015-01-01

    The present research investigated the prevalence of driver engagement in secondary tasks and whether there were any differences by age and gender, as well as day of the week and time of the day. Two independent researchers observed 6578 drivers at nine randomly selected urban locations in Girona, Spain. Nearly 20% of the drivers observed were engaged in some type of secondary task, with the most common being: conversing with a passenger (11.1%), smoking (3.7%) and talking on a handheld mobile phone (1.3%). Surprisingly there were no differences by gender, but there were age-related differences with younger drivers being more frequently observed engaged in a number of different types of secondary tasks while driving (i.e. drinking, talking on a handheld mobile phone, and texting or keying numbers). Logistic regression showed that younger drivers, and to a lesser extent middle-age drivers, were significantly more likely to be observed engaged in a technological distraction than older drivers. Conversely, non-technological distractions were significantly predicted by day of the week, time of the day and location. A substantial number of the drivers observed in this study were putting themselves at an increased risk of becoming involved in a crash by engaging in non-driving related tasks at the same time as driving. Furthermore, the higher crash rate among young drivers may be partially accounted for by their more frequent engagement in some types of secondary tasks while driving.

  14. An empirical study of coronal observations at the solar limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Michael Scott

    Solar observations were employed in this work to quantify motion and structures seen in the sun's corona with particular attention given to features found at the solar limb. These features consist of coronal magnetic-null points, quiescent prominences, and post flare eruption plasma sheets. Extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft were used to determine the fidelity of the commonly used potential field source surface (PFSS) model for predicting the location of coronal magnetic-null-points. Several properties of the null points were also investigated to ascertain if they had any effect on their observability. Next, quiescent prominence observations from the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope satellite were used to create velocity maps of the plasma found in these structures. The derived velocities provided insight into the vorticity, kinetic energy, and oscillations that reside in these prominences. Primarily, this investigation was concerned with determining the distribution of velocity and vorticity at different length scales by applying a power spectral density analysis. All of this information is intended to strengthen our understanding on how these prominences evolve and potentially become unstable. An identical analysis is then conducted on post-flare-eruption plasma sheets observed in EUV by the space based SDO and TRACE satellites. Investigating the dynamics that reside in these plasma sheets are crucial for understanding the conditions that trigger and accelerate the magnetic reconnection responsible for producing these energetic solar flares.

  15. Father Involvement Program Effects on Fathers, Father Figures, and Their Head Start Children: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Iglesias, Aquiles

    1999-01-01

    This study examined effects of participation in a Head Start-based father involvement intervention program. Findings suggested a positive association between high level participation in the intervention and increased father involvement at post- treatment. Children in the high participation group showed higher mathematics readiness change scores.…

  16. What Happens When Parents and Children Go Grocery Shopping? An Observational Study of Latino Dyads in Southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Joanna; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Elder, John P; Belch, George E; Castro, Iana A; Weibel, Nadir; Pickrel, Julie

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe parent-child interactions in tiendas, limited assortment food stores catering to Latinos in the United States, and to examine the extent to which child involvement influenced these interactions and their purchase outcomes. Two confederates, one posing as a tienda employee and one posing as a customer, observed the entire shopping trip of 100 Latino parent-child (mean age = 8 years) dyads and coded the following: number and type of parent- and child-initiated request interactions, types of purchase influence attempts used by children and how parents responded, and whether the product was purchased. Level of child involvement was examined as a potential influencing factor on purchasing. The observations were relatively short (mean duration of 10 minutes), reflecting the "quick trip" nature of the observed shopping trips. From the 100 parent-child dyads, 144 request interactions were observed, and among dyads with at least 1 request interaction during the shopping trip, the average number of request interactions per dyad was 2. Children initiated most of the request interactions by asking for a product or simply placing it in the basket; parents initiated 24% of the request interactions. Child involvement in shopping and checkout were associated with spending and purchase outcomes. These results indicate that children and parents influence each other during grocery shopping, and children who are more involved have greater influence over purchases. Furthermore, this study identified a number of targets for future family/parent and consumer food environment interventions.

  17. Attenuation of cell motility observed with high doses of sphingosine 1-phosphate or phosphorylated FTY720 involves RGS2 through its interactions with the receptor S1P.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Takayuki; Igarashi, Yasuyuki

    2008-07-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) stimulation enhances cell motility via the G-protein coupled S1P receptor S1P1. This ligand-induced, receptor-mediated cell motility follows a typical bell-shaped dose-response curve, that is, stimulation with low concentrations of S1P enhances cell motility, whereas excess ligand stimulation does not enhance it. So far, the attenuation of the response at higher ligand concentrations has not been explained. We report here that S1P1 interacts with the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-2 protein, which is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for heterotrimeric G proteins, in a concentration dependent manner. The RGS2-S1P1 complex dissociated at higher ligand concentrations, yet it was unaffected at low concentrations, suggesting that the dissociated RGS2 is involved in the concurrent decrease of cell motility. In RGS2 knockdown cells, the decrease of cell motility induced by high ligand concentrations was rescued. S1P1 internalization was not implicated in the attenuation of the response. Similar results were observed upon stimulation with the phosphorylated form of FTY720 (FTYP), which is an S1P1 agonist. In conclusion, the suppressed response in cell motility induced by excess S1P or FTYP via S1P1 is regulated by RGS2 functioning through a mechanism that is independent of S1P1 internalization.

  18. Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmer, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

  19. Lifetime socioeconomic position and mortality: prospective observational study.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, G. D.; Hart, C.; Blane, D.; Gillis, C.; Hawthorne, V.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of socioeconomic position over a lifetime on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, on morbidity, and on mortality from various causes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study with 21 years of follow up. Social class was determined as manual or non-manual at three stages of participants' lives: from the social class of their father's job, the social class of their first job, and the social class of their job at the time of screening. A cumulative social class indicator was constructed, ranging from non-manual social class at all three stages of life to manual social class at all three stages. SETTING: 27 workplaces in the west of Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: 5766 men aged 35-64 at the time of examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and level of risk factors for cardiovascular disease; morbidity; and mortality from broad causes of death. RESULTS: From non-manual social class locations at all three life stages to manual at all stages there were strong positive trends for blood pressure, body mass index, current cigarette smoking, angina, and bronchitis. Inverse trends were seen for height, cholesterol concentration, lung function, and being an ex-smoker. 1580 men died during follow up. Age adjusted relative death rates in comparison with the men of non-manual social class locations at all three stages of life were 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.56) in men of two non-manual and one manual social class; 1.45 (1.21 to 1.73) in men of two manual and one non-manual social class; and 1.71 (1.46 to 2.01) in men of manual social class at all three stages. Mortality from cardiovascular disease showed a similar graded association with cumulative social class. Mortality from cancer was mainly raised among men of manual social class at all three stages. Adjustment for a wide range of risk factors caused little attenuation in the association of cumulative social class with mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease

  20. Hemispheric involvement in the processing of Chinese idioms: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Ping; Fang, Xiaoping; Shu, Hua; Liu, Youyi; Chen, Lang

    2016-07-01

    Although the left hemisphere is believed to handle major language functions, the role of the right hemisphere in language comprehension remains controversial. Recently researchers have investigated hemispheric language processing with figurative language materials (e.g., metaphors, jokes, and idioms). The current study capitalizes on the pervasiveness and distinct features of Chinese idioms to examine the brain mechanism of figurative language processing. Native Chinese speakers performed a non-semantic task while reading opaque idioms, transparent idioms, and non-idiomatic literal phrases. Whole-brain analyses indicated strong activations for all three conditions in an overlapping brain network that includes the bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyrus and the temporo-parietal and occipital-temporal regions. The two idiom conditions elicited additional activations in the right superior parietal lobule and right precuneus. Item-based modulation analyses further demonstrated that activation amplitudes in the right angular gyrus, right superior parietal lobule and right precuneus, as well as left inferior temporo-occipital cortex, are negatively correlated with the semantic transparency of the idioms. These results suggest that both hemispheres are involved in idiom processing but they play different roles. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of theories of figurative language processing and hemispheric functions.

  1. Prospective study of factors important to achieve observation of the entire colon on colon capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Junichi; Nakamura, Masanao; Watanabe, Osamu; Yamamura, Takeshi; Funasaka, Kohei; Ohno, Eizaburo; Miyahara, Ryoji; Kawashima, Hiroki; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a procedure in which capsule swallowing facilitates observation of the lumen of the entire digestive tract. It does not require an air supply, and is a noninvasive procedure with a markedly low risk of adverse events in comparison with conventional colonoscopy (CS). It reduces patient stress, and may be acceptable to patients. A limitation of this procedure is that the entire colon observation rate (CCE excretion rate, completed CCE rate) is not 100%. In this study, we prospectively investigated clinical factors important to achieve observation of the entire colon on CCE. Methods: The participants were 70 patients for whom CCE was scheduled, and from whom written informed consent regarding participation in this study was obtained. We selected patient background/examination factors, and analyzed all factors involved in observation of the entire colon and factors for completion of the CCE within 4 h after the start of examination using multivariate analysis. Results: Of the 70 enrolled patients, 64 were analyzed, excluding 6. On multiple logistic analysis, only a water intake of ⩾12.0 ml/min during examination [p = 0.025, odds ratio (OR): 46.753, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.630–1341.248] was identified as an independent predictive factor involved in observation of the entire colon. With respect to factors involved in the completion of CCE within 4 h, multiple logistic analysis showed that a body mass index (BMI) of ⩾25 (p = 0.039, OR: 13.723, 95% CI: 1.135–165.913), the absence of constipation (p = 0.030, OR: 13.988, 95% CI: 1.287–152.047), and a water intake of ⩾12.0 ml/min during examination (p = 0.004, OR: 12.028, 95% CI: 2.225–65.029) were independent predictive factors. Conclusions: Completion of a CCE was most closely related to water intake per hour. In addition to water intake, CCE-promoting factors included a high BMI and the absence of constipation. PMID:28286556

  2. Sea ice climatology, variations and teleconnections: Observational and modeling studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiping

    Hypotheses, models and observations suggest that sea ice plays an important role in the local, regional and global climate through a variety of processes across a full range of scales. However, our documentation and understanding of the nature of the polar-extrapolar climate teleconnections and their underlying causal and mechanistic links are still rudimentary, and the largest disagreements among model simulations of present and future climate are in the polar regions. In an effort to address these issues, we evaluated the simulated Antarctic sea ice variability and its climate teleconnections in three coupled global climate models (GISS, NCAR and GFDL) as compared to the observations. All the models capture the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like phenomenon to some degree, although almost all the models miss some observed linkages. The GISS and NCAR models also capture the observed Antarctic Dipole and meridional banding structure through the Pacific. The Antarctic sea ice regions showing the strongest sensitivity to global teleconnections differ among the models and between the models and observations. We then proposed that the changes of the regional mean meridional atmospheric circulation (the regional Ferrel Cell) are one such mechanism leading to the covariability of the ENSO and Antarctic Dipole by modulating the mean meridional heat flux using the observational data. To more accurately represent sea ice simulations and associated feedbacks with the atmosphere and the ocean, the GISS coupled model was used to investigate the sensitivity of sea ice to the following physical parameterizations: (a) two sea ice dynamics (cavitating fluid and viscous-plastic), (b) the specification of oceanic isopyncal mixing coefficients in the Gent and McWillams isopyncal mixing, (c) the Wajsowicz viscosity diffusion, (d) surface albedo, (e) the penetration of solar radiation in sea ice, (f) effects of including a sea ice salinity budget, and (g) the ice-ocean boundary

  3. The determinants of dumping: a national study of economically motivated transfers involving mental health care.

    PubMed Central

    Schlesinger, M; Dorwart, R; Hoover, C; Epstein, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and determinants of economically motivated transfers (aka "dumping") from hospitals treating mental illness. DATA SOURCES: A composite data set constructed from three national random-sampled surveys conducted in 1988 and 1989: (1) of hospitals providing mental health care, (2) of community mental health centers, and (3) of psychiatrists. STUDY DESIGN: The study uses reports from administrators of community mental health centers (CMHCs) to assess the extent of patient dumping by hospitals. To assess the determinants of dumping, reported perceptions of dumping are regressed on variables describing the catchment area in terms of the proportion of for-profit hospitals, intensity of competition among hospitals, extent of utilization review, and capacity of the local treatment system, as well as competition among community mental health centers. To assess if dumping is motivated by factors distinct from those affecting other aspects of access, comparable regressions are estimated with ease of hospital admission as the dependent variables. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Economically motivated transfers of psychiatric patients were widespread in 1988: according to the reports of CMHC administrators, 64.7 percent of all hospitals providing inpatient mental health care engaged in transfers of this sort. The extent of dumping was higher in catchment areas with more competition among hospitals, more proprietary hospitals, and less inpatient capacity in the public sector. Dumping appeared to be more sensitive to capacity in the public sector but less sensitive to involvement by for-profit hospitals than were other measures of access to care. CONCLUSIONS: Economically motivated transfers of patients with mental illness were widespread in 1988 and likely have increased since that time, affecting the viability of the community mental health care system. PMID:9402901

  4. Analytic studies of local-severe-storm observables by satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dergarabedian, P.; Fendell, F.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is concentrated on the exceptionally violet whirlwind, often characterized by a fairly vertical axis of rotation. For a cylindrical polar coordinate system with axis coincident with the axis of rotation, the secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components. The thesis advanced is, first, that a violent whirlwind is characterized by swirl speeds relative to the axis of rotation on the order of 90 m/s, with 100 m/s being close to an upper bound. This estimate is based on interpretation of funnel-cloud shape (which also suggests properties of the radial profile of swirl, as well as the maximum magnitude); an error assessment of the funnel-cloud interpretation procedure is developed. Second, computation of ground-level pressure deficits achievable from typical tornado-spawning ambients by idealized thermohydrostatic processes suggests that a two-cell structure is required to sustain such large speeds.

  5. Structural and Functional Study of Yer067w, a New Protein Involved in Yeast Metabolism Control and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Domitrovic, Tatiana; Kozlov, Guennadi; Freire, João Claudio Gonçalves; Masuda, Claudio Akio; da Silva Almeida, Marcius; Montero-Lomeli, Mónica; Atella, Georgia Correa; Matta-Camacho, Edna; Gehring, Kalle; Kurtenbach, Eleonora

    2010-01-01

    The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is arguably the best studied eukaryotic genome, and yet, it contains approximately 1000 genes that are still relatively uncharacterized. As the majority of these ORFs have no homologs with characterized sequence or protein structure, traditional sequence-based approaches cannot be applied to deduce their biological function. Here, we characterize YER067W, a conserved gene of unknown function that is strongly induced in response to many stress conditions and repressed in drug resistant yeast strains. Gene expression patterns of YER067W and its paralog YIL057C suggest an involvement in energy metabolism. We show that yeast lacking YER067W display altered levels of reserve carbohydrates and a growth deficiency in media that requires aerobic metabolism. Impaired mitochondrial function and overall reduction of ergosterol content in the YER067W deleted strain explained the observed 2- and 4-fold increase in resistance to the drugs fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Cell fractionation and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that Yer067w is associated with cellular membranes despite the absence of a transmembrane domain in the protein. Finally, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of Yer067w shows an alpha-beta fold with low similarity to known structures and a putative functional site. YER067W's involvement with aerobic energetic metabolism suggests the assignment of the gene name RGI1, standing for respiratory growth induced 1. Altogether, the results shed light on a previously uncharacterized protein family and provide basis for further studies of its apparent role in energy metabolism control and drug resistance. PMID:20567505

  6. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kozue; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Villena, Julio; Chiba, Eriko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Aso, Hisashi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Saito, Tadao; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4(+)CD25(high) Foxp3(+) lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117.

  7. Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 Induces Tolerance in Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells: Study of the Mechanisms Involved in the Immunoregulatory Effect

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki

    2014-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377

  8. The involvement of long-term serial-order memory in reading development: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; De Maeyer, Marjolijn; Page, Mike P A; Duyck, Wouter

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings suggest that Hebb repetition learning-a paradigmatic example of long-term serial-order learning-is impaired in adults with dyslexia. The current study further investigated the link between serial-order learning and reading using a longitudinal developmental design. With this aim, verbal and visual Hebb repetition learning performance and reading skills were assessed in 96 Dutch-speaking children who we followed from first through second grade of primary school. We observed a positive association between order learning capacities and reading ability as well as weaker Hebb learning performance in early readers with poor reading skills even at the onset of reading instruction. Hebb learning further predicted individual differences in later (nonword) reading skills. Finally, Hebb learning was shown to explain a significant part of the variance in reading performance above and beyond phonological awareness. These findings highlight the role of serial-order memory in reading ability.

  9. Study of the Histopathologic Characteristics and Surface Morphologies of Glottic Carcinomas With Anterior Vocal Commissure Involvement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Li, Zenghong; Luo, Jie; Liao, Bing; Yang, Zhiyun; Liu, Qihong; Wang, Bin; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-07-01

    This article explores the features and the role of the anterior vocal commissure (AVC) structure and the surface morphologies of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement to provide a reference for the selection of transoral carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery. A total of 31 cases of glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement from May 2012 to January 2014 were included. All patients underwent electronic laryngoscopic examinations and computed tomography scans to determine the surface morphology. After surgery, the tumor specimens were resected integrally, and axial serial sections parallel to the plane of vocal cords were taken to explore the features and possible invasion paths of the glottic carcinomas with AVC involvement. The rates of involvement of the supraglottis and subglottis were 71.4% and 14.8%, respectively, via the AVC. The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral or bilateral vocal cords without involvement of the vocal muscle in the AVC region (IVM) or the cartilage was present in 15 cases (48.4%). The involvement of the superficial layer of the unilateral and bilateral vocal cords occurred in 16 cases (51.6%) with the IVM in 13 cases and the involvement of the intermediate lamina of the thyroid cartilage (ITC) in 8 cases. The involvement of the ITC was associated with the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region (P < 0.05). Among the pushing carcinomas, 15 of 21 (71.4%) presented with well-defined tumor mass, and 8 of 10 (80.0%) infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests that were often surrounded by fibrosis (P < 0.05). The AVC is an important path of invasion of subglottic in glottic carcinomas but less so for suparglottic. The Broyles' ligaments acted as a barrier against the spread of the tumors to the thyroid cartilage, but this role was obviously weaken by the involvement of the vocal muscle of the AVC region. The infiltrating carcinomas presented with multiple tumor nests in fibrous tissue. When CO2 laser

  10. Involving Children With Cancer in Health Promotive Research: A Case Study Describing Why, What, and How

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Susanne; Wärnestål, Pontus; Svedberg, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background Participatory research approaches have been introduced to meet end-users’ needs in the development of health promotion interventions among children. However, whereas children are increasingly involved as passive informants in particular parts of research, they are rarely involved as partners, equal to adult researchers, throughout the research process. This is especially prominent in the context of child health where the child is commonly considered to be vulnerable or when the research concerns sensitive situations. In these cases, researchers and gatekeepers to children’s involvement base their resistance to active involvement of children on potential adverse effects on the accuracy or quality of the research or on ethical or moral principles that participation might harm the child. Thus most research aimed at developing health promotion interventions for children in health care is primarily based on the involvement of parents, caregivers, and other stakeholders. Objective The objective of this paper is to discuss reasons for involving children in health promotive research and to explore models for children’s participation in research as a basis for describing how researchers can use design methodology and participatory approaches to support the participation and contribution of children in a vulnerable context. Methods We developed and applied a model for children's participation in research to the development of a digital peer support service for children cancer survivors. This guided the selection of appropriate research and design methodologies (such as interviews, focus groups, design sessions, and usability evaluation) for involving the children cancer survivors (8-12 years) in the design of a digital peer support service. Results We present a model for what children’s participation in research means and describe how we practically implemented this model in a research project on children with cancer. This paper can inform researchers in

  11. Observational and theoretical studies of the nova outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Vanlandingham, K.; Schwarz, G.

    1998-04-01

    A nova outburst is one consequence of the accretion of hydrogen rich material onto a white dwarf in a close binary system. The strong electron degeneracy of a massive white dwarf drives the temperatures in the nuclear burning region to values exceeding 108K under all circumstances. As a result, a major fraction of the CNO nuclei in the envelope are transformed into e{sup +}-decay nuclei, which constrains the nuclear energy generation and yields non-solar CNO isotopic abundance ratios. In addition, the observations demonstrate that white dwarf core material is dredged up into the accreted layers and these nuclei are the catalysts for producing peak rates of energy generation that can exceed 10{sup 16} erg gm{sup -1}s{sup -1}. Observations show that there are two compositional classes of novae, one that occurs on a carbon-oxygen white dwarf and the other that occurs on an oxygen-neon-magnesium white dwarf.

  12. LAT Observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, Nicola; Norris, Jay; /Denver U.

    2007-10-22

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

  13. LAT observation of GRBs: Simulations and Sensitivity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Omodei, Nicola; Norris, Jay

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the next generation satellite experiment for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy. It employs a pair conversion technique to record photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT will follow the steps from its predecessor EGRET (1991-2000), and will explore the high-energy gamma-ray sky with unprecedented capabilities. The observation of Gamma-Ray Bursts is one of the main science goal of the LAT: in this contribution we compute an estimation of the LAT sensitivity to GRB, adopting a phenomenological description of GRBs, where the high-energy emission in GRB is obtained extrapolating the observed BATSE spectrum up to LAT energies. The effect of the cosmological attenuation is included. We use the BATSE current catalog to build up our statistics.

  14. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  15. The development of the Suicidal Patient Observation Chart (SPOC): Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Björkdahl, A; Nyberg, U; Runeson, B; Omérov, P

    2011-08-01

    Constant observation is a method used to insure the safety of suicidal inpatients. It involves structure and control as well as flexibility and the development of a relationship between the observer and the patient. It has been found that important observations may go unnoticed by the observer or fail to be communicated to the multidisciplinary team because of a lack of sufficient training and systematic documentation. We therefore conducted a Delphi survey to collect opinions on what would be important to observe during constant observation of suicidal patients. A panel of experienced clinicians, service users and researchers reached consensus on 37 of 40 observation items (92%). Of these, 28 were rated as the most important. As a result, we developed a form for systematic observer documentation in clinical practice, the Suicidal Patient Observation Chart. The Suicidal Patient Observation Chart includes the 28 items and covers 24 separate observation periods.

  16. Low Quality Evidence of Epidemiological Observational Studies on Leishmaniasis in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Trentini, Bruno; Steindel, Mário; Marlow, Mariel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Brazil has implemented systematic control methods for leishmaniasis for the past 30 years, despite an increase in cases and continued spread of the disease to new regions. A lack high quality evidence from epidemiological observational studies impedes the development of novel control methods to prevent disease transmission among the population. Here, we have evaluated the quality of observational studies on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil to highlight this issue. Methods/Principal Findings For this systematic review, all publications on leishmaniasis conducted in Brazil from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2012 were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist to select observational studies involving human subjects. The 283 included studies, representing only 14.1% of articles screened, were then further evaluated for quality of epidemiological methods and study design based on the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) checklists. Over half of these studies were descriptive or case reports (53.4%, 151), followed by cross-sectional (20.8%, n = 59), case-control (8.5%, n = 24), and cohort (6.0%, n = 17). Study design was not stated in 46.6% (n = 181) and incorrectly stated in 17.5% (n = 24). Comparison groups were utilized in just 39.6% (n = 112) of the publications, and only 13.4% (n = 38) employed healthy controls. Majority of studies were performed at the city-level (62.9%, n = 178), in contrast with two (0.7%) studies performed at the national-level. Coauthorship networks showed the number of author collaborations rapidly decreased after three collaborations, with 70.9% (n = 659/929) of coauthors publishing only one article during the study period. Conclusions/Significance A review of epidemiological research in Brazil revealed a major lack of quality and evidence. While certain indicators suggested research methods

  17. Large-scale study of the interactions between proteins involved in type IV pilus biology in Neisseria meningitidis: characterization of a subcomplex involved in pilus assembly.

    PubMed

    Georgiadou, Michaella; Castagnini, Marta; Karimova, Gouzel; Ladant, Daniel; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2012-06-01

    The functionally versatile type IV pili (Tfp) are one of the most widespread virulence factors in bacteria. However, despite generating much research interest for decades, the molecular mechanisms underpinning the various aspects of Tfp biology remain poorly understood, mainly because of the complexity of the system. In the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis for example, 23 proteins are dedicated to Tfp biology, 15 of which are essential for pilus biogenesis. One of the important gaps in our knowledge concerns the topology of this multiprotein machinery. Here we have used a bacterial two-hybrid system to identify and quantify the interactions between 11 Pil proteins from N. meningitidis. We identified 20 different binary interactions, many of which are novel. This represents the most complex interaction network between Pil proteins reported to date and indicates, among other things, that PilE, PilM, PilN and PilO, which are involved in pilus assembly, indeed interact. We focused our efforts on this subset of proteins and used a battery of assays to determine the membrane topology of PilN and PilO, map the interaction domains between PilE, PilM, PilN and PilO, and show that a widely conserved N-terminal motif in PilN is essential for both PilM-PilN interactions and pilus assembly. Finally, we show that PilP (another protein involved in pilus assembly) forms a complex with PilM, PilN and PilO. Taken together, these findings have numerous implications for understanding Tfp biology and provide a useful blueprint for future studies.

  18. Mechanistic studies of cyclohexanone monooxygenase: chemical properties of intermediates involved in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Sheng, D; Ballou, D P; Massey, V

    2001-09-18

    Cyclohexanone monooxygenase (CHMO), a bacterial flavoenzyme, carries out an oxygen insertion reaction on cyclohexanone to form a seven-membered cyclic product, epsilon-caprolactone. The reaction catalyzed involves the four-electron reduction of O2 at the expense of a two-electron oxidation of NADPH and a two-electron oxidation of cyclohexanone to form epsilon-caprolactone. Previous studies suggested the participation of either a flavin C4a-hydroperoxide or a flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate during the enzymatic catalysis [Ryerson, C. C., Ballou, D. P., and Walsh, C. (1982) Biochemistry 21, 2644-2655]. However, there was no kinetic or spectral evidence to distinguish between these two possibilities. In the present work we used double-mixing stopped-flow techniques to show that the C4a-flavin-oxygen adduct, which is formed rapidly from the reaction of oxygen with reduced enzyme in the presence of NADP, can exist in two states. When the reaction is carried out at pH 7.2, the first intermediate is a flavin C4a-peroxide with maximum absorbance at 366 nm; this intermediate becomes protonated at about 3 s(-1) to form what is believed to be the flavin C4a-hydroperoxide with maximum absorbance at 383 nm. These two intermediates can be interconverted by altering the pH, with a pK(a) of 8.4. Thus, at pH 9.0 the flavin C4a-peroxide persists mainly in the deprotonated form. Further kinetic studies also demonstrated that only the flavin C4a-peroxide intermediate could oxygenate the substrate, cyclohexanone. The requirement in catalysis of the deprotonated flavin C4a-peroxide, a nucleophile, is consistent with a Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement mechanism for the enzymatic oxygenation of cyclohexanone. In the course of these studies, the Kd for cyclohexanone to the C4a-peroxyflavin form of CHMO was determined to be approximately 1 microM. The rate-determining step in catalysis was shown to be the release of NADP from the oxidized enzyme.

  19. Parametric studies on traveling compression regions observed in the Earth's magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    Ugai, M.; Zheng, L.

    2006-06-15

    On the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model, the traveling compression region (TCR) is studied by magnetohydrodynamic simulations for various plasma parameters. Once the fast reconnection mechanism involving slow shocks builds up, the general features of TCR, observed by virtual satellites located in the simulation box, are in good agreement with actual satellite observations. Quantitatively, the TCR signature is not significantly influenced by plasma {beta}, whereas its duration time is proportional to V{sub Ae}{sup -1}, where V{sub Ae} is the Alfven velocity in the magnetic field region; also, the compression ratio of TCR is larger for the smaller plasma density {rho}{sub e} in the magnetic field region because of larger compressibility. In the diffusion region, resistive tearing is likely to occur, giving rise to multiple small-scale TCRs following the major TCR. For the uniform resistivity model, where the fast reconnection mechanism is not realized, any TCR signature cannot be observed. Hence, the TCR signature, observed in association with substorms, provides a definite evidence such that the fast reconnection mechanism is realized in the Earth's magnetotail.

  20. An Observational Study of the Recurring Formation and Dissipation of a Dynamic Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guiping; Wang, Jingxiu; Zhang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Based on observations at the Hα wavelength from the Hinode spacecraft, we report here the detailed process of a dynamical filament that showed repeated appearance and dissipation in a filament channel. First, Hα short fibrils spreading in the pre-formed filament channel joined into longer threads. The joining process was found to be accompanied by small-scale brightening activity, indicating the possible involvement of magnetic reconnection. The forming filament was thickened by merging the neighboring dark threads that were nearly parallel to the axis and also those adjacent to its main endpoints. The formed filament as a single coherent structure only existed for tens of minutes, immediately followed by the dissipation. The dissipation appeared to start with expansion of the filament body, ascending and stripping away of the filament threads, and mass drainage along the legs of the filament. The formation-dissipation process of the filament was repeated three times within the four-hour observational window of Hinode. These observations indicate that the filament structure is highly dynamic. This study provides the observational evidence to confirm the hypothesis of Martin et al. ( Ann. Geophys. 26, 3061, 2008) on the irreversible build-up of magnetic fields in the corona by discrete threads or groups of threads ascending bodily into the corona.

  1. An observation tool to study air traffic control and flightdeck collaboration.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gemma; Sharples, Sarah; Stedmon, Alex; Wilson, John

    2007-07-01

    The complex systems of the flightdeck (FD) and the Air Traffic Control Centre (ATC) are characterised by numerous concurrently operating and interacting communication channels between people and between people and machines/computer systems. This paper describes work in support of investigating the impact of changes to technologies and responsibilities within this system with respect to human factors. It focuses primarily on the introduction of datalink (text-based communication rather than traditional radio communication) and the move towards freeflight (pilot-mediated air traffic control). Air traffic management investigations have outlined these specific changes as strategies to enable further increases in the volume of air traffic. A systems approach was taken and field studies were conducted. Small numbers of domain experts such as air traffic controllers (ATCOs) were involved in the field-based observations of how people interact with systems and each other. This paper summarises the overall research approach taken and then specifically reports on the field-based observations including the justification, development, and findings of the observation tool used. The observation tool examined information propagation through the air traffic control-flightdeck (ATC-FD) system, and resulted in models of possible information trajectories through the system.

  2. In vitro study of transporters involved in intestinal absorption of inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Marta; Barrios, Julio A; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta

    2012-02-20

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) [As(III)+As(V)] is a drinking water contaminant, and human exposure to these arsenic species has been linked with a wide range of health effects. The main path of exposure is the oral route, and the intestinal epithelium is the first physiological barrier that iAs must cross in order to be absorbed. However, there is a lack of information about intestinal iAs absorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the participation of certain transporters [glucose transporters (GLUT and SGLT), organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), aquaporins (AQPs), and phosphate transporters (NaPi and PiT)] in intestinal absorption of As(V) and As(III), using the Caco-2 cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium. For this purpose, the effects of chemical inhibition and gene silencing of the transporters of interest on iAs uptake were evaluated, and also the differential expression of these transporters after treatment with iAs. The results show that chemical inhibition using rifamycin SV (OATP inhibitor), phloridzin (SGLT inhibitor), phloretin (GLUT and AQP inhibitor), and copper sulfate (AQP inhibitor) leads to a significant reduction in the apparent permeability and cellular retention of As(III). RT-qPCR indicates up-regulation of GLUT2, GLUT5, OATPB, AQP3, and AQP10 after exposure to As(III), while exposure to As(V) increases the expression of sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, especially NaPiIIb. Gene silencing of OATPB, AQP10, and GLUT5 for As(III) and NaPiIIb for As(V) significantly reduces uptake of the inorganic forms. These results indicate that these transporters may be involved in intestinal absorption of iAs.

  3. Potential Involvement of P2 Receptors in the Pathological Processes of Hyperthyroidism: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wu; Li, Guodong; Nie, Yijun; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Shuangmei; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Liang, Shangdong

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism manifest mainly as changes in the nervous and metabolic systems. Whether P2X receptors (ionotropic ATP purinergic receptors, including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) are involved in the alterations of these disorders still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association of hyperthyroidism with the expression of P2X3 and P2X7 receptors and the concentrations of ATP in blood leukocytes and catecholamine. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were recruited. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels had been detected by chemiluminescence method. Meanwhile, the catecholamine levels (including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) in plasma, ATP level and P2X receptors (including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) in peripheral blood had been detected by high performance liquid chromatography, bioluminescence method, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group compared with the control group. The concentration of ATP in the hyperthyroidism group was significantly higher than its in the control group. The expression of P2X3 mRNA and P2X7 mRNA in hyperthyroidism group were significantly increased compared with those in control group. In a conclusion, there is a relationship between the elevated expression of P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor in peripheral blood leukocytes and high serum epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in hyperthyroidism patients.

  4. Variants observed for STR locus SE33: a concordance study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Carey; Ge, Jianye; King, Jonathan; Malik, Naseem; Weirich, Volker; Eisenberg, Arthur J; Budowle, Bruce

    2012-07-01

    Discordance of STR typing results can be expected between kits that employ different primers for amplification. The complex motif of the SE33 locus and its flanking regions can contribute to the degree of discordant results. Sequence-dependent conformational changes can manifest as length differences under certain electrophoretic conditions and/or use of different primers. The AmpFlSTR® NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA), PowerPlex® ESX 17 system (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI), and PowerPlex® ESI 17 system (Promega Corporation) were compared for concordance of allele calls for the SE33 marker in selected samples. A total of 16 samples were identified that were discordant at one of the SE33 alleles by an apparent one nucleotide in size. While the ESX 17 and NGM SElect™ kits yielded concordant results for these 16 samples, the ESI 17 kit generated alleles that differed. The discordant alleles were observed in individuals of African and European descent. Sequence analysis revealed that the one-base difference in size is not due to an indel but is instead the result of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the flanking region of the SE33 repeat region. Three different SNPs were observed, one of which is novel. Although these migration anomalies were observed only with the ESI 17 kit, one cannot preclude that a similar phenomenon may occur with the other kits as data sets increase. The type and degree of discordance of STR allele calls among STR kits is an important issue when comparing STR profiles among laboratories and when determining search parameters for identifying candidate associations in national databases.

  5. Observations on studies useful to asbestos operations and management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmoth, R.C.; Powers, T.J.; Millette, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Asbestos-containing materials found in buildings may release asbestos fibers into the air. Some of these fibers will eventually settle and attach to room surfaces (walls, furnishings, equipment, floors, and carpet) as part of normal dust. Activities like dusting, sweeping and vacuuming are likely to re-entrain the dust causing exposure to airborne asbestos. The paper discusses data that are largely observational in nature, but are illustrative of general trends of interest to those individuals dealing with the day-to-day problems of asbestos in buildings.

  6. Study on Bridge of Violin by Photoelastic Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2002-10-01

    The stress of the bridge of a violin was observed by means of the photoelastic method, and a frequency analysis of the tones of two violins was performed. It was found that the stress of the bridge and the tone of the violin depended on the shape and the tilt of the bridge, the direction of force applied by bowing and so on. In addition, it was demonstrated scientifically that adjustment of the instrument is very important and that players should maintain the instrument properly. The proposed visualization method may be helpful for violin teaching and for practice of bowing skills of amateur violinists.

  7. Involvement of the audiovestibular system in multiple sclerosis. An otoneurologic and audiologic study.

    PubMed

    Grénman, R

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed on a material of 70 patients, who fulfilled the criteria of definitive MS. All the patients were examined by an otologist, a neurologist and a neuro-ophthalmologist. A wide range of audiologic and otoneurologic tests were used to obtain a good understanding of the respective disorders in MS, to gain a better knowledge of the role of otology in MS, to correlate the results with the clinical findings in order to find the most useful tests to detect MS lesions and to describe pathophysiologic aspects of central lesions using MS as a model. The material consisted of MS cases representing mild or moderate stages of disability (Hyllested classification 1.-4); 32 belonged to Hyllested group 1., 19 to group 2., 7 to group 3. and 12 to group 4. The age and sex distribution were similar with materials described earlier, as were most of the clinical neurologic findings. The material can thus be considered representative. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination served to rule out causes other than MS for abnormalities observed in the tests. Besides the clinical neurologic and otoneurologic evaluation a number of additional tests were performed. The ENG tests consisted of registration for spontaneous and positional nystagmus, of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus and caloric reactions. The audiologic evaluation was based on the following tests: pure tone audiograms, speech reception thresholds, discrimination scores, filtered speech test, stapedius reflex thresholds, stapedius reflex decay and auditory brainstem responses. The clinical otologic examination revealed little abnormalities, which is well in accordance with the pathophysiology of MS. In addition the clinical examination ruled out peripheral lesions as reasons for observed abnormalities. Numerous abnormalities were found during the otoneurologic examination of the cranial nerves. The amount of abnormal findings in the otoneurologic examination were surprisingly high

  8. Photometric Observation and Modeling Study of the Asteroid (26) Proserpina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, Li; Hai-bin, Zhao; Xin, Wang

    2016-07-01

    We present the new CCD observations on the asteroid (26) Proserpina performed between 2011 December and 2012 February. Based upon the new observations, a synodic rotation period of (13.107 ± 0.002) h is obtained. Using all the light curves available sofar, the rotation vector, rotation period, and the shape model of the asteroid are determined with the convex-hull inversion method. Further more, a bootstrap method is applied to estimating the uncertainties of the rotation parameters. We derive a pair of possible rotation poles for (26) Proserpina, and believe that it has a retrograde rotation. The rotation poles are determined to be λ1 = 90.8° ± 1.4°, β1 = -53.1° ± 3.2°, and λ2 = 259.3° ± 2.2°, β2 = -62.0° ± 2.0°. The sidereal rotation periods corresponding to the two poles are almost the same as (13.109777 ± 3.8 × 10-6) h. And corresponding to this pair of rotation poles, the convex-hull shapes of the asteroid are the mirror images of each other.

  9. Modeling, Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Lunar Photoelectron Sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, Andrew Reinhold

    2011-08-01

    The Moon, lacking an atmosphere and a global magnetic field, is directly exposed to both solar ultraviolet radiation and a variety of ambient plasmas. On the lunar dayside, a photoelectron sheath develops and the surface typically charges positively since the photoemission current is at least an order-of-magnitude greater than any ambient current. This sheath dominates the nearsurface plasma environment and controls the charging, levitation and transport of micron-sized dust grains. In this thesis, we first model the lunar near-surface plasma environment via a one-dimensional particle-in-cell code. The sheath potential, electric field and plasma densities are presented over a wide range of plasma parameters. Additionally, the charging and transport of micron- and submicron sized dust grains is modeled via a test-particle approach in an attempt to explain Apolloera observations of lunar dust dynamics. Secondly, we present a comparison of the particle-in-cell results with theoretical, kinetic derivations of the lunar photoelectron sheath. We extend previous theories to include the presence of a kappa-distribution for the solar wind electrons. Finally, we present a comparison of in-situ measurements of the lunar photoelectron sheet in the terrestrial plasma sheet by the Lunar Prospector Electron Reflectometer with particle-in-cell simulations to confirm the presence of non-monotonic sheath potentials above the Moon. Future work in all three sections, (simulation, theory and observation) is presented as a guide for continuing research.

  10. Experimental and observational studies in ultraviolet space astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohl, Raymond George, IV

    2000-12-01

    This work covers the far-ultraviolet (FUV; 900-1200 Å) imaging performance of telescope mirrors for the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and presents Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of early-type galaxies (1550 Å) and FUSE spectra of a subdwarf B star and two O7 supergiants. FUSE Mirror Imaging Performance. The imaging performance of optics at short wavelengths (UV-X-ray) is dependent on figure quality and small-scale surface roughness. We developed a novel interferometric alignment technique for off-axis parabolic mirrors used for laboratory testing. During mirror assembly, we investigated and mitigated mount- related distortions which contributed to figure error. We performed extensive metrology, image testing and analysis to predict the on-orbit, FUV point spread function. The FUSE mirrors meet mission imaging requirements. UIT Observations of Early-Type Galaxies. Early UV space astronomy missions revealed that early-type galaxies harbor a population of stars with effective temperatures greater than that of the main sequence turn-off (~6,000 K) and UV emission that is very sensitive to characteristics of the stellar population. We present UV (1550 Å) surface photometry and UV-B color profiles for 8 E and S0 galaxies observed by UIT. Some objects have de Vaucouleurs surface brightness profiles, while others have disk-like profiles, but we find no other evidence for the presence of a disk or young, massive stars. There is a wide range of UV-B color gradients, but there is no correlation with metallicity gradients. Analysis of the FUSE Spectrum of a Subdwarf B Star. Subdwarf B (sdB) stars are the leading candidate UV emitters in old, high metallicity stellar populations (e.g., early-type galaxies). We observed the Galactic sdB star PG0749+658 with FUSE and derived abundances with the aim of constraining models of the heavy element distribution in sdB atmospheres. All of the elements measured are depleted with respect to solar

  11. The effects of extracts of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine: a SEM study.

    PubMed

    Almas, K

    2001-01-01

    The popularity and availability of chewing sticks (Salvadora persica) in the Asia, Middle East and Africa make them a commonly used oral hygiene tool in those societies. Salvador persica chewing stick called miswak is frequently used in Saudi Arabia. The antimicrobial effects of miswak has been well documented. The aim of this study is to find our the effect of aqueous extracts of miswak on healthy and periodontally involved human dentine with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in vitro. 25% aqueous extract of freshly prepared miswak solution was used for the study. Twelve human premolars teeth (6 healthy and 6 with periodontal disease) recently extracted for orthodontic and periodontal reasons were used. 24 SEM specimens were prepared and treated with miswak extract with different conditions e.g. soaking and burnishing with miswak extract. Soaking the healthy and periodontally diseased root dentine in miswak extract resulted in partial removal of smear layer and occlusion of dentinal tubules was observed in dentine specimens burnished with miswak solution. Further research is needed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of miswak on etched human dentine at higher concentrations.

  12. Personal involvement is related to increased search motivation and associated with activity in left BA44-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Michael; Rumpel, Franziska; Sadrieh, Abdolkarim; Reimann, Martin; Denke, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies explore consumer perception of brands in a more or less passive way. This may still be representative for many situations or decisions we make each day. Nevertheless, sometimes we often actively search for and use information to make informed and reasoned choices, thus implying a rational and thinking consumer. Researchers suggested describing this distinction as low relative to high involvement consumer behavior. Although the involvement concept has been widely used to explain consumer behavior, behavioral and neural correlates of this concept are poorly understood. The current study aims to describe a behavioral measure that is associated with high involvement, the length of search behavior. A second aim of this study was to explore brain activations associated with involvement by employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We presented participants information cues for different products and told them that they had to answer questions with respect to these products at the end of the experiment. Participants were free to stop the information search if they think they gathered enough information or to continue with collecting information. Behavioral results confirmed our hypothesis of a relationship between searching behavior and personal involvement by demonstrating that the length of search correlated significantly with the degree of personal involvement of the participants. fMRI data revealed that personal involvement was associated with activation in BA44. Since this brain region is known to be involved in semantic memory, the results of this pilot study suggest that high involvement consumer behavior may be linked to cognitive load and attention towards a product.

  13. Active commuting to elementary school and adiposity: An observational study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active commuting to school (ACS; walking or cycling to school) appears promising for decreasing children's obesity risk, although long-term studies are sparse. The aim was to examine whether kindergarten ACS was associated with fifth grade adiposity. This study was a secondary analysis of the Early ...

  14. Demystifying the Enigma of Smoking – An Observational Comparative Study on Tobacco Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Nallakunta, Rajesh; Reddy, Sudhakara Reddy; Chennoju, Sai Kiran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a hazardous habit which causes definite changes in the oral cavity, consequently there exist changes in the mucosa when subjected to smoking. Palatal mucosa is first to be affected. The present study determines the palatal status in reverse smokers and conventional smokers. Aim To study and compare the clinical, cytological and histopathological changes in palatal mucosa among reverse and conventional smokers. Materials and Methods Study sample was categorized into two groups. Group 1 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of reverse smoking and Group 2 comprised of 20 subjects with the habit of conventional smoking. Initially, clinical appearance of the palatal mucosa was recorded, followed by a cytological smear and biopsy of the involved area among all the subjects. The findings were studied clinically, the specimens were analysed cytologically and histopathologically, and compared among the two groups. Results The severity of clinical changes of the palatal mucosa among reverse smokers was statistically significant when compared to those of conventional smokers. There was no statistically significant difference observed in cytological staging between the groups with a p-value of 0.35. The histopathological changes in both the groups showed a significant difference with a p-value of 0.02. A significant positive correlation was observed between the clinical appearance, and cytological, histopathological changes. Conclusion Profound clinically aggressive changes were observed in group I compared to group II. Severity of dysplastic changes have been detected in few subjects through histopathological examination irrespective of no prominent clinical and cytological changes observed among the two groups. PMID:27190962

  15. Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.

    PubMed

    Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-11-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein.

  16. Theoretical and Observational Studies of the Central Engines of AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivron, Ran

    1995-01-01

    In Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) the luminosity is so intense that the effect of radiation pressure on a particle may exceed the gravitational attraction. It was shown that when such luminosities are reached, relatively cold (not completely ionized) thermal matter clouds may form in the central engines of AGN, where most of the luminosity originates. We show that the spectrum of emission from cold clouds embedded in hot relativistic matter is similar to the observed spectrum. We also show that within the hot relativistic matter, cold matter moves faster than the speed of sound or the Alfven speed, and shocks form. The shocks provide a mechanism by which a localized perturbation can propagate throughout the central engine. The shocked matter can emit the observed luminosity, and can explain the flux and spectral variability. It may also provide an efficient mechanism for the outward transfer of angular momentum and provide the outward flow of winds. With observations from X-ray satellites, emission features from the cold and hot matter may be revealed. Our analysis of X-ray data from the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG - 6-30-15 over five years using detectors on the Ginga and Rosat satellites, revealed some interesting variable features. A source with hot matter emits non-thermal radiation which is Compton reflected from cold matter and then absorbed by warm (partially ionized) absorbing matter in the first model, which can be fit to the data if both the cold and warm absorbers are near the central engine. An alternative model in which the emission from the hot matter is partially covered by very warm matter (in which all elements except Iron are mostly ionized) is also successful. In this model the cold and warm matter may be at distances of up to 100 times the size of the central engine, well within the region where broad optical lines are produced. The flux variability is more naturally explained by the second model. Our results support the existence of cold matter in, or

  17. Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household's health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women's personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.

  18. Study of Interplanetary Dust from ULYSSES and SOHO Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, I.; Hillebrand, P.; Wehry, A.

    The Ulysses spacecraft has for the first time performed in situ measurements in the out of ecliptic regions of the solar system. The dust experiment on-board Ulysses has detected the high latitude flux of interplanetary dust particles (cf. Grun et al. 1994). With the SOHO satellite, on the other hand, the measurements of the LASCO coronagraph (cf. Bruckner et al. 1995) provide data of the brightness of the white light corona, which includes a component of light from scattering at interplanetary dust particles, i.e., the F-coronal brightness. Although Ulysses provides data about local dust fluxes from 1 AU outward and white light observations give the integrated line of sight brightness from 1 AU inward, we show, that some comparison of the different results is possible. We will discuss namely the dynamics and orbital distribution in the dust cloud, as well as its size distribution.

  19. Deep observation of A2163: studying a new bullet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Herve

    2011-10-01

    Exhibiting a clear spatial separation between the gas and dark matter component of a fastly accreted subcluster, the `bullet cluster', 1E 0657-56, has provided us a unique laboratory to investigate the impact of violent cluster mergers on the Intra-Cluster Medium, galaxies and dark matter properties. In recent analyses of X-ray, optical and weak-lensing data, we show that the massive cluster A2163 also exhibits a crossing gas bullet separated from a galaxy and dark matter over-density, and suggest that both A2163 and 1E 0657-56 share a common merging scenario possibly just differing in the time elapsed after the closest cluster encounters. With this deeper XMM observation of A2163, we propose to refine our knowledge of the dynamics and geometry of the on-going subcluster accretion.

  20. Validation of an image-based technique to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs with an observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuan; Choudhury, Kingshuk R.; McAdams, H. Page; Foos, David H.; Samei, Ehsan

    2014-03-01

    We previously proposed a novel image-based quality assessment technique1 to assess the perceptual quality of clinical chest radiographs. In this paper, an observer study was designed and conducted to systematically validate this technique. Ten metrics were involved in the observer study, i.e., lung grey level, lung detail, lung noise, riblung contrast, rib sharpness, mediastinum detail, mediastinum noise, mediastinum alignment, subdiaphragm-lung contrast, and subdiaphragm area. For each metric, three tasks were successively presented to the observers. In each task, six ROI images were randomly presented in a row and observers were asked to rank the images only based on a designated quality and disregard the other qualities. A range slider on the top of the images was used for observers to indicate the acceptable range based on the corresponding perceptual attribute. Five boardcertificated radiologists from Duke participated in this observer study on a DICOM calibrated diagnostic display workstation and under low ambient lighting conditions. The observer data were analyzed in terms of the correlations between the observer ranking orders and the algorithmic ranking orders. Based on the collected acceptable ranges, quality consistency ranges were statistically derived. The observer study showed that, for each metric, the averaged ranking orders of the participated observers were strongly correlated with the algorithmic orders. For the lung grey level, the observer ranking orders completely accorded with the algorithmic ranking orders. The quality consistency ranges derived from this observer study were close to these derived from our previous study. The observer study indicates that the proposed image-based quality assessment technique provides a robust reflection of the perceptual image quality of the clinical chest radiographs. The derived quality consistency ranges can be used to automatically predict the acceptability of a clinical chest radiograph.

  1. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Anne G.; Taxman, Faye S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.; Frisman, Linda K.; Burdon, William M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.; Litt, Mark D.; Clarke, Jennifer; Martin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment…

  2. Education for Sustainability in University Studies: Experiences from a Project Involving European and Latin American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geli de Ciurana, Anna M.; Filho, Walter Leal

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on a project involving European and Latin American universities, focusing on curriculum greening. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents the experiences gained in connection with the "ACES Project" which is a model of the implementation of sustainability principles in higher education, with a special emphasis…

  3. Involvement of Roma Parents in Children's Education in Croatia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata

    2011-01-01

    This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…

  4. A Correlational Study of Extracurricular Involvement and Homework Performance of Third Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rachel; Moulden, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    There are many opportunities for students to participate in nonacademic activities. These activities can include: sports, clubs, private lessons, and religious activities. Participation in these activities enriches students' lives by encouraging social skills. Yet, if students are involved in activities requiring many hours of participation, does…

  5. Examining Parent Involvement Activities in Two Immigrant-Impacted Schools: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    K-12 schools with large immigrant populations face a myriad of challenges, including low academic achievement and high dropout rates of Latino students. Parental involvement is a practical strategy in positively influencing student outcomes along the K-12 continuum. To this end, it is essential that immigrant impacted schools work together with…

  6. What does it mean to involve consumers successfully in NHS research? A consensus study

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Rosemary; Boote, Jonathan D.; Cooper, Cindy L.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To obtain consensus on the principles and indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research. Design  Consensus methods were used. An expert workshop, employing the nominal group technique was used to generate potential principles and indicators. A two‐round postal Delphi process was used to obtain consensus on the principles and indicators. Setting and participants  Participants were drawn from health, social care, universities and consumer organizations. A purposive sampling strategy was used to identify people who had experience and/or knowledge of consumer involvement in NHS research. Six researchers and seven consumers participated in an expert workshop. Ninety‐six people completed both rounds of the Delphi process. Main outcome measures  Consensus on principles and indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research. Results  Eight principles were developed through an expert workshop and Delphi process, and rated as both clear and valid. Consensus was reached on at least one clear and valid indicator by which to measure each principle. Conclusions  Consensus has been obtained on eight principles of successful consumer involvement in NHS research. They may help commissioners, researchers and consumers to deepen their understanding of this issue, and can be used to guide good practice. PMID:15327460

  7. Using Technology to Enhance Research-Based Best Practices for Increasing Parental Involvement: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgesen, Rhonda L.

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) established guidelines pertaining to student achievement and included requirements regarding parental involvement and communication between the school and home. Various issues stand in the way of realizing the level of parental engagement desired by educators and ordered by NCLB. Parental participation…

  8. Family and Differential Involvement with Marihuana: A Study of Suburban Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tec, Nechama

    1970-01-01

    Results point to a negative association between degree of involvement with marihuana and: (1) quality of parental models; (2) high amount of recognition received within the family; (3) perceptions of the family as warm and not simply controlling and/or indifferent; (4) subjective feelings of satisfaction and the ability to rely upon the family as…

  9. Recommendations for observational studies of comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aaron; Sormani, Maria Pia; Thompson, Alan; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Trojano, Maria; O'Connor, Paul; Fiest, Kirsten; Reider, Nadia; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To reach consensus about the most relevant comorbidities to study in multiple sclerosis (MS) with respect to incidence, prevalence, and effect on outcomes; review datasets that may support studies of comorbidity in MS; and identify MS outcomes that should be prioritized in such studies. Methods: We held an international workshop to meet these objectives, informed by a systematic review of the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity in MS, and an international survey regarding research priorities for comorbidity. Results: We recommend establishing age- and sex-specific incidence and prevalence estimates for 5 comorbidities (depression, anxiety, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes); evaluating the effect of 7 comorbidities (depression, anxiety, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, chronic lung disease, and autoimmune diseases) on disability, quality of life, brain atrophy and other imaging parameters, health care utilization, employment, and mortality, including age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disease duration as potential confounders; harmonizing study designs across jurisdictions; and conducting such studies worldwide. Ultimately, clinical trials of treating comorbidity in MS are needed. Conclusion: Our recommendations will help address knowledge gaps regarding the incidence, prevalence, and effect of comorbidity on outcomes in MS. PMID:26865523

  10. In vitro models to study mechanisms involved in cyclosporine A-mediated glomerular contraction.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Medina, J; Frieauff, W; Cordier, A; Cambar, J; Wolf, A

    1999-08-01

    The immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A (CsA), which is successfully used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, induces renal side-effects as shown by a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and ultrafiltration coefficient regulated by the tone of mesangial cells.The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CsA on isolated glomeruli and mesangial cells, which constitute appropriate in vitro models for renal vasoreactivity studies. The roles of different intracellular and extracellular mediators such as calcium, endothelin-1 (ET-1), prostaglandins (TXA(2 )and PGI(2)) and reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) were analysed. CsA caused a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in the planar cross-sectional areas of isolated glomeruli and mesangial cells as determined by image analysis. Intracytosolic free calcium concentration determined by fluorimetric analysis was significantly increased after 30 min CsA (10 microM) incubation. In the contraction experiment, the calcium antagonist verapamil inhibited the CsA response. ET-1, TXB(2) and keto-PGF(1alpha) were determined directly, however no changes were found statistically significantly different from respective controls. In contrast to these results, the ET-1 specific antibody was able to reduce CsA-mediated cell contraction. In the presence of a prostacyclin agonist iloprost, CsA-induced contraction was also modified. The role of ROIs using a 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFdAc) fluorimetric method was directly determined by observing, with 10 microM CsA, a significant production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which was able alone to induce mesangial cell contraction. Coincubation with the antioxidants led to a significant inhibition of mesangial cell contraction. These results suggest that CsA caused an imbalance in the normal level of all investigated vasoconstrictive and vasodilator mediators, which shifted towards the advantage of vasoconstrictive action.

  11. Comparing the incomparable: hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis in observational studies.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert N

    2004-01-01

    A randomized trial comparing survival in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis remains a utopian aspiration. Dialysis is still relatively rare on a population basis, and a natural tension exists between desirability and feasibility in terms of quality of evidence. In practice, it is very difficult to perform prospective comparisons with large groups of contemporary representative subjects, and much of the literature comes from retrospective national registries. This article considers several questions to address when trying to compare the outcomes of peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. Prognostic similarity at baseline is a fundamental issue. Traditionally, adjustment for known prognostic factors has been used in an attempt to minimize the bias caused by nonrandom treatment assignment. Propensity scores have been suggested to be superior, and matched-case analysis may also be a useful method for comparison. Other questions include, when, in relation to starting dialysis, to start the observation clock; the definition and handling of switches of dialysis therapy; and the decision to censor at transplantation. Finally, comparisons are complicated by hazards ratios that vary over time, and time-segmented analysis is obligatory. Many types of analytical approaches are needed to begin to appreciate outcome disparities between dialysis therapies.

  12. Severe camphor poisoning, a seven-year observational study.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mitra; Shokri, Fatemeh; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Pajoumand, Abdolkarim; Shadnia, Shahin

    2017-03-21

    In a retrospective case series from 2007 to 2014, we searched for any accidental/intentional, and recreational cases of pure camphor poisoning through hospital records. Epidemiological data, as well as factors correlated with seizure, were evaluated. Thirty cases including 29 males were recruited with a median age of 18 years (range; 0.2-87). Patient's reported ingestion rate of camphor was 1.5-15 grams. Almost all of the patients (96.7%) were conscious on arrival time and the ingestion to the presentation time ratio was 7±5h. It was observed that in a majority of the cases (53.4%), decreasing libido was the main intent of Camphor ingestion. Nausea and vomiting occurred in 22 (73.3%) cases and tonic-clonic seizure was seen in 12 (40%) patients. Mean presentation time was significantly longer in patients who experienced seizure (9.1±6.1h vs. 5.2±2.8h, p=0.05). No correlation was found between the amount of ingested camphor (grams or mg/kg) and vital signs along with the bio-chemistry results. Not only did all of our cases survive but also they exclusively received supportive care.

  13. Writing Instruction in First Grade: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, David L., Jr.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Jackson, Allison F.; Wen, Huijing; MacArthur, Charles A.; Jennings, Austin S.

    2016-01-01

    As schools work to meet the ambitious Common Core State Standards in writing in the US, instructional approaches are likely to be examined (National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, 2010). However, there is little research on the current state of instruction. This study was designed to…

  14. Covariate Balance in Bayesian Propensity Score Approaches for Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jianshen; Kaplan, David

    2015-01-01

    Bayesian alternatives to frequentist propensity score approaches have recently been proposed. However, few studies have investigated their covariate balancing properties. This article compares a recently developed two-step Bayesian propensity score approach to the frequentist approach with respect to covariate balance. The effects of different…

  15. Observational Study on Initiation and Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jie

    2005-01-01

    During the performance period, we have successfully carried out all the tasks and fulfilled all the scientific objectives outlined in the proposal, which are about building a C1 Ch4E catalog and studying CME accelerations in both inner and outer corona.

  16. The Foreigner Talk of a Family Physician: An Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dana Kristine

    A study analyzed the characteristics of one male physician's foreigner talk over the telephone with non-native speakers (NNSs) of English and compared it to that of native speakers (NSs). The conversations all related to requests that patients come into the office for a periodic, preventative physical exam. Data came from tape recordings of the…

  17. Musical Expression: An Observational Study of Instrumental Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Jessika; Juslin, Patrik N.

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on…

  18. An Observational Study of Social Behavior in Microcomputer Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldmann, Shirley C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the effects of five variables--student grouping at the computer, keyboarding status, academic discipline, student gender, and gender of partner--on student social behavior, both verbal and affective, in microcomputer classrooms in a public business high school. The effect of these variables on teacher behavior was also…

  19. ORD BEST PRACTICES FOR OBSERVATIONAL HUMAN EXPOSURE MEASUREMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This abstract describes a presentation for the 2007 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting in Charlotte, NC on March 27, 2007. It will be included in a special Issues Session titled "Scientific and Ethical Considerations in Human Exposure Studies." The presentation desc...

  20. Is Sonic Hedgehog Involved in Human Fracture Healing? - A Prospective Study on Local and Systemic Concentrations of SHH

    PubMed Central

    Eipeldauer, Stefan; Thomas, Anita; Hoechtl-Lee, Leonard; Kecht, Mathias; Binder, Harald; Koettstorfer, Julia; Gregori, Markus; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a new signalling pathway in bone repair. Evidence exist that SHH pathway plays a significant role in vasculogenesis and limb development during embryogenesis. Some in vitro and animal studies has already proven its potential for bone regeneration. However, no data on the role of SHH in the human fracture healing have been published so far. Methods Seventy-five patients with long bone fractures were included into the study and divided in 2 groups. First group contained 69 patients with normal fracture healing. Four patients with impaired fracture healing formed the second group. 34 volunteers donated blood samples as control. Serum samples were collected over a period of 1 year following a standardized time schedule. In addition, SHH levels were measured in fracture haematoma and serum of 16 patients with bone fractures. Results Fracture haematoma and patients serum both contained lower SHH concentrations compared to control serum. The comparison between the patients' serum SHH level and the control serum revealed lower levels for the patients at all measurement time points. Significantly lower concentrations were observed at weeks 1 and 2 after fracture. SHH levels were slightly decreased in patients with impaired fracture healing without statistical significance. Conclusion This is the first study to report local and systemic concentration of SHH in human fracture healing and SHH serum levels in healthy adults. A significant reduction of the SHH levels during the inflammatory phase of fracture healing was found. SHH concentrations in fracture haematoma and serum were lower than the concentration in control serum for the rest of the healing period. Our findings indicate that there is no relevant involvement of SHH in human fracture healing. Fracture repair process seem to reduce the SHH level in human. Further studies are definitely needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25501422

  1. The treatment of hypertension in people with dementia: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension is very common in older people and a number of trials of antihypertensives have demonstrated benefit from treatment in even the oldest old. However, people with dementia were significantly under-represented in these studies and as a population are more likely to be physically frail, to suffer orthostatic hypotension and to experience adverse effects from polypharmacy at a lower drug count. It may be that different thresholds for commencement and cessation of treatment should be considered and may already be used for this group. Against this background this review sets out to describe the prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia, its treatment, change in treatment over time and the achievement of blood pressure (BP) control. Methods The PubMed, Cochrane, Embase and PsychINFO databases were searched for observational studies involving people with dementia and a diagnosis of hypertension. The search was limited to English language articles involving adults and humans published from 1990 onwards. Abstracts and titles were then reviewed with eligible articles read in full. Bibliographies were examined for further relevant studies. The final selection of studies was then analysed and appraised. Results Thirteen articles were identified for analysis. The prevalence of hypertension in people with dementia was 45% (range 35%-84%). 73% of these were on at least one antihypertensive, with diuretics being the most common. The reported prevalence of hypertension in study populations remained unchanged over time. ACEi/ARBs and calcium channel blockers were prescribed more frequently in more recent studies whilst use of β-blockers and diuretics remained unchanged. Target blood pressure was achieved in 55% of those on treatment. Conclusion Hypertension is as common in people with dementia as in other populations and is as commonly treated with antihypertensive drugs. The findings presented here will support further work to establish the risk

  2. Study of the low latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by DEMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Lefeuvre, F.; Parrot, M.

    Following previous works from Molchanov et al 2002a 2002b 2004a 2004b and Hobara et al 2005 data bases dedicated to the systematic analysis of the power and spectral indices of the electric field have been elaborated Two data bases are considered one for the survey mode and the other for the burst mode For the survey mode estimations of the turbulence parameters are performed from the 8 first Fourier components of the averaged power spectra 0-150 Hz frequency band A single slope power law model f - alpha is assumed A quality factor allows to test that hypothesis For the burst mode the power spectra are derived from the waveforms One and two slope models are systematically tested Results are presented and the possibility to use these data bases for correlation with seismic activity is discussed Y Hobara F Lefeuvre M Parrot and O A Molchanov Low-latitude ionospheric turbulence observed by Aureol-3 satellite Annales Geophysicae 23 1259--1270 2005 Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A and Mareev E A Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric equatorial anomaly from data of IK-24 satellite 1 Search for idea of seismo-ionosphere coupling Seismo Electromagnetics Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling edited by Hayakawa M and Molchanov O A TERRAPUB Tokyo 275--285 2002a Molchanov O A Hayakawa M Afonin V V Akentieva O A Mareev E A and Trakhtengerts V Yu Possible influence of seismicity by gravity waves on ionospheric

  3. Precision Studies of Observables in $pp \\to W \\to \\ell \

    SciTech Connect

    Alioli, S.; et al.

    2016-06-07

    This report was prepared in the context of the LPCC "Electroweak Precision Measurements at the LHC WG" and summarizes the activity of a subgroup dedicated to the systematic comparison of public Monte Carlo codes, which describe the Drell-Yan processes at hadron colliders, in particular at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). This work represents an important step towards the definition of an accurate simulation framework necessary for very high-precision measurements of electroweak (EW) observables such as the $W$ boson mass and the weak mixing angle. All the codes considered in this report share at least next-to-leading-order (NLO) accuracy in the prediction of the total cross sections in an expansion either in the strong or in the EW coupling constant. The NLO fixed-order predictions have been scrutinized at the technical level, using exactly the same inputs, setup and perturbative accuracy, in order to quantify the level of agreement of different implementations of the same calculation. A dedicated comparison, again at the technical level, of three codes that reach next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) accuracy in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) for the total cross section has also been performed. These fixed-order results are a well-defined reference that allows a classification of the impact of higher-order sets of radiative corrections. Several examples of higher-order effects due to the strong or the EW interaction are discussed in this common framework. Also the combination of QCD and EW corrections is discussed, together with the ambiguities that affect the final result, due to the choice of a specific combination recipe.

  4. Anal sphincter dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: an observation manometric study

    PubMed Central

    Marola, Silvia; Gibin, Enrico; Capobianco, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Enrico, Stefano; Solej, Mario; Martino, Valter; Destefano, Ines; Nano, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Constipation, obstructed defecation, and fecal incontinence are frequent complaints in multiple sclerosis. The literature on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these disorders is scant. Using anorectal manometry, we compared the anorectal function in patients with and without multiple sclerosis. 136 patients referred from our Center for Multiple Sclerosis to the Coloproctology Outpatient Clinic, between January 2005 and December 2011, were enrolled. The patients were divided into four groups: multiple sclerosis patients with constipation (group A); multiple sclerosis patients with fecal incontinence (group B); non-multiple sclerosis patients with constipation (group C); non-multiple sclerosis patients with fecal incontinence (group D). Anorectal manometry was performed to measure: resting anal pressure; maximum squeeze pressure; rectoanal inhibitory reflex; filling pressure and urge pressure. The difference between resting anal pressure before and after maximum squeeze maneuvers was defined as the change in resting anal pressure calculated for each patient. Results Group A patients were noted to have greater sphincter hypotonia at rest and during contraction compared with those in group C (p=0.02); the rectal sensitivity threshold was lower in group B than in group D patients (p=0.02). No voluntary postcontraction sphincter relaxation was observed in either group A or group B patients (p=0.891 and p=0.939, respectively). Conclusions The decrease in the difference in resting anal pressure before and after maximum squeeze maneuvers suggests post-contraction sphincter spasticity, indicating impaired pelvic floor coordination in multiple sclerosis patients. A knowledge of manometric alterations in such patients may be clinically relevant in the selection of patients for appropriate treatments and for planning targeted rehabilitation therapy. PMID:28352843

  5. The effect of a preoperative education programme on perioperative anxiety in children: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mariam; Glasper, Alan; Keeton, Diana; Spargo, Paul

    2008-05-01

    The distress of children at the induction of anesthesia (DAI) is unpleasant for all involved and potentially harmful. Many strategies such as premedication or parental presence at induction have been described to minimize it. A preoperative education programme [the 'Saturday Morning Club' or (SMC)] has been in existence in our institution for a number of years and an observational study of children undergoing day case surgery was undertaken to assess the influence of attendance at the SMC on DAI. Ninety-four children aged between 2 and 16 years of age were included in the study; 21 attended the SMC and 73 did not. Patient anxiety using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale was measured by blinded observers on the day ward, in the preoperative waiting room and at induction of anesthesia. Parental anxiety at the same locations was self reported using a visual analogue scale. Attendance at the SMC had a favorable effect on patient anxiety levels in all three locations but only reached statistical significance in the waiting room (P = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U-test). At present there is little evidence to support the use of preoperative education programmes in the UK and further studies are required to determine their benefit.

  6. Diabetes mellitus and the risk of urolithiasis: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu Hao; Kang, Ran; He, Jun; Zhao, Shan Kun; Li, Fu Tian; Zhao, Zhi Gang

    2015-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) might increase the risk of urolithiasis, but the results were inconsistent. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between DM and the risk of urolithiasis. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library to identify the relevant observational studies up to November 2014. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the association between DM and the risk of urolithiasis. We identified 3 case-control studies and 4 cohort studies regarding DM and the risk of urolithiasis, involving 247,531 participants. Analyses of all studies showed that DM was associated with an increased risk of urolithiasis (RR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.14-1.35). There was heterogeneity among studies (p=0.027, I2=57.9%). The association between DM and the risk of urolithiasis was not significantly differed by gender, but this association was inconsistent in the North American and Asian populations. When restricting the analysis to studies that had adjusted for body mass index (n=2) or hypertension (n=3), the RRs were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.03-2.06) and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.01-1.48), respectively. There was no significant publication bias (p=0.96 for Egger's regression asymmetry test). Our study provided evidence that there was a significant direct association of DM and the risk of urolithiasis. However, this finding was based on the observational studies, and more well-designed randomized controlled trials were needed.

  7. Physical and dynamical studies of meteors. [radar observation of fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southworth, R. B.; Sekanina, Z.

    1974-01-01

    Distribution of meteors in streams detected in the synoptic-year meteor sample plus a study of the fragmentation characteristics of the synoptic-year meteor sample are presented. Population coefficients and dispersion coefficients were determined for each meteor stream. These two parameters serve to determine the number of definite members of the stream in the sample used, and to estimate the actual space density of meteor streams. From results of the fragmentation study, it appears that the main body of most radar meteors does not ablate fragments layer by layer, but collapses rather suddenly under dynamic pressures on the order of 0,0002 dynes/cm. Furthermore, it is believed that fragmentation does not cause a serious selection effect in the radar meteor data.

  8. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-07-01

    Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes.

  9. Observational Study of Human Electrical Muscle Incapacitation and Cardiac Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    two EKGs from healthy women to four groups of physicians: QT experts, arrhythmia experts, cardiologists, and non- cardiologists. QT intervals were...correctly classified by 96% of QT experts, 62% of arrhythmia experts, and less than 25% of cardiologists or non-cardiologists.16 The limited...availability of QT and arrhythmia experts has restricted QT interpretation of EKGs to the data analysis phase of HEMI studies. 5 Distribution A

  10. Potential Observing Systems for Tropical Cyclone Motion Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    during April 1987. sponsored jointly by the Hurricane Research Division (HRD) "of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA ) and the...shifted to the North Atlantic region to take advantage of the availability of aircraft resources of the Office of Aircraft Operations (OAO) of NOAA ...the convection, is also being studied. The digital recording equipment being used in this activity is compatible with the NEXRAD systems to be

  11. Principles and indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research: results of a Delphi study and subgroup analysis.

    PubMed

    Boote, Jonathan; Barber, Rosemary; Cooper, Cindy

    2006-02-01

    Consumer involvement in NHS research is Department of Health policy within the UK. Despite the existence of policy directives and guidance, until recently there has been no consensus among consumers and researchers about what it means to involve consumers successfully in NHS research. This paper discusses the value of consensus research in this policy area, and presents the detailed findings of a Delphi study carried out to reach consensus on principles and indicators of successful consumer involvement in NHS research. Study participants, comprising consumers, researchers and consumer-researchers, were identified using a purposive sampling strategy. Consensus was reached on eight clear and valid principles of successful consumer involvement in NHS research, with each principle having at least one clear and valid indicator. Subgroup analysis revealed few significant differences in how consumers, researchers and consumer-researchers rated the principles and indicators. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed. Further research is needed to assess: (1) the usefulness of the principles and indicators for differing models of consumer involvement, health research methodologies, and subject areas within health research; and (2) the impact of 'successful' consumer involvement on health research processes and outcomes.

  12. Applying Pleck's Model of Paternal Involvement to the Study of Preschool Attachment Quality: A Proof of Concept Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mark; Betts, Lucy; Dunn, Thomas; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Underwood, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Recent re-conceptualisation of paternal involvement (Pleck, J. H. (2010). Paternal involvement: Revised conceptualization and theoretical linkages with child outcomes. In M. Lamb (Ed.), "The role of the father in child development" (5th ed., pp. 67-107). London: Wiley), while proving fruitful, has yet to be applied to investigations into…

  13. Public involvement in integrated resource planning: A study of demand-side management collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Raab, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1992-02-01

    Many utilities and nonutility parties (NUPs) across the country have tried a new approach to reaching agreement on Demand-Side Management (DSM) program design and policy issues. Through this, which is called the DSM collaborative process, parties who have often been adversaries in the past attempt to reach consensus rather than using traditional litigation to resolve differences. We examined nine cases of DSM collaboration involving 24 utilities and approximately 50 NUPs in 10 states. This is the first comprehensive, in-depth review and assessment of collaboratives and it allows conclusions to be drawn about the collaborative process and the factors that contribute to successful efforts of this type. Collaboratives are described in terms of four major contextual and organizational characteristics: regulatory and legal history, parties involved and parties excluded, collaborative scope, and the collaborative process itself.

  14. Collaborative Behavioral Management for Drug-Involved Parolees: Rationale and Design of the Step'n Out Study

    PubMed Central

    FRIEDMANN, PETER D.; KATZ, ELIZABETH C.; RHODES, ANNE G.; TAXMAN, FAYE S.; O'CONNELL, DANIEL J.; FRISMAN, LINDA K.; BURDON, WILLIAM M.; FLETCHER, BENNETT W.; LITT, MARK D.; CLARKE, JENNIFER; MARTIN, STEVEN S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment counselors to provide role induction counseling, contract for pro-social behavior, and deliver contingent reinforcement of behaviors consistent with treatment objectives. The Step'n Out study will randomize 450 drug-involved parolees to collaborative behavioral management or usual parole. Follow-up at 3-and 9-months will assess primary outcomes of rearrest, crime and drug use. If collaborative behavioral management is effective, its wider adoption could improve the outcomes of community reentry of drug-involved ex-offenders. PMID:19809591

  15. Guideline adaptation and implementation planning: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptation of high-quality practice guidelines for local use has been advanced as an efficient means to improve acceptability and applicability of evidence-informed care. In a pan-Canadian study, we examined how cancer care groups adapted pre-existing guidelines to their unique context and began implementation planning. Methods Using a mixed-methods, case-study design, five cases were purposefully sampled from self-identified groups and followed as they used a structured method and resources for guideline adaptation. Cases received the ADAPTE Collaboration toolkit, facilitation, methodological and logistical support, resources and assistance as required. Documentary and primary data collection methods captured individual case experience, including monthly summaries of meeting and field notes, email/telephone correspondence, and project records. Site visits, process audits, interviews, and a final evaluation forum with all cases contributed to a comprehensive account of participant experience. Results Study cases took 12 to >24 months to complete guideline adaptation. Although participants appreciated the structure, most found the ADAPTE method complex and lacking practical aspects. They needed assistance establishing individual guideline mandate and infrastructure, articulating health questions, executing search strategies, appraising evidence, and achieving consensus. Facilitation was described as a multi-faceted process, a team effort, and an essential ingredient for guideline adaptation. While front-line care providers implicitly identified implementation issues during adaptation, they identified a need to add an explicit implementation planning component. Conclusions Guideline adaptation is a positive initial step toward evidence-informed care, but adaptation (vs. ‘de novo’ development) did not meet expectations for reducing time or resource commitments. Undertaking adaptation is as much about the process (engagement and capacity building) as it

  16. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study.

    PubMed

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others' behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants' arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  17. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  18. An observational study of secondary task engagement while driving on urban streets in Iranian Safe Communities.

    PubMed

    Torkamannejad Sabzevari, Javad; Nabipour, Amir Reza; Khanjani, Narges; Molaei Tajkooh, Ali; Sullman, Mark J M

    2016-11-01

    In Iran the prevalence of traffic injuries and death from vehicle collisions are high. Driver engagement in non-driving-related tasks has been previously identified as an important contributing factor to crashes. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of drivers' engagement in potentially distracting activities in Kashmar, Khalilabad and Bardaskan, which are three Iranian International Safe Communities. Observations took place at 12 randomly selected roadside locations in each city, which were comprised of six main streets and six side streets. In total 7979 drivers were observed. The prevalence rates of potentially distracting activities in Kashmar, Khalilabad and Bardaskan were 24.3%, 26% and 24.9%, respectively. In both Kashmar and Khalilabad the most frequently observed secondary tasks were drivers talking to passengers (10.6% and 11.5%, respectively) followed by mobile phone use (3.4% and 4.0%, respectively). Although in Bardaskan the most commonly observed secondary task was also talking to passengers (12.7%), the second most common was reaching for an object (3.2%). In all three cities younger drivers were significantly more likely to be observed engaged in a secondary task while driving. Furthermore, involvement in secondary tasks while driving was significantly higher amongst females and those driving on a working day. The percentage of drivers identified as potentially distracted in these three Safe Communities was worryingly high. Thus, interventions should be integrated into the WHO Safe Community network in these cities, including: education regarding the risks associated with engaging in secondary activities while driving, law enforcement, tougher legislation, periodic assessment, raising public awareness, as well as attracting political and social support.

  19. Using role analysis to plan for stakeholder involvement: a Wyoming case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    2006-01-01

    Prior to implementing laws and policies regulating water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation, natural resource managers often solicit public input. Concomitantly, managers are continually seeking more effective ways to involve stakeholders. In the autumn of 1999, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department sought to develop a state management plan for its portion of the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) population if it was removed from the federal threatened species list. A key aspect of developing this plan was the involvement of federal, state, and local agencies, representatives from nongovernmental organizations, and citizens. Wyoming wildlife managers asked researchers from the United States Geological Survey to demonstrate how the Legal-Institutional Analysis Model could be used to initiate this process. To address these needs, we conducted similar workshops for a group of state and federal managers or staffers and a broad group of stakeholders. Although we found similarities among the workshop groups, we also recorded differences in perspective between stakeholder groups. The managers group acknowledged the importance of varied stakeholders but viewed the grizzly bear planning process as one centered on state interests, influenced by state policies, and amenable to negotiation. The other workshops identified many stakeholders and viewed the decision process as diffuse, with many opportunities for entry into the process. These latter groups were less certain about the chance for a successful negotiation. We concluded that if these assumptions and differences were not reconciled, the public involvement effort was not likely to succeed.

  20. Online Social Networks for Crowdsourced Multimedia-Involved Behavioral Testing: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods.

  1. Crash involvement of large trucks by configuration: a case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, H S; Jones, I S

    1988-01-01

    For a two-year period, large truck crashes on the interstate system in Washington State were investigated using a case-control method. For each large truck involved in a crash, three trucks were randomly selected for inspection from the traffic stream at the same time and place as the crash but one week later. The effects of truck and driver characteristics on crashes were assessed by comparing their relative frequency among the crash-involved and comparison sample trucks. Double trailer trucks were consistently overinvolved in crashes by a factor of two to three in both single and multiple vehicle crashes. Single unit trucks pulling trailers also were overinvolved. Doubles also had a higher frequency of jackknifing compared to tractor-trailers. The substantial overinvolvement of doubles in crashes was found regardless of driver age, hours of driving, cargo weight, or type of fleet. Younger drivers, long hours of driving, and operating empty trucks were also associated with higher crash involvement. PMID:3354729

  2. Online Social Networks for Crowdsourced Multimedia-Involved Behavioral Testing: An Empirical Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Lee, Jong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Online social networks have emerged as effective crowdsourcing media to recruit participants in recent days. However, issues regarding how to effectively exploit them have not been adequately addressed yet. In this paper, we investigate the reliability and effectiveness of multimedia-involved behavioral testing via social network-based crowdsourcing, especially focused on Facebook as a medium to recruit participants. We conduct a crowdsourcing-based experiment for a music recommendation problem. It is shown that different advertisement methods yield different degrees of efficiency and there exist significant differences in behavioral patterns across different genders and different age groups. In addition, we perform a comparison of our experiment with other multimedia-involved crowdsourcing experiments built on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk), which suggests that crowdsourcing-based experiments using social networks for recruitment can achieve comparable efficiency. Based on the analysis results, advantages and disadvantages of social network-based crowdsourcing and suggestions for successful experiments are also discussed. We conclude that social networks have the potential to support multimedia-involved behavioral tests to gather in-depth data even for long-term periods. PMID:26793137

  3. An observational and theoretical study of Colorado lee cyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, John H. E.

    1990-01-01

    A cyclogenesis event that occurred over Colorado in early March of 1981 is the focus of this study. Two features that seemed to play a role in storm initiation were a traveling upper troposphere disturbance associated with an undulation on the subtropical front and a warm-cored shallow surface trough that was guided along the eastern slope of the Rockies from Canada to Colorado. The arrival of the latter feature initiated a sudden shift of the surface flow from upslope to downslope on the eastern side of the continental divide. A time-dependent quasi-geostrophic model was used to study the interaction of the traveling short wave and a broad topographic surface ridge in the presence of a baroclinic mainly westerly background flow. Westerly and easterly background surface winds were used to determine whether the surface trough arrival had any influence on the vigor of lee cyclogenesis initiated by the upper troposphere short-wave trough. With surface westerlies rapid cyclogenesis occurred, while with surface easterlies little cyclogenesis was found to the east of the Rockies. Thus, the shallow surface trough's arrival seemed to be crucial to storm initiation. These findings were based on a linear model. It is shown, however, that the height of the Rockies necessitates the inclusion of finite amplitude effects associated with the lower boundary into the model.

  4. An observational study of co-rumination in adolescent friendships.

    PubMed

    Rose, Amanda J; Schwartz-Mette, Rebecca A; Glick, Gary C; Smith, Rhiannon L; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2014-09-01

    Co-rumination is a dyadic process between relationship partners that refers to excessively discussing problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, mutual encouragement of problem talk, and dwelling on negative affect. Although studies have addressed youths' tendency to co-ruminate, little is known about the nature of co-ruminative conversations. The primary goal of the present study (N = 314 adolescent friend dyads) was to identify microsocial processes that sustain and reinforce problem talk among adolescent co-ruminating friends. Results indicated that co-rumination was characterized by friends responding to each other's statements about problems with engaged statements (e.g., questions, supportive statements) that elicited even more problem talk. Results also indicated that some aspects of co-rumination (i.e., extensively talking about problems, rehashing problems, speculating about problems, and mutual encouragement of problem talk) were associated with positive friendship adjustment, whereas other aspects (i.e., dwelling on negative affect) were associated with internalizing problems. The present research highlights the utility of attending to microsocial processes in friends' conversations and has implications for intervention.

  5. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Preisler, Jessica; Kopeika, Julia; Ismail, Laure; Vathanan, Veluppillai; Farren, Jessica; Abdallah, Yazan; Battacharjee, Parijat; Van Holsbeke, Caroline; Bottomley, Cecilia; Gould, Deborah; Johnson, Susanne; Stalder, Catriona; Van Calster, Ben; Hamilton, Judith; Timmerman, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To validate recent guidance changes by establishing the performance of cut-off values for embryo crown-rump length and mean gestational sac diameter to diagnose miscarriage with high levels of certainty. Secondary aims were to examine the influence of gestational age on interpretation of mean gestational sac diameter and crown-rump length values, determine the optimal intervals between scans and findings on repeat scans that definitively diagnose pregnancy failure.) Design Prospective multicentre observational trial. Setting Seven hospital based early pregnancy assessment units in the United Kingdom. Participants 2845 women with intrauterine pregnancies of unknown viability included if transvaginal ultrasonography showed an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability. In three hospitals this was initially defined as an empty gestational sac <20 mm mean diameter with or without a visible yolk sac but no embryo, or an embryo with crown-rump length <6 mm with no heartbeat. Following amended guidance in December 2011 this definition changed to a gestational sac size <25 mm or embryo crown-rump length <7 mm. At one unit the definition was extended throughout to include a mean gestational sac diameter <30 mm or embryo crown-rump length <8 mm. Main outcome measures Mean gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, and presence or absence of embryo heart activity at initial and repeat transvaginal ultrasonography around 7-14 days later. The final outcome was pregnancy viability at 11-14 weeks’ gestation. Results The following indicated a miscarriage at initial scan: mean gestational sac diameter ≥25 mm with an empty sac (364/364 specificity: 100%, 95% confidence interval 99.0% to 100%), embryo with crown-rump length ≥7 mm without visible embryo heart activity (110/110 specificity: 100%, 96.7% to 100%), mean gestational sac diameter ≥18 mm for gestational sacs without an embryo presenting after 70 days’ gestation (907/907 specificity: 100%, 99.6% to

  6. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by "online" self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures-known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding-demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding.

  7. The treatment of angina pectoris with nitroglycerin plasters. A multicenter study involving 6,986 patients.

    PubMed

    Agabiti Rosei, E; Muiesan, M L; Pollavini, G; Bichisao, E; Muiesan, G

    1987-10-01

    A multicenter study was carried out in order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of 2 doses of a nitroglycerin transdermal system (TTS-NG 5 mg/24 h and TTS-NG 10 mg/24 h) on a large population of patients affected by angina pectoris. Nine hundred and seventy three cardiologists enrolled a total of 6,986 patients, 4,290 males and 2,696 females, mean age 61.7 years (range 26-95), 3,283 with effort-angina, 2,062 with mixed angina and 1,641 with angina at rest. Patients whose angina was not satisfactorily controlled by their previous therapy, were given TTS-NG 5 for 1 week in the morning, while continuing their antianginal treatment, with the exception of nitrates which were gradually withdrawn. At the end of this period, patients who responded to the treatment continued taking the same dose for a further 6 weeks, while poor responders were given a double dose of the study medication over the same period. Six thousand two hundred and sixty patients (90%) completed the study. TTS-NG 5 proved to be effective in 2,091 patients (33%) with a reduction in weekly anginal attacks after only 1 week of treatment (from 5.8 +/- 2.9 to 2.4 +/- 2.3). This reduction improved in the following 2 weeks (from 2.4 +/- 2.3 to 1.2 +/- 1.6) and subsequently remained virtually unchanged. Four thousand one hundred and sixty-nine patients (67%), whose angina was not sufficiently controlled by TTS-NG 5 (from 5.0 +/- 2.4 to 4.3 +/- 2.8), received double the dose at the end of the first week. TTS-NG 10 brought about a reduction in weekly anginal symptoms during the 2nd and the 3rd week (from 4.3 +/- 2.8 to 2.0 +/- 2.2), with a further decrease during the following 2 weeks (from 2.0 +/- 2.2 to 1.1 +/- 1.7). The reduction in anginal attacks was of the same extent both during the day and the night, thus suggesting that the drug is effective throughout 24 hours. A similar pattern was observed in the reduction of the number of anginal attacks weighted by their severity, the severity of attacks

  8. International Halley watch amateur observers' manual for scientific comet studies. Part 1: Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edberg, S. J.

    1983-01-01

    The International Halley Watch is described as well as comets and observing techniques. Information on periodic Comet Halley's apparition for its 1986 perihelion passage is provided. Instructions are given for observation projects valuable to the International Halley Watch in six areas of study: (1) visual observations; (2) photography; (3) astrometry; (4) spectroscopic observations; (5) photoelectric photometry; and (6) meteor observations.

  9. Tendencies of Comprehension and Acceptance of Theory of Evolution: A Study Involving Students from the Faculties of Education and Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilen, Kadir; Ercan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the views of students from the Faculty of Education and the Faculty of Theology from the University of Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam regarding their comprehension and acceptance of the theory of evolution. A survey model was used involving a quantitative research design. The working group of the study was composed of…

  10. Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID

  11. Unintentional child neglect: literature review and observational study.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emily; Billick, Stephen B

    2015-06-01

    Child abuse is a problem that affects over six million children in the United States each year. Child neglect accounts for 78% of those cases. Despite this, the issue of child neglect is still not well understood, partially because child neglect does not have a consistent, universally accepted definition. Some researchers consider child neglect and child abuse to be one in the same, while other researchers consider them to be conceptually different. Factors that make child neglect difficult to define include: (1) Cultural differences; motives must be taken into account because parents may believe they are acting in the child's best interests based on cultural beliefs (2) the fact that the effect of child abuse is not always immediately visible; the effects of emotional neglect specifically may not be apparent until later in the child's development, and (3) the large spectrum of actions that fall under the category of child abuse. Some of the risk factors for increased child neglect and maltreatment have been identified. These risk factors include socioeconomic status, education level, family composition, and the presence of dysfunction family characteristics. Studies have found that children from poorer families and children of less educated parents are more likely to sustain fatal unintentional injuries than children of wealthier, better educated parents. Studies have also found that children living with adults unrelated to them are at increased risk for unintentional injuries and maltreatment. Dysfunctional family characteristics may even be more indicative of child neglect. Parental alcohol or drug abuse, parental personal history of neglect, and parental stress greatly increase the odds of neglect. Parental depression doubles the odds of child neglect. However, more research needs to be done to better understand these risk factors and to identify others. Having a clearer understanding of the risk factors could lead to prevention and treatment, as it would allow

  12. RISR Observations of High Ion Temperatures: A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, H.; Semeter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Incoherent scatter radars (ISRs) measure the frequency spectrum of the scattered signal from random thermal fluctuations in the ionospheric plasma. Once fitted to a theoretical model, the shape of the spectrum provides estimates to a number of plasma parameters including the ion temperature. The theoretical models of the frequency spectrum of the scattered signal have been often developed based on a set of assumptions on the state of the plasma. One of the most common assumptions is that the plasma is in thermal equilibrium consisting of electron and ion populations that can be described by Maxwellian distributions. Such an assumption, however, is commonly violated at high latitudes where the interactions between the ionosphere and the magnetosphere result in a very dynamic plasma environment. One example of such violations occurs on the edge of auroral arcs when the presence of strong electric fields (<100 mV/m) may cause the ion velocity distribution to deviate from Maxwellian. In such cases, the assumption of thermal equilibrium in the standard ISR fitting procedure results in significant errors in derivation of the plasma parameters. In this study we investigate an event in which the ion temperature measured by the Resolute Bay incoherent scatter radar (RISR) reaches to values as high as 8000 (K). Based on RISR measurements of the electric fields we calculate the expected Joule heating and investigate the possible role of ISR misfitting (caused by deviation of the ion distribution from Maxwellian) in over estimating the ion temperature.

  13. An observational study of alemtuzumab following fingolimod for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Mark; Pearson, Owen; Illes, Zsolt; Sejbaek, Tobias; Nielsen, Christian; Duddy, Martin; Petheram, Kate; van Munster, Caspar; Killestein, Joep; Malmeström, Clas; Tallantyre, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe a series of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS) who experienced significant and unexpected disease activity within the first 12 months after switching from fingolimod to alemtuzumab. Methods: Patients with relapsing MS treated sequentially with fingolimod then alemtuzumab who experienced significant subsequent disease activity were identified by personal communication with 6 different European neuroscience centers. Results: Nine patients were identified. Median disease duration to alemtuzumab treatment was 94 (39–215) months and follow-up from time of first alemtuzumab cycle 20 (14–21) months. Following first alemtuzumab infusion cycle, 8 patients were identified by at least 1 clinical relapse and radiologic disease activity and 1 by significant radiologic disease activity alone. Conclusions: We acknowledge the potential for ascertainment bias; however, these cases may illustrate an important cause of reduced efficacy of alemtuzumab in a vulnerable group of patients with MS most in need of disease control. We suggest that significant and unexpected subsequent disease activity after alemtuzumab induction results from prolonged sequestration of autoreactive lymphocytes following fingolimod withdrawal, allowing these cells to be concealed from the usual biological effect of alemtuzumab. Subsequent lymphocyte egress then provokes disease reactivation. Further animal studies and clinical trials are required to confirm these phenomena and in the meantime careful consideration should be given to mode of action of individual therapies and sequential treatment effects in MS when designing personalized treatment regimens. PMID:28101520

  14. [Elbow dislocation in childhood. Long-term observational study].

    PubMed

    Frongia, G; Günther, P; Romero, P; Kessler, M; Holland-Cunz, S

    2012-02-01

    Traumatic dislocation of the elbow is rare in children with an incidence of 3-6% of all elbow injuries. In the literature the outcome after elbow dislocation in childhood is rarely discussed. In the present study 33 children treated in our clinic from 2001 to 2008 with an acute traumatic dislocation of the elbow were retrospectively included. All events were unilateral whereby 1 child (3%) showed a recurrence of elbow dislocation after 9 weeks, 30% had a pure dislocation, 70% had a concomitant fracture, 55% showed a fracture of the medial epicondyle, 6% a fracture of the lateral epicondyle and 9% a further fracture. Of the fractures 83% required open reduction with osteosynthesis. After an average of 4.5 years 20 children (61%) were clinically examined. There were no instabilities of the joint and only minor clinical limitations of the range of motion. The established Mayo elbow performance score showed good to excellent results for all children. Despite severe joint trauma with frequently accompanying fractures, post-traumatic functional deficits are rarely limiting, independent of the accompanying fracture. The frequency of recurrence is low and instabilities were not seen.

  15. An observational study of turbulence in the SPBL

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    1997-09-01

    Turbulence in the stable planetary boundary layer (SPBL) is complicated by intermittency, gravity waves, long time scales and meso-scale forcing. Surface features and topography are also important. This study examines turbulence near the top of the SPBL with data taken from a network of 61 m towers. The focus is on the role of moderately complex terrain on turbulent intermittency and spatial variation. The Savannah River Site is {approx}150 km from the Atlantic Ocean and is characterized by rolling forested hills and an average elevation of {approx}80 m ASL. Typical variations in elevation are 50 m (peak to valley) with a horizontal scale of several km. The most important topographic feature is the Savannah River flood plain, which borders the SRS to the southwest. This flood plain is 3-7 km wide with an average elevation of 40 m ASL. Nine 60 meter towers are located on the SRS, generally at higher elevations (81 - 109 m ASL), except for the D tower which is in the Savannah River flood plain (elevation 43 m ASL). The Cl tower differs from the other 8 towers because it collects data at 2, 18, and 36 m as well as 61 m. The TV tower, located 8 km northwest of the SRS, is instrumented at 8 levels from the surface to 300 m.

  16. Transgenerational tobacco smoke exposure and childhood cancer: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-García, Juan A; Martin, Marlene; López-Fernández, María T; Fuster-Soler, Jose L; Donat-Colomer, Joaquín; López-Ibor, Blanca; Claudio, Luz; Ferrís-Tortajada, Josep

    2011-01-01

    Aim Although tobacco smoke is an established risk factor for adult cancer, studies of the association between parental smoking and childhood cancer have produced inconsistent results. To investigate the transgenerational relationship between pre-natal and post-natal tobacco smoke exposure from the grandmother’s pregnancies until after the post-natal period and childhood cancer. Methods Exposure to tobacco smoke was recorded for three generations. Data were collected through personal interviews using the paediatric environmental history, and were compared among 128 children with cancer and 128 matched controls. The contingency tables and a logistic multivariable regression model were used to control for possible confounding factors. Results Smoke exposure during oogenesis (maternal grandmother smokers) – odds ratio (OR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–4.9) – and during the mother’ pregnancies – OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1–3.3) – were significantly associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer. Conclusions Tobacco smoke exposure during the grandmother’s and mother’s pregnancies increase the risk of cancer in the descendants. The results suggest that the biological plausibility of the association between parental smoking and paediatric cancer can be explained by the large latency period of paediatric carcinogenesis. PMID:20412413

  17. Characterizing Suicide in Toronto: An Observational Study and Cluster Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sinyor, Mark; Schaffer, Ayal; Streiner, David L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether people who have died from suicide in a large epidemiologic sample form clusters based on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Method: We conducted a coroner’s chart review for 2886 people who died in Toronto, Ontario, from 1998 to 2010, and whose death was ruled as suicide by the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario. A cluster analysis using known suicide risk factors was performed to determine whether suicide deaths separate into distinct groups. Clusters were compared according to person- and suicide-specific factors. Results: Five clusters emerged. Cluster 1 had the highest proportion of females and nonviolent methods, and all had depression and a past suicide attempt. Cluster 2 had the highest proportion of people with a recent stressor and violent suicide methods, and all were married. Cluster 3 had mostly males between the ages of 20 and 64, and all had either experienced recent stressors, suffered from mental illness, or had a history of substance abuse. Cluster 4 had the youngest people and the highest proportion of deaths by jumping from height, few were married, and nearly one-half had bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Cluster 5 had all unmarried people with no prior suicide attempts, and were the least likely to have an identified mental illness and most likely to leave a suicide note. Conclusions: People who die from suicide assort into different patterns of demographic, clinical, and death-specific characteristics. Identifying and studying subgroups of suicides may advance our understanding of the heterogeneous nature of suicide and help to inform development of more targeted suicide prevention strategies. PMID:24444321

  18. Endotoxin Elimination in Patients with Septic Shock: An Observation Study.

    PubMed

    Adamik, Barbara; Zielinski, Stanislaw; Smiechowicz, Jakub; Kübler, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of endotoxin elimination with an adsorption column in patients with septic shock and endotoxemia. The elimination therapy was guided by a new bedside method of measuring endotoxin activity (EA). Intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock and suspected Gram-negative infection were consecutively added to the study group within the first 24 h. Endotoxin elimination was performed using hemoperfusion with the Alteco LPS Adsorber. The primary endpoint was improvement in organ function within the first 24 h of treatment. A secondary objective was to assess the usefulness of a new method of measuring EA to help guide endotoxin elimination therapy. Out of 64 patients 18 had a high baseline EA [0.70 EA units (0.66-0.77)]. Those patients had endotoxin elimination treatment in addition to conventional medical therapy. At 24 h after endotoxin elimination, the EA had decreased to 0.56 EA units (0.43-0.77), (p = 0.005); MAP increased from 69 (62-80) to 80 mm Hg (68-88), (p = 0.002), and noradrenaline use decreased from 0.28 (0.15-0.80) to 0.1 μg/kg/min (0.00-0.70) at the same time (p = 0.04). The SOFA score had decreased from 11 (9-15) to 9 (7-14) points 24 h after endotoxin elimination (p = 0.01) with a median delta SOFA -2 points. Endotoxin elimination did not have a significant effect on the ICU length of stay or ICU mortality. Effective endotoxin elimination resulted in a significant improvement in hemodynamic parameters and of organ function. The application of the EA assay was useful for the bedside monitoring of endotoxemia in critically ill ICU patients.

  19. Trigeminocardiac reflex in neurosurgical practice: An observational prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Etezadi, Farhad; Orandi, Amir Ali; Orandi, Amir Hosein; Najafi, Atabak; Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Pourfakhr, Pejman; Khajavi, Mohammad Reza; Abbassioun, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Background: Considering wide variations regarding the incidence of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during cranial neurosurgical procedures, and paucity of reliable data, we intended to design a prospective study to determine the incidence of TCR in patients undergoing standard general anesthesia for surgery of supra/infra-tentorial cranial and skull base lesions. Methods: A total of 190 consecutive patients candidate for elective surgery of supra-tentorial, infra-tentorial, and skull base lesions were enrolled. All the patients were operated in the neurosurgical operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. All surgeries were performed using sufficient depth of anesthesia achieved by titration of propofol–alfentanil mixture, adjusted according to target Cerebral State Index (CSI) values (40-60). All episodes of bradycardia and hypotension indicating the occurrence of TCR during the surgery (sudden decrease of more than 20% from the previous level) were recorded. Results: Four patients, two female and two male, developed episodes of TCR during surgery (4/190; 2.1%). Three patients showed one episode of TCR just at the end of operation when the skin sutures were applied while CSI values were 70-77 and in the last case, when small tumor samples were taken from just beneath the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus TCR episode was seen while the CSI value was 51. Conclusion: TCR is a rare phenomenon during brain surgeries when patient is anesthetized using standard techniques. Keeping the adequate depth of anesthesia using CSI monitoring method may be an advisable strategy during whole period of a neurosurgical procedure. PMID:24083052

  20. Tetrabenazine in treatment of hyperkinetic movement disorders: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Miguel, Rita; Mendonça, Marcelo D.; Barbosa, Raquel; Ladeira, Filipa; Lampreia, Tânia; Vale, José; Bugalho, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetrabenazine (TBZ) is commonly used in hyperkinetic movement disorders. In this retrospective study, we aimed to assess the TBZ effectiveness and adverse events (AEs) in Huntington disease (HD), vascular chorea, tics, dystonia, tardive oromandibular (OM) dyskinesia and other tardive syndromes (TS). Methods: Qualitative analysis of clinical response was used to estimate TBZ effectiveness. TBZ-associated AE frequency and subsequent discontinuation rate were used to estimate tolerability; the tolerability profile was measured through the TBZ minimal dose and exposure time required to elicit AEs. Results: Of 108 included patients, 87% had a clinically meaningful improvement sustained over a period of 40 months. TBZ-responder rate ranged from 100% in HD to 62.5% and 77.1% in tic disorders and OM dyskinesia, respectively (p < 0.001). TBZ-associated AE frequency ranged from 40.9% in other TS and 41.7% in vascular chorea and HD, to 60% in OM dyskinesia (p < 0.001). The most common AEs were Parkinsonism (51.8%) and psychiatric disorders (25%). The ‘other AEs’ category (mainly somnolence) presented the shortest minimal exposure time (3 months). AE-eliciting dose differed from 18.8 mg and 25 mg in tics and tardive disorders, to 75 mg in HD (p = 0.003). Patients with AEs were tendentiously older at TBZ initiation (p = 0.022). Conclusions: TBZ proved an effective and relatively well tolerated treatment in hyperkinetic disorders, with excellent results in HD. AEs were more common in OM dyskinesia, which may be related to higher age at TBZ initiation. TBZ-associated somnolence and Parkinsonism were more frequent during the titration and maintenance periods, respectively.

  1. Involved-Node Proton Therapy in Combined Modality Therapy for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of a Phase 2 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, Bradford S.; Flampouri, Stella; Zaiden, Robert; Slayton, William; Sandler, Eric; Dang, Nam H.; Lynch, James W.; Li, Zuofeng; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy P.

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: This study describes the early clinical outcomes of a prospective phase 2 study of consolidative involved-node proton therapy (INPT) as a component of combined-mode therapy in patients with stages I to III Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with mediastinal involvement. Methods and Materials: Between September 2009 and June 2013, 15 patients with newly diagnosed HL received INPT after completing chemotherapy in an institutional review board-approved protocol comparing the dosimetric impact of PT with those of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) and intensity modulated RT. Based on {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT) response, 5 children received 15 to 25.5 cobalt Gy equivalent (CGE) of INPT after receiving 4 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycin, Vincristine, Etoposide, Prednisone, Cyclophosphamide or Vincristine, adriamycin, methotrexate, Prednisone chemotherapy, and 10 adults received 30.6 to 39.6 CGE of INPT after 3 to 6 cycles of Adriamycin, Bleomycine, Vinblastine, Dacarbazine. Patients were routinely evaluated for toxicity during and after treatment, using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and for relapse by physical examination and routine imaging. Relapse-free survival (RFS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method from the time of diagnosis. Results: The median follow-up was 37 months (range, 26-55). Two events occurred during follow-up: 1 relapse (inside and outside the targeted field) and 1 transformation into a primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma. The 3-year RFS rate was 93%, and the 3-year EFS rate was 87%. No acute or late grade 3 nonhematologic toxicities were observed. Conclusions: Although decades of follow-up will be needed to realize the likely benefit of PT in reducing the risk of radiation-induced late effects, PT following chemotherapy in patients with HL is well-tolerated, and disease outcomes

  2. Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Cerebral Autoregulation: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of Intra-aortic counterpulsation is a well established supportive therapy for patients in cardiac failure or after cardiac surgery. Blood pressure variations induced by counterpulsation are transmitted to the cerebral arteries, challenging cerebral autoregulatory mechanisms in order to maintain a stable cerebral blood flow. This study aims to assess the effects on cerebral autoregulation and variability of cerebral blood flow due to intra-aortic balloon pump and inflation ratio weaning. Methods Cerebral blood flow was measured using transcranial Doppler, in a convenience sample of twenty patients requiring balloon counterpulsation for refractory cardiogenic shock (N = 7) or a single inotrope to maintain mean arterial pressure following an elective placement of an intra-aortic balloon pump for cardiac surgery (N = 13). Simultaneous blood pressure at the aortic root was recorded via the intra-aortic balloon pump. Cerebral blood flow velocities were recorded for six minute intervals at a 1:1 balloon inflation-ratio (augmentation of all cardiac beats) and during progressive reductions of the inflation-ratio to 1:3 (augmentation of one every third cardiac beat). Real time comparisons of peak cerebral blood flow velocities with systolic blood pressure were performed using cross-correlation analysis. The primary endpoint was assessment of cerebral autoregulation using the time delay between the peak signals for cerebral blood flow velocity and systolic blood pressure, according to established criteria. The variability of cerebral blood flow was also assessed using non-linear statistics. Results During the 1:1 inflation-ratio, the mean time delay between aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow was -0.016 seconds (95% CI: -0.023,-0.011); during 1:3 inflation-ratio mean time delay was significantly longer at -0.010 seconds (95% CI: -0.016, -0.004, P < 0.0001). Finally, upon return to a 1:1 inflation-ratio, time delays recovered to those measured at

  3. Effect of telmisartan on kidney function in patients with chronic kidney disease: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Ashish; Kamila, Shibnath; Reddy, Swetha; Lilly, Joyal; Mariyala, MS Sadhguna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Globally the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising, an important cause of death and loss of disability-adjusted life years. Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is involved in its pathogenesis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of telmisartan (40 mg/day), an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) in Indian patients with CKD in real-life setting. Method: This was a prospective observational study. Fifty-six patients (>18 years) diagnosed with CKD were enrolled into the study. Serum creatinine, 24-h urinary protein, spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and blood pressure (BP) were assessed along with safety. Results: A total of 55 patients (96.36% hypertensive; 63.61% diabetic) with mean age of 48.23 years completed the study. At the end of 3 months treatment with telmisartan, 24-h urinary protein, spot urine protein-to-creatinine, serum creatinine and BP significantly reduced (p < .05) by 806.78 mg, 0.95, 0.44 mg/dl and 8.9/4.7 mmHg in the overall population. GFR increased from the baseline value of 52.13 to 65.01 ml/min. Telmisartan was well tolerated and treatment was discontinued in one patient because of hyperkalemia. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that telmisartan effectively and safely reduces proteinuria in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:27994942

  4. Brainstem involvement in Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1): An MRI and (1)H MRS study.

    PubMed

    Mascalchi, M; Michelucci, R; Cosottini, M; Tessa, C; Lolli, F; Riguzzi, P; Lehesjoki, A E; Tosetti, M; Villari, N; Tassinari, C A

    2002-06-11

    MRI of the brain and proton MRS ((1)H MRS) of the pons and dentate were obtained in 10 patients with genetically confirmed Unverricht-Lundborg disease (EPM1) and 20 control subjects. Patients with EPM1 showed (p < or = 0.01) loss of bulk of the basis pontis, medulla, and cerebellar hemispheres. Cerebral atrophy was present in six patients. The N-acetylaspartate/creatine and choline/creatine ratios were reduced in the pons but not in the dentate (p < or = 0.005). Brainstem involvement could play a role in pathophysiology of EPM1.

  5. TAME5OX, abiotic siderophore analogue to enterobactin involving 8-hydroxyquinoline subunits: Thermodynamic and photophysical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Rifat; Baral, Minati; Kanungo, B. K.

    2015-05-01

    The synthesis, thermodynamic and photophysical properties of trivalent metal complexes of biomimetic nonadentate analogue, 5,5‧-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1,3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)diquinolin-8-ol (TAME5OX), have been described. Combination of absorption and emission spectrophotometry, potentiometry, electrospray mass spectrometry, IR, and theoretical investigation were used to fully characterize metal (Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3) chelates of TAME5OX. In solution, TAME5OX forms protonated complexes [M(H3L)]3+ below pH 3.4, which consecutively deprotonates through one to three-proton processes with rise of pH. The formation constants (Log β11n) of neutral complexes formed at or above physiological pH, have been determined to be 30.18, 23.27 and 22.02 with pM values of 31.16, 18.07 and 18.12 for Fe+3, Al+3 and Cr+3 ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a powerful among synthetic metal chelator. The results clearly demonstrate that the ligand in a tripodal orchestration firmly binds these ions over wide pH range and forms distorted octahedral complexes. The binding and the coordination event could be monitored from absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The high thermodynamic stability in water at physiological pH of ferric complex of TAME5OX indicates that these complexes are resistant to hydrolysis and therefore are well suited for the development of device for applications as probes. The ligand displays high sensitive fluorescence enhancement to Al3+ at pH 7.4, in water. Moreover, TAME5OX can distinguish Al3+ from Fe3+ and Cr3+ via two different sensing mechanisms: photoinduced electron transfer (PET) for Al3+ and internal charge transfer (ICT) for Fe3+ and Cr3+. Density functional theory was employed for optimization and evaluation of vibrational modes, NBO analysis, excitation and emission properties of the different species of metal complexes observed by solution studies.

  6. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M.; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. However, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum mechanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3)-N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nucleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic properties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nucleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach.

  7. Pseudobond parameters for QM/MM studies involving nucleosides, nucleotides, and their analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudret, Robin; Parks, Jerry M; Yang, Weitao

    2013-01-01

    In biological systems involving nucleosides, nucleotides, or their respective analogs, the ribose sugar moiety is the most common reaction site, for example, during DNA replication and repair. How- ever, nucleic bases, which comprise a sizable portion of nucleotide molecules, are usually unreactive during such processes. In quantum mechanical/molecular simulations of nucleic acid reactivity, it may therefore be advantageous to describe specific ribosyl or ribosyl phosphate groups quantum me- chanically and their respective nucleic bases with a molecular mechanics potential function. Here, we have extended the pseudobond approach to enable quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical simulations involving nucleotides, nucleosides, and their analogs in which the interface between the two subsystems is located between the sugar and the base, namely, the C(sp3) N(sp2) bond. The pseudobond parameters were optimized on a training set of 10 molecules representing several nu- cleotide and nucleoside bases and analogs, and they were then tested on a larger test set of 20 diverse molecules. Particular emphasis was placed on providing accurate geometries and electrostatic prop- erties, including electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) charges and AIM first moments. We also tested the optimized parameters on five nucleotide and nu- cleoside analogues of pharmaceutical relevance and a small polypeptide (triglycine). Accuracy was maintained for these systems, which highlights the generality and transferability of the pseudobond approach. 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4772182

  8. Multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphoma: organ-specific relationships and the prognostic factors. Consortium for improving survival of lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Yong; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Jin Seok; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Suee; Lee, Dae Ho; Won, Jong-Ho; Hwang, In Gyu; Kim, Min Kyoung; Lee, Soon Il; Chae, Yee Soo; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kang, Hye Jin; Choi, Chul Won; Park, Jinny; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Jung Hye; Lee, Ho Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Eom, Hyeon Seok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Lee, Won Sik; Suh, Cheolwon; Kim, Hyo-Jin

    2010-10-01

    According to a previous review, multiple mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-organs involving marginal zone B cell lymphomas (MZLs) are present in 10-30% of patients. However, the clinical features and specific relationships among involved organs are yet to be clearly identified. In this study, we conducted retrospective analyses of multiple MALT organs involving MZLs (MM-MZLs) to identify their clinical features, treatment, prognosis, and specific relationships among involved organs. For analysis, between June 1987 and June 2009, a total of 55 patients from 17 different institutions in Korea, all of whom were histologically diagnosed with MM-MZL, were included in this study. MM-MZL was defined as MZL involving more than 2 different MALT organs. Multiple involvements within one MALT organ (e.g. both side ocular lesions, multiple lung nodules, and multiple stomach lesions, etc.) were excluded from this study. The male/female ratio of the 55 patients was 41/14. The median age of our subjects was 59 years (range 30-82 years). MM-MZL without lymph node (LN) was detected only in 9 patients (36.2%). Bone marrow (BM) involvement was observed in 17 patients (30.9%). The most common site of involvement was the gastrointestinal (GI) tract (25 patients, 45.5%) followed by the lung (40%), Waldeyer's ring (WR) (27.3%), and ocular area (25.5%). Ocular MZLs were commonly accompanied with WR- or lung-MZLs. GI-MZLs were WR or GI-MZLs. Lung-MZLs were frequently observed with ocular and GI-MZLs. WR-MZLs were ocular or GI-MZLs. A total of 53 patients were treated, and 2 on watchful wait. As much as 48 patients received chemotherapy-based treatment. Among them, CR or PR was achieved in 38 patients (79.2%, 95% CI 67-91%). Median time to progression (TTP) was 2.3 years (95% CI 1.4-3.2 years). Cause-specific overall survival (OS) did not reach the median value. The 5-year OS rate was 84.9%. MM-MZLs tend to be an indolent disease, characterized by prolonged survival with frequent

  9. Methods and Processes of Developing the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Veterinary (STROBE-Vet) Statement.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, J M; O'Connor, A M; Dohoo, I R; Erb, H N; Cevallos, M; Egger, M; Ersbøll, A K; Martin, S W; Nielsen, L R; Pearl, D L; Pfeiffer, D U; Sanchez, J; Torrence, M E; Vigre, H; Waldner, C; Ward, M P

    2016-12-01

    Reporting of observational studies in veterinary research presents challenges that often are not addressed in published reporting guidelines. Our objective was to develop an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement that addresses unique reporting requirements for observational studies in veterinary medicine related to health, production, welfare, and food safety. We conducted a consensus meeting with 17 experts in Mississauga, Canada. Experts completed a premeeting survey about whether items in the STROBE statement should be modified or added to address unique issues related to observational studies in animal species with health, production, welfare, or food safety outcomes. During the meeting, each STROBE item was discussed to determine whether or not rewording was recommended, and whether additions were warranted. Anonymous voting was used to determine consensus. Six items required no modifications or additions. Modifications or additions were made to the STROBE items 1 (title and abstract), 3 (objectives), 5 (setting), 6 (participants), 7 (variables), 8 (data sources and measurement), 9 (bias), 10 (study size), 12 (statistical methods), 13 (participants), 14 (descriptive data), 15 (outcome data), 16 (main results), 17 (other analyses), 19 (limitations), and 22 (funding). The methods and processes used were similar to those used for other extensions of the STROBE statement. The use of this STROBE statement extension should improve reporting of observational studies in veterinary research by recognizing unique features of observational studies involving food-producing and companion animals, products of animal origin, aquaculture, and wildlife.

  10. Ultrastructural observation of mesophyll cells and temporal expression profiles of the genes involved in transitory starch metabolism in flag leaves of wheat after anthesis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Guozhang; Peng, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lina; Yang, Yingying; Shao, Ruixin; Xie, Yingxin; Ma, Dongyun; Wang, Chenyang; Guo, Tiancai; Zhu, Yunji

    2015-01-01

    Transitory starch in cereal plant leaves is synthesized during the day and remobilized at night to provide a carbon source for growth and grain filling, but its mechanistic basis is still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to explore the regulatory mechanism for starch biosynthesis and degradation in plant source organs. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that during the day after anthesis, starch granules in mesophyll cells of wheat flag leaves accumulated in chloroplasts and the number of starch granules gradually decreased with wheat leaf growth. During the night, starch granules synthesized in chloroplasts during the day were completely or partially degraded. The transcript levels of 26 starch synthesis-related genes and 16 starch breakdown-related genes were further measured using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Expression profile analysis revealed that starch metabolism genes were clustered into two groups based on their temporal expression patterns. The genes in the first group were highly expressed and presumed to play crucial roles in starch metabolism. The genes in the other group were not highly expressed in flag leaves and may have minor functions in starch metabolism in leaf tissue. The functions of most of these genes in leaves were further discussed. The starch metabolism-related genes that are predominantly expressed in wheat flag leaves differ from those expressed in wheat grain, indicating that two different pathways for starch metabolism operate in these tissues. This provides specific information on the molecular mechanisms of transitory starch metabolism in higher plants.

  11. Visitor behaviour and public health implications associated with exotic pet markets: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Warwick, Clifford; Arena, Phillip C; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct on-site assessments of public health implications at key European pet markets. Design Observational study of visitor behaviour at stalls that displayed and sold animals, mainly amphibians and reptiles, to assess potential contamination risk from zoonotic pathogens. We noted initial modes of contact as ‘direct’ (handling animals) as well as ‘indirect’ (touching presumed contaminated animal-related sources) and observed whether these visitors subsequently touched their own head or mouth (H1), body (H2) or another person (H3). Setting Publicly accessible exotic animal markets in the UK, Germany and Spain. Participants Anonymous members of the public in a public place. Main outcome measures Occurrence and frequency of public contact (direct, indirect or no contact) with a presumed contaminated source. Results A total of 813 public visitors were observed as they attended vendors. Of these, 29 (3.6%) made direct contact with an animal and 222 (27.3%) made indirect contact with a presumed contaminated source, with subsequent modes of contact being H1 18.7%, H2 52.2% and H3 9.9%. Conclusions Our observations indicate that opportunities for direct and indirect contact at pet markets with presumed contaminated animals and inanimate items constitute a significant and major concern, and that public attendees are exposed to rapid contamination on their person, whether or not these contaminations become associated with any episode of disease involving themselves or others. These public health risks appear unresolvable given the format of the market environment. PMID:23323203

  12. The spectrum of right ventricular involvement in inferior wall myocardial infarction: a clinical, hemodynamic and noninvasive study

    SciTech Connect

    Baigrie, R.S.; Haq, A.; Morgan, C.D.; Rakowski, H.; Drobac, M.; McLaughlin, P.

    1983-06-01

    The clinical experience with 37 patients with acute transmural inferior wall myocardial infarction who were assessed for evidence of right ventricular involvement is reported. On the basis of currently accepted hemodynamic criteria, 29 patients (78%) had evidence suggestive of right ventricular infarction. However, only 5 (20%) of 25 patients demonstrated right ventricular uptake of technetium pyrophosphate on scintigraphy. Two-dimensional echocardiography or isotope nuclear angiography, or both, were performed in 32 patients; 20 studies (62%) showed evidence of right ventricular wall motion disturbance or dilation, or both. Twenty-one patients demonstrated a late inspiratory increase in the jugular venous pressure (Kussmaul's sign). The presence of this sign in the clinical setting of inferior wall myocardial infarction was predictive for right ventricular involvement in 81% of the patients in this study. It is suggested that right ventricular involvement in this clinical setting is common and includes not only infarction but also dysfunction without detectable infarction, which is likely on an ischemic basis.

  13. Dissection as Inquiry: Using the "Peanut Observation" Activity to Promote a Revised Paradigm of Dissection and Facilitate Student Involvement and Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Penny L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the peanut observation activity to teach about the pros and cons of dissection. As an inquiry-based approach, dissection is one way to teach process skills. Lists the progression of the activity as observation, questioning and finding the answer, challenge, discussion, and further examination. (Contains 12 references.) (YDS)

  14. Encouraging Summer Students in Science by Involving them with EPO: Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, D.; Kosovicheva, A.; Lee, S.; Liu, S.; Scherrer, B.; Madison, J.; Winegarden, S.

    2007-12-01

    You have a bevy of high school and undergraduate students showing up soon for a summer "research experience." You know they are not going to become facile with the IDL or Matlab tools they need to analyze your data. What are you going to do with them to stimulate their interest and encourage them to continue in science? We chose to involve our summer studnets in our education and outreach projets, training them in inquiry-based methods, hands-on activities, and collaborative learning, along with providing opportunities for them to acquire knowledge of solar science. Our presentation will highlight, in their own words, projects our students undertook, their trials, tribulations, and learning experiences.

  15. The Asthma Mobile Health Study, a large-scale clinical observational study using ResearchKit.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng Yvonne; Wang, Pei; Rogers, Linda; Tignor, Nicole; Zweig, Micol; Hershman, Steven G; Genes, Nicholas; Scott, Erick R; Krock, Eric; Badgeley, Marcus; Edgar, Ron; Violante, Samantha; Wright, Rosalind; Powell, Charles A; Dudley, Joel T; Schadt, Eric E

    2017-04-01

    The feasibility of using mobile health applications to conduct observational clinical studies requires rigorous validation. Here, we report initial findings from the Asthma Mobile Health Study, a research study, including recruitment, consent, and enrollment, conducted entirely remotely by smartphone. We achieved secure bidirectional data flow between investigators and 7,593 participants from across the United States, including many with severe asthma. Our platform enabled prospective collection of longitudinal, multidimensional data (e.g., surveys, devices, geolocation, and air quality) in a subset of users over the 6-month study period. Consistent trending and correlation of interrelated variables support the quality of data obtained via this method. We detected increased reporting of asthma symptoms in regions affected by heat, pollen, and wildfires. Potential challenges with this technology include selection bias, low retention rates, reporting bias, and data security. These issues require attention to realize the full potential of mobile platforms in research and patient care.

  16. Evaluation of Cardiac Involvement in Children with Dengue by Serial Echocardiographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kirawittaya, Tawatchai; Yoon, In-Kyu; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Green, Sharone; Ennis, Francis A.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Thomas, Stephen J.; Rothman, Alan L.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2015-01-01

    Background Infection with dengue virus results in a wide range of clinical manifestations from dengue fever (DF), a self-limited febrile illness, to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) which is characterized by plasma leakage and bleeding tendency. Although cardiac involvement has been reported in dengue, the incidence and the extent of cardiac involvement are not well defined. Methods and Principal findings We characterized the incidence and changes in cardiac function in a prospective in-patient cohort of suspected dengue cases by serial echocardiography. Plasma leakage was detected by serial chest and abdominal ultrasonography. Daily cardiac troponin-T levels were measured. One hundred and eighty one dengue cases were enrolled. On the day of enrollment, dengue cases that already developed plasma leakage had lower cardiac index (2695 (127) vs 3188 (75) (L/min/m2), p = .003) and higher left ventricular myocardial performance index (.413 (.021) vs .328 (.026), p = .021) and systemic vascular resistance (2478 (184) vs 1820 (133) (dynes·s/cm5), p = .005) compared to those without plasma leakage. Early diastolic wall motion of the left ventricle was decreased in dengue cases with plasma leakage compared to those without. Decreased left ventricular wall motility was more common in dengue patients compared to non-dengue cases particularly in cases with plasma leakage. Differences in cardiac function between DF and DHF were most pronounced around the time of plasma leakage. Cardiac dysfunction was transient and did not require treatment. Transient elevated troponin-T levels were more common in DHF cases compared to DF (14.5% vs 5%, p = 0.028). Conclusions Transient left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction was common in children hospitalized with dengue and related to severity of plasma leakage. The functional abnormality spontaneously resolved without specific treatment. Cardiac structural changes including myocarditis were uncommon. PMID:26226658

  17. Early Father Involvement and Subsequent Child Behaviour at Ages 3, 5 and 7 Years: Prospective Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mary E.; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie; Quigley, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fathers are increasingly involved in care of their babies and young children. We assessed the association of resident fathers’ involvement with subsequent behaviour of their children, examining boys and girls separately. Methods We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study for children born in 2000–2001, divided into three separate analysis periods: ages 9 months to 3 years, 3 to 5 years, and 5 to 7 years. By exploratory factor analysis of self-reported attitudes and engagement in caring activities, we derived composite measures of various types of father involvement at 9 months, 3 and 5 years. Where possible we created equivalent measures of mother involvement. Child behaviour was assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by the mother when the child was aged 3, 5 and 7 years. We estimated gender-specific odds ratios for behaviour problems per quintile of father involvement, using separate logistic regression models for boys and girls in each analysis period. We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders: characteristics of the child (temperament and development at 9 months, and illness and exact age at outcome), equivalent mother involvement where appropriate, and factors related to socioeconomic status, household change, and parental well-being, where statistically significant. Results Paternal positive parenting beliefs at age 9 months and increased frequency of creative play at age 5 years were significantly associated with lower risk of subsequent behaviour problems (SDQ total difficulties) in both boys and girls (p<0.05), odds ratios ranging between 0.81 and 0.89 per quintile of involvement. No associations were observed for other composite measures of caring activity by the father at 9 months, 3 years or 5 years. Conclusion Quality of parenting, rather than the division of routine care between parents, was associated with child behavioural outcomes. PMID:27654635

  18. The optimum level of parent participation: A study of three intensity levels of parent involvement during three "Playtime is Science" units in three third-grade classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooden, Kelly Lynn

    The study describes the experience of introducing three intensity levels of parent participation in three third-grade classes for science instruction using Playtime is Science; an equity curriculum that utilizes parent participation. The study sought to determine the optimum level of participation by ascertaining the most influential aspect of involvement on proficiency scores and the most important aspect of involvement to participants. The levels of participation intensity were distinguished by: (1) the number of parents in the classroom; (2) the responsibilities of the parents; (3) the training received; and (4) the number of students with whom the parents worked. Involvement at each level would potentially manifest aspects of role modeling, lowered student-to-adult instructional ratio, and parent expertise to varying degrees. The three levels of participation were introduced during explorations in three Playtime is Science units following a rotation schedule. Student proficiency was assessed through scores on pre- and post-tests, journals, and discourse. ANCOVA was used to identify main and interaction effects of the independent variables (class, unit and level) on student proficiency taking into account existing differences in groups. Participant attitudes were assessed through journals and interviews. Observations of explorations triangulated findings and assessed participant interactions. Field notes, transcripts and photographs were coded according to the aspects of parent involvement. The results showed level of parent intensity of involvement had no affect on proficiency scores. Therefore, no aspect of parent involvement was determined to be the most influential. Participants felt that lowered instructional ratio and role modeling were the most important aspects of involvement. The level of involvement that utilized the lowest ratio and the most role modeling was level III, small group facilitators. Level III was recognized as the optimum level of

  19. A study involving mordenite, titanate nanotubes, perfluoroalkoxy polymers, and ammonia borane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosheen, Shaneela

    (anatase) and a temperature of only 100°C. When TiO2 (P-25) was used with the same concentration of alkaline solution (1 molar NaOH), the same processing time of 12 hours, and a higher temperature at 110°C, only titanate nano-tubes were observed. The linkages of 'Ti-O' play a very important role in the structural features of different phases. Two crystalline phases (tetragonal and monoclinic) were synthesized as products in the case of TiO 2 (anatase) and one crystalline phase (monoclinic) for products of TiO 2 (P-25). The third part of the thesis concerns surface modification of hydrophobic fluoropolymers that have low surface energies and are very difficult to metallize. Surface modification was done to enhance surface roughness and hence to boost surface energy for metallization processes. We used low impact, environmentally friendly non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure to strip off F - ions and replace them with reactive unsaturated hydrocarbon functionalities such as CH=CH2 on the surface of a polymer. As these hydrocarbon functionalities are reactive with metals, they form composites that have good adhesion between layers of polymer. Due to surface modification, polymeric chains were broken by the loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.33) and the gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.17) using methane/argon plasmas. Methane/hydrogen/argon plasmas on the other hand produced extensive loss of fluorine atoms (F/C = 0.07-0.33) and gain of oxygen atoms (O/C = 0.08-0.16) that was far better than pristine PFA. The surface of PFA was modified by defluorination and oxidation. Further enhancement of COF and COO groups revealed that the surface was modified to a hydrophilic membrane that can further be easily hydrolyzed to COOH in the presence of atmospheric humidity. The last part of the thesis deals with ammonia borane which was studied as a potential source of hydrogen for fuel cells. We analyzed the viability of ammonia borane as a hydrogen carrier compound for fuel cell

  20. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Kun; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Methods Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic), group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like), and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent). Results Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls) from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08–1.40) and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.43) PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.24) PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97–1.22). Conclusions Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk. PMID:26555153

  1. "You Have the Right to Remain Silent." Two Case Studies in Forensic Linguistics Involving Spanish Speaking Suspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perissinotto, Giorgio

    Two case studies involving possible violations of the rights of Spanish speaking criminal suspects are presented. In cases where suspects do not understand English, the Miranda warnings regarding the right to remain silent must be delivered in their native language and in a way that is understandable to the suspects. In the two cases involving…

  2. Effects of Religious Involvement on Parent-child Communication Regarding Schooling: A Study of Black Youth in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madyun, Na'im; Lee, Moosung

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of Black teens are becoming religiously involved. This undoubtedly intersects with another trend in Black communities, the changing structure of the Black family. Research has shown that school-related dialogue between parent and child is an important factor in educational outcomes. This study set out to determine if there might…

  3. The Role of Leadership and Management in Six Southern Public Health Partnerships: A Study of Member Involvement and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Elisa S.; Taber, Shahnaz K.; Breslau, Erica S.; Lillie, Sarah E.; Li, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Research has led to greater understanding of what is needed to create and sustain well-functioning public health partnerships. However, a partnership's ability to foster an environment that encourages broad member involvement in discussions, decision making, and activities has received scant empirical attention. This study examined the…

  4. Student Involvement as a Vehicle for Empowerment: A Case Study of the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolo; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student…

  5. Queer Student Leaders: An Exploratory Case Study of Identity Development and LGBT Student Involvement at a Midwestern Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renn, Kristen A.; Bilodeau, Brent

    2005-01-01

    Using the first phase of a longitudinal study of student leaders of the 2002 Midwest Bi-, Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Allies College Conference (MBLGTACC), the authors explore the intersections of involvement in identity-specific leadership activities and development of LGBT/Queer identity. LGBT leadership experiences appear to have contributed…

  6. Receptivity to Library Involvement in Scientific Data Curation: A Case Study at the University of Colorado Boulder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lage, Kathryn; Losoff, Barbara; Maness, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly libraries are expected to play a role in scientific data curation initiatives, i.e., "the management and preservation of digital data over the long-term." This case study offers a novel approach for identifying researchers who are receptive toward library involvement in data curation. The authors interviewed researchers at…

  7. A Phenomenological Study of the Lived Experiences of Elementary Principals Involved in Dual-Career Relationships with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeeck, Kirk A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of eight elementary principals from the Midwest who were involved in dual-career relationships with children under the age of 18. The primary data collection method was in-depth interviews. The data were coded and analyzed according to the research questions. The research resulted in three major…

  8. An Aggregate Study of Single-Case Research Involving Aided AAC: Participant Characteristics of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Earles-Vollrath, Theresa L.; Mason, Rose A.; Rispoli, Mandy J.; Heath, Amy K.; Parker, Richard I.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who cannot speak at all or not intelligibly are frequently taught to use aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The majority of the research on the use of AAC with individuals with ASD has been single-case research studies. This investigation involved a meta-analysis of the…

  9. Sacroiliac joint involvement in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kaçar, Cahit; Sezer, Ilhan; Kocabaş, Hilal; Cay, Hasan Fatih; Cevikol, Can; Alpsoy, Erkan; Melikoğlu, Meltem Alkan; Akman, Ayşe

    2010-07-01

    Psoriasis is a skin disorder that is associated with arthritis. Sacroiliac joint involvement is considered to be less frequent than the other types of psoriatic arthritis. Additionally, the psoriatic sacroiliitis is considered to be asymmetric in general. We aimed to define the frequency and type of sacroiliac involvement in patients with psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis were included the study. Characteristics of skin, nail and articular involvement were noted. Psoriasis area and severity index was calculated. Antero-posterior pelvic X-rays were obtained and graded by two rheumatologists and a radiologist independently. One hundred and thirty-three patients were included. Thirty-seven of patients (27%) have articular involvement symptomatically. The sacroiliac joint involvement was observed in 34 (26%) of patients. More than one-half of sacroiliac involvement was bilateral while less than one-half was in symptomatic patients regarding sacroiliitis. Fifty-seven percentages of all patients have psoriatic nail involvement. Sacroiliac joint involvement did not show any significant association with psoriatic nail involvement or the severity of skin disease. We found higher frequency of sacroiliac joint involvement and bilateral sacroiliitis in patients with psoriasis. This is in contrast to present information about the association of psoriasis and sacroiliitis. These findings need confirmation by further studies and with more sophisticated techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Fighting to Get Closer: An Observational Study of Conflict in a Commune.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lyall

    The result of 6 months' observation of an American Taoist commune, this paper examines and interprets two episodes of confrontation, involving the persistently antagonistic Chinese director of the commune and one or more members, as a way of making sense of commune culture. The paper first examines the assumptions and values with which the…

  11. Safety of Intravenous Application of Mistletoe (Viscum album L.) Preparations in Oncology: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Steele, Megan L; Axtner, Jan; Happe, Antje; Kröz, Matthias; Matthes, Harald; Schad, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Background. Traditional mistletoe therapy in cancer patients involves subcutaneous applications of Viscum album L. preparations, with doses slowly increasing based on patient responses. Intravenous infusion of high doses may improve therapeutic outcomes and is becoming more common. Little is known about the safety of this "off-label" application of mistletoe. Methods. An observational study was performed within the Network Oncology. Treatment with intravenous mistletoe applications is described. The frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to intravenous mistletoe applications was calculated and compared to ADR data from a study on subcutaneous applications. Results. Of 475 cancer patients who received intravenous infusions of Helixor, Abnoba viscum, or Iscador mistletoe preparations, 22 patients (4.6%) reported 32 ADRs of mild (59.4%) or moderate severity (40.6%). No serious ADRs occurred. ADRs were more frequently reported to i.v. mistletoe administered alone (4.3%), versus prior to chemotherapy (1.6%). ADR frequency differed with respect to preparation type, with Iscador preparations showing a higher relative frequency, compared to Abnoba viscum and Helixor. Overall, patients were almost two times less likely to experience an ADR to intravenous compared to subcutaneous application of mistletoe. Conclusion. Intravenous mistletoe therapy was found to be safe and prospective studies for efficacy are recommended.

  12. Ionospheric Cubeswarm Concept Study: using low-resource instrumentation for truly multipoint in situ ionospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampton, D.; Lynch, K. A.; Earle, G. D.; Mannucci, A. J.; Clayton, R.; Fisher, L. E.; Fernandes, P. A.; Roberts, M.; Zettergren, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents close in the nightside lower ionosphere. These spatially inhomogeneous and time varying volume currents are difficult to capture with in situ observations. Our understanding of M-I coupling systems is limited by our understanding of the actual structure of ionospheric current closure. A path forward includes assimilation of a variety of data sets into increasingly capable ionospheric models. While each data set provides only a piece of the picture, the assimilation process allows optimal use of each piece.An important development for the necessary in situ observations involves making them truly multi-point, and therefore, low-resource. For thermal particle observations, the high densities of the lower ionosphere allow the use of low-gain (current-sensing rather than particle-counting) particle sensors. One observational goal is the definition of the actual structure of ionospheric closure currents. This can be approached with a number of different measurement techniques, in tandem with an ionospheric model, since the closure currents need to follow the rules of electrodynamics and current continuity. Low resource thermal plasma sensors such as retarding potential analyzers and drift meters can provide valuable measurements of plasma parameters, including density and plasma flow, without the need for high voltages or deployable boom systems. These low-resource measurements, which can be reproduced on arrays of in situ observation platforms, used in tandem with proper plasma physics interpretation of their signatures in the disturbed observing environment, and as part of an assimilated data set into an ionospheric model, can allow us to progress in our understanding of ionospheric structuring and its effects on auroral coupling. Now, with increasingly capable multipoint arrays of spacecraft, and quantitative 2D-with-time context from cameras and imagery, we are moving toward truly multipoint studies of the system

  13. Clinical Significance of Auditive Involvement in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Laura; Gutierrez-Farfan, Ileana; Peña-Ayala, Angelica; Perez-Bastidas, Maria-Esther; Espinosa, Rolando

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can involve the incudomalleolar or incudostapedial articulations. Objective. To know the punctual prevalence of audiological alterations in patients with RA. Patients and Methods. RA patients and their controls (Cs), were evaluated by Tonal Audiometry (AU); if there were alterations in the air conduction (AC), bone conduction (BC), Logoaudiometry (LG), and Tympanometry (T) were performed. Results. 45 RA patients and 45 Cs were evaluated. RA patients had 40% of bilateral and 17.8% unilateral alteration versus Cs with 22.2% bilateral and 4.4% unilateral alteration versus Cs with 22.2% bilateral and 4.4% unilateral in AC audiometry. In conventional T (CT) As-type curves in patients with RA, there were 22 LE (48.8%) and 26 RE (57.7%) versus Cs, there were16 RE (35.5%) and 20 LE (44.4%). In High-frequency T (HFT): the 3B1G pattern in RA more frequent versus Controls (Cs) in RE (P = .002 and LE (P = .01). There were no differences according to RA activity or RA disease evolution. Conclusions. There is a greater tendency of auditive loss of As curves in CT (rigidity in ossicular chain) and of the 3B1G pattern in HFT in RA. PMID:22482066

  14. An animal model to study human muscular diseases involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hélène; Warren, Blair E

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondria are producing most of the energy needed for many cellular functions by a process named oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). It is now well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunctions are involved in several pathologies or degenerative processes, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and aging. Animal models are currently used to try to understand the role of mitochondria in human diseases but a major problem is that mitochondria from different species and tissues are variable in terms of regulation. Analysis of mitochondrial function in three species of planarian flatworms (Tricladia, Platyhelminthes) shows that they share a very rare characteristic with human mitochondria: a strong control of oxidative phosphorylation by the phosphorylation system. The ratio of coupled OXPHOS over maximal electron transport capacity after uncoupling (electron transport system; ETS) well below 1.0 indicates that the phosphorylation system is limiting the rate of OXPHOS. The OXPHOS/ETS ratios are 0.62 ± 0.06 in Dugesia tigrina, 0.63 ± 0.05 in D. dorotocephala and 0.62 ± 0.05 in Procotyla fluviatilis, comparable to the value measured in human muscles. To our knowledge, no other animal model displays this peculiarity. This new model offers a venue in which to test the phosphorylation system as a potential therapeutic control point within humans.

  15. Tethered Chains in Poor Solvent Conditions: An Experimental Study Involving Langmuir Diblock Copolymer Monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, M.S.; Lee, L.T.; Majewski, J.; Satija, S.; Smith, G.S.

    1998-10-13

    We have employed Langmuir monolayer of highly asymmetric polydimethylsiloxane- polystyrene (PDMS-PS) diblock copolymers on dioctyl phthalate (DOP) at temperatures ranging from 22 "C to -35 `C as a model system for tethered chains in poor solvent conditions. The thicknesses of the tethered PS layers extending into the DOP subphase, measured by neutron reflection, decrease with decreasing temperature (T) over this entire r~ge. However, the v~iation with T becomes weak below -20 "C. At the ]owest T, the layer thicknesses are contracted 55 % -75 `% of their values at the theta condition (T8 = 22 "C), but are still quite swollen compared to the fully collapsed, nonsolvent limit. The contraction of the layer with decreasing T is determined as a function of surface density and molecular weight. These data are compared to universal scaling forms. The PS segments are depleted from the air surface over the entire T range, the thickness of the depletion layer increasing slightly with decreasing T. The free energy of the surface layer is probed by surface tension measurements. Negative surface pressures are observed at low coverages for both PDMS-PS and PDMS monolayer, indicating metastability toward lateral phase separation. Evidence for a trruisition from a dispersed phase to a condensed phase with decreasing T was observed in the reflectivity at very low PDMS-PS coverage.

  16. Depth and Patterns of Adnexal Involvement in Primary Extramammary (Anogenital) Paget Disease: A Study of 178 Lesions From 146 Patients.

    PubMed

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Shelekhova, Ksenya V; Stewart, Colin J; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Kutzner, Heinz; Kacerovska, Denisa; Plaza, Jose A; Suster, Saul; Bouda, Jiri; Pavlovsky, Michal; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Michal, Michal; Guenova, Emmanuella; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-11-01

    Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare neoplasm usually presenting in the anogenital area, most commonly in the vulva. Adnexal involvement in primary EMPD is a very common feature and serves as a pathway for carcinoma to spread into deeper tissue. The depth of carcinomatous spread along the appendages and the patterns of adnexal involvement were studied in 178 lesions from 146 patients with primary EMPD. Hair follicles and eccrine ducts were the adnexa most commonly affected by carcinoma cells. The maximal depth of involvement was 3.6 mm in this series. When planning topical therapy or developing novel local treatment modalities for EMPD, this potential for significant deep spread along adnexa should be taken into account.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Neisseria meningitidis in Human Whole Blood and Mutagenesis Studies Identify Virulence Factors Involved in Blood Survival

    PubMed Central

    Del Tordello, Elena; Seib, Kate L.; Francois, Patrice; Rappuoli, Rino; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Serruto, Davide

    2011-01-01

    During infection Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) encounters multiple environments within the host, which makes rapid adaptation a crucial factor for meningococcal survival. Despite the importance of invasion into the bloodstream in the meningococcal disease process, little is known about how Nm adapts to permit survival and growth in blood. To address this, we performed a time-course transcriptome analysis using an ex vivo model of human whole blood infection. We observed that Nm alters the expression of ≈30% of ORFs of the genome and major dynamic changes were observed in the expression of transcriptional regulators, transport and binding proteins, energy metabolism, and surface-exposed virulence factors. In particular, we found that the gene encoding the regulator Fur, as well as all genes encoding iron uptake systems, were significantly up-regulated. Analysis of regulated genes encoding for surface-exposed proteins involved in Nm pathogenesis allowed us to better understand mechanisms used to circumvent host defenses. During blood infection, Nm activates genes encoding for the factor H binding proteins, fHbp and NspA, genes encoding for detoxifying enzymes such as SodC, Kat and AniA, as well as several less characterized surface-exposed proteins that might have a role in blood survival. Through mutagenesis studies of a subset of up-regulated genes we were able to identify new proteins important for survival in human blood and also to identify additional roles of previously known virulence factors in aiding survival in blood. Nm mutant strains lacking the genes encoding the hypothetical protein NMB1483 and the surface-exposed proteins NalP, Mip and NspA, the Fur regulator, the transferrin binding protein TbpB, and the L-lactate permease LctP were sensitive to killing by human blood. This increased knowledge of how Nm responds to adaptation in blood could also be helpful to develop diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to control the devastating disease cause by

  18. Study of the elementary processes involved in the selective oxidation of methane over MoOx/SiO2.

    PubMed

    Ohler, Nicholas; Bell, Alexis T

    2006-02-16

    Isolated molybdate species supported on silica are reported to have the highest specific activity and selectivity for the direct oxidation of methane to formaldehyde. The present investigation was undertaken to understand the elementary redox processes involved in the formation of formaldehyde over such species. A MoO(x)/SiO(2) catalyst was prepared with a Mo loading of 0.44 Mo/nm(2). On the basis of evidence from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy, the Mo atoms in this catalyst are present as isolated, pentacoordinated molybdate species containing a single Mo=O bond. Isotopic labeling experiments in combination with in-situ Raman spectroscopy were used to examine the reducibility of the dispersed molybdate species and the exchange of O atoms between the gas phase and the catalyst. It was established that treatment of MoO(x)/SiO(2) at 873 K under pure methane reduces the dispersed molybdate species to only a limited extent and results mainly in the deposition of amorphous carbon. During CH(4) oxidation to formaldehyde, the catalyst undergoes only a very small degree of reduction and typically only approximately 50-500 ppm of Mo(VI) is reduced to Mo(IV). Reactions carried out using CH(4) and (18)O(2) show that there is extensive scrambling of O atoms between the species in the gas phase and the catalyst. Additional experiments revealed that H(2)O formed in the reaction is the principal species responsible for the exchange of O atoms between the gas phase and the SiO(2) support. Low concentrations of H(2)O were observed to enhance the activity of MoO(x)/SiO(2) for CH(4) oxidation to formaldehyde. A mechanism for the oxidation of CH(4) over MoO(x)/SiO(2) was formulated in light of the observations made here and is discussed in the light of previous studies. It is proposed that peroxides are produced by the reaction of O(2) with a small concentration of reduced molybdate species and that the reaction of CH(4) with these peroxide

  19. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings.

  20. Impact of Involvement of Chief Information Officer in Strategic Decisions: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa, Samir

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative phenomenological study was to investigate the influence of the CIO on strategic decision making in organizations. The phenomenological study was deployed to address 2 research questions by interviewing a purposive sample of 23 executives (7 IT leaders, 10 CFOs, and 6 CEOs) in 5 different countries. A qualitative…

  1. Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…

  2. Involving Employers in Training: Case Studies. Research and Evaluation Report Series 97-J.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Kellie; Trutko, John W.; Barnow, Burt S.; Nightengale, Demetra; Pindus, Nancy

    This document contains in-depth descriptions and assessments of 17 exemplary employer-based training (EBT) programs that were studied as part of an examination of EBT programs. The case studies are based on site visits to each firm, during which interviews were conducted with company management, supervisors of workers in training, individuals…

  3. Facilitating Student Involvement in Transition Assessment: A Pilot Study of the "Student Transition Questionnaire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Margo L.; Griffin, Megan M.; Wei, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the pilot study of an informal assessment, the "Student Transition Questionnaire" (STQ). The STQ is a 38-item assessment designed to elicit student perspectives on transition-related topics. In this mixed-methods study, we piloted the STQ with 186 participants, and then conducted focus groups with various…

  4. Fathers’ Representation in Observational Studies on Parenting and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gicevic, Selma; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Ganter, Claudia; Simon, Christine L.; Newlan, Sami; Manganello, Jennifer A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. Objectives. To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers. This study presents new data on the number and gender of parent research participants. Search methods. We searched title, abstract, and Medical Subject Headings term fields in 5 research databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Academic Search Premier, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) using terms combining parents or parenting (e.g., mother, father, caregiver, parenting style, food parenting) and obesity (e.g., obesity, body weight, overweight) or obesity-related lifestyle behaviors (e.g., diet, snacking, physical activity, outdoor play, exercise, media use). Selection criteria. We identified and screened studies as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) published between January 2009 and December 2015, examining links between parenting and childhood obesity, including parents or caregivers as research participants, and written in English. We excluded interventions, nonhuman studies, dissertations, conference abstracts, and studies on youths with specific medical conditions. Of 5557 unique studies, 667 studies were eligible. Data collection and analysis. For each of the 667 studies, 4 coders were trained to code characteristics of the study (e.g., publication year, geographic region, journal, study focus) and parent research participants (e.g., parent gender, demographic

  5. Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-01-01

    Background As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. Methods This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1) over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates), and (2) 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates). Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system) and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality) for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system) resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. Conclusion We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario Wait Time Strategy

  6. Detection of furcation involvement using periapical radiography and 2 cone-beam computed tomography imaging protocols with and without a metallic post: An animal study

    PubMed Central

    Salineiro, Fernanda Cristina Sales; Gialain, Ivan Onone; Kobayashi-Velasco, Solange; Pannuti, Claudio Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the diagnosis of incipient furcation involvement with periapical radiography (PR) and 2 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging protocols, and to test metal artifact interference. Materials and Methods Mandibular second molars in 10 macerated pig mandibles were divided into those that showed no furcation involvement and those with lesions in the furcation area. Exams using PR and 2 different CBCT imaging protocols were performed with and without a metallic post. Each image was analyzed twice by 2 observers who rated the absence or presence of furcation involvement according to a 5-point scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the observations. Results The accuracy of the CBCT imaging protocols ranged from 67.5% to 82.5% in the images obtained with a metallic post and from 72.5% to 80% in those without a metallic post. The accuracy of PR ranged from 37.5% to 55% in the images with a metallic post and from 42.5% to 62.5% in those without a metallic post. The area under the ROC curve values for the CBCT imaging protocols ranged from 0.813 to 0.802, and for PR ranged from 0.503 to 0.448. Conclusion Both CBCT imaging protocols showed higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than PR in the detection of incipient furcation involvement. Based on these results, CBCT may be considered a reliable tool for detecting incipient furcation involvement following a clinical periodontal exam, even in the presence of a metallic post. PMID:28361025

  7. Behcet's syndrome and renal involvement: a histological and immunofluorescent study of eleven renal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Herreman, G; Beaufils, H; Godeau, P; Cassou, B; Wechsler, B; Boujeau, J; Chomette, G

    1982-01-01

    The finding of focal glomerulonephritis in a patient with Behcet's syndrome led us to perform systematic renal biopsies in ten other patients with the disease. None of the patients had symptoms of renal disease. Proteinuria was found in five, two of whom had associated leukocyturia. By light microscopy mesangial and extramembranous glomerular deposits were observed in eight patients. Arterioles in ten patients showed subendothelial and medial hyaline deposits. A granular pattern of fluorescent staining identified the presence of the third component of complement in these deposits. Circulating immune deposits were sought and found in six out of seven patients. The finding of circulating immune complexes and deposition of complement in glomerular and arteriolar tissues supports an immune complex mediated nephropathy and is consistent with the hypothesis of an immunological pathogenesis in Behcet's syndrome.

  8. Generalizability and Decision Studies to Inform Observational and Experimental Research in Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Lloyd, Blair; Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Attaining reliable estimates of observational measures can be challenging in school and classroom settings, as behavior can be influenced by multiple contextual factors. Generalizability (G) studies can enable researchers to estimate the reliability of observational data, and decision (D) studies can inform how many observation sessions are…

  9. Graph Reading Competencies Among Elementary Pupils Involved in Inquiry-Based Science and Social Studies Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Norman C.; Brown, Les

    1976-01-01

    Study suggests that the use of line graphs before sixth grade is a questionable educational practice as their use might demand skills beyond the developmental levels of most younger children. (Editor)

  10. 43 CFR 404.35 - Is there a different non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? 404... non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? Yes. If the feasibility study involves a rural water supply system that will serve...

  11. 43 CFR 404.35 - Is there a different non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? 404... non-Federal cost-share requirement for feasibility studies that involve a community greater than 50,000 inhabitants? Yes. If the feasibility study involves a rural water supply system that will serve...

  12. Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ≤0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ≤0.25 or ≥4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (≤25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

  13. Arachidonic acid and cancer risk: a systematic review of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An n-6 essential fatty acid, arachidonic acid (ARA) is converted into prostaglandin E2, which is involved in tumour extension. However, it is unclear whether dietary ARA intake leads to cancer in humans. We thus systematically evaluated available observational studies on the relationship between ARA exposure and the risk of colorectal, skin, breast, prostate, lung, and stomach cancers. Methods We searched the PubMed database for articles published up to May 17, 2010. 126 potentially relevant articles from the initial search and 49,670 bibliographies were scrutinised to identify eligible publications by using predefined inclusion criteria. A comprehensive literature search yielded 52 eligible articles, and their reporting quality and methodological quality was assessed. Information on the strength of the association between ARA exposure and cancer risk, the dose-response relationship, and methodological limitations was collected and evaluated with respect to consistency and study design. Results For colorectal, skin, breast, and prostate cancer, 17, 3, 18, and 16 studies, respectively, were identified. We could not obtain eligible reports for lung and stomach cancer. Studies used cohort (n = 4), nested case-control (n = 12), case-control (n = 26), and cross-sectional (n = 12) designs. The number of subjects (n = 15 - 88,795), ARA exposure assessment method (dietary intake or biomarker), cancer diagnosis and patient recruitment procedure (histological diagnosis, cancer registries, or self-reported information) varied among studies. The relationship between ARA exposure and colorectal cancer was inconsistent based on ARA exposure assessment methodology (dietary intake or biomarker). Conversely, there was no strong positive association or dose-response relationship for breast or prostate cancer. There were limited numbers of studies on skin cancer to draw any conclusions from the results. Conclusions The available epidemiologic evidence is

  14. Modelization of nanospace interaction involving a ferromagnetic atom: a spin polarization effect study by thermogravimetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, K S V; Chen, Xu; Gupta, S

    2014-04-01

    Ab initio studies of ferromagnetic atom interacting with carbon nanotubes have been reported in the literature that predict when the interaction is strong, a higher hybridization with confinement effect will result in spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom. The spin polarization effect on the thermal oxidation to form its oxide is modeled here for the ferromagnetic atom and its alloy, as the above studies predict the 4s electrons are polarized in the atom. The four models developed here provide a pathway for distinguishing the type of interaction that exists in the real system. The extent of spin polarization in the ferromagnetic atom has been examined by varying the amount of carbon nanotubes in the composites in the thermogravimetric experiments. In this study we report the experimental results on the CoNi alloy which appears to show selective spin polarization. The products of the thermal oxidation has been analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy.

  15. Applying the Good Laboratory Practice regulations to studies involving genetically modified plants.

    PubMed

    Holden, D E

    1995-12-01

    How can the Environmental Protection Agency's Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, originally written primarily for mammalian toxicology studies, be applied to regulatory studies conducted for genetically modified plants? Do they fit? Can they be applied and still make sense? How is a Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) to interpret the requirements in this new area of biotechnology? The answers to these questions are discussed in this brief presentation of how one team within the Monsanto QAU, along with the researchers, developed am effective and comprehensive compliance program by applying the "traditional approach" to the GLP regulations to a new and important scientific field in regulatory compliance. Topics discussed will address the differences in the approach between traditional toxicity testing and the newer technology and how the differences were resolved, new and innovative definitions of particular phases and other aspects of regulatory studies, and how the draft regulations for pesticidal plants will help this area of technology in the future.

  16. Italian multicentre observational study of the prevalence of CCSVI in multiple sclerosis (CoSMo study): rationale, design, and methodology.

    PubMed

    Comi, Giancarlo; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Bertolotto, Antonio; Del Sette, Massimo; Ghezzi, Angelo; Malferrari, Giovanni; Salvetti, Marco; Sormani, Maria Pia; Tesio, Luigi; Stolz, Erwin; Mancardi, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    Chronic cerebro-spinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) has been proposed as a "congenital malformation" implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, numerous studies failed to confirm its presence in MS patients. This paper presents the rationale, design, and methodology adopted in the CoSMo study, conducted with the aim of verifying whether or not CCSVI is linked to MS. The primary endpoint of the CoSMo study is to compare the prevalence of CCSVI in patients with MS versus patients affected by other neurodegenerative diseases (OND) and healthy volunteers. CoSMo is a multicenter, blinded, prevalence study recruiting 2,000 adult subjects, involving 43 MS centers across Italy. Assessment of the presence or absence of CCSVI is performed by color-coded duplex (CCD) sonography and two out of the five criteria according to Zamboni are necessary for the diagnosis of CCSVI. Local CCD examination carried out by a certified sonologist and the central image readings performed by experts in the field are blinded. An advanced protocol is also described in this paper. The application of a rigorous methodological design will definitively confirm whether an association exists between CCSVI and MS. Should an association be observed, this study also further examines the link between CCSVI and the severity of MS. The addition of subgroups without MS and OND also provides information on whether CCSVI is specific to MS only. Results from the CoSMo study will play a crucial role in the possible studies concerning the potential treatment of CCSVI in MS.

  17. FMRI study relevant to the Mozart effect: brain areas involved in spatial-temporal reasoning.

    PubMed

    Bodner, M; Muftuler, L T; Nalcioglu, O; Shaw, G L

    2001-10-01

    Behavioral studies, motivated by columnar cortical model predictions, have given evidence for music causally enhancing spatial-temporal reasoning. A wide range of behavioral experiments showed that listening to a Mozart Sonata (K.448) gave subsequent enhancements. An EEG coherence study gave evidence for a carryover from that Mozart Sonata listening condition to the subsequent spatial-temporal task in specific cortical regions. Here we present fMRI studies comparing cortical blood flow activation by the Mozart Sonata vs. other music. In addition to expected temporal cortex activation, we report dramatic statistically significant differences in activation by the Mozart Sonata (in comparison to Beethoven's Fur Elise and 1930s piano music) in dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex, occipital cortex and cerebellum, all expected to be important for spatial-temporal reasoning. It would be of great interest to explicitly test this expectation. We propose an fMRI study comparing (subject by subject) brain areas activated in music listening conditions and in spatial-temporal tasks.

  18. A Case Study in Classroom Management and School Involvement: Designing an Art Room for Effective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broome, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to investigate the design of classroom environments through the lens of a uniquely selected art educator. More specifically, the purpose is to use case study methodology (Stake, 1995) to characterize the resulting instructional experiences for an art educator who had the unique opportunity to collaborate…

  19. Native American Community Involvement: A Guide to Classroom Study of Some Oklahoma Indian Tribes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyster, Ira; Chisholm, Anita

    The product of a Title VII ESAA grant, this guide to the study of Oklahoma American Indians has been designed and evaluated by teams of Native American adults, Indian and non-Indian students, and teachers from three Oklahoma schools selected as project sites: Okmulgee, Hartshorne, and Shawnee schools. The guide is divided into three basic sections…

  20. An Empirical Study of Post-Branzburg Cases Involving Newsmen's Privilege.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehra, Achal

    Nine years after the 1972 Supreme Court ruling in *Branzburg v. Hayes" that journalists enjoy no constitutional privilege to withhold the names of sources and to conceal information from grand jury proceedings, a study was conducted to determine the courts' attitudes toward journalists' privilege and to test commonly held beliefs about its…

  1. Parental Involvement in Active Transport to School Initiatives: A Multi-Site Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Amy; Baldwin, Julie; Carnoske, Cheryl; Nickelson, Jan; Troped, Philip; Steinman, Lesley; Pluto, Delores; Litt, Jill; Evenson, Kelly; Terpstra, Jennifer; Brownson, Ross; Schmid, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background: Increasing physical activity in youth is a recommended approach to curbing the childhood obesity epidemic. One way to help increase children's daily activity is to promote active transportation to and from school (ATS). Purpose: The purpose of this case study was to explore parental perception of, and participation in, ATS initiatives.…

  2. Blurring the Boundaries: A Case Study of Private Sector Involvement in Philadelphia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Eva; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Herold, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    As a result of a state takeover, the School District of Philadelphia has been implementing a "diverse provider model" in which for-profit and nonprofit organizations have been hired as school managers. This study explores the first three years of the model, examining the shift away from the rhetoric of competition to the evolution of a…

  3. Learning through Political Participation: A Case Study of Spanish Elders Involved in Political Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrat, Rodrigo; Petriwskyj, Andrea; Villar, Feliciano; Warburton, Jeni

    2016-01-01

    Older people's civic participation contributes to community development while at the same time providing opportunities for personal growth in later life. One important dimension of civic participation that has been largely underexplored is informal learning. The aim of this study is to explore the learnings experienced by Spanish older people…

  4. Agnew Meets the Student Dissenters: An Experimental Study of Ego-Involvement and Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Timothy P.; Cronen, Vernon E.

    1972-01-01

    Study deals with effects of David Frost show of September 25, 1970, featuring Vice President Spiro Agnew and five student dissenters on the attitudes of students. Results showed that students exposed to the program were significantly less negative in attitudes toward Agnew. (DS)

  5. Internationalisation in the Swedish Nurse Education from the Perspective of Teachers Involved: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Wihlborg, Monne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from an interview investigation with teachers in Swedish nurse education especially interested in internationalising the education. The aim has been to study teachers' understandings and experiences of internationalisation against the backdrop of the strong concern for internationalisation expressed in policy documents.…

  6. Exploratory Study of MOOC Learners' Demographics and Motivation: The Case of Students Involved in Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayeck, Rebecca Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports preliminary findings on students enrolled in a massive open online course, who were also assigned to work in groups. Part of a larger study on the effect of groups on retention and completion in MOOCs, the paper provides students' demographics (i.e., location, gender, education level, and employment status), and motivation for…

  7. The Study of Opportunities for and Barriers to Family Involvement in Education: Preliminary Results. Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Opinion Research Center, Chicago, IL.

    Participants were drawn from the 1996 General Social Survey, which constructed a nationally representative sample of households to study social indicators in the United States. Findings summarized in this report reflect information collected from about two-thirds of parents identified in the earlier survey. During a 10-minute telephone interview,…

  8. Human Securitability: A Participatory Action Research Study Involving Novice Teachers and Youngsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravale-Paulina, Marite; Olehnovica, Eridiana

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, initiative and interest in current events can bridge the alienation felt towards national and municipal institutions, thereby enabling individuals to improve their quality of life and contribute to all-round sustainable development of their resident state. This paper reports on a participatory action research study into civic…

  9. Studies in Mindfulness: Widening the Field for All Involved in Pastoral Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Graeme; McMurtry, David; Craig, Linda; Nevejan, Annick; Regan-Addis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Since 2010, the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, UK, has offered an MSc in studies in mindfulness degree programme within its School of Education. The programme has attracted over 200 students from multiple professional contexts, providing the authors with the opportunity to gather and analyse demographic data, as well as data regarding student…

  10. Pilot clinical study of boron neutron capture therapy for recurrent hepatic cancer involving the intra-arterial injection of a (10)BSH-containing WOW emulsion.

    PubMed

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Syushi; Seguchi, Koji; Ikushima, Ichiro; Fujihara, Mituteru; Nonaka, Yasumasa; Oyama, Kazuyuki; Maruyama, Syoji; Hatae, Ryo; Suzuki, Minoru; Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Kinashi, Tomoko; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Kajiyama, Tetsuya; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji; Nakajima, Jun; Ono, Minoru; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Eriguchi, Masazumi

    2014-06-01

    A 63-year-old man with multiple HCC in his left liver lobe was enrolled as the first patient in a pilot study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) involving the selective intra-arterial infusion of a (10)BSH-containing water-in-oil-in-water emulsion ((10)BSH-WOW). The size of the tumorous region remained stable during the 3 months after the BNCT. No adverse effects of the BNCT were observed. The present results show that (10)BSH-WOW can be used as novel intra-arterial boron carriers during BNCT for HCC.

  11. A multicenter study shows PTEN deletion is strongly associated with seminal vesicle involvement and extracapsular extension in localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Troyer, Dean A; Jamaspishvili, Tamara; Wei, Wei; Feng, Ziding; Good, Jennifer; Hawley, Sarah; Fazli, Ladan; McKenney, Jesse K; Simko, Jeff; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Carroll, Peter R; Gleave, Martin; Lance, Raymond; Lin, Daniel W; Nelson, Peter S; Thompson, Ian M; True, Lawrence D; Brooks, James D; Squire, Jeremy A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is a promising marker of aggressive prostate cancer. Active surveillance and watchful waiting are increasingly recommended to patients with small tumors felt to be low risk, highlighting the difficulties of Gleason scoring in this setting. There is an urgent need for predictive biomarkers that can be rapidly deployed to aid in clinical decision-making. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and ability of PTEN alterations to predict aggressive disease in a multicenter study. METHODS We used recently developed probes optimized for sensitivity and specificity in a four-color FISH deletion assay to study the Canary Retrospective multicenter Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray (TMA). This TMA was constructed specifically for biomarker validation from radical prostatectomy specimens, and is accompanied by detailed clinical information with long-term follow-up. RESULTS In 612 prostate cancers, the overall rate of PTEN deletion was 112 (18.3%). Hemizygous PTEN losses were present in 55/612 (9.0%) of cancers, whereas homozygous PTEN deletion was observed in 57/612 (9.3%) of tumors. Significant associations were found between PTEN status and pathologic stage (P < 0.0001), seminal vesicle invasion (P = 0.0008), extracapsular extension (P < 0.0001), and Gleason score (P = 0.0002). In logistic regression analysis of clinical and pathological variables, PTEN deletion was significantly associated with extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle involvement, and higher Gleason score. In the 406 patients in which clinical information was available, PTEN homozygous (P = 0.009) deletion was associated with worse post-operative recurrence-free survival (number of events = 189), pre-operative prostate specific antigen (PSA) (P < 0.001), and pathologic stage (P = 0.03). CONCLUSION PTEN status assessed by FISH is an independent predictor for recurrence-free survival in

  12. Studies on the mechanisms involved in multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin

    SciTech Connect

    Slaga, T.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Weeks, C.E.; Klein-Szanto, A.J.P.; Reiners, J.

    1982-01-01

    Skin tumors can be effectively induced in mice by the repetitive application of a carcinogen. The relative order of sensitivity to complete carcinogenesis is Sencar > CD-1 > C57BL/6 greater than or equal to BALB/c greater than or equal to ICR/Ha Swiss > C3H. Skin tumors in mice can also be induced by the sequential application of a subthreshold dose of a carcinogen (initiation phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a weak or noncarcinogenic tumor promoter (promotion phase) followed by repetitive treatment with a weak or noncarcinogenic tumor promoter (promotion phase). The relative order of sensitivity to initiation-promotion is Sencar > > CD-1 > ICR/Ha Swiss greater than or equal to Balb/c > C57BL/6 greater than or equal to C3H greater than or equal to DBA/2. The phorbol ester tumor promoters have been shown to have several cellular and biochemical effects on the skin. Of all the observed phorbol ester related effects on the skin, the induction of epidermal cell proliferation, polyamines, prostagladins, and dark basal keratinocytes as well as other embryonic conditions appear to correlate the best with promotion. Mezerein, a weak promoter, was found to induce many cellular and biochemical changes similar to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA), especially epidermal hyperplasia and polyamines; however, it was not a potent inducer of dark cells. Although C57BL/6 mice are relatively resistant to initiation-promotion by PAH initiation and phorbol ester promotion, they are fairly sensitive to complete carcinogenesis by PAH. This suggests that the C57BL/6 mice are resistant to phorbol ester tumor promotion. Preliminary experiments suggest that C57BL/6 and Sencar mice respond qualitatively but not quantitatively to a single treatment with TPA.

  13. A genetic study of a Staphylococus aureus plasmid involving cure and transference.

    PubMed

    Darini, A L

    1996-01-01

    High frequency transfer and elimination of drug resistance may indicate an extrachromosomal inheritance of genetic determinants. This study shows the cure and transfer of a small plasmid and tetracycline resistance in Staphylococcus aureus 1030 (55)Tet strains. Several methods are available for plasmid elimination. We used ethidium bromide, an agent that binds to DNA, and thus inhibits DNA polymerase. This caused a high frequency of loss of the small plasmid and resistance to tetracycline. Transfer of tetracycline resistance was done in a mixed culture at a frequency of 10(-6). This type of study is very important to physicians and epidemiology investigators and provides better knowledge on antibiotic-resistance mechanisms that may occur in vivo in a hospital environment.

  14. The Key Involvement of Poly(ADP-Ribosylation) in Defense Against Toxic Agents: Molecular Biology Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-29

    Jacobson, M.K., Janzon, L., SeidegArd, J., Smulson, M.E., and Troll, W. The Malmt5 Diet and Cancer Study: The Biomarker Program. Submitted for publication in...ribosylate proteins which bind to the regulatory regions of glucocorticoid responsive genes. (2). TCDD, dioxin , a potent environmental contaminant...like glucocorticoid is mediated by an aromatic hydrocarbon rereptor which a!’c binds to specific DNA sequences (i.e. dioxin -responsive elements

  15. Wastewater Management Study for Cleveland-Akron Metropolitan and Three Rivers Watershed Areas. VIII. Public Involvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-08-01

    pretreatment option (Option 3) or recycle option (Option 2) by industry. This study will use the pretreatment option but allows industry to choose the recycle... pretreatment to insure compatibility with any technology, is incorporated into all four alternative plans. However, if the E. Sludge anagmt In order to...CRITERIA PRIOR TO DISCHARGE. THOSE DISCHARGED INTO A MUNICIPAL SYSTEM MUST BE PRETREATED BY INDUSTRY TO A LEVEL COMPATIBLE WITH THE CAPABILITY OF THE

  16. Studies involving the synthesis and characterization of high energy magnet materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    Permanent magnets are essential components of a wide range of modern devices, many of which have military significance: travelling wave tubes, klystrons, linear induction accelerators, high power free electron lasers, high performance motors and generators, etc. Higher energy permanent magnets enable one to downsize the various devices which operate via permanent magnets. The present study had as its main objectives: (1) improving existing high energy magnets, and (2) developing new magnets. The systems studied with this in mind fall into three structural types: those having (1) the Nd2Fe14B structure; (2) the ThMn12 structure; and (3) the Sm2Co17 structure. Results of the studies are presented in 26 papers published in the open literature. Highlights of the work are provided in this report by giving terse summaries of 9 of the papers. The work has been a part of the world-wide effort to make Nd2Fe14B magnets into a commercial reality.

  17. Anion-π interactions involving [MX(n)](m-) anions: a comprehensive theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Estarellas, Carolina; Quiñonero, David; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

    2013-01-14

    In this manuscript we perform a systematic study on the geometric and energetic features of anion-π complexes, wherein the anion is a metal complex of variable shapes and charges. Such a study is lacking in the literature. For the calculations we used the ab initio RI-MP2/def2-TZVPP level of theory. A search in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) provides the experimental starting point that inspired the subsequent theoretical study. The influence of [MX(n)](m-) on the anion-π interaction was analyzed in terms of energetic, geometric, and charge transfer properties and Bader's theory of "atom-in-molecules" (AIM). The binding energy depends on the coordination index, geometric features and different orientations adopted by the metallic anion. The binding mode resembling a stacking interaction for linear, trigonal planar and square-planar anions is the most favorable. For tetrahedral and octahedral anions the most favorable orientation is the one with three halogen atoms pointing to the ring.

  18. Task Equivalence for Model and Human-Observer Comparisons in SPECT Localization Studies.

    PubMed

    Sen, Anando; Kalantari, Faraz; Gifford, Howard C

    2016-06-01

    While mathematical model observers are intended for efficient assessment of medical imaging systems, their findings should be relevant for human observers as the primary clinical end users. We have investigated whether pursuing equivalence between the model and human-observer tasks can help ensure this goal. A localization ROC (LROC) study tested prostate lesion detection in simulated In-111 SPECT imaging with anthropomorphic phantoms. The test images were 2D slices extracted from reconstructed volumes. The iterative OSEM reconstruction method was used with Gaussian postsmoothing. Variations in the number of iterations and the level of postfiltering defined the test strategies in the study. Human-observer performance was compared with that of a visual-search (VS) observer, a scanning channelized Hotelling observer, and a scanning nonprewhitening (CNPW) observer. These model observers were applied with precise information about the target regions of interest (ROIs). ROI knowledge was a study variable for the human observers. In one study format, the humans read the SPECT image alone. With a dual-modality format, the SPECT image was presented alongside an anatomical image slice extracted from the density map of the phantom. Performance was scored by area under the LROC curve. The human observers performed significantly better with the dual-modality format, and correlation with the model observers was also improved. Given the human-observer data from the SPECT study format, the Pearson correlation coefficients for the model observers were 0.58 (VS), -0.12 (CH), and -0.23 (CNPW). The respective coefficients based on the human-observer data from the dual-modality study were 0.72, 0.27, and -0.11. These results point towards the continued development of the VS observer for enhancing task equivalence in model-observer studies.

  19. A DFT study of the mechanism of NHC catalysed annulation reactions involving α,β-unsaturated acyl azoliums and β-naphthol.

    PubMed

    Aurell, M José; Domingo, Luis R; Arnó, Manuel; Zaragozá, Ramón J

    2016-09-21

    The mechanism of NHC catalysed annulation reactions involving an α,β-unsaturated acyl azolium and β-naphthol has been studied using DFT methods at the MPWB1K/6-311G(d,p) level in toluene. For the C-C bond formation step, which corresponds to the rate- and stereo-determining step of this NHC catalysed reaction, the two competitive addition modes, i.e. the 1,2- and the 1,4-additions, have been studied. In toluene, acyl azolium forms an ion pair (IP) with the counterion chloride anion. Interestingly, β-naphthol forms a hydrogen bond with the chloride anion of IP, increasing the nucleophilic character of β-naphthol and the electrophilic character of the acyl azolium moiety. For the first time, the transition state (TS) associated with the 1,2-addition is found and characterised. An analysis of the activation Gibbs free energies involved in the two competitive pathways makes it possible to rule out the pathway associated with the 1,2-addition. The relative Gibbs free energy of stereoisomeric TSs present in the 1,4-additions, accounts for the experimentally observed stereoselectivity. Finally, a comparative study of the pathways associated with the 1,2- and the 1,4-addition of β-naphthalenethiol to the acyl azolium moiety of IP accounts for the low reactivity of β-naphthalenethiol in these NHC catalysed annulation reactions involving α,β-unsaturated acyl azoliums.

  20. Generalized spike-wave discharges involve a default mode network in patients with juvenile absence epilepsy: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Takeda, Youji; Tanaka, Naoaki; Kurita, Tsugiko; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Nakane, Shingo; Sueda, Keitaro; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2010-05-01

    This study uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether cortical regions that constitute a default mode network are involved during generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWs) in patients with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE). We studied five JAE patients for whom MEG was recorded using a 204-channel, whole-head gradiometer system. Dynamic statistical parametric mapping (dSPM) was done to estimate the cortical source distribution of GSW. The dSPM results showed strong medial prefrontal activation in all patients, with activation in the posterior cingulate and precuneus in three of five patients simultaneously or slightly after medial prefrontal activation. Furthermore, dSPM showed that the initial activation of a GSW appears in the focal cortical regions. Cortical regions that constitute a default mode network are strongly involved in the GSW process in some patients with JAE. Results also show that focal cortical activation appears at the onset of a GSW.

  1. Student involvement as a vehicle for empowerment: a case study of the student platform for engineering education development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaine, David A.; Seif-Naraghi, Sonya B.; Al-Haque, Shahed; Wojewoda, Nicolò; Meninato, Yvonne; DeBoer, Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the mission, structure and outputs of one organisation, the Student Platform for Engineering Education Development (SPEED), as a case study for how student-led organisations can use student involvement to promote and sustain student self-efficacy in an academic field. SPEED attracts young people to engineering through student participation in engineering education (EE). SPEED is a global, non-profit student organisation that functions as an interdisciplinary network to diversify dialogue, stimulate change and impact the development of EE and its effect on society. SPEED is directly attracting young people to engineering in various ways: the organisation of its keynote event, the Global Student Forum; facilitating interactions between globally minded, socially inclined engineers with aspirations to change the world; and through the global dissemination of SPEED's work and practices through broad and relevant channels. Short-term outcomes are highlighted here. This case study can serve as a model for student engagement and involvement in other disciplines.

  2. The Path to Self-Management: A Qualitative Study Involving Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Mark W.; Murdoch, Michelle; Kearney, Anne; Godwin, Marshall; Stefanelli, Mark

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: This qualitative study sought to explore older people's experience of ageing with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to describe the natural history of self-management from their points of view. Methods: Eighteen people over age 55 and living with MS for at least 20 years were recruited from an MS clinic and rehabilitation outpatient records. Interviews (60–80 min), using open-ended questions, explored participants' lifelong experiences of MS. Following interview transcription, data were coded and analyzed; themes, subthemes, and their relationships were described based on consensus. Results: Participants recounted their diagnosis process, their life experience with MS, and how they eventually accepted their disease, adapted, and moved toward self-management. The findings included vivid descriptions of social relationships, health care interactions, overcoming barriers, and the emotions associated with living with MS. A conceptual model of phases of self-management, from diagnosis to integration of MS into a sense of self, was developed. Conclusions: Study participants valued self-management and described its phases, facilitators, and inhibitors from their points of view. Over years and decades, learning from life experiences, trial and error, and interactions with health care professionals, participants seemed to consolidate MS into their sense of self. Self-determination, social support, strong problem-solving abilities, and collaborative relationships with health professionals aided adaptation and coping. Findings from this study make initial steps toward understanding how MS self-management evolves over the life course and how self-management programmes can help people with MS begin to manage wellness earlier in their lives. PMID:23277680

  3. Fractional gravity studies on the ISS of sensory mechanisms involved in phototropism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie; Edelmann, Richard; Millar, Katherine

    The major goals of this research are (1) to better understand cellular mechanisms of pho-totropism in plants and (2) to determine the effects and influence of gravity on light perception in plants. Because of the interfering effect of the strong gravitropic response, microgravity conditions are needed to effectively study phototropism. Experiments performed on the In-ternational Space Station (ISS) were used to explore the mechanisms of both blue-light and red-light-induced phototropism in plants. We utilized the European Modular Cultivation Sys-tem (EMCS), which has environmental controls for plant growth as well as centrifuges for gravity treatments. TROPI-1 (for tropisms) was successfully performed on the ISS during late 2006. We obtained data on seedlings grown in microgravity and discovered a novel positive phototropic response to red light in hypocotyls of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, one problem encoun-tered during TROPI-1 was low seed germination due to long storage periods (8 months) in flight hardware. Thus, the originally proposed fractional gravity studies were not performed. TROPI-2 provides an opportunity to regain the results from these important fractional gravity experiments. TROPI-2 experiments will provide a better understanding of how plants integrate sensory input from multiple light and gravity perception systems. This information is important for growing plants on long-term space missions as part of life support systems. The fractional gravity studies contain 0.16g (Moon) and 0.38g (Mars) treatments, so information to be obtained is relevant to exploration objectives

  4. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Biotelemetry, the remote detection and measurement of an animal function or activity, is widely used in animal research. Biotelemetry devices transmit physiological or behavioural data and may be surgically implanted into animals, or externally attached. This can help to reduce animal numbers and improve welfare, e.g., if animals can be group housed and move freely instead of being tethered to a recording device. However, biotelemetry can also cause pain and distress to animals due to surgery, attachment, single housing and long term laboratory housing. This article explains how welfare and science can be improved by avoiding or minimising these harms. Abstract Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as

  5. Studies Involving the Synthesis and Characterization of High Energy Magnet Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-11

    makE Nd2Fe14B magnets into a commercial reality. SmTiFe9Co2 has been established as a promising permanent magnet material. Pr2(Co,Fe)17 has also been...magnets. The systems studied with this in mind fall into three structural types: those having (a) the Nd2Fe14B structure, (b) the ThMn1 2 structure and (c...this report by giving terse summaries of 9 of the papers. The work has been a part of the world-wide effort to make Nd2Fe14B magnets into a commercial

  6. Rare isotope studies involving catalytic oxidation of CO over platinum-tin oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Wood, George M., Jr.; Hess, Robert V.; Hoyt, Ronald F.

    1987-01-01

    Results of studies utilizing normal and rare oxygen isotopes in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over a platinum-tin oxide catalyst substrate are presented. Chemisorption of labeled carbon monoxide on the catalyst followed by thermal desorption yielded a carbon dioxide product with an oxygen-18 composition consistent with the formation of a carbonate-like intermediate in the chemisorption process. The efficacy of a method developed for the oxygen-18 labeling of the platinum-tin oxide catalyst surface for use in closed cycle pulsed care isotope carbon dioxide lasers is demonstrated for the equivalent of 10 to the 6th power pulses at 10 pulses per second.

  7. Docking, molecular dynamics and free energy studies on aspartoacylase mutations involved in Canavan disease.

    PubMed

    Kocak, Abdulkadir; Yildiz, Muslum

    2017-03-19

    The disruption of aspartoacylase enzyme's catalytic activity causes fatal neurodegenerative Canavan disease. By molecular dynamics and docking methods, here we studied two deleterious mutations that have been identified in the Canavan patients' genotype E285A, F295S, and revealed the possible cause for the enzyme inhibition due to the drastic changes in active site dynamics, loss of interactions among Arg 71, Arg 168 and the substrate and pKa value of critical Glu178 residue. In addition to changes in the enzyme dynamics, free energy calculations show that the binding energy of substrate decreases dramatically up on mutations.

  8. Lunar studies. [involving polarimetry and a microfiche data base for lunar photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Two research projects to classify lunar photographic images are reported. The feasibility of using polarimetry to study large scale features on the moon was investigated. A system was built that measured polarization by subtracting two film images taken through perpendicular Polaroid filters, however, no new boundaries were discovered in the pictures which are not already discernable in ordinary photographs. The present status and equipment of a microfiche library system which would allow easy access to selected lunar photographs from all space missions is also reported.

  9. Effects of harmonics on aesthetic judgments of music: an ERP study involving laypersons and experts.

    PubMed

    Jaśkiewicz, Marta; Francuz, Piotr; Zabielska-Mendyk, Emilia; Zapała, Dariusz; Augustynowicz, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to test whether aesthetic judgments of music are affected by expertise or harmonic violation of musical sequences. The participants were 14 musical experts and 13 laypersons; they were asked to judge the beauty and correctness of extracts from J. S. Bach's chorales. Experts and laypersons showed different late positive potential (LPP) responses to the appraisal of correctness. LPP also proved to be sensitive to the extent to which the extracts violated harmonic expectations. The relationship between the early right anterior negativity potential (ERAN) and the harmonic correctness of chords was similar in laypersons and experts.

  10. A correlation study involving a comparison of professional science teaching standards and student performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schum, Paul A.

    If international report cards were issued today, to all industrialized nations world wide, the United States would receive a "C" at best in mathematics and science. This is not simply a temporary or simple cause and effect circumstance that can easily be addressed. The disappointing truth is that this downward trend in mathematics and science mastery by American students has been occurring steadily for at least the last eight years of international testing, and that there are numerous and varied bases for this reality. In response to this crisis, The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA), The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), and The National Research Council (NRC) each have proposed relatively consistent, but individual sets of professional science teaching standards, designed to improve science instruction in American schools. It is of extreme value to the scientific, educational community to know if any or all of these standards lead to improved student performance. This study investigates the correlation between six, specific teacher behaviors that are common to these national standards and which behaviors, if any, result in improved student performance, as demonstrated on the Science Reasoning sub-test of the ACT Assessment. These standards focus classroom science teachers on professional development, leading toward student mastery of scientific interpretation, concept development, and constructive relationship building. Because all individual teachers interpret roles, expectations, and guiding philosophies from different lenses, effective professional practice may reflect consistency in rationale and methodology yet will be best evidenced by an examination of specific teaching techniques. In this study, these teaching techniques are evidenced by self-reported teacher awareness and adherence to these consensual standards. Assessment instruments vary widely, and the results of student performance often reflect the congruency of

  11. Increasing parent involvement in youth HIV prevention: a randomized Caribbean study.

    PubMed

    Baptiste, Donna R; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Martinez, Dona Da Costa; Jo-Bennett, Karen

    2009-12-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth about HIV, sex, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI's); and discussing cultural and interpersonal pressures to have sex. Participants include 180 primary caregivers and their 12-14-year-old adolescents randomized to either the Trinidad and Tobago family HIV Workshop (N = 92) or a general workshop (N = 88). Intervention and control group participants completed pretest and posttest measures on parenting and HIV risk outcomes. Compared to controls, intervention parents reported improvements in HIV knowledge (d = .79); attitudes toward AIDS (d = .42); general communication with adolescents (d = .94); conversations with adolescents about sex (d = .95); conversations about sexual risks and values (d = .43); monitoring of adolescents (d = .34); conflicts with adolescents (d = .30); and intensity of daily parenting hassles (d = .35). Intervention and control parents did not differ in behavioral control, use of positive parenting techniques, and expansion of support networks. Implications for addressing rising HIV risks among young people in Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean are discussed.

  12. An ongoing study of group treatment for men involved in problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Orzack, Maressa Hecht; Voluse, Andrew C; Wolf, David; Hennen, John

    2006-06-01

    Exponential advances have been made regarding computer/Internet technology in the past decade. This growth, in large part, can be attributed to greater access to, affordability of, and anonymity while on the computer. However, this progress has also produced negative psychological issues. Problematic Internet-enabled sexual behavior (IESB) has increasingly affected individuals' family relationships, work productivity, and academic success. This article is the first-known, empirically based outcome study regarding the effectiveness of group therapy treatment for men with problematic IESB. These closed-groups, which ran for 16 weeks, used a combination of Readiness to Change (RtC), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Motivational Interviewing (MI) interventions. Five groups were analyzed for this paper (yielding a total N of 35), with the average member's age being 44.5 years old. Three different scales (the Orzack Time Intensity Survey, the BASIS-32, and the BDI) were used to track participants' progress across time. The results demonstrated that this group treatment intervention significantly increased members' quality of life and decreased the severity of their depressive symptoms. However, the protocol failed to reduce participants' inappropriate computer use. Regarding comorbidity, the results showed the following: members in the "anxiety" category responded best to the current treatment, those in the "mood" cluster responded relatively positively, and those in the "A-D/HD" category failed to respond significantly. It is clear from this report that more attention must be focused on the treatment of problematic IESB, as opposed to exploratory studies.

  13. Structural studies of RNA-protein complexes: A hybrid approach involving hydrodynamics, scattering, and computational methods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Trushar R; Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Astha; Koul, Amit; McKenna, Sean A; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2016-12-08

    The diverse functional cellular roles played by ribonucleic acids (RNA) have emphasized the need to develop rapid and accurate methodologies to elucidate the relationship between the structure and function of RNA. Structural biology tools such as X-ray crystallography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance are highly useful methods to obtain atomic-level resolution models of macromolecules. However, both methods have sample, time, and technical limitations that prevent their application to a number of macromolecules of interest. An emerging alternative to high-resolution structural techniques is to employ a hybrid approach that combines low-resolution shape information about macromolecules and their complexes from experimental hydrodynamic (e.g. analytical ultracentrifugation) and solution scattering measurements (e.g., solution X-ray or neutron scattering), with computational modeling to obtain atomic-level models. While promising, scattering methods rely on aggregation-free, monodispersed preparations and therefore the careful development of a quality control pipeline is fundamental to an unbiased and reliable structural determination. This review article describes hydrodynamic techniques that are highly valuable for homogeneity studies, scattering techniques useful to study the low-resolution shape, and strategies for computational modeling to obtain high-resolution 3D structural models of RNAs, proteins, and RNA-protein complexes.

  14. A kinetic study of lipase-catalyzed reversible kinetic resolution involving verification at miniplant-scale.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, W R; Gendrot, G; Freund, A; Reuss, M

    2006-12-05

    Lipase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of racemates is a popular method for synthesis of chiral synthons. Most of these resolutions are reversible equilibrium limited reactions. For the first time, an extensive kinetic model is proposed for kinetic resolution reactions, which takes into account the full reversibility of the reaction, substrate inhibition by an acyl donor and an acyl acceptor as well as alternative substrate inhibition by each enantiomer. For this purpose, the reversible enantioselective transesterification of (R/S)-1-methoxy-2-propanol with ethyl acetate catalyzed by Candida antarctica lipase B (CAL-B) is investigated. The detailed model presented here is valid for a wide range of substrate and product concentrations. Following model discrimination and the application of Haldane equations to reduce the degree of freedom in parameter estimation, the 11 free parameters are successfully identified. All parameters are fitted to the complete data set simultaneously. Six types of independent initial rate studies provide a solid data basis for the model. The effect of changes in substrate and product concentration on reaction kinetics is discussed. The developed model is used for simulations to study the behavior of reaction kinetics in a fixed bed reactor. The typical plot of enantiomeric excess versus conversion of substrate and product is evaluated at various initial substrate mixtures. The model is validated by comparison with experimental results obtained with a fixed bed reactor, which is part of a fully automated state-of-the-art miniplant.

  15. Study on tobacco components involved in the pyrolytic generation of selected smoke constituents.

    PubMed

    Torikai, K; Torikaiu, K; Uwano, Y; Nakamori, T; Tarora, W; Takahashi, H

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of various tobacco components to the generation of smoke constituents using a tobacco pyrolysis model. We analyzed the amounts of primary tobacco components (sugars, protein, polyphenols, alkaloids, organic acids, inorganics etc.) in flue-cured and burley tobacco leaves. Each of the components was added to the tobacco leaves at the 0.5-fold and 1.0-fold amount naturally present in the leaves. The treated tobacco samples were pyrolyzed at 800 degrees C in a nitrogen atmosphere with an infrared image furnace, and the selected smoke constituents (benzo[a]pyrene, hydrogen cyanide, carbonyl compounds, aromatic amines, volatile organic compounds and phenolics) were quantitatively analyzed by several methods, including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The contribution of each tobacco component to the generation of selected smoke constituents was estimated from a regression line determined by the three yields (no addition, 0.5-fold addition, and 1.0-fold addition). The results of this study can provide useful and comprehensive information on the relationship between tobacco components and selected smoke constituents during pyrolysis.

  16. A contextual-behavioral model of empowerment: case studies involving people with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, S B; White, G W; Balcazar, F E; Suarez-Balcazar, Y; Mathews, R M; Paine-Andrews, A; Seekins, T; Smith, J F

    1994-08-01

    When people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, older adults, women, and others lack power, they usually experience adverse conditions disproportionate to other members of society. Empowerment--the process by which people gain some control over valued events, outcomes, and resources--is an important construct for understanding and improving the lives of people of marginal status. This manuscript presents a contextual-behavioral model of empowerment and its application in collaborative research with people with physical disabilities. The eight case studies illustrate 18 tactics for promoting empowerment that flow from the model. The case studies show the use of different combinations of empowerment tactics in a variety of contexts: (a) setting improvement agendas from the perspective of people with disabilities, (b) enforcing ordinances that preserve access to parking spaces designated for people with disabilities, (c) enabling access to homes through housing modifications, (d) enhancing support available through mutual-aid groups, (e) developing skills for recruiting mentors, (f) promoting self-directed behavior change with personal and health concerns, (g) enhancing skills for personal self-advocacy, and (h) building the capacities of groups of people with disabilities for systems advocacy. Finally, we discuss issues that may contribute to research and action related to empowerment.

  17. TRACING MOLECULAR GAS MASS IN EXTREME EXTRAGALACTIC ENVIRONMENTS: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Ming; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.; Kuno, Nario; Lisenfeld, Ute E-mail: padeli@astro.uni-bonn.d E-mail: kuno@nro.nao.ac.j

    2009-12-01

    We present a new observational study of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) line emission as an H{sub 2} gas mass tracer under extreme conditions in extragalactic environments. Our approach is to study the full neutral interstellar medium (H{sub 2}, H I, and dust) of two galaxies whose bulk interstellar medium (ISM) resides in environments that mark (and bracket) the excitation extremes of the ISM conditions found in infrared luminous galaxies, the starburst NGC 3310, and the quiescent spiral NGC 157. Our study maintains a robust statistical notion of the so-called X = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO} factor (i.e., a large ensemble of clouds is involved) while exploring its dependence on the very different average ISM conditions prevailing within these two systems. These are constrained by fully sampled {sup 12}CO(3-2) and {sup 12}CO(1-0) observations, at a matched beam resolution of half-power beam width approx15'', obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and the 45 m telescope of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory in Japan, combined with sensitive 850 mum and 450 mum dust emission and H I interferometric images which allow a complete view of all the neutral ISM components. Complementary {sup 12}CO(2-1) observations were obtained with the JCMT toward the center of the two galaxies. We found an X factor varying by a factor of 5 within the spiral galaxy NGC 157 and about two times lower than the Galactic value in NGC 3310. In addition, the dust emission spectrum in NGC 3310 shows a pronounced submillimeter 'excess'. We tried to fit this excess by a cold dust component but very low temperatures were required (T {sub C} approx 5-11 K) with a correspondingly low gas-to-dust mass ratio of approx5-43. We furthermore show that it is not possible to maintain the large quantities of dust required at these low temperatures in this starburst galaxy. Instead, we conclude that the dust properties need to be different from Galactic dust in order to fit the submillimeter

  18. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia.

  19. The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study: establishing an observational cohort study with translational relevance for human health

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Michael K.; Page, Rodney L.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Olson, Patricia N.; Haworth, J. David; Searfoss, Erin E.; Brown, Diane E.

    2015-01-01

    The Golden Retriever Lifetime Study (GRLS) is the first prospective longitudinal study attempted in veterinary medicine to identify the major dietary, genetic and environmental risk factors for cancer and other important diseases in dogs. The GRLS is an observational study that will follow a cohort of 3000 purebred Golden Retrievers throughout their lives via annual online questionnaires from the dog owner and annual physical examinations and collection of biological samples by the primary care veterinarian. The field of comparative medicine investigating naturally occurring disorders in pets is specifically relevant to the many diseases that have a genetic basis for disease in both animals and humans, including cancer, blindness, metabolic and behavioural disorders and some neurodegenerative disorders. The opportunity for the GRLS to provide high-quality data for translational comparative medical initiatives in several disease categories is great. In particular, the opportunity to develop a lifetime dataset of lifestyle and activity, environmental exposure and diet history combined with simultaneous annual biological sample sets and detailed health outcomes will provide disease incidence data for this cohort of geographically dispersed dogs and associations with a wide variety of potential risk factors. The GRLS will provide a lifetime historical context, repeated biological sample sets and outcomes necessary to interrogate complex associations between genes and environmental influences and cancer. PMID:26056371

  20. Toxicity evaluation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl and other compounds involved in studies of fossil fuels biodesulphurisation.

    PubMed

    Alves, L; Paixão, S M

    2011-10-01

    The acute toxicity of some compounds used in fossil fuels biodesulphurisation studies, on the respiration activity, was evaluated by Gordonia alkanivorans and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Moreover, the effect of 2-hydroxybiphenyl on cell growth of both strains was also determined, using batch (chronic bioassays) and continuous cultures. The IC₅₀ values obtained showed the toxicity of all the compounds tested to both strains, specially the high toxicity of 2-HBP. These results were confirmed by the chronic toxicity data. The toxicity data sets highlight for a higher sensitivity to the toxicant by the strain presenting a lower growth rate, due to a lower cells number in contact with the toxicant. Thus, microorganisms exhibiting faster generation times could be more resistant to 2-HBP accumulation during a BDS process. The physiological response of both strains to 2-HBP pulse in a steady-state continuous culture shows their potential to be used in a future fossil fuel BDS process.